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Sample records for pharmacology lxxiii nomenclature

  1. Cannabinoid Receptors: Nomenclature and Pharmacological Principles

    PubMed Central

    Console-Bram, Linda; Marcu, Jahan; Abood, Mary E.

    2012-01-01

    The CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family that are pharmacologically well defined. However, the discovery of additional sites of action for endocannabinoids as well as synthetic cannabinoid compounds suggests the existence of additional cannabinoid receptors. Here we review this evidence, as well as the current nomenclature for classifying a target as a cannabinoid receptor. Basic pharmacological definitions, principles and experimental conditions are discussed in order to place in context the mechanisms underlying cannabinoid receptor activation. Constitutive (agonist-independent) activity is observed with the overexpression of many GPCRs, including cannabinoid receptors. Allosteric modulators can alter the pharmacological responses of cannabinoid receptors. The complex molecular architecture of each of the cannabinoid receptors allows for a single receptor to recognize multiple classes of compounds and produce an array of distinct downstream effects. Natural polymorphisms and alternative splice variants may also contribute to their pharmacological diversity. As our knowledge of the distinct differences grows, we may be able to target select receptor conformations and their corresponding pharmacological responses. Importantly, the basic biology of the endocannabinoid system will continue to be revealed by ongoing investigations. PMID:22421596

  2. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXVII. Kisspeptin receptor nomenclature, distribution, and function.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Helen R; Maguire, Janet J; Colledge, William H; Davenport, Anthony P

    2010-12-01

    Kisspeptins are members of the Arg-Phe amide family of peptides, which have been identified as endogenous ligands for a G-protein-coupled receptor encoded by a gene originally called GPR54 (also known as AXOR12 or hOT7T175). After this pairing, the gene has been renamed KISS1R. The International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology Committee on Receptor Nomenclature and Drug Classification recommends that the official name for the receptor is the kisspeptin receptor to follow the convention of naming the receptor protein after the endogenous ligand. The endogenous ligand was initially called metastin, after its role as a metastasis suppressor, and is now referred to as kisspeptin-54 (KP-54), a C-terminally amidated 54-amino acid peptide cleaved from the 145-amino acid gene product. Shorter C-terminal cleavage fragments [KP-14, KP-13 and KP-10 (the smallest active fragment)] are also biologically active. Both receptor and peptide are widely expressed in human, rat, and mouse; the receptor sequence shares more than 80% homology in these species. Activation of the kisspeptin receptor by kisspeptin is via coupling to G(q/11) and the phospholipase C pathway, causing Ca(2+) mobilization. Mutations in the KISS1R gene result in hypogonadotropic hypogonadotropism, and targeted disruption of Kiss1r in mice reproduces this phenotype, which led to the discovery of the remarkable ability of the kisspeptin receptor to act as a molecular switch for puberty. In addition to regulating the reproductive axis, the kisspeptin receptor is also implicated in cancer, placentation, diabetes, and the cardiovascular system.

  3. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXV. Nomenclature, Classification, and Pharmacology of G Protein-Coupled Melatonin Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Delagrange, Philippe; Krause, Diana N.; Sugden, David; Cardinali, Daniel P.; Olcese, James

    2010-01-01

    The hormone melatonin (5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine) is synthesized primarily in the pineal gland and retina, and in several peripheral tissues and organs. In the circulation, the concentration of melatonin follows a circadian rhythm, with high levels at night providing timing cues to target tissues endowed with melatonin receptors. Melatonin receptors receive and translate melatonin's message to influence daily and seasonal rhythms of physiology and behavior. The melatonin message is translated through activation of two G protein-coupled receptors, MT1 and MT2, that are potential therapeutic targets in disorders ranging from insomnia and circadian sleep disorders to depression, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. This review summarizes the steps taken since melatonin's discovery by Aaron Lerner in 1958 to functionally characterize, clone, and localize receptors in mammalian tissues. The pharmacological and molecular properties of the receptors are described as well as current efforts to discover and develop ligands for treatment of a number of illnesses, including sleep disorders, depression, and cancer. PMID:20605968

  4. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXXI. Nomenclature and Classification of Adenosine Receptors—An Update

    PubMed Central

    IJzerman, Adriaan P.; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Linden, Joel; Müller, Christa E.

    2011-01-01

    In the 10 years since our previous International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology report on the nomenclature and classification of adenosine receptors, no developments have led to major changes in the recommendations. However, there have been so many other developments that an update is needed. The fact that the structure of one of the adenosine receptors has recently been solved has already led to new ways of in silico screening of ligands. The evidence that adenosine receptors can form homo- and heteromultimers has accumulated, but the functional significance of such complexes remains unclear. The availability of mice with genetic modification of all the adenosine receptors has led to a clarification of the functional roles of adenosine, and to excellent means to study the specificity of drugs. There are also interesting associations between disease and structural variants in one or more of the adenosine receptors. Several new selective agonists and antagonists have become available. They provide improved possibilities for receptor classification. There are also developments hinting at the usefulness of allosteric modulators. Many drugs targeting adenosine receptors are in clinical trials, but the established therapeutic use is still very limited. PMID:21303899

  5. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. [corrected]. LXXXIX. Update on the extended family of chemokine receptors and introducing a new nomenclature for atypical chemokine receptors.

    PubMed

    Bachelerie, Francoise; Ben-Baruch, Adit; Burkhardt, Amanda M; Combadiere, Christophe; Farber, Joshua M; Graham, Gerard J; Horuk, Richard; Sparre-Ulrich, Alexander Hovard; Locati, Massimo; Luster, Andrew D; Mantovani, Alberto; Matsushima, Kouji; Murphy, Philip M; Nibbs, Robert; Nomiyama, Hisayuki; Power, Christine A; Proudfoot, Amanda E I; Rosenkilde, Mette M; Rot, Antal; Sozzani, Silvano; Thelen, Marcus; Yoshie, Osamu; Zlotnik, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Sixteen years ago, the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Pharmacology approved a system for naming human seven-transmembrane (7TM) G protein-coupled chemokine receptors, the large family of leukocyte chemoattractant receptors that regulates immune system development and function, in large part by mediating leukocyte trafficking. This was announced in Pharmacological Reviews in a major overview of the first decade of research in this field [Murphy PM, Baggiolini M, Charo IF, Hébert CA, Horuk R, Matsushima K, Miller LH, Oppenheim JJ, and Power CA (2000) Pharmacol Rev 52:145-176]. Since then, several new receptors have been discovered, and major advances have been made for the others in many areas, including structural biology, signal transduction mechanisms, biology, and pharmacology. New and diverse roles have been identified in infection, immunity, inflammation, development, cancer, and other areas. The first two drugs acting at chemokine receptors have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), maraviroc targeting CCR5 in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS, and plerixafor targeting CXCR4 for stem cell mobilization for transplantation in cancer, and other candidates are now undergoing pivotal clinical trials for diverse disease indications. In addition, a subfamily of atypical chemokine receptors has emerged that may signal through arrestins instead of G proteins to act as chemokine scavengers, and many microbial and invertebrate G protein-coupled chemokine receptors and soluble chemokine-binding proteins have been described. Here, we review this extended family of chemokine receptors and chemokine-binding proteins at the basic, translational, and clinical levels, including an update on drug development. We also introduce a new nomenclature for atypical chemokine receptors with the stem ACKR (atypical chemokine receptor) approved by the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Pharmacology and the Human Genome

  6. International Union of Pharmacology. LXXXIX. Update on the Extended Family of Chemokine Receptors and Introducing a New Nomenclature for Atypical Chemokine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Bachelerie, Francoise; Ben-Baruch, Adit; Burkhardt, Amanda M.; Combadiere, Christophe; Farber, Joshua M.; Graham, Gerard J.; Horuk, Richard; Sparre-Ulrich, Alexander Hovard; Locati, Massimo; Luster, Andrew D.; Mantovani, Alberto; Matsushima, Kouji; Nibbs, Robert; Nomiyama, Hisayuki; Power, Christine A.; Proudfoot, Amanda E. I.; Rosenkilde, Mette M.; Rot, Antal; Sozzani, Silvano; Thelen, Marcus; Yoshie, Osamu; Zlotnik, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Sixteen years ago, the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Pharmacology approved a system for naming human seven-transmembrane (7TM) G protein-coupled chemokine receptors, the large family of leukocyte chemoattractant receptors that regulates immune system development and function, in large part by mediating leukocyte trafficking. This was announced in Pharmacological Reviews in a major overview of the first decade of research in this field [Murphy PM, Baggiolini M, Charo IF, Hébert CA, Horuk R, Matsushima K, Miller LH, Oppenheim JJ, and Power CA (2000) Pharmacol Rev 52:145–176]. Since then, several new receptors have been discovered, and major advances have been made for the others in many areas, including structural biology, signal transduction mechanisms, biology, and pharmacology. New and diverse roles have been identified in infection, immunity, inflammation, development, cancer, and other areas. The first two drugs acting at chemokine receptors have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), maraviroc targeting CCR5 in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS, and plerixafor targeting CXCR4 for stem cell mobilization for transplantation in cancer, and other candidates are now undergoing pivotal clinical trials for diverse disease indications. In addition, a subfamily of atypical chemokine receptors has emerged that may signal through arrestins instead of G proteins to act as chemokine scavengers, and many microbial and invertebrate G protein-coupled chemokine receptors and soluble chemokine-binding proteins have been described. Here, we review this extended family of chemokine receptors and chemokine-binding proteins at the basic, translational, and clinical levels, including an update on drug development. We also introduce a new nomenclature for atypical chemokine receptors with the stem ACKR (atypical chemokine receptor) approved by the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Pharmacology and the Human

  7. [Newly developed nomenclature (Neuroscience-based Nomenclature)].

    PubMed

    Uchida, Hiroyuki; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2016-06-01

    The current nomenclature is based on clinical indications; for example, drugs used for mania and psychosis are classified as "mood stabilizers" and "antipsychotic drugs", respectively. This discrepancy between their names and indications often confuses patients and their caregivers and sometimes leads to a misunderstanding of the effects of prescribed medications. In addition, up-to-date scientific knowledge on these drugs has not been reflected in the current nomenclature. To overcome these limitations of the current nomenclature, following an initiative of the European Congress of Neuropsychopharmacology (ECNP), a taskforce for psychotropic nomenclature was established with representatives from 5 international organizations, including the Asian College of Neuropsychopharmacology (AsCNP). The mission of this taskforce is to provide a pharmacologically-driven (rather than indication-based) nomenclature, which is now referred to as Neuroscience-based Nomenclature (NbN). The NbN project has just started. Since it always takes time to change the culture, we understand the transition will likely involve some expected and unexpected responses from the field. However, we believe that such responses and feedback will surely improve the quality of the NbN, which in turn will be beneficial for clinicians, researchers, and patients as well as their caregivers.

  8. Allergen nomenclature*

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The revised nomenclature for allergens is presented together with proposed nomenclatures for (a) allergen genes, mRNAs and cDNAs, and (b) recombinant and synthetic peptides of allergenic interest. PMID:7955031

  9. Allergen nomenclature.

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, D. G.; Goodfriend, L.; King, T. P.; Lowenstein, H.; Platts-Mills, T. A.

    1986-01-01

    This article presents a nomenclature system for allergens which has been officially recommended by the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS). The nomenclature is based on proposals of the IUIS Sub-Committee for Allergen Nomenclature and is applicable to highly purified, well-characterized allergens and to non-purified or partially purified allergenic extracts. PMID:3492310

  10. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXXII: Nomenclature and Classification of Hydroxy-carboxylic Acid Receptors (GPR81, GPR109A, and GPR109B).

    PubMed

    Offermanns, Stefan; Colletti, Steven L; Lovenberg, Timothy W; Semple, Graeme; Wise, Alan; IJzerman, Adriaan P

    2011-06-01

    The G-protein-coupled receptors GPR81, GPR109A, and GPR109B share significant sequence homology and form a small group of receptors, each of which is encoded by clustered genes. In recent years, endogenous ligands for all three receptors have been described. These endogenous ligands have in common that they are hydroxy-carboxylic acid metabolites, and we therefore have proposed that this receptor family be named hydroxy-carboxylic acid (HCA) receptors. The HCA(1) receptor (GPR81) is activated by 2-hydroxy-propanoic acid (lactate), the HCA(2) receptor (GPR109A) is a receptor for the ketone body 3-hydroxy-butyric acid, and the HCA(3) receptor (GPR109B) is activated by the β-oxidation intermediate 3-hydroxy-octanoic acid. HCA(1) and HCA(2) receptors are found in most mammalian species, whereas the HCA(3) receptor is present only in higher primates. The three receptors have in common that they are expressed in adipocytes and are coupled to G(i)-type G-proteins mediating antilipolytic effects in fat cells. HCA(2) and HCA(3) receptors are also expressed in a variety of immune cells. HCA(2) is a receptor for the antidyslipidemic drug nicotinic acid (niacin) and related compounds, and there is an increasing number of synthetic ligands mainly targeted at HCA(2) and HCA(3) receptors. The aim of this article is to give an overview on the discovery and pharmacological characterization of HCAs, and to introduce an International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (IUPHAR)-recommended nomenclature. We will also discuss open questions regarding this receptor family as well as their physiological role and therapeutic potential.

  11. Organic Nomenclature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, David B.; Yindra, Laura R.

    2003-10-01

    Organic Nomenclature requires the following software, which is available for free download from the Internet: Netscape Navigator, version 6.2 or higher, or Microsoft Internet Explorer, version 5.0 or higher.

  12. A review of the current nomenclature for psychotropic agents and an introduction to the Neuroscience-based Nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Zohar, Joseph; Stahl, Stephen; Moller, Hans-Jurgen; Blier, Pierre; Kupfer, David; Yamawaki, Shigeto; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Spedding, Michael; Goodwin, Guy M; Nutt, David

    2015-12-01

    Neuroscience based Nomenclature (NbN) is a new system of classifying psychotropic drugs by their pharmacological profile. The NbN was developed to replace the current indication-based nomenclature and to provide an up-to-date and more useful framework to better inform pharmacological decisions. NbN provides updated relevant and specific scientific, regulatory and clinical information, aiming to support rational and lucid prescribing. This pharmacologically driven nomenclature, which highlights pharmacological domains and modes of action, may also increase drug adherence as it clarifies the rationale for selecting a specific psychotropic agent.

  13. Planetary nomenclature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strobell, M. E.; Masursky, Harold

    1987-05-01

    In fiscal 1986, names were chosen for prominent features on the five previously known Uranian satellites and for features on the largest of the 10 satellites discovered by Voyager 2. The names of the five large satellites are taken mostly from Shakespeare, and most are spirits; therefore, Shakespearean and spirit themes were used to choose names for topographic features on the satellites. Crater names and most other feature names on Miranda, Oberon, and Titania are from Shakespeare; features on Ariel are named for bright spirits and those on Umbriel for dark, all taken from universal mythology. Preliminary coordinates for these features are derived from shaded relief maps of the satellites to be published in 1987. Orbital elements have been established for the 10 new satellites, and a paper describing this work is in progress; satellite positions are under review by Commission 16 of the IAU. The moon 1985 U1 is informally designated Puck. The nine small satellites discovered in 1986 are to be named for Shakespearean heroines; these names are to be listed in the 1987 edition of the Annual Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature.

  14. Planetary nomenclature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strobell, M. E.; Masursky, Harold

    1987-01-01

    In fiscal 1986, names were chosen for prominent features on the five previously known Uranian satellites and for features on the largest of the 10 satellites discovered by Voyager 2. The names of the five large satellites are taken mostly from Shakespeare, and most are spirits; therefore, Shakespearean and spirit themes were used to choose names for topographic features on the satellites. Crater names and most other feature names on Miranda, Oberon, and Titania are from Shakespeare; features on Ariel are named for bright spirits and those on Umbriel for dark, all taken from universal mythology. Preliminary coordinates for these features are derived from shaded relief maps of the satellites to be published in 1987. Orbital elements have been established for the 10 new satellites, and a paper describing this work is in progress; satellite positions are under review by Commission 16 of the IAU. The moon 1985 U1 is informally designated Puck. The nine small satellites discovered in 1986 are to be named for Shakespearean heroines; these names are to be listed in the 1987 edition of the Annual Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature.

  15. [Pharmacology].

    PubMed

    González, José; Orero, Ana; Olmo, Vicente; Martínez, David; Prieto, José; Bahlsen, Jose Antonio; Zaragozá, Francisco; Honorato, Jesús

    2011-06-01

    Two of the main characteristics of western societies in the last fifty years have been the medicalization of the human life and the environmental degradation. The first one has forced human being to consider medicines use related to what would be rational, reasonable and well-reasoned. The second one brought us to a new ecologist conscience. In relation to the "human social system", the effects of medication can be considered very positive as a whole, particularly those related to the amazing increase of expectative and quality of life. But, along with those unquestionable beneficial effects, medicines have also caused some negative effects for other biotic and abiotic systems, such as microbian alterations and their undesirable consequences which have involved the massive use of antibiotics in medicine and veterinary, the uncontrolled elimination of millions of doses of all kind of drugs, additives and excipients, etc., as well as atmospheric contamination and degradation of forests and deep oceans which can have been caused by investigation and production of determinated drugs. In this context Pharmacology appears as a scientific discipline that studies the research (R), development (D), production (P), and utilization (U) of drugs and medical substances in relation to the environment. From a farmaecologic perspective the drugs utilization has its development in three main contexts, all of them closely related: prescription quality, farmaceutical care, and patient's active participation in his own disease and treatment.

  16. A proposal for an updated neuropsychopharmacological nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Zohar, Joseph; Nutt, David J; Kupfer, David J; Moller, Hans-Jurgen; Yamawaki, Shigeto; Spedding, Michael; Stahl, Stephen M

    2014-07-01

    Current psychopharmacological nomenclature remains wedded in an earlier period of scientific understanding, failing to reflect contemporary developments and knowledge, does not aid clinicians in selecting the best medication for a given patient, and tends to confuse patients by prescribing a drug that does not reflect their identified diagnosis (e.g. prescribe "antipsychotics" to depression). Four major colleges of Neuropsychopharmacology (ECNP, ACNP, Asian CNP, and CINP) proposed a new template comprising a multi-axial pharmacologically-driven nomenclature tested by four surveys. The template has five axes: 1-class (primary pharmacological target and relevant mechanism); 2-family (reflecting the relevant neurotransmitter and mechanism); 3-neurobiological activities; 4-efficacy and major side effects; and 5-approved indications. The results of the surveys suggest that the clinicians found the available indication-based nomenclature system dissatisfactory, non-intuitive, confusing, and doubt-inducing for them and the patients. The proposed five-axis template seeks to upend current usage by placing pharmacology rather than indication as the primary axes, with the proposed nomenclature relating primarily to Axis 1-the class, and usage of the other axes would largely depend upon the extent to which the clinician seeks to deepen the scientific and clinical base of his involvement. A significant proportion of the participants in the four surveys were in favour of the proposed system, a similar number wanted to consider the idea further, and only a small proportion (8.6%) were against it. The proposed five-axis pharmacology based nomenclature template is a system which might refresh and reflect the current scientific concepts of neuropsychopharmacology.

  17. Cytogenetic Nomenclature and Reporting.

    PubMed

    Stevens-Kroef, Marian; Simons, Annet; Rack, Katrina; Hastings, Rosalind J

    2017-01-01

    A standardized nomenclature is critical for the accurate and consistent description of genomic changes as identified by karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization and microarray. The International System for Human Cytogenomic Nomenclature (ISCN) is the central reference for the description of karyotyping, FISH, and microarray results, and provides rules for describing cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic findings in laboratory reports. These laboratory reports are documents to the referring clinician, and should be clear, accurate and contain all information relevant for good interpretation of the cytogenetic findings. Here, we describe guidelines for cytogenetic nomenclature and laboratory reports for cytogenetic testing applied to tumor samples.

  18. Nomenclature for Aeronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1923-01-01

    This nomenclature for aeronautics was prepared by a special conference on aeronautical nomenclature, composed of representatives of the Army and Navy Air Services, the Air Mail Service, the Bureau of Standards, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, and private life. This report supersedes all previous publications of the committee on this subject. It is published with the intention of securing greater uniformity and accuracy in official documents of the government, and, as far as possible, in technical and other commercial publications. (author)

  19. A standardized kinesin nomenclature

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Carolyn J.; Dawe, R. Kelly; Christie, Karen R.; Cleveland, Don W.; Dawson, Scott C.; Endow, Sharyn A.; Goldstein, Lawrence S.B.; Goodson, Holly V.; Hirokawa, Nobutaka; Howard, Jonathon; Malmberg, Russell L.; McIntosh, J. Richard; Miki, Harukata; Mitchison, Timothy J.; Okada, Yasushi; Reddy, Anireddy S.N.; Saxton, William M.; Schliwa, Manfred; Scholey, Jonathan M.; Vale, Ronald D.; Walczak, Claire E.; Wordeman, Linda

    2004-01-01

    In recent years the kinesin superfamily has become so large that several different naming schemes have emerged, leading to confusion and miscommunication. Here, we set forth a standardized kinesin nomenclature based on 14 family designations. The scheme unifies all previous phylogenies and nomenclature proposals, while allowing individual sequence names to remain the same, and for expansion to occur as new sequences are discovered. PMID:15479732

  20. Nomenclature for Aeronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1924-01-01

    This nomenclature for aeronautics was prepared by a special conference on aeronautical nomenclature by the Executive Committee of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at a meeting held August 11, 1933. This publication supersedes all previous publications of the committee on this subject. The purpose of the committee in the preparation and publication of this report is to secure uniformity in the official documents of the government and, as far as possible, in technical and other commercial publications.

  1. Standardizing scavenger receptor nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Prabhudas, Mercy; Bowdish, Dawn; Drickamer, Kurt; Febbraio, Maria; Herz, Joachim; Kobzik, Lester; Krieger, Monty; Loike, John; Means, Terry K; Moestrup, Soren K; Post, Steven; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Silverstein, Samuel; Wang, Xiang-Yang; El Khoury, Joseph

    2014-03-01

    Scavenger receptors constitute a large family of proteins that are structurally diverse and participate in a wide range of biological functions. These receptors are expressed predominantly by myeloid cells and recognize a variety of ligands, including endogenous and modified host-derived molecules and microbial pathogens. There are currently eight classes of scavenger receptors, many of which have multiple names, leading to inconsistencies and confusion in the literature. To address this problem, a workshop was organized by the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health to help develop a clear definition of scavenger receptors and a standardized nomenclature based on that definition. Fifteen experts in the scavenger receptor field attended the workshop and, after extensive discussion, reached a consensus regarding the definition of scavenger receptors and a proposed scavenger receptor nomenclature. Scavenger receptors were defined as cell surface receptors that typically bind multiple ligands and promote the removal of non-self or altered-self targets. They often function by mechanisms that include endocytosis, phagocytosis, adhesion, and signaling that ultimately lead to the elimination of degraded or harmful substances. Based on this definition, nomenclature and classification of these receptors into 10 classes were proposed. The discussion and nomenclature recommendations described in this report only refer to mammalian scavenger receptors. The purpose of this article is to describe the proposed mammalian nomenclature and classification developed at the workshop and to solicit additional feedback from the broader research community.

  2. Nomenclatures in Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Jean; Kossmann, Charles E.

    1973-01-01

    There are three major types of nomenclature of disease, which may be termed clinical, epidemiologic, and investigative. The first is used by the physician to record clinical and pathological data on patients. The second, usually less detailed, is used primarily by health statisticians for broad analyses of administrative, epidemiologic, or vital statistical data and by health registrars for recording causes of death and morbidity. The third is the highly specialized and usually evolving nomenclature of the biomedical investigator working in a limited field of research. A list of the recent nomenclatures of the last type in the subspecialties of Internal Medicine, in Oncology, and in Genetics has been included in this report as an appendix. PMID:4739885

  3. Outer Solar System Nomenclature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, Tobias C.

    1998-01-01

    The Principal Investigator's responsibilities on this grant fell into two categories according to his participation. In the nomenclature work of the International Astronomical Union (IAU). Owen is chair of the Task Group for the Outer Solar System. He is also a member of the IAU's Working Group on Planetary and Satellite Nomenclature (WGPSN) which is composed of the chairs of the several Task Groups plus the presidents of two IAU Commissions and several outside consultants. The WGPSN is presided over by its President, Professor Kaare Aksnes from the Rosseland Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics in Oslo, Norway.

  4. Cytoplasmic dynein nomenclature

    PubMed Central

    Pfister, K. Kevin; Fisher, Elizabeth M.C.; Gibbons, Ian R.; Hays, Thomas S.; Holzbaur, Erika L.F.; McIntosh, J. Richard; Porter, Mary E.; Schroer, Trina A.; Vaughan, Kevin T.; Witman, George B.; King, Stephen M.; Vallee, Richard B.

    2005-01-01

    A variety of names has been used in the literature for the subunits of cytoplasmic dynein complexes. Thus, there is a strong need for a more definitive consensus statement on nomenclature. This is especially important for mammalian cytoplasmic dyneins, many subunits of which are encoded by multiple genes. We propose names for the mammalian cytoplasmic dynein subunit genes and proteins that reflect the phylogenetic relationships of the genes and the published studies clarifying the functions of the polypeptides. This nomenclature recognizes the two distinct cytoplasmic dynein complexes and has the flexibility to accommodate the discovery of new subunits and isoforms. PMID:16260502

  5. Selenoprotein Gene Nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Gladyshev, Vadim N; Arnér, Elias S; Berry, Marla J; Brigelius-Flohé, Regina; Bruford, Elspeth A; Burk, Raymond F; Carlson, Bradley A; Castellano, Sergi; Chavatte, Laurent; Conrad, Marcus; Copeland, Paul R; Diamond, Alan M; Driscoll, Donna M; Ferreiro, Ana; Flohé, Leopold; Green, Fiona R; Guigó, Roderic; Handy, Diane E; Hatfield, Dolph L; Hesketh, John; Hoffmann, Peter R; Holmgren, Arne; Hondal, Robert J; Howard, Michael T; Huang, Kaixun; Kim, Hwa-Young; Kim, Ick Young; Köhrle, Josef; Krol, Alain; Kryukov, Gregory V; Lee, Byeong Jae; Lee, Byung Cheon; Lei, Xin Gen; Liu, Qiong; Lescure, Alain; Lobanov, Alexei V; Loscalzo, Joseph; Maiorino, Matilde; Mariotti, Marco; Sandeep Prabhu, K; Rayman, Margaret P; Rozovsky, Sharon; Salinas, Gustavo; Schmidt, Edward E; Schomburg, Lutz; Schweizer, Ulrich; Simonović, Miljan; Sunde, Roger A; Tsuji, Petra A; Tweedie, Susan; Ursini, Fulvio; Whanger, Philip D; Zhang, Yan

    2016-11-11

    The human genome contains 25 genes coding for selenocysteine-containing proteins (selenoproteins). These proteins are involved in a variety of functions, most notably redox homeostasis. Selenoprotein enzymes with known functions are designated according to these functions: TXNRD1, TXNRD2, and TXNRD3 (thioredoxin reductases), GPX1, GPX2, GPX3, GPX4, and GPX6 (glutathione peroxidases), DIO1, DIO2, and DIO3 (iodothyronine deiodinases), MSRB1 (methionine sulfoxide reductase B1), and SEPHS2 (selenophosphate synthetase 2). Selenoproteins without known functions have traditionally been denoted by SEL or SEP symbols. However, these symbols are sometimes ambiguous and conflict with the approved nomenclature for several other genes. Therefore, there is a need to implement a rational and coherent nomenclature system for selenoprotein-encoding genes. Our solution is to use the root symbol SELENO followed by a letter. This nomenclature applies to SELENOF (selenoprotein F, the 15-kDa selenoprotein, SEP15), SELENOH (selenoprotein H, SELH, C11orf31), SELENOI (selenoprotein I, SELI, EPT1), SELENOK (selenoprotein K, SELK), SELENOM (selenoprotein M, SELM), SELENON (selenoprotein N, SEPN1, SELN), SELENOO (selenoprotein O, SELO), SELENOP (selenoprotein P, SeP, SEPP1, SELP), SELENOS (selenoprotein S, SELS, SEPS1, VIMP), SELENOT (selenoprotein T, SELT), SELENOV (selenoprotein V, SELV), and SELENOW (selenoprotein W, SELW, SEPW1). This system, approved by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee, also resolves conflicting, missing, and ambiguous designations for selenoprotein genes and is applicable to selenoproteins across vertebrates.

  6. Nomenclature for aeronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1920-01-01

    Report defines the principal terms which have come into use in the development of aeronautics. It was prepared in cooperation with a committee engaged upon a similar undertaking in Great Britain. As a result this nomenclature is in substantial agreement with the one which has been adopted by the aeronautical authorities of Great Britain.

  7. Jovian satellite nomenclature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, T.

    1976-01-01

    A brief review of the history of Jovian satellite nomenclature is given to indicate the background for the names proposed for the numbered satellites. The new names are consistent with established tradition and should cause minimal confusion with other named objects in the solar system.

  8. IMC9 Edinburgh Nomenclature Sessions.

    PubMed

    Norvell, Lorelei L; Hawksworth, David L; Petersen, Ronald H; Redhead, Scott A

    2010-12-01

    The proceedings of the 3-5 August 2010, IMC9 Edinburgh Nomenclature Sessions are briefly summarized. The final resolution approved by the General Assembly endorses the recommendations by the Nomenclature Sessions regarding transfer of the governance of fungal nomenclature from botanical to mycological congresses, mandatory pre-publication deposit of nomenclatural information for valid publication of new fungal names, and the acceptability of English as an alternative to Latin in the valid publication of fungal names. Complete results from the IMC9 nomenclature questionnaire are also provided.

  9. Nomenclature for Aeronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1927-01-01

    This nomenclature for aeronautics was prepared by a Special Conference on Aeronautical Nomenclature by the executive committee of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at a meeting held on August 19, 1924, at which meeting Dr. Joseph S. Ames was appointed chairman of the conference. The conference was composed of representatives of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and specially appointed representatives officially designated by the Army Air Service, the Bureau of Aeronautics of the Navy Department, the Bureau of Standards, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the Society of Automotive Engineers, and the Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce. The purpose of the committee in the preparation and publication of this report is to secure uniformity in the official documents of the government and, as far as possible, in technical and other commercial publications

  10. NOMENCLATURE OF ANUKTA DRAVYA

    PubMed Central

    Kusuma, Ganji; Joshi, V. K

    2010-01-01

    Field survey was conducted in rural areas of Varanasi district of Uttar Pradesh including Ramnagar, Manduadih and surrounding areas to identify and collect information on undocumented medicinal plants (Anukta Dravya) by direct interaction with folklore people through field survey and indirect means by means of comprehensive survey of available literature. Local names of undocumented medicinal plants along with other relevant information were collected, after recording local names of medicinal plants, their botanical identification was done by comprehensive survey of literature, and the plants were identified according to Bentham & Hooker's system of classification using local floristic works. Expert opinion of plant taxonomists was also sought for cross checking and confirmation on identity. The freshly collected specimens were photographed for visual identification of the species. After identification, nomenclature of 10 Anukta Dravya was done as per the criteria of nomenclature mentioned in Nighantus. PMID:22557363

  11. On solar system nomenclature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.

    1976-01-01

    Arguments in support of naming topographic features on other solar system objects after human beings other than astronomers are outlined. In particular, it is important to make sure that the end result will be a nonprovincial distribution of nationalities, epochs, and occupations, a distribution that future generations can be proud of. A more consistent scheme for Jovian satellite nomenclature is proposed which consistently maintains the tradition of naming Jovian satellites after prominent consorts.

  12. Outer Solar System Nomenclature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, Tobias C.; Grant, John (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    This grant has supported work by T. Owen and B. A. Smith on planetary and satellite nomenclature, carried out under the general auspices of the International Astronomical Union (IAU). The IAU maintains a Working Group on Planetary and Satellite Nomenclature (WGPSN) whose current chair is Prof.Kaare Aksnes of the Rosseland Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics in Oslo, Norway. Both Owen and Smith are members of the WGPSN; Owen as chair of the Outer Solar System Task Group, and Smith as chair of the Mars Task Group. The major activity during the last grant period (2002) was the approval of several new names for features on Mars by Smith's group and features on Jovian satellites plus new names for satellites of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus by Owen's group. Much of this work was accomplished by e-mail exchanges, but the new nomenclature was formally discussed and approved at a meeting of the WGPSN held in conjunction with the Division for Planetary Sciences meeting in Birmingham, Alabama in October 2002.

  13. Proposed nomenclature for microhaplotypes.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Kenneth K

    2016-06-17

    Microhaplotypes are a new type of genetic marker in forensics and population genetics. A standardized nomenclature is desirable. A simple approach that does not require a central authority for approval is proposed. The nomenclature proposed follows the recommendation of the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee ( http://www.genenames.org ): "We strongly encourage naming families and groups of genes related by sequence and/or function using a "root" symbol. This is an efficient and informative way to name related genes, and already works well for a number of established gene families…" The proposal involves a simple root consisting of "mh" followed by the two-digit chromosome number and unique characters established by the authors in the initial publication. We suggest the unique symbol be an indication of the laboratory followed by characters unique to the chromosome and laboratory. For instance, the microhaplotype symbol mh01KK-001 refers to a locus on chromosome 1 published by the Kidd Lab (KK-) as their #001. Publication defines mh01KK-001 as comprised of four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs4648344, rs6663840, rs58111155, and rs6688969.

  14. Operations Nomenclature [Annexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, Yvette Y.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of Operations Nomenclature (OpNom) is to document methods for denoting all hardware and software and associated data referenced by operations products produced by the International Space Station (ISS) operations community. This includes Operations Data File (ODF) procedures, ground and onboard displays, mission rules, commands, messages and advisories, planning products, etc. This document applies to all agencies and individuals participating in or contributing to ISS mission operations. Mission operations include ground checkout, training, and simulations, as well as real-time activities. The document also applies to all operations documentation (paper or electronic media) and other products that refer to ISS-related equipment or activities.

  15. Nomenclature for Aeronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1939-01-01

    The nomenclature for aeronautics presented in this Report No. 474 is a revision of the last previous report on this subject (i.e., Report no. 240.) This report is published for the purpose of encouraging greater uniformity and precision in the use of terms relating to aeronautics, both in official documents of the Government and in commercial publications. Terms in general use in other branches of engineering have been included only where they have some special significance in aeronautics, or form an integral part of its terminology.

  16. Outer Solar System Nomenclature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, Tobias C.

    2000-01-01

    The work to be carried out on the subject grant during the next funding period will center on names needed for surface features on the Galilean satellites of Jupiter, names for the newly discovered satellites of Uranus, and the development of a nomenclature scheme for surface features on Titan. In the case of the Galilean Satellites, the ongoing Galileo mission is producing new images that continually lead to requirements for new names. These names are being supplied from name banks established according to the guidelines our Task Group established during the Voyager flybys 20 years ago. These names then require approval by the full Working Group and by the IAU General Assembly.

  17. Lunar nomenclature: A dissenting note

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arthur, D.W.G.

    1976-01-01

    This note reviews the nature of the traditional (Ma??dler) lunar nomenclature and the recent developments based on the use of more than 2000 named provinces. It appears that the new nomenclature is less efficient than the old in many cases and may lead to an impossible publication situation. The unnecessary break with the past is especially critized. ?? 1976.

  18. Lysophospholipid receptor nomenclature review: IUPHAR Review 8

    PubMed Central

    Kihara, Yasuyuki; Maceyka, Michael; Spiegel, Sarah; Chun, Jerold

    2014-01-01

    Lysophospholipids encompass a diverse range of small, membrane-derived phospholipids that act as extracellular signals. The signalling properties are mediated by 7-transmembrane GPCRs, constituent members of which have continued to be identified after their initial discovery in the mid-1990s. Here we briefly review this class of receptors, with a particular emphasis on their protein and gene nomenclatures that reflect their cognate ligands. There are six lysophospholipid receptors that interact with lysophosphatidic acid (LPA): protein names LPA1 – LPA6 and italicized gene names LPAR1-LPAR6 (human) and Lpar1-Lpar6 (non-human). There are five sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptors: protein names S1P1-S1P5 and italicized gene names S1PR1-S1PR5 (human) and S1pr1-S1pr5 (non-human). Recent additions to the lysophospholipid receptor family have resulted in the proposed names for a lysophosphatidyl inositol (LPI) receptor – protein name LPI1 and gene name LPIR1 (human) and Lpir1 (non-human) – and three lysophosphatidyl serine receptors – protein names LyPS1, LyPS2, LyPS3 and gene names LYPSR1-LYPSR3 (human) and Lypsr1-Lypsr3 (non-human) along with a variant form that does not appear to exist in humans that is provisionally named LyPS2L. This nomenclature incorporates previous recommendations from the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology, the Human Genome Organization, the Gene Nomenclature Committee, and the Mouse Genome Informatix. PMID:24602016

  19. Classification, Nomenclature, and Structural Aspects of Adhesion GPCRs.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Arunkumar; Nijmeijer, Saskia; de Graaf, Chris; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2016-01-01

    Representation of the nine distinct aGPCR subfamilies and their unique N-terminal domain architecture. The illustration also shows the extracellular structural feature shared by all aGPCRs (except ADGRA1), known as the GPCR autoproteolysis-inducing (GAIN) domain, that mediates autoproteolysis and subsequent attachment of the cleaved NTF and CTF fragments The adhesion family of G protein-coupled receptors (aGPCRs) is unique among all GPCR families with long N-termini and multiple domains that are implicated in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Initially, aGPCRs in the human genome were phylogenetically classified into nine distinct subfamilies based on their 7TM sequence similarity. This phylogenetic grouping of genes into subfamilies was found to be in congruence in closely related mammals and other vertebrates as well. Over the years, aGPCR repertoires have been mapped in many species including model organisms, and, currently, there is a growing interest in exploring the pharmacological aspects of aGPCRs. Nonetheless, the aGPCR nomenclature has been highly diverse because experts in the field have used different names for different family members based on their characteristics (e.g., epidermal growth factor-seven-span transmembrane (EGF-TM7)), but without harmonization with regard to nomenclature efforts. In order to facilitate naming of orthologs and other genetic variants in different species in the future, the Adhesion-GPCR Consortium, together with the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology Committee on Receptor Nomenclature and Drug Classification, proposed a unified nomenclature for aGPCRs. Here, we review the classification and the most recent/current nomenclature of aGPCRs and as well discuss the structural topology of the extracellular domain (ECD)/N-terminal fragment (NTF) that is comparable with this 7TM subfamily classification. Of note, we systematically describe the structural domains in the ECD of aGPCR subfamilies and

  20. PAH nomenclature guide. First edition

    SciTech Connect

    Loening, K.; Merritt, J.; Later, D.; Wright, W.

    1990-01-01

    Research relating to polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is a multidisciplinary activity carried out by scientists not familiar with the intricacies of chemical nomenclature. The PAH nomenclature Guide is designed to promote good communication in this field by giving instruction on how to name relevant compounds properly, by alerting the reader to the recommendations of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and the International Union of Biochemistry (IUB), by noting the practices of Chemical Abstracts Service, and by identifying other names in use. This book concentrates on the PAH themselves, their nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur analogs, including functional derivatives, the metabolic products of PAH, and enzymes. For each topic references are provided to the original nomenclature recommendations to enable the reader to check out further details.

  1. NASA catalogue of lunar nomenclature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andersson, L. A.; Whitaker, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    Lunar nomenclature is cataloged. It includes letter designations for subsidiary craters, and uses a more familiar spelling from eight names. The listed features are divided into three main groups for cataloging purposes, namely: (1) craters, (2) noncrater features; and (3) minor and miscellaneous features.

  2. Casein nomenclature, structure and association

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter of the Encyclopedia of Dairy Science deals with the recent developments in the nomenclature, classification, structures, and associations of the major milk proteins: the caseins. Identification of the caseins continues to be based upon their primary structures. Significant findings re...

  3. Fungal Nomenclature at IMC10: Report of the Nomenclature Sessions.

    PubMed

    Redhead, Scott A; Demoulin, Vincent; Hawksworth, David L; Seifert, Keith A; Turland, Nicholas J

    2014-12-01

    Three Nomenclature Sessions were convened during the 10(th) International Mycological Congress (IMC10) in Bangkok on 3-8 August 2014. In addition a Questionnaire was given to all delegates. This Report reviews and summarizes the views expressed in the Sessions and in the responses to the Questionnaire. The issues covered related to aspects of: registration, protected names, forgotten names, pleomorphic fungi, lichenized fungi, typification, diagnoses, and governance. In addition, reports were received from working groups preparing lists of names to be proposed for protection, and controversial cases of competing names were discussed. The Congress was mandated to ratify decisions of the Nomenclature Committee for Fungi (NCF) on the appointment of repositories for the registration of new fungal names. After discussion in the Sessions on the decision of the NCF to appoint three such bodies, a Resolution to that effect was approved by the Congress. The Congress also adopted a Resolution asking that the opinions of mycologists on future directions for the nomenclature of fungi be taken into account in formulating changes in the rules for consideration at the International Botanical Congress in 2017.

  4. The origin of electrochemical nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Giddens, W R

    2001-09-01

    This article is about the origin and development of certain words that are important in the vocabulary of all physicians and scientists. The words that make up the electrochemical nomenclature were created in 1833 by Michael Faraday and several of his friends. Terms such as electrolyte, ion, and electrode were invented in a fashion that ignored theory but fitted the experimental facts of the laboratory. This nomenclature, derived from Greek, was so accurate and functional that is has been completely incorporated into modern chemistry, a fact that seems remarkable since the structure of the atom was completely unknown at the time. To fully develop the etymology of these words, the life of Faraday is summarized and the deliberations of the men involved are reviewed.

  5. Taxonomy and nomenclature of viruses.

    PubMed

    Murant, A F

    1985-07-01

    In his article The species concept in plant virology Milne1 describes the CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses2 as providing the 'creeping barrage' (for the 'anti-species' views of many plant virologists and others) in the seemingly unending trench warfare over virus taxonomy and nomenclature. As an editor since 1970 (with BD Harrison) of this continuing series, I am moved to fire a few additional shots in support of Milne's thesis.

  6. The origins of major platelet receptor nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Clemetson, Kenneth J

    2017-01-01

    The nomenclature of the major platelet receptors may appear complex, but in fact there are logical reasons why it developed in the way it did. In this short review, I describe the origins of this nomenclature, how it developed as more information became available and as relationships were established with receptors on other types of cells. Difficulties have also arisen with alternative nomenclature systems and the various equivalences with these are described and listed. There remain areas such as immunology and transfusion where the accepted nomenclature leaves something to be desired, but it is unlikely that major changes will occur.

  7. SLC nomenclature for beamline components

    SciTech Connect

    Paterson, J.; Silva, J.

    1984-07-12

    The purpose of this report is to document the SLC nomenclature conventions for beamline components. Included are recent enhancements which should lead to a more consistant usage of the ''unit number'' part of beamline device names. The attached pages are divided into three sections. The first section is a brief summary for the general user. The second section is a more amplified description for those who need more detailed interpretations of device names. The third section contains a few notes for those who must generate device names for new components.

  8. The Chicken Gene Nomenclature Committee report.

    PubMed

    Burt, David W; Carrë, Wilfrid; Fell, Mark; Law, Andy S; Antin, Parker B; Maglott, Donna R; Weber, Janet A; Schmidt, Carl J; Burgess, Shane C; McCarthy, Fiona M

    2009-07-14

    Comparative genomics is an essential component of the post-genomic era. The chicken genome is the first avian genome to be sequenced and it will serve as a model for other avian species. Moreover, due to its unique evolutionary niche, the chicken genome can be used to understand evolution of functional elements and gene regulation in mammalian species. However comparative biology both within avian species and within amniotes is hampered due to the difficulty of recognising functional orthologs. This problem is compounded as different databases and sequence repositories proliferate and the names they assign to functional elements proliferate along with them. Currently, genes can be published under more than one name and one name sometimes refers to unrelated genes. Standardized gene nomenclature is necessary to facilitate communication between scientists and genomic resources. Moreover, it is important that this nomenclature be based on existing nomenclature efforts where possible to truly facilitate studies between different species. We report here the formation of the Chicken Gene Nomenclature Committee (CGNC), an international and centralized effort to provide standardized nomenclature for chicken genes. The CGNC works in conjunction with public resources such as NCBI and Ensembl and in consultation with existing nomenclature committees for human and mouse. The CGNC will develop standardized nomenclature in consultation with the research community and relies on the support of the research community to ensure that the nomenclature facilitates comparative and genomic studies.

  9. The Universal Medical Device Nomenclature System.

    PubMed

    Gaev, J A

    1996-01-01

    To facilitate access to medical information, ECRI has developed and promulgated a hierarchical medical device nomenclature system containing over 4,800 valid terms and 3,100 cross-references. The Universal Medical Device Nomenclature System (UMDNS) is appropriate for a wide range of applications. It is used world-wide and is available in 5 languages (7 additional translations are in progress).

  10. NOMENCLATURAL CONFUSION ON ECLIPTA PROSTRATE (L.) L.

    PubMed Central

    Balu, S.; Rao, G. R.

    1991-01-01

    Eclipta prostrate (L.) L. (Asterceae) is a valuable plant used in the treatment of various human ailments in Ayurveda and Siddha systems. Nomenclatural confusion prevails as different plants are mentioned in Indian medical literature as Bhringaraja and Karisalahganni. It is evident from the present study that the nomenclature Bhringaraja and Karisalanganni must be restricted only to Eclipta prostrate (L.) L. PMID:22556566

  11. Primate immunodeficiency virus classification and nomenclature: Review.

    PubMed

    Foley, Brian T; Leitner, Thomas; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Peeters, Martine

    2016-12-01

    The International Committee for the Taxonomy and Nomenclature of Viruses does not rule on virus classifications below the species level. The definition of species for viruses cannot be clearly defined for all types of viruses. The complex and interesting epidemiology of Human Immunodeficiency Viruses demands a detailed and informative nomenclature system, while at the same time it presents challenges such that many of the rules need to be flexibly applied or modified over time. This review outlines the nomenclature system for primate lentiviruses and provides an update on new findings since the last review was written in 2000.

  12. Primate immunodeficiency virus classification and nomenclature: Review

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, Brian T.; Leitner, Thomas; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Peeters, Martine

    2016-10-24

    The International Committee for the Taxonomy and Nomenclature of Viruses does not rule on virus classifications below the species level. The definition of species for viruses cannot be clearly defined for all types of viruses. The complex and interesting epidemiology of Human Immunodeficiency Viruses demands a detailed and informative nomenclature system, while at the same time it presents challenges such that many of the rules need to be flexibly applied or modified over time. As a result, this review outlines the nomenclature system for primate lentiviruses and provides an update on new findings since the last review was written in 2000.

  13. Primate immunodeficiency virus classification and nomenclature: Review

    DOE PAGES

    Foley, Brian T.; Leitner, Thomas; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; ...

    2016-10-24

    The International Committee for the Taxonomy and Nomenclature of Viruses does not rule on virus classifications below the species level. The definition of species for viruses cannot be clearly defined for all types of viruses. The complex and interesting epidemiology of Human Immunodeficiency Viruses demands a detailed and informative nomenclature system, while at the same time it presents challenges such that many of the rules need to be flexibly applied or modified over time. As a result, this review outlines the nomenclature system for primate lentiviruses and provides an update on new findings since the last review was written inmore » 2000.« less

  14. Convention on nomenclature for DNA cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Hiddemann, W.; Schumann, J.; Andreeff, M.; Barlogie, B.; Herman, C.J.; Leif, R.C.; Mayall, B.H.; Murphy, R.F.; Sandberg, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    The Committee on Nomenclature of the Society for Analytical Cytology presents guidelines for the analysis of DNA content by cytometry. These guidelines cover: staining of DNA; cytogenetic and cytometric terminology; DNA index; resolution of measurements; and cytometric standards.

  15. A systematic nomenclature for the insect brain.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kei; Shinomiya, Kazunori; Ito, Masayoshi; Armstrong, J Douglas; Boyan, George; Hartenstein, Volker; Harzsch, Steffen; Heisenberg, Martin; Homberg, Uwe; Jenett, Arnim; Keshishian, Haig; Restifo, Linda L; Rössler, Wolfgang; Simpson, Julie H; Strausfeld, Nicholas J; Strauss, Roland; Vosshall, Leslie B

    2014-02-19

    Despite the importance of the insect nervous system for functional and developmental neuroscience, descriptions of insect brains have suffered from a lack of uniform nomenclature. Ambiguous definitions of brain regions and fiber bundles have contributed to the variation of names used to describe the same structure. The lack of clearly determined neuropil boundaries has made it difficult to document precise locations of neuronal projections for connectomics study. To address such issues, a consortium of neurobiologists studying arthropod brains, the Insect Brain Name Working Group, has established the present hierarchical nomenclature system, using the brain of Drosophila melanogaster as the reference framework, while taking the brains of other taxa into careful consideration for maximum consistency and expandability. The following summarizes the consortium's nomenclature system and highlights examples of existing ambiguities and remedies for them. This nomenclature is intended to serve as a standard of reference for the study of the brain of Drosophila and other insects.

  16. Pancreatic cytology: standardised terminology and nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Perez-Machado, M A

    2016-06-01

    Pancreatic cytology can make a real difference to the management of patients. However it is a challenge in those cases where a definitive diagnosis of malignancy cannot be made with confidence. This creates the need for a unified terminology and nomenclature system that provides intra- and interdepartmental guidance for diagnosis. The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology (PSC) has published new guidelines for pancreaticobiliary cytology, addressing indications, techniques, terminology and nomenclature, ancillary studies, and postprocedure management.

  17. Vasculitides: Proposal for an integrated nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Prete, Marcella; Indiveri, Francesco; Perosa, Federico

    2016-02-01

    The vasculitides form a heterogeneous group of systemic diseases that differ in etiology, histological patterns, and, consequently, clinical significance and prognosis but are traceable to the same pathological event, namely, vessel wall inflammation. The clinical heterogeneity among these diseases, together with yet unknown pathogenetic mechanisms for many of them, creates difficulties in the early diagnosis and correct management of affected patients. Therefore, several groups of investigators have elaborated nomenclatures to set some order in the definition and grouping of the vasculitides. The two main naming systems used for decades, i.e., the Fauci nomenclature and the 1994 Chapel Hill Consensus Conference (CHCC) nomenclature, were recently superseded by a revised CHCC nomenclature published in 2012. The aim of that revision was to update the names and definitions of the vasculitides and to include novel forms, considering the advances in knowledge made since the first consensus conference was held. Here, we critically discuss the 2012 CHCC nomenclature in light of the earlier naming systems and raise some concerns in how several vasculitides were grouped. On the basis of this analysis, we propose an integrated nomenclature that we believe will have a more direct impact in the clinic, perfectly aware that any redefinition may present contradictions.

  18. Nomenclature for physical mapping of complex genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    Among these issues, that of establishing nomenclature conventions, was seen to be fundamental to the development of useful data management systems and essential for the orderly and efficient development of such systems. Therefore, the present workshop was convened, as the first in the recommended series, to identify the issues involved in establishing nomenclature standards and to develop a set of recommendations for such standards. This report summarizes the proceedings of the workshop and lays out specific proposals for naming DNA entities for physical mapping. The scientific community should discuss and develop these proposals so that naming conventions can be established. The proposals apply specifically to human DNA entities; however, the relevance to nomenclature in other systems should be part of the broader discussion. 13 refs.

  19. Working group for planetary system nomenclature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Most of the activity of the Working Group and Task Group of the IAU during these three years has been centered on the nomenclature of Neptune's satellites and rings as revealed by the Voyager spacecraft. The emphasis is now shifting to Venus, in preparation for the detailed radar mapping of that planet begun by the Magellan spacecraft in August 1990. Approval has been asked for nomenclature of the Earth's moon, Venus, Mars, and Triton features as well as 4 other Neptune satellites and three Neptune rings.

  20. Techniques of laparoscopic cholecystectomy: Nomenclature and selection.

    PubMed

    Haribhakti, Sanjiv P; Mistry, Jitendra H

    2015-01-01

    There are more than 50 different techniques of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) available in literature mainly due to modifications by surgeons in aim to improve postoperative outcome and cosmesis. These modifications include reduction in port size and/or number than what is used in standard LC. There is no uniform nomenclature to describe these different techniques so that it is not possible to compare the outcomes of different techniques. We brief the advantages and disadvantages of each of these techniques and suggest the situation where particular technique would be useful. We also propose a nomenclature which is easy to remember and apply, so that any future comparison will be possible between the techniques.

  1. The IUE data base: Homogenizing the IUE object nomenclature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barylak, Michael; Wamsteker, Willem; Schmitz, Marion

    1988-01-01

    The IUE project started to homogenize the object nomenclature in the IUE data base. Due to the absence of an official IAU nomenclature hierarchy and in view of the increasing confusion in IUE (and, in general, astronomical) object identifications, the IUE project adopted its own nomenclature hierarchy. The scheme and problems encountered in establishing it are described.

  2. Review of nomenclature in colonic surgery--proposal of a standardised nomenclature based on mesocolic anatomy.

    PubMed

    Culligan, K; Remzi, F H; Soop, M; Coffey, J C

    2013-02-01

    The standardisation of the surgical management of rectal cancer has been facilitated by adoption of an anatomic surgical nomenclature. Thus, "total mesorectal excision" substituted "anterior resection" or "proctosigmoidectomy" and implies resection of both rectum and mesorectum. Similar trends towards standardisation of colonic surgery are ongoing, yet there remains a heterogeneity of terminology utilised (eg, "right hemicolectomy", "ileocolic resection", and "total mesocolic excision"). Recent descriptions of mesocolic anatomy provide an opportunity to standardise colonic resection according to a more precise and informative anatomic nomenclature. This article aims to firstly emphasise the central importance of the mesocolon and from this propose a related nomenclature for resectional colonic surgery. Introduction of a standardised nomenclature for colonic resection is a necessary step towards standardisation of colonic surgery in general.

  3. Recommendations for standardized human pedigree nomenclature

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, R.L.; O`Sullivan, C.K.; Uhrich, S.B.; Hamanishi, J.; Resta, R.G.; Lochner-Doyle, D.; Steinhaus, K.A.; Markel, D.S.; Vincent, V.

    1995-03-01

    The construction of an accurate family pedigree is a fundamental component of a clinical genetic evaluation and of human genetic research. Previous surveys of genetic counselors and human genetic publications have demonstrated significant inconsistencies in the usage of common pedigree symbols representing situations such as pregnancy, termination of pregnancy, miscarriage, and adoption, as well as less common scenarios such as pregnancies conceived through assisted reproductive technologies. The Pedigree Standardization Task Force (PSTF) was organized through the Professional Issues of Committee of the National Society of Genetic Counselors, to establish recommendations for universal standards in human pedigree nomenclature. Nomenclature was chosen based on current usage, consistency among symbols, computer compatibility, and the adaptability of symbols to reflect the rapid technical advances in human genetics. Preliminary recommendations were presented for review at three national meetings of human genetic professionals and sent to <100 human genetic professionals for review. On the basis of this review process, the recommendations of the PSTF for standardized human pedigree are presented here. By incorporating these recommendations into medical genetics professional training programs, board examinations, genetic publications, and pedigree software, the adoption of uniform pedigree nomenclature can begin. Usage of standardized pedigree nomenclature will reduce the chances for incorrect interpretation of patient and family medical and genetic information. It may also improve the quality of patient care provided by genetic professionals and facilitate communication between researchers involved with genetic family studies. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  4. The Amsterdam declaration on fungal nomenclature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature was developed at a international symposium convened in Amsterdam on 19-20 April 2011 under the auspices of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF). The purpose of the symposium was to address the issue of whether or how the curren...

  5. Broca's Area: Nomenclature, Anatomy, Typology and Asymmetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Simon S.; Crow, Timothy; Foundas, Anne; Amunts, Katrin; Roberts, Neil

    2009-01-01

    In this review, we (i) describe the nomenclature of Broca's area and show how the circumscribed definition of Broca's area is disassociated from Broca's aphasia, (ii) describe in detail how the gross anatomy of Broca's area varies between people, and how the definitions vary between studies, (iii) attempt to reconcile the findings of structural…

  6. Symétries et nomenclature des baryons: Proposition d'une nouvelle nomenclature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, Gaëtan

    Baryons, such as protons and neutrons, are matter particles made of three quarks. Their current nomenclature is based on the concept of isospin, introduced by Werner Heisenberg in 1932 to explain the similarity between the masses of protons and neutrons, as well as the similarity of their behaviour under the strong interaction. It is a refinement of a nomenclature designed in 1964, before the acceptance of the quark model, for light baryons. A historical review of baryon physics before the advent of the quark model is given to understand the motivations behind the light baryon nomenclature. Then, an overview of the quark model is given to understand the extensions done to this nomenclature in 1986, as well as to understand the physics of baryons and of properties such as isospin and flavour quantum numbers. Since baryon properties are in general explained by the quark model, a nomenclature based on isospin leads to several issues of physics and of clarity. To resolve these issues, the concepts of isospin and mass groups are generalized to all flavours of quarks, the Gell-Mann--Okubo formalism is extended to generalized mass groups, and a baryon nomenclature based on the quark model, reflecting modern knowledge, is proposed.

  7. Human nomenclature: from race to racism.

    PubMed

    Zubaran, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Throughout time, evolutionary biologists have attempted to classify human beings according to a nomenclature based on supposed patterns of biological differences that have been used to suggest hierarchical categories. Recent genetic evidence disproves the assumption that races are genetically distinct human populations. Several studies refute human categorization as a severely flawed yardstick. For many, race is a construct that must be overcome in order to eradicate racism. Personal experiences of racism, harassment and discrimination are associated with multiple indicators of poorer physical and mental health status. Additionally, socio-economic differentials are likely to be a fundamental explanation for the observed inequalities in health status among minority groups. This commentary examines the discrepancies that race, ethnicity and similar human nomenclatures present. Furthermore, the potentially harmful consequences of the "scientific" use of race, in the form of stereotyping and racism, are discussed.

  8. Toward a consensus in protein structure nomenclature

    PubMed Central

    DaSilva, Linder C; Gurry, Thomas; Stultz, Collin M

    2014-01-01

    In a recent article, published in Intrinsically Disordered Proteins, a valuable consensus view regarding the nomenclature for disordered proteins was presented.1 In this work the authors present a thoughtful and systemic review of terms that have been used in the literature to describe proteins that sample a heterogeneous set of structures during their biological lifetime. We agree that the term “intrinsically disordered proteins” (IDPs) is an appropriate single descriptor to refer to this particular class of proteins, although it does not fully capture much of the nuanced complexities that are inherent to this class. In what follows we suggest a refinement to this nomenclature based on an analysis of the underlying ensemble that describes the thermally accessible states of a given IDP.

  9. Techniques of laparoscopic cholecystectomy: Nomenclature and selection

    PubMed Central

    Haribhakti, Sanjiv P.; Mistry, Jitendra H.

    2015-01-01

    There are more than 50 different techniques of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) available in literature mainly due to modifications by surgeons in aim to improve postoperative outcome and cosmesis. These modifications include reduction in port size and/or number than what is used in standard LC. There is no uniform nomenclature to describe these different techniques so that it is not possible to compare the outcomes of different techniques. We brief the advantages and disadvantages of each of these techniques and suggest the situation where particular technique would be useful. We also propose a nomenclature which is easy to remember and apply, so that any future comparison will be possible between the techniques. PMID:25883450

  10. Nomenclature and the National Wetland Plant List

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    Cover: Carolus Linnaeus in Laponian costume (by Hendrik Hollander, 1853). ERDC/CRREL TN-09-1 May 2009 Nomenclature and the National Wetland...rangement”) and nomos (“law” or “science”). The Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus (1753) is credited with putting into wide usage his bino- mial ( two...author (in this case, Carolus Linnaeus , the individual who named and described the species). Scientific names are fundamental in understanding

  11. Activities of Human Gene Nomenclature Committee

    SciTech Connect

    2002-07-16

    The objective of this project, shared between NIH and DOE, has been and remains to enable the medical genetics communities to use common names for genes that are discovered by different gene hunting groups, in different species. This effort provides consistent gene nomenclature and approved gene symbols to the community at large. This contributes to a uniform and consistent understanding of genomes, particularly the human as well as functional genomics based on comparisons between homologous genes in related species (human and mice).

  12. WPC study yields reserves classification, nomenclature

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-11-21

    At this year's World Petroleum Congress in London, a study group recommended a universal classification and nomenclature system for petroleum and petroleum reserves (OG), Sept. 5, p. 70). The classification of hydrocarbons and the nomenclature of oil and gas reserves have been featured in earlier Congresses in one form or another. The need for some standardization of definitions and concepts has long been emphasized, but a Study Group was set up for the first time for the 11th WPC to review: The oil and gas classification systems in current use, and focus on the development of a universal system embracing all types of naturally occurring hydrocarbons of present and potential commercial interest; The nomenclature used by various countries and organizations in reporting estimates of reserves, and focus on the development of a simple, practical, readily understandable system which would receive general acceptance. The Study Group consisted of representatives of Canada, The Netherlands, U.K., U.S., and Venezuela. National committees were asked for pertinent information on both aspects of the study--petroleum classification and petroleum reserves. Group members exchanged research material, lists of primary definitions, and references and sought opinions from a wide circle of contacts. The Group held several meetings beginning in 1980.

  13. Endothelial Progenitors: A Consensus Statement on Nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Medina, Reinhold J; Barber, Chad L; Sabatier, Florence; Dignat-George, Francoise; Melero-Martin, Juan M; Khosrotehrani, Kiarash; Ohneda, Osamu; Randi, Anna M; Chan, Jerry K Y; Yamaguchi, Teruhide; Van Hinsbergh, Victor W M; Yoder, Mervin C; Stitt, Alan W

    2017-03-10

    Endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) nomenclature remains ambiguous and there is a general lack of concordance in the stem cell field with many distinct cell subtypes continually grouped under the term "EPC." It would be highly advantageous to agree standards to confirm an endothelial progenitor phenotype and this should include detailed immunophenotyping, potency assays, and clear separation from hematopoietic angiogenic cells which are not endothelial progenitors. In this review, we seek to discourage the indiscriminate use of "EPCs," and instead propose precise terminology based on defining cellular phenotype and function. Endothelial colony forming cells and myeloid angiogenic cells are examples of two distinct and well-defined cell types that have been considered EPCs because they both promote vascular repair, albeit by completely different mechanisms of action. It is acknowledged that scientific nomenclature should be a dynamic process driven by technological and conceptual advances; ergo the ongoing "EPC" nomenclature ought not to be permanent and should become more precise in the light of strong scientific evidence. This is especially important as these cells become recognized for their role in vascular repair in health and disease; and, in some cases, progress toward use in cell therapy. © Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017.

  14. Understanding the 'Silver Book' - An important reference for standardised nomenclature in clinical laboratory sciences.

    PubMed

    Flatman, Robert; Férard, Georges; Dybkaer, René

    2016-06-29

    Clinical laboratories perform a wide menu of testing (examinations). Successful requesting, examination, and ordering in this environment requires clear standardised nomenclature. The Silver Book (SB) is an IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) publication, produced with the support of both IUPAC and the IFCC (International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine), that makes recommendations on logical standardised nomenclature, symbols, properties, and units in many disciplines of the clinical laboratory sciences. These recommendations are founded on and in agreement with the principles and work of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), IUPAC, and the IFCC. Practical applications described are based on those scientific principles. The SB recommendations apply to all types of examination, not only to measurement of quantities but also examination of nominal properties where no magnitude is involved. The SB is applicable not only to clinical chemistry, but to many other clinical laboratory disciplines. For examples, reports regarding haemostasis, toxicology, clinical microbiology, reproduction and fertility, clinical pharmacology, clinical allergology, clinical molecular biology, and clinical immunohaematology have been published by the IUPAC and the IFCC. Peak scientific bodies such as the IUPAC and the IFCC have important roles in the development of sound international standards for nomenclature of examinations. Such standards support safe and effective representation of patient health information, foster portability, and empower future decision support systems.

  15. Nomenclature101.com: A Free, Student-Driven Organic Chemistry Nomenclature Learning Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Alison B.; Caron, Jeanette; Laroche, Jamey; Daviau-Duguay, Melissa; Marcoux, Caroline; Richard, Gise`le

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental to a student's understanding of organic chemistry is the ability to interpret and use its language, including molecules' names and other key terms. A learning gap exists in that students often struggle with organic nomenclature. Although many resources describe the rules for naming molecules, there is a paucity of resources…

  16. Classification and nomenclature of retrotransposable elements.

    PubMed

    Capy, P

    2005-01-01

    The classification and nomenclature of retrotransposable elements is reviewed. A comparison is made between the initial classification summarized in Capy et al. (1997b), and the more recent proposal based on the classification of the viruses (Hull, 2001). Several problems, mainly relating to the position of elements belonging to the DIRS-like or Bel-like groups, are discussed. The first classification is now out of date, and must be revisited to take account of the discovery of new elements, however the second cannot be extended to the DNA elements. There is therefore, clear evidence of the need to adopt a general and a common classification.

  17. The nomenclature of polymict basaltic achondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaney, J. S.; Prinz, M.; Harlow, G. E.; Takeda, H.; Nehru, C. E.

    1983-01-01

    The system of nomenclature for basaltic achondrite meteorites is discussed, and new classification criteria are proposed. Under the new system, all achondrites are divided intno the broad groupings 'monomict' and 'polymict' by the number of lithologies present. The monomicts are classified structurally as brecciated or unbreccciated and as eucrites, diogenites, or cumulate eucrites. The polymicts are classified using an arbitrary mineral-chemical standard based on the percentage content of diogenite (magnesium orthopyroxenite): diogenites have more than 90 percent, eucrites have less than 10 percent, and all other polymicts area howardites. Tables listing all known achondrites by classification are provided.

  18. Amyloid fibril protein nomenclature: 2012 recommendations from the Nomenclature Committee of the International Society of Amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Sipe, Jean D; Benson, Merrill D; Buxbaum, Joel N; Ikeda, Shu-ichi; Merlini, Giampaolo; Saraiva, Maria J M; Westermark, Per

    2012-12-01

    The Nomenclature Committee of the International Society of Amyloidosis (ISA) met during the XIIIth International Symposium, May 6-10, 2012, Groningen, The Netherlands, to formulate recommendations on amyloid fibril protein nomenclature and to consider newly identified candidate amyloid fibril proteins for inclusion in the ISA Amyloid Fibril Protein Nomenclature List. The need to promote utilization of consistent and up to date terminology for both fibril chemistry and clinical classification of the resultant disease syndrome was emphasized. Amyloid fibril nomenclature is based on the chemical identity of the amyloid fibril forming protein; clinical classification of the amyloidosis should be as well. Although the importance of fibril chemistry to the disease process has been recognized for more than 40 years, to this day the literature contains clinical and histochemical designations that were used when the chemical diversity of amyloid diseases was poorly understood. Thus, the continued use of disease classifications such as familial amyloid neuropathy and familial amyloid cardiomyopathy generates confusion. An amyloid fibril protein is defined as follows: the protein must occur in body tissue deposits and exhibit both affinity for Congo red and green birefringence when Congo red stained deposits are viewed by polarization microscopy. Furthermore, the chemical identity of the protein must have been unambiguously characterized by protein sequence analysis when so is practically possible. Thus, in nearly all cases, it is insufficient to demonstrate mutation in the gene of a candidate amyloid protein; the protein itself must be identified as an amyloid fibril protein. Current ISA Amyloid Fibril Protein Nomenclature Lists of 30 human and 10 animal fibril proteins are provided together with a list of inclusion bodies that, although intracellular, exhibit some or all of the properties of the mainly extracellular amyloid fibrils.

  19. Identification and nomenclature of the genus Penicillium.

    PubMed

    Visagie, C M; Houbraken, J; Frisvad, J C; Hong, S-B; Klaassen, C H W; Perrone, G; Seifert, K A; Varga, J; Yaguchi, T; Samson, R A

    2014-06-01

    Penicillium is a diverse genus occurring worldwide and its species play important roles as decomposers of organic materials and cause destructive rots in the food industry where they produce a wide range of mycotoxins. Other species are considered enzyme factories or are common indoor air allergens. Although DNA sequences are essential for robust identification of Penicillium species, there is currently no comprehensive, verified reference database for the genus. To coincide with the move to one fungus one name in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, the generic concept of Penicillium was re-defined to accommodate species from other genera, such as Chromocleista, Eladia, Eupenicillium, Torulomyces and Thysanophora, which together comprise a large monophyletic clade. As a result of this, and the many new species described in recent years, it was necessary to update the list of accepted species in Penicillium. The genus currently contains 354 accepted species, including new combinations for Aspergillus crystallinus, A. malodoratus and A. paradoxus, which belong to Penicillium section Paradoxa. To add to the taxonomic value of the list, we also provide information on each accepted species MycoBank number, living ex-type strains and provide GenBank accession numbers to ITS, β-tubulin, calmodulin and RPB2 sequences, thereby supplying a verified set of sequences for each species of the genus. In addition to the nomenclatural list, we recommend a standard working method for species descriptions and identifications to be adopted by laboratories working on this genus.

  20. Nomenclatural realignment of Neotyphodium species with genus Epichloe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nomenclatural rule changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants made at the 18th International Botanical Congress in Melbourne, Australia in 2011 require that a single name is used for all fungi. Since the anamorphic stages of Epichloë species have been classified i...

  1. Chemical Alias: An Engaging Way to Examine Nomenclature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurushkin, Mikhail; Mikhaylenko, Maria

    2015-01-01

    An educational card game, "Chemical Alias," has been developed as an alternative method of reviewing students' knowledge of nomenclature. In contrast to conventional tests, this highly competitive activity is a fun and effective way to examine and reinforce nomenclature. The students play in pairs, using Clark's famous spiral arrangement…

  2. History and Nomenclature of Multistrand Repairs in Digital Flexor Tendons.

    PubMed

    Savage, Robert; Tang, Jin Bo

    2016-02-01

    Multistrand core suture repairs have become the mainstay of digital flexor tendon repair in recent decades. Here we briefly describe the history of the development of these multistrand repair methods and their correct nomenclature. A historical account, their evolution, the correct use of nomenclature, and some technical points are reviewed.

  3. Beyond the Tower of Babel: A Nomenclature for Suicidology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Carroll, Patrick W.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Proposes a nomenclature for suicide-related behavior in the hope of improving the clarity and precision of communications, advancing suicidological research and knowledge, and improving the efficacy of clinical interventions. Provides a background of the ambiguity surrounding suicide terminology, contrasts nomenclature with classification, and…

  4. Beyond the Tower of Babel: a nomenclature for suicidology.

    PubMed

    O'Carroll, P W; Berman, A L; Maris, R W; Moscicki, E K; Tanney, B L; Silverman, M M

    1996-01-01

    Suicidology finds itself confused and stagnated for lack of a standard nomenclature. This paper proposes a nomenclature for suicide-related behavior in the hope of improving the clarity and precision of communications, advancing suicidological research and knowledge, and improving the efficacy of clinical interventions.

  5. Nomenclatural Benchmarking: The roles of digital typification and telemicroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The process of nomenclatural benchmarking is the examination of type specimens of all available names to ascertain which currently accepted species the specimen bearing the name falls within. We propose a strategy for addressing four challenges for nomenclatural benchmarking. First, there is the mat...

  6. Healthspan Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The main goal of this paper is to present the case for shifting the focus of research on aging and anti-aging from lifespan pharmacology to what I like to call healthspan pharmacology, in which the desired outcome is the extension of healthy years of life rather than lifespan alone. Lifespan could be influenced by both genetic and epigenetic factors, but a long lifespan may not be a good indicator of an optimal healthspan. Without improving healthspan, prolonging longevity would have enormous negative socioeconomic outcomes for humans. Therefore, the goal of aging and anti-aging research should be to add healthy years to life and not merely to increase the chronological age. This article summarizes and compares two categories of pharmacologically induced lifespan extension studies in animal model systems from the last two decades—those reporting the effects of pharmacological interventions on lifespan extension alone versus others that include their effects on both lifespan and healthspan in the analysis. The conclusion is that the extrapolation of pharmacological results from animal studies to humans is likely to be more relevant when both lifespan and healthspan extension properties of pharmacological intervention are taken into account. PMID:26444965

  7. Healthspan Pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Mahtab

    2015-12-01

    The main goal of this paper is to present the case for shifting the focus of research on aging and anti-aging from lifespan pharmacology to what I like to call healthspan pharmacology, in which the desired outcome is the extension of healthy years of life rather than lifespan alone. Lifespan could be influenced by both genetic and epigenetic factors, but a long lifespan may not be a good indicator of an optimal healthspan. Without improving healthspan, prolonging longevity would have enormous negative socioeconomic outcomes for humans. Therefore, the goal of aging and anti-aging research should be to add healthy years to life and not merely to increase the chronological age. This article summarizes and compares two categories of pharmacologically induced lifespan extension studies in animal model systems from the last two decades-those reporting the effects of pharmacological interventions on lifespan extension alone versus others that include their effects on both lifespan and healthspan in the analysis. The conclusion is that the extrapolation of pharmacological results from animal studies to humans is likely to be more relevant when both lifespan and healthspan extension properties of pharmacological intervention are taken into account.

  8. Conotoxins: Structure, Therapeutic Potential and Pharmacological Applications.

    PubMed

    Mir, Rafia; Karim, Sajjad; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Wilson, Cornelia M; Mirza, Zeenat

    2016-01-01

    Cone snails, also known as marine gastropods, from Conus genus produce in their venom a diverse range of small pharmacologically active structured peptides called conotoxins. The cone snail venoms are widely unexplored arsenal of toxins with therapeutic and pharmacological potential, making them a treasure trove of ligands and peptidic drug leads. Conotoxins are small disulfide bonded peptides, which act as remarkable selective inhibitors and modulators of ion channels (calcium, sodium, potassium), nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, noradrenaline transporters, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, and neurotensin receptors. They are highly potent and specific against several neuronal targets making them valuable as research tools, drug leads and even therapeutics. In this review, we discuss their gene superfamily classification, nomenclature, post-translational modification, structural framework, pharmacology and medical applications of the active conopeptides. We aim to give an overview of their structure and therapeutic potential. Understanding these aspects of conopeptides will help in designing more specific peptidic analogues.

  9. [Polish nomenclature of lumbar disc disease].

    PubMed

    Radło, Paweł; Smetkowski, Andrzej; Tesiorowski, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Lumbar disc herniation is one of the most common damage of musculoskeletal system. The incidence of pain of lumbosacral spine is estimated approximately on 60-90% in general population, whereas the incidence of disc herniation in patients experiencing low back pain is about 91%. Despite the high incidence and uncomplicated pathogenesis of disc disease there is a problem with the nomenclature. In the vast majority of cases, the naming confusion stems from ignorance of the etiology of low back pain. Different terminologies: morphological, topographical, Radiological and Clinical are used interchangeably. In addition, diagnosis is presented in a variety of languages: Polish, English and Latin. Moreover, the medical and traditional language are used alternately. The authors found in Polish literature more, than 20 terms to describe lumbar disc herniation. All of these terms in the meaning of the authors are used to determine one pathology--mechanical damage to the intervertebral disc and moving the disc material beyond the anatomical area.

  10. A Introduction to the Nomenclature Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.

    The new observing and reduction techniques available to astronomers have led to remarkable changes in the field of double and multiple stars. New classes of companions such as brown dwarfs and exoplanets have been discovered. Binaries which previously constituted distinct classes are now observable by multiple techniques. With many long-baseline optical interferometers operational or planned with improvements in other techniques and with astrometric space-based missions in various states of planning and funding the situation is likely to become more complicated. The result is greater understanding for the scientist but greater challenges for the cataloger! The ""problem"" is that purveyors of different techniques use different nomenclature both in terms of root designation and component identifier. It is this latter inconsistency which causes the most confusion and is the topic of this Special Session. This talk will illustrate some of the many designation ambiguities and summarize efforts made during the past few years to address this problem.

  11. International code of nomenclature of prokaryotes

    DOE PAGES

    Garrity, George M.; Parker, Charles T.; Tindall, Brian J.

    2015-11-20

    Here, this volume contains the edition of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes that was presented in draft form and available for comment at the Plenary Session of the Fourteenth International Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology (BAM), Montréal, 2014, together with updated lists of conserved and rejected bacterial names and of Opinions issued by the Judicial Commission. As in the past it brings together those changes accepted, published and documented by the ICSP and the Judicial Commission since the last revision was published. Several new appendices have been added to this edition. Appendix 11 addresses the appropriate applicationmore » of the Candidatus concept, Appendix 12 contains the history of the van Niel Prize, and Appendix 13 contains the summaries of Congresses.« less

  12. International code of nomenclature of prokaryotes

    SciTech Connect

    Garrity, George M.; Parker, Charles T.; Tindall, Brian J.

    2015-11-20

    Here, this volume contains the edition of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes that was presented in draft form and available for comment at the Plenary Session of the Fourteenth International Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology (BAM), Montréal, 2014, together with updated lists of conserved and rejected bacterial names and of Opinions issued by the Judicial Commission. As in the past it brings together those changes accepted, published and documented by the ICSP and the Judicial Commission since the last revision was published. Several new appendices have been added to this edition. Appendix 11 addresses the appropriate application of the Candidatus concept, Appendix 12 contains the history of the van Niel Prize, and Appendix 13 contains the summaries of Congresses.

  13. Identification and nomenclature of the genus Penicillium

    PubMed Central

    Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.; Frisvad, J.C.; Hong, S.-B.; Klaassen, C.H.W.; Perrone, G.; Seifert, K.A.; Varga, J.; Yaguchi, T.; Samson, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Penicillium is a diverse genus occurring worldwide and its species play important roles as decomposers of organic materials and cause destructive rots in the food industry where they produce a wide range of mycotoxins. Other species are considered enzyme factories or are common indoor air allergens. Although DNA sequences are essential for robust identification of Penicillium species, there is currently no comprehensive, verified reference database for the genus. To coincide with the move to one fungus one name in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, the generic concept of Penicillium was re-defined to accommodate species from other genera, such as Chromocleista, Eladia, Eupenicillium, Torulomyces and Thysanophora, which together comprise a large monophyletic clade. As a result of this, and the many new species described in recent years, it was necessary to update the list of accepted species in Penicillium. The genus currently contains 354 accepted species, including new combinations for Aspergillus crystallinus, A. malodoratus and A. paradoxus, which belong to Penicillium section Paradoxa. To add to the taxonomic value of the list, we also provide information on each accepted species MycoBank number, living ex-type strains and provide GenBank accession numbers to ITS, β-tubulin, calmodulin and RPB2 sequences, thereby supplying a verified set of sequences for each species of the genus. In addition to the nomenclatural list, we recommend a standard working method for species descriptions and identifications to be adopted by laboratories working on this genus. PMID:25505353

  14. Mouse Genetic Nomenclature: Standardization of Strain, Gene, and Protein Symbols

    PubMed Central

    Sundberg, John P.; Schofield, Paul N

    2011-01-01

    The use of standard nomenclatures for describing the strains, genes, and proteins of species is vital for the interpretation, archiving, analysis, and recovery of experimental data on the laboratory mouse. At a time when sharing of data and meta- analysis of experimental results is becoming a dominant mode of scientific investigation, failure to respect formal nomenclatures can cause confusion, errors, and in some cases contribute to poor science. Here we present the basic nomenclature rules for laboratory mice and explain how these rules should be applied to complex genetic manipulations and crosses. PMID:20685919

  15. [Methotrexate pharmacology].

    PubMed

    Lagarce, L; Zenut, M; Lainé-Cessac, P

    2015-03-01

    Methotrexate is a folic acid analog, which is a thymidylate synthetase and dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor. It is used in oncology, dermatology and rheumatology and off labelling in the treatment of ectopic pregnancies. This paper is a review of methotrexate pharmacology with focus on data concerning ectopic pregnancies.

  16. Historical perspectives and guidelines for botulinum neurotoxin subtype nomenclature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Botulinum neurotoxins are diverse proteins. They are currently represented by at least seven serotypes and 40 subtypes. New clostridial strains that produce novel neurotoxin variants are being identified with increasing frequency, which presents challenges when organizing the nomenclature surroundin...

  17. Nomenclatural review of long digital forelimb flexors in carnivores.

    PubMed

    Spoor, C F; Badoux, D M

    1986-12-01

    A hitherto-unknown atavistic muscle in the dog initiated a review of the literature on the homologies and nomenclature of the forelimb flexors in carnivores and man. A consequence is that we recommend a revision of the nomenclature in the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria (Ithaca, New York, 1983) so that it is in agreement with the Nomina Anatomica (Wilkins, Baltimore, 1983). This revision mainly consists of the incorporation of the terms M. palmaris longus and Mm. flexores breves manus.

  18. Pharmacologic vitreolysis.

    PubMed

    Rhéaume, Marc-André; Vavvas, Demetrios

    2010-01-01

    It is now well recognized that vitreous plays an important role in the pathogenesis of various retinal disorders. In many instances it can be addressed with pars plana vitrectomy, although this approach, like any surgery, has its limitations. The search for alternatives or adjunct to surgery has led to the development of pharmacologic vitreolysis. The use of intravitreal agents to alter the vitreous in order to reduce or eliminate its role in disease seems promising. The purpose of this article is to summarize the present knowledge on pharmacologic vitreolysis. A review of the different agents used and of ongoing trials will be presented. Also, current understanding of vitreous structure and its interaction with the retina will be discussed.

  19. Mammalian masticatory muscles: homology, nomenclature, and diversification.

    PubMed

    Druzinsky, Robert E; Doherty, Alison H; De Vree, Frits L

    2011-08-01

    There is a deep and rich literature of comparative studies of jaw muscles in mammals but no recent analyses employ modern phylogenetic techniques to better understand evolutionary changes that have occurred in these muscles. In order to fully develop and utilize the Feeding Experiments End-user Database (FEED), we are constructing a comprehensive ontology of mammalian jaw muscles. This process has led to a careful consideration of nomenclature and homologies of the muscles and their constituent parts. Precise determinations of muscle attachments have shown that muscles with similar names are not necessarily homologous. Using new anatomical descriptions derived from the literature, we defined character states for the jaw muscles in diverse mammalian species. We then mapped those characters onto a recent phylogeny of mammals with the aid of the Mesquite software package. Our data further elucidate how muscle groups associated with the feeding apparatus differ and have become highly specialized in certain mammalian orders, such as Rodentia, while remaining conserved in other orders. We believe that careful naming of muscles and statistical analyses of their distributions among mammals, in association with the FEED database, will lead to new, significant insights into the functional, structural, and evolutionary morphology of the jaw muscles.

  20. The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2015/16: Overview.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Stephen Ph; Kelly, Eamonn; Marrion, Neil; Peters, John A; Benson, Helen E; Faccenda, Elena; Pawson, Adam J; Sharman, Joanna L; Southan, Christopher; Buneman, O Peter; Catterall, William A; Cidlowski, John A; Davenport, Anthony P; Fabbro, Doriano; Fan, Grace; McGrath, John C; Spedding, Michael; Davies, Jamie A

    2015-12-01

    The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2015/16 provides concise overviews of the key properties of over 1750 human drug targets with their pharmacology, plus links to an open access knowledgebase of drug targets and their ligands (www.guidetopharmacology.org), which provides more detailed views of target and ligand properties. The full contents can be found at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.13347/full. This compilation of the major pharmacological targets is divided into eight areas of focus: G protein-coupled receptors, ligand-gated ion channels, voltage-gated ion channels, other ion channels, nuclear hormone receptors, catalytic receptors, enzymes and transporters. These are presented with nomenclature guidance and summary information on the best available pharmacological tools, alongside key references and suggestions for further reading. The Concise Guide is published in landscape format in order to facilitate comparison of related targets. It is a condensed version of material contemporary to late 2015, which is presented in greater detail and constantly updated on the website www.guidetopharmacology.org, superseding data presented in the previous Guides to Receptors & Channels and the Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2013/14. It is produced in conjunction with NC-IUPHAR and provides the official IUPHAR classification and nomenclature for human drug targets, where appropriate. It consolidates information previously curated and displayed separately in IUPHAR-DB and GRAC and provides a permanent, citable, point-in-time record that will survive database updates.

  1. CFTR pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Zegarra-Moran, Olga; Galietta, Luis J V

    2017-01-01

    CFTR protein is an ion channel regulated by cAMP-dependent phosphorylation and expressed in many types of epithelial cells. CFTR-mediated chloride and bicarbonate secretion play an important role in the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. Pharmacological modulators of CFTR represent promising drugs for a variety of diseases. In particular, correctors and potentiators may restore the activity of CFTR in cystic fibrosis patients. Potentiators are also potentially useful to improve mucociliary clearance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. On the other hand, CFTR inhibitors may be useful to block fluid and electrolyte loss in secretory diarrhea and slow down the progression of polycystic kidney disease.

  2. Biological nomenclatures: a source of lexical knowledge and ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Tuason, O; Chen, L; Liu, H; Blake, J A; Friedman, C

    2004-01-01

    There has been increased work in developing automated systems that involve natural language processing (NLP) to recognize and extract genomic information from the literature. Recognition and identification of biological entities is a critical step in this process. NLP systems generally rely on nomenclatures and ontological specifications as resources for determining the names of the entities, assigning semantic categories that are consistent with the corresponding ontology, and assignment of identifiers that map to well-defined entities within a particular nomenclature. Although nomenclatures and ontologies are valuable for text processing systems, they were developed to aid researchers and are heterogeneous in structure and semantics. A uniform resource that is automatically generated from diverse resources, and that is designed for NLP purposes would be a useful tool for the field, and would further database interoperability. This paper presents work towards this goal. We have automatically created lexical resources from four model organism nomenclature systems (mouse, fly, worm, and yeast), and have studied performance of the resources within an existing NLP system, GENIES. Using nomenclatures is not straightforward because issues concerning ambiguity, synonymy, and name variations are quite challenging. In this paper we focus mainly on ambiguity. We determined that the number of ambiguous gene names within the individual nomenclatures, across the four nomenclatures, and with general English ranged from 0%-10.18%, 1.187%-20.30%, and 0%-2.49% respectively. When actually processing text, we found the rate of ambiguous occurrences (not counting ambiguities stemming from English words) to range from 2.4%-32.9% depending on the organisms considered.

  3. Finding one's way in proteomics: a protein species nomenclature

    PubMed Central

    Schlüter, Hartmut; Apweiler, Rolf; Holzhütter, Hermann-Georg; Jungblut, Peter R

    2009-01-01

    Our knowledge of proteins has greatly improved in recent years, driven by new technologies in the fields of molecular biology and proteome research. It has become clear that from a single gene not only one single gene product but many different ones - termed protein species - are generated, all of which may be associated with different functions. Nonetheless, an unambiguous nomenclature for describing individual protein species is still lacking. With the present paper we therefore propose a systematic nomenclature for the comprehensive description of protein species. The protein species nomenclature is flexible and adaptable to every level of knowledge and of experimental data in accordance with the exact chemical composition of individual protein species. As a minimum description the entry name (gene name + species according to the UniProt knowledgebase) can be used, if no analytical data about the target protein species are available. PMID:19740416

  4. Anatomical terminology and nomenclature: past, present and highlights.

    PubMed

    Kachlik, David; Baca, Vaclav; Bozdechova, Ivana; Cech, Pavel; Musil, Vladimir

    2008-08-01

    The anatomical terminology is a base for medical communication. It is elaborated into a nomenclature in Latin. Its history goes back to 1895, when the first Latin anatomical nomenclature was published as Basiliensia Nomina Anatomica. It was followed by seven revisions (Jenaiensia Nomina Anatomica 1935, Parisiensia Nomina Anatomica 1955, Nomina Anatomica 2nd to 6th edition 1960-1989). The last revision, Terminologia Anatomica, (TA) created by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology and approved by the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists, was published in 1998. Apart from the official Latin anatomical terminology, it includes a list of recommended English equivalents. In this article, major changes and pitfalls of the nomenclature are discussed, as well as the clinical anatomy terms. The last revision (TA) is highly recommended to the attention of not only teachers, students and researchers, but also to clinicians, doctors, translators, editors and publishers to be followed in their activities.

  5. Historical Perspectives and Guidelines for Botulinum Neurotoxin Subtype Nomenclature

    PubMed Central

    Peck, Michael W.; Smith, Theresa J.; Anniballi, Fabrizio; Austin, John W.; Bano, Luca; Bradshaw, Marite; Cuervo, Paula; Cheng, Luisa W.; Derman, Yagmur; Dorner, Brigitte G.; Fisher, Audrey; Hill, Karen K.; Kalb, Suzanne R.; Korkeala, Hannu; Lindström, Miia; Lista, Florigio; Lúquez, Carolina; Mazuet, Christelle; Pirazzini, Marco; Popoff, Michel R.; Rossetto, Ornella; Rummel, Andreas; Sesardic, Dorothea; Singh, Bal Ram; Stringer, Sandra C.

    2017-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins are diverse proteins. They are currently represented by at least seven serotypes and more than 40 subtypes. New clostridial strains that produce novel neurotoxin variants are being identified with increasing frequency, which presents challenges when organizing the nomenclature surrounding these neurotoxins. Worldwide, researchers are faced with the possibility that toxins having identical sequences may be given different designations or novel toxins having unique sequences may be given the same designations on publication. In order to minimize these problems, an ad hoc committee consisting of over 20 researchers in the field of botulinum neurotoxin research was convened to discuss the clarification of the issues involved in botulinum neurotoxin nomenclature. This publication presents a historical overview of the issues and provides guidelines for botulinum neurotoxin subtype nomenclature in the future. PMID:28106761

  6. Historical Perspectives and Guidelines for Botulinum Neurotoxin Subtype Nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Peck, Michael W; Smith, Theresa J; Anniballi, Fabrizio; Austin, John W; Bano, Luca; Bradshaw, Marite; Cuervo, Paula; Cheng, Luisa W; Derman, Yagmur; Dorner, Brigitte G; Fisher, Audrey; Hill, Karen K; Kalb, Suzanne R; Korkeala, Hannu; Lindström, Miia; Lista, Florigio; Lúquez, Carolina; Mazuet, Christelle; Pirazzini, Marco; Popoff, Michel R; Rossetto, Ornella; Rummel, Andreas; Sesardic, Dorothea; Singh, Bal Ram; Stringer, Sandra C

    2017-01-18

    Botulinum neurotoxins are diverse proteins. They are currently represented by at least seven serotypes and more than 40 subtypes. New clostridial strains that produce novel neurotoxin variants are being identified with increasing frequency, which presents challenges when organizing the nomenclature surrounding these neurotoxins. Worldwide, researchers are faced with the possibility that toxins having identical sequences may be given different designations or novel toxins having unique sequences may be given the same designations on publication. In order to minimize these problems, an ad hoc committee consisting of over 20 researchers in the field of botulinum neurotoxin research was convened to discuss the clarification of the issues involved in botulinum neurotoxin nomenclature. This publication presents a historical overview of the issues and provides guidelines for botulinum neurotoxin subtype nomenclature in the future.

  7. An updated nomenclature for keratin-associated proteins (KAPs).

    PubMed

    Gong, Hua; Zhou, Huitong; McKenzie, Grant W; Yu, Zhidong; Clerens, Stefan; Dyer, Jolon M; Plowman, Jeffrey E; Wright, Mathew W; Arora, Reena; Bawden, C Simon; Chen, Yulin; Li, Jinquan; Hickford, Jonathan G H

    2012-01-01

    Most protein in hair and wool is of two broad types: keratin intermediate filament-forming proteins (commonly known as keratins) and keratin-associated proteins (KAPs). Keratin nomenclature was reviewed in 2006, but the KAP nomenclature has not been revised since 1993. Recently there has been an increase in the number of KAP genes (KRTAPs) identified in humans and other species, and increasingly reports of variation in these genes. We therefore propose that an updated naming system is needed to accommodate the complexity of the KAPs. It is proposed that the system is founded in the previous nomenclature, but with the abbreviation sp-KAPm-nL*x for KAP proteins and sp-KRTAPm-n(p/L)*x for KAP genes. In this system "sp" is a unique letter-based code for different species as described by the protein knowledge-based UniProt. "m" is a number identifying the gene or protein family, "n" is a constituent member of that family, "p" signifies a pseudogene if present, "L" if present signifies "like" and refers to a temporary "place-holder" until the family is confirmed and "x" signifies a genetic variant or allele. We support the use of non-italicised text for the proteins and italicised text for the genes. This nomenclature is not that different to the existing system, but it includes species information and also describes genetic variation if identified, and hence is more informative. For example, GenBank sequence JN091630 would historically have been named KRTAP7-1 for the gene and KAP7-1 for the protein, but with the proposed nomenclature would be SHEEP-KRTAP7-1*A and SHEEP-KAP7-1*A for the gene and protein respectively. This nomenclature will facilitate more efficient storage and retrieval of data and define a common language for the KAP proteins and genes from all mammalian species.

  8. A proposal for universal nomenclature in implant prosthodontics.

    PubMed

    Nase, John B

    2005-01-01

    Attempts have been made at formulating standardized nomenclature for implantology. Although these classification systems have advanced the concept of universal nomenclature in implantology, they can be improved upon. Most of them present terms in glossary form, which can limit their applicability. Others deviate significantly from accepted basic terminology and can be foreign or ambiguous to the average clinician. This article outlines the semiotic approach to language formulation, discusses slight changes to accepted conventional prosthodontic terminology to better encompass implant dentistry, and introduces the shortform and support-retention-connection-prosthesis classification systems.

  9. The Concise Guide to Pharmacology 2013/14: Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Stephen PH; Benson, Helen E; Faccenda, Elena; Pawson, Adam J; Sharman, Joanna L; Spedding, Michael; Peters, John A; Harmar, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2013/14 provides concise overviews of the key properties of over 2000 human drug targets with their pharmacology, plus links to an open access knowledgebase of drug targets and their ligands (www.guidetopharmacology.org), which provides more detailed views of target and ligand properties. The full contents can be found at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.12444/full. Enzymes are one of the seven major pharmacological targets into which the Guide is divided, with the others being G protein-coupled receptors, ligand-gated ion channels, ion channels, nuclear hormone receptors, catalytic receptors and transporters. These are presented with nomenclature guidance and summary information on the best available pharmacological tools, alongside key references and suggestions for further reading. A new landscape format has easy to use tables comparing related targets. It is a condensed version of material contemporary to late 2013, which is presented in greater detail and constantly updated on the website www.guidetopharmacology.org, superseding data presented in previous Guides to Receptors and Channels. It is produced in conjunction with NC-IUPHAR and provides the official IUPHAR classification and nomenclature for human drug targets, where appropriate. It consolidates information previously curated and displayed separately in IUPHAR-DB and the Guide to Receptors and Channels, providing a permanent, citable, point-in-time record that will survive database updates. PMID:24528243

  10. The Concise Guide to Pharmacology 2013/14: Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Stephen PH; Benson, Helen E; Faccenda, Elena; Pawson, Adam J; Sharman, Joanna L; Catterall, William A; Spedding, Michael; Peters, John A; Harmar, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2013/14 provides concise overviews of the key properties of over 2000 human drug targets with their pharmacology, plus links to an open access knowledgebase of drug targets and their ligands (www.guidetopharmacology.org), which provides more detailed views of target and ligand properties. The full contents can be found at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.12444/full. Ion channels are one of the seven major pharmacological targets into which the Guide is divided, with the others being G protein-coupled receptors, ligand-gated ion channels, catalytic receptors, nuclear hormone receptors, transporters and enzymes. These are presented with nomenclature guidance and summary information on the best available pharmacological tools, alongside key references and suggestions for further reading. A new landscape format has easy to use tables comparing related targets. It is a condensed version of material contemporary to late 2013, which is presented in greater detail and constantly updated on the website www.guidetopharmacology.org, superseding data presented in previous Guides to Receptors and Channels. It is produced in conjunction with NC-IUPHAR and provides the official IUPHAR classification and nomenclature for human drug targets, where appropriate. It consolidates information previously curated and displayed separately in IUPHAR-DB and the Guide to Receptors and Channels, providing a permanent, citable, point-in-time record that will survive database updates. PMID:24528239

  11. The Concise Guide to Pharmacology 2013/14: Overview

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Stephen PH; Benson, Helen E; Faccenda, Elena; Pawson, Adam J; Sharman, Joanna L; McGrath, John C; Catterall, William A; Spedding, Michael; Peters, John A; Harmar, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2013/14 provides concise overviews of the key properties of over 2000 human drug targets with their pharmacology, plus links to an open access knowledgebase of drug targets and their ligands (www.guidetopharmacology.org), which provides more detailed views of target and ligand properties from the IUPHAR database. The full contents can be found at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.12444/full. This compilation of the major pharmacological targets is divided into seven areas of focus: G protein-coupled receptors, ligand-gated ion channels, ion channels, catalytic receptors, nuclear hormone receptors, transporters and enzymes. These are presented with nomenclature guidance and summary information on the best available pharmacological tools, alongside key references and suggestions for further reading. A new landscape format has easy to use tables comparing related targets. It is a condensed version of material contemporary to late 2013, which is presented in greater detail and constantly updated on the website www.guidetopharmacology.org, superseding data presented in previous Guides to Receptors & Channels. It is produced in conjunction with NC-IUPHAR and provides the official IUPHAR classification and nomenclature for human drug targets, where appropriate. It consolidates information previously curated and displayed separately in IUPHAR-DB and GRAC and provides a permanent, citable, point-in-time record that will survive database updates. PMID:24528237

  12. The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2013/14: overview.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Stephen P H; Benson, Helen E; Faccenda, Elena; Pawson, Adam J; Sharman, Joanna L; McGrath, John C; Catterall, William A; Spedding, Michael; Peters, John A; Harmar, Anthony J; Abul-Hasn, N; Anderson, C M; Anderson, C M H; Araiksinen, M S; Arita, M; Arthofer, E; Barker, E L; Barratt, C; Barnes, N M; Bathgate, R; Beart, P M; Belelli, D; Bennett, A J; Birdsall, N J M; Boison, D; Bonner, T I; Brailsford, L; Bröer, S; Brown, P; Calo, G; Carter, W G; Catterall, W A; Chan, S L F; Chao, M V; Chiang, N; Christopoulos, A; Chun, J J; Cidlowski, J; Clapham, D E; Cockcroft, S; Connor, M A; Cox, H M; Cuthbert, A; Dautzenberg, F M; Davenport, A P; Dawson, P A; Dent, G; Dijksterhuis, J P; Dollery, C T; Dolphin, A C; Donowitz, M; Dubocovich, M L; Eiden, L; Eidne, K; Evans, B A; Fabbro, D; Fahlke, C; Farndale, R; Fitzgerald, G A; Fong, T M; Fowler, C J; Fry, J R; Funk, C D; Futerman, A H; Ganapathy, V; Gaisnier, B; Gershengorn, M A; Goldin, A; Goldman, I D; Gundlach, A L; Hagenbuch, B; Hales, T G; Hammond, J R; Hamon, M; Hancox, J C; Hauger, R L; Hay, D L; Hobbs, A J; Hollenberg, M D; Holliday, N D; Hoyer, D; Hynes, N A; Inui, K-I; Ishii, S; Jacobson, K A; Jarvis, G E; Jarvis, M F; Jensen, R; Jones, C E; Jones, R L; Kaibuchi, K; Kanai, Y; Kennedy, C; Kerr, I D; Khan, A A; Klienz, M J; Kukkonen, J P; Lapoint, J Y; Leurs, R; Lingueglia, E; Lippiat, J; Lolait, S J; Lummis, S C R; Lynch, J W; MacEwan, D; Maguire, J J; Marshall, I L; May, J M; McArdle, C A; McGrath, J C; Michel, M C; Millar, N S; Miller, L J; Mitolo, V; Monk, P N; Moore, P K; Moorhouse, A J; Mouillac, B; Murphy, P M; Neubig, R R; Neumaier, J; Niesler, B; Obaidat, A; Offermanns, S; Ohlstein, E; Panaro, M A; Parsons, S; Pwrtwee, R G; Petersen, J; Pin, J-P; Poyner, D R; Prigent, S; Prossnitz, E R; Pyne, N J; Pyne, S; Quigley, J G; Ramachandran, R; Richelson, E L; Roberts, R E; Roskoski, R; Ross, R A; Roth, M; Rudnick, G; Ryan, R M; Said, S I; Schild, L; Sanger, G J; Scholich, K; Schousboe, A; Schulte, G; Schulz, S; Serhan, C N; Sexton, P M; Sibley, D R; Siegel, J M; Singh, G; Sitsapesan, R; Smart, T G; Smith, D M; Soga, T; Stahl, A; Stewart, G; Stoddart, L A; Summers, R J; Thorens, B; Thwaites, D T; Toll, L; Traynor, J R; Usdin, T B; Vandenberg, R J; Villalon, C; Vore, M; Waldman, S A; Ward, D T; Willars, G B; Wonnacott, S J; Wright, E; Ye, R D; Yonezawa, A; Zimmermann, M

    2013-12-01

    The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2013/14 provides concise overviews of the key properties of over 2000 human drug targets with their pharmacology, plus links to an open access knowledgebase of drug targets and their ligands (www.guidetopharmacology.org), which provides more detailed views of target and ligand properties from the IUPHAR database. The full contents can be found at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.12444/full. This compilation of the major pharmacological targets is divided into seven areas of focus: G protein-coupled receptors, ligand-gated ion channels, ion channels, catalytic receptors, nuclear hormone receptors, transporters and enzymes. These are presented with nomenclature guidance and summary information on the best available pharmacological tools, alongside key references and suggestions for further reading. A new landscape format has easy to use tables comparing related targets. It is a condensed version of material contemporary to late 2013, which is presented in greater detail and constantly updated on the website www.guidetopharmacology.org, superseding data presented in previous Guides to Receptors & Channels. It is produced in conjunction with NC-IUPHAR and provides the official IUPHAR classification and nomenclature for human drug targets, where appropriate. It consolidates information previously curated and displayed separately in IUPHAR-DB and GRAC and provides a permanent, citable, point-in-time record that will survive database updates.

  13. The Concise Guide to Pharmacology 2013/14: Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Stephen PH; Benson, Helen E; Faccenda, Elena; Pawson, Adam J; Sharman, Joanna L; Spedding, Michael; Peters, John A; Harmar, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2013/14 provides concise overviews of the key properties of over 2000 human drug targets with their pharmacology, plus links to an open access knowledgebase of drug targets and their ligands (www.guidetopharmacology.org), which provides more detailed views of target and ligand properties. The full contents can be found at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.12444/full. Transporters are one of the seven major pharmacological targets into which the Guide is divided, with the others being G protein-coupled receptors, ligand-gated ion channels, ion channels, catalytic receptors, nuclear hormone receptors and enzymes. These are presented with nomenclature guidance and summary information on the best available pharmacological tools, alongside key references and suggestions for further reading. A new landscape format has easy to use tables comparing related targets. It is a condensed version of material contemporary to late 2013, which is presented in greater detail and constantly updated on the website www.guidetopharmacology.org, superseding data presented in previous Guides to Receptors and Channels. It is produced in conjunction with NC-IUPHAR and provides the official IUPHAR classification and nomenclature for human drug targets, where appropriate. It consolidates information previously curated and displayed separately in IUPHAR-DB and the Guide to Receptors and Channels, providing a permanent, citable, point-in-time record that will survive database updates. PMID:24528242

  14. Pharmacologic treatment of impotence.

    PubMed

    Malloy, T R; Malkowicz, B

    1987-05-01

    A discussion of the anatomy, neurophysiology, endocrinology, and organ pharmacology pertinent to erectile function is presented, highlighting recent innovations in the pharmacologic treatment of impotence. Both oral and intracorporal pharmacologic agents that affect erectile dysfunction are discussed.

  15. Systems Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Boran, Aislyn D. W.; Iyengar, Ravi

    2011-01-01

    We examine how physiology and pathophysiology are studied from a systems perspective, using high-throughput experiments and computational analysis of regulatory networks. We describe the integration of these analyses with pharmacology, which leads to new understanding of drug action and enables drug discovery for complex diseases. Network studies of drug-target relationships can serve as an indication on the general trends in the approved drugs and the drug-discovery progress. There is a growing number of targeted therapies approved and in the pipeline, which meets a new set of problems with efficacy and adverse effects. The pitfalls of these mechanistically based drugs are described, along with how a systems view of drug action is increasingly important to uncover intricate signaling mechanisms that play an important part in drug action, resistance mechanisms, and off-target effects. Computational methodologies enable the classification of drugs according to their structures and to which proteins they bind. Recent studies have combined the structural analyses with analysis of regulatory networks to make predictions about the therapeutic effects of drugs for complex diseases and possible off-target effects. PMID:20687178

  16. 5-HT Receptor Nomenclature: Naming Names, Does It Matter? A Tribute to Maurice Rapport.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, Daniel

    2017-03-24

    The naming of 5-HT receptors has been challenging, especially in the early days when the concept of multiple receptors for a single neurotransmitter was considered to be unrealistic at best. Yet pharmacological (rank orders of potency in functional or biochemical settings) and transductional evidence (second messengers, electrophysiology) clearly indicated the existence of receptor families and subfamilies. The genetic revolution, with the cloning and study of recombinantly expressed receptors, and eventually the cloning of the human and other genomes have made such reservations obsolete. Further, the advances in structural biology, with the possibility to study ligand receptor complexes as crystals and/or using solution NMR have largely confirmed the complexity of the 5-HT receptor system: species differences, existence of multiple receptor active and inactive states, splice variants, editing variants, complexes with multiple interacting proteins and transduction bias. This is a short personal history on how advances in biochemistry, molecular biology, biophysics, imaging and medicinal chemistry, some lateral thinking, and a decent amount of collaborative spirit within the 5-HT receptor nomenclature committee and the 5-HT community at large have helped to better define the pharmacology of the 5-HT receptor family.

  17. On the nomenclature of coelom-derived body cavities.

    PubMed

    Knospe, C

    2008-06-01

    A rationalization of terms about the body cavities is urgently needed. Students and practitioners have difficulty in understanding the contradictory terms prevalent at present. For many years, the International Committee on Veterinary Gross Anatomical Nomenclature has failed to bring it off; therefore some proposals for the anatomical instruction until the next edition of the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria are made.

  18. Chemical Nomenclature, Symbols and Terminology for Use in School Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, C. G.; And Others

    This report contains recommendations on chemical nomenclature, guidance on symbols, and terminology and units for physiochemical quantities. This report, intended to provide guidance to science teachers, consists of eleven sections: (1) general introduction; (2) introduction to symbols, terminology, and units for physiochemical quantities; (3)…

  19. Nomenclature of human rotaviruses: designation of subgroups and serotypes*

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    Based on the specificity of subgroup antigens and serotype antigens which are situated, respectively, in the major inner and outer capsid polypeptides, a new nomenclature for human rotaviruses is proposed. The subgroups are designated as I and II, and the serotypes as 1, 2, 3, 4. PMID:6088101

  20. International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Science requires a precise, stable, and simple system of nomenclature used by scientists in all countries of the world, dealing on the one hand with the terms that denote the ranks of taxonomic groups, and on the other with the scientific names that are applied to the individual taxonomic units of a...

  1. Space telescope coordinate systems, symbols, and nomenclature definitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennel, H. F.

    1976-01-01

    The major coordinate systems as well as the transformations and transformation angles between them, for the Space Telescope are defined. The coordinate systems were primarily developed for use in pointing and control system analysis and simulation. Additional useful information (on nomenclature, symbols, quaternion operations, etc.) is also contained.

  2. Sex Therapy: Advances in Paradigms, Nomenclature, and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althof, Stanley

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The author reviews the historical paradigms that have influenced the treatment of sexual problems, changes in the diagnostic nomenclature, and recent innovations in sex therapy. Methods: The author reviews the literature and provides expert opinion. Results: The author gives a historical overview of how theoretical models of…

  3. Coping with Chemical Nomenclature in the Age of Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dess, Howard M.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews nomenclature-related problems for users of Chemical Abstracts (CA) and describes online techniques for searching with generic/trade/common names, non-CA index names, and CA index names using CAS-Online via STN (Scientific and Technical Information Network). Terms used in the online substance display format are explained. (10 references)…

  4. Report from The International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease: cardiovascular catheterisation for congenital and paediatric cardiac disease (Part 1 - Procedural nomenclature).

    PubMed

    Bergersen, Lisa; Everett, Allen Dale; Giroud, Jorge Manuel; Martin, Gerard R; Franklin, Rodney Cyril George; Béland, Marie Josée; Krogmann, Otto Nils; Aiello, Vera Demarchi; Colan, Steven D; Elliott, Martin J; Gaynor, J William; Kurosawa, Hiromi; Maruszewski, Bohdan; Stellin, Giovanni; Tchervenkov, Christo I; Walters, Henry Lane; Weinberg, Paul; Jacobs, Jeffrey Phillip

    2011-06-01

    Interventional cardiology for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease is a relatively young and rapidly evolving field. As the profession begins to establish multi-institutional databases, a universal system of nomenclature is necessary for the field of interventional cardiology for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the efforts of The International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease to establish a system of nomenclature for cardiovascular catheterisation for congenital and paediatric cardiac disease, focusing both on procedural nomenclature and on the nomenclature of complications associated with interventional cardiology. This system of nomenclature for cardiovascular catheterisation for congenital and paediatric cardiac disease is a component of The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code. This manuscript is the first part of a two-part series. Part 1 will cover the procedural nomenclature associated with interventional cardiology as treatment for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease. This procedural nomenclature of The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code will be used in the IMPACT Registry™ (IMproving Pediatric and Adult Congenital Treatment) of the National Cardiovascular Data Registry® of The American College of Cardiology. Part 2 will cover the nomenclature of complications associated with interventional cardiology as treatment for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease.

  5. Isoprostane nomenclature: inherent problems may cause setbacks for the development of the isoprostanoid field.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Martin J

    2010-01-01

    Do we have to bother about the isoprostane nomenclature? The widely accepted IUPAC isoprostane nomenclature provides an unambiguous and systematic terminology to name all theoretical possible isoprostanes. However, the currently accepted nomenclature system provides an unnatural framework which is not well suited to address certain biologically relevant questions. Artificial categorization of isoprostanoids into prostanoid families disrupts prostaglandin-ring core structures needed to describe biogenetic precursor-product relationships. In addition, the IUPAC system defines isoprostanoid families which comprise chemically heterogeneous isoprostanoids which largely differ in their physicochemical properties from those of the corresponding prostaglandins. As a result of this, alternative nomenclature systems such as the phytoprostane nomenclature system overcoming some inherent problems of the IUPAC nomenclature are still in use. However, different naming of isoprostanoids especially the classification of prostanoid family names has created considerable confusion. Therefore, a cautionary note on the current use of different nomenclature systems is necessary.

  6. Guidelines for the nomenclature of genetic elements in tunicate genomes.

    PubMed

    Stolfi, Alberto; Sasakura, Yasunori; Chalopin, Domitille; Satou, Yutaka; Christiaen, Lionel; Dantec, Christelle; Endo, Toshinori; Naville, Magali; Nishida, Hiroki; Swalla, Billie J; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Voskoboynik, Ayelet; Dauga, Delphine; Lemaire, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Tunicates are invertebrate members of the chordate phylum, and are considered to be the sister group of vertebrates. Tunicates are composed of ascidians, thaliaceans, and appendicularians. With the advent of inexpensive high-throughput sequencing, the number of sequenced tunicate genomes is expected to rise sharply within the coming years. To facilitate comparative genomics within the tunicates, and between tunicates and vertebrates, standardized rules for the nomenclature of tunicate genetic elements need to be established. Here we propose a set of nomenclature rules, consensual within the community, for predicted genes, pseudogenes, transcripts, operons, transcriptional cis-regulatory regions, transposable elements, and transgenic constructs. In addition, the document proposes guidelines for naming transgenic and mutant lines.

  7. Guidelines for the Nomenclature of Genetic Elements in Tunicate Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Stolfi, Alberto; Sasakura, Yasunori; Chalopin, Domitille; Satou, Yutaka; Christiaen, Lionel; Dantec, Christelle; Endo, Toshinori; Naville, Magali; Nishida, Hiroki; Swalla, Billie J.; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Voskoboynik, Ayelet; Dauga, Delphine; Lemaire, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Summary Tunicates are invertebrate members of the chordate phylum, and are considered to be the sister group of vertebrates. Tunicates are composed of ascidians, thaliaceans, and appendicularians. With the advent of inexpensive high-throughput sequencing, the number of sequenced tunicate genomes is expected to rise sharply within the coming years. To facilitate comparative genomics within the tunicates, and between tunicates and vertebrates, standardized rules for the nomenclature of tunicate genetic elements need to be established. Here we propose a set of nomenclature rules, consensual within the community, for predicted genes, pseudogenes, transcripts, operons, transcriptional cis-regulatory regions, transposable elements, and transgenic constructs. In addition, the document proposes guidelines for naming transgenic and mutant lines. PMID:25220678

  8. Precambrain time units and nomenclature - the geon concept

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, H.J. )

    1990-04-01

    The International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS) recently published its first edition of the Global Stratigraphic Chart. The chart includes, among other, 12 new terms for divisions of the Proterozoic that were approved by the Subcommission on Precambrain Stratigraphy. The Proterozoic is divided into three eras at 1600 and 1000 Ma, and the units are named Paleoproterozoic, Mesoproterozoic, and Neoproterozoic. If the primary goal of the Subcommission on Precambrian Stratigraphy was the division of the Proterozoic into broad time units, as can be surmised by statements in earlier proposals, then one wonders about the value of a complex nomenclature for divisions whose boundaries are defined at round 200 m.y. intervals without reference to standard sections. A geologic calendar using the concept of geon (a time unit of 10{sup 8} a) is suggested an alternative to the recently proposed complex nomenclature for Proterozoic periods.

  9. Nomenclature proposal to describe vocal fold motion impairment.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Clark A; Mau, Ted; Remacle, Marc; Hess, Markus; Eckel, Hans E; Young, VyVy N; Hantzakos, Anastasios; Yung, Katherine C; Dikkers, Frederik G

    2016-08-01

    The terms used to describe vocal fold motion impairment are confusing and not standardized. This results in a failure to communicate accurately and to major limitations of interpreting research studies involving vocal fold impairment. We propose standard nomenclature for reporting vocal fold impairment. Overarching terms of vocal fold immobility and hypomobility are rigorously defined. This includes assessment techniques and inclusion and exclusion criteria for determining vocal fold immobility and hypomobility. In addition, criteria for use of the following terms have been outlined in detail: vocal fold paralysis, vocal fold paresis, vocal fold immobility/hypomobility associated with mechanical impairment of the crico-arytenoid joint and vocal fold immobility/hypomobility related to laryngeal malignant disease. This represents the first rigorously defined vocal fold motion impairment nomenclature system. This provides detailed definitions to the terms vocal fold paralysis and vocal fold paresis.

  10. Proteoglycan form and function: A comprehensive nomenclature of proteoglycans

    PubMed Central

    Iozzo, Renato V.; Schaefer, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    We provide a comprehensive classification of the proteoglycan gene families and respective protein cores. This updated nomenclature is based on three criteria: Cellular and subcellular location, overall gene/protein homology, and the utilization of specific protein modules within their respective protein cores. These three signatures were utilized to design four major classes of proteoglycans with distinct forms and functions: the intracellular, cell-surface, pericellular and extracellular proteoglycans. The proposed nomenclature encompasses forty-three distinct proteoglycan-encoding genes and many alternatively-spliced variants. The biological functions of these four proteoglycan families are critically assessed in development, cancer and angiogenesis, and in various acquired and genetic diseases where their expression is aberrant. PMID:25701227

  11. Standardizing the nomenclature of Martian impact crater ejecta morphologies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barlow, Nadine G.; Boyce, Joseph M.; Costard, Francois M.; Craddock, Robert A.; Garvin, James B.; Sakimoto, Susan E.H.; Kuzmin, Ruslan O.; Roddy, David J.; Soderblom, Laurence A.

    2000-01-01

    The Mars Crater Morphology Consortium recommends the use of a standardized nomenclature system when discussing Martian impact crater ejecta morphologies. The system utilizes nongenetic descriptors to identify the various ejecta morphologies seen on Mars. This system is designed to facilitate communication and collaboration between researchers. Crater morphology databases will be archived through the U.S. Geological Survey in Flagstaff, where a comprehensive catalog of Martian crater morphologic information will be maintained.

  12. Development of lunar nomenclature. [conference of international scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzel, D. H.

    1973-01-01

    A system of unification and standardization for lunar nomenclature was developed. The following recommendations were made for use in future lunar cartography: (1) satellite craters, previously designated by letters will be named; (2) names will no longer be restricted to scientists, but will also include great contributors to human knowledge and human culture; and (3) a system of grids for dividing the moon into 144 regions and subdividing these regions into 2304 provinces will be used.

  13. The Naming of Names: Guidelines for Gene Nomenclature in Marchantia

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, John L.; Araki, Takashi; Arteaga-Vazquez, Mario A.; Berger, Frederic; Dolan, Liam; Haseloff, Jim; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Kyozuka, Junko; Lin, Shih-Shun; Nagasaki, Hideki; Nakagami, Hirofumi; Nakajima, Keiji; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Ohashi-Ito, Kyoko; Sawa, Shinichiro; Shimamura, Masaki; Solano, Roberto; Tsukaya, Hirokazu; Ueda, Takashi; Watanabe, Yuichiro; Yamato, Katsuyuki T.; Zachgo, Sabine; Kohchi, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    While Marchantia polymorpha has been utilized as a model system to investigate fundamental biological questions for over almost two centuries, there is renewed interest in M. polymorpha as a model genetic organism in the genomics era. Here we outline community guidelines for M. polymorpha gene and transgene nomenclature, and we anticipate that these guidelines will promote consistency and reduce both redundancy and confusion in the scientific literature. PMID:26644462

  14. The Naming of Names: Guidelines for Gene Nomenclature in Marchantia.

    PubMed

    Bowman, John L; Araki, Takashi; Arteaga-Vazquez, Mario A; Berger, Frederic; Dolan, Liam; Haseloff, Jim; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Kyozuka, Junko; Lin, Shih-Shun; Nagasaki, Hideki; Nakagami, Hirofumi; Nakajima, Keiji; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Ohashi-Ito, Kyoko; Sawa, Shinichiro; Shimamura, Masaki; Solano, Roberto; Tsukaya, Hirokazu; Ueda, Takashi; Watanabe, Yuichiro; Yamato, Katsuyuki T; Zachgo, Sabine; Kohchi, Takayuki

    2016-02-01

    While Marchantia polymorpha has been utilized as a model system to investigate fundamental biological questions for over almost two centuries, there is renewed interest in M. polymorpha as a model genetic organism in the genomics era. Here we outline community guidelines for M. polymorpha gene and transgene nomenclature, and we anticipate that these guidelines will promote consistency and reduce both redundancy and confusion in the scientific literature.

  15. IAU nomenclature for albedo features on the planet Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dollfus, A.; Chapman, C. R.; Davies, M. E.; Gingerich, O.; Goldstein, R.; Guest, J.; Morrison, D.; Smith, B. A.

    1978-01-01

    The International Astronomical Union has endorsed a nomenclature for the albedo features on Mercury. Designations are based upon the mythological names related to the god Hermes; they are expressed in Latin form. The dark-hued albedo features are associated with the generic term Solitudo. The light-hued areas are designated by a single name without generic term. The 32 names adopted are allocated on the Mercury map.

  16. The Melbourne Code Appendices: announcing a new approach for tracking nomenclatural decisions and a analysis of the history of nomenclatural proposals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A newly expanded digital resource exists for tracking decisions on all nomenclature proposals potentially contributing to Appendices II-VIII of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants. This resource originated with the Smithsonian Institution's Proposals and Disposals web...

  17. Classification and nomenclature of all human homeobox genes

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Peter WH; Booth, H Anne F; Bruford, Elspeth A

    2007-01-01

    Background The homeobox genes are a large and diverse group of genes, many of which play important roles in the embryonic development of animals. Increasingly, homeobox genes are being compared between genomes in an attempt to understand the evolution of animal development. Despite their importance, the full diversity of human homeobox genes has not previously been described. Results We have identified all homeobox genes and pseudogenes in the euchromatic regions of the human genome, finding many unannotated, incorrectly annotated, unnamed, misnamed or misclassified genes and pseudogenes. We describe 300 human homeobox loci, which we divide into 235 probable functional genes and 65 probable pseudogenes. These totals include 3 genes with partial homeoboxes and 13 pseudogenes that lack homeoboxes but are clearly derived from homeobox genes. These figures exclude the repetitive DUX1 to DUX5 homeobox sequences of which we identified 35 probable pseudogenes, with many more expected in heterochromatic regions. Nomenclature is established for approximately 40 formerly unnamed loci, reflecting their evolutionary relationships to other loci in human and other species, and nomenclature revisions are proposed for around 30 other loci. We use a classification that recognizes 11 homeobox gene 'classes' subdivided into 102 homeobox gene 'families'. Conclusion We have conducted a comprehensive survey of homeobox genes and pseudogenes in the human genome, described many new loci, and revised the classification and nomenclature of homeobox genes. The classification scheme may be widely applicable to homeobox genes in other animal genomes and will facilitate comparative genomics of this important gene superclass. PMID:17963489

  18. The nomenclature, definition and classification of discordant atrioventricular connections.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Franklin, Rodney C G; Wilkinson, James L; Cochrane, Andrew D; Karl, Tom R; Aiello, Vera D; Béland, Marie J; Colan, Steven D; Elliott, Martin J; Gaynor, J William; Krogmann, Otto N; Kurosawa, Hiromi; Maruszewski, Bohdan; Stellin, Giovanni; Tchervenkov, Christo I; Weinberg, Paul M

    2006-09-01

    During the process of creation of a bidirectional crossmap between the system emerging, on the one hand, from the initiative sponsored by the Congenital Heart Committees of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons, and on the other hand, from that formulated by the Coding Committee of the European Association for Pediatric Cardiology, the Nomenclature Working Group has successfully created the International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code. As would be expected, during the process of crossmapping it became clear that, for most lesions, the European Pediatric Cardiac Code was more complete in its description of the diagnoses, while the International Congenital Heart Surgery Nomenclature and Database Project was more complete in its description of the procedures. This process of crossmapping exemplifies the efforts of the Nomenclature Working Group to create a comprehensive and all-inclusive international system for the naming of paediatric and congenital cardiac disease, the International Pediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code. Although names and classification for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease will continue to evolve over time, we are now closer than ever to reaching uniform international agreement and standardization. The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code can be downloaded from the Internet, free of charge, at www.ipccc. net.

  19. “Pseudo” Nomenclature in Dermatology: What's in a Name?

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sangita; Jain, Vijay Kumar

    2013-01-01

    In the bewildering array of scientific nomenclature in the medical field, it is important to use correct terminology, know their aberrations and the reason behind a specific terminology. This paper is an attempt towards compiling all the pseudo-nomenclatures coined in dermatology, in order to make it easier to retain and recollect these pseudo names, signs, morphology, diseases, and conditions. It is also imperative to know the true entities that these pseudo names masquerade as, so as to understand the explanation for assigning the term ‘pseudo’ to these conditions. A total of 52 pseudo-terms have been compiled here in reference to dermatology. Most of these pseudo-nomenclatures were coined due to some clinical or histopathological resemblance to the true conditions, while some were premature conclusions drawn from a flawed understanding of the basic nature of the condition. Clear understanding of each of these terms and the explanation behind them being pseudo will enable a dermatologist to avoid misdiagnosis and needless confusion. PMID:24082182

  20. A standardized nomenclature for craniofacial and facial anthropometry.

    PubMed

    Caple, Jodi; Stephan, Carl N

    2016-05-01

    Standardized terms and methods have long been recognized as crucial to reduce measurement error and increase reliability in anthropometry. The successful prior use of craniometric landmarks makes extrapolation of these landmarks to the soft tissue context, as analogs, intuitive for forensic craniofacial analyses and facial photogrammetry. However, this extrapolation has not, so far, been systematic. Instead, varied nomenclature and definitions exist for facial landmarks, and photographic analyses are complicated by the generalization of 3D craniometric landmarks to the 2D face space where analogy is subsequently often lost, complicating anatomical assessments. For example, landmarks requiring palpation of the skull or the examination of the 3D surface typology are impossible to legitimately position; similar applies to median landmarks not visible in lateral photographs. To redress these issues without disposing of the craniometric framework that underpins many facial landmarks, we provide an updated and transparent nomenclature for facial description. This nomenclature maintains the original craniometric intent (and base abbreviations) but provides clear distinction of ill-defined (quasi) landmarks in photographic contexts, as produced when anatomical points are subjectively inferred from shape-from-shading information alone.

  1. [The Nomenclature and Classification of Sporadic Spinocerebellar Degeneration].

    PubMed

    Koga, Shunsuke

    2016-12-01

    Spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia. SCD has a wide range of clinical, pathological, and genetic features, including whether the disease is sporadic or hereditary, and whether it manifests as purely cerebellar or affects multiple systems. Therefore, the classification of SCD has been complicated and has changed over time. Recent advances in genetic testing have shed light on the classification of hereditary SCD. In contrast, the classification of sporadic SCD remains chaotic and there exist nomenclature discrepancies in sporadic SCD between Japanese and English literature. Sporadic SCD is usually divided into multiple system atrophy and cortical cerebellar atrophy in Japanese literature, but the latter nomenclature seems to be uncommon in English literature. The aim of this review is to reconsider the nomenclature and classification of sporadic SCD. At this time, sporadic adult-onset ataxia of unknown etiology is an acceptable term to describe a case of sporadic SCD that does not fit the multiple system atrophy classification.

  2. Developing a community-based genetic nomenclature for anole lizards

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Comparative studies of amniotes have been hindered by a dearth of reptilian molecular sequences. With the genomic assembly of the green anole, Anolis carolinensis available, non-avian reptilian genes can now be compared to mammalian, avian, and amphibian homologs. Furthermore, with more than 350 extant species in the genus Anolis, anoles are an unparalleled example of tetrapod genetic diversity and divergence. As an important ecological, genetic and now genomic reference, it is imperative to develop a standardized Anolis gene nomenclature alongside associated vocabularies and other useful metrics. Results Here we report the formation of the Anolis Gene Nomenclature Committee (AGNC) and propose a standardized evolutionary characterization code that will help researchers to define gene orthology and paralogy with tetrapod homologs, provide a system for naming novel genes in Anolis and other reptiles, furnish abbreviations to facilitate comparative studies among the Anolis species and related iguanid squamates, and classify the geographical origins of Anolis subpopulations. Conclusions This report has been generated in close consultation with members of the Anolis and genomic research communities, and using public database resources including NCBI and Ensembl. Updates will continue to be regularly posted to new research community websites such as lizardbase. We anticipate that this standardized gene nomenclature will facilitate the accessibility of reptilian sequences for comparative studies among tetrapods and will further serve as a template for other communities in their sequencing and annotation initiatives. PMID:22077994

  3. A reassessment of the nomenclature of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) metabolites.

    PubMed Central

    Maervoet, Johan; Covaci, Adrian; Schepens, Paul; Sandau, Courtney D; Letcher, Robert J

    2004-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a widespread class of persistent organic chemicals that accumulate in the environment and humans and are associated with a broad spectrum of health effects. PCB biotransformation has been shown to lead to two classes of PCB metabolites that are present as contaminant residues in the tissues of selected biota: hydroxylated (HO) and methyl sulfone (MeSO2) PCBs. Although these two types of metabolites are related structures, different rules for abbreviation of both classes have emerged. It is important that a standardized nomenclature for the notation of PCB metabolites be universally agreed upon. We suggest that the full chemical name of the PCB metabolite and a shorthand notation should be adopted using the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's chemical name/original Ballschmiter and Zell number of the parent congener, followed by the assignment of the phenyl ring position number of the MeSO2- or HO-substituent. This nomenclature provides a clear, unequivocal set of rules in naming and abbreviating the PCB metabolite structure. Furthermore, this unified PCB metabolite nomenclature approach can be extended to the naming and abbreviation of potential metabolites of structurally analogous contaminants such as HO-polybrominated biphenyls and HO-polybrominated diphenyl ethers. PMID:14998742

  4. Patient Safety in Medication Nomenclature: Orthographic and Semantic Properties of International Nonproprietary Names

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Rachel; Aronson, Jeffrey K.; ten Hacken, Pius; Williams, Alison; Jordan, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Background Confusion between look-alike and sound-alike (LASA) medication names (such as mercaptamine and mercaptopurine) accounts for up to one in four medication errors, threatening patient safety. Error reduction strategies include computerized physician order entry interventions, and ‘Tall Man’ lettering. The purpose of this study is to explore the medication name designation process, to elucidate properties that may prime the risk of confusion. Methods and Findings We analysed the formal and semantic properties of 7,987 International Non-proprietary Names (INNs), in relation to naming guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO) INN programme, and have identified potential for errors. We explored: their linguistic properties, the underlying taxonomy of stems to indicate pharmacological interrelationships, and similarities between INNs. We used Microsoft Excel for analysis, including calculation of Levenshtein edit distance (LED). Compliance with WHO naming guidelines was inconsistent. Since the 1970s there has been a trend towards compliance in formal properties, such as word length, but longer names published in the 1950s and 1960s are still in use. The stems used to show pharmacological interrelationships are not spelled consistently and the guidelines do not impose an unequivocal order on them, making the meanings of INNs difficult to understand. Pairs of INNs sharing a stem (appropriately or not) often have high levels of similarity (<5 LED), and thus have greater potential for confusion. Conclusions We have revealed a tension between WHO guidelines stipulating use of stems to denote meaning, and the aim of reducing similarities in nomenclature. To mitigate this tension and reduce the risk of confusion, the stem system should be made clear and well ordered, so as to avoid compounding the risk of confusion at the clinical level. The interplay between the different WHO INN naming principles should be further examined, to better understand their

  5. Plant cytochrome P450s: nomenclature and involvement in natural product biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Rasool, Saiema; Mohamed, Rozi

    2016-09-01

    Cytochrome P450s constitute the largest family of enzymatic proteins in plants acting on various endogenous and xenobiotic molecules. They are monooxygenases that insert one oxygen atom into inert hydrophobic molecules to make them more reactive and hydro-soluble. Besides for physiological functions, the extremely versatile cytochrome P450 biocatalysts are highly demanded in the fields of biotechnology, medicine, and phytoremediation. The nature of reactions catalyzed by P450s is irreversible, which makes these enzymes attractions in the evolution of plant metabolic pathways. P450s are prime targets in metabolic engineering approaches for improving plant defense against insects and pathogens and for production of secondary metabolites such as the anti-neoplastic drugs taxol or indole alkaloids. The emerging examples of P450 involvement in natural product synthesis in traditional medicinal plant species are becoming increasingly interesting, as they provide new alternatives to modern medicines. In view of the divergent roles of P450s, we review their classification and nomenclature, functions and evolution, role in biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, and use as tools in pharmacology.

  6. Mutation nomenclature in practice: findings and recommendations from the cystic fibrosis external quality assessment scheme.

    PubMed

    Berwouts, Sarah; Morris, Michael A; Girodon, Emmanuelle; Schwarz, Martin; Stuhrmann, Manfred; Dequeker, Elisabeth

    2011-11-01

    Currently, two nomenclature systems are in use to describe sequence variants for cystic fibrosis: the established traditional nomenclature system and the more recent Human Genome Variation Society (HGVS) nomenclature system. We have evaluated the use of both systems in the laboratory reports of 217 participants in the cystic fibrosis external quality assessment scheme of 2009. The mutation c.1521_1523delCTT (p.Phe508del, F508del) was described by traditional and HGVS nomenclature by 32 of 216 (15%) laboratories that correctly identified the mutation, whereas 171 (79%) laboratories used traditional nomenclature only and 13 (6%) laboratories used HGVS nomenclature only. Overall, 29 of 631 (5%) reports used nomenclature that was evaluated as being seriously incorrect and/or misleading and 136 (22%) reports contained attempts at HGVS coding, of which 104 (76%) contained no coding errors; just 33 (24%) mentioned the correct cDNA name and cited the nucleotide reference sequence. We recognized an urgent need for more consistent and correct usage of nomenclature. We recommended that cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator testing reports should include a description of the identified sequence variants in both HGVS and traditional nomenclature and provided basic recommendations and other guidance.

  7. Clarification and changes in Permian stratigraphic nomenclature in Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sawin, R.S.; Franseen, E.K.; West, R.R.; Ludvigson, Greg A.; Watney, W.L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlines Permian nomenclature changes to Zeller (1968) that have been adopted by the Kansas Geological Survey. The Permian System/ Period, Cisuralian Series/Epoch, and Asselian Stage/Age are established at the base of the Bennett Shale Member of the Red Eagle Limestone. Series/epoch names Wolfcampian, Leonardian, and Guadalupian are retained and usage of Gearyan, Cimarronian, and Custerian is abandoned. The repositioned Carboniferous-Permian boundary divides the Council Grove Group into Carboniferous (Upper Pennsylvanian Series/Epoch; Virgilian Stage/Age) and Permian (Wolfcampian Series Epoch) segments.

  8. The new Martian nomenclature of the international Astronomical Union

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    de, Vaucouleur G.; Blunck, J.; Davies, M.; Dollfus, A.; Koval, I.K.; Kuiper, G.P.; Masursky, H.; Miyamoto, S.; Moroz, V.I.; Sagan, C.; Smith, B.

    1975-01-01

    A new nomenclature for Martian regions and topographic features uncovered by Mariner 9, as officially adopted by the International Astronomical Union, is described. About 180 craters, generally of diameters >100 km, have been named, as well as 13 classes of topographic features designated catena, chasma, dorsum, fossa, labyrinthus, mensa, mons, patera, planitia, planum, tholus, vallis, and vastitas. In addition seven craters and the Kepler Dorsum are named on Phobos, and two craters on Deimos. Coordinates and maps of each named features are displayed. ?? 1975.

  9. Nomenclatural benchmarking: the roles of digital typification and telemicroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Quentin; Bourgoin, Thierry; Coddington, Jonathan; Gostony, Timothy; Hamilton, Andrew; Larimer, Roy; Polaszek, Andrew; Schauff, Michael; Solis, M. Alma

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Nomenclatural benchmarking is the periodic realignment of species names with species theories and is necessary for the accurate and uniform use of Linnaean binominals in the face of changing species limits. Gaining access to types, often for little more than a cursory examination by an expert, is a major bottleneck in the advance and availability of biodiversity informatics. For the nearly two million described species it has been estimated that five to six million name-bearing type specimens exist, including those for synonymized binominals. Recognizing that examination of types in person will remain necessary in special cases, we propose a four-part strategy for opening access to types that relies heavily on digitization and that would eliminate much of the bottleneck: (1) modify codes of nomenclature to create registries of nomenclatural acts, such as the proposed ZooBank, that include a requirement for digital representations (e-types) for all newly described species to avoid adding to backlog; (2) an “r” strategy that would engineer and deploy a network of automated instruments capable of rapidly creating 3-D images of type specimens not requiring participation of taxon experts; (3) a “K” strategy using remotely operable microscopes to engage taxon experts in targeting and annotating informative characters of types to supplement and extend information content of rapidly acquired e-types, a process that can be done on an as-needed basis as in the normal course of revisionary taxonomy; and (4) creation of a global e-type archive associated with the commissions on nomenclature and species registries providing one-stop-shopping for e-types. We describe a first generation implementation of the “K” strategy that adapts current technology to create a network of Remotely Operable Benchmarkers Of Types (ROBOT) specifically engineered to handle the largest backlog of types, pinned insect specimens. The three initial instruments will be in the

  10. The new Martian nomenclature of the International Astronomical Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Vaucouleurs, G.; Davies, M.; Dollfus, A.; Koval, I. K.; Masursky, H.; Miyamoto, S.; Moroz, V. I.; Sagan, C.; Blunck, J.; Kuiper, G. P.

    1975-01-01

    A new nomenclature for Martian regions and topographic features uncovered by Mariner 9, as officially adopted by the International Astronomical Union, is described. About 180 craters generally of diameters greater than 100 km have been named, as well as 13 classes of topographic features designated catena, chasma, dorsum, fossa, labyrinthus, mensa, mons, patera, planitia, planum, tholus, vallis, and vastitas. In addition seven craters and the Kepler Dorsum are named on Phobos, and two craters on Deimos. Coordinates and maps of each named feature are displayed.

  11. Managing the materials of tomorrow through nomenclature standardization

    SciTech Connect

    Garstka, R.M. ); Kowalchick, D.P. )

    1993-01-01

    Virginia Power's nuclear materials management organization has developed a new system to improve material visibility, accessibility, and useability in order to optimize inventory utilization. At a previous American Nuclear Society conference, the completion of the Material Nomenclature Standardization Project and the benefits realized through this effort were reported. This paper reports on new avenues that have been taken and the trials and successes experienced as a by-product of nomenclature standardization. New programs have been established to overcome problems of the past, gain control of inventory growth, and promote stock material utilization. At Virginia Power, the materials management organization is continually challenged to take the next step, strive to set and attain higher goals, and look beyond the status quo for now approaches to improved efficiency. As the standards program came to an end, we saw that our [open quotes]first step[close quotes] was a big one. Standardization and computerized sorting solved the inability to retrieve parts without manufacturer's part numbers but also opened up new challenges. Building new systems and processes to make management of the inventory more effective was envisioned as an opportunity.

  12. Short history on the nomenclature of chemical elements

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    1985-01-01

    This paper looks at some aspects in the nomenclature of the chemical elements. A detailed history is available in the book by Weeks (M.E.Weeks, ''Discovery of the Elements'', Fifth Edition, Journal of Chemical Education, 1945). A review of some of these aspects might help shed light on the present perplexing problem facing the Inorganic Nomenclature Commission, i.e. the problem of trivial names for the heavy elements, whose discovery has been contested by rival groups. Since each of these groups claim primacy, while rejecting the alternative claims of their rivals, is history of any help in solving this dilemna. The following conclusions can be drawn from this discussion. The problem with more than one name for an element is not a new or unique situation. Perhaps it is time to reevaluate the generally accepted solutions. Since new elements are no longer being discovered but are being synthesized, maybe the old formula of allowing the first person to find the element be given the right to name it should be abandoned. It had been suggested previously that a list of names appropriate for elements be drawn up and the Commission could put a number of these in place. Then, when a newly synthesized element is verified, the ''new'' discoverer would be allowed to contribute a name into the list for some of the future elements. 5 refs.

  13. A Need for Logical and Consistent Anatomical Nomenclature for Cutaneous Nerves of the Limbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gest, Thomas R.; Burkel, William E.; Cortright, Gerald W.

    2009-01-01

    The system of anatomical nomenclature needs to be logical and consistent. However, variations in translation to English of the Latin and Greek terminology used in Nomina Anatomica and Terminologia Anatomica have led to some inconsistency in the nomenclature of cutaneous nerves in the limbs. An historical review of cutaneous nerve nomenclature…

  14. [The connotation investigation of "female-male" in Chinese traditional medicine nomenclature].

    PubMed

    Chen, S; Chen, J; Tong, Y; An, Z; Chen, L

    1998-08-01

    The connotation investigation of "female-male" in nomenclature of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, suggests that the female-male" in Chinese medicine nomenclature is generalized concept. It has three connotation, including correlation, relativity identity. It's concrete use of materialist dialectics in Chinese medicine.

  15. 26 CFR 1.338-2 - Nomenclature and definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nomenclature and definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election. 1.338-2 Section 1.338-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Nomenclature and definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election. (a) Scope. This section prescribes...

  16. 26 CFR 1.338-2 - Nomenclature and definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nomenclature and definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election. 1.338-2 Section 1.338-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Nomenclature and definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election. (a) Scope. This section prescribes...

  17. 26 CFR 1.338-2 - Nomenclature and definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nomenclature and definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election. 1.338-2 Section 1.338-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Nomenclature and definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election. (a) Scope. This section prescribes...

  18. The foundation of the Melbourne Code Appendices: Announcing a new paradigm for tracking nomenclatural decisions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new expanded digital resource exists for tracking decisions on all nomenclature proposals potentially contributing to Appendices II-VIII of the International Code of Nomenclature. This system owes its origins to the Smithsonian Institution's Proposals and Disposals website created by Dan Nicolson ...

  19. The current status of cyanobacterial nomenclature under the "prokaryotic" and the "botanical" code.

    PubMed

    Oren, Aharon; Ventura, Stefano

    2017-02-27

    Cyanobacterial taxonomy developed in the botanical world because Cyanobacteria/Cyanophyta have traditionally been identified as algae. However, they possess a prokaryotic cell structure, and phylogenetically they belong to the Bacteria. This caused nomenclature problems as the provisions of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN; the "Botanical Code") differ from those of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP; the "Prokaryotic Code"). While the ICN recognises names validly published under the ICNP, Article 45(1) of the ICN has not yet been reciprocated in the ICNP. Different solutions have been proposed to solve the current problems. In 2012 a Special Committee on the harmonisation of the nomenclature of Cyanobacteria was appointed, but its activity has been minimal. Two opposing proposals to regulate cyanobacterial nomenclature were recently submitted, one calling for deletion of the cyanobacteria from the groups of organisms whose nomenclature is regulated by the ICNP, the second to consistently apply the rules of the ICNP to all cyanobacteria. Following a general overview of the current status of cyanobacterial nomenclature under the two codes we present five case studies of genera for which nomenclatural aspects have been discussed in recent years: Microcystis, Planktothrix, Halothece, Gloeobacter and Nostoc.

  20. Evaluating Students' Learning Gains and Experiences from Using Nomenclature101.com

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodé, Nicholas E.; Caron, Jeanette; Flynn, Alison B.

    2016-01-01

    Skill in organic chemistry nomenclature is fundamental for communicating more complex concepts. Interpreting and using functional group names is particularly important. With nomenclature101.com, students can create tailored interactive quizzes according to their learning needs; the tool is free and available in English and French. The present…

  1. Pharmacology of Periodontal Disease.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    k 7RD-A157 116 PHARMRCOLOGY’ OF PERIODONTAL DISEASE(U) UNIVERSITY OF i/ I HEALTH SCIENCES/CHICAGO MEDICAL SCHOOL DEPT OF I PHARMACOLOGY S F HOFF 24...University of Health Sciences/The Chicago Medical School Department of 3333 Green Bay Road Telephone Pharmacology North Chicago, Illinois 60064...Region Bethesda, MD 20814-5044 • .RE: Annual Letter Report , ONR Contract #N00014-84-K-0562 " Pharmacology of Periodontal Disease" Dear Capt. Hancock

  2. Studies in neuroendocrine pharmacology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maickel, R. P.

    1976-01-01

    The expertise and facilities available within the Medical Sciences Program section on Pharmacology were used along with informational input from various NASA sources to study areas relevant to the manned space effort. Topics discussed include effects of drugs on deprivation-induced fluid consumption, brain biogenic amines, biochemical responses to stressful stimuli, biochemical and behavioral pharmacology of amphetamines, biochemical and pharmacological studies of analogues to biologically active indole compounds, chemical pharmacology: drug metabolism and disposition, toxicology, and chemical methodology. Appendices include a bibliography, and papers submitted for publication or already published.

  3. Principles of safety pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Pugsley, M K; Authier, S; Curtis, M J

    2008-08-01

    Safety Pharmacology is a rapidly developing discipline that uses the basic principles of pharmacology in a regulatory-driven process to generate data to inform risk/benefit assessment. The aim of Safety Pharmacology is to characterize the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic (PK/PD) relationship of a drug's adverse effects using continuously evolving methodology. Unlike toxicology, Safety Pharmacology includes within its remit a regulatory requirement to predict the risk of rare lethal events. This gives Safety Pharmacology its unique character. The key issues for Safety Pharmacology are detection of an adverse effect liability, projection of the data into safety margin calculation and finally clinical safety monitoring. This article sets out to explain the drivers for Safety Pharmacology so that the wider pharmacology community is better placed to understand the discipline. It concludes with a summary of principles that may help inform future resolution of unmet needs (especially establishing model validation for accurate risk assessment). Subsequent articles in this issue of the journal address specific aspects of Safety Pharmacology to explore the issues of model choice, the burden of proof and to highlight areas of intensive activity (such as testing for drug-induced rare event liability, and the challenge of testing the safety of so-called biologics (antibodies, gene therapy and so on.).

  4. 26 CFR 1.336-1 - General principles, nomenclature, and definitions for a section 336(e) election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false General principles, nomenclature, and... § 1.336-1 General principles, nomenclature, and definitions for a section 336(e) election. (a... election. This section provides the definitions and nomenclature. Generally, except to the...

  5. Pediatric sleep pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Pelayo, Rafael; Yuen, Kin

    2012-10-01

    This article reviews common sleep disorders in children and pharmacologic options for them. Discussions of pediatric sleep pharmacology typically focus on treatment of insomnia. Although insomnia is a major concern in this population, other conditions of concern in children are presented, such as narcolepsy, parasomnias, restless legs syndrome, and sleep apnea.

  6. Pharmacology for the Psychotherapist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldenberg, Myron Michael

    This book covers those areas of pharmacology that are of importance and interest to the psychotherapist. The 1st chapter introduces the various types of drugs. The 2nd chapter presents an overview of pharmacology and its principles. The 3rd chapter reviews aspects of the human body of importance to understanding the workings of psychotropic drugs.…

  7. Pharmacology Information System Ready

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the development and future of Prophet,'' a specialized information handling system for pharmacology research. It is designed to facilitate the acquisition and dissemination of knowledge about mechanisms of drug action, and it is hoped that it will aid in converting pharmacology research from an empirical to a predictive science. (JR)

  8. Curriculum Guidelines for Pharmacology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, David H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Pharmacology embraces the physical and chemical properties of drugs; the preparation of pharmaceutical agents; the absorption, fate, and excretion of drugs; and the effects of drugs on living systems. These guidelines represent a consensus on what would constitute a minimally acceptable pharmacology course for predoctoral dental students. (MLW)

  9. Nurse Practitioner Pharmacology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waigandt, Alex; Chang, Jane

    A study compared the pharmacology training of nurse practitioner programs with medical and dental programs. Seventy-three schools in 14 states (40 nurse practitioner programs, 19 schools of medicine, and 14 schools of dentistry) were surveyed by mailed questionnaire about the number of hours devoted to the study of pharmacology. The major findings…

  10. Integrating pharmacology and clinical pharmacology in universities.

    PubMed

    Buckingham, Julia C

    2012-06-01

    Continuing development of safe and effective new medicines is critically important for global health, social prosperity and the economy. The drug discovery-development pipeline depends critically on close partnerships between scientists and clinicians and on educational programmes that ensure that the pharmacological workforce, in its broadest sense, is fit for purpose. Here I consider factors that have influenced the development of basic and clinical pharmacology in UK universities over the past 40 years and discuss ways in which basic pharmacologists, clinical pharmacologists and scientists from different disciplines can work together effectively, while retaining their professional identities and fostering developments in their disciplines. Specifically, I propose the establishment of Institutes of Drug Discovery and Development, whose activities could include development and implementation of a translational pharmacology research strategy, drawing on the collective expertise of the membership and the university as whole; provision of a forum for regular seminars and symposia to promote the discipline, encourage collaboration and develop a cohesive community; provision of a research advisory service, covering, for example, data management, applications for ethics permission, clinical trials design, statistics and regulatory affairs; liaison with potential funders and leadership of major funding bids, including funding for doctoral training; provision of advice on intellectual property protection and the commercialization of research; liaison with corporate partners to facilitate collaboration, knowledge transfer and effective translation; and leadership of undergraduate and postgraduate education in basic and clinical pharmacology and related sciences for medical and science students, including continuing professional development and transferable skills.

  11. Disharmony of the spheres - Recent trends in planetary surface nomenclature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    Inadvisable departures from tradition in naming newly mapped features on Mars, Mercury, and the moon have been implemented and proposed since 1970. Functional need for place names also has become confused with cartographic convenience. Much of the resulting new nomenclature is neither unique, efficient, nor imaginative. The long-standing classical orientation in Solar System geography needs to be firmly reasserted. The Maedler scheme for designating smaller craters on the moon should be retained and extended to the farside. Names of surface features on other bodies might best reflect the traditional connotations of planet and satellite names: for example, most craters on Mars would be named for mythical heroes and military personalities in ancient history, craters on Mercury might commemorate explorers or commercial luminaries, and features on Venus would bear the names of famous women.

  12. Indices of Regional Brain Atrophy: Formulae and Nomenclature

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    The pattern of brain atrophy helps to discriminate normal age-related changes from neurodegenerative diseases. Albeit indices of regional brain atrophy have proven to be a parameter useful in the early diagnosis and differential diagnosis of some neurodegenerative diseases, indices of absolute regional atrophy still have some important limitations. We propose using indices of relative atrophy for representing how the volume of a given region of interest (ROI) changes over time in comparison to changes in global brain measures over the same time. A second problem in morphometric studies is terminology. There is a lack of systematization naming indices and the same measure can be named with different terms by different research groups or imaging softwares. This limits the understanding and discussion of studies. In this technological report, we provide a general description on how to compute indices of absolute and relative regional brain atrophy and propose a standardized nomenclature. PMID:26261753

  13. Foreign Language Translation of Chemical Nomenclature by Computer

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Chemical compound names remain the primary method for conveying molecular structures between chemists and researchers. In research articles, patents, chemical catalogues, government legislation, and textbooks, the use of IUPAC and traditional compound names is universal, despite efforts to introduce more machine-friendly representations such as identifiers and line notations. Fortunately, advances in computing power now allow chemical names to be parsed and generated (read and written) with almost the same ease as conventional connection tables. A significant complication, however, is that although the vast majority of chemistry uses English nomenclature, a significant fraction is in other languages. This complicates the task of filing and analyzing chemical patents, purchasing from compound vendors, and text mining research articles or Web pages. We describe some issues with manipulating chemical names in various languages, including British, American, German, Japanese, Chinese, Spanish, Swedish, Polish, and Hungarian, and describe the current state-of-the-art in software tools to simplify the process. PMID:19239237

  14. Nomenclature in laboratory robotics and automation (IUPAC Recommendation 1994)

    PubMed Central

    (Skip) Kingston, H. M.; Kingstonz, M. L.

    1994-01-01

    These recommended terms have been prepared to help provide a uniform approach to terminology and notation in laboratory automation and robotics. Since the terminology used in laboratory automation and robotics has been derived from diverse backgrounds, it is often vague, imprecise, and in some cases, in conflict with classical automation and robotic nomenclature. These dejinitions have been assembled from standards, monographs, dictionaries, journal articles, and documents of international organizations emphasizing laboratory and industrial automation and robotics. When appropriate, definitions have been taken directly from the original source and identified with that source. However, in some cases no acceptable definition could be found and a new definition was prepared to define the object, term, or action. Attention has been given to defining specific robot types, coordinate systems, parameters, attributes, communication protocols and associated workstations and hardware. Diagrams are included to illustrate specific concepts that can best be understood by visualization. PMID:18924684

  15. Disharmony of the spheres: Recent trends in planetary surface nomenclature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pike, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    Inadvisable departures from tradition in naming newly mapped features on Mars, Mercury, and the Moon have been implemented and proposed since 1970. Functional need for place names also has become confused with cartographic convenience. Much of the resulting new nomenclature is neither unique, efficient, nor imaginative. The longstanding classical orientation in Solar System geography needs to be firmly reasserted. The Ma??dler scheme for designating smaller craters on the Moon should be retained and extended to the farside. Names of surface features on other bodies might best reflect the traditional connotations of planet and satellite names: for example, most crates on Mars would be named for mythical heroes and military personalities in ancient history, craters on Mercury might commemorate explorers or commercial luminaries, and features on Venus would bear the names of famous women. ?? 1976.

  16. New nomenclature combinations in the green alder species complex (Betulaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Chery, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The name Alnus viridis (Chaix) DC., based on Betula viridis Chaix (1785), has traditionally been attributed to green alders although it is based on a later basionym. Alnus alnobetula (Ehrh.) K. Koch based on Betula alnobetula Ehrh. (1783) is the correct name for green alders. In light of the increasing use and recognition of the name Alnus alnobetula (Ehrh.) K. Koch in the literature. I herein propose new nomenclatural combinations to account for the Japanese and Chinese subspecies respectively: Alnus alnobetula subsp. maximowiczii (Callier ex C.K. Schneid.) J. Chery and Alnus alnobetula subsp. mandschurica (Callier ex C.K. Schneid.) J. Chery. Recent phylogenetic analyses place these two taxa in the green alder species complex, suggesting that they should be treated as infraspecific taxa under the polymorphic Alnus alnobetula. PMID:26491381

  17. The Concise Guide to Pharmacology 2013/14: G Protein-Coupled Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Stephen PH; Benson, Helen E; Faccenda, Elena; Pawson, Adam J; Sharman, Joanna L; Spedding, Michael; Peters, John A; Harmar, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2013/14 provides concise overviews of the key properties of over 2000 human drug targets with their pharmacology, plus links to an open access knowledgebase of drug targets and their ligands (www.guidetopharmacology.org), which provides more detailed views of target and ligand properties. The full contents can be found at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.12444/full. G protein-coupled receptors are one of the seven major pharmacological targets into which the Guide is divided, with the others being G protein-coupled receptors, ligand-gated ion channels, ion channels, catalytic receptors, nuclear hormone receptors, transporters and enzymes. These are presented with nomenclature guidance and summary information on the best available pharmacological tools, alongside key references and suggestions for further reading. A new landscape format has easy to use tables comparing related targets. It is a condensed version of material contemporary to late 2013, which is presented in greater detail and constantly updated on the website www.guidetopharmacology.org, superseding data presented in previous Guides to Receptors and Channels. It is produced in conjunction with NC-IUPHAR and provides the official IUPHAR classification and nomenclature for human drug targets, where appropriate. It consolidates information previously curated and displayed separately in IUPHAR-DB and the Guide to Receptors and Channels, providing a permanent, citable, point-in-time record that will survive database updates. PMID:24517644

  18. The Concise Guide to Pharmacology 2013/14: Nuclear Hormone Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Stephen PH; Benson, Helen E; Faccenda, Elena; Pawson, Adam J; Sharman, Joanna L; Spedding, Michael; Peters, John A; Harmar, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2013/14 provides concise overviews of the key properties of over 2000 human drug targets with their pharmacology, plus links to an open access knowledgebase of drug targets and their ligands (www.guidetopharmacology.org), which provides more detailed views of target and ligand properties. The full contents can be found at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.12444/full. Nuclear hormone receptors are one of the seven major pharmacological targets into which the Guide is divided, with the others being G protein-coupled receptors, ligand-gated ion channels, ion channels, catalytic receptors, transporters and enzymes. These are presented with nomenclature guidance and summary information on the best available pharmacological tools, alongside key references and suggestions for further reading. A new landscape format has easy to use tables comparing related targets. It is a condensed version of material contemporary to late 2013, which is presented in greater detail and constantly updated on the website www.guidetopharmacology.org, superseding data presented in previous Guides to Receptors and Channels. It is produced in conjunction with NC-IUPHAR and provides the official IUPHAR classification and nomenclature for human drug targets, where appropriate. It consolidates information previously curated and displayed separately in IUPHAR-DB and the Guide to Receptors and Channels, providing a permanent, citable, point-in-time record that will survive database updates. PMID:24528240

  19. Systematic nomenclature of the nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur functional polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Later, D.W.; Wright, C.W.; Loening, K.L.; Merritt, J.E.

    1984-11-01

    The nomenclature used in the literature for the heterocyclic and exocyclic PAC is often diversified and confusing. Different preferences for naming generic classes and individual heterofunctional PAC are common. An increase in the number of papers presented in the PAH symposium proceedings on N-, O- and S-PAC has prompted a brief compilation of the key rules of nomenclature for these classes of compounds. Hence, a synopsis of the current rules for nomenclature applied to monofunctional N-, O-, and S-PAC as published by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is presented here in an effort to clarify and unify nomenclature used in the proceedings of these symposia. The nomenclature methods that are abridged and presented in this paper were taken mainly from Sections A, B, and C of the IUPAC rules on nomenclature of organic chemicals. In this paper, the nomenclature for the nonfunctional PAH is first briefly reviewed, followed by three sections devoted to outlining the key aspects of naming the N-, O-, and S-PAC.

  20. A new and unified nomenclature for male fertility restorer (RF) proteins in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Kotchoni, Simeon O; Jimenez-Lopez, Jose C; Gachomo, Emma W; Seufferheld, Manfredo J

    2010-12-28

    The male fertility restorer (RF) proteins belong to extended protein families associated with the cytoplasmic male sterility in higher plants. Up till now, there is no devised nomenclature for naming the RF proteins. The systematic sequencing of new plant species in recent years has uncovered the existence of several novel RF genes and their encoded proteins. Their naming has been simply arbitrary and could not be adequately handled in the context of comparative functional genomics. We propose in this study a unified nomenclature for the RF extended protein families across all plant species. This new and unified nomenclature relies upon previously developed nomenclature for the first ever characterized RF gene, RF2A/ALDH2B2, a member of ALDH gene superfamily, and adheres to the guidelines issued by the ALDH Genome Nomenclature Committees. The proposed nomenclature reveals that RF gene superfamily encodes currently members of 51 families. This unified nomenclature accommodates functional RF genes and pseudogenes, and offers the flexibility needed to incorporate additional RFs as they become available in future. In addition, we provide a phylogenetic relationship between the RF extended families and use computational protein modeling to demonstrate the high divergence of RF functional specializations through specific structural features of selected members of RF superfamily.

  1. Proposal to change General Consideration 5 and Principle 2 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Oren, Aharon; Garrity, George M

    2014-01-01

    A proposal is submitted to the ICSP to change the wording of General Consideration 5 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP), deleting the words Schizophycetes, Cyanophyceae and Cyanobacteria from the groups of organisms whose nomenclature is covered by the Code. It is further proposed to change the terms Zoological Code and International Code of Botanical Nomenclature in General Consideration 5 and in Principle 2 to International Code of Zoological Nomenclature and International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, respectively.

  2. A review of criticisms of phylogenetic nomenclature: is taxonomic freedom the fundamental issue?

    PubMed

    Bryant, Harold N; Cantino, Philip D

    2002-02-01

    The proposal to implement a phylogenetic nomenclatural system governed by the PhyloCode), in which taxon names are defined by explicit reference to common descent, has met with strong criticism from some proponents of phylogenetic taxonomy (taxonomy based on the principle of common descent in which only clades and species are recognized). We examine these criticisms and find that some of the perceived problems with phylogenetic nomenclature are based on misconceptions, some are equally true of the current rank-based nomenclatural system, and some will be eliminated by implementation of the PhyloCode. Most of the criticisms are related to an overriding concern that, because the meanings of names are associated with phylogenetic pattern which is subject to change, the adoption of phylogenetic nomenclature will lead to increased instability in the content of taxa. This concern is associated with the fact that, despite the widespread adoption of the view that taxa are historical entities that are conceptualized based on ancestry, many taxonomists also conceptualize taxa based on their content. As a result, critics of phylogenetic nomenclature have argued that taxonomists should be free to emend the content of taxa without constraints imposed by nomenclatural decisions. However, in phylogenetic nomenclature the contents of taxa are determined, not by the taxonomist, but by the combination of the phylogenetic definition of the name and a phylogenetic hypothesis. Because the contents of taxa, once their names are defined, can no longer be freely modified by taxonomists, phylogenetic nomenclature is perceived as limiting taxonomic freedom. We argue that the form of taxonomic freedom inherent to phylogenetic nomenclature is appropriate to phylogenetic taxonomy in which taxa are considered historical entities that are discovered through phylogenetic analysis and are not human constructs.

  3. Community intelligence in knowledge curation: an application to managing scientific nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lin; Xu, Chao; Tian, Ming; Sang, Jian; Zou, Dong; Li, Ang; Liu, Guocheng; Chen, Fei; Wu, Jiayan; Xiao, Jingfa; Wang, Xumin; Yu, Jun; Zhang, Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Harnessing community intelligence in knowledge curation bears significant promise in dealing with communication and education in the flood of scientific knowledge. As knowledge is accumulated at ever-faster rates, scientific nomenclature, a particular kind of knowledge, is concurrently generated in all kinds of fields. Since nomenclature is a system of terms used to name things in a particular discipline, accurate translation of scientific nomenclature in different languages is of critical importance, not only for communications and collaborations with English-speaking people, but also for knowledge dissemination among people in the non-English-speaking world, particularly young students and researchers. However, it lacks of accuracy and standardization when translating scientific nomenclature from English to other languages, especially for those languages that do not belong to the same language family as English. To address this issue, here we propose for the first time the application of community intelligence in scientific nomenclature management, namely, harnessing collective intelligence for translation of scientific nomenclature from English to other languages. As community intelligence applied to knowledge curation is primarily aided by wiki and Chinese is the native language for about one-fifth of the world's population, we put the proposed application into practice, by developing a wiki-based English-to-Chinese Scientific Nomenclature Dictionary (ESND; http://esnd.big.ac.cn). ESND is a wiki-based, publicly editable and open-content platform, exploiting the whole power of the scientific community in collectively and collaboratively managing scientific nomenclature. Based on community curation, ESND is capable of achieving accurate, standard, and comprehensive scientific nomenclature, demonstrating a valuable application of community intelligence in knowledge curation.

  4. Advancing pharmacometrics and systems pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Waldman, S A; Terzic, A

    2012-11-01

    Pharmacometrics and systems pharmacology are emerging as principal quantitative sciences within drug development and experimental therapeutics. In recognition of the importance of pharmacometrics and systems pharmacology to the discipline of clinical pharmacology, the American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics (ASCPT), in collaboration with Nature Publishing Group and Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, has established CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology to inform the field and shape the discipline.

  5. ANOS1: a unified nomenclature for Kallmann syndrome 1 gene (KAL1) and anosmin-1.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Fernando; Seal, Ruth; Maggi, Roberto

    2016-11-29

    It is accepted that confusion regarding the description of genetic variants occurs when researchers do not use standard nomenclature. The Human Genome Organization Gene Nomenclature Committee contacted a panel of consultants, all working on the KAL1 gene, to propose an update of the nomenclature of the gene, as there was a convention in the literature of using the 'KAL1' symbol, when referring to the gene, but using the name 'anosmin-1' when referring to the protein. The new name, ANOS1, reflects protein name and is more transferrable across species.

  6. Pharmacology of iron transport.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Shaina L; Krishnamurthy, Divya; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Elucidating the molecular basis for the regulation of iron uptake, storage, and distribution is necessary to understand iron homeostasis. Pharmacological tools are emerging to identify and distinguish among different iron transport pathways. Stimulatory or inhibitory small molecules with effects on iron uptake can help characterize the mechanistic elements of iron transport and the roles of the transporters involved in these processes. In particular, iron chelators can serve as potential pharmacological tools to alleviate diseases of iron overload. This review focuses on the pharmacology of iron transport, introducing iron transport membrane proteins and known inhibitors.

  7. Pharmacology of Iron Transport

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Shaina L.; Krishnamurthy, Divya; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Elucidating the molecular basis for the regulation of iron uptake, storage, and distribution is necessary to understand iron homeostasis. Pharmacological tools are emerging to identify and distinguish among different iron transport pathways. Stimulatory or inhibitory small molecules with effects on iron uptake can help characterize the mechanistic elements of iron transport and the roles of the transporters involved in these processes. In particular, iron chelators can serve as potential pharmacological tools to alleviate diseases of iron overload. This review focuses on the pharmacology of iron transport, introducing iron transport membrane proteins and known inhibitors. PMID:23020294

  8. Geriatric veterinary pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Kukanich, Butch

    2012-07-01

    Geriatric dogs and cats are an important group of patients in veterinary medicine. Healthy geriatric patients have similar physiology and presumably pharmacology as healthy adult animals. Geriatric patients with subclinical organ dysfunction are overtly healthy but have some organ dysfunction that may alter the clinical pharmacology of some drugs. Geriatric patients with an overt disease are expected to have altered drug pharmacology for some drugs based on the underlying disease. Diseases including cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, osteoarthritis, neurologic, and neoplastic are expected in the geriatric population and discussed, including the effects of the underlying disease and potential drug-drug interactions.

  9. Cyanobacterial systematics and nomenclature as featured in the International Bulletin of Bacteriological Nomenclature and Taxonomy / International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology / International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology.

    PubMed

    Oren, Aharon

    2011-01-01

    Surprisingly few papers on cyanobacteria have been published in the International Bulletin of Bacteriological Nomenclature and Taxonomy / International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology / International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology (IBBNT/IJSB/IJSEM) during its 60 years of existence. The first papers featuring the group appeared in volume 28 and, in the 32 years that have passed since, 42 articles on cyanobacteria have been published in the journal. Very few of these papers deal with the description of new taxa and this is understandable in view of the current difficulty in validly publishing new names of cyanobacteria under the rules of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP). Other papers discuss the problems of the nomenclature of the group under the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN)/ICNP and the ICBN. The largest group of articles on cyanobacteria consists of papers on systematics, in which isolates are compared using different approaches, without any implications for the nomenclature of the group under either Code. The fact that on average these papers have been highly cited shows that IJSEM and its predecessors have been an excellent framework for publications on cyanobacteria and should remain so in the future.

  10. The pharmacology of psilocybin.

    PubMed

    Passie, Torsten; Seifert, Juergen; Schneider, Udo; Emrich, Hinderk M

    2002-10-01

    Psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine) is the major psychoactive alkaloid of some species of mushrooms distributed worldwide. These mushrooms represent a growing problem regarding hallucinogenic drug abuse. Despite its experimental medical use in the 1960s, only very few pharmacological data about psilocybin were known until recently. Because of its still growing capacity for abuse and the widely dispersed data this review presents all the available pharmacological data about psilocybin.

  11. Stability or stasis in the names of organisms: the evolving codes of nomenclature.

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Sandra; Lamas, Gerardo; Lughadha, Eimear Nic; Novarino, Gianfranco

    2004-01-01

    Nomenclature, far from being a dry dusty subject, is today more relevant than ever before. Researchers into genomics are discovering again the need for systems of nomenclature-names are what we use to communicate about organisms, and by extension the rest of their biology. Here, we briefly outline the history of the published international codes of nomenclature, tracing them from the time of Linnaeus in the eighteenth century to the present day. We then outline some of what we feel are the major challenges that face the codes in the twenty-first century; focusing primarily on publication, priority, typification and the role of science in the naming of organisms. We conclude that the codes are essential for taxonomists in the pursuance of their science, and that the democratic nature of decision-making in the regulation of the rules of nomenclature, though sometimes perceived as a potential weakness, is in fact one of its great strengths. PMID:15253348

  12. On the nomenclature of celestial objects - not to build the Tower of Babel.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, S.

    In order to accumulate and retrieve data relating to celestial objects, it is essential to designate names of objects correctly. The recommendation by the IAU Working Group on the Nomenclature is described.

  13. An atypical addition to the chemokine receptor nomenclature: IUPHAR Review 15.

    PubMed

    Bachelerie, Françoise; Graham, Gerard J; Locati, Massimo; Mantovani, Alberto; Murphy, Philip M; Nibbs, Robert; Rot, Antal; Sozzani, Silvano; Thelen, Marcus

    2015-08-01

    Chemokines and their receptors are essential regulators of in vivo leukocyte migration and, some years ago, a systematic nomenclature system was developed for the chemokine receptor family. Chemokine receptor biology and biochemistry was recently extensively reviewed. In this review, we also highlighted a new component to the nomenclature system that incorporates receptors previously known as 'scavenging', or 'decoy', chemokine receptors on the basis of their lack of classical signalling responses to ligand binding and their general ability to scavenge, or sequester, their cognate chemokine ligands. These molecules are now collectively referred to as 'atypical chemokine receptors', or ACKRs, and play fundamental roles in regulating in vivo responses to chemokines. This commentary highlights this new addition to the chemokine receptor nomenclature system and provides brief information on the four receptors currently covered by this nomenclature.

  14. An atypical addition to the chemokine receptor nomenclature: IUPHAR Review 15

    PubMed Central

    Bachelerie, Françoise; Graham, Gerard J; Locati, Massimo; Mantovani, Alberto; Murphy, Philip M; Nibbs, Robert; Rot, Antal; Sozzani, Silvano; Thelen, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Chemokines and their receptors are essential regulators of in vivo leukocyte migration and, some years ago, a systematic nomenclature system was developed for the chemokine receptor family. Chemokine receptor biology and biochemistry was recently extensively reviewed. In this review, we also highlighted a new component to the nomenclature system that incorporates receptors previously known as ‘scavenging’, or ‘decoy’, chemokine receptors on the basis of their lack of classical signalling responses to ligand binding and their general ability to scavenge, or sequester, their cognate chemokine ligands. These molecules are now collectively referred to as ‘atypical chemokine receptors’, or ACKRs, and play fundamental roles in regulating in vivo responses to chemokines. This commentary highlights this new addition to the chemokine receptor nomenclature system and provides brief information on the four receptors currently covered by this nomenclature. PMID:25958743

  15. Stratigraphic nomenclature in reports of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohee, George V.

    1974-01-01

    The Geologic Names Committee of the United States Geological Survey was first organized on February 17, 1899, " ... to consider all names of geologic formations or other divisions of rock classifications with a view to determining whether they comply with the rules of nomenclature adopted for the Survey publications and to recommend such action as may be advisable in any individual case to secure unity of nomenclature under the rules."

  16. A Revised/Proposed Nomenclature for the External Anatomical Features of the Bovine Foot

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Laurie L.; Leach, Douglas H.

    1988-01-01

    Several widely recognized sources of nomenclature regarding the bovine external digit were reviewed, compared, and utilized in a clinical survey of bovine digital disease. During this process, some descriptors were found to be accurate and readily applicable to clinical use, while others were not. In this article, we explain both positive and negative aspects of existing nomenclature. Suggested revisions are included for those terms which were inadequate when used to describe clinical disease of the bovine digit. PMID:17423046

  17. Biological nomenclature terms for facilitating communication in the naming of organisms

    PubMed Central

    David, John; Garrity, George M.; Greuter, Werner; Hawksworth, David L.; Jahn, Regine; Kirk, Paul M; McNeill, John; Michel, Ellinor; Knapp, Sandra; Patterson, David J.; Tindall, Brian J.; Todd, Jonathan A.; van Tol, Jan; Turland, Nicholas J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A set of terms recommended for use in facilitating communication in biological nomenclature is presented as a table showing broadly equivalent terms used in the traditional Codes of nomenclature. These terms are intended to help those engaged in naming across organism groups, and are the result of the work of the International Committee on Bionomenclature, whose aim is to promote harmonisation and communication amongst those naming life on Earth. PMID:22639540

  18. The order Zoantharia Rafinesque, 1815 (Cnidaria, Anthozoa: Hexacorallia): supraspecific classification and nomenclature

    PubMed Central

    Low, Martyn E. Y.; Sinniger, Frederic; Reimer, James Davis

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Many supraspecific zoantharian names have long and complicated histories. The present list is provided to advise researchers on the current state of supraspecific nomenclature of the zoantharians, particularly given the recent attention paid to the taxonomy, phylogeny, and biodiversity of this order. At the same time, several taxonomic issues brought to light by recent research are resolved. Details on the taxonomic and nomenclatural history of most groups are provided, along with appendices of invalid supraspecific names. PMID:28138291

  19. North American Commission on Stratigraphic Nomenclature Note 66: records of Stratigraphic Commission, 2003-2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Easton, Robert M.; Catuneanu, Octavian; Donovan, Art D.; Fluegeman, Richard H.; Hamblin, A.P.; Harper, Howard; Lasca, Norman P.; Morrow, Jared R.; Orndorff, Randall C.; Sadler, Peter; Scott, Robert W.; Tew, Berry H.

    2014-01-01

    Note 66 summarizes activities of the North American Commission on Stratigraphic Nomenclature (NACSN) from November 2003 to October 2013 and is condensed from the minutes of the NACSN’s 58th to 68th annual meetings1. The purposes of the Commission are to develop statements of stratigraphic principles,recommend procedures applicable to the classification and nomenclature of stratigraphic and related units, review problems in classifying and naming stratigraphic and related units, and formulate expressions of judgment on these matters.

  20. Describing sequencing results of structural chromosome rearrangements with a suggested next-generation cytogenetic nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Ordulu, Zehra; Wong, Kristen E; Currall, Benjamin B; Ivanov, Andrew R; Pereira, Shahrin; Althari, Sara; Gusella, James F; Talkowski, Michael E; Morton, Cynthia C

    2014-05-01

    With recent rapid advances in genomic technologies, precise delineation of structural chromosome rearrangements at the nucleotide level is becoming increasingly feasible. In this era of "next-generation cytogenetics" (i.e., an integration of traditional cytogenetic techniques and next-generation sequencing), a consensus nomenclature is essential for accurate communication and data sharing. Currently, nomenclature for describing the sequencing data of these aberrations is lacking. Herein, we present a system called Next-Gen Cytogenetic Nomenclature, which is concordant with the International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature (2013). This system starts with the alignment of rearrangement sequences by BLAT or BLAST (alignment tools) and arrives at a concise and detailed description of chromosomal changes. To facilitate usage and implementation of this nomenclature, we are developing a program designated BLA(S)T Output Sequence Tool of Nomenclature (BOSToN), a demonstrative version of which is accessible online. A standardized characterization of structural chromosomal rearrangements is essential both for research analyses and for application in the clinical setting.

  1. Guidelines to classification and nomenclature of Arabian felsic plutonic rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsay, C.R.; Stoeser, D.B.; Drysdall, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    Well-defined procedures for classifying the felsic plutonic rocks of the Arabian Shield on the basis of petrographic, chemical and lithostratigraphic criteria and mineral-resource potential have been adopted and developed in the Saudi Arabian Deputy Ministry for Mineral Resources over the past decade. A number of problems with conventional classification schemes have been identified and resolved; others, notably those arising from difficulties in identifying precise mineral compositions, continue to present difficulties. The petrographic nomenclature used is essentially that recommended by the International Union of Geological Sciences. Problems that have arisen include the definition of: (1) rocks with sodic, zoned or perthitic feldspar, (2) trondhjemites, and (3) alkali granites. Chemical classification has been largely based on relative molar amounts of alumina, lime and alkalis, and the use of conventional variation diagrams, but pilot studies utilizing univariate and multivariate statistical techniques have been made. The classification used in Saudi Arabia for stratigraphic purposes is a hierarchy of formation-rank units, suites and super-suites as defined in the Saudi Arabian stratigraphic code. For genetic and petrological studies, a grouping as 'associations' of similar and genetically related lithologies is commonly used. In order to indicate mineral-resource potential, the felsic plutons are classed as common, precursor, specialized or mineralized, in order of increasing exploration significance. ?? 1986.

  2. Guidelines to classification and nomenclature of Arabian felsic plutonic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsay, C. R.; Stoeser, D. B.; Drysdall, A. R.

    Well-defined procedures for classifying the felsic plutonic rocks of the Arabian Shield on the basis of petrographic, chemical and lithostratigraphic criteria and mineral-resource potential have been adopted and developed in the Saudi Arabian Deputy Ministry for Mineral Resources over the past decade. A number of problems with conventional classification schemes have been identified and resolved; others, notably those arising from difficulties in identifying precise mineral compositions, continue to present difficulties. The petrographic nomenclature used is essentially that recommended by the International Union of Geological Sciences. Problems that have arisen include the definition of: (1) rocks with sodic, zoned or perthitic feldspar, (2) trondhjemites, and (3) alkali granites. Chemical classification has been largely based on relative molar amounts of alumina, lime and alkalis, and the use of conventional variation diagrams, but pilot studies utilizing univariate and multivariate statistical techniques have been made. The classification used in Saudi Arabia for stratigraphic purposes is a hierarchy of formation-rank units, suites and super-suites as defined in the Saudi Arabian stratigraphic code. For genetic and petrological studies, a grouping as 'associations' of similar and genetically related lithologies is commonly used. In order to indicate mineral-resource potential, the felsic plutons are classed as common, precursor, specialized or mineralized, in order of increasing exploration significance.

  3. Phylogeny, identification and nomenclature of the genus Aspergillus

    PubMed Central

    Samson, R.A.; Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.; Hong, S.-B.; Hubka, V.; Klaassen, C.H.W.; Perrone, G.; Seifert, K.A.; Susca, A.; Tanney, J.B.; Varga, J.; Kocsubé, S.; Szigeti, G.; Yaguchi, T.; Frisvad, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus comprises a diverse group of species based on morphological, physiological and phylogenetic characters, which significantly impact biotechnology, food production, indoor environments and human health. Aspergillus was traditionally associated with nine teleomorph genera, but phylogenetic data suggest that together with genera such as Polypaecilum, Phialosimplex, Dichotomomyces and Cristaspora, Aspergillus forms a monophyletic clade closely related to Penicillium. Changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants resulted in the move to one name per species, meaning that a decision had to be made whether to keep Aspergillus as one big genus or to split it into several smaller genera. The International Commission of Penicillium and Aspergillus decided to keep Aspergillus instead of using smaller genera. In this paper, we present the arguments for this decision. We introduce new combinations for accepted species presently lacking an Aspergillus name and provide an updated accepted species list for the genus, now containing 339 species. To add to the scientific value of the list, we include information about living ex-type culture collection numbers and GenBank accession numbers for available representative ITS, calmodulin, β-tubulin and RPB2 sequences. In addition, we recommend a standard working technique for Aspergillus and propose calmodulin as a secondary identification marker. PMID:25492982

  4. Scleroderma: nomenclature, etiology, pathogenesis, prognosis, and treatments: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Fett, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Scleroderma refers to a heterogeneous group of autoimmune fibrosing disorders. The nomenclature of scleroderma has changed dramatically in recent years, with morphea (localized scleroderma), limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis, diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis, and systemic sclerosis sine scleroderma encompassing the currently accepted disease subtypes. Major advances have been made in the molecular studies of morphea and systemic sclerosis; however, their etiologies and pathogenesis remain incompletely understood. Although morphea and systemic sclerosis demonstrate activation of similar inflammatory and fibrotic pathways, important differences in signaling pathways and gene signatures indicate they are likely biologically distinct processes. Morphea can cause significant morbidity but does not affect mortality, whereas systemic sclerosis has the highest disease-specific mortality of all autoimmune connective tissue diseases. Treatment recommendations for morphea and systemic sclerosis are based on limited data and largely expert opinions. Current collaborative efforts in morphea and systemic sclerosis research will hopefully lead to better understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of these rare and varied diseases and improved treatment options.

  5. Nonoriginal Malappropriate Eponymous Nomenclature: examples relevant to paediatric orthopaedics.

    PubMed

    Aresti, Nick; Ramachandran, Manoj

    2012-11-01

    Eponyms are widely used in medicine and their use has been the subject of much debate recently. Advocates stress their historical significance, their ability to simplify complex terminology and their addition of character to science. Opponents cite the controversy among those eponyms and highlight the lack of both scientific and historical accuracy. The law of Nonoriginal Malappropriate Eponymous Nomenclature (NOMEN) suggests that no phenomenon is named after the individual(s) who originally described it. We aimed to determine whether this law is applicable to various clinical conditions and signs relevant to paediatric orthopaedics. We selected a series of 10 eponyms and performed a thorough literature review. In all cases, a description was identified preceding that from whom the disease received its eponymous name. We were also able to identify what we believe to be the earliest recorded description of each disease and sign. Our examples confirm the law of NOMEN in the field of paediatric orthopaedics. We suggest that irregularities in the descriptions and meanings of eponyms are identified and updated.

  6. Towards standardization of the nomenclature of resistance training exercises.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Matthew C; Brown, Lee E; Coburn, Jared W; Judelson, Daniel A; Cullen-Carroll, Nick

    2013-05-01

    There is a disagreement surrounding the names of resistance training exercises. The purpose of this study was to survey different professionals regarding the nomenclature of resistance training exercises. Two hundred five participants volunteered for the study, of which, 64.9 % were male. Participants self-identified as either certified athletic trainer (22.4%), academic (18.5%), strength and conditioning coach (25.9%), personal trainer (15.6%), or clinician (17.6%). Participants were asked to name 10 resistance training exercises as depicted by pictures. A χ2 for exercise name by current profession analysis was used to analyze frequency differences. All exercises in the survey yielded inconsistent terminology primarily related to the responders' profession and 3 items in their naming patterns as follows: specification, equipment, and exercise. These results reveal a need to establish consistent naming pattern guidelines for resistance training exercises. The use of a consistent naming pattern may provide direction and clarity when working with athletes and clients in a strength training environment. We suggest a "specification, equipment, exercise" (e.g., 1 arm dumbbell row) naming pattern be used when naming resistance training exercises.

  7. Osteogenesis imperfecta: clinical diagnosis, nomenclature and severity assessment.

    PubMed

    Van Dijk, F S; Sillence, D O

    2014-06-01

    Recently, the genetic heterogeneity in osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), proposed in 1979 by Sillence et al., has been confirmed with molecular genetic studies. At present, 17 genetic causes of OI and closely related disorders have been identified and it is expected that more will follow. Unlike most reviews that have been published in the last decade on the genetic causes and biochemical processes leading to OI, this review focuses on the clinical classification of OI and elaborates on the newly proposed OI classification from 2010, which returned to a descriptive and numerical grouping of five OI syndromic groups. The new OI nomenclature and the pre-and postnatal severity assessment introduced in this review, emphasize the importance of phenotyping in order to diagnose, classify, and assess severity of OI. This will provide patients and their families with insight into the probable course of the disorder and it will allow physicians to evaluate the effect of therapy. A careful clinical description in combination with knowledge of the specific molecular genetic cause is the starting point for development and assessment of therapy in patients with heritable disorders including OI. © 2014 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

  8. Structural recognition and nomenclature standardization in forensic knot analysis.

    PubMed

    Chisnall, Robert Charles

    2016-07-01

    The analysis of knots during civil and criminal investigations is characterized by two fundamental challenges: the precise recognition of all structural nuances and the application of accurate, universally recognized terms. These challenges are exacerbated by inconsistencies, contradictions and regional terminology, which occur in common practice and in mainstream books as well as within forensic science. Some knots bear multiple or value-laden names, even misnomers, and some terms have manifold applications. This can lead to ambiguity and confusion. Additionally, many topological concepts and terms are applicable to practical knot-tying, despite the differences between real-world and theoretical knots, but the esoterica of topology are inaccessible to anyone unfamiliar with that branch of mathematics. To highlight these challenges some examples of knots encountered in case work are presented. Significantly, an overview of a few previously ignored issues is examined and several new concepts are introduced. An emphasis is placed on identifying structural variations, standardized nomenclature is outlined, and recommended terminology is derived from fields such as forensic science, chemistry, archaeology, topology and the textile industry. Greater precision in knot identifications, characterizations and descriptions can assist investigators in linking specific tying practises to potential suspects, analysing the manner in which knotted evidence was tied, and understanding how knots and ligatures perform in given scenarios.

  9. Words matter: Recommendations for clarifying coral disease nomenclature and terminology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, Caroline S.

    2010-01-01

    Coral diseases have caused significant losses on Caribbean reefs and are becoming a greater concern in the Pacific. Progress in coral disease research requires collaboration and communication among experts from many different disciplines. The lack of consistency in the use of terms and names in the recent scientific literature reflects the absence of an authority for naming coral diseases, a lack of consensus on the meaning of even some of the most basic terms as they apply to corals, and imprecision in the use of descriptive words. The lack of consensus partly reflects the complexity of this newly emerging field of research. Establishment of a nomenclature committee under the Coral Disease and Health Consortium (CDHC) could lead to more standardized definitions and could promote use of appropriate medical terminology for describing and communicating disease conditions in corals. This committee could also help to define disease terminology unique to corals where existing medical terminology is not applicable. These efforts will help scientists communicate with one another and with the general public more effectively. Scientists can immediately begin to reduce some of the confusion simply by explicitly defining the words they are using. In addition, digital photographs can be posted on the CDHC website and included in publications to document the macroscopic (gross) signs of the conditions observed on coral colonies along with precisely written characterizations and descriptions.

  10. Evaluating three methods that contribute to the learning of inorganic chemical nomenclature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chimeno, Joseph Samuel

    The majority of students about to complete a first year chemistry course have a poor working knowledge of inorganic chemical nomenclature (average quiz scores are less than 60% correct). Usually, the chemical nomenclature topic is not emphasized in a first year chemistry class, and a minimum amount of time is devoted to it. The traditional assignment for chemical nomenclature involves having students work practice problems at the end of the chapter. Students are not very receptive to this approach. The minimal exposure to chemical nomenclature in class along with the ineffective approach of a traditional assignment results in students having a poor working knowledge of chemical nomenclature. Studies have claimed that students are more receptive to learning when game playing is combined with the learning activity. Therefore two educational games were created to help students develop a working knowledge of inorganic chemical nomenclature: the Rainbow Wheel and Rainbow Matrix. This study compared the learning of inorganic chemical nomenclature by three different methods; one was the traditional method where students worked problems at the end of a chapter, and the other two methods used a game format to learn chemical nomenclature. The statistical analysis of student performance was evaluated with analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t-tests. The analysis revealed that the game format methods were more effective in helping students develop a working knowledge of chemical nomenclature. The ANOVA test indicate that both the Rainbow Wheel and Rainbow Matrix post-assignment mean scores differ significantly from the traditional group's post-assignment mean scores (p < 0.05 Middle Tennessee State University (MTSU) data and p < 0.01 North Iowa Area Community College (NIACC) data). The t-tests revealed that there were significant differences between the traditional group's post-assignment mean scores and the game format groups' mean scores. The results of this study indicate that

  11. Neisseria Adhesin A Variation and Revised Nomenclature Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Bambini, Stefania; De Chiara, Matteo; Muzzi, Alessandro; Mora, Marirosa; Lucidarme, Jay; Brehony, Carina; Borrow, Ray; Masignani, Vega; Comanducci, Maurizio; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Jolley, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria adhesin A (NadA), involved in the adhesion and invasion of Neisseria meningitidis into host tissues, is one of the major components of Bexsero, a novel multicomponent vaccine licensed for protection against meningococcal serogroup B in Europe, Australia, and Canada. NadA has been identified in approximately 30% of clinical isolates and in a much lower proportion of carrier isolates. Three protein variants were originally identified in invasive meningococci and named NadA-1, NadA-2, and NadA-3, whereas most carrier isolates either lacked the gene or harbored a different variant, NadA-4. Further analysis of isolates belonging to the sequence type 213 (ST-213) clonal complex identified NadA-5, which was structurally similar to NadA-4, but more distantly related to NadA-1, -2, and -3. At the time of this writing, more than 89 distinct nadA allele sequences and 43 distinct peptides have been described. Here, we present a revised nomenclature system, taking into account the complete data set, which is compatible with previous classification schemes and is expandable. The main features of this new scheme include (i) the grouping of the previously named NadA-2 and NadA-3 variants into a single NadA-2/3 variant, (ii) the grouping of the previously assigned NadA-4 and NadA-5 variants into a single NadA-4/5 variant, (iii) the introduction of an additional variant (NadA-6), and (iv) the classification of the variants into two main groups, named groups I and II. To facilitate querying of the sequences and submission of new allele sequences, the nucleotide and amino acid sequences are available at http://pubmlst.org/neisseria/NadA/. PMID:24807056

  12. Recent advances in the molecular pharmacology of the alpha 1-adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Guarino, R D; Perez, D M; Piascik, M T

    1996-08-01

    This review is intended to discuss recent developments in the molecular pharmacology of the alpha 1-adrenergic receptor (alpha 1-AR) subtypes. After a brief historical development, we will focus on the more contemporary issues having to do with this receptor family. Emphasis will be put on recent data regarding the cloning, nomenclature, signalling mechanisms, and genomic organization of the alpha 1-AR subtypes. We will also highlight recent mutational studies that identify key amino acid residues involved in ligand binding, as well as the role of the alpha 1-AR subtypes in regulating physiologic processes.

  13. Pharmacology. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This instructor's guide contains the materials required to teach a competency-based course in pharmacology for practical nursing. The following are covered in the five instructional units: calculating medication dosages, documenting medications, identifying classification and effects of medications, administering medications, and assisting with…

  14. Social pharmacology: expanding horizons.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Rituparna; Alloza, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    In the current modern and global society, social changes are in constant evolution due to scientific progress (technology, culture, customs, and hygiene) and produce the freedom in individuals to take decisions by themselves or with their doctors toward drug consumption. In the arena of marketed drug products which includes society, individual, administration, and pharmaceutical industry, the young discipline emerged is social pharmacology or sociopharmacology. This science arises from clinical pharmacology, and deals with different parameters, which are important in creating knowledge on marketed drugs. However, the scope of "social pharmacology" is not covered by the so-called "Phase IV" alone, but it is the science that handles the postmarketing knowledge of drugs. The social pharmacology studies the "life cycle" of any marketed pharmaceutical product in the social terrain, and evaluates the effects of the real environment under circumstances totally different in the drug development process. Therefore, there are far-reaching horizons, plural, and shared predictions among health professionals and other, for beneficial use of a drug, toward maximizing the benefits of therapy, while minimizing negative social consequences.

  15. The Science and Politics of Naming: Reforming Anatomical Nomenclature, ca. 1886-1955.

    PubMed

    Buklijas, Tatjana

    2017-02-11

    Anatomical nomenclature is medicine's official language. Early in their medical studies, students are expected to memorize not only the bodily geography but also the names for all the structures that, by consensus, constitute the anatomical body. The making and uses of visual maps of the body have received considerable historiographical attention, yet the history of production, communication, and reception of anatomical names-a history as long as the history of anatomy itself-has been studied far less. My essay examines the reforms of anatomical naming between the first modern nomenclature, the 1895 Basel Nomina Anatomica (BNA), and the 1955 Nomina Anatomica Parisiensia (NAP, also known as PNA), which is the basis for current anatomical terminology. I focus on the controversial and ultimately failed attempt to reform anatomical nomenclature, known as Jena Nomina Anatomica (INA), of 1935. Discussions around nomenclature reveal not only how anatomical names are made and communicated, but also the relationship of anatomy with the clinic; disciplinary controversies within anatomy; national traditions in science; and the interplay between international and scientific disciplinary politics. I show how the current anatomical nomenclature, a successor to the NAP, is an outcome of both political and disciplinary tensions that reached their peak before 1945.

  16. Development of a rational nomenclature for naming peptide and protein toxins from sea anemones.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Joacir Stolarz; Fuentes-Silva, Deyanira; King, Glenn F

    2012-09-15

    Sea anemone toxins are predominantly peptide and proteins that act mainly on sodium and potassium channels, as well as in a variety of target cells causing lysis. Over recent years, the number of sea anemone peptide toxins as well as cytolytic pore-forming proteins and phospholipase A(2) sequences submitted to databases has been rapidly increasing due to the developments in DNA sequencing technology and proteomic approaches. However, the lack of a systematic nomenclature has resulted in multiple names being assigned to the same toxins, toxins from unrelated species being designated by the same name, and ambiguous name designations. Therefore, in this work we propose a systematic nomenclature in which we adopted specific criteria, based on order of discovery and phylogenetic analysis, in order to avoid redundant sea anemone toxin names. Implementation of the nomenclature proposed here not only allowed us to rename the already published 191 anemone toxins without ambiguities, but it can be used to unambiguously name newly discovered toxins whether or not they are related to previously published sea anemone sequences. In the new nomenclature each toxin name contains information about the toxin's biological activity, origin and relationship to known isoforms. Ongoing increases in the speed of DNA sequencing will raise significantly the number of sea anemone toxin sequences in the literature. This will represent a constant challenge in their clear identification and logical classification, which could be solved using the proposed nomenclature.

  17. Nomenclature of homodetic cyclic peptides produced from ribosomal precursors: An IUPAC task group interim report.

    PubMed

    Craik, David J; Young Shim, Youn; Göransson, Ulf; Moss, Gerard P; Tan, Ninghua; Jadhav, Pramodkumar D; Shen, Jianheng; Reaney, Martin J T

    2016-11-01

    In 2015, an International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) Task Group was formed to develop nomenclature recommendations for homodetic cyclic peptides produced from ribosomal precursors. Delegates of the 2015 International Conference on Circular Proteins (ICCP) were presented with the strengths and weaknesses of four published approaches to homodetic cyclic peptide nomenclature, and a summary of the ensuing discussion is presented here. This interim report presents a potentially novel suggestion-the use of Cahn-Ingold-Prelog rules to specify amino acid priority in homodetic peptides for consistent numbering. Indeed, this might be the first extension of the Cahn-Ingold-Prelog rules in five decades. The authors invite interested parties to contact the corresponding author with suggestions for the improvement of the proposed nomenclature; these ideas will be discussed and considered for inclusion in the final report.

  18. Recommendations for a nomenclature system for reporting methylation aberrations in imprinted domains.

    PubMed

    Monk, David; Morales, Joannella; den Dunnen, Johan T; Russo, Silvia; Court, Franck; Prawitt, Dirk; Eggermann, Thomas; Beygo, Jasmin; Buiting, Karin; Tümer, Zeynep

    2016-12-02

    The analysis of DNA methylation has become routine in the pipeline for diagnosis of imprinting disorders, with many publications reporting aberrant methylation associated with imprinted differentially methylated regions (DMRs). However, comparisons between these studies are routinely hampered by the lack of consistency in reporting sites of methylation evaluated. To avoid confusion surrounding nomenclature, special care is needed to communicate results accurately, especially between scientists and other health care professionals. Within the European Network for Human Congenital Imprinting Disorders we have discussed these issues and designed a nomenclature for naming imprinted DMRs as well as for reporting methylation values. We apply these recommendations for imprinted DMRs that are commonly assayed in clinical laboratories and show how they support standardized database submission. The recommendations are in line with existing recommendations, most importantly the Human Genome Variation Society nomenclature, and should facilitate accurate reporting and data exchange among laboratories and thereby help to avoid future confusion.

  19. [Suggestions for standardized management of nomenclature and classification of neonatal diseases].

    PubMed

    Li, Mao-Jun; Ma, Juan; Shao, Xiao-Mei; Wu, Qing; Shi, Wei; Hu, Yan-Sheng; Liu, Ai-Min; Chen, Chang-Hui

    2016-11-01

    Nomenclature and classification of diseases are not only related to clinical diagnosis and treatment, but also involved in the fields such as management and exchange of medical information, medical expense payments, and medical insurance payment. In order to standardize clinical physicians' diagnostic and treatment activities, medical records, and the first page of medical records, this article elaborates on the basic principles and methods for nomenclature and classification of diseases with reference to international nomenclature of diseases and international classification of diseases. Meanwhile, in view of the problems in clinical practice, this article proposes the classification of neonatal diseases, the basic procedure and writing rules in the diagnosis of neonatal diseases, and death diagnosis principles.

  20. A nomenclature system for the tree of human Y-chromosomal binary haplogroups.

    PubMed

    2002-02-01

    The Y chromosome contains the largest nonrecombining block in the human genome. By virtue of its many polymorphisms, it is now the most informative haplotyping system, with applications in evolutionary studies, forensics, medical genetics, and genealogical reconstruction. However, the emergence of several unrelated and nonsystematic nomenclatures for Y-chromosomal binary haplogroups is an increasing source of confusion. To resolve this issue, 245 markers were genotyped in a globally representative set of samples, 74 of which were males from the Y Chromosome Consortium cell line repository. A single most parsimonious phylogeny was constructed for the 153 binary haplogroups observed. A simple set of rules was developed to unambiguously label the different clades nested within this tree. This hierarchical nomenclature system supersedes and unifies past nomenclatures and allows the inclusion of additional mutations and haplogroups yet to be discovered.

  1. Pharmacological strategies for detoxification

    PubMed Central

    Diaper, Alison M; Law, Fergus D; Melichar, Jan K

    2014-01-01

    Detoxification refers to the safe discontinuation from a substance of dependence and is distinct from relapse prevention. Detoxification usually takes between a few days and a few weeks to complete, depending on the substance being misused, the severity of dependence and the support available to the user. Psychosocial therapies alongside pharmacological treatments are essential to improve outcome. The dependencies considered in this overview are detoxification from opioids (with methadone, buprenorphine, α2-adrenoceptor agonists and adjunct medications), alcohol (with benzodiazepines, anti-glutamatergics and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic drugs), stimulants and cannabis (with no clear recommended pharmacological treatments), benzodiazepines (with dose tapering) and nicotine (with nicotine replacement therapy, antidepressants and partial agonists). Evidence is limited by a lack of controlled trials robust enough for review bodies, and more research is required into optimal treatment doses and regimes, alone and in combination. PMID:24118014

  2. Pharmacological strategies for detoxification.

    PubMed

    Diaper, Alison M; Law, Fergus D; Melichar, Jan K

    2014-02-01

    Detoxification refers to the safe discontinuation from a substance of dependence and is distinct from relapse prevention. Detoxification usually takes between a few days and a few weeks to complete, depending on the substance being misused, the severity of dependence and the support available to the user. Psychosocial therapies alongside pharmacological treatments are essential to improve outcome. The dependencies considered in this overview are detoxification from opioids (with methadone, buprenorphine, α2-adrenoceptor agonists and adjunct medications), alcohol (with benzodiazepines, anti-glutamatergics and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic drugs), stimulants and cannabis (with no clear recommended pharmacological treatments), benzodiazepines (with dose tapering) and nicotine (with nicotine replacement therapy, antidepressants and partial agonists). Evidence is limited by a lack of controlled trials robust enough for review bodies, and more research is required into optimal treatment doses and regimes, alone and in combination.

  3. Is chromium pharmacologically relevant?

    PubMed

    Vincent, John B

    2014-10-01

    Recent research, combined with reanalysis of previous results, has revealed that chromium can no longer be considered an essential trace element. Clinical studies are ambiguous at best as to whether Cr has a pharmacological effect in humans. Observed effects of Cr on rodent models of insulin resistance and diabetes are best interpreted in terms of a pharmacological role for Cr. Studies on the effects of Cr on rat models of diabetes are reviewed herein and suggest Cr increases insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues of the rodent models. The lack of effects in human studies may stem from humans receiving a comparably smaller dose than the rodent models. However, given the different responses to Cr in the rodent models, humans could potentially have different responses to Cr.

  4. Report from The International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease: cardiovascular catheterisation for congenital and paediatric cardiac disease (Part 2 - Nomenclature of complications associated with interventional cardiology).

    PubMed

    Bergersen, Lisa; Giroud, Jorge Manuel; Jacobs, Jeffrey Phillip; Franklin, Rodney Cyril George; Béland, Marie Josée; Krogmann, Otto Nils; Aiello, Vera Demarchi; Colan, Steven D; Elliott, Martin J; Gaynor, J William; Kurosawa, Hiromi; Maruszewski, Bohdan; Stellin, Giovanni; Tchervenkov, Christo I; Walters, Henry Lane; Weinberg, Paul; Everett, Allen Dale

    2011-06-01

    Interventional cardiology for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease is a relatively young and rapidly evolving field. As the profession begins to establish multi-institutional databases, a universal system of nomenclature is necessary for the field of interventional cardiology for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the efforts of The International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease to establish a system of nomenclature for cardiovascular catheterisation for congenital and paediatric cardiac disease, focusing both on procedural nomenclature and the nomenclature of complications associated with interventional cardiology. This system of nomenclature for cardiovascular catheterisation for congenital and paediatric cardiac disease is a component of The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code. This manuscript is the second part of the two-part series. Part 1 covered the procedural nomenclature associated with interventional cardiology as treatment for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease. Part 2 will cover the nomenclature of complications associated with interventional cardiology as treatment for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease.

  5. Pharmacological interactions of vasoconstrictors.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; Guardia, Javier; Cutando, Antonio; Calvo-Guirado, José Luis

    2009-01-01

    This article is the first of a series on pharmacological interactions involving medicaments commonly prescribed and/or used in odontology: vasoconstrictors in local anaesthetics and anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial analgesics. The necessity for the odontologist to be aware of adverse reactions as a result of the pharmacological interactions is due to the increase in medicament consumption by the general population. There is a demographic change with greater life expectancy and patients have increased chronic health problems and therefore have increased medicament intake. The presence of adrenaline (epinephrine) and other vasoconstrictors in local odontological anaesthetics is beneficial in relation to the duration and depth of anaesthesia and reduces bleeding and systemic toxicity of the local anaesthetic. However, it might produce pharmacological interactions between the injected vasoconstrictors and the local anaesthetic and adrenergic medicament administered exogenically which the odontologist should be aware of, especially because of the risk of consequent adverse reactions. Therefore the importance of conducting a detailed clinical history of the general state of health and include all medicaments, legal as well as illegal, taken by the patient.

  6. Social Pharmacology: Expanding horizons

    PubMed Central

    Maiti, Rituparna; Alloza, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    In the current modern and global society, social changes are in constant evolution due to scientific progress (technology, culture, customs, and hygiene) and produce the freedom in individuals to take decisions by themselves or with their doctors toward drug consumption. In the arena of marketed drug products which includes society, individual, administration, and pharmaceutical industry, the young discipline emerged is social pharmacology or sociopharmacology. This science arises from clinical pharmacology, and deals with different parameters, which are important in creating knowledge on marketed drugs. However, the scope of “social pharmacology” is not covered by the so-called “Phase IV” alone, but it is the science that handles the postmarketing knowledge of drugs. The social pharmacology studies the “life cycle” of any marketed pharmaceutical product in the social terrain, and evaluates the effects of the real environment under circumstances totally different in the drug development process. Therefore, there are far-reaching horizons, plural, and shared predictions among health professionals and other, for beneficial use of a drug, toward maximizing the benefits of therapy, while minimizing negative social consequences. PMID:24987168

  7. Revised nomenclature for the mammalian long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase gene family.

    PubMed

    Mashek, Douglas G; Bornfeldt, Karin E; Coleman, Rosalind A; Berger, Johannes; Bernlohr, David A; Black, Paul; DiRusso, Concetta C; Farber, Steven A; Guo, Wen; Hashimoto, Naohiro; Khodiyar, Varsha; Kuypers, Frans A; Maltais, Lois J; Nebert, Daniel W; Renieri, Alessandra; Schaffer, Jean E; Stahl, Andreas; Watkins, Paul A; Vasiliou, Vasilis; Yamamoto, Tokuo T

    2004-10-01

    By consensus, the acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) community, with the advice of the human and mouse genome nomenclature committees, has revised the nomenclature for the mammalian long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases. ACS is the family root name, and the human and mouse genes for the long-chain ACSs are termed ACSL1,3-6 and Acsl1,3-6, respectively. Splice variants of ACSL3, -4, -5, and -6 are cataloged. Suggestions for naming other family members and for the nonmammalian acyl-CoA synthetases are made.

  8. International harmonization of toxicologic pathology nomenclature: an overview and review of basic principles.

    PubMed

    Mann, Peter C; Vahle, John; Keenan, Charlotte M; Baker, Julia F; Bradley, Alys E; Goodman, Dawn G; Harada, Takanori; Herbert, Ronald; Kaufmann, Wolfgang; Kellner, Rupert; Nolte, Thomas; Rittinghausen, Susanne; Tanaka, Takuji

    2012-06-01

    The International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria for Lesions in Rats and Mice is a global project that is publishing criteria for both proliferative and nonproliferative changes in laboratory animals. This paper presents a set of general suggestions for terminology across systems. These suggestions include the use of diagnostic versus descriptive terms, modifiers, combination terms, and grading systems; and the use of thresholds, synonyms, and terminology for some processes that are common to several organ systems. The purpose of this paper is to help the reader understand some of the basic principles underlying the International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria for Lesions in Rats and Mice process.

  9. A historical vignette. The imagination and medical nomenclature; Teutonic mythology as a presence in ENT and related fields.

    PubMed

    Tainmont, J

    2008-01-01

    The imagination is one of the sources of inspiration for medical nomenclature, as can be seen when nomenclature reflects mythology. In this paper, we consider Teutonic (Scandinavian, Germanic) mythology as it appears in the field of minerals, in the field of hearing and in the field of respiration. As far as hearing is concerned, the author suggests naming "Heimdall's ear" physiological hyperacusis.

  10. The Rise of "Professional Staff" and Demise of the "Non-Academic": A Study of University Staffing Nomenclature Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebalj, Darlene; Holbrook, Allyson; Bourke, Sid

    2012-01-01

    Concerns regarding the nomenclature of university administration in Australia and the UK have featured in the higher education literature for over a decade. In response, a significant nomenclature shift is occurring, with Australian universities replacing the term "General Staff" to describe all administrative and technical staff, in…

  11. Final report on the use of the modular-logic-nomenclature approach for the N-reactor probabilistic risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1986-06-10

    The N-Reactor probabilistic risk assessment adaption of the modular logic approach for fault tree modeling has led to the update of the master logic diagram (MLD) nomenclature to conform with a standard modular-logic-model-nomeclature format. This report describes the MLD nomenclature system and provides a listing of the updated MLD label codes, along with the original codes.

  12. Update on allele nomenclature for human cytochromes P450 and the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele (CYP-allele) Nomenclature Database.

    PubMed

    Sim, Sarah C; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Interindividual variability in xenobiotic metabolism and drug response is extensive and genetic factors play an important role in this variation. A majority of clinically used drugs are substrates for the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme system and interindividual variability in expression and function of these enzymes is a major factor for explaining individual susceptibility for adverse drug reactions and drug response. Because of the existence of many polymorphic CYP genes, for many of which the number of allelic variants is continually increasing, a universal and official nomenclature system is important. Since 1999, all functionally relevant polymorphic CYP alleles are named and published on the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele (CYP-allele) Nomenclature Web site (http://www.cypalleles.ki.se). Currently, the database covers nomenclature of more than 660 alleles in a total of 30 genes that includes 29 CYPs as well as the cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) gene. On the CYP-allele Web site, each gene has its own Webpage, which lists the alleles with their nucleotide changes, their functional consequences, and links to publications identifying or characterizing the alleles. CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4 are the most important CYPs in terms of drug metabolism, which is also reflected in their corresponding highest number of Webpage hits at the CYP-allele Web site.The main advantage of the CYP-allele database is that it offers a rapid online publication of CYP-alleles and their effects and provides an overview of peer-reviewed data to the scientific community. Here, we provide an update of the CYP-allele database and the associated nomenclature.

  13. Safety pharmacology in the nonclinical assessment of new medicinal products: definition, place, interest and difficulties.

    PubMed

    Claude, Jean-Roger

    2002-04-01

    Until the year 2000 there was no internationally-accepted definition for the terms used in nonclinical pharmacology (primary, secondary pharmacodynamics, discovery, safety pharmacology, etc). Now, after ICH5 (San Diego, November 2000), a harmonisation of the nomenclature is adopted: safety pharmacology is defined as the studies that investigate the potential undesirable pharmacodynamic effects of a medicinal product on physiological functions in relationship to exposure. Consequently, safety pharmacology studies are a part of the safety assessment for a new product, in the same way than toxicological studies, and a basic battery of tests (core battery) has to be conducted prior to the first administration to humans. Safety pharmacology studies are of peculiar interest: they show a good predictive potential for humans, they do not require a large number of laboratory animals, long-term studies, large amount of products and they are more dynamic and more flexible than toxicological studies. Nevertheless, many difficulties occur for the implementation in industry, related to practical and/or scientific problems: location of the studies, routine activity for the pharmacologists, sometimes difficulties in the relationship between toxicologists and pharmacologists, adaptation to the GLP requirements, elaboration of an early relevant scientific programme, necessity to go to contract-labs or to academic research for unusual or for up to date methods, etc. To conclude, a retrospective timetable of the regulatory evolution for the last 10 years will be provided, as an illustration of the worldwide progress in the concept of 'harmonisation' for the assessment of new medicinal products.

  14. Nomenclatural and taxonomic problems related to the electronic publication of new nomina and nomenclatural acts in zoology, with brief comments on optical discs and on the situation in botany.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Alain; Crochet, Pierre-André; Dickinson, Edward C; Nemésio, André; Aescht, Erna; Bauer, Aaron M; Blagoderov, Vladimir; Bour, Roger; De Carvalho, Marcelo R; Desutter-Grandcolas, Laure; Frétey, Thierry; Jäger, Peter; Koyamba, Victoire; Lavilla, Esteban O; Löbl, Ivan; Louchart, Antoine; Malécot, Valéry; Schatz, Heinrich; Ohler, Annemarie

    2013-11-11

    In zoological nomenclature, to be potentially valid, nomenclatural novelties (i.e., new nomina and nomenclatural acts) need first to be made available, that is, published in works qualifying as publications as defined by the International Code of zoological Nomenclature ("the Code"). In September 2012, the Code was amended in order to allow the recognition of works electronically published online after 2011 as publications available for the purpose of zoological nomenclature, provided they meet several conditions, notably a preregistration of the work in ZooBank. Despite these new Rules, several of the long-discussed problems concerning the electronic publication of new nomina and nomenclatural acts have not been resolved. The publication of this amendment provides an opportunity to discuss some of these in detail. It is important to note that: (1) all works published only online before 2012 are nomenclaturally unavailable; (2) printed copies of the PDFs of works which do not have their own ISSN or ISBN, and which are not obtainable free of charge or by purchase, do not qualify as publications but must be seen as facsimiles of unavailable works and are unable to provide nomenclatural availability to any nomenclatural novelties they may contain; (3) prepublications online of later released online publications are unavailable, i.e., they do not advance the date of publication; (4) the publication dates of works for which online prepublications had been released are not those of these prepublications and it is critical that the real release date of such works appear on the actual final electronic publication, but this is not currently the case in electronic periodicals that distribute such online prepublications and which still indicate on their websites and PDFs the date of release of prepublication as that of publication of the work; (5) supplementary online materials and subsequent formal corrections of either paper or electronic publications distributed only

  15. Analytical pharmacology: the impact of numbers on pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Kenakin, Terry; Christopoulos, Arthur

    2011-04-01

    Analytical pharmacology strives to compare pharmacological data to detailed quantitative models. The most famous tool in this regard is the Black/Leff operational model, which can be used to quantify agonism in a test system and predict it in any other system. Here we give examples of how and where analytical pharmacology has been used to classify drugs and predict mechanism of action in pharmacology. We argue for the importance of analytical pharmacology in drug classification and in prediction of drug mechanisms of action. Although some of the specifics of Black's models have been updated to account for new developments, the principles of analytical pharmacology should shape drug discovery for many years to come.

  16. Molecular Pharmacology of Phytocannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Turner, Sarah E; Williams, Claire M; Iversen, Leslie; Whalley, Benjamin J

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis sativa has been used for recreational, therapeutic and other uses for thousands of years. The plant contains more than 120 C21 terpenophenolic constituents named phytocannabinoids. The Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol type class of phytocannabinoids comprises the largest proportion of the phytocannabinoid content. Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol was first discovered in 1971. This led to the discovery of the endocannabinoid system in mammals, including the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol exerts its well-known psychotropic effects through the CB1 receptor but this effect of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol has limited the use of cannabis medicinally, despite the therapeutic benefits of this phytocannabinoid. This has driven research into other targets outside the endocannabinoid system and has also driven research into the other non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids present in cannabis. This chapter presents an overview of the molecular pharmacology of the seven most thoroughly investigated phytocannabinoids, namely Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabivarin, cannabinol, cannabidiol, cannabidivarin, cannabigerol, and cannabichromene. The targets of these phytocannabinoids are defined both within the endocannabinoid system and beyond. The pharmacological effect of each individual phytocannabinoid is important in the overall therapeutic and recreational effect of cannabis and slight structural differences can elicit diverse and competing physiological effects. The proportion of each phytocannabinoid can be influenced by various factors such as growing conditions and extraction methods. It is therefore important to investigate the pharmacology of these seven phytocannabinoids further, and characterise the large number of other phytocannabinoids in order to better understand their contributions to the therapeutic and recreational effects claimed for the whole cannabis plant and its extracts.

  17. Rebuilding the Tower of Babel: A Revised Nomenclature for the Study of Suicide and Suicidal Behaviors. Part 1: Background, Rationale, and Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Morton M.; Berman, Alan L.; Sanddal, Nels D.; O'Carroll, Patrick W.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Since the publication of the O'Carroll et al. (1996) nomenclature for suicidology, there have been a number of published letters and articles, as well as an active e-mail dialogue, in response to, and elaborating upon, this effort to establish a standard nomenclature for suicidology. This new nomenclature has been presented on a number of…

  18. The pharmacology game.

    PubMed

    Batscha, Catherine

    2002-09-01

    This article gives instructions for designing a visually attractive, entertaining, faculty-led computer game for pharmacology review in a nursing education program. The game uses Microsoft PowerPoint, a presentation program that is inexpensive, easy to master, and widely available. Instructions for using Visual Basic for Applications to customize the game are included to allow tracking questions asked and the score of groups playing the game. The game can be easily adapted to material by specific nursing programs with access to PowerPoint.

  19. Pharmacologic agents targeting autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Vakifahmetoglu-Norberg, Helin; Xia, Hong-guang; Yuan, Junying

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is an important intracellular catabolic mechanism critically involved in regulating tissue homeostasis. The implication of autophagy in human diseases and the need to understand its regulatory mechanisms in mammalian cells have stimulated research efforts that led to the development of high-throughput screening protocols and small-molecule modulators that can activate or inhibit autophagy. Herein we review the current landscape in the development of screening technology as well as the molecules and pharmacologic agents targeting the regulatory mechanisms of autophagy. We also evaluate the potential therapeutic application of these compounds in different human pathologies. PMID:25654545

  20. Update of the WHO/IUIS Allergen Nomenclature Database based on analysis of allergen sequences.

    PubMed

    Radauer, C; Nandy, A; Ferreira, F; Goodman, R E; Larsen, J N; Lidholm, J; Pomés, A; Raulf-Heimsoth, M; Rozynek, P; Thomas, W R; Breiteneder, H

    2014-04-01

    The IUIS Allergen Nomenclature Sub-Committee, under the auspices of the World Health Organization and the International Union of Immunological Societies, maintains the systematic nomenclature of allergenic proteins and publishes a database of approved allergen names on its Web site, www.allergen.org. In this paper, we summarize updates of allergen names approved at the meetings of the committee in 2011 through 2013. These changes reflect recent progress in identification, cloning, and sequencing of allergens. The goals of this update were to increase consistency in the classification of allergens, isoallergens, and variants and in the incorporation of the evolutionary classification of proteins into allergen nomenclature, while keeping changes of established names to a minimum in the interest of continuity. Allergens for which names have been updated include respiratory allergens from birch and ragweed pollen, midge larvae, and horse dander; food allergens from peanut, cow's milk, and tomato; and cereal grain allergens. The IUIS Allergen Nomenclature Sub-Committee encourages researchers to use these updated allergen names in future publications.

  1. A Case Study of Implications and Applications of Standardized Nomenclature for Asset Management in Healthcare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFrancesco, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare organizations strive to adapt to the continuous change in what has become a fast-paced, high technology environment. Many organizations are charged to find efficiencies to better manage medical device assets. Increasingly, healthcare leaders opt to adopt a standardized medical device nomenclature under the purview of a set of national…

  2. International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants (Melbourne Code): Appendices II-VIII

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Science requires a precise, stable, and simple system of nomenclature used by scientists in all countries of the world, dealing on the one hand with the terms that denote the ranks of taxonomic groups, and on the other with the scientific names that are applied to the individual taxonomic units of a...

  3. 75 FR 9343 - Nomenclature Change Relating to the Network Distribution Center Transition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... 111 and 121 Nomenclature Change Relating to the Network Distribution Center Transition AGENCY: Postal... to the ongoing transition of USPS bulk mail centers (BMC) to network distribution centers (NDC), by... Distribution Center. BMC NDC. Destination Bulk Mail Center Destination Network Distribution Center. DBMC...

  4. What Did They Just Say? A Performance Improvement Journey through Nomenclature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Alicia R.

    2012-01-01

    A domestic credit union engages in a systematic performance improvement plan to better leverage a technical application within its organization. By engaging stakeholders early in the process, standardizing the organization's nomenclature, and building strategic partnerships, the credit union was able to achieve both quantitative and qualitative…

  5. Developments in Pedagogic Nomenclature in Australian Vocational Education: Evolution of Revolution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Over recent decades the nomenclature of "innovative" pedagogic approaches in vocational education and training (VET) has undergone a number of changes. In almost all cases "traditional face-to-face" teaching is set as the comparative benchmark and painted in pejorative terms. Using aspects of Basil Bernstein's theoretical…

  6. [The Feasibility Study on the Application of Global Medical Device Nomenclature(GMDN)].

    PubMed

    Yang, Wanjuan; Zheng, Jian; Li, Jun; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Chunqing; Li, Jingli

    2015-09-01

    The article has analyzed the policy co-ordination, Industry coverage and technical experience of the global medical device nomenclature (GMDN) to our country, argued the feasibility on the application of GMDN in our medical device administration system, provided some reference on building the naming system of medical device in our country.

  7. [The Analysis on Application of Global Medical Device Nomenclature(GMDN)].

    PubMed

    Yang, Wanjuan; Li, Jun; Li, Jingli

    2015-07-01

    The article has reviewed the administration technical structure and global application of the global medical device nomenclature(GMDN), analyzed the coordination between GMDN and the industry status of medical device in our country, put forward some suggestions on the applicaition of GMDN, provided some reference on raising the management level of medical device in our country.

  8. 26 CFR 1.338-2 - Nomenclature and definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nomenclature and definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election. 1.338-2 Section 1.338-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election. (a) Scope. This section prescribes rules relating...

  9. 26 CFR 1.338-2 - Nomenclature and definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nomenclature and definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election. 1.338-2 Section 1.338-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election. (a) Scope. This section prescribes rules relating...

  10. miRiadne: a web tool for consistent integration of miRNA nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Bonnal, Raoul J P; Rossi, Riccardo L; Carpi, Donatella; Ranzani, Valeria; Abrignani, Sergio; Pagani, Massimiliano

    2015-07-01

    The miRBase is the official miRNA repository which keeps the annotation updated on newly discovered miRNAs: it is also used as a reference for the design of miRNA profiling platforms. Nomenclature ambiguities generated by loosely updated platforms and design errors lead to incompatibilities among platforms, even from the same vendor. Published miRNA lists are thus generated with different profiling platforms that refer to diverse and not updated annotations. This greatly compromises searches, comparisons and analyses that rely on miRNA names only without taking into account the mature sequences, which is particularly critic when such analyses are carried over automatically. In this paper we introduce miRiadne, a web tool to harmonize miRNA nomenclature, which takes into account the original miRBase versions from 10 up to 21, and annotations of 40 common profiling platforms from nine brands that we manually curated. miRiadne uses the miRNA mature sequence to link miRBase versions and/or platforms to prevent nomenclature ambiguities. miRiadne was designed to simplify and support biologists and bioinformaticians in re-annotating their own miRNA lists and/or data sets. As Ariadne helped Theseus in escaping the mythological maze, miRiadne will help the miRNA researcher in escaping the nomenclature maze. miRiadne is freely accessible from the URL http://www.miriadne.org.

  11. Nomenclature of Toso, Fas apoptosis inhibitory molecule 3, and IgM FcR.

    PubMed

    Kubagawa, Hiromi; Carroll, Michael C; Jacob, Chaim O; Lang, Karl S; Lee, Kyeong-Hee; Mak, Tak; McAndrews, Monica; Morse, Herbert C; Nolan, Garry P; Ohno, Hiroshi; Richter, Günther H; Seal, Ruth; Wang, Ji-Yang; Wiestner, Adrian; Coligan, John E

    2015-05-01

    Hiromi Kubagawa and John E. Coligan coordinated an online meeting to define an appropriate nomenclature for the cell surface glycoprotein presently designated by different names: Toso, Fas apoptosis inhibitory molecule 3 (FAIM3), and IgM FcR (FcμR). FAIM3 and Faim3 are the currently approved symbols for the human and mouse genes, respectively, in the National Center for Biotechnology Information, Ensembl, and other databases. However, recent functional results reported by several groups of investigators strongly support a recommendation for renaming FAIM3/Faim3 as FCMR/Fcmr, a name better reflecting its physiological function as the FcR for IgM. Participants included 12 investigators involved in studying Toso/FAIM3(Faim3)/FμR, representatives from the Human Genome Nomenclature Committee (Ruth Seal) and the Mouse Genome Nomenclature Committee (Monica McAndrews), and an observer from the IgM research field (Michael Carroll). In this article, we provide a brief background of the key research on the Toso/FAIM3(Faim3)/FcμR proteins, focusing on the ligand specificity and functional activity, followed by a brief summary of discussion about adopting a single name for this molecule and its gene and a resulting recommendation for genome nomenclature committees.

  12. Standard descriptive nomenclature of constituents of aggregates for radiation-shielding concrete. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1992-05-01

    This nomenclature is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee C-9 on Concrete and Concrete Aggregates and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee C09.41 on Concrete for Radiation Shielding. Current edition approved Mar. 15, 1992 and published May 1992. Originally published as C 638-73. Last previous edition was C 638-84(1990). It was reapproved 1997.

  13. CD Nomenclature 2015: Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigen Workshops as a Driving Force in Immunology.

    PubMed

    Engel, Pablo; Boumsell, Laurence; Balderas, Robert; Bensussan, Armand; Gattei, Valter; Horejsi, Vaclav; Jin, Bo-Quan; Malavasi, Fabio; Mortari, Frank; Schwartz-Albiez, Reinhard; Stockinger, Hannes; van Zelm, Menno C; Zola, Heddy; Clark, Georgina

    2015-11-15

    CD (cluster of differentiation) Ags are cell surface molecules expressed on leukocytes and other cells relevant for the immune system. CD nomenclature has been universally adopted by the scientific community and is officially approved by the International Union of Immunological Societies and sanctioned by the World Health Organization. It provides a unified designation system for mAbs, as well as for the cell surface molecules that they recognize. This nomenclature was established by the Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens Workshops. In addition to defining the CD nomenclature, these workshops have been instrumental in identifying and determining the expression and function of cell surface molecules. Over the past 30 y, the data generated by the 10 Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens Workshops have led to the characterization and formal designation of more than 400 molecules. CD molecules are commonly used as cell markers, allowing the identification and isolation of leukocyte populations, subsets, and differentiation stages. mAbs against these molecules have proven to be essential for biomedical research and diagnosis, as well as in biotechnology. More recently, they have been recognized as invaluable tools for the treatment of several malignancies and autoimmune diseases. In this article, we describe how the CD nomenclature was established, present the official updated list of CD molecules, and provide a rationale for their usefulness in the 21st century.

  14. Revised Cretaceous and Tertiary stratigraphic nomenclature in the Colville Basin, Northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mull, Charles G.; Houseknecht, David W.; Bird, Kenneth J.

    2003-01-01

    A revised stratigraphic nomenclature is proposed for Cretaceous and Tertiary geologic units of the central and western North Slope of Alaska. This revised nomenclature is a simplified and broadly applicable scheme suitable for a suite of digital geologic quadrangle maps being prepared jointly by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys and Division of Oil and Gas. This revised nomenclature scheme is a simplification of a complex stratigraphic terminology that developed piecemeal during five decades of geologic investigations of the North Slope. It is based on helicopter-supported geologic field investigations incorporating information from high-resolution aerial photography, satellite imagery, paleontology, reflection seismic records, and sequence stratigraphic concepts. This revised nomenclature proposes the abandonment of the Colville Group; demotion of the Nanushuk Group to formation status; abandonment of six formations (Kukpowruk, Tuktu, Grandstand, Corwin, Chandler, and Ninuluk); revision of four formations (Sagavanirktok, Prince Creek, Schrader Bluff, and Seabee); elevation of the Tuluvak Tongue of the Prince Creek Formation to formation status; revision of two members (Franklin Bluffs Member and Sagwon Member of the Sagavanirktok Formation); abandonment of eight members or tongues (Kogosukruk, Rogers Creek, Barrow Trail, Sentinel Hill, Ayiyak, Shale Wall, Niakogon, and Killik); and definition of one new member (White Hills Member of the Sagavanirktok Formation).

  15. The contribution of O.S. Vialov to the development of ichnological classification and nomenclature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palii, V. M.

    2013-05-01

    This work highlights the role of O.S. Vialov, an outstanding Soviet geologist and paleontologist, and Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, in the creation and development of classification and nomenclature of fossil traces left by organisms.

  16. A computer-Based System for Handling Chemical Nomenclature and Structural Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowlett, Russell J.; Tate, Fred A.

    1972-01-01

    Among other improvements in chemical nomenclature used in the Chemical Registry System, Chemical Abstracts Service intends to standardize the fundamental principles for naming cyclic structures so that procedures for the derivation of ring names can become more amenable to computer generation and translation. (Author/NH)

  17. Nomenclature and databases - the past, the present, and the future : a primer for the congenital heart surgeon.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Jeffrey Phillip; Mavroudis, Constantine; Jacobs, Marshall Lewis; Maruszewski, Bohdan; Tchervenkov, Christo I; Lacour-Gayet, Francois G; Clarke, David Robinson; Gaynor, J William; Spray, Thomas L; Kurosawa, Hiromi; Stellin, Giovanni; Ebels, Tjark; Bacha, Emile A; Walters, Henry L; Elliott, Martin J

    2007-01-01

    This review discusses the historical aspects, current state of the art, and potential future advances in the areas of nomenclature and databases for congenital heart disease. Five areas will be reviewed: (1) common language = nomenclature, (2) mechanism of data collection (database or registry) with an established uniform core data set, (3) mechanism of evaluating case complexity, (4) mechanism to ensure and verify data completeness and accuracy, and (5) collaboration between medical subspecialties. During the 1990s, both the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) and the European Association for Cardiothoracic Surgery (EACTS) created congenital heart surgery outcomes databases. Beginning in 1998, the EACTS and STS collaborated in the work of the International Congenital Heart Surgery Nomenclature and Database Project. By 2000, a common congenital heart surgery nomenclature, along with a common core minimal data set, were adopted by the EACTS and the STS and published in the Annals of Thoracic Surgery. In 2000, the International Nomenclature Committee for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease was established; this committee eventually evolved into the International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease (ISNPCHD). The working component of ISNPCHD is the International Working Group for Mapping and Coding of Nomenclatures for Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease, also known as the Nomenclature Working Group (NWG). By 2005, the NWG cross-mapped the EACTS-STS nomenclature with the European Paediatric Cardiac Code of the Association for European Paediatric Cardiology and created the International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC) ( http://www.IPCCC.NET ). This common nomenclature (IPCCC), and the common minimum database data set created by the International Congenital Heart Surgery Nomenclature and Database Project, are now utilized by both EACTS and STS; since 1998, this nomenclature and database have been used by both the STS

  18. Epigenetics and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Stefanska, Barbara; MacEwan, David J

    2015-06-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of gene regulation have shown there to be much more regulation of the genome than first thought, through epigenetic mechanisms. These epigenetic mechanisms are systems that have evolved to either switch off gene activity altogether, or fine-tune any existing genetic activation. Such systems are present in all genes and include chromatin modifications and remodelling, DNA methylation (such as CpG island methylation rates) and histone covalent modifications (e.g. acetylation, methylation), RNA interference by short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). These systems regulate genomic activity 'beyond' simple transcriptional factor inducer or repressor function of genes to generate mRNA. Epigenetic regulation of gene activity has been shown to be important in maintaining normal phenotypic activity of cells, as well as having a role in development and diseases such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's. Newer classes of drugs regulate epigenetic mechanisms to counteract disease states in humans. The reports in this issue describe some advances in epigenetic understanding that relate to human disease, and our ability to control these mechanisms by pharmacological means. Increasingly the importance of epigenetics is being uncovered - it is pharmacology that will have to keep pace.

  19. SU-E-P-22: AAPM Task Group 263 Tackling Standardization of Nomenclature for Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Matuszak, M; Feng, M; Moran, J; Xiao, Y; Mayo, C; Miller, R; Bosch, W; Popple, R; Marks, L; Wu, Q; Molineu, A; Martel, M; Yock, T; McNutt, T; Brown, N; Purdie, T; Yorke, E; Santanam, L; Gabriel, P; Michalski, J; and others

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: There is growing recognition of need for increased clarity and consistency in the nomenclatures used for body and organ structures, DVH metrics, toxicity, dose and volume units, etc. Standardization has multiple benefits; e.g. facilitating data collection for clinical trials, enabling the pooling of data between institutions, making transfers (i.e. hand-offs) between centers safer, and enabling vendors to define “default” settings. Towards this goal, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) formed a task group (TG263) in July of 2014, operating under the Work Group on Clinical Trials to develop consensus statements. Guiding principles derived from the investigation and example nomenclatures will be presented for public feedback. Methods: We formed a multi-institutional and multi-vendor collaborative group of 39 physicists, physicians and others involved in clinical use and electronic transfer of information. Members include individuals from IROC, NRG, IHE-RO, DICOM WG-7, ASTRO and EORTC groups with overlapping interests to maximize the quality of the consensus and increase the likelihood of adoption. Surveys of group and NRG members were used to define current nomenclatures and requirements. Technical requirements of vendor systems and the proposed DICOM standards were examined. Results: There is a marked degree of inter and intra institutional variation in current approaches, resulting from inter-vendor differences in capabilities, clinic specific conceptualizations and inconsistencies. Using a consensus approach, the group defined optimal formats for the naming of targets and normal structures. A formal objective assessment of 13 existing clinically-used software packages show that all had capabilities to accommodate these recommended nomenclatures. Conclusions: A multi-stakeholder effort is making significant steps forward in developing a standard nomenclature that will work across platforms. Our current working list includes > 550

  20. Impacts of phylogenetic nomenclature on the efficacy of the U.S. Endangered Species Act.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Matthew S

    2015-02-01

    Cataloging biodiversity is critical to conservation efforts because accurate taxonomy is often a precondition for protection under laws designed for species conservation, such as the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Traditional nomenclatural codes governing the taxonomic process have recently come under scrutiny because taxon names are more closely linked to hierarchical ranks than to the taxa themselves. A new approach to naming biological groups, called phylogenetic nomenclature (PN), explicitly names taxa by defining their names in terms of ancestry and descent. PN has the potential to increase nomenclatural stability and decrease confusion induced by the rank-based codes. But proponents of PN have struggled with whether species and infraspecific taxa should be governed by the same rules as other taxa or should have special rules. Some proponents advocate the wholesale abandonment of rank labels (including species); this could have consequences for the implementation of taxon-based conservation legislation. I examined the principles of PN as embodied in the PhyloCode (an alternative to traditional rank-based nomenclature that names biological groups based on the results of phylogenetic analyses and does not associate taxa with ranks) and assessed how this novel approach to naming taxa might affect the implementation of species-based legislation by providing a case study of the ESA. The latest version of the PhyloCode relies on the traditional rank-based codes to name species and infraspecific taxa; thus, little will change regarding the main targets of the ESA because they will retain rank labels. For this reason, and because knowledge of evolutionary relationships is of greater importance than nomenclatural procedures for initial protection of endangered taxa under the ESA, I conclude that PN under the PhyloCode will have little impact on implementation of the ESA.

  1. GenSeq: An updated nomenclature and ranking for genetic sequences from type and non-type sources.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, Prosanta; Warren, Melanie; Page, Lawrence M; Baldwin, Carole C

    2013-01-01

    An improved and expanded nomenclature for genetic sequences is introduced that corresponds with a ranking of the reliability of the taxonomic identification of the source specimens. This nomenclature is an advancement of the "Genetypes" naming system, which some have been reluctant to adopt because of the use of the "type" suffix in the terminology. In the new nomenclature, genetic sequences are labeled "genseq," followed by a reliability ranking (e.g., 1 if the sequence is from a primary type), followed by the name of the genes from which the sequences were derived (e.g., genseq-1 16S, COI). The numbered suffix provides an indication of the likely reliability of taxonomic identification of the voucher. Included in this ranking system, in descending order of taxonomic reliability, are the following: sequences from primary types - "genseq-1," secondary types - "genseq-2," collection-vouchered topotypes - "genseq-3," collection-vouchered non-types - "genseq-4," and non-types that lack specimen vouchers but have photo vouchers - "genseq-5." To demonstrate use of the new nomenclature, we review recently published new-species descriptions in the ichthyological literature that include DNA data and apply the GenSeq nomenclature to sequences referenced in those publications. We encourage authors to adopt the GenSeq nomenclature (note capital "G" and "S" when referring to the nomenclatural program) to provide a searchable tag (e.g., "genseq"; note lowercase "g" and "s" when referring to sequences) for genetic sequences from types and other vouchered specimens. Use of the new nomenclature and ranking system will improve integration of molecular phylogenetics and biological taxonomy and enhance the ability of researchers to assess the reliability of sequence data. We further encourage authors to update sequence information on databases such as GenBank whenever nomenclatural changes are made.

  2. Pharmacology of antiplatelet agents.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Kiran; Franzese, Christopher J; Gesheff, Martin G; Lev, Eli I; Pandya, Shachi; Bliden, Kevin P; Tantry, Udaya S; Gurbel, Paul A

    2013-12-01

    Pharmacotherapies with agents that inhibit platelet function have proven to be effective in the treatment of acute coronary syndromes, and in the prevention of complications during and after percutaneous coronary intervention. Because of multiple synergetic pathways of platelet activation and their close interplay with coagulation, current treatment strategies are based not only on platelet inhibition, but also on the attenuation of procoagulant activity, inhibition of thrombin generation, and enhancement of clot dissolution. Current strategies can be broadly categorized as anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents, and fibrinolytics. This review focuses on the pharmacology of current antiplatelet therapy primarily targeting the inhibition of the enzyme cyclooxygenase 1, the P2Y12 receptor, the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor, and protease-activated receptor 1.

  3. Practical review of pharmacology concepts.

    PubMed

    Janda, Sue M; Fagan, Nancy L

    2010-01-01

    Pharmacology concepts are used routinely in nursing practice. These concepts may be as simple as drug names and side effects, or as complex as pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics. All play major roles in drug efficacy and safety. A practical review of pharmacology, including pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic concepts, will be presented.

  4. Medicinal herb research: serum pharmacological method and plasma pharmacological method.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jinwen; Wang, Dongsheng; He, Rong; Zhu, Huibin; Wang, Yuhong; He, Shilin

    2010-01-01

    Serum pharmacological method has generally been used in herb studies. However, preparation of test serum for ex vivo experiment is an intricate process: besides pretreatment (heat or chemicals), it involves the proteolytic cascades of coagulation along with fibrinolysis, complement and kinin systems, as well as platelet and leukocyte activation resulting in release reactions. These processes deviate serum sample components away from the original in vivo state, and possibly also have effects on the absorbed herbal components and their downstream effectors in blood. The conclusions drawn from serum pharmacological method are at least partially uncertain in its validity. These processes can be avoided by anticoagulation. Compared to those of the serum, constituents of plasma are better reflectors of the in vivo physiological/pathological state and medicinal herb-induced changes. Therefore, we have advocated the adoption of plasma pharmacological method in ex vivo experiments of herb studies. Recent studies including our work demonstrated that the constituents and biological activities are partially different between absorbed medicinal herbs in plasma and serum. This review summarizes the experimental evidence supporting the feasibility of plasma pharmacological method and discusses the reasons and facts that flaw the serum pharmacological method. But serum pharmacological method can be used if anticoagulants interfere with experiments. It should be emphasized that the domination between plasma and serum pharmacological methods is different depending on the usage. Indeed, the pros and cons of both methods as well as the appropriate choices of coagulants in different ex vivo experimental settings remain to be further elucidated.

  5. Pharmacology of appetite suppression.

    PubMed

    Halford, J C; Blundell, J E

    2000-01-01

    Despite a rising worldwide epidemic of obesity there is currently only a very small number of anti-obesity drugs available to manage the problem. Large numbers of differing pharmacological agents reliably produce a reduction in food intake when administered acutely to animals, and when administered chronically they result in a significant decrease in body mass. Behavioural analysis of drug-induced anorexia in animals demonstrates that various compounds profoundly effect feeding behaviour in differing ways. This indicates the variety of mechanisms by which pharmacological agents can induce changes in food intake, body weight and eventually body composition. Some of the same drugs produce decreases in food intake and weight loss in humans. Some of these drugs do so by modifying the functioning of the appetite system as measured by subjective changes in feelings of hunger and fullness (indices of satiety). Such drugs can be considered as "appetite suppressants" with clinical potential as anti-obesity agents. Other drugs induce changes in food intake and body weight through various physiological mechanisms inducing feelings of nausea or even by side effect related malaise. Of the drugs considered suitable candidates for appetite suppressants are agents which act via peripherally satiety peptide systems (such as CCK, Bombesin/GRP, Enterostatin and GLP-1), or alter the CNS levels of various hypothalamic neuropeptides (NPY, Galanin, Orexin and Melanocortins) or levels of the key CNS appetite monoamine neurotransmitters such as serotonin (5-HT) and noradrenaline (NA). Recently, the hormone leptin has been regarded as a hormonal signal linking adipose tissue status with a number of key central nervous system circuits. The peptide itself stimulates leptin receptors and it links with POMC and MC-4 receptors. These receptors may also provide drug targets for the control of appetite. Any changes induced by a potential appetite suppressant should be considered in terms of the (i

  6. Pharmacological treatment of vertigo.

    PubMed

    Hain, Timothy C; Uddin, Mohammed

    2003-01-01

    This review discusses the physiology and pharmacological treatment of vertigo and related disorders. Classes of medications useful in the treatment of vertigo include anticholinergics, antihistamines, benzodiazepines, calcium channel antagonists and dopamine receptor antagonists. These medications often have multiple actions. They may modify the intensity of symptoms (e.g. vestibular suppressants) or they may affect the underlying disease process (e.g. calcium channel antagonists in the case of vestibular migraine). Most of these agents, particularly those that are sedating, also have a potential to modulate the rate of compensation for vestibular damage. This consideration has become more relevant in recent years, as vestibular rehabilitation physical therapy is now often recommended in an attempt to promote compensation. Accordingly, therapy of vertigo is optimised when the prescriber has detailed knowledge of the pharmacology of medications being administered as well as the precise actions being sought. There are four broad causes of vertigo, for which specific regimens of drug therapy can be tailored. Otological vertigo includes disorders of the inner ear such as Ménière's disease, vestibular neuritis, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) and bilateral vestibular paresis. In both Ménière's disease and vestibular neuritis, vestibular suppressants such as anticholinergics and benzodiazepines are used. In Ménière's disease, salt restriction and diuretics are used in an attempt to prevent flare-ups. In vestibular neuritis, only brief use of vestibular suppressants is now recommended. Drug treatments are not presently recommended for BPPV and bilateral vestibular paresis, but physical therapy treatment can be very useful in both. Central vertigo includes entities such as vertigo associated with migraine and certain strokes. Prophylactic agents (L-channel calcium channel antagonists, tricyclic antidepressants, beta-blockers) are the mainstay of treatment

  7. Adoption of PERILIPIN as a unifying nomenclature for the mammalian PAT-family of intracellular lipid storage droplet proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kimmel, Alan R.; Brasaemle, Dawn L.; McAndrews-Hill, Monica; Sztalryd, Carole; Londos, Constantine

    2010-01-01

    The PAT family of proteins has been identified in eukaryotic species as diverse as vertebrates, insects, and amebazoa. These proteins share a highly conserved sequence organization and avidity for the surfaces of intracellular, neutral lipid storage droplets. The current nomenclature of the various members lacks consistency and precision, deriving more from historic context than from recognition of evolutionary relationship and shared function. In consultation with the Mouse Genomic Nomenclature Committee, the Human Genome Organization Genomic Nomenclature Committee, and conferees at the 2007 FASEB Conference on Lipid Droplets: Metabolic Consequences of the Storage of Neutral Lipids, we have established a unifying nomenclature for the gene and protein family members. Each gene member will incorporate the root term PERILIPIN (PLIN), the founding gene of the PAT family, with the different genes/proteins numbered sequentially. PMID:19638644

  8. The Working Group on Meteor Showers Nomenclature: a History, Current Status and a Call for Contributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jopek, T. J.; Jenniskens, P. M.

    2011-01-01

    During the IAU General Assembly in Rio de Janeiro in 2009, the members of Commission 22 established the Working Group on Meteor Shower Nomenclature, from what was formerly the Task Group on Meteor Shower Nomenclature. The Task Group had completed its mission to propose a first list of established meteor showers that could receive officially names. At the business meeting of Commission 22 the list of 64 established showers was approved and consequently officially accepted by the IAU. A two-step process is adopted for showers to receive an official name from the IAU: i) before publication, all new showers discussed in the literature are first added to the Working List of Meteor Showers, thereby receiving a unique name, IAU number and three-letter code; ii) all showers which come up to the verification criterion are selected for inclusion in the List of Established Meteor Showers, before being officially named at the next IAU General Assembly.

  9. What’s in a Name? Exploring the Nomenclature of Science Communication in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Illingworth, Sam; Redfern, James; Millington, Steve; Gray, Sam

    2015-01-01

    This study, via a consideration of the literature, and a limited survey of active science communicators, presents concise and workable definitions for science outreach, public engagement, widening participation, and knowledge exchange, in a UK context.  Sixty-six per cent of participants agreed that their definitions of outreach, public engagement, and widening participation aligned with those of their colleagues, whilst 64% felt that their personal definitions matched those of their institute. However, closer inspection of the open-ended questions found the respondents often differed in the use of the nomenclature. In particular, the respondents found it difficult to define knowledge exchange in this context. It is hoped that this initial study will form the foundation of future work in this area, and that it will help to further develop the debate regarding the need for a consistent nomenclature across science communication. PMID:26448860

  10. A proposal for adopting a standard coordinate system for defining atmospheric nomenclature for the giant planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beebe, R.

    1986-01-01

    Although the albedo of specific belts and zones varies as a function of time, there is evidence that wind maxima may be fixed in latitude. Before considering a standard notation for wind jets, it is necessary to establish a coordinate system within which the nomenclature would be defined. Traditionally, the BAA has used planetographic latitudes; however, this system is based not only on an accurate determination of the polar diameter but also on the assumption that the equipotential surfaces can be represented by biaxial ellipsoids. The International Astronomical Union strives to adopt unambiguous nomenclature that will be universally acceptable. It is proposed that planetocentric coordinates be utilized and that a standardized value of the ratio of the polar diameter to the equatorial diameter be established for each planet to facilitate transformation into planetographic coordinates.

  11. Contribution to the anatomical nomenclature concerning general anatomy and anatomical variations.

    PubMed

    Kachlik, David; Musil, Vladimir; Baca, Vaclav

    2016-09-01

    Nomenclature of the general and variant anatomy belongs to the most neglected parts of the Latin anatomical nomenclature in Terminologia Anatomica. Although many important small structures are included in Terminologia Anatomica, when describing and teaching particular anatomy of any part of the human body, the general terms are necessary, such as planes, lines and flexion grooves. Moreover, Terminologia Anatomica contains only 149 terms of variant structures, enlisted in the parentheses to differentiate them from constant ones. They are only a rather representative selection and some more should be added, both from the educational and clinical point of view. The authors present some terms, completed with their definitions or explanations concerning the general and variant anatomy to evoke broader discussion on this topic which should issue in incorporation of proposed terms (or their equivalents) into the Terminologia Anatomica.

  12. Nomenclature for renal replacement therapy in acute kidney injury: basic principles.

    PubMed

    Neri, Mauro; Villa, Gianluca; Garzotto, Francesco; Bagshaw, Sean; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Cerda, Jorge; Ferrari, Fiorenza; Guggia, Silvia; Joannidis, Michael; Kellum, John; Kim, Jeong Chul; Mehta, Ravindra L; Ricci, Zaccaria; Trevisani, Alberto; Marafon, Silvio; Clark, William R; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-10-10

    This article reports the conclusions of a consensus expert conference on the basic principles and nomenclature of renal replacement therapy (RRT) currently utilized to manage acute kidney injury (AKI). This multidisciplinary consensus conference discusses common definitions, components, techniques, and operations of the machines and platforms used to deliver extracorporeal therapies, utilizing a "machine-centric" rather than a "patient-centric" approach. We provide a detailed description of the performance characteristics of membranes, filters, transmembrane transport of solutes and fluid, flows, and methods of measurement of delivered treatment, focusing on continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT) which are utilized in the management of critically ill patients with AKI. This is a consensus report on nomenclature harmonization for principles of extracorporeal renal replacement therapies. Devices and operations are classified and defined in detail to serve as guidelines for future use of terminology in papers and research.

  13. Nomenclature for renal replacement therapy and blood purification techniques in critically ill patients: practical applications.

    PubMed

    Villa, Gianluca; Neri, Mauro; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Cerda, Jorge; De Gaudio, A Raffaele; De Rosa, Silvia; Garzotto, Francesco; Honore, Patrick M; Kellum, John; Lorenzin, Anna; Payen, Didier; Ricci, Zaccaria; Samoni, Sara; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Wendon, Julia; Zaccaria, Marta; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-10-10

    This article reports the conclusions of the second part of a consensus expert conference on the nomenclature of renal replacement therapy (RRT) techniques currently utilized to manage acute kidney injury and other organ dysfunction syndromes in critically ill patients. A multidisciplinary approach was taken to achieve harmonization of definitions, components, techniques, and operations of the extracorporeal therapies. The article describes the RRT techniques in detail with the relevant technology, procedures, and phases of treatment and key aspects of volume management/fluid balance in critically ill patients. In addition, the article describes recent developments in other extracorporeal therapies, including therapeutic plasma exchange, multiple organ support therapy, liver support, lung support, and blood purification in sepsis. This is a consensus report on nomenclature harmonization in extracorporeal blood purification therapies, such as hemofiltration, plasma exchange, multiple organ support therapies, and blood purification in sepsis.

  14. Latest proposals of the IAU Working Group on Nomenclature for fundamental astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capitaine, N.; Hohenkerk, C.; Andrei, A. H.; Calabretta, M.; Dehant, V.; Fukushima, T.; Guinot, B.; Kaplan, G.; Klioner, S.; Kovalevsky, J.; Kumkova, I.; Ma, C.; Mc-Carthy, D. D.; Seidelmann, K.; Wallace, P.

    2006-10-01

    The IAU Division 1 Working Group on ''Nomenclature for Fundamental Astronomy'' (NFA) was established by the 25th IAU General Assembly with the task of preparing a consistent and well defined terminology associated with the implementation of the IAU 2000 resolutions on reference systems. This WG is also intended to make related educational efforts to address the issue to the large community of scientists. In this paper, we recall the main nomenclature issues and report on the latest NFA WG recommendations on terminology choices and guidelines that have been supported by explanatory documents, including a NFA IAU 2000 Glossary. In order to introduce the astronomical community to the main NFA recommendations, a WG Resolution proposal will be submitted to the IAU 2006 General Assembly as a supplement to the IAU 2000 resolutions for harmonizing the name of the pole and origin to ''intermediate'' and for specifying the default orientation of the BCRS and GCRS.

  15. [Pharmacological effects of hordenine].

    PubMed

    Hapke, H J; Strathmann, W

    1995-06-01

    Hordenine is an ingredient of some plants which are used as feed for animals, i.e. in sprouting barley. After ingestion of such feed hordenine may be detected in blood or urine of horses which in case of racing horses may be the facts of using prohibited compounds. Results of some experiments in pharmacological models show that hordenine is an indirectly acting adrenergic drug. It liberates norepinephrine from stores. In isolated organs and those structures with reduced epinephrine contents the hordenine-effect is only very poor. Experiments in intact animals (rats, dogs) show that hordenine has a positive inotropic effect upon the heart, increases systolic and diastolic blood pressure, peripheral blood flow volume, inhibits gut movements but has no effect upon the psychomotorical behaviour of mice. All effects are short and only possible after high doses which are not to be expected after ingestion of hordenine containing feed for horses. A measurable increase of the performance of racing horses is quite improbable.

  16. Pharmacology of taurine.

    PubMed

    Oja, Simo S; Saransaari, Pirjo

    2007-01-01

    Taurine has a number of physiological functions, e.g., in cell volume regulation and inhibitory neuromodulation. Taurine and its derivatives have also been tested as potential pharmacological agents in many pathological states. We endeavor here to review the present status of this investigation. Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is a simple sulfur-containing amino acid present in virtually all cells throughout the animal kingdom. In particular, it is enriched in electrically excitable tissues such as brain, retina, heart and skeletal muscles. In the central nervous system, taurine has been implicated in two major phenomena; in cell volume regulation [1-3] and in inhibitory neuromodulation or neurotransmission [4-7]. Its function as a neurotransmitter implies the existence of specific taurine receptors and the neuromodulatory role, an interference with functions of other transmitter systems. There is scant evidence to corroborate the first assumption, but ample for the latter. In other tissues taurine has also been thought to act as an antioxidant in cell protection and to have beneficial effects on cardiovascular functions. These taurine properties are only partially explored so far but taurine and many of its derivatives have been tested as potential pharmaceutical agents in a number of pathological states.

  17. Pharmacological research in neonatology.

    PubMed

    Dotta, Andrea; Braguglia, Annabella; Salvatori, Guglielmo

    2011-10-01

    In neonatology unit 40 to 80% of the drugs are used as off-label or unlicensed, particularly in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), where it has been described that in a single patient up to 60 parenteral drugs can be administered. The course of a drug inside the organism can be defined in 4 different phases: absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination; for each of these phases the newborn infant has different characteristics than child and adult. In the last years much more attention has been put in pharmacological research specific for the neonatal age and a good trial design should take into account the following points: (1) to define the pediatric disease in terms of natural history, prevalence, severity, treatment and impact of the new drug; (2) to avoid the "try and error" method based on the adult dose corrected for weight or age; (3) to use adapted methodologies (pharmacokinetics); (4) to avoid small clinical trials (limited number of patients), the use of Randomized Controlled Trials rather than observational studies; (5) to consider ethics providing clear information and reducing pain and stress to the baby and its family.

  18. [Pharmacological treatment of obesity].

    PubMed

    Gomis Barbará, R

    2004-01-01

    The pharmacological treatment of obesity should be considered when cannot be achieved a 10% weight loss with diet therapy and physical activity. The drugs effective in obesity treatment may act by different mechanisms such as reduction in food intake, inhibition of fat absorption, increase of thermogenesis and stimulation of adipocyte apoptosis. At present, we only have two marketed drugs for obesity treatment. Sibutramine is an inhibitor of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonina reuptake which inhibits food intake and increases thermogenesis. Sibutramine administration for a year can induce a weight loss of 4-7%. Its main side effects are hypertension, headache, insomnia and constipation. Orlistat is an inhibitor of pancreatic lipase which is able to block the absorption of 30% of ingested fat. Its administration induces weight loss and reduction of ulterior weight regain. Also, this drug improves hypertension dyslipdaemia and helps to prevent diabetes in 52% of cases when administered over four years. The increase in frequency of stools and interference with vitamin absorption are its main side effects. Glucagon-like peptide 1, which increases insulin sensitivity and satiety, adiponectin and PPAR-gamma agonists which reduce insulin resistance and modulates adipocyte generation are the basis for future therapeutic approaches of obesity. Phosphatase inhibitors induce PPAR-gamma phosphorylation and UCP-1 expression leading to an increase in thermogenesis and reduction in appetite.

  19. Pharmacologic Management of Cough

    PubMed Central

    Bolser, Donald C.

    2009-01-01

    This review is an update of recent advances in our understanding of cough suppressants and impairment of cough. Low dose oral morphine has recently been shown to significantly suppress chronic cough, but the side effect profile of this opioid may limit its widespread utility. Several studies have demonstrated a dissociation between the efficacy of antitussives in some metrics of pathological cough and their effects on cough sensitivity to inhaled irritants. The relevance of widely used inhaled irritants in understanding pathological cough and its response to antitussives is questionable. A recent advance in the field is the identification and measurement of an index of sensation related to cough, the urge-to-cough. This measure highlights the potential involvement of suprapontine regions of the brain in the genesis and potential suppression of cough in the awake human. There are no new studies showing that mucolytic agents are of value as monotherapies for chronic cough. However, some of these drugs may be of use as adjunct therapies or in selected patient populations, presumably due to their antioxidant activity. The term dystussia (impairment of cough) has been coined recently and represents a common and life-threatening problem in patients with neurological disease. Dystussia is strongly associated with severe dysphagia and the occurrence of both indicates that the patient has a high risk for aspiration. There are no pharmacological treatments for dystussia, but the community of scientists and clinicians that have experience in studying chronic cough is uniquely well qualified to develop methodologies that enhance impaired cough. PMID:20172264

  20. Narcolepsy: pathophysiology and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Seiji

    2007-01-01

    Narcolepsy, which affects 1 in 2000 people in the general population, is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), cataplexy, and other dissociated manifestations of rapid eye movement sleep (hypnagogic hallucinations and sleep paralysis). The disease is currently treated with amphetamine-like central nervous system stimulants (for EDS) and antidepressants (for cataplexy). Some compounds from other classes, such as modafinil (a non-amphetamine wake-promoting compound for EDS) and sodium oxybate (a short-acting sedative for EDS and cataplexy, administered at night), are also employed. The major pathophysiology of human narcolepsy has recently been revealed by the extension of discoveries of narcolepsy genes in animal models: hypocretin/orexin ligand deficiency has been shown in about 90% of human narcolepsy-cataplexy. This finding led directly to the development of new diagnostic tests (i.e., cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin measures). Hypocretin replacement is also likely to be a new therapeutic option for hypocretin-deficient narcolepsy, but is still not available in humans. In this review, the pharmacologic and pathophysiologic aspects of narcolepsy are discussed.

  1. Pharmacological inhibition of FTO.

    PubMed

    McMurray, Fiona; Demetriades, Marina; Aik, WeiShen; Merkestein, Myrte; Kramer, Holger; Andrew, Daniel S; Scudamore, Cheryl L; Hough, Tertius A; Wells, Sara; Ashcroft, Frances M; McDonough, Michael A; Schofield, Christopher J; Cox, Roger D

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, a genome wide association study identified a SNP in intron one of the gene encoding human FTO that was associated with increased body mass index. Homozygous risk allele carriers are on average three kg heavier than those homozygous for the protective allele. FTO is a DNA/RNA demethylase, however, how this function affects body weight, if at all, is unknown. Here we aimed to pharmacologically inhibit FTO to examine the effect of its demethylase function in vitro and in vivo as a first step in evaluating the therapeutic potential of FTO. We showed that IOX3, a known inhibitor of the HIF prolyl hydroxylases, decreased protein expression of FTO (in C2C12 cells) and reduced maximal respiration rate in vitro. However, FTO protein levels were not significantly altered by treatment of mice with IOX3 at 60 mg/kg every two days. This treatment did not affect body weight, or RER, but did significantly reduce bone mineral density and content and alter adipose tissue distribution. Future compounds designed to selectively inhibit FTO's demethylase activity could be therapeutically useful for the treatment of obesity.

  2. Pharmacological profile of sulodexide.

    PubMed

    Hoppensteadt, D A; Fareed, J

    2014-06-01

    Since its introduction, sulodexide has been used on and off for several indications. More recently this agent has become revitalized and tested in newer indications. Sulodexide is composed of glycosaminoglycan that includes a mixture of fast-moving heparin and dermatan sulfate. It exerts its anticoagulant and antithrombotic action through interactions with both AT and HCII. Sulodexide has been proven to have effects on the fibrinolytic system, platelets, endothelial cells, inflammation and more recently metalloproteases. The administration of sulodexide results in the release of lipoprotein lipase and has been shown to reduce the circulating level of lipids. It has also shown to decrease the viscosity of both whole blood and plasma. Sulodexide differs from heparin in its oral bioavailability and longer half-life. There is also less bleeding associated with sulodexide. In addition, oral administration of sulodexide does not interfere with the pharmacologic actions of commonly used agents. Similar to heparin, sulodexide releases TFPI which contributes to its antithrombotic effect and anti-inflammatory properties. Sulodexide has been proven to be effective in peripheral arterial thrombosis and venous thrombosis. It is also clinically active in the treatment of venous leg ulcers and intermittent claudication. More recent data suggest that sulodexide can be used in tinnitus and in vascular vertigo. Additional studies in these indications are required. Sulodexide was generally safe and well tolerated in the clinical trials, without any severe bleeding complications. Therefore sulodexide appears to be a good treatment for all arterial and venous diseases and for the prevention of progression of disease.

  3. Pharmacological Inhibition of FTO

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, Fiona; Demetriades, Marina; Aik, WeiShen; Merkestein, Myrte; Kramer, Holger; Andrew, Daniel S.; Scudamore, Cheryl L.; Hough, Tertius A.; Wells, Sara; Ashcroft, Frances M.; McDonough, Michael A.; Schofield, Christopher J.; Cox, Roger D.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, a genome wide association study identified a SNP in intron one of the gene encoding human FTO that was associated with increased body mass index. Homozygous risk allele carriers are on average three kg heavier than those homozygous for the protective allele. FTO is a DNA/RNA demethylase, however, how this function affects body weight, if at all, is unknown. Here we aimed to pharmacologically inhibit FTO to examine the effect of its demethylase function in vitro and in vivo as a first step in evaluating the therapeutic potential of FTO. We showed that IOX3, a known inhibitor of the HIF prolyl hydroxylases, decreased protein expression of FTO (in C2C12 cells) and reduced maximal respiration rate in vitro. However, FTO protein levels were not significantly altered by treatment of mice with IOX3 at 60 mg/kg every two days. This treatment did not affect body weight, or RER, but did significantly reduce bone mineral density and content and alter adipose tissue distribution. Future compounds designed to selectively inhibit FTO’s demethylase activity could be therapeutically useful for the treatment of obesity. PMID:25830347

  4. A report on the international nomenclature workshop held May 1997 at the Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, J.A.; Davisson, M.T.; Eppig, J.T.

    1997-10-15

    The estimates for named genes will probably run in the tens of thousands, with six to eight thousand genes already named for humans and mice. Thus the sticky problem of nomenclature calls for collaborative efforts in standardizing the names and terminology concerning genome mapping. This article is a report on the International Nomenclature Workshop held in 1997 at The Jackson Laboratory. 3 refs., 1 tab.

  5. Nomenclatural status of Euptychia mollina Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae).

    PubMed

    Lamas, Gerardo; Nakahara, Shinichi

    2015-04-13

    The purpose of this note is to clarify the nomenclatural status of Euptychia mollina Hübner, 1818, the type species of Euptychia Hübner, 1818, as there seems to be confusion regarding its year of publication. Due to an unfortunate oversight, Lamas (2004) listed the name as Euptychia mollina (Hübner, [1813]), and this mistake has been repeated in the subsequent literature (e.g. Brévignon 2005; Warren et al. 2014; Neild et al. 2014).

  6. International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria (INHAND) progress to date and future plans.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Charlotte M; Baker, Julia F; Bradley, Alys E; Goodman, Dawn G; Harada, Takanori; Herbert, Ronald; Kaufmann, Wolfgang; Kellner, Rupert; Mahler, Beth; Meseck, Emily; Nolte, Thomas; Rittinghausen, Susanne; Vahle, John; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    The INHAND Proposal (International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria for Lesions in Rats and Mice) has been operational since 2005. A Global Editorial Steering Committee (GESC) manages the overall objectives of the project and the development of harmonized terminology for each organ system is the responsibility of the Organ Working Groups (OWG), drawing upon experts from North America, Europe and Japan.Great progress has been made with 9 systems published to date - Respiratory, Hepatobiliary, Urinary, Central/Peripheral Nervous Systems, Male Reproductive and Mammary, Zymbals, Clitoral and Preputial Glands in Toxicologic Pathology and the Integument and Soft Tissue and Female Reproductive System in the Journal of Toxicologic Pathology as supplements and on a web site - www.goreni.org. INHAND nomenclature guides offer diagnostic criteria and guidelines for recording lesions observed in rodent toxicity and carcinogenicity studies. The guides provide representative photo-micrographs of morphologic changes, information regarding pathogenesis, and key references. During 2012, INHAND GESC representatives attended meetings with representatives of the FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER), Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC), and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Enterprise Vocabulary Services (EVS) to begin incorporation of INHAND terminology as preferred terminology for SEND (Standard for Exchange of Nonclinical Data) submissions to the FDA. The interest in utilizing the INHAND nomenclature, based on input from industry and government toxicologists as well as information technology specialists, suggests that there will be wide acceptance of this nomenclature. The purpose of this publication is to provide an update on the progress of INHAND.

  7. The pharmacology of regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Christ, George J; Saul, Justin M; Furth, Mark E; Andersson, Karl-Erik

    2013-07-01

    Regenerative medicine is a rapidly evolving multidisciplinary, translational research enterprise whose explicit purpose is to advance technologies for the repair and replacement of damaged cells, tissues, and organs. Scientific progress in the field has been steady and expectations for its robust clinical application continue to rise. The major thesis of this review is that the pharmacological sciences will contribute critically to the accelerated translational progress and clinical utility of regenerative medicine technologies. In 2007, we coined the phrase "regenerative pharmacology" to describe the enormous possibilities that could occur at the interface between pharmacology, regenerative medicine, and tissue engineering. The operational definition of regenerative pharmacology is "the application of pharmacological sciences to accelerate, optimize, and characterize (either in vitro or in vivo) the development, maturation, and function of bioengineered and regenerating tissues." As such, regenerative pharmacology seeks to cure disease through restoration of tissue/organ function. This strategy is distinct from standard pharmacotherapy, which is often limited to the amelioration of symptoms. Our goal here is to get pharmacologists more involved in this field of research by exposing them to the tools, opportunities, challenges, and interdisciplinary expertise that will be required to ensure awareness and galvanize involvement. To this end, we illustrate ways in which the pharmacological sciences can drive future innovations in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering and thus help to revolutionize the discovery of curative therapeutics. Hopefully, the broad foundational knowledge provided herein will spark sustained conversations among experts in diverse fields of scientific research to the benefit of all.

  8. Diagnostic nomenclature for foetal alcohol spectrum disorders: the continuing challenge of causality.

    PubMed

    Miller, A R

    2013-11-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is a risk factor for neurologically based cognitive and adaptive disability. Diagnostic nomenclature for prenatally exposed children with cognitive and adaptive disability who lack features for foetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or partial FAS includes the terms alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) and foetal alcohol spectrum disorder(s) (FASD). Although these terms are now widely used, this paper argues that both are problematic. ARND is flawed by unjustifiably turning a risk factor into a causal factor and shrouding the result in terminological ambiguity, while FASD is not appropriate as a clinical label, and its use as a proxy for ARND deflects critical attention from the causal inferencing that is integral to diagnosing children with an alcohol-related teratogenic condition. Existing nomenclature is at odds with logical and evidence-based diagnosing and also has implications for interpretation of epidemiological data. Diagnostic nomenclature that is not tightly linked to causal inference is preferable at the present stage of this field's development.

  9. Noninvasive Follicular Thyroid Neoplasm with Papillary-Like Nuclear Features: An Evidence-Based Nomenclature Change.

    PubMed

    Jug, Rachel; Jiang, Xiaoyin

    2017-01-01

    A consensus panel recently used clinical evidence and pathologic parameters to rename noninvasive encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma to noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) to better reflect the indolent course of this tumor. NIFTP has stringent histopathologic diagnostic criteria established by the panel, including papillary-like nuclear features, and submission of the entire tumor capsule to exclude invasion. From a molecular standpoint, NIFTP is often characterized by RAS-type mutations, similar to other follicular-patterned lesions. While there has been prior evidence in the literature for the low malignant potential of these tumors, projects moving forward will help to independently reinforce the reliability of these criteria and nomenclature. With planned inclusion of NIFTP into the latest World Health Organization endocrine tumor classification scheme, this nomenclature shift provides a model for pathology efforts to refine diagnostic classifications to better guide treatment. In this review we discuss this nomenclature change and review the current literature.

  10. mtDNAprofiler: a Web application for the nomenclature and comparison of human mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Yang, In Seok; Lee, Hwan Young; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2013-07-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a valuable tool in the fields of forensic, population, and medical genetics. However, recording and comparing mtDNA control region or entire genome sequences would be difficult if researchers are not familiar with mtDNA nomenclature conventions. Therefore, mtDNAprofiler, a Web application, was designed for the analysis and comparison of mtDNA sequences in a string format or as a list of mtDNA single-nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNPs). mtDNAprofiler which comprises four mtDNA sequence-analysis tools (mtDNA nomenclature, mtDNA assembly, mtSNP conversion, and mtSNP concordance-check) supports not only the accurate analysis of mtDNA sequences via an automated nomenclature function, but also consistent management of mtSNP data via direct comparison and validity-check functions. Since mtDNAprofiler consists of four tools that are associated with key steps of mtDNA sequence analysis, mtDNAprofiler will be helpful for researchers working with mtDNA. mtDNAprofiler is freely available at http://mtprofiler.yonsei.ac.kr.

  11. Aspergillus, its sexual states and the new International Code of Nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Pitt, John I; Taylor, John W

    2014-01-01

    The newly adopted International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants (ICN) demands that dimorphic fungi, in particular those with both sexual and asexual names, now bear a single name. Although priority is no longer associated with the mode of reproduction, the ICN requires justification for choosing an asexual name over an existing sexual one. The phylogenetic approach that made dual nomenclature for fungi obsolete can be used to help choose names for large groups of fungi that are best known by asexual names. Here we apply this approach to one of the largest and most diverse asexual genera, the genus Aspergillus. We find that existing sexual names may be given to well supported clades of fungi with distinct phenotypes, which include sexual morphology as well as physiological attributes associated with xerophily, thermophily and mycotoxin production. One group of species important to food production and food safety, Aspergillus subgen. Circumdati, lacks a well supported clade; here we propose that the name Aspergillus be retained for this group. Recognizing that nomenclature has economic and social implications, particularly for old, important genera, we discuss the consequences of various scenarios to implement the new "one name for one fungus" article in the ICN, showing that our approach requires the fewest appeals to the ICN while retaining the name Aspergillus for many of the most economically and socially important species.

  12. International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria (INHAND) for Lesions in the Minipig.

    PubMed

    Skydsgaard, Mikala

    2016-04-01

    The International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria (INHAND) is a global project establishing diagnostic criteria and nomenclature for both proliferative and nonproliferative changes in laboratory animals. Nonrodent working groups (NRWGs) have been established for the dog, nonhuman primate, minipig, and the rabbit. The Global Editorial and Steering Committee (GESC) oversees the activities of the INHAND projects and is composed of toxicologic pathologists from all of the participating societies. In 2012, INHAND GESC began a collaboration with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) in adapting INHAND terminology for standardized nonclinical data submission to the FDA. The Standard for Exchange of Nonclinical Data is an implementation of the Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium Study Data Tabulation Model for nonclinical studies. The NRWG for the minipig consists of toxicologic and diagnostic pathologists from Japan, North America, and Europe, and the group has 15 members including a GESC representative. The NRWGs are reviewing the applicability of the rodent nomenclature for the species and providing terminology unique for the species as well as determining rodent terminology not appropriate for the species. This information will be published with representative illustrations and references.

  13. Naming 'junk': human non-protein coding RNA (ncRNA) gene nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Wright, Mathew W; Bruford, Elspeth A

    2011-01-01

    Previously, the majority of the human genome was thought to be 'junk' DNA with no functional purpose. Over the past decade, the field of RNA research has rapidly expanded, with a concomitant increase in the number of non-protein coding RNA (ncRNA) genes identified in this 'junk'. Many of the encoded ncRNAs have already been shown to be essential for a variety of vital functions, and this wealth of annotated human ncRNAs requires standardised naming in order to aid effective communication. The HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC) is the only organisation authorised to assign standardised nomenclature to human genes. Of the 30,000 approved gene symbols currently listed in the HGNC database (http://www.genenames.org/search), the majority represent protein-coding genes; however, they also include pseudogenes, phenotypic loci and some genomic features. In recent years the list has also increased to include almost 3,000 named human ncRNA genes. HGNC is actively engaging with the RNA research community in order to provide unique symbols and names for each sequence that encodes an ncRNA. Most of the classical small ncRNA genes have now been provided with a unique nomenclature, and work on naming the long (>200 nucleotides) non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) is ongoing.

  14. Nomenclatural instability in the venomous snakes of the Bothrops complex: Implications in toxinology and public health.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Paola Andrea; Venegas, Pablo Javier; Chaparro, Juan Carlos; Scrocchi, Gustavo José

    2016-09-01

    Since nomenclature is intended to reflect the evolutionary history of organisms, advances in our understanding of historical relationships may lead to changes in classification, and thus potentially in taxonomic instability. An unstable nomenclature for medically important animals like venomous snakes is of concern, and its implications in venom/antivenom research and snakebite treatment have been extensively discussed since the 90´s. The taxonomy of the pitvipers of the Bothrops complex has been historically problematic and different genus-level rearrangements were proposed to rectify the long-standing paraphyly of the group. Here we review the toxinological literature on the Bothrops complex to estimate the impact of recent proposals of classification in non-systematic research. This assessment revealed moderate levels of nomenclatural instability in the last five years, and the recurrence of some practices discussed in previous studies regarding the use of classifications and the information provided about the origin of venom samples. We briefly comment on a few examples and the implications of different proposals of classifications for the Bothrops complex. The aim of this review is to contribute to the reduction of adverse effects of current taxonomic instability in a group of medical importance in the Americas.

  15. Noninvasive Follicular Thyroid Neoplasm with Papillary-Like Nuclear Features: An Evidence-Based Nomenclature Change

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    A consensus panel recently used clinical evidence and pathologic parameters to rename noninvasive encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma to noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) to better reflect the indolent course of this tumor. NIFTP has stringent histopathologic diagnostic criteria established by the panel, including papillary-like nuclear features, and submission of the entire tumor capsule to exclude invasion. From a molecular standpoint, NIFTP is often characterized by RAS-type mutations, similar to other follicular-patterned lesions. While there has been prior evidence in the literature for the low malignant potential of these tumors, projects moving forward will help to independently reinforce the reliability of these criteria and nomenclature. With planned inclusion of NIFTP into the latest World Health Organization endocrine tumor classification scheme, this nomenclature shift provides a model for pathology efforts to refine diagnostic classifications to better guide treatment. In this review we discuss this nomenclature change and review the current literature. PMID:28280647

  16. Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Gondwanan homoxylous woods: a nomenclatural revision of the genera with taxonomic notes.

    PubMed

    Bamford, M K.; Philippe, M

    2001-04-01

    The homoxylous fossil woods occurring in the Gondwanan continents of South America, Australia, Africa, India and Antarctica during the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous period are considered here. Original descriptions of the genera and wherever possible, the type material, have been consulted. Applying the rules of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, the generic names of the homoxylous woods have been revised from a nomenclatural point of view. According to this review, out of 31 generic names used for woods from the given time interval and area, 6 are illegitimate later nomenclatural synonyms, 1 is a later homonym, and 5 can be considered as taxonomical synonyms. Moreover, 9 genera have been used erroneously. We propose one new generic name (Protaxodioxylon n. gen.) and elsewhere we will propose for conservation, with a conserved type one of the illegitimate names and one of the taxonomic synonyms. As a result, we consider that there are only eighteen generic names correctly quoted for the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous of Gondwana, and we provide a taxonomic key for the corresponding genera. This revision is the first step in systematically comparing northern and southern hemisphere woods.

  17. Outcomes of the 2011 Botanical Nomenclature Section at the XVIII International Botanical Congress

    PubMed Central

    Miller, James S.; Funk, Vicki A.; Wagner, Warren L.; Barrie, Fred; Hoch, Peter C.; Herendeen, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The Nomenclature Section held just before the 18th International Botanical Congress in Melbourne, Australia in July 2011 saw sweeping changes to the way scientists name new plants, algae, and fungi. The changes begin on the cover: the title was broadened to make explicit that the Code applies not only to plants, but also to algae and fungi. The new title will now be the International Code of Nomenclature of algae, fungi, and plants. For the first time in history the Code will allow for the electronic publication of names of new taxa. In an effort to make the publication of new names more accurate and efficient, the requirement for a Latin validating diagnosis or description was changed to allow either English or Latin for these essential components of the publication of a new name. Both of these latter changes will take effect on 1 January 2012. The nomenclatural rules for fungi will see several important changes, the most important of which is probably the adoption of the principle of “one fungus, one name.” Paleobotanists will also see changes with the elimination of the concept of “morphotaxa” from the Code. PMID:22171188

  18. Outcomes of the 2011 Botanical Nomenclature Section at the XVIII International Botanical Congress.

    PubMed

    Miller, James S; Funk, Vicki A; Wagner, Warren L; Barrie, Fred; Hoch, Peter C; Herendeen, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The Nomenclature Section held just before the 18th International Botanical Congress in Melbourne, Australia in July 2011 saw sweeping changes to the way scientists name new plants, algae, and fungi. The changes begin on the cover: the title was broadened to make explicit that the Code applies not only to plants, but also to algae and fungi. The new title will now be the International Code of Nomenclature of algae, fungi, and plants. For the first time in history the Code will allow for the electronic publication of names of new taxa. In an effort to make the publication of new names more accurate and efficient, the requirement for a Latin validating diagnosis or description was changed to allow either English or Latin for these essential components of the publication of a new name. Both of these latter changes will take effect on 1 January 2012. The nomenclatural rules for fungi will see several important changes, the most important of which is probably the adoption of the principle of "one fungus, one name." Paleobotanists will also see changes with the elimination of the concept of "morphotaxa" from the Code.

  19. Forensic animal DNA typing: Allele nomenclature and standardization of 14 feline STR markers.

    PubMed

    Schury, N; Schleenbecker, U; Hellmann, A P

    2014-09-01

    Since the domestic cat (Felis catus) has become one of the most popular pets and owners usually develop a close relationship to their cats, it is necessary to take traces of cats into account for forensic casework. For this purpose feline short tandem (STR) repeat markers have been investigated in several earlier studies, but no detailed description of sequence data, allelic variations or a repeat-based nomenclature is available. The aim of the study was to provide a suggestion for the allele nomenclature of 14 cat STR markers according to the recommendations of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG) for human DNA typing and to present a standardized system for a secure DNA typing of samples. Samples of 122 unrelated cats from a local animal shelter and private owners in Germany were used to generate a population database with allele frequencies and to analyze the tandemly repeated sequence variations within the alleles of each STR marker. These markers could be grouped into two STR classes: simple repeat STRs and complex STRs (some with the supplement highly complex), consisting of di- and tetranucleotide repeat motifs. After analyzing the repeat structure and elaborating a repeat based nomenclature, allelic ladders of common and rarely occurring alleles for each marker were designed to enable accurate typing of alleles that differ in fragment length and to facilitate data exchange.

  20. A unified nomenclature for quantification and description of water conducting properties of sapwood xylem based on Darcy's law.

    PubMed

    Reid, Douglas E B; Silins, Uldis; Mendoza, Carl; Lieffers, Victor J

    2005-08-01

    The literature dealing with the water conducting properties of sapwood xylem in trees is inconsistent in terminology, symbols and units. This has resulted from confusion in the use of either an analogy to Ohm's law or Darcy's law as the basis for nomenclature. Ohm's law describes movement of electricity through a conductor, whereas Darcy's law describes movement of a fluid (liquid or gas) through a porous medium. However, it is generally not realized that, in their full notation, these laws are mathematically equivalent. Despite this, plant physiologists have failed to agree on a convention for nomenclature. As a result, the study of water movement through sapwood xylem is confusing, especially for scientists entering the field. To improve clarity, we suggest the adoption of a single nomenclature that can be used by all plant physiologists when describing water movement in xylem. Darcy's law is an explicit hydraulic relationship and the basis for established theories that describe three-dimensional saturated and unsaturated flow in porous media. We suggest, therefore, that Darcy's law is the more appropriate theoretical framework on which to base nomenclature describing sapwood hydraulics. Our proposed nomenclature is summarized in a table that describes conventional terms, with their formulae, dimensions, units and symbols; the table also lists the many synonyms found in recent literature that describe the same concepts. Adoption of this proposal will require some changes in the use of terminology, but a common rigorous nomenclature is needed for efficient and clear communication among scientists.

  1. Proposal to consistently apply the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP) to names of the oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (cyanobacteria), including those validly published under the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN)/International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants (ICN), and proposal to change Principle 2 of the ICNP.

    PubMed

    Pinevich, Alexander V

    2015-03-01

    This taxonomic note was motivated by the recent proposal [Oren & Garrity (2014) Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 64, 309-310] to exclude the oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (cyanobacteria) from the wording of General Consideration 5 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP), which entails unilateral coverage of these prokaryotes by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN; formerly the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, ICBN). On the basis of key viewpoints, approaches and rules in the systematics, taxonomy and nomenclature of prokaryotes it is reciprocally proposed to apply the ICNP to names of cyanobacteria including those validly published under the ICBN/ICN. For this purpose, a change to Principle 2 of the ICNP is proposed to enable validation of cyanobacterial names published under the ICBN/ICN rules.

  2. Pharmacologic management of temporomandibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Hersh, Elliot V; Balasubramaniam, Ramesh; Pinto, Andres

    2008-05-01

    Although there are theoretically numerous pharmacologic targets for relieving temporomandibular disorder (TMD)-associated pains, evidence-based literature clearly establishing the efficacy and safety of drugs in the TMD population is limited at best. This article reviews the pharmacology, toxicology, and research supporting the use of a host of pharmacologic agents that have been used in patients who have TMD, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, benzodiazepines, nonbenzodiazepine sedative hypnotics, opioids, skeletal muscle relaxants, capsaicin, transdermal lidocaine, antidepressants, and anticonvulsants. Recommendations regarding the proper use of each drug class are also made.

  3. Mitochondrial biogenesis: pharmacological approaches.

    PubMed

    Valero, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Organelle biogenesis is concomitant to organelle inheritance during cell division. It is necessary that organelles double their size and divide to give rise to two identical daughter cells. Mitochondrial biogenesis occurs by growth and division of pre-existing organelles and is temporally coordinated with cell cycle events [1]. However, mitochondrial biogenesis is not only produced in association with cell division. It can be produced in response to an oxidative stimulus, to an increase in the energy requirements of the cells, to exercise training, to electrical stimulation, to hormones, during development, in certain mitochondrial diseases, etc. [2]. Mitochondrial biogenesis is therefore defined as the process via which cells increase their individual mitochondrial mass [3]. Recent discoveries have raised attention to mitochondrial biogenesis as a potential target to treat diseases which up to date do not have an efficient cure. Mitochondria, as the major ROS producer and the major antioxidant producer exert a crucial role within the cell mediating processes such as apoptosis, detoxification, Ca2+ buffering, etc. This pivotal role makes mitochondria a potential target to treat a great variety of diseases. Mitochondrial biogenesis can be pharmacologically manipulated. This issue tries to cover a number of approaches to treat several diseases through triggering mitochondrial biogenesis. It contains recent discoveries in this novel field, focusing on advanced mitochondrial therapies to chronic and degenerative diseases, mitochondrial diseases, lifespan extension, mitohormesis, intracellular signaling, new pharmacological targets and natural therapies. It contributes to the field by covering and gathering the scarcely reported pharmacological approaches in the novel and promising field of mitochondrial biogenesis. There are several diseases that have a mitochondrial origin such as chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) and the Kearns- Sayre syndrome (KSS

  4. Teaching Pharmacology by Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Sue

    1997-01-01

    Using pharmacology case studies with nursing students encourages theory-practice links and infuses real-life content. Cases provide rich qualitative data for evaluating curriculum. However, they are not a substitute for evidence-based practice. (SK)

  5. NASA 2010 Pharmacology Evidence Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the Institute of Medicine reviewed NASA's Human Research Program Evidence in assessing the Pharmacology risk identified in NASA's Human Research Program Requirements Document (PRD). Since this review there was a major reorganization of the Pharmacology discipline within the HRP, as well as a re-evaluation of the Pharmacology evidence. This panel is being asked to review the latest version of the Pharmacology Evidence Report. Specifically, this panel will: (1) Appraise the descriptions of the human health-related risk in the HRP PRD. (2) Assess the relevance and comprehensiveness of the evidence in identifying potential threats to long-term space missions. (3) Assess the associated gaps in knowledge and identify additional areas for research as necessary.

  6. The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY: an expert-driven knowledgebase of drug targets and their ligands

    PubMed Central

    Pawson, Adam J.; Sharman, Joanna L.; Benson, Helen E.; Faccenda, Elena; Alexander, Stephen P.H.; Buneman, O. Peter; Davenport, Anthony P.; McGrath, John C.; Peters, John A.; Southan, Christopher; Spedding, Michael; Yu, Wenyuan; Harmar, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    The International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology/British Pharmacological Society (IUPHAR/BPS) Guide to PHARMACOLOGY (http://www.guidetopharmacology.org) is a new open access resource providing pharmacological, chemical, genetic, functional and pathophysiological data on the targets of approved and experimental drugs. Created under the auspices of the IUPHAR and the BPS, the portal provides concise, peer-reviewed overviews of the key properties of a wide range of established and potential drug targets, with in-depth information for a subset of important targets. The resource is the result of curation and integration of data from the IUPHAR Database (IUPHAR-DB) and the published BPS ‘Guide to Receptors and Channels’ (GRAC) compendium. The data are derived from a global network of expert contributors, and the information is extensively linked to relevant databases, including ChEMBL, DrugBank, Ensembl, PubChem, UniProt and PubMed. Each of the ∼6000 small molecule and peptide ligands is annotated with manually curated 2D chemical structures or amino acid sequences, nomenclature and database links. Future expansion of the resource will complete the coverage of all the targets of currently approved drugs and future candidate targets, alongside educational resources to guide scientists and students in pharmacological principles and techniques. PMID:24234439

  7. [Pharmacological therapy of obesity].

    PubMed

    Pagotto, Uberto; Vanuzzo, Diego; Vicennati, Valentina; Pasquali, Renato

    2008-04-01

    Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions worldwide and it is correlated with various comorbidities, among which the most relevant are diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases. Obesity management is a modern challenge because of the rapid evolution of unfavorable lifestyles and unfortunately there are no effective treatments applicable to the large majority of obese/overweight people. The current medical attitude is to treat the complications of obesity (e.g. dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases). However, the potential of treating obesity is enormous, bearing in mind that a volitional weight loss of 10 kg is associated with important risk factor improvement: blood pressure -10 mmHg, total cholesterol -10%, LDL cholesterol -15%, triglycerides -30%, fasting glucose -50%, HDL cholesterol +8%. Drug treatment for obesity is an evolving branch of pharmacology, burdened by severe side effects and consequences of the early drugs, withdrawn from the market, and challenged by the lack of long-term data on the effect of medications on obesity-related morbidity and mortality, first of all cardiovascular diseases. In Europe three antiobesity drugs are currently licensed: sibutramine, orlistat, and rimonabant; important trials with clinical endpoints are ongoing for sibutramine and rimonabant. While waiting for their results, it is convenient to evaluate these drugs for their effects on body weight and cardiometabolic risk factors. Sibutramine is a centrally acting serotonin/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor that mainly increases satiety. At the level of brown adipose tissue, sibutramine can also facilitate energy expenditure by increasing thermogenesis. The long-term studies (five) documented a mean differential weight reduction of 4.45 kg for sibutramine vs placebo. Considering the principal studies, attrition rate was 43%. This drug not only reduces body weight and waist circumference, but it decreases triglycerides and

  8. A few problems in the generic nomenclature of insects and amphibians, with recommendations for the publication of new generic nomina in zootaxonomy and comments on taxonomic and nomenclatural databases and websites.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Alain

    2017-02-26

    Dahanukar et al. (2016a) proposed the nomen Walkerana for a new genus of amphibians, but shortly after (2016b) they replaced it by the new nomen Sallywalkerana, believing that their nomen Walkerana was preoccupied by a generic nomen of orthopterans. This was unjustified because the orthopteran nomen 'Walkerella' Otte & Perez-Gelabert, 2009a and its new replacement nomen 'Walkerana' Otte & Perez-Gelabert, 2009b were both nomina nuda. These recent examples of nomenclatural errors in generic nomenclature are just a few among many in recent zootaxonomic publications. This opportunity is taken to make some general methodological recommendations, in several domains (availability, homonymy, synonymy, neonymy, length and palatability of nomina), for the publication of new generic nomina in zootaxonomy. However, the absence of a comprehensive database and website providing all the relevant information necessary to establish the nomenclatural status of all zoological generic and subgeneric nomina is a brake on the efforts that can be made to avoid nomenclatural errors in zoological generic nomenclature. The international community of taxonomists should seek at establishing such a database and website.

  9. Network analyses in systems pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Seth I.; Iyengar, Ravi

    2009-01-01

    Systems pharmacology is an emerging area of pharmacology which utilizes network analysis of drug action as one of its approaches. By considering drug actions and side effects in the context of the regulatory networks within which the drug targets and disease gene products function, network analysis promises to greatly increase our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the multiple actions of drugs. Systems pharmacology can provide new approaches for drug discovery for complex diseases. The integrated approach used in systems pharmacology can allow for drug action to be considered in the context of the whole genome. Network-based studies are becoming an increasingly important tool in understanding the relationships between drug action and disease susceptibility genes. This review discusses how analysis of biological networks has contributed to the genesis of systems pharmacology and how these studies have improved global understanding of drug targets, suggested new targets and approaches for therapeutics, and provided a deeper understanding of the effects of drugs. Taken together, these types of analyses can lead to new therapeutic options while improving the safety and efficacy of existing medications. Contact: ravi.iyengar@mssm.edu PMID:19648136

  10. GenSeq: An updated nomenclature and ranking for genetic sequences from type and non-type sources

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarty, Prosanta; Warren, Melanie; Page, Lawrence M.; Baldwin, Carole C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract An improved and expanded nomenclature for genetic sequences is introduced that corresponds with a ranking of the reliability of the taxonomic identification of the source specimens. This nomenclature is an advancement of the “Genetypes” naming system, which some have been reluctant to adopt because of the use of the “type” suffix in the terminology. In the new nomenclature, genetic sequences are labeled “genseq,” followed by a reliability ranking (e.g., 1 if the sequence is from a primary type), followed by the name of the genes from which the sequences were derived (e.g., genseq-1 16S, COI). The numbered suffix provides an indication of the likely reliability of taxonomic identification of the voucher. Included in this ranking system, in descending order of taxonomic reliability, are the following: sequences from primary types – “genseq-1,” secondary types – “genseq-2,” collection-vouchered topotypes – “genseq-3,” collection-vouchered non-types – “genseq-4,” and non-types that lack specimen vouchers but have photo vouchers – “genseq-5.” To demonstrate use of the new nomenclature, we review recently published new-species descriptions in the ichthyological literature that include DNA data and apply the GenSeq nomenclature to sequences referenced in those publications. We encourage authors to adopt the GenSeq nomenclature (note capital “G” and “S” when referring to the nomenclatural program) to provide a searchable tag (e.g., “genseq”; note lowercase “g” and “s” when referring to sequences) for genetic sequences from types and other vouchered specimens. Use of the new nomenclature and ranking system will improve integration of molecular phylogenetics and biological taxonomy and enhance the ability of researchers to assess the reliability of sequence data. We further encourage authors to update sequence information on databases such as GenBank whenever nomenclatural changes are made. PMID:24223486

  11. Recommended nomenclature for five mammalian carboxylesterase gene families: human, mouse, and rat genes and proteins.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Roger S; Wright, Matthew W; Laulederkind, Stanley J F; Cox, Laura A; Hosokawa, Masakiyo; Imai, Teruko; Ishibashi, Shun; Lehner, Richard; Miyazaki, Masao; Perkins, Everett J; Potter, Phillip M; Redinbo, Matthew R; Robert, Jacques; Satoh, Tetsuo; Yamashita, Tetsuro; Yan, Bingfan; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi; Zechner, Rudolf; Maltais, Lois J

    2010-10-01

    Mammalian carboxylesterase (CES or Ces) genes encode enzymes that participate in xenobiotic, drug, and lipid metabolism in the body and are members of at least five gene families. Tandem duplications have added more genes for some families, particularly for mouse and rat genomes, which has caused confusion in naming rodent Ces genes. This article describes a new nomenclature system for human, mouse, and rat carboxylesterase genes that identifies homolog gene families and allocates a unique name for each gene. The guidelines of human, mouse, and rat gene nomenclature committees were followed and "CES" (human) and "Ces" (mouse and rat) root symbols were used followed by the family number (e.g., human CES1). Where multiple genes were identified for a family or where a clash occurred with an existing gene name, a letter was added (e.g., human CES4A; mouse and rat Ces1a) that reflected gene relatedness among rodent species (e.g., mouse and rat Ces1a). Pseudogenes were named by adding "P" and a number to the human gene name (e.g., human CES1P1) or by using a new letter followed by ps for mouse and rat Ces pseudogenes (e.g., Ces2d-ps). Gene transcript isoforms were named by adding the GenBank accession ID to the gene symbol (e.g., human CES1_AB119995 or mouse Ces1e_BC019208). This nomenclature improves our understanding of human, mouse, and rat CES/Ces gene families and facilitates research into the structure, function, and evolution of these gene families. It also serves as a model for naming CES genes from other mammalian species.

  12. Global Medical Device Nomenclature: The Concept for Reducing Device-Related Medical Errors

    PubMed Central

    Anand, K; Saini, SK; Singh, BK; Veermaram, C

    2010-01-01

    In the medical device field, there are a number of players, having quite different responsibilities and levels of understanding of the processes, but all with one common interest, that of ensuring the availability of sound medical devices to the general public. To assist in this very important process, there is a need for a common method for describing and identifying these medical devices in an unambiguous manner. The Global Medical Device Nomenclature (GMDN) now provides, for the first time, an international tool for identifying all medical devices, at the generic level, in a meaningful manner that can be understood by all users. Prior to the GMDN, many nomenclature systems existed, all built upon different structures, and used locally or nationally for special purposes, with unusual approaches. These diverse systems, although often workable in their own right, have had no impact on improving the overall situation of providing a common platform, whereby, medical devices could be correctly identified and the related data safely exchanged between the involved parties. Work by standard organizations such as, CEN (European Committee for Standardization) and ISO (International Organization for Standardization), from 1993 to 1996, resulted in a standard that specified a structure for a new nomenclature, for medical devices. In this article we are trying to explain GMDN as the prime method to reduce medical device errors, and to understand the concept of GMDN, to regulate the medical device throughout the globe. Here we also make an attempt to explain various aspects of the GMDN system, such as, the process of development of the GMDN-CEN report, purpose, benefits, and their structural considerations. In addition, there will be an explanation of the coding system, role of the GMDN agency, and their utilization in the unique device identification (UDI) System. Finally, the current area of focus and vision for the future are also mentioned. PMID:21264103

  13. The Miocene Topanga Group of Southern California - A 100-Year History of Changes in Stratigraphic Nomenclature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, Russell H.; McCulloh, Thane H.; Vedder, John G.

    2007-01-01

    A review of selected literature summarizes the origin and chronology of changes in usage of 'Topanga' in the Miocene stratigraphic nomenclature of the Los Angeles Basin and adjacent areas in southern California. The review was done to summarize and reconcile some differences in Miocene stratigraphic nomenclature as applied to geologic map compilations of the Santa Ana (Morton, 2004), San Bernardino (Morton and Miller, 2003), Long Beach (Saucedo and others, 2003) and Los Angeles (Yerkes and Campbell, 2005) 30' x 60' quadrangles, all of which are products of the cooperative (California Geological Survey-U.S. Geological Survey) Southern California Areal Mapping Project (SCAMP). The deposition of the Topanga Group spans about 6 my (from as old as about 18 ma to as young as about 12 ma), and the sequence of included strata records changes in provenance and depositional environments that are contemporaneous with part of a major Miocene tectonic episode in southern California -- the 'basin-inception phase' in the evolution of the Neogene Los Angeles basin (Yerkes and others, 1965). The area of Topanga deposition extends to the southern, eastern, northern, and northwestern sides of the Los Angeles basin, as well as the southern part of the eastern Ventura Basin. Topanga beds are inferred to underlie the thick upper Miocene and Pliocene deposits of the central Los Angeles Basin and the southern part of the eastern Ventura Basin; however, they have been reached by drilling only in marginal areas, where the overlying deposits are relatively thin. Post-Topanga strata were deposited in more-restricted areas of rapid subsidence. Selected papers are summarized as they relate to the Topanga nomenclature, and are presented in chronological order.

  14. A Nomenclature for Vertebral Fossae in Sauropods and Other Saurischian Dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Jeffrey A.; D'Emic, Michael D.; Ikejiri, Takehito; Moacdieh, Emile M.; Whitlock, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The axial skeleton of extinct saurischian dinosaurs (i.e., theropods, sauropodomorphs), like living birds, was pneumatized by epithelial outpocketings of the respiratory system. Pneumatic signatures in the vertebral column of fossil saurischians include complex branching chambers within the bone (internal pneumaticity) and large chambers visible externally that are bounded by neural arch laminae (external pneumaticity). Although general aspects of internal pneumaticity are synapomorphic for saurischian subgroups, the individual internal pneumatic spaces cannot be homologized across species or even along the vertebral column, due to their variability and absence of topographical landmarks. External pneumatic structures, in contrast, are defined by ready topological landmarks (vertebral laminae), but no consistent nomenclatural system exists. This deficiency has fostered confusion and limited their use as character data in phylogenetic analysis. Methodology/Principal Findings We present a simple system for naming external neural arch fossae that parallels the one developed for the vertebral laminae that bound them. The nomenclatural system identifies fossae by pointing to reference landmarks (e.g., neural spine, centrum, costal articulations, zygapophyses). We standardize the naming process by creating tripartite names from “primary landmarks,” which form the zygodiapophyseal table, “secondary landmarks,” which orient with respect to that table, and “tertiary landmarks,” which further delineate a given fossa. Conclusions/Significance The proposed nomenclatural system for lamina-bounded fossae adds clarity to descriptions of complex vertebrae and allows these structures to be sourced as character data for phylogenetic analyses. These anatomical terms denote potentially homologous pneumatic structures within Saurischia, but they could be applied to any vertebrate with vertebral laminae that enclose spaces, regardless of their developmental origin

  15. "Just as the Structural Formula Does": Names, Diagrams, and the Structure of Organic Chemistry at the 1892 Geneva Nomenclature Congress.

    PubMed

    Hepler-Smith, Evan

    2015-02-01

    At the Geneva Nomenclature Congress of 1892, some of the foremost organic chemists of the late nineteenth century crafted a novel relationship between chemical substances, chemical diagrams, and chemical names that has shaped practices of chemical representation ever since. During the 1880s, the French chemist Charles Friedel organised the nomenclature reform effort that culminated in the Geneva Congress; in the disorderly nomenclature of German synthetic chemistry, Friedel saw an opportunity to advance French national interests and his own pedagogical goals. Friedel and a group of close colleagues reconceived nomenclature as a unified field, in which all chemical names ought to relate clearly to one another and to the structure of the compounds they represented. The German chemist Adolf von Baeyer went a step farther, arguing for names that precisely and uniquely corresponded to the structural formula of each compound, tailored for use in chemical dictionaries and handbooks. Baeyer's vision prevailed at the Geneva Congress, which consequently codified rules for rigorously mapping structural formulas into names, resulting in names that faithfully represented the features of these diagrams but not always the chemical behaviour of the compounds themselves. This approach ultimately limited both the number of chemical compounds that the Geneva rules were able to encompass and the breadth of their application. However, the relationship between diagram and name established at the Geneva Congress became the foundation not only of subsequent systems of chemical nomenclature but of methods of organising information that have supported the modern chemical sciences.

  16. Standardized human pedigree nomenclature: update and assessment of the recommendations of the National Society of Genetic Counselors.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Robin L; French, Kathryn Steinhaus; Resta, Robert G; Doyle, Debra Lochner

    2008-10-01

    In 1995, the Pedigree Standardization Task Force (PSTF) of the National Society of Genetic Counselors (NSGC) proposed a system of pedigree nomenclature. Recently, the PSTF (now called the Pedigree Standardization Work Group or PSWG) sought evidence that the published symbols met the needs of health professionals, were incorporated into health professional training and were utilized in publications. We searched PubMed and reference lists of select publications, reviewed the Instructions for Authors of several journals, searched the websites of professional societies, sought comment from the membership of the NSGC, and looked at recommendations and training practices of various health professional organizations. Many journals still do not cite specific standards for pedigrees, but those found cited the PSTF nomenclature. We did not find significant objections or alternatives to the 1995 nomenclature. Based on our review, we propose only a few minor stylistic changes to the pedigree symbols. The pedigree nomenclature of the NSGC is the only consistently acknowledged standard for drawing a family health history. We recommend regular and continued review of these pedigree standards to determine if additional symbols are needed to accommodate changes in clinical practice to ensure that the symbols continue to meet the needs of health professionals and researchers as well as adhere to evolving ethical and privacy standards. All health professionals, trainees, and researchers should be made aware of the utility of using a common pedigree nomenclature in clinical practice and publication. This will become particularly important as electronic medical records become more widely utilized.

  17. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. XCIV. Adhesion G Protein–Coupled Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Aust, Gabriela; Araç, Demet; Engel, Felix B.; Formstone, Caroline; Fredriksson, Robert; Hall, Randy A.; Harty, Breanne L.; Kirchhoff, Christiane; Knapp, Barbara; Krishnan, Arunkumar; Liebscher, Ines; Lin, Hsi-Hsien; Martinelli, David C.; Monk, Kelly R.; Peeters, Miriam C.; Piao, Xianhua; Prömel, Simone; Schöneberg, Torsten; Schwartz, Thue W.; Singer, Kathleen; Stacey, Martin; Ushkaryov, Yuri A.; Vallon, Mario; Wolfrum, Uwe; Wright, Mathew W.; Xu, Lei; Langenhan, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    The Adhesion family forms a large branch of the pharmacologically important superfamily of G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs). As Adhesion GPCRs increasingly receive attention from a wide spectrum of biomedical fields, the Adhesion GPCR Consortium, together with the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology Committee on Receptor Nomenclature and Drug Classification, proposes a unified nomenclature for Adhesion GPCRs. The new names have ADGR as common dominator followed by a letter and a number to denote each subfamily and subtype, respectively. The new names, with old and alternative names within parentheses, are: ADGRA1 (GPR123), ADGRA2 (GPR124), ADGRA3 (GPR125), ADGRB1 (BAI1), ADGRB2 (BAI2), ADGRB3 (BAI3), ADGRC1 (CELSR1), ADGRC2 (CELSR2), ADGRC3 (CELSR3), ADGRD1 (GPR133), ADGRD2 (GPR144), ADGRE1 (EMR1, F4/80), ADGRE2 (EMR2), ADGRE3 (EMR3), ADGRE4 (EMR4), ADGRE5 (CD97), ADGRF1 (GPR110), ADGRF2 (GPR111), ADGRF3 (GPR113), ADGRF4 (GPR115), ADGRF5 (GPR116, Ig-Hepta), ADGRG1 (GPR56), ADGRG2 (GPR64, HE6), ADGRG3 (GPR97), ADGRG4 (GPR112), ADGRG5 (GPR114), ADGRG6 (GPR126), ADGRG7 (GPR128), ADGRL1 (latrophilin-1, CIRL-1, CL1), ADGRL2 (latrophilin-2, CIRL-2, CL2), ADGRL3 (latrophilin-3, CIRL-3, CL3), ADGRL4 (ELTD1, ETL), and ADGRV1 (VLGR1, GPR98). This review covers all major biologic aspects of Adhesion GPCRs, including evolutionary origins, interaction partners, signaling, expression, physiologic functions, and therapeutic potential. PMID:25713288

  18. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. XCIV. Adhesion G protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Jörg; Aust, Gabriela; Araç, Demet; Engel, Felix B; Formstone, Caroline; Fredriksson, Robert; Hall, Randy A; Harty, Breanne L; Kirchhoff, Christiane; Knapp, Barbara; Krishnan, Arunkumar; Liebscher, Ines; Lin, Hsi-Hsien; Martinelli, David C; Monk, Kelly R; Peeters, Miriam C; Piao, Xianhua; Prömel, Simone; Schöneberg, Torsten; Schwartz, Thue W; Singer, Kathleen; Stacey, Martin; Ushkaryov, Yuri A; Vallon, Mario; Wolfrum, Uwe; Wright, Mathew W; Xu, Lei; Langenhan, Tobias; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2015-01-01

    The Adhesion family forms a large branch of the pharmacologically important superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). As Adhesion GPCRs increasingly receive attention from a wide spectrum of biomedical fields, the Adhesion GPCR Consortium, together with the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology Committee on Receptor Nomenclature and Drug Classification, proposes a unified nomenclature for Adhesion GPCRs. The new names have ADGR as common dominator followed by a letter and a number to denote each subfamily and subtype, respectively. The new names, with old and alternative names within parentheses, are: ADGRA1 (GPR123), ADGRA2 (GPR124), ADGRA3 (GPR125), ADGRB1 (BAI1), ADGRB2 (BAI2), ADGRB3 (BAI3), ADGRC1 (CELSR1), ADGRC2 (CELSR2), ADGRC3 (CELSR3), ADGRD1 (GPR133), ADGRD2 (GPR144), ADGRE1 (EMR1, F4/80), ADGRE2 (EMR2), ADGRE3 (EMR3), ADGRE4 (EMR4), ADGRE5 (CD97), ADGRF1 (GPR110), ADGRF2 (GPR111), ADGRF3 (GPR113), ADGRF4 (GPR115), ADGRF5 (GPR116, Ig-Hepta), ADGRG1 (GPR56), ADGRG2 (GPR64, HE6), ADGRG3 (GPR97), ADGRG4 (GPR112), ADGRG5 (GPR114), ADGRG6 (GPR126), ADGRG7 (GPR128), ADGRL1 (latrophilin-1, CIRL-1, CL1), ADGRL2 (latrophilin-2, CIRL-2, CL2), ADGRL3 (latrophilin-3, CIRL-3, CL3), ADGRL4 (ELTD1, ETL), and ADGRV1 (VLGR1, GPR98). This review covers all major biologic aspects of Adhesion GPCRs, including evolutionary origins, interaction partners, signaling, expression, physiologic functions, and therapeutic potential.

  19. Access to planetary science for the broad public: a more familiar planetary nomenclature and terminology system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargitai, H.

    The Planetary Sciences in the last decades has accumulated an amount of knowledge that is comparable to other Earth Sciences. The study of planets is not any more a computation of orbital data, but the investigation and description of surface features of dozens of planetary bodies, including our own Earth. This way, it is only an extention of the present Earth sciences like geography, geology, geophisics, meteorolgy etc. In Hungary, Planetary Science studies has been made for decades, but especially today, numerous popular scientific works are published, and the subject of planetology (and also exobiology linked to it) is taught in more and more secondary schools and universities. This ma kes a demand for a Hungarian language terminology and nomenclature in the relatively new discipline of Planetology. It is needed because the present terminology of geosciences is not adequeate for the description of the surface conditions and structures in other planetary bodies. In the mean time it has to be in accord with the Earth-based system. Since this is areal discipline in its subject, it is of high importance that the areas studied be identifiable easily, unambiguously and descriptively. This make s the translation/transcription of IAU's nomenclature our second goal. This is not a simple transliteration of the proper names used in planetary body nomenclatures, but the task is also the setting of the basic rules used in the making of Hungarian nomenclature system. It would be useful, if the system would be useable for any body of the solar system. It has to fit into the system of both the IAU's nomenlcature and the Hungarian geographic name system [1]. This makes a double task: to make a system that is appropriate both linguistically and scientifically. At the same time, in popular science and elementary education, the planetary features' common names and some basic terms should be in the mother languages of the readers, and not in latin or English (outside the anglophone

  20. New insights into the classification and nomenclature of cortical GABAergic interneurons.

    PubMed

    DeFelipe, Javier; López-Cruz, Pedro L; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; Bielza, Concha; Larrañaga, Pedro; Anderson, Stewart; Burkhalter, Andreas; Cauli, Bruno; Fairén, Alfonso; Feldmeyer, Dirk; Fishell, Gord; Fitzpatrick, David; Freund, Tamás F; González-Burgos, Guillermo; Hestrin, Shaul; Hill, Sean; Hof, Patrick R; Huang, Josh; Jones, Edward G; Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Kisvárday, Zoltán; Kubota, Yoshiyuki; Lewis, David A; Marín, Oscar; Markram, Henry; McBain, Chris J; Meyer, Hanno S; Monyer, Hannah; Nelson, Sacha B; Rockland, Kathleen; Rossier, Jean; Rubenstein, John L R; Rudy, Bernardo; Scanziani, Massimo; Shepherd, Gordon M; Sherwood, Chet C; Staiger, Jochen F; Tamás, Gábor; Thomson, Alex; Wang, Yun; Yuste, Rafael; Ascoli, Giorgio A

    2013-03-01

    A systematic classification and accepted nomenclature of neuron types is much needed but is currently lacking. This article describes a possible taxonomical solution for classifying GABAergic interneurons of the cerebral cortex based on a novel, web-based interactive system that allows experts to classify neurons with pre-determined criteria. Using Bayesian analysis and clustering algorithms on the resulting data, we investigated the suitability of several anatomical terms and neuron names for cortical GABAergic interneurons. Moreover, we show that supervised classification models could automatically categorize interneurons in agreement with experts' assignments. These results demonstrate a practical and objective approach to the naming, characterization and classification of neurons based on community consensus.

  1. From KISS1 to kisspeptins: An historical perspective and suggested nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Gottsch, Michelle L; Clifton, Donald K; Steiner, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    The cancer suppressor gene, KISS1, was initially described as having an important role in inhibiting cancer metastasis. Since then, KISS1 and its receptor, KISS1R, have been shown to play a key role in controlling the onset of puberty of reproductive physiology in the human and other species. Recent studies have also linked KISS1/kisspeptin/KISS1R to other processes, such as vasoconstriction, aging, adipocyte physiology, and perhaps as a molecular conduit linking metabolism and reproduction. This article highlights the history of KISS1/kisspeptin/KISS1R biology and proposes a consensus for nomenclature of the key molecules in this signaling pathway.

  2. The nomenclature, definition and classification of cardiac structures in the setting of heterotaxy.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Anderson, Robert H; Weinberg, Paul M; Walters, Henry L; Tchervenkov, Christo I; Del Duca, Danny; Franklin, Rodney C G; Aiello, Vera D; Béland, Marie J; Colan, Steven D; Gaynor, J William; Krogmann, Otto N; Kurosawa, Hiromi; Maruszewski, Bohdan; Stellin, Giovanni; Elliott, Martin J

    2007-09-01

    In 2000, The International Nomenclature Committee for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease was established. This committee eventually evolved into the International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease. The working component of this international nomenclature society has been The International Working Group for Mapping and Coding of Nomenclatures for Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease, also known as the Nomenclature Working Group. The Nomenclature Working Group created the International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code, which is available for free download from the internet at [http://www.IPCCC.NET]. In previous publications from the Nomenclature Working Group, unity has been produced by cross-mapping separate systems for coding, as for example in the treatment of the functionally univentricular heart, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, or congenitally corrected transposition. In this manuscript, we review the nomenclature, definition, and classification of heterotaxy, also known as the heterotaxy syndrome, placing special emphasis on the philosophical approach taken by both the Bostonian school of segmental notation developed from the teachings of Van Praagh, and the European school of sequential segmental analysis. The Nomenclature Working Group offers the following definition for the term "heterotaxy": "Heterotaxy is synonymous with 'visceral heterotaxy' and 'heterotaxy syndrome'. Heterotaxy is defined as an abnormality where the internal thoraco-abdominal organs demonstrate abnormal arrangement across the left-right axis of the body. By convention, heterotaxy does not include patients with either the expected usual or normal arrangement of the internal organs along the left-right axis, also known as 'situs solitus', nor patients with complete mirror-imaged arrangement of the internal organs along the left-right axis also known as 'situs inversus'." "Situs ambiguus is defined as an abnormality in which there are

  3. WHO and the development of acupuncture nomenclature: overcoming a Tower of Babel.

    PubMed

    Akerele, O

    1991-01-01

    At present, WHO does not have an official policy on acupuncture. The Organization's policies are usually developed after a debate has taken place on a particular health issue. There has not yet been a debate on acupuncture. This paper reviews WHO's efforts to produce a standard acupuncture nomenclature as a first step towards ensuring that a debate on acupuncture takes place in an atmosphere of greater understanding of the contribution that acupuncture can make in the delivery of health care. Activities that the programme for traditional medicine hopes to implement in the coming years are outlined.

  4. Dendritic cells, monocytes and macrophages: a unified nomenclature based on ontogeny

    PubMed Central

    Guilliams, Martin; Ginhoux, Florent; Jakubzick, Claudia; Naik, Shalin H.; Onai, Nobuyuki; Schraml, Barbara U.; Segura, Elodie; Tussiwand, Roxane; Yona, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) has historically been categorized into monocytes, dendritic cells and macrophages on the basis of functional and phenotypical characteristics. However, considering that these characteristics are often overlapping, the distinction between and classification of these cell types has been challenging. In this Opinion article, we propose a unified nomenclature for the MPS. We suggest that these cells can be classified primarily by their ontogeny and secondarily by their location, function and phenotype. We believe that this system permits a more robust classification during both steady-state and inflammatory conditions, with the benefit of spanning different tissues and across species. PMID:25033907

  5. Safety Pharmacology of Anticancer Agents.

    PubMed

    Martin, Pauline L

    2015-01-01

    The safety pharmacology testing for anticancer agents has historically differed for small molecule pharmaceutical drugs versus large-molecule biopharmaceuticals. For pharmaceutical drugs, dedicated safety pharmacology studies have been conducted according to the ICH M3 (R2), ICH 7A, and ICH S7B guidance documents. For biopharmaceuticals, safety pharmacology endpoints have been incorporated into the repeated-dose toxicology studies according to ICHS6 (R1). However, the introduction of the ICH S9 guidance document for the nonclinical evaluation for anticancer pharmaceuticals has allowed for a streamlined approach for both types of molecules to facilitate access of new potential therapeutics to cancer patients and to reduce the number of animal studies. Examples of the testing strategies that have previously been employed for some representative anticancer agents are provided, and their predictivity to adverse events noted in the clinic is discussed.

  6. The Pharmacology of Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Saul, Justin M.; Furth, Mark E.; Andersson, Karl-Erik

    2013-01-01

    Regenerative medicine is a rapidly evolving multidisciplinary, translational research enterprise whose explicit purpose is to advance technologies for the repair and replacement of damaged cells, tissues, and organs. Scientific progress in the field has been steady and expectations for its robust clinical application continue to rise. The major thesis of this review is that the pharmacological sciences will contribute critically to the accelerated translational progress and clinical utility of regenerative medicine technologies. In 2007, we coined the phrase “regenerative pharmacology” to describe the enormous possibilities that could occur at the interface between pharmacology, regenerative medicine, and tissue engineering. The operational definition of regenerative pharmacology is “the application of pharmacological sciences to accelerate, optimize, and characterize (either in vitro or in vivo) the development, maturation, and function of bioengineered and regenerating tissues.” As such, regenerative pharmacology seeks to cure disease through restoration of tissue/organ function. This strategy is distinct from standard pharmacotherapy, which is often limited to the amelioration of symptoms. Our goal here is to get pharmacologists more involved in this field of research by exposing them to the tools, opportunities, challenges, and interdisciplinary expertise that will be required to ensure awareness and galvanize involvement. To this end, we illustrate ways in which the pharmacological sciences can drive future innovations in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering and thus help to revolutionize the discovery of curative therapeutics. Hopefully, the broad foundational knowledge provided herein will spark sustained conversations among experts in diverse fields of scientific research to the benefit of all. PMID:23818131

  7. Clinical pharmacology for the orthodontist.

    PubMed

    Rinchuse, D J; Rinchuse, D J; Sprecher, R

    1981-03-01

    The practice of orthodontics encompasses all other aspects of dentistry, but at the same time it also is very different. Therefore, the pharmacologic agents that would be practical for orthodontic practice are much more limited than those used in other disciplines of dentistry. This, however, does not imply that a full understanding of pharmacologic drug action, side effects, and contraindications is unnecessary. Some common drugs, such as the antibiotics, anticholinergics, fluoride, antianxiety agents, and drugs for myofacial pain, are reviewed according to their application to orthodontic practice.

  8. Pharmacology of intracellular signalling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Nahorski, Stefan R

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a brief and somewhat personalized review of the dramatic developments that have occurred over the last 45 years in our understanding of intracellular signalling pathways associated with G-protein-coupled receptor activation. Signalling via cyclic AMP, the phosphoinositides and Ca2+ is emphasized and these systems have already been revealed as new pharmacological targets. The therapeutic benefits of most of such targets are, however, yet to be realized, but it is certain that the discipline of pharmacology needs to widen its boundaries to meet these challenges in the future. PMID:16402119

  9. Proposals to clarify and enhance the naming of fungi under the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants.

    PubMed

    Hawksworth, David L

    2015-06-01

    Twenty-three proposals to modify the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants adopted in 2011 with respect to the provisions for fungi are made, in accordance with the wishes of mycologists expressed at the 10(th) International Mycological Congress in Bangkok in 2014, and with the support of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF), the votes of which are presented here. The proposals relate to: conditions for epitypification, registration of later typifications, protected lists of names, removal of exemptions for lichen-forming fungi, provision of a diagnosis when describing a new taxon, citation of sanctioned names, avoiding homonyms in other kingdoms, ending preference for sexually typified names, and treatment of conspecific names with the same epithet. These proposals are also being published in Taxon, will be considered by the Nomenclature Committee for Fungi and General Committee on Nomenclature, and voted on at the 19(th) International Botanical Congress in Shenzhen, China, in 2017.

  10. Nomenclature for the Nameless: A Proposal for an Integrative Molecular Taxonomy of Cryptic Diversity Exemplified by Planktonic Foraminifera.

    PubMed

    Morard, Raphaël; Escarguel, Gilles; Weiner, Agnes K M; André, Aurore; Douady, Christophe J; Wade, Christopher M; Darling, Kate F; Ujiié, Yurika; Seears, Heidi A; Quillévéré, Frédéric; de Garidel-Thoron, Thibault; de Vargas, Colomban; Kucera, Michal

    2016-09-01

    Investigations of biodiversity, biogeography, and ecological processes rely on the identification of "species" as biologically significant, natural units of evolution. In this context, morphotaxonomy only provides an adequate level of resolution if reproductive isolation matches morphological divergence. In many groups of organisms, morphologically defined species often disguise considerable genetic diversity, which may be indicative of the existence of cryptic species. The diversity hidden by morphological species can be disentangled through genetic surveys, which also provide access to data on the ecological distribution of genetically circumscribed units. These units can be identified by unique DNA sequence motifs and allow studies of evolutionary and ecological processes at different levels of divergence. However, the nomenclature of genetically circumscribed units within morphological species is not regulated and lacks stability. This represents a major obstacle to efforts to synthesize and communicate data on genetic diversity for multiple stakeholders. We have been confronted with such an obstacle in our work on planktonic foraminifera, where the stakeholder community is particularly diverse, involving geochemists, paleoceanographers, paleontologists, and biologists, and the lack of stable nomenclature beyond the level of formal morphospecies prevents effective transfer of knowledge. To circumvent this problem, we have designed a stable, reproducible, and flexible nomenclature system for genetically circumscribed units, analogous to the principles of a formal nomenclature system. Our system is based on the definition of unique DNA sequence motifs collocated within an individual, their typification (in analogy with holotypes), utilization of their hierarchical phylogenetic structure to define levels of divergence below that of the morphospecies, and a set of nomenclature rules assuring stability. The resulting molecular operational taxonomic units remain

  11. A proposed nomenclature for 15 canine-specific polymorphic STR loci for forensic purposes.

    PubMed

    Eichmann, C; Berger, B; Parson, W

    2004-10-01

    We performed a population study on 15 polymorphic STR loci (FH2010, FH2079, PEZ2, VWF.X, FH2054, FH2087Ub, FH2611, WILMS-TF, PEZ12, PEZ15, PEZ6, FH2087Ua, ZUBECA4, ZUBECA6, FH2132) on 131 randomly selected dogs. Alleles were identified and grouped according to their estimated fragment length using fixed allelic bins encompassing one base-pair. The allele assignment was confirmed by sequence analysis of homozygote and cloned heterozygote alleles. In order to develop a uniform repeat-based nomenclature, extensive sequence analysis was performed on a selection of alleles from each STR locus. The proposed nomenclature refers to the internationally recognised recommendations for human-specific STR loci in forensic applications. The 15 canine-specific STR loci were grouped into 3 classes (simple STRs, compound STRs and complex/hypervariable STRs) according to their complexity and variability within the repeat structure. Finally, we evaluated the precision of fragment size estimation on a capillary electrophoresis platform and demonstrated reproducibility of fragment length estimation for single base-pair intermediate alleles.

  12. A world checklist of Onychophora (velvet worms), with notes on nomenclature and status of names.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ivo de Sena; Read, V Morley St J; Mayer, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Currently, the number of valid species of Onychophora is uncertain. To facilitate taxonomic work on this understudied animal group, we present an updated checklist for the two extant onychophoran subgroups, Peripatidae and Peripatopsidae, along with an assessment of the status of each species. According to our study, 82 species of Peripatidae and 115 species of Peripatopsidae have been described thus far. However, among these 197 species, 20 are nomina dubia due to major taxonomic inconsistencies. Apart from nomina dubia, many of the valid species also require revision, in particular representatives of Paraperipatus within the Peripatopsidae, and nearly all species of Peripatidae. In addition to extant representatives, the record of unambiguous fossils includes three species with uncertain relationship to the extant taxa. For all species, we provide a list of synonyms, information on types and type localities, as well as remarks on taxonomic and nomenclatural problems and misspellings. According to recent evidence of high endemism and cryptic speciation among the Peripatidae and Peripatopsidae, previous synonyms are revised. Putative mutations, subspecies and variations are either raised to the species status or synonymised with corresponding taxa. In our revised checklist, we follow the rules and recommendations of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature to clarify previous inconsistencies.

  13. Formal nomenclature and description of cryptic species of the Encyrtus sasakii complex (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Zhou, Qing-Song; Qiao, Hui-Jie; Zhang, Ai-Bing; Yu, Fang; Wang, Xu-Bo; Zhu, Chao-Dong; Zhang, Yan-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    With the recent development of molecular approaches to species delimitation, a growing number of cryptic species have been discovered in what had previously been thought to be single morpho-species. Molecular methods, such as DNA barcoding, have greatly enhanced our knowledge of taxonomy, but taxonomy remains incomplete and needs a formal species nomenclature and description to facilitate its use in other scientific fields. A previous study using DNA barcoding, geometric morphometrics and mating tests revealed at least two cryptic species in the Encyrtus sasakii complex. (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). To describe these two new species formally (Encyrtus eulecaniumiae sp. nov. and Encyrtus rhodococcusiae sp. nov.), a detailed morphometric study of Encyrtus spp. was performed in addition to the molecular analysis and evaluation of biological data. Morphometric analyses, a multivariate ratio analysis (MRA) and a geometric morphometric analysis (GMA) revealed a great number of differences between the species, but reliable characteristics were not observed for diagnosing the cryptic species. We thus diagnosed these three Encyrtus species on the basis of the characteristics that resulted from genetic markers (mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and nuclear 28S rRNA) and biological data. A formal nomenclature and description of cryptic species was provided on the basis of an integrated taxonomy. PMID:27698441

  14. Does DSM-5 nomenclature for inhalant use disorder improve upon DSM-IV?

    PubMed

    Ridenour, Ty A; Halliburton, Amanda E; Bray, Bethany C

    2015-03-01

    Among drug classes, substance use disorder (SUD) consequent to using inhalants (SUD-I) has perhaps the smallest evidence base. This study compared DSM-IV versus DSM-5 nomenclatures, testing whether 4 traditional categories of inhalants (aerosols, gases, nitrites, solvents) are manifestations of a single pathology, obtaining item parameters of SUD-I criteria, and presenting evidence that SUD can result from using nitrites. An urban, Midwestern, community sample of 162 inhalant users was recruited. Participants were 2/3 male, nearly 85% White, and had a mean age of 20.3 years (SD = 2.4 years), spanning the ages of greatest incidence of SUD and slightly older than the primary ages of inhalants use initiation. Analyses consisted of bivariate associations, principle components analysis, and item response theory analysis. Validity was demonstrated for SUD-I consequent to each inhalant type as well as for aggregating all inhalant types into a single drug class. Results supported DSM-5 nomenclature over DSM-IV in multiple ways except that occurrence of diagnostic orphans was not statistically smaller using DSM-5. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. Does DSM-5 Nomenclature for Inhalant Use Disorder Improve Upon DSM-IV?

    PubMed Central

    Ridenour, Ty A.; Halliburton, Amanda; Bray, Bethany C.

    2014-01-01

    Among drug classes, substance use disorder (SUD) consequent to using inhalants (SUD-I) has perhaps the smallest evidence base. This study compared SUD-IV vs. SUD-5 nomenclatures, testing whether four traditional categories of inhalants (aerosols, gases, nitrites, solvents) are manifestations of a single pathology, obtaining item parameters of SUD-I criteria, and presenting evidence that SUD can result from using nitrites. An urban, Midwestern, community sample of 162 inhalant users was recruited. Participants were 2/3 male, nearly 85% Caucasian, and had a mean age of 20.3 years (SD=2.4 years), spanning the ages of greatest incidence of SUD and slightly older than the primary ages of inhalants use initiation. Analyses consisted of bivariate associations, principle components analysis, and item response theory analysis. Validity was demonstrated for SUD-I consequent to each inhalant type as well as for aggregating all inhalant types into a single drug class. Results supported DSM-5 nomenclature over DSM-IV in multiple ways except that occurrence of diagnostic orphans was not statistically smaller using DSM-5. PMID:25134040

  16. Identification, nomenclature, and evolutionary relationships of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) genes in soybean.

    PubMed

    Neupane, Achal; Nepal, Madhav P; Piya, Sarbottam; Subramanian, Senthil; Rohila, Jai S; Reese, R Neil; Benson, Benjamin V

    2013-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) genes in eukaryotes regulate various developmental and physiological processes including those associated with biotic and abiotic stresses. Although MAPKs in some plant species including Arabidopsis have been identified, they are yet to be identified in soybean. Major objectives of this study were to identify GmMAPKs, assess their evolutionary relationships, and analyze their functional divergence. We identified a total of 38 MAPKs, eleven MAPKKs, and 150 MAPKKKs in soybean. Within the GmMAPK family, we also identified a new clade of six genes: four genes with TEY and two genes with TQY motifs requiring further investigation into possible legume-specific functions. The results indicated the expansion of the GmMAPK families attributable to the ancestral polyploidy events followed by chromosomal rearrangements. The GmMAPK and GmMAPKKK families were substantially larger than those in other plant species. The duplicated GmMAPK members presented complex evolutionary relationships and functional divergence when compared to their counterparts in Arabidopsis. We also highlighted existing nomenclatural issues, stressing the need for nomenclatural consistency. GmMAPK identification is vital to soybean crop improvement, and novel insights into the evolutionary relationships will enhance our understanding about plant genome evolution.

  17. Identification, Nomenclature, and Evolutionary Relationships of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Genes in Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Neupane, Achal; Nepal, Madhav P.; Piya, Sarbottam; Subramanian, Senthil; Rohila, Jai S.; Reese, R. Neil; Benson, Benjamin V.

    2013-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) genes in eukaryotes regulate various developmental and physiological processes including those associated with biotic and abiotic stresses. Although MAPKs in some plant species including Arabidopsis have been identified, they are yet to be identified in soybean. Major objectives of this study were to identify GmMAPKs, assess their evolutionary relationships, and analyze their functional divergence. We identified a total of 38 MAPKs, eleven MAPKKs, and 150 MAPKKKs in soybean. Within the GmMAPK family, we also identified a new clade of six genes: four genes with TEY and two genes with TQY motifs requiring further investigation into possible legume-specific functions. The results indicated the expansion of the GmMAPK families attributable to the ancestral polyploidy events followed by chromosomal rearrangements. The GmMAPK and GmMAPKKK families were substantially larger than those in other plant species. The duplicated GmMAPK members presented complex evolutionary relationships and functional divergence when compared to their counterparts in Arabidopsis. We also highlighted existing nomenclatural issues, stressing the need for nomenclatural consistency. GmMAPK identification is vital to soybean crop improvement, and novel insights into the evolutionary relationships will enhance our understanding about plant genome evolution. PMID:24137047

  18. A world checklist of Onychophora (velvet worms), with notes on nomenclature and status of names

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Ivo de Sena; Read, V. Morley St. J.; Mayer, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Currently, the number of valid species of Onychophora is uncertain. To facilitate taxonomic work on this understudied animal group, we present an updated checklist for the two extant onychophoran subgroups, Peripatidae and Peripatopsidae, along with an assessment of the status of each species. According to our study, 82 species of Peripatidae and 115 species of Peripatopsidae have been described thus far. However, among these 197 species, 20 are nomina dubia due to major taxonomic inconsistencies. Apart from nomina dubia, many of the valid species also require revision, in particular representatives of Paraperipatus within the Peripatopsidae, and nearly all species of Peripatidae. In addition to extant representatives, the record of unambiguous fossils includes three species with uncertain relationship to the extant taxa. For all species, we provide a list of synonyms, information on types and type localities, as well as remarks on taxonomic and nomenclatural problems and misspellings. According to recent evidence of high endemism and cryptic speciation among the Peripatidae and Peripatopsidae, previous synonyms are revised. Putative mutations, subspecies and variations are either raised to the species status or synonymised with corresponding taxa. In our revised checklist, we follow the rules and recommendations of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature to clarify previous inconsistencies. PMID:22930648

  19. The SDR (short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase and related enzymes) nomenclature initiative.

    PubMed

    Persson, Bengt; Kallberg, Yvonne; Bray, James E; Bruford, Elspeth; Dellaporta, Stephen L; Favia, Angelo D; Duarte, Roser Gonzalez; Jörnvall, Hans; Kavanagh, Kathryn L; Kedishvili, Natalia; Kisiela, Michael; Maser, Edmund; Mindnich, Rebekka; Orchard, Sandra; Penning, Trevor M; Thornton, Janet M; Adamski, Jerzy; Oppermann, Udo

    2009-03-16

    Short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR) constitute one of the largest enzyme superfamilies with presently over 46,000 members. In phylogenetic comparisons, members of this superfamily show early divergence where the majority have only low pairwise sequence identity, although sharing common structural properties. The SDR enzymes are present in virtually all genomes investigated, and in humans over 70 SDR genes have been identified. In humans, these enzymes are involved in the metabolism of a large variety of compounds, including steroid hormones, prostaglandins, retinoids, lipids and xenobiotics. It is now clear that SDRs represent one of the oldest protein families and contribute to essential functions and interactions of all forms of life. As this field continues to grow rapidly, a systematic nomenclature is essential for future annotation and reference purposes. A functional subdivision of the SDR superfamily into at least 200 SDR families based upon hidden Markov models forms a suitable foundation for such a nomenclature system, which we present in this paper using human SDRs as examples.

  20. Development of the Spanish version of the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine: methodology and main issues.

    PubMed Central

    Reynoso, G. A.; March, A. D.; Berra, C. M.; Strobietto, R. P.; Barani, M.; Iubatti, M.; Chiaradio, M. P.; Serebrisky, D.; Kahn, A.; Vaccarezza, O. A.; Leguiza, J. L.; Ceitlin, M.; Luna, D. A.; Bernaldo de Quirós, F. G.; Otegui, M. I.; Puga, M. C.; Vallejos, M.

    2000-01-01

    This presentation features linguistic and terminology management issues related to the development of the Spanish version of the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED). It aims at describing the aspects of translating and the difficulties encountered in delivering a natural and consistent medical nomenclature. Bunge's three-layered model is referenced to analyze the sequence of symbolic concept representations. It further explains how a communicative translation based on a concept-to-concept approach was used to achieve the highest level of flawlessness and naturalness for the Spanish rendition of SNOMED. Translation procedures and techniques are described and exemplified. Both the computer-aided and human translation methods are portrayed. The scientific and translation team tasks are detailed, with focus on Newmark's four-level principle for the translation process, extended with a fifth further level relevant to the ontology to control the consistency of the typology of concepts. Finally the convenience for a common methodology to develop non-English versions of SNOMED is suggested. PMID:11079973

  1. Current and future perspectives on the systematics, taxonomy and nomenclature of testate amoebae.

    PubMed

    Kosakyan, Anush; Gomaa, Fatma; Lara, Enrique; Lahr, Daniel J G

    2016-09-01

    Testate amoebae are a polyphyletic assemblage of at least three major, unrelated taxonomic groups of unicellular amoeboid eukaryotes exhibiting a test. The focus on testate amoebae in scientific research has greatly increased in the past 20 years: from an average of about 5 papers a year in the mid-1990s to the current rate of more than 50 papers published yearly. The application range of these organisms is rapidly expanding as well: from the traditional fields of environmental monitoring and paleoecology, to forensic sciences and ecotoxicology studies. These developments are nevertheless strongly dependent on reliable taxonomy and nomenclature. However, scientometric data reveal that despite an ever-increasing necessity for the use of names (the product of taxonomy), the corresponding effort has not been achieved for improving testate amoebae systematics. As a consequence, inaccurate taxonomy yields to misinterpretations in the diversity of the organisms and to potentially incorrect conclusions. These and related problems are discussed in this study, highlighting the outcome of poor taxonomic expertise in accurate classification and phylogeny of testate amoebae, and the consequences derived from it. Additionally, this study is aimed to discuss the current status of testate amoebae classification, and to present all nomenclature and taxonomic changes in higher and lower taxonomic levels of testate amoebae, as a result of recent molecular reconstructions. Finally, we conclude with a list of the needs and suggestions toward a unified and modernized taxonomy of testate amoebae.

  2. Review and development of common nomenclature for naming and labeling schemes for probabilistic risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Trusty, A.D.; Mackowiak, D.P. )

    1992-08-01

    This report describes the review and development of common nomenclature for naming and labeling schemes for probabilistic risk assessments (PRAS) conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Based on the review, the INEL recommends using an existing basic event labeling scheme and existing naming schemes for systems, component types, and component failure modes. The review showed no adequate accident sequence labeling schemes currently exist. Therefore, the INEL developed a scheme that would meet the review requirements of not exceeding 16 characters and being highly descriptive of the accident sequence involved. As parts of the developed accident sequence labeling scheme, the INEL also developed transient and loss-of-coolant accident initiating event codes, a sequence naming scheme, and accident type codes. Applications of the accident sequence labeling scheme are presented along with tables to allow changes from other schemes to the recommended naming schemes. The review and development were conducted to provide the Nuclear Regulatory Commission with the means to coordinate and integrate their internal activities through a common nomenclature for their many data bases.

  3. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup phylogeny of the dog: Proposal for a cladistic nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Fregel, Rosa; Suárez, Nicolás M; Betancor, Eva; González, Ana M; Cabrera, Vicente M; Pestano, José

    2015-05-01

    Canis lupus familiaris mitochondrial DNA analysis has increased in recent years, not only for the purpose of deciphering dog domestication but also for forensic genetic studies or breed characterization. The resultant accumulation of data has increased the need for a normalized and phylogenetic-based nomenclature like those provided for human maternal lineages. Although a standardized classification has been proposed, haplotype names within clades have been assigned gradually without considering the evolutionary history of dog mtDNA. Moreover, this classification is based only on the D-loop region, proven to be insufficient for phylogenetic purposes due to its high number of recurrent mutations and the lack of relevant information present in the coding region. In this study, we design 1) a refined mtDNA cladistic nomenclature from a phylogenetic tree based on complete sequences, classifying dog maternal lineages into haplogroups defined by specific diagnostic mutations, and 2) a coding region SNP analysis that allows a more accurate classification into haplogroups when combined with D-loop sequencing, thus improving the phylogenetic information obtained in dog mitochondrial DNA studies.

  4. International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria (INHAND): Progress to Date and Future Plans.

    PubMed

    Keenan, C M; Baker, J; Bradley, A; Goodman, D G; Harada, T; Herbert, R; Kaufmann, W; Kellner, R; Mahler, B; Meseck, E; Nolte, T; Rittinghausen, S; Vahle, J; Yoshizawa, K

    2015-07-01

    The International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria for Lesions in Rats and Mice proposal (INHAND) has been operational since 2005. A Global Editorial Steering Committee manages the overall objectives of the project, and the development of harmonized terminology for each organ system is the responsibility of the Organ Working Groups, drawing upon experts from North America, Europe, and Japan. Great progress has been made with 9 systems published to date--respiratory, hepatobiliary, urinary, central/peripheral nervous systems, male reproductive and mammary, zymbals, clitoral, and preputial glands in Toxicologic Pathology and the integument and soft tissue and female reproductive in the Journal of Toxicologic Pathology as supplements and on a Web site--www.goReni.org. INHAND nomenclature guides offer diagnostic criteria and guidelines for recording lesions observed in rodent toxicity and carcinogenicity studies. The guides provide representative photomicrographs of morphologic changes, information regarding pathogenesis, and key references. The purpose of this brief communication is to provide an update on the progress of INHAND.

  5. Nom et lumière: enlightenment through nomenclature (the 1996 Kenneth F. Russell Memorial Lecture).

    PubMed

    Pearn, J

    1997-08-01

    The classification of living things is both an acknowledgement of biological relationships and an identification of their differences. When Linnaeus, in 1735, published Systema Naturae, he set in place a system of biological classification that saw its apogee in the invention of binomial nomenclature: the description of every living thing being embodied simply in two names, (i.e. a genus and the species within it). Linnaeus built on the work of scientific forebears, of whom Nehemiah Grew (1641-1712) was one of the most influential. Grew was a surgeon-physician whose passionate interest was plant anatomy; his work led to the discovery and documentation of sexual dimorphism in plants. Grew's life and works are a witness to that philosophy which views nature as a continuum, a broad holistic entity in which discoveries in one biological field have ramifications in other areas. Grew allowed his scientific curiosity full rein, manifested the courage to publish his work and possessed the self-discipline to stand by the audit of his peers. Modern biological research and contemporary clinical practice owes much to the enlightenment engendered by the classification and nomenclature that developed from his work.

  6. A proposal to rationalize within-species plant virus nomenclature: benefits and implications of inaction.

    PubMed

    Jones, Roger A C; Kehoe, Monica A

    2016-07-01

    Current approaches used to name within-species, plant virus phylogenetic groups are often misleading and illogical. They involve names based on biological properties, sequence differences and geographical, country or place-association designations, or any combination of these. This type of nomenclature is becoming increasingly unsustainable as numbers of sequences of the same virus from new host species and different parts of the world increase. Moreover, this increase is accelerating as world trade and agriculture expand, and climate change progresses. Serious consequences for virus research and disease management might arise from incorrect assumptions made when current within-species phylogenetic group names incorrectly identify properties of group members. This could result in development of molecular tools that incorrectly target dangerous virus strains, potentially leading to unjustified impediments to international trade or failure to prevent such strains being introduced to countries, regions or continents formerly free of them. Dangerous strains might be missed or misdiagnosed by diagnostic laboratories and monitoring programs, and new cultivars with incorrect strain-specific resistances released. Incorrect deductions are possible during phylogenetic analysis of plant virus sequences and errors from strain misidentification during molecular and biological virus research activities. A nomenclature system for within-species plant virus phylogenetic group names is needed which avoids such problems. We suggest replacing all other naming approaches with Latinized numerals, restricting biologically based names only to biological strains and removing geographically based names altogether. Our recommendations have implications for biosecurity authorities, diagnostic laboratories, disease-management programs, plant breeders and researchers.

  7. MEGA ♪ --Empirical Support for Nomenclature on the Anomalies: Sexually Violent and Predatory Youth.

    PubMed

    Miccio-Fonseca, L C; Rasmussen, Lucinda A Lee

    2015-10-01

    Applied are empirical findings supporting the authors' previously presented nomenclature identifying two subsets of sexually abusive youth overlooked by most contemporary risk assessment tools: sexually violent and predatory sexually violent youth. The cross-validation findings on an ecologically framed risk assessment tool, MEGA (♪) (Multiplex Empirically Guided Inventory of Ecological Aggregates for Assessing Sexually Abusive Children and Adolescents [Ages 19 and Under]) (N = 1,056 male and female sexually abusive youth, ages 4-19, including youth with low intellectual functioning), from the United States, Canada, England, and Scotland, were utilized. Findings provided normative data, with cutoff scores according to age and gender. Most contemporary risk assessment tools have three levels (low, moderate, and high), which may in fact be limited in assessing the range of risk level. The MEGA (♪) cross-validation established a new range of risk level, with the fourth level (very high) definitively identifying the most dangerous youth, thus empirically supporting the nomenclature of sexually violent and predatory sexually violent youth.

  8. The pharmacology of TRP channels

    PubMed Central

    Holzer, Peter; Izzo, Angelo A

    2014-01-01

    This themed issue of the British Journal of Pharmacology contains review and research articles on recent advances in transient receptor potential (TRP) channel pharmacology. The review articles, written by a panel of distinguished experts, address the rapid progress in TRP channel research in fields as diverse as oncology, urology, dermatology, migraine, inflammation and pain. These reviews are complemented by original research reports focusing, among others, on the emerging roles of TRPV1 in osteoporosis and cystitis and on evodiamine as a lead structure for the development of potent TRPV1 agonists/desensitizers. Other papers highlight the differences in TRPV3 pharmacology between recombinant and native systems, the mechanisms of TRPM3 activation/inhibition and TRPP2 as a target of naringenin, a dietary flavonoid with anticancer actions. New therapeutic opportunities in pain may arise from the strategy to combine TRP channel and cell membrane impermeant sodium channel blockers to inhibit sensory nerve activity. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on the pharmacology of TRP channels. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-10 PMID:24773265

  9. Pharmacological Ascorbate Radiosensitizes Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Du, Juan; Cieslak, John A; Welsh, Jessemae L; Sibenaller, Zita A; Allen, Bryan G; Wagner, Brett A; Kalen, Amanda L; Doskey, Claire M; Strother, Robert K; Button, Anna M; Mott, Sarah L; Smith, Brian; Tsai, Susan; Mezhir, James; Goswami, Prabhat C; Spitz, Douglas R; Buettner, Garry R; Cullen, Joseph J

    2015-08-15

    The toxicity of pharmacologic ascorbate is mediated by the generation of H2O2 via the oxidation of ascorbate. Because pancreatic cancer cells are sensitive to H2O2 generated by ascorbate, they would also be expected to become sensitized to agents that increase oxidative damage such as ionizing radiation. The current study demonstrates that pharmacologic ascorbate enhances the cytotoxic effects of ionizing radiation as seen by decreased cell viability and clonogenic survival in all pancreatic cancer cell lines examined, but not in nontumorigenic pancreatic ductal epithelial cells. Ascorbate radiosensitization was associated with an increase in oxidative stress-induced DNA damage, which was reversed by catalase. In mice with established heterotopic and orthotopic pancreatic tumor xenografts, pharmacologic ascorbate combined with ionizing radiation decreased tumor growth and increased survival, without damaging the gastrointestinal tract or increasing systemic changes in parameters indicative of oxidative stress. Our results demonstrate the potential clinical utility of pharmacologic ascorbate as a radiosensitizer in the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  10. Pharmacology Experiments on the Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    A computer program that replaces a set of pharmacology and physiology laboratory experiments on live animals or isolated organs is described and illustrated. Five experiments are simulated: dose-effect relationships on smooth muscle, blood pressure and catecholamines, neuromuscular signal transmission, acetylcholine and the circulation, and…

  11. Pharmacology of Marihuana (Cannabis sativa)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maickel, Roger P.

    1973-01-01

    A detailed discussion of marihuana (Cannabis sativa) providing the modes of use, history, chemistry, and physiologic properties of the drug. Cites research results relating to the pharmacologic effects of marihuana. These effects are categorized into five areas: behavioral, cardiovascular-respiratory, central nervous system, toxicity-toxicology,…

  12. The Pharmacological Potential of Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    This review describes pharmacologically active compounds from mushrooms. Compounds and complex substances with antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, antiallergic, immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective and central activities are covered, focusing on the review of recent literature. The production of mushrooms or mushroom compounds is discussed briefly. PMID:16136207

  13. Rebuilding the Tower of Babel: A Revised Nomenclature for the Study of Suicide and Suicidal Behaviors. Part 2: Suicide-Related Ideations, Communications, and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Morton M.; Berman, Alan L.; Sanddal, Nels D.; O'Carroll, Patrick W.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Although a number of investigators have adopted the O'Carroll et al. (1996) nomenclature and applied it in their studies, and others have acknowledged its role in highlighting the need for clarification of terms, the nomenclature has not been widely used in the research and clinical communities. The rationale behind the rebuilding of the O'Carroll…

  14. Nomenclature for congenital and paediatric cardiac disease: historical perspectives and The International Pediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Rodney C G; Jacobs, Jeffrey Phillip; Krogmann, Otto N; Béland, Marie J; Aiello, Vera D; Colan, Steven D; Elliott, Martin J; William Gaynor, J; Kurosawa, Hiromi; Maruszewski, Bohdan; Stellin, Giovanni; Tchervenkov, Christo I; Walters Iii, Henry L; Weinberg, Paul; Anderson, Robert H

    2008-12-01

    Clinicians working in the field of congenital and paediatric cardiology have long felt the need for a common diagnostic and therapeutic nomenclature and coding system with which to classify patients of all ages with congenital and acquired cardiac disease. A cohesive and comprehensive system of nomenclature, suitable for setting a global standard for multicentric analysis of outcomes and stratification of risk, has only recently emerged, namely, The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code. This review, will give an historical perspective on the development of systems of nomenclature in general, and specifically with respect to the diagnosis and treatment of patients with paediatric and congenital cardiac disease. Finally, current and future efforts to merge such systems into the paperless environment of the electronic health or patient record on a global scale are briefly explored. On October 6, 2000, The International Nomenclature Committee for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease was established. In January, 2005, the International Nomenclature Committee was constituted in Canada as The International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease. This International Society now has three working groups. The Nomenclature Working Group developed The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code and will continue to maintain, expand, update, and preserve this International Code. It will also provide ready access to the International Code for the global paediatric and congenital cardiology and cardiac surgery communities, related disciplines, the healthcare industry, and governmental agencies, both electronically and in published form. The Definitions Working Group will write definitions for the terms in the International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code, building on the previously published definitions from the Nomenclature Working Group. The Archiving Working Group, also known as The Congenital Heart Archiving

  15. Quantitative systems pharmacology: a promising approach for translational pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Gadkar, K; Kirouac, D; Parrott, N; Ramanujan, S

    Biopharmaceutical companies have increasingly been exploring Quantitative Systems Pharmacology (QSP) as a potential avenue to address current challenges in drug development. In this paper, we discuss the application of QSP modeling approaches to address challenges in the translational of preclinical findings to the clinic, a high risk area of drug development. Three cases have been highlighted with QSP models utilized to inform different questions in translational pharmacology. In the first, a mechanism based asthma model is used to evaluate efficacy and inform biomarker strategy for a novel bispecific antibody. In the second case study, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway signaling model is used to make translational predictions on clinical response and evaluate novel combination therapies. In the third case study, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model it used to guide administration of oseltamivir in pediatric patients.

  16. Pharmacometabolomics: implications for clinical pharmacology and systems pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Kaddurah-Daouk, R; Weinshilboum, R M

    2014-02-01

    Metabolomics, the study of metabolism at an "omic" level, has the potential to transform our understanding of mechanisms of drug action and the molecular basis for variation in drug response. It is now possible to define metabolic signatures of drug exposure that can identify pathways involved in both drug efficacy and adverse drug reactions. In addition, the "metabotype," the metabolic "signature" of a patient, is a unique identity that contains information about drug response and disease heterogeneity. The application of metabolomics for the study of drug effects and variation in drug response is creating "pharmacometabolomics," a discipline that will contribute to personalized drug therapy and will complement pharmacogenomics by capturing environmental and microbiome-level influences on response to drug therapy. This field has the potential to transform pharmacology and clinical pharmacology in significant ways and will contribute to efforts for personalized therapy. This overview highlights developments in the new discipline of pharmacometabolomics.

  17. Paradoxical pharmacology: turning our pharmacological models upside down.

    PubMed

    Page, Clive

    2011-04-01

    Paradoxical pharmacology is a term first suggested by Richard Bond to refer to intriguing observations that chronic use of some drug types can have the opposite biological effect(s) to those seen following acute administration of the same drug. A good example of 'paradoxical pharmacology' is the research Richard has pioneered showing that whereas acute administration of β-blockers is contraindicated in the treatment of asthma, chronic use of certain β-blockers can have therapeutic benefit. It would appear that those β-blockers that can act as inverse agonists at the β2 receptor particularly show this paradoxical effect and the findings of Richard's research not only challenge the dogma of the treatment of asthma but also challenge many of the pharmacological principles of ligand/receptor interactions established by Sir James Black and others. In this paper, I discuss Richard's efforts to evaluate the chronic effects of β-blockers in the airways and how this research caught the imagination of Sir James Black.

  18. Suggestions for the nomenclature of human alleles: relevance to ecogenetics, pharmacogenetics and molecular epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Nebert, D W

    2000-06-01

    The current number of 9422 symbols for human gene names (http://www.gene.ucl.ac.uk/nomenclature/) is expected to increase 7- to 15-fold over the next 2 years. In and around each gene, a tremendous degree of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) heterogeneity is now realized to exist. This review is intended to be visionary, to point out some of the enormously complex nomenclature issues that we face, and to offer some reasonable solutions to these issues. For example, I believe that a 'gene' should be defined as that region from the furthest 5'-ward enhancer to at least 150 bases downstream of the last exon. Just as established rules are critically important for the systematic naming of all new genes, standardized nomenclature rules for the naming of allelic variants are also desperately needed. The evolving consensus for naming the alleles of all human genes (ideally based on evolutionarily diverging haplotype patterns) is described herein. Because of the anticipated explosion in finding new genes and allelic variants due to high-throughput resequencing and DNA-chip technologies, this excess of new knowledge will undoubtedly overwhelm their publication by scientific journals alone. I suggest that the best approach to this staggering 'information overload' is to place the data on appropriate web sites--with numerous links between sites, and frequent updates of all information--so that colleagues in all fields of medical and genetic research can remain knowledgeable. Examples of successful web sites to date include those for the cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes and human CYP alleles, UDP glycosyltransferase (UGT) genes and human alleles, human N-acetylaminotransferase (NAT2, NAT1) alleles, and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) genes and human alleles. Many more web sites will be necessary. For each site, the webmaster will need to be responsible, accurate, energetic, highly organized, and keen to keep the site current. I believe that interactive discussions on these sites

  19. Pharmacological potential of cerium oxidenanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celardo, Ivana; Pedersen, Jens Z.; Traversa, Enrico; Ghibelli, Lina

    2011-04-01

    Nanotechnology promises a revolution in pharmacology to improve or create ex novo therapies. Cerium oxidenanoparticles (nanoceria), well-known as catalysts, possess an astonishing pharmacological potential due to their antioxidant properties, deriving from a fraction of Ce3+ ions present in CeO2. These defects, compensated by oxygen vacancies, are enriched at the surface and therefore in nanosized particles. Reactions involving redox cycles between the Ce3+ and Ce4+oxidation states allow nanoceria to react catalytically with superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, mimicking the behavior of two key antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, potentially abating all noxious intracellularreactive oxygen species (ROS) via a self-regenerating mechanism. Hence nanoceria, apparently well tolerated by the organism, might fight chronic inflammation and the pathologies associated with oxidative stress, which include cancer and neurodegeneration. Here we review the biological effects of nanoceria as they emerge from in vitro and in vivo studies, considering biocompatibility and the peculiar antioxidant mechanisms.

  20. Pharmacological effects of Sapindus mukorossi.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Aparna; Singh, D K

    2012-01-01

    Sapindus mukorossi is an extremely valuable medicinal plant, distributed in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Asia. The aim of present review is to form a short compilation of the phytochemical composition and pharmacological properties of this multipurpose tree. The main phytoconstituents isolated and identified from different parts of this plant are triterpenoidal saponins of oleanane, dammarane and tirucullane type. The structure and chemical names of all the types of triterpenoidal saponins reported in Sapindus mukorossi are included in this review. Many research studies have been conducted to prove the plant's potential as being spermicidal, contraceptive, hepatoprotective, emetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-protozoal. The present review highlights some of the salient pharmacological uses of Sapindus mukorossi.

  1. Pharmacologic Preconditioning: Translating the Promise

    PubMed Central

    Gidday, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    A transient, ischemia-resistant phenotype known as “ischemic tolerance” can be established in brain in a rapid or delayed fashion by a preceding noninjurious “preconditioning” stimulus. Initial preclinical studies of this phenomenon relied primarily on brief periods of ischemia or hypoxia as preconditioning stimuli, but it was later realized that many other stressors, including pharmacologic ones, are also effective. This review highlights the surprisingly wide variety of drugs now known to promote ischemic tolerance, documented and to some extent mechanistically characterized in preclinical animal models of stroke. Although considerably more experimentation is needed to thoroughly validate the ability of any currently identified preconditioning agent to protect ischemic brain, the fact that some of these drugs are already clinically approved for other indications implies that the growing enthusiasm for translational success in the field of pharmacologic preconditioning may be well justified. PMID:21197121

  2. Nanoparticles: pharmacological and toxicological significance

    PubMed Central

    Medina, C; Santos-Martinez, M J; Radomski, A; Corrigan, O I; Radomski, M W

    2007-01-01

    Nanoparticles are tiny materials (<1000 nm in size) that have specific physicochemical properties different to bulk materials of the same composition and such properties make them very attractive for commercial and medical development. However, nanoparticles can act on living cells at the nanolevel resulting not only in biologically desirable, but also in undesirable effects. In contrast to many efforts aimed at exploiting desirable properties of nanoparticles for medicine, there are limited attempts to evaluate potentially undesirable effects of these particles when administered intentionally for medical purposes. Therefore, there is a pressing need for careful consideration of benefits and side effects of the use of nanoparticles in medicine. This review article aims at providing a balanced update of these exciting pharmacological and potentially toxicological developments. The classes of nanoparticles, the current status of nanoparticle use in pharmacology and therapeutics, the demonstrated and potential toxicity of nanoparticles will be discussed. PMID:17245366

  3. The status of the Notes in the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes: proposal to emend General Consideration 6.

    PubMed

    Oren, Aharon; Garrity, George M

    2016-09-01

    The International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes contains 48 Notes to the General Considerations, the Principles, the Rules and the Recommendations. However, the formal status of these Notes is not defined in the Code. Therefore, we here propose an emendation of General Consideration 6 stating that the Notes are intended to clarify the preceding text and are an integral part of that text.

  4. Ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptide natural products: overview and recommendations for a universal nomenclature

    PubMed Central

    Arnison, Paul G.; Bibb, Mervyn J.; Bierbaum, Gabriele; Bowers, Albert A.; Bugni, Tim S.; Bulaj, Grzegorz; Camarero, Julio A.; Campopiano, Dominic J.; Challis, Gregory L.; Clardy, Jon; Cotter, Paul D.; Craik, David J.; Dawson, Michael; Dittmann, Elke; Donadio, Stefano; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Entian, Karl-Dieter; Fischbach, Michael A.; Garavelli, John S.; Göransson, Ulf; Gruber, Christian W.; Haft, Daniel H.; Hemscheidt, Thomas K.; Hertweck, Christian; Hill, Colin; Horswill, Alexander R.; Jaspars, Marcel; Kelly, Wendy L.; Klinman, Judith P.; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Link, A. James; Liu, Wen; Marahiel, Mohamed A.; Mitchell, Douglas A.; Moll, Gert N.; Moore, Bradley S.; Müller, Rolf; Nair, Satish K.; Nes, Ingolf F.; Norris, Gillian E.; Olivera, Baldomero M.; Onaka, Hiroyasu; Patchett, Mark L.; Piel, Joern; Reaney, Martin J. T.; Rebuffat, Sylvie; Ross, R. Paul; Sahl, Hans-Georg; Schmidt, Eric W.; Selsted, Michael E.; Severinov, Konstantin; Shen, Ben; Sivonen, Kaarina; Smith, Leif; Stein, Torsten; Süssmuth, Roderich D.; Tagg, John R.; Tang, Gong-Li; Truman, Andrew W.; Vederas, John C.; Walsh, Christopher T.; Walton, Jonathan D.; Wenzel, Silke C.; Willey, Joanne M.; van der Donk, Wilfred A.

    2014-01-01

    This review presents recommended nomenclature for the biosynthesis of ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs), a rapidly growing class of natural products. The current knowledge regarding the biosynthesis of the >20 distinct compound classes is also reviewed, and commonalities are discussed. PMID:23165928

  5. NEW NOMENCLATURAL COMBINATIONS REFERRING TO DIATOM TAXA WHICH OCCUR IN THE LAURENTIAN GREAT LAKES OF NORTH AMERICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    During a recent compilation of a Great Lakes diatom species checklist several new nomenclatural combinations, which to our knowledge have not yet been made in the literature, came to our attention. In order to more closely align literature on Great Lakes diatoms with current taxo...

  6. Five root canals in peg lateral incisor with dens invaginatus: A case report with new nomenclature for the five canals

    PubMed Central

    Jaikailash, Shanmugam; Kavitha, Mahendran; Ranjani, Muthukrishnan Sudharshana; Saravanan, Balasubramaniam

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes endodontic treatment completed in a peg-shaped maxillary lateral incisor, with single root and five root canals of which, one is due to dens invaginatus. Cone beam computed tomogram scanning confirmed the unique morphology of the tooth. New nomenclature for the five canals is proposed. PMID:25125854

  7. Recommendations for standardized nomenclature and definitions of viral response in trials of hepatitis C virus investigational agents.

    PubMed

    Wedemeyer, Heiner; Jensen, Donald M; Godofsky, Eliot; Mani, Nina; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel; Miller, Veronica

    2012-12-01

    Outdated virological response terms used at key trial timepoints in clinical trials with first-generation direct-acting antivirals plus pegylated interferon and ribavirin have failed to keep pace with hepatitis C virus (HCV) drug development. A more intuitive and flexible nomenclature capable of adapting to continuing advances in HCV drug development is needed. Assistance in standardization of the field was provided by members of the Hepatitis C Virus Drug Development Advisory Group, a project of the Forum for Collaborative HIV Research with participation from the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, European Association for the of the liver, and the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Our proposed descriptive, virological response nomenclature for key decision points in trials (with and without lead-in treatment) is based on an assay-specified lower limit of quantitation cutoff. This allows responses to be categorized as either quantifiable or unquantifiable HCV RNA, with unquantifiable responses further divided based on whether target HCV RNA was detected or not detected. The unified reporting recommendations will facilitate interpretation of results across clinical trials and validation of new response-guided timepoints. As time-critical treatment parameters are shortened in HCV trials, the proposed nomenclature will greatly simplify and facilitate future adaptations of virological response terms. Our proposed nomenclature will also be helpful in developing treatment guidelines for use in clinical practice.

  8. Naming pleomorphic fungi – the debate on how to deal with Article 59 of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungi are the only living organisms that are legitimately permitted by any Code of Nomenclature to bear multiple Latin scientific binomial names. This convention is rooted in the historical treatment of fungal names before their life-cycles were fully understood. It has been allowed to continue bec...

  9. [Current classification and nomenclature of plant viruses (by materials of the International Committee on Virus Taxonomy). Part I].

    PubMed

    Kraev, V G

    2000-01-01

    The rules of classification and nomenclature of plant viruses are reviewed in connection with the reports of the International Committee on Viruses Taxonomy. The characteristics of the families and genera of plant viruses approved by the Committee in 1995 are presented.

  10. Health information systems for home telehealth services--a nomenclature for sensor-enhanced transinstitutional information system architectures.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Wolfram; Wolf, Klaus-Hendrik; Duwenkamp, Christopher; Gusew, Nathalie; Hellrung, Nils; Marschollek, Michael; Von Bargen, Tobias; Wagner, Markus; Haux, Reinhold

    2010-01-01

    Home telehealth services for elderly people promise to contribute to a more efficient health care in the future. Though isolated services at a patient's home might make sense for some applications, the full potential of home telehealth only arises through its integration into existing health information systems (HIS) and care processes. We know about traditional HIS architectures. However, so far no models exist, helping us to understand and describe the upcoming sensor-enhanced transinstitutional information system architectures for home telehealth services. To develop a nomenclature for sensor-enhanced transinstitutional health information system architectures. We conducted two systematic literature reviews, assessing typical services and users of home telehealth and key characteristics of transinstitutional health information system architectures. The information retrieved from both reviews was integrated to build the nomenclature sought after. We present a nomenclature of information and communication technology (ICT) architectures for home telehealth services. The developed dimensions provide an overview on typical users, services, operating organisations, information flow, geographical reach and architectural paradigms of sensor-enhanced transinstitutional health information systems. The developed nomenclature helps us to better understand the upcoming ICT architectures. However, we are still in need of further experiences with their application.

  11. Clinical pharmacology of antifungal compounds.

    PubMed

    Groll, Andreas H; Gea-Banacloche, Juan C; Glasmacher, Axel; Just-Nuebling, Gudrun; Maschmeyer, Georg; Walsh, Thomas J

    2003-03-01

    Prompted by the worldwide surge in fungal infections, the past decade has witnessed a considerable expansion in antifungal drug research. New compounds have entered the clinical arena, and major progress has been made in defining paradigms of antifungal therapies. This article provides an up-to-date review on the clinical pharmacology, indications, and dosage recommendations of approved and currently investigational therapeutics for treatment of invasive fungal infections in adult and pediatric patients.

  12. Pharmacological optimization of tissue perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Mongardon, N.; Dyson, A.; Singer, M.

    2009-01-01

    After fluid resuscitation, vasoactive drug treatment represents the major cornerstone for correcting any major impairment of the circulation. However, debate still rages as to the choice of agent, dose, timing, targets, and monitoring modalities that should optimally be used to benefit the patient yet, at the same time, minimize harm. This review highlights these areas and some new pharmacological agents that broaden our therapeutic options. PMID:19460775

  13. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: Pharmacology and Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Čolović, Mirjana B; Krstić, Danijela Z; Lazarević-Pašti, Tamara D; Bondžić, Aleksandra M; Vasić, Vesna M

    2013-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase is involved in the termination of impulse transmission by rapid hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in numerous cholinergic pathways in the central and peripheral nervous systems. The enzyme inactivation, induced by various inhibitors, leads to acetylcholine accumulation, hyperstimulation of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors, and disrupted neurotransmission. Hence, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, interacting with the enzyme as their primary target, are applied as relevant drugs and toxins. This review presents an overview of toxicology and pharmacology of reversible and irreversible acetylcholinesterase inactivating compounds. In the case of reversible inhibitors being commonly applied in neurodegenerative disorders treatment, special attention is paid to currently approved drugs (donepezil, rivastigmine and galantamine) in the pharmacotherapy of Alzheimer’s disease, and toxic carbamates used as pesticides. Subsequently, mechanism of irreversible acetylcholinesterase inhibition induced by organophosphorus compounds (insecticides and nerve agents), and their specific and nonspecific toxic effects are described, as well as irreversible inhibitors having pharmacological implementation. In addition, the pharmacological treatment of intoxication caused by organophosphates is presented, with emphasis on oxime reactivators of the inhibited enzyme activity administering as causal drugs after the poisoning. Besides, organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides can be detoxified in mammals through enzymatic hydrolysis before they reach targets in the nervous system. Carboxylesterases most effectively decompose carbamates, whereas the most successful route of organophosphates detoxification is their degradation by corresponding phosphotriesterases. PMID:24179466

  14. Pharmacologic vitreodynamics and molecular flux.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, David T; Trese, Michael T

    2009-01-01

    Several enzymatic agents, such as autologous plasmin enzyme and recombinant microplasmin, are able to cause vitreous liquefaction and a complete posterior vitreous detachment (PVD). Advancements in research have helped to explain the complex interactions that occur in the vitreous cavity after a PVD is created. The development of a PVD is a dynamic process that is thought to have a larger impact on the vitreous cavity milieu than just a separation of the posterior cortical vitreous from the retina. Pharmacologic vitreodynamics attempts to explain the mechanical and biochemical changes that occur at the vitreoretinal junction after a PVD is formed. The flow of molecules into and out of the vitreous cavity and across the vitreoretinal junction is thought to be influenced by the presence or absence of a PVD. A microplasmin-induced PVD has been shown to alter the vitreous levels of several molecules, and a PVD may have a protective role in multiple diseases. Significant progress has been made in the field of pharmacologic vitreodynamics. As we improve our understanding of the molecular flux in the vitreous cavity, pharmacologic vitreodynamics will likely become more important as it may allow for improved manipulation of intravitreal molecules.

  15. Enzymatic Vitrectomy and Pharmacologic Vitreodynamics.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ankoor R; Trese, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    The field of vitreoretinal surgery has evolved substantially over the last several decades. Scientific advances have improved our understanding of disease pathophysiology, and new surgical adjuncts and techniques have decreased surgical time and improved patient outcomes. Pharmacologic agents have recently been developed for intraocular use in order to enhance vitreous removal and even as a nonsurgical treatment for pathology due to an abnormal vitreoretinal interface. Plasmin can successfully cause vitreous liquefaction and induce a posterior vitreous detachment. Additionally, ocriplasmin has been approved for symptomatic vitreomacular adhesion and others appear to be promising for pharmacologic manipulation of the vitreous. The ability to induce vitreous liquefaction and a complete posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) with a single intravitreal injection has potential implications for the management of multiple vitreoretinopathies. Enzymatic vitrectomy may help to reduce vitreous viscosity, thereby facilitating removal during vitrectomy and reducing surgical time, especially when using smaller-gauge vitrectomy instruments. The induction of a PVD also has the potential to reduce intraoperative complications. As we improve our understanding of the molecular flux in the vitreous cavity, pharmacologic vitreodynamics will likely become more important as it may allow for improved manipulation of intravitreal molecules.

  16. Preclinical pharmacology and opioid combinations.

    PubMed

    Pasternak, Gavril W

    2012-03-01

    Although effective alone, opioids are often used in combination with other drugs for relief of moderate to severe pain. Guidelines for acute perioperative pain recommend the use of multimodal therapy for pain management, although combinations of opioids are not specifically recommended. Mu opioid drugs include morphine, heroin, fentanyl, methadone, and morphine 6β-glucuronide (M6G). Their mechanism of action is complex, resulting in subtle pharmacological differences among them and with unpredictable differences in their potency, effectiveness, and tolerability among patients. Highly selective mu opioids do not bind to a single receptor. Rather, they interact with a large number of mu receptor subtypes with different activation profiles for the various drugs. Thus, mu-receptor-based drugs are not all the same and it may be possible to utilize these differences for enhanced pain control in a clinical setting. These differences among the drugs raise the question of whether combinations might result in better pain relief with fewer side effects. This concept has already been demonstrated between two mu opioids in preclinical studies and clinical trials on other combinations are ongoing. This article reviews the current state of knowledge about mu opioid receptor pharmacology, summarizes preclinical evidence for synergy from opioid combinations, and highlights the complex nature of the mu opioid receptor pharmacology.

  17. Molecular definitions of cell death subroutines: recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death 2012

    PubMed Central

    Galluzzi, L; Vitale, I; Abrams, J M; Alnemri, E S; Baehrecke, E H; Blagosklonny, M V; Dawson, T M; Dawson, V L; El-Deiry, W S; Fulda, S; Gottlieb, E; Green, D R; Hengartner, M O; Kepp, O; Knight, R A; Kumar, S; Lipton, S A; Lu, X; Madeo, F; Malorni, W; Mehlen, P; Nuñez, G; Peter, M E; Piacentini, M; Rubinsztein, D C; Shi, Y; Simon, H-U; Vandenabeele, P; White, E; Yuan, J; Zhivotovsky, B; Melino, G; Kroemer, G

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) proposed a set of recommendations for the definition of distinct cell death morphologies and for the appropriate use of cell death-related terminology, including ‘apoptosis', ‘necrosis' and ‘mitotic catastrophe'. In view of the substantial progress in the biochemical and genetic exploration of cell death, time has come to switch from morphological to molecular definitions of cell death modalities. Here we propose a functional classification of cell death subroutines that applies to both in vitro and in vivo settings and includes extrinsic apoptosis, caspase-dependent or -independent intrinsic apoptosis, regulated necrosis, autophagic cell death and mitotic catastrophe. Moreover, we discuss the utility of expressions indicating additional cell death modalities. On the basis of the new, revised NCCD classification, cell death subroutines are defined by a series of precise, measurable biochemical features. PMID:21760595

  18. Celsius versus centigrade: the nomenclature of the temperature scale of science.

    PubMed

    STIMSON, H F

    1962-04-20

    The temperature scale used by scientists in America has been called centigrade, while in many countries it was called Celsius for its inventor. In 1948 the 9th General Conference on Weights and Measures, representing 33 nations that subscribed to the Treaty of the Meter, adopted the name Celsius. This name, however, did not come into general use by scientists in America, partly because they were unaware of the official action of the conference and partly because some preferred the old name. At the 11th General Conference in 1960 the scale was defined in a way that makes the adjective centigrade inexact. The name Celsius is correct and its use by American scientists would help make the nomenclature of temperature uniform in all countries.

  19. AnnoTALE: bioinformatics tools for identification, annotation, and nomenclature of TALEs from Xanthomonas genomic sequences

    PubMed Central

    Grau, Jan; Reschke, Maik; Erkes, Annett; Streubel, Jana; Morgan, Richard D.; Wilson, Geoffrey G.; Koebnik, Ralf; Boch, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are virulence factors, produced by the bacterial plant-pathogen Xanthomonas, that function as gene activators inside plant cells. Although the contribution of individual TALEs to infectivity has been shown, the specific roles of most TALEs, and the overall TALE diversity in Xanthomonas spp. is not known. TALEs possess a highly repetitive DNA-binding domain, which is notoriously difficult to sequence. Here, we describe an improved method for characterizing TALE genes by the use of PacBio sequencing. We present ‘AnnoTALE’, a suite of applications for the analysis and annotation of TALE genes from Xanthomonas genomes, and for grouping similar TALEs into classes. Based on these classes, we propose a unified nomenclature for Xanthomonas TALEs that reveals similarities pointing to related functionalities. This new classification enables us to compare related TALEs and to identify base substitutions responsible for the evolution of TALE specificities. PMID:26876161

  20. New insights into the classification and nomenclature of cortical GABAergic interneurons

    PubMed Central

    DeFelipe, Javier; López-Cruz, Pedro L.; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; Bielza, Concha; Larrañaga, Pedro; Anderson, Stewart; Burkhalter, Andreas; Cauli, Bruno; Fairén, Alfonso; Feldmeyer, Dirk; Fishell, Gord; Fitzpatrick, David; Freund, Tamás F.; González-Burgos, Guillermo; Hestrin, Shaul; Hill, Sean; Hof, Patrick R.; Huang, Josh; Jones, Edward G.; Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Kisvárday, Zoltán; Kubota, Yoshiyuki; Lewis, David A.; Marín, Oscar; Markram, Henry; McBain, Chris J.; Meyer, Hanno S.; Monyer, Hannah; Nelson, Sacha B.; Rockland, Kathleen; Rossier, Jean; Rubenstein, John L. R.; Rudy, Bernardo; Scanziani, Massimo; Shepherd, Gordon M.; Sherwood, Chet C.; Staiger, Jochen F.; Tamás, Gábor; Thomson, Alex; Wang, Yun; Yuste, Rafael; Ascoli, Giorgio A.

    2013-01-01

    A systematic classification and accepted nomenclature of neuron types is much needed but is currently lacking. This article describes a possible taxonomical solution for classifying GABAergic interneurons of the cerebral cortex based on a novel, web-based interactive system that allows experts to classify neurons with pre-determined criteria. Using Bayesian analysis and clustering algorithms on the resulting data, we investigated the suitability of several anatomical terms and neuron names for cortical GABAergic interneurons. Moreover, we show that supervised classification models could automatically categorize interneurons in agreement with experts’ assignments. These results demonstrate a practical and objective approach to the naming, characterization and classification of neurons based on community consensus. PMID:23385869

  1. A unified nomenclature of NITRATE TRANSPORTER 1/PEPTIDE TRANSPORTER family members in plants.

    PubMed

    Léran, Sophie; Varala, Kranthi; Boyer, Jean-Christophe; Chiurazzi, Maurizio; Crawford, Nigel; Daniel-Vedele, Françoise; David, Laure; Dickstein, Rebecca; Fernandez, Emilio; Forde, Brian; Gassmann, Walter; Geiger, Dietmar; Gojon, Alain; Gong, Ji-Ming; Halkier, Barbara A; Harris, Jeanne M; Hedrich, Rainer; Limami, Anis M; Rentsch, Doris; Seo, Mitsunori; Tsay, Yi-Fang; Zhang, Mingyong; Coruzzi, Gloria; Lacombe, Benoît

    2014-01-01

    Members of the plant NITRATE TRANSPORTER 1/PEPTIDE TRANSPORTER (NRT1/PTR) family display protein sequence homology with the SLC15/PepT/PTR/POT family of peptide transporters in animals. In comparison to their animal and bacterial counterparts, these plant proteins transport a wide variety of substrates: nitrate, peptides, amino acids, dicarboxylates, glucosinolates, IAA, and ABA. The phylogenetic relationship of the members of the NRT1/PTR family in 31 fully sequenced plant genomes allowed the identification of unambiguous clades, defining eight subfamilies. The phylogenetic tree was used to determine a unified nomenclature of this family named NPF, for NRT1/PTR FAMILY. We propose that the members should be named accordingly: NPFX.Y, where X denotes the subfamily and Y the individual member within the species.

  2. A Brief Review of Recent Controversies in the Taxonomy and Nomenclature of Sambucus nigra sensu lato

    PubMed Central

    Applequist, W.L.

    2016-01-01

    The genus Sambucus is widespread and morphologically difficult, and as a result, no taxonomic treatment to date has been entirely satisfactory. The only modern revision, by Bolli, reduced the number of recognized species worldwide from over 30 to nine. In Bolli’s treatment, five taxa formerly considered to be distinct species, including S. canadensis, S. cerulea, S. peruviana, and the endemic island taxa S. maderensis and S. palmensis, were placed within S. nigra as subspecies. Available data relating to these taxa are briefly reviewed. It is suggested that, while the recognition of the American elder as S. nigra subsp. canadensis is reasonable, S. cerulea and possibly S. peruviana would be better treated as distinct species; the best classification of the other two taxa remains uncertain. The preferred family assignment for Sambucus is Adoxaceae, though the name of this family may change in future depending upon the ultimate disposition of published nomenclatural proposals now in process. PMID:27158181

  3. Dentinogenesis imperfecta type I: A case report with literature review on nomenclature system

    PubMed Central

    Devaraju, D; Devi, BK Yashoda; Vasudevan, Vijeev; Manjunath, V

    2014-01-01

    Dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI) is an inherited disorder affecting dentin. Defective dentin formation results in discolored teeth that are prone to attrition and fracture. Mutation in dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) has been found to cause the dentin disorders DI - I and II (shields II and III). Early diagnosis and treatment of DI is recommended as it may prevent or intercept deterioration of the teeth and occlusion and improve esthetics. Here, we report a case with characteristic clinical, radiological and histological features of DI-I. The etiology and classification followed in literature is confusing since dentinoenamel junction (DEJ) in DI seems to be structurally and functionally normal and DI is clearly a disorder distinct from osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), but we still relate etiology of DI to DEJ and follow Shields classification. Therefore, we have briefly reviewed etiology and nomenclature system of DI. PMID:25364163

  4. Extraction and mapping of drug names from free text to a standardized nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Levin, Matthew A; Krol, Marina; Doshi, Ankur M; Reich, David L

    2007-10-11

    Free text fields are often used to store clinical drug data in electronic health records. The use of free text facilitates rapid data entry by the clinician. Errors in spelling, abbreviations, and jargon, however, limit the utility of these data. We designed and implemented an algorithm, using open source tools and RxNorm, to extract and normalize drug data stored in free text fields of an anesthesia electronic health record. The algorithm was developed using a training set containing drug data from 49,518 cases, and validated using a validation set containing data from 14,655 cases. Overall sensitivity and specificity for the validation set were 92.2% and 95.7% respectively. The mains sources of error were misspellings and unknown but valid drug names. These preliminary results demonstrate that free text clinical drug data can be efficiently extracted and mapped to a controlled drug nomenclature.

  5. The Jaw Adductor Muscle Complex in Teleostean Fishes: Evolution, Homologies and Revised Nomenclature (Osteichthyes: Actinopterygii)

    PubMed Central

    Datovo, Aléssio; Vari, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    The infraclass Teleostei is a highly diversified group of bony fishes that encompasses 96% of all species of living fishes and almost half of extant vertebrates. Evolution of various morphological complexes in teleosts, particularly those involving soft anatomy, remains poorly understood. Notable among these problematic complexes is the adductor mandibulae, the muscle that provides the primary force for jaw adduction and mouth closure and whose architecture varies from a simple arrangement of two segments to an intricate complex of up to ten discrete subdivisions. The present study analyzed multiple morphological attributes of the adductor mandibulae in representatives of 53 of the 55 extant teleostean orders, as well as significant information from the literature in order to elucidate the homologies of the main subdivisions of this muscle. The traditional alphanumeric terminology applied to the four main divisions of the adductor mandibulae – A1, A2, A3, and Aω – patently fails to reflect homologous components of that muscle across the expanse of the Teleostei. Some features traditionally used as landmarks for identification of some divisions of the adductor mandibulae proved highly variable across the Teleostei; notably the insertion on the maxilla and the position of muscle components relative to the path of the ramus mandibularis trigeminus nerve. The evolutionary model of gain and loss of sections of the adductor mandibulae most commonly adopted under the alphanumeric system additionally proved ontogenetically incongruent and less parsimonious than a model of subdivision and coalescence of facial muscle sections. Results of the analysis demonstrate the impossibility of adapting the alphanumeric terminology so as to reflect homologous entities across the spectrum of teleosts. A new nomenclatural scheme is proposed in order to achieve congruence between homology and nomenclature of the adductor mandibulae components across the entire Teleostei. PMID

  6. Progression or Regression? - Strengths and Weaknesses of the New Munich Nomenclature III for Cervix Cytology.

    PubMed

    Hilal, Z; Tempfer, C; Schiermeier, S; Reinecke, J; Ruppenkamp, C; Hilal, Z

    2015-10-01

    Introduction: Since 01. 01. 2015 the new Munich nomenclature III for gynaecological diagnostics of the cervix has been in force. The changes have led to controversial scientific discussions. This study reports for the first time on the consequences. Materials and Methods: The present data are based on smear screening results for the year 2014. The data of 63 134 patients were evaluated. Results: 2.27 % of all smears were remarkable. Group IIa was assigned to 0.91 %. Group II-p was somewhat more frequently recorded than group IIID1 (0.59 vs. 0.53 %). Groups IIID1 and IIID2 were found in 0.53 and 0.61 %, respectively, of the cases. Agreement with histology was found in 36.84 and 44.68 %, respectively. Glandular lesions represented the most frequent changes in group III. Histological clarification was obtained for 0.18 % of all remarkable findings. The relative incidence of high-grade precancerous conditions (CIN III) and invasive tumours amounted to 0.1 %. Conclusion: A close communication between gynaecologists and cytologists is mandatory for the correct usage of the new nomenclature. The future annual statistics of the health insurances can now be analysed in more detail. A statistical classification of glandular epithelial changes is now also possible for the first time. The heterogeneous group IIa constitutes an unnecessary uncertainty for patients and physicians. The splitting of the group IIID does not appear to have any advantage for the further clinical management. Further studies are needed to show whether or not the classification can stand up to international comparisons.

  7. Information technology in veterinary pharmacology instruction.

    PubMed

    Kochevar, Deborah T

    2003-01-01

    Veterinary clinical pharmacology encompasses all interactions between drugs and animals and applies basic and clinical knowledge to improve rational drug use and patient outcomes. Veterinary pharmacology instructors set educational goals and objectives that, when mastered by students, lead to improved animal health. The special needs of pharmacology instruction include establishing a functional interface between basic and clinical knowledge, managing a large quantity of information, and mastering quantitative skills essential to successful drug administration and analysis of drug action. In the present study, a survey was conducted to determine the extent to which veterinary pharmacology instructors utilize information technology (IT) in their teaching. Several IT categories were investigated, including Web-based instructional aids, stand-alone pharmacology software, interactive videoconferencing, databases, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and e-book applications. Currently IT plays a largely ancillary role in pharmacology instruction. IT use is being expanded primarily through the efforts of two veterinary professional pharmacology groups, the American College of Veterinary Clinical Pharmacology (ACVCP) and the American Academy of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics (AAVPT). The long-term outcome of improved IT use in pharmacology instruction should be to support the larger educational mission of active learning and problem solving. Creation of high-quality IT resources that promote this goal has the potential to improve veterinary pharmacology instruction within and across institutions.

  8. Prospective cross-sectional study using questionnaire to assess the effect of a different nomenclature for psychiatric illnesses on the perception of these diseases by university students.

    PubMed

    Lau, Jerome; Kam, L S; Tsang, Y M; Chow, Boris C K; Fang, Y Y; Lam, K W; Lam, Y T; Li, Y Y; Wong, Cally H S

    2012-10-01

    OBJECTIVE. To assess the effect of a difference in nomenclature for psychiatric illness on perceptions of university students. DESIGN. Cross-sectional study. SETTING. Three local universities in Hong Kong. PARTICIPANTS. A total of 201 university students (undergraduates or postgraduates) were interviewed with a questionnaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES. Score difference between the new and old nomenclature of each disease for each question of the questionnaire, using a 5-point Likert scale and an integrated score difference for each disease. RESULTS. Of the seven diseases investigated, six yielded a significant yet mild increase in positive perceptions with the new nomenclature. These diseases included schizophrenia (integrated score difference: +0.158, P<0.001), neurasthenia (integrated score difference: +0.117, P<0.001), paranoia (integrated score difference: +0.209, P<0.001), personality disorder (integrated score difference: +0.282, P<0.001), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (integrated score difference: +0.086, P=0.005), and bipolar disorder (integrated score difference: +0.154, P<0.001). Epilepsy showed a negative perception with its new nomenclature (integrated score difference: -0.119, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS. The new nomenclature system for psychiatric diseases achieves more positive perceptions among the university students than the old nomenclature. Epilepsy was the exception for which the old nomenclature conferred a more positive perception. Further studies on this topic involving a more general population should be advocated to confirm the improvements in perception with the new naming system for psychiatric diseases.

  9. The International Code of Virus Classification and Nomenclature (ICVCN): proposal for text changes for improved differentiation of viral taxa and viruses.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Jens H; Radoshitzky, Sheli R; Bavari, Sina; Jahrling, Peter B

    2013-07-01

    The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) is responsible for the classification of viruses into taxa. Importantly, the ICTV is currently not responsible for the nomenclature of viruses or their subclassification into strains, lineages, or genotypes. ICTV rules for classification of viruses and nomenclature of taxa are laid out in a code, the International Code of Virus Classification and Nomenclature (ICVCN). The most recent version of the Code makes it difficult for the unfamiliar reader to distinguish between viruses and taxa, thereby often giving the impression that certain Rules apply to viruses. Here, Code text changes are proposed to address this problem.

  10. Pharmacologic considerations for Shuttle astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santy, Patricia A.; Bungo, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    Medication usage by crewmembers in the preflight and inflight mission periods is common in the Shuttle Program. The most common medical reports for which medication is used are: space motion sickness (SMS), sleeplessness, headache, and backache. A number of medications are available in the Shuttle Medical Kit to treat these problems. Currently, astronauts test all frequently used medications before mission assignment to identify potential side-effects, problems related to performance, personal likes/dislikes, and individual therapeutic effect. However, microgravity-induced changes in drug pharmacokinetics, in combination with multiple operational factors, may significantly alter crewmember responses inflight. This article discusses those factors that may impact pharmacologic efficacy during Shuttle missions.

  11. Pharmacologic Therapies for Pediatric Concussions

    PubMed Central

    Halstead, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Pediatric concussions are common, and emphasis on correct diagnosis and management is stressed in consensus guidelines. Medications may have a role in management of concussion, but no consensus exists regarding appropriate pharmacologic therapy. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: There is limited evidence for hypertonic saline to improve posttraumatic headache in the emergency department setting. There is essentially no evidence for the use of any other medication in management of pediatric sport-related concussion. Conclusion: Further research is necessary to determine whether there is benefit to the use of any pharmacotherapy in the management of pediatric-aged athletes with concussions. PMID:26660460

  12. The ever-expanding list of HLA alleles: changing HLA nomenclature and its relevance to clinical transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tait, Brian D

    2011-01-01

    Since the discovery of the HLA system 51 years ago, both the techniques for the detection of HLA antigens and the method of nomenclature for cataloguing them have changed dramatically. Initially serology was the sole technological tool available to describe the polymorphism of the class 1 and later the class 2 loci. Numbers were assigned to antigens as they were described and as serologic techniques that improved "subtypes" of the original antigens were described. With sequencing of HLA alleles, further polymorphisms were described, and it became evident that the degree of polymorphism was much greater than had hitherto been realized. Sequence differences were detected between alleles, which did not appear to provoke antibody responses but were clearly recognized by responding T cells. A new method of nomenclature was devised, which assigned 2 sets of numbers to each allele. The first 2 numbers indicated the serologic group to which the allele belonged, whereas the second set of 2 numbers was assigned in a numerical progression as each new allele was described. In addition, letters were introduced at the end of each allele where they were known to be nonexpressed or have low levels of cell expression. The limitation of this system is that it only caters for 99 alleles in each serologic group, and this has now been exceeded in some cases. The World Health Organization Nomenclature Committee for factors of the HLA system introduced a modification of the current nomenclature in April 2010 which uses colons to separate the numbers that has the effect of delimiting the number of alleles, which can be assigned to each serologic group. Due to the extensive polymorphism of the HLA genes, sequencing frequently results in ambiguous combinations of alleles and also "strings" of possible alleles due to polymorphisms in nonsequenced gene locations. The reporting in such instances has been simplified to some extent by the introduction of a lettering system to indicate a

  13. New proposals for naming lower-ranked taxa within the frame of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Alain

    2006-10-01

    The recent multiplication of cladistic hypotheses for many zoological groups poses a challenge to zoological nomenclature following the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature: in order to account for these hypotheses, we will need many more ranks than currently allowed in this system, especially in lower taxonomy (around the ranks genus and species). The current Code allows the use of as many ranks as necessary in the family-series of nomina (except above superfamily), but forbids the use of more than a few ranks in the genus and species-series. It is here argued that this limitation has no theoretical background, does not respect the freedom of taxonomic thoughts or actions, and is harmful to zoological taxonomy in two respects at least: (1) it does not allow to express in detail hypothesized cladistic relationships among taxa at lower taxonomic levels (genus and species); (2) it does not allow to point taxonomically to low-level differentiation between populations of the same species, although this would be useful in some cases for conservation biology purposes. It is here proposed to modify the rules of the Code in order to allow use by taxonomists of an indeterminate number of ranks in all nominal-series. Such an 'expanded nomenclatural system' would be highly flexible and likely to be easily adapted to any new finding or hypothesis regarding cladistic relationships between taxa, at genus and species level and below. This system could be useful for phylogeographic analysis and in conservation biology. In zoological nomenclature, whereas robustness of nomina is necessary, the same does not hold for nomenclatural ranks, as the latter are arbitrary and carry no special biological, evolutionary or other information, except concerning the mutual relationships between taxa in the taxonomic hierarchy. Compared to the Phylocode project, the new system is equally unambiguous within the frame of a given taxonomic frame, but it provides more explicit and

  14. Pharmacologic interventions in aging hair

    PubMed Central

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2006-01-01

    The appearance of hair plays an important role in people’s overall physical appearance and self-perception. With today’s increasing life-expectations, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever. The hair care industry has become aware of this and is delivering active products directed towards meeting this consumer demand. The discovery of pharmacological targets and the development of safe and effective drugs also indicate strategies of the drug industry for maintenance of healthy and beautiful hair. Hair aging comprises weathering of the hair shaft, decrease of melanocyte function, and decrease in hair production. The scalp is subject to intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Intrinsic factors are related to individual genetic and epigenetic mechanisms with interindividual variation: prototypes are familial premature graying, and androgenetic alopecia. Currently available pharmacologic treatment modalities with proven efficacy for treatment of androgenetic alopecia are topical minoxidil and oral finasteride. Extrinsic factors include ultraviolet radiation and air pollution. Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress also plays a role in hair aging. Topical anti-aging compounds include photoprotectors and antioxidants. In the absence of another way to reverse hair graying, hair colorants remain the mainstay of recovering lost hair color. Topical liposome targeting for melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles are currently under investigation. PMID:18044109

  15. The behavioral pharmacology of hallucinogens

    PubMed Central

    Fantegrossi, William E.; Murnane, Aeneas C.; Reissig, Chad J.

    2008-01-01

    Until very recently, comparatively few scientists were studying hallucinogenic drugs. Nevertheless, selective antagonists are available for relevant serotonergic receptors, the majority of which have now been cloned, allowing for reasonably thorough pharmacological investigation. Animal models sensitive to the behavioral effects of the hallucinogens have been established and exploited. Sophisticated genetic techniques have enabled the development of mutant mice, which have proven useful in the study of hallucinogens. The capacity to study post-receptor signaling events has lead to the proposal of a plausible mechanism of action for these compounds. The tools currently available to study the hallucinogens are thus more plentiful and scientifically advanced than were those accessible to earlier researchers studying the opioids, benzodiazepines, cholinergics, or other centrally active compounds. The behavioral pharmacology of phenethylamine, tryptamine, and ergoline hallucinogens are described in this review, paying particular attention to important structure activity relationships which have emerged, receptors involved in their various actions, effects on conditioned and unconditioned behaviors, and in some cases, human psychopharmacology. As clinical interest in the therapeutic potential of these compounds is once again beginning to emerge, it is important to recognize the wealth of data derived from controlled preclinical studies on these compounds. PMID:17977517

  16. Post-mortem clinical pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Ferner, R E

    2008-01-01

    Clinical pharmacology assumes that deductions can be made about the concentrations of drugs from a knowledge of the pharmacokinetic parameters in an individual; and that the effects are related to the measured concentration. Post-mortem changes render the assumptions of clinical pharmacology largely invalid, and make the interpretation of concentrations measured in post-mortem samples difficult or impossible. Qualitative tests can show the presence of substances that were not present in life, and can fail to detect substances that led to death. Quantitative analysis is subject to error in itself, and because post-mortem concentrations vary in largely unpredictable ways with the site and time of sampling, as a result of the phenomenon of post-mortem redistribution. Consequently, compilations of ‘lethal concentrations’ are misleading. There is a lack of adequate studies of the true relationship between fatal events and the concentrations that can be measured subsequently, but without such studies, clinical pharmacologists and others should be wary of interpreting post-mortem measurements. PMID:18637886

  17. The behavioral pharmacology of hallucinogens.

    PubMed

    Fantegrossi, William E; Murnane, Kevin S; Reissig, Chad J

    2008-01-01

    Until very recently, comparatively few scientists were studying hallucinogenic drugs. Nevertheless, selective antagonists are available for relevant serotonergic receptors, the majority of which have now been cloned, allowing for reasonably thorough pharmacological investigation. Animal models sensitive to the behavioral effects of the hallucinogens have been established and exploited. Sophisticated genetic techniques have enabled the development of mutant mice, which have proven useful in the study of hallucinogens. The capacity to study post-receptor signaling events has lead to the proposal of a plausible mechanism of action for these compounds. The tools currently available to study the hallucinogens are thus more plentiful and scientifically advanced than were those accessible to earlier researchers studying the opioids, benzodiazepines, cholinergics, or other centrally active compounds. The behavioral pharmacology of phenethylamine, tryptamine, and ergoline hallucinogens are described in this review, paying particular attention to important structure activity relationships which have emerged, receptors involved in their various actions, effects on conditioned and unconditioned behaviors, and in some cases, human psychopharmacology. As clinical interest in the therapeutic potential of these compounds is once again beginning to emerge, it is important to recognize the wealth of data derived from controlled preclinical studies on these compounds.

  18. Pharmacology of cardiac potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Li, Gui-Rong; Dong, Ming-Qing

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac K(+) channels are cardiomyocyte membrane proteins that regulate K(+) ion flow across the cell membrane on the electrochemical gradient and determine the resting membrane potential and the cardiac action potential morphology and duration. Several K(+) channels have been well studied in the human heart. They include the transient outward K(+) current I(to1), the ultra-rapidly activating delayed rectifier current I(Kur), the rapidly and slowly activating delayed rectifier currents I(Kr) and I(Ks), the inward rectifier K(+) current I(K1), and ligand-gated K(+) channels, including adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive K(+) current (I(KATP)) and acetylcholine-activated current (I(KACh)). Regional differences of K(+) channel expression contribute to the variable morphologies and durations of cardiac action potentials from sinus node and atrial to ventricular myocytes, and different ventricular layers from endocardium and midmyocardium to epicardium. They also show different responses to endogenous regulators and/or pharmacological agents. K(+) channels are well-known targets for developing novel anti-arrhythmic drugs that can effectively prevent/inhibit cardiac arrhythmias. Especially, atrial-specific K(+) channel currents (I(Kur) and I(KACh)) are the targets for developing atrial-selective anti-atrial fibrillation drugs, which has been greatly progressed in recent years. This chapter concentrates on recent advances in intracellular signaling regulation and pharmacology of cardiac K(+) channels under physiological and pathophysiological conditions.

  19. Pharmacological treatment of aldosterone excess.

    PubMed

    Deinum, Jaap; Riksen, Niels P; Lenders, Jacques W M

    2015-10-01

    Primary aldosteronism, caused by autonomous secretion of aldosterone by the adrenals, is estimated to account for at least 5% of hypertension cases. Hypertension explains the considerable cardiovascular morbidity caused by aldosteronism only partly, calling for specific anti-aldosterone drugs. The pharmacology of aldosterone is complex due to high homology with other steroids, the resemblance of steroid receptors, and the common pathways of steroid synthesis. Classically, pharmacological treatment of aldosteronism relied on the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist spironolactone, which is highly effective, but causes considerable, mainly sexual side-effects due to limited selectivity for the MR. New agents have been developed or are being developed that aim at higher selectivity for MR antagonists (eplerenone, dihydropyridine-derived calcium channel blockers (CCB)), or inhibition of aldosterone synthesis. Eplerenone is less potent than spironolactone, but causes fewer adverse effects due to its selectivity for the MR. Non-steroidal MR antagonists have been developed from dihydropyridine CCBs, having lost their CCB activity and being highly selective for the MR. The first clinical studies with these drugs are underway. Aldosterone synthase inhibitors are an attractive alternative, but are prone to interference with cortisol synthesis due to the inhibition of 11-β-hydroxylation, an essential step in both cortisol and aldosterone synthesis, and accumulation of mineralocorticoid precursors. In coming years clinical research will provide the answers as to which drugs and strategies to treat high-aldosterone states are the most effective.

  20. [Non-pharmacological treatment of cognitive impairment].

    PubMed

    Ramos Cordero, Primitivo; Yubero, Raquel

    2016-06-01

    This article reviews the effect of non-pharmacological therapies in persons with cognitive impairment, especially treatments aimed at brain stimulation and functional maintenance, since both pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies affecting the cognitive and psychoaffective domains are reviewed in another article in this supplement. The article also discusses the close and reciprocal relationship between cognitive impairment, diet and nutritional status and describes the main nutritional risk factors and protective factors in cognitive decline.

  1. Hydroides Gunnerus, 1768 (Annelida, Serpulidae) is feminine: a nomenclatural checklist of updated names

    PubMed Central

    Read, Geoffrey B.; ten Hove, Harry A.; Sun, Yanan; Kupriyanova, Elena K.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract As a service to taxonomists and ecologists using names in the well-known and species-rich ship-fouling serpulid genus Hydroides we present an update of all 107 non-synonymised scientific names, with additional information on Hydroides nomenclature, original names, etymologies, and type localities derived from original literature, and in accord with the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) database. An update is needed because the gender of genus Hydroides has from 1 January 2000 reverted to the original feminine, due to a change in the wording of International Code of Zoological Nomenclature which was overlooked at that time, and is contrary to the usage in practice of Hydroides as masculine which had started about 1992, although Code-required from the 1960s. We match 31 further original names of current WoRMS subjective junior synonyms to each non-synonymised name, and also report on the world distribution of the genus as illustrated by type localities of the valid names. We include notes on seven species inquirenda. The correct rendering is given of six names that have been altered for gender agreement for the first time herein. Hydroides gottfriedi nom. n. replaces junior homonym Hydroides rostrata Pillai, 1971. Currently there are 41 non-synonymised species-group names in Hydroides which should be gender invariant, and 23 names which would only change if moved to a neuter genus; the remaining 43 names are fully gender variable. Place-names (23), and personal names (16) make up more than a third (36%) of the species names, with most of the remainder (68) being descriptive of species character states, usually of operculum morphology (54). All species, except Hydroides norvegica (63°N), have type localities in shallow-water coastal locations in temperate to tropical waters below latitude 44°, with the highest number of new species (54) from the adjoining Western Pacific and Indian Ocean areas. The other concentration of new species (31) are those

  2. Nomenclatural issues in ornithology: the incredible controversy on the identity of a long overlooked Brazilian bird.

    PubMed

    Nemésio, André; Rasmussen, Claus; Aguiar, Alexandre P; Pombal, José P; Dubois, Alain

    2013-11-06

    The identity of Scytalopus speluncae (Ménétriés, 1835) (Aves: Passeriformes: Rhinocryptidae), a tapaculo from southeastern Brazil, has been the matter of debate during the last eight years. A group of ornithologists considers that the nomen Scytalopus speluncae should be attributed to a species endemic to coastal mountains of southeastern Brazil, whereas another group considers it a species from the drier environments of another mountain belt in Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Both research groups disagree on the identity of the still extant but damaged alleged holotype, deposited at the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, on the identity of the holotype specimen illustration from a plate accompanying the species description, and even on the type locality. To further complicate this matter of identity, members of each research group, based on their own interpretations of the identity of Scytalopus speluncae, described and named again the two species with different nomina, erecting at least one unnecessary nomen. After almost ten years of a debate, there is still no consensus on the identity of the species, and there are now at least three available nomina for apparently only two distinct biological species. As taxonomists belonging to fields of zoology other than ornithology, and realizing the above situation is mainly a nomenclatural one, we herein present a summary of the contentious issue, try to distinguish what seems to be facts and speculation and based on these we consider the rules of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (the Code) whenever appropriate, in the hope of bringing some objectivity to the debate. We conclude that no unequivocal evidence was presented to decide to which species the type specimen belongs solely based on its morphological characters, since the holotype presents considerable damage. On the other hand, the original designation of the type locality by Ménétriés (1835) as S

  3. The First 50 Years of Molecular Pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Brown, Joan Heller; Catterall, William A; Conn, P Jeffrey; Cull-Candy, Stuart G; Dingledine, Ray; Harden, T Kendall; Insel, Paul A; Milligan, Graeme; Traynelis, Stephen F

    2015-07-01

    In this Perspective, former and current editors of Molecular Pharmacology, together with the guest editors for this 50th Anniversary Issue, provide a historical overview of the journal since its founding in 1965. The substantial impact that Molecular Pharmacology has had on the field of pharmacology as well as on biomedical science is discussed, as is the broad scope of the journal. The authors conclude that, true to the original goals for the journal, Molecular Pharmacology today remains an outstanding venue for work that provides a mechanistic understanding of drugs, molecular probes, and their biologic targets.

  4. A single nomenclature and associated database for alleles at the MHC class II DRB1 locus of sheep: IPD-MHC-OLA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of standardised nomenclatures with associated databases containing reference sequences for alleles at polymorphic loci within the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) has been facilitated by the development of the Immuno Polymorphism Database (IPD-MHC). Recently, included within I...

  5. Implementing a Rational and Consistent Nomenclature for Serine/Arginine-Rich Protein Splicing Factors (SR Proteins) in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Barta, Andrea; Kalyna, Maria; Reddy, Anireddy S.N.

    2010-01-01

    Growing interest in alternative splicing in plants and the extensive sequencing of new plant genomes necessitate more precise definition and classification of genes coding for splicing factors. SR proteins are a family of RNA binding proteins, which function as essential factors for constitutive and alternative splicing. We propose a unified nomenclature for plant SR proteins, taking into account the newly revised nomenclature of the mammalian SR proteins and a number of plant-specific properties of the plant proteins. We identify six subfamilies of SR proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa), three of which are plant specific. The proposed subdivision of plant SR proteins into different subfamilies will allow grouping of paralogous proteins and simple assignment of newly discovered SR orthologs from other plant species and will promote functional comparisons in diverse plant species. PMID:20884799

  6. International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation working formulation of a standardized nomenclature for cardiac allograft vasculopathy-2010.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Mandeep R; Crespo-Leiro, Maria G; Dipchand, Anne; Ensminger, Stephan M; Hiemann, Nicola E; Kobashigawa, Jon A; Madsen, Joren; Parameshwar, Jayan; Starling, Randall C; Uber, Patricia A

    2010-07-01

    The development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy remains the Achilles heel of cardiac transplantation. Unfortunately, the definitions of cardiac allograft vasculopathy are diverse, and there are no uniform international standards for the nomenclature of this entity. This consensus document, commissioned by the International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation Board, is based on best evidence and clinical consensus derived from critical analysis of available information pertaining to angiography, intravascular ultrasound imaging, microvascular function, cardiac allograft histology, circulating immune markers, non-invasive imaging tests, and gene-based and protein-based biomarkers. This document represents a working formulation for an international nomenclature of cardiac allograft vasculopathy, similar to the development of the system for adjudication of cardiac allograft rejection by histology.

  7. Reinforcing the foundations of ornithological nomenclature: Filling the gaps in Sherborn's and Richmond's historical legacy of bibliographic exploration.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Edward C

    2016-01-01

    Due to its public popularity, ornithology has a huge corpus of scientific publication for a relatively small number of species. Although there are global checklists of currently recognised taxa, there has been only limited, mainly individual, effort to build a nomenclatural database that the science of ornithology deserves. This is especially true in relation to concise synonymies. With the arrival of ZooBank and the Biodiversity Heritage Library, the time has come to develop synonymies and to add fuller bibliographic detail to databases. The preparation for both began at the start of the 20(th) century with extensive work by Sherborn and Richmond. I discuss their legacy, offer notes on significant work since then, and provide suggestions for what remains to be done. To make solid the foundations for ornithological nomenclature and taxonomy, especially for synonymies, ornithologists will need to collaborate much more and contribute to the digital infrastructure.

  8. Implementing a rational and consistent nomenclature for serine/arginine-rich protein splicing factors (SR proteins) in plants.

    PubMed

    Barta, Andrea; Kalyna, Maria; Reddy, Anireddy S N

    2010-09-01

    Growing interest in alternative splicing in plants and the extensive sequencing of new plant genomes necessitate more precise definition and classification of genes coding for splicing factors. SR proteins are a family of RNA binding proteins, which function as essential factors for constitutive and alternative splicing. We propose a unified nomenclature for plant SR proteins, taking into account the newly revised nomenclature of the mammalian SR proteins and a number of plant-specific properties of the plant proteins. We identify six subfamilies of SR proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa), three of which are plant specific. The proposed subdivision of plant SR proteins into different subfamilies will allow grouping of paralogous proteins and simple assignment of newly discovered SR orthologs from other plant species and will promote functional comparisons in diverse plant species.

  9. Suppressing Synonymy with a Homonym: The Emergence of the Nomenclatural Type Concept in Nineteenth Century Natural History.

    PubMed

    Witteveen, Joeri

    2016-02-01

    'Type' in biology is a polysemous term. In a landmark article, Paul Farber (Journal of the History of Biology 9(1): 93-119, 1976) argued that this deceptively plain term had acquired three different meanings in early nineteenth century natural history alone. 'Type' was used in relation to three distinct type concepts, each of them associated with a different set of practices. Important as Farber's analysis has been for the historiography of natural history, his account conceals an important dimension of early nineteenth century 'type talk.' Farber's taxonomy of type concepts passes over the fact that certain uses of 'type' began to take on a new meaning in this period. At the closing of the eighteenth century, terms like 'type specimen,' 'type species,' and 'type genus' were universally recognized as referring to typical, model members of their encompassing taxa. But in the course of the nineteenth century, the same terms were co-opted for a different purpose. As part of an effort to drive out nomenclatural synonymy - the confusing state of a taxon being known to different people by different names - these terms started to signify the fixed and potentially atypical name-bearing elements of taxa. A new type concept was born: the nomenclatural type. In this article, I retrace this perplexing nineteenth century shift in meaning of 'type.' I uncover the nomenclatural disorder that the new nomenclatural type concept dissolved, and expose the conceptual confusion it left in its tracks. What emerges is an account of how synonymy was suppressed through the coinage of a homonym.

  10. Pharmacologic vitreolysis in diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    El-Asrar, Ahmed M Abu; Al-Mezain, Hani S

    2011-03-01

    Diabetic retinopathy remains a major cause of worldwide preventable blindness. The vitreo-retinal interface plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. The term pharmacologic vitreolysis refers to the use of enzymes to liquefy the vitreous gel, and to induce posterior vitreous detachment (PVD). Intravitreal ovine hyaluronidase injection was effective in clearing vitreous hemorrhage. Several human case series demonstrated that intravitreal injection of autologous plasmin enzyme was a safe and effective adjunct to vitreous surgery for the treatment of diabetic macular edema and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Recently, it was shown that intravitreal injection of plasmin enzyme without the performance of vitrectomy induced complete PVD and reduced macular thickening due to refractory diabetic macular edema.

  11. The pharmacological properties of antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Racagni, Giorgio; Popoli, Maurizio

    2010-05-01

    Antidepressant drugs represent one of the main forms of effective treatment for the amelioration of depressive symptoms. Most available antidepressants increase extracellular levels of monoamines. However, it is now recognized that monoamine levels and availability are only part of the story, and that antidepressants whose mechanism of action is mainly based on the modulation of monoaminergic systems may not be able to satisfy the unmet needs of depression. Therefore, a number of compounds, developed for their potential antidepressant activity, are endowed with putative mechanisms of action not affecting traditional monoamine targets. This article briefly reviews, within a mechanistic perspective, the pharmacological profiles of representative antidepressants from each class, including monoamine oxidase inhibitors, tricyclics, norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake inhibitors, antidepressants interacting with dopaminergic, melatonergic, glutamatergic, or neuropeptide systems. The undesirable side effects of currently used antidepressants, which can often be a reason for lack of compliance, are also considered.

  12. Cluster headache: conventional pharmacological management.

    PubMed

    Becker, Werner J

    2013-01-01

    Cluster headache pain is very intense, usually increases in intensity very rapidly from onset, and attacks are often frequent. These clinical features result in significant therapeutic challenges. The most effective pharmacological treatment options for acute cluster attack include subcutaneous sumatriptan, 100% oxygen, and intranasal zolmitriptan. Subcutaneous or intramuscular dihydroergotamine and intranasal sumatriptan are additional options. Transitional therapy is applicable mainly for patients with high-frequency (>2 attacks per day) episodic cluster headache, and options include short courses of high-dose oral corticosteroids, dihydroergotamine, and occipital nerve blocks with local anesthetic and steroids. Prophylactic therapy is important both for episodic and chronic cluster headache, and the main options are verapamil and lithium. Verapamil is drug of first choice but may cause cardiac arrhythmias, and periodic electrocardiograms (EKGs) during dose escalation are important. Many other drugs are also in current use, but there is an insufficient evidence base to recommend them.

  13. Pharmacological treatment of uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Moroni, Rm; Vieira, Cs; Ferriani, Ra; Candido-Dos-Reis, Fj; Brito, Lgo

    2014-09-01

    Uterine fibroids (UF) are common, benign gynecologic tumors, affecting one in three to four women, with estimates of up to 80%, depending on the population studied. Their etiology is not well established, but it is under the influence of several risk factors, such as early menarche, nulliparity and family history. More than 50% of affected women are asymptomatic, but the lesions may be related to bothersome symptoms, such as abnormal uterine bleeding, pelvic pain and bloating or urinary symptoms. The treatment of UF is classically surgical; however, various medical options are available, providing symptom control while minimizing risks and complications. A large number of clinical trials have evaluated commonly used medical treatments and potentially effective new ones. Through a comprehensive literature search using PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, Scopus and Google Scholar databases, through which we included 41 studies out of 7658 results, we thoroughly explored the different pharmacological options available for management of UF, their indications, advantages and disadvantages.

  14. Report of the First International Consensus on Standardized Nomenclature of Antinuclear Antibody HEp-2 Cell Patterns 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Chan, Edward K L; Damoiseaux, Jan; Carballo, Orlando Gabriel; Conrad, Karsten; de Melo Cruvinel, Wilson; Francescantonio, Paulo Luiz Carvalho; Fritzler, Marvin J; Garcia-De La Torre, Ignacio; Herold, Manfred; Mimori, Tsuneyo; Satoh, Minoru; von Mühlen, Carlos A; Andrade, Luis E C

    2015-01-01

    During the 12th International Workshop on Autoantibodies and Autoimmunity held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, on August 28, 2014, a full day session was devoted to establishing a consensus on the nomenclature of staining patterns observed in the antinuclear antibody (ANA) indirect immunofluorescence test on HEp-2 cells. The current report summarizes the collective agreements with input from the host Brazilian and international communities that represented research, clinical, and diagnostic service laboratories. Patterns are categorized in three major groups (nuclear, cytoplasmic, and mitotic patterns) and each pattern has been defined and described in detail. The consensus nomenclature and representative patterns are made available online at the international consensus on antinuclear antibody pattern (ICAP) website (www.ANApatterns.org). To facilitate continuous improvement and input, specific comments on ICAP are encouraged and these will be discussed in subsequent ICAP meetings. The ultimate goal with the establishment of the ICAP is to promote harmonization and understanding of autoantibody test nomenclature, as well as interpretation guidelines for ANA testing, thereby optimizing usage in patient care.

  15. Pharmacology of human experimental anxiety.

    PubMed

    Graeff, F G; Parente, A; Del-Ben, C M; Guimarães, F S

    2003-04-01

    This review covers the effect of drugs affecting anxiety using four psychological procedures for inducing experimental anxiety applied to healthy volunteers and patients with anxiety disorders. The first is aversive conditioning of the skin conductance responses to tones. The second is simulated public speaking, which consists of speaking in front of a video camera, with anxiety being measured with psychometric scales. The third is the Stroop Color-Word test, in which words naming colors are painted in the same or in a different shade, the incongruence generating a cognitive conflict. The last test is a human version of a thoroughly studied animal model of anxiety, fear-potentiated startle, in which the eye-blink reflex to a loud noise is recorded. The evidence reviewed led to the conclusion that the aversive conditioning and potentiated startle tests are based on classical conditioning of anticipatory anxiety. Their sensitivity to benzodiazepine anxiolytics suggests that these models generate an emotional state related to generalized anxiety disorder. On the other hand, the increase in anxiety determined by simulated public speaking is resistant to benzodiazepines and sensitive to drugs affecting serotonergic neurotransmission. This pharmacological profile, together with epidemiological evidence indicating its widespread prevalence, suggests that the emotional state generated by public speaking represents a species-specific response that may be related to social phobia and panic disorder. Because of scant pharmacological data, the status of the Stroop Color-Word test remains uncertain. In spite of ethical and economic constraints, human experimental anxiety constitutes a valuable tool for the study of the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders.

  16. Taxonomic and nomenclatural aspects of Hypoxylon taxa from southern South America proposed by Spegazzini.

    PubMed

    Hladki, Adriana I; Romero, Andrea I

    2009-01-01

    The holotypes and isotypes of 20 Hypoxylon taxa described by Spegazzini have been examined and their taxonomic positions and nomenclatural problems are discussed. Two new combinations, Annulohypoxylon apiahynum comb. nov. and A. subeffusum comb. nov., are proposed. H. goliath is considered a synonym of Rosellinia bunodes. H. albostigmatosum and H. guarapiense are synonyms of H. anthochroum, H. anthracoderma of H. monticulosum, H. mbaiense of H. notatum, H. paulistanum of H. diatrypeoides, H. plumbeum and H. rubiginosum var. microcarpum of H. perforatum. H. porteri and H. intermedium belong in Biscogniauxia capnodes, H. puiggarii in Annulophypoxylon subeffusum, H. subvinosum. in H. lenormandii, H. turbinatum var. guaraniticum in Phylacia turbinata and H. valsarioides in Creosphaeria sassafras. H. leptascum is transferred to A. leptascum, H. circostomum to Nemania circostoma and H. latissimum to N. latissima. The holotype of H. albostigmatosum has been recovered, thus the lectotypification by Shear no longer is needed. H. subnigricans and H. umbilicatum are confirmed as good taxa. H. anthochroum and H. lenormandii are reported as first records from Argentina (Tucumán).

  17. An update to polyketide synthase and non-ribosomal synthetase genes and nomenclature in Fusarium.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Frederik T; Gardiner, Donald M; Lysøe, Erik; Fuertes, Patricia Romans; Tudzynski, Bettina; Wiemann, Philipp; Sondergaard, Teis Esben; Giese, Henriette; Brodersen, Ditlev E; Sørensen, Jens Laurids

    2015-02-01

    Members of the genus Fusarium produce a plethora of bioactive secondary metabolites, which can be harmful to humans and animals or have potential in drug development. In this study we have performed comparative analyses of polyketide synthases (PKSs) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) from ten different Fusarium species including F. graminearum (two strains), F. verticillioides, F. solani, F. culmorum, F. pseudograminearum, F. fujikuroi, F. acuminatum, F. avenaceum, F. equiseti, and F. oxysporum (12 strains). This led to identification of 52 NRPS and 52 PKSs orthology groups, respectively, and although not all PKSs and NRPSs are assumed to be intact or functional, the analyses illustrate the huge secondary metabolite potential in Fusarium. In our analyses we identified a core collection of eight NRPSs (NRPS2-4, 6, 10-13) and two PKSs (PKS3 and PKS7) that are conserved in all strains analyzed in this study. The identified PKSs and NRPSs were named based on a previously developed classification system (www.FusariumNRPSPKS.dk). We suggest this system be used when PKSs and NRPSs have to be classified in future sequenced Fusarium strains. This system will facilitate identification of orthologous and non-orthologous NRPSs and PKSs from newly sequenced Fusarium genomes and will aid the scientific community by providing a common nomenclature for these two groups of genes/enzymes.

  18. What Happened to the Streptococci: Overview of Taxonomic and Nomenclature Changes

    PubMed Central

    Facklam, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Since the division of the Streptococcus genus into enterococci, lactococci, and streptococci in 1984, many changes in the nomenclature and taxonomy of the Streptococcus genus have taken place. The application of genetic comparisons has improved the proper classification of the different species. The Lancefield system of serogrouping the streptococci by the expression of beta-hemolysis on blood agar plates is still very useful for the identification of streptococci for patient management. The Lancefield grouping system cannot be used in itself for accurate identification of specific beta-hemolytic species, but it can be a useful part of the identification procedure. Except for identification of the “Streptococcus bovis group” of species and Streptococcus suis, Lancefield grouping is of little value in identification of the non-beta-hemolytic streptococci and related genera. In fact, identification of the non-beta-hemolytic species is problematic for conventional as well as commercially available identification procedures. A combination of conventional tests and specific chromogenic tests suggested by several investigators is presented and discussed. Tables are included that suggest tests and procedures to guide investigators attempting to identify all the species. PMID:12364372

  19. The Importance of Nomenclature for Congenital Heart Disease: Implications for Research and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, Matthew J; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany J; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Reller, Mark D; Mahle, William T; Botto, Lorenzo D; Tolbert, Paige E; Jacobs, Marshall L; Lacour-Gayet, Francois G; Tchervenkov, Christo I; Mavroudis, Constantine; Correa, Adolfo

    2013-01-01

    Background Administrative databases are often used for congenital heart disease research and evaluation, with little validation of the accuracy of the diagnostic codes. Methods Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program surveillance records were reviewed and classified using a version of the International Pediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code. Using this clinical nomenclature as the referent, we report the sensitivity and false positive fraction (1 – positive predictive value) of the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis codes for tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of the great arteries, and hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Results We identified 4918 infants and foetuses with congenital heart disease from the surveillance records. Using only the International Classification of Diseases diagnosis codes, there were 280 records with tetralogy, 317 records with transposition, and 192 records with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Based on the International Pediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code, 330 records were classified as tetralogy, 163 records as transposition, and 179 records as hypoplastic left heart syndrome. The sensitivity of International Classification of Diseases diagnosis codes was 83% for tetralogy, 100% for transposition, and 95% for hypoplastic left heart syndrome. The false positive fraction was 2% for tetralogy, 49% for transposition, and 11% for hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Conclusions Analyses based on International Classification of Diseases diagnosis codes may have substantial misclassification of congenital heart disease. Isolating the major defect is difficult, and certain codes do not differentiate between variants that are clinically and developmentally different. PMID:19063779

  20. The Case for Adopting the “Species Complex” Nomenclature for the Etiologic Agents of Cryptococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, John E.; Wickes, Brian L.; Meyer, Wieland; Wollenburg, Kurt R.; Bicanic, Tihana A.; Castañeda, Elizabeth; Chang, Yun C.; Chen, Jianghan; Cogliati, Massimo; Dromer, Françoise; Ellis, David; Filler, Scott G.; Harrison, Thomas S.; Holland, Steven M.; Kohno, Shigeru; Kronstad, James W.; Lazera, Marcia; Levitz, Stuart M.; Lionakis, Michail S.; Ngamskulrongroj, Popchai; Pappas, Peter G.; Perfect, John R.; Rickerts, Volker; Sorrell, Tania C.; Walsh, Thomas J.; Williamson, Peter R.; Zelazny, Adrian M.; Casadevall, Arturo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cryptococcosis is a potentially lethal disease of humans/animals caused by Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. Distinction between the two species is based on phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. Recently, it was proposed that C. neoformans be divided into two species and C. gattii into five species based on a phylogenetic analysis of 115 isolates. While this proposal adds to the knowledge about the genetic diversity and population structure of cryptococcosis agents, the published genotypes of 2,606 strains have already revealed more genetic diversity than is encompassed by seven species. Naming every clade as a separate species at this juncture will lead to continuing nomenclatural instability. In the absence of biological differences between clades and no consensus about how DNA sequence alone can delineate a species, we recommend using “Cryptococcus neoformans species complex” and “C. gattii species complex” as a practical intermediate step, rather than creating more species. This strategy recognizes genetic diversity without creating confusion. PMID:28101535

  1. Phylogenetic-based nomenclatural proposals for Ophiocordycipitaceae (Hypocreales) with new combinations in Tolypocladium.

    PubMed

    Quandt, C Alisha; Kepler, Ryan M; Gams, Walter; Araújo, João P M; Ban, Sayaka; Evans, Harry C; Hughes, David; Humber, Richard; Hywel-Jones, Nigel; Li, Zengzhi; Luangsa-Ard, J Jennifer; Rehner, Stephen A; Sanjuan, Tatiana; Sato, Hiroki; Shrestha, Bhushan; Sung, Gi-Ho; Yao, Yi-Jian; Zare, Rasoul; Spatafora, Joseph W

    2014-06-01

    Ophiocordycipitaceae is a diverse family comprising ecologically, economically, medicinally, and culturally important fungi. The family was recognized due to the polyphyly of the genus Cordyceps and the broad diversity of the mostly arthropod-pathogenic lineages of Hypocreales. The other two cordyceps-like families, Cordycipitaceae and Clavicipitaceae, will be revised taxonomically elsewhere. Historically, many species were placed in Cordyceps, but other genera have been described in this family as well, including several based on anamorphic features. Currently there are 24 generic names in use across both asexual and sexual life stages for species of Ophiocordycipitaceae. To reflect changes in Art. 59 in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN), we propose to protect and to suppress names within Ophiocordycipitaceae, and to present taxonomic revisions in the genus Tolypocladium, based on rigorous and extensively sampled molecular phylogenetic analyses. When approaching this task, we considered the principles of priority, monophyly, minimizing taxonomic revisions, and the practical utility of these fungi within the wider biological research community.

  2. Marine medaka ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily and new insight into teleost Abch nomenclature

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Chang-Bum; Kim, Bo-Mi; Kang, Hye-Min; Choi, Ik-Young; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2015-01-01

    The ABC gene family is recognized as one of the largest gene families in all kingdoms of life. Although many genes involved in the ABC superfamily have been annotated from several fish species, information on large sets of the ABC superfamily and their evolutionary characterization are still unclear. In the marine medaka Oryzias melastigma, 50 ABC transporters were identified with bioinformatics-aided in silico analyses, and their full-length cDNA sequences were characterized. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they could be classified into the eight subfamilies (A–H) that include all members of all ABC subfamilies. Interestingly, several teleosts’ Abcg members were closely clustered with Abch members in a distinctive clade. The abch gene was also observed in the coelacanth and the spotted gar, suggesting that this gene was retained from a bilaterian ancestor and that a gene loss event recently occurred in the tetrapod lineage. In teleosts, the nomenclature of previously annotated abcg genes should be considered carefully, as they form a distinctive clade with the marine medaka abch subfamily and other teleost abch genes, but not with the members of the Abcg subfamily. PMID:26472499

  3. Nomenclature and classification of drug- and alcohol-related problems: a WHO Memorandum*

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    Earlier work in this field is reviewed and present concepts and terminologies are examined in detail. A revised way of dealing with ideas implicit in the terms ”drug abuse” or ”drug misuse” is proposed; the term ”neuroadaptive state” is suggested as an alternative to ”physical dependence”; a profile is given of the elements that constitute a ”drug dependence syndrome”; and the need to differentiate conceptually between ”dependence” and ”drug related disability” is stressed. A model of dependence is outlined in which dependence is considered as a psycho—physiological—social syndrome determined and kept going by a complex system of reinforcements. The association between substance use and mental illness is discussed with emphasis on possible two-way relationships. The need for population studies and in particular for longitudinal studies is emphasized. The bearing of all the fore-going considerations on work towards the revision of relevant classification systems is considered, and, in the final section, several recommendations on nomenclature are brought together and suggestions are made for research that might lead to refinement of classification and diagnostic systems. PMID:6972816

  4. Classification and nomenclature of the superfamily of short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs).

    PubMed

    Persson, Bengt; Kallberg, Yvonne

    2013-02-25

    The short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs) constitute one of the largest protein superfamilies known today. The members are distantly related with typically 20-30% residue identity in pair-wise comparisons. Still, all hitherto structurally known SDRs present a common three-dimensional structure consisting of a Rossmann fold with a parallel beta sheet flanked by three helices on each side. Using hidden Markov models (HMMs), we have developed a semi-automated subclassification system for this huge family. Currently, 75% of all SDR forms have been assigned to one of the 464 families totalling 122,940 proteins. There are 47 human SDR families, corresponding to 75 genes. Most human SDR families (35 families) have only one gene, while 12 have between 2 and 8 genes. For more than half of the human SDR families, the three-dimensional fold is known. The number of SDR members increases considerably every year, but the number of SDR families now starts to converge. The classification method has paved the ground for a sustainable and expandable nomenclature system. Information on the SDR superfamily is continuously updated at http://sdr-enzymes.org/.

  5. Spectrum of gluten-related disorders: consensus on new nomenclature and classification.

    PubMed

    Sapone, Anna; Bai, Julio C; Ciacci, Carolina; Dolinsek, Jernej; Green, Peter H R; Hadjivassiliou, Marios; Kaukinen, Katri; Rostami, Kamran; Sanders, David S; Schumann, Michael; Ullrich, Reiner; Villalta, Danilo; Volta, Umberto; Catassi, Carlo; Fasano, Alessio

    2012-02-07

    A decade ago celiac disease was considered extremely rare outside Europe and, therefore, was almost completely ignored by health care professionals. In only 10 years, key milestones have moved celiac disease from obscurity into the popular spotlight worldwide. Now we are observing another interesting phenomenon that is generating great confusion among health care professionals. The number of individuals embracing a gluten-free diet (GFD) appears much higher than the projected number of celiac disease patients, fueling a global market of gluten-free products approaching $2.5 billion (US) in global sales in 2010. This trend is supported by the notion that, along with celiac disease, other conditions related to the ingestion of gluten have emerged as health care concerns. This review will summarize our current knowledge about the three main forms of gluten reactions: allergic (wheat allergy), autoimmune (celiac disease, dermatitis herpetiformis and gluten ataxia) and possibly immune-mediated (gluten sensitivity), and also outline pathogenic, clinical and epidemiological differences and propose new nomenclature and classifications.

  6. A consistent nomenclature of antimicrobial peptides isolated from frogs of the subfamily Phyllomedusinae.

    PubMed

    Amiche, Mohamed; Ladram, Ali; Nicolas, Pierre

    2008-11-01

    A growing number of cationic antimicrobial peptides have been isolated from the skin of hylid frogs belonging to the Phyllomedusinae subfamily. The amino acid sequences of these peptides are currently located in several databases under identifiers with no consistent system of nomenclature to describe them. In order to provide a workable terminology for antimicrobial peptides from Phyllomedusid frogs, we have made a systematic effort to collect, analyze, and classify all the Phyllomedusid peptide sequences available in databases. We propose that frogs belonging to the Phyllomedusinae subfamily should be described by the species names set out in Amphibian Species of the World: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.php, American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Multiple alignments analysis of at least 80 antimicrobial peptides isolated from 12 Phyllomedusinae species were distributed in seven distinct peptide families including dermaseptin, phylloseptin, plasticin, dermatoxin, phylloxin, hyposin and orphan peptides, and will be considered as the name of the headgroup of each family. The parent peptide's name should be followed by the first upper letter of the species for orthologous peptides and publication date determines priority. For example, the abbreviation B for bicolor and H for hypochondrialis. When two species begin with the same letter, two letters in upper case should be used (the first letter followed by the second or the third letter and so on). For example, the abbreviation DI for distincta, DU for duellmani, VA for vaillanti and VN for vanzolinii. Paralogous peptides should bear letter(s) in upper case followed by numbers.

  7. Revised classification/nomenclature of vitiligo and related issues: the Vitiligo Global Issues Consensus Conference.

    PubMed

    Ezzedine, K; Lim, H W; Suzuki, T; Katayama, I; Hamzavi, I; Lan, C C E; Goh, B K; Anbar, T; Silva de Castro, C; Lee, A Y; Parsad, D; van Geel, N; Le Poole, I C; Oiso, N; Benzekri, L; Spritz, R; Gauthier, Y; Hann, S K; Picardo, M; Taieb, A

    2012-05-01

    During the 2011 International Pigment Cell Conference (IPCC), the Vitiligo European Taskforce (VETF) convened a consensus conference on issues of global importance for vitiligo clinical research. As suggested by an international panel of experts, the conference focused on four topics: classification and nomenclature; definition of stable disease; definition of Koebner's phenomenon (KP); and 'autoimmune vitiligo'. These topics were discussed in seven working groups representing different geographical regions. A consensus emerged that segmental vitiligo be classified separately from all other forms of vitiligo and that the term 'vitiligo' be used as an umbrella term for all non-segmental forms of vitiligo, including 'mixed vitiligo' in which segmental and non-segmental vitiligo are combined and which is considered a subgroup of vitiligo. Further, the conference recommends that disease stability be best assessed based on the stability of individual lesions rather than the overall stability of the disease as the latter is difficult to define precisely and reliably. The conference also endorsed the classification of KP for vitiligo as proposed by the VETF (history based, clinical observation based, or experimentally induced). Lastly, the conference agreed that 'autoimmune vitiligo' should not be used as a separate classification as published evidence indicates that the pathophysiology of all forms of vitiligo likely involves autoimmune or inflammatory mechanisms.

  8. Revised nomenclature for defects at or near the Si/SiO{sub 2} interface

    SciTech Connect

    Fleetwood, D.M.

    1992-09-01

    A revised nomenclature for defects in MOS devices is described which clearly distinguishes the language used to describe the physical location of defects from that used to describe their electrical response. ``Oxide traps`` are simply defects in the SiO{sub 2} layer, and ``interface traps`` are defects at the Si/SiO{sub 2} interface; nothing is presumed about how either communicates with the underlying Si. ``Fixed states`` are defined electrically as trap levels that do not communicate with the Si on the time scale, but ``switching states`` can exchange charge with the Si. Fixed states presumably are oxide traps, but switching states can either be interface traps or near-interfacial oxide traps that can communicate with the Si, i.e. ``border traps.`` Thus the term ``traps`` is reserved for defect location, and the term ``states`` for electrical response. This defect picture is used to provide new insight into the response of MOS capacitors with 45-nm radiation-hardened oxides to electrical stress and annealing; capacitance-voltage and thermally-stimulated-current measurements are used. 2 figs, 14 refs. (DLC)

  9. MIRD Pamphlet No. 21: A Generalized Schema for Radiopharmaceutical Dosimetry-Standardization of Nomenclature

    SciTech Connect

    Bolch, W E; Eckerman, Keith F; Sgouros, George; Thomas, Steven R.

    2009-03-01

    The internal dosimetry schema of the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine has provided a broad framework for assessment of the absorbed dose to whole organs, tissue subregions, voxelized tissue structures, and individual cellular compartments for use in both diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine. The schema was originally published in 1968, revised in 1976, and republished in didactic form with comprehensive examples as the MIRD primer in 1988 and 1991. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is an organization that also supplies dosimetric models and technical data, for use in providing recommendations for limits on ionizing radiation exposure to workers and members of the general public. The ICRP has developed a dosimetry schema similar to that of the MIRD Committee but has used different terminology and symbols for fundamental quantities such as the absorbed fraction, specific absorbed fraction, and various dose coefficients. The MIRD Committee objectives for this pamphlet are 3-fold: to restate its schema for assessment of absorbed dose in a manner consistent with the needs of both the nuclear medicine and the radiation protection communities, with the goal of standardizing nomenclature; to formally adopt the dosimetry quantities equivalent dose and effective dose for use in comparative evaluations of potential risks of radiation-induced stochastic effects to patients after nuclear medicine procedures; and to discuss the need to identify dosimetry quantities based on absorbed dose that address deterministic effects relevant to targeted radionuclide therapy.

  10. Regional correlations in the South Caspian Sea -implications for stratigraphic nomenclature

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J. Rukhsara, K.

    1995-08-01

    Regional Correlations in the South Caspian Sea - Implications for Stratigraphic Nomenclature Detailed sequence boundary correlations in the South Caspian sea have led to a better understanding of the relationships between stratigraphic units identified in wells throughout the basin. With the aid of synthetic seismograms, used to tie the logs to the seismic data, lithologic units have been identified seismically and have been mapped across the basin. The synthetic seismograms were created from pseudo-sonic logs which were transformed from resistivity logs with the Faust equation. Checkshots and VSP surveys supplied the velocity control. The sequence boundary correlations revealed substantial facies changes across the basin and led to the creation of a new stratigraphic correlation chart which relates local formation names to their time correlative boundaries. A recognition of these facies changes has led to a better understanding of the lithologic relationships within the basin, the depositional history of the basin, and the source and distribution of potential reservoir sands. Previous well log correlations, made primarily by matching tops of sand and shale sequences, frequently crossed sequence boundaries mapped from seismic data. Lithologic units, deposited under similar geologic conditions, often looked the same but were not time equivalent. Seismic sequence analyses have shown that tectonic movements, as evidenced by rising domes, created barriers to sediment distribution and led to pronounced thickness changes on opposite sides of a high. New log correlations, incorporating these concepts, are helping to unravel the complex structural and stratigraphic history of the South Caspian Sea.

  11. Nomenclature of genetic movement disorders: Recommendations of the international Parkinson and movement disorder society task force.

    PubMed

    Marras, Connie; Lang, Anthony; van de Warrenburg, Bart P; Sue, Carolyn M; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Bertram, Lars; Mercimek-Mahmutoglu, Saadet; Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Darius; Warner, Thomas T; Durr, Alexandra; Assmann, Birgit; Lohmann, Katja; Kostic, Vladimir; Klein, Christine

    2016-04-01

    The system of assigning locus symbols to specify chromosomal regions that are associated with a familial disorder has a number of problems when used as a reference list of genetically determined disorders,including (I) erroneously assigned loci, (II) duplicated loci, (III) missing symbols or loci, (IV) unconfirmed loci and genes, (V) a combination of causative genes and risk factor genes in the same list, and (VI) discordance between phenotype and list assignment. In this article, we report on the recommendations of the International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society Task Force for Nomenclature of Genetic Movement Disorders and present a system for naming genetically determined movement disorders that addresses these problems. We demonstrate how the system would be applied to currently known genetically determined parkinsonism, dystonia, dominantly inherited ataxia, spastic paraparesis, chorea, paroxysmal movement disorders, neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation, and primary familial brain calcifications. This system provides a resource for clinicians and researchers that, unlike the previous system, can be considered an accurate and criterion-based list of confirmed genetically determined movement disorders at the time it was last updated.

  12. Casimer Funk, nonconformist nomenclature, and networks surrounding the discovery of vitamins.

    PubMed

    Maltz, Alesia

    2013-07-01

    In the 2 decades between when the existence of vitamins was first postulated and when they were isolated, scientists and research physicians could produce no conclusive evidence for their existence from the laboratory or clinic. By the time the first vitamin was chemically isolated, vitamins were already widely accepted by scientists, clinicians, the public, and government agencies. In the period between when vitamins were postulated and the Nobel Prize was awarded for their discovery, a debate over nomenclature served as a substitute for a priority dispute. The most popular term "vitamine" was introduced by Casimer Funk in 1912 and was changed to "vitamin" by Cecil Drummond in 1920. Initial conditions surrounding the discovery of vitamins, including World War I, necessitated the creation of unusual networks for the dissemination of scientific information about vitamins. In Great Britain, research institutes, government agencies, and individual researchers were instrumental in creating a set of national and international networks for the dissemination of information from research laboratories to hospitals, physicians, pharmaceutical houses, and the public. These networks of dissemination still exert an influence on how scientific information about vitamins is communicated to the public today.

  13. The everyday used nomenclature of the aortic root components: the tower of Babel?

    PubMed

    Sievers, Hans-Hinrich; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Moritz, Anton; Moosdorf, Rainer; Lichtenberg, Artur; Misfeld, Martin; Charitos, Efstratios I

    2012-03-01

    Modern analyses of data for scientific reporting and healthcare management purposes require standardized and consistent definitions, something which also holds true for aortic root surgery, as part of the cardiovascular surgery spectrum. The aim of the present study was to investigate the currently employed nomenclature of the aortic root components. A questionnaire was constructed on the terminology of aortic root components, providing a list of common definitions including anatomical descriptions, as well as fields for custom responses. Responses were received from 534 cardiothoracic surgeons registered at www.ctsnet.org. Remarkable variations in definitions were detected. The most unanimously accepted terms were: 'aortic leaflets', the freely moving parts (52.6% of responses); 'commissures', the distal part of the leaflet attachments plus the peripheral area of the free edges of the leaflets (52.2%); 'semi-lunar leaflet attachment', the anatomic site of leaflet attachment (58%); 'annulus', the circular line defined by the nadirs of the leaflets (38%); 'interleaflet triangle', the tissue between two leaflets and annulus (23%); 'aortic valve', the three leaflets only (55%); 'aortic root' as composed of sinuses, tissue between the leaflets, sinutubular junction, leaflets and their wall attachment (63%). The remarkable variability on the everyday-used definitions of the aortic root components can potentially lead to misinterpretation of data. More stringent adoption of consistent, standardized definitions of aortic root components is necessary in the modern era of data collection and management.

  14. Revised classification/nomenclature of vitiligo and related issues: the Vitiligo Global Issues Consensus Conference

    PubMed Central

    Ezzedine, K.; Lim, H. W.; Suzuki, T.; Katayama, I.; Hamzavi, I.; Lan, C. C. E.; Goh, B. K.; Anbar, T.; de Castro, C. Silva; Lee, A. Y.; Parsad, D.; van Geel, N.; Le Poole, I. C.; Oiso, N.; Benzekri, L.; Spritz, R.; Gauthier, Y.; Hann, S. K.; Picardo, M.; Taieb, A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary During the 2011 International Pigment Cell Conference (IPCC), the Vitiligo European Taskforce (VETF) convened a consensus conference on issues of global importance for vitiligo clinical research. As suggested by an international panel of experts, the conference focused on four topics: classification and nomenclature; definition of stable disease; definition of Koebner’s phenomenon (KP); and ‘autoimmune vitiligo’. These topics were discussed in seven working groups representing different geographical regions. A consensus emerged that segmental vitiligo be classified separately from all other forms of vitiligo and that the term ‘vitiligo’ be used as an umbrella term for all non-segmental forms of vitiligo, including ‘mixed vitiligo’ in which segmental and non-segmental vitiligo are combined and which is considered a subgroup of vitiligo. Further, the conference recommends that disease stability be best assessed based on the stability of individual lesions rather than the overall stability of the disease as the latter is difficult to define precisely and reliably. The conference also endorsed the classification of KP for vitiligo as proposed by the VETF (history based, clinical observation based, or experimentally induced). Lastly, the conference agreed that ‘autoimmune vitiligo’ should not be used as a separate classification as published evidence indicates that the pathophysiology of all forms of vitiligo likely involves autoimmune or inflammatory mechanisms. PMID:22417114

  15. Classification of cell death: recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death 2009.

    PubMed

    Kroemer, G; Galluzzi, L; Vandenabeele, P; Abrams, J; Alnemri, E S; Baehrecke, E H; Blagosklonny, M V; El-Deiry, W S; Golstein, P; Green, D R; Hengartner, M; Knight, R A; Kumar, S; Lipton, S A; Malorni, W; Nuñez, G; Peter, M E; Tschopp, J; Yuan, J; Piacentini, M; Zhivotovsky, B; Melino, G

    2009-01-01

    Different types of cell death are often defined by morphological criteria, without a clear reference to precise biochemical mechanisms. The Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) proposes unified criteria for the definition of cell death and of its different morphologies, while formulating several caveats against the misuse of words and concepts that slow down progress in the area of cell death research. Authors, reviewers and editors of scientific periodicals are invited to abandon expressions like 'percentage apoptosis' and to replace them with more accurate descriptions of the biochemical and cellular parameters that are actually measured. Moreover, at the present stage, it should be accepted that caspase-independent mechanisms can cooperate with (or substitute for) caspases in the execution of lethal signaling pathways and that 'autophagic cell death' is a type of cell death occurring together with (but not necessarily by) autophagic vacuolization. This study details the 2009 recommendations of the NCCD on the use of cell death-related terminology including 'entosis', 'mitotic catastrophe', 'necrosis', 'necroptosis' and 'pyroptosis'.

  16. The Case for Adopting the "Species Complex" Nomenclature for the Etiologic Agents of Cryptococcosis.

    PubMed

    Kwon-Chung, Kyung J; Bennett, John E; Wickes, Brian L; Meyer, Wieland; Cuomo, Christina A; Wollenburg, Kurt R; Bicanic, Tihana A; Castañeda, Elizabeth; Chang, Yun C; Chen, Jianghan; Cogliati, Massimo; Dromer, Françoise; Ellis, David; Filler, Scott G; Fisher, Matthew C; Harrison, Thomas S; Holland, Steven M; Kohno, Shigeru; Kronstad, James W; Lazera, Marcia; Levitz, Stuart M; Lionakis, Michail S; May, Robin C; Ngamskulrongroj, Popchai; Pappas, Peter G; Perfect, John R; Rickerts, Volker; Sorrell, Tania C; Walsh, Thomas J; Williamson, Peter R; Xu, Jianping; Zelazny, Adrian M; Casadevall, Arturo

    2017-01-01

    Cryptococcosis is a potentially lethal disease of humans/animals caused by Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. Distinction between the two species is based on phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. Recently, it was proposed that C. neoformans be divided into two species and C. gattii into five species based on a phylogenetic analysis of 115 isolates. While this proposal adds to the knowledge about the genetic diversity and population structure of cryptococcosis agents, the published genotypes of 2,606 strains have already revealed more genetic diversity than is encompassed by seven species. Naming every clade as a separate species at this juncture will lead to continuing nomenclatural instability. In the absence of biological differences between clades and no consensus about how DNA sequence alone can delineate a species, we recommend using "Cryptococcus neoformans species complex" and "C. gattii species complex" as a practical intermediate step, rather than creating more species. This strategy recognizes genetic diversity without creating confusion.

  17. Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity after acquired brain injury: consensus on conceptual definition, nomenclature, and diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed

    Baguley, Ian J; Perkes, Iain E; Fernandez-Ortega, Juan-Francisco; Rabinstein, Alejandro A; Dolce, Giuliano; Hendricks, Henk T

    2014-09-01

    A syndrome of paroxysmal, episodic sympathetic hyperactivity after acquired brain injury has been recognized for almost 60 years. This project sought to simplify the confused nomenclature for the condition (>31 eponyms) and simplify the nine overlapping sets of diagnostic criteria. A consensus-developed questionnaire based on a systematic review of the literature was circulated to a widely representative, international expert group utilizing a Delphi approach. Diagnostic criteria were dropped if group consensus failed to agree on their relative importance, with a goal of reaching a Cronbach α of 0.8 (suitable for research purposes). The resulting criteria were combined into an assessment measure for clinical and research settings. The consensus group recommend that the term "paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity" replace previous terms to describe the "syndrome, recognised in a subgroup of survivors of severe acquired brain injury, of simultaneous, paroxysmal transient increases in sympathetic [elevated heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, temperature, sweating] and motor [posturing] activity." An 11 point probabilistic diagnostic scale was developed with reference to published criteria, yielding an acceptable Cronbach α of 0.8. These 11 items were proceduralized and combined with a symptom severity index to produce a diagnostic tool for use with adults (the paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity assessment measure [PSH-AM]). Development of a pediatric version of the scale and further research into the validity of the PSH-AM is recommended. The consensus position builds on previous literature to establish diagnostic definitions and criteria, an important move to standardize research and management of this condition.

  18. First Employment of British Pharmacology Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Michael; Markham, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    A survey was conducted in UK Universities to identify the employment of pharmacology graduates (BSc, MSc and PhD) 6 months after graduation in 2003. The aim was to provide data for the British Pharmacological Society (BPS) so they could offer advice to interested bodies and to University staff for careers information. 85% of 52 Universities…

  19. 5-HT receptor classification and nomenclature: towards a harmonization with the human genome.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, D; Martin, G

    1997-01-01

    Molecular biology has dramatically advanced our knowledge and understanding of receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). The existence of multiple 5-HT receptors defined using traditional pharmacological and biochemical approaches has now been amply confirmed, but gene products encoding putative "new" 5-HT receptors have also been discovered. In some cases, the absence of suitably selective agonists and antagonists has hampered determination of a physiological role for these gene products. This makes their classification as formally recognised receptors premature.

  20. Phylogeny and nomenclature of the genus Talaromyces and taxa accommodated in Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium

    PubMed Central

    Samson, R.A.; Yilmaz, N.; Houbraken, J.; Spierenburg, H.; Seifert, K.A.; Peterson, S.W.; Varga, J.; Frisvad, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    The taxonomic history of anamorphic species attributed to Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium is reviewed, along with evidence supporting their relationship with teleomorphic species classified in Talaromyces. To supplement previous conclusions based on ITS, SSU and/or LSU sequencing that Talaromyces and subgenus Biverticillium comprise a monophyletic group that is distinct from Penicillium at the generic level, the phylogenetic relationships of these two groups with other genera of Trichocomaceae was further studied by sequencing a part of the RPB1 (RNA polymerase II largest subunit) gene. Talaromyces species and most species of Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium sensu Pitt reside in a monophyletic clade distant from species of other subgenera of Penicillium. For detailed phylogenetic analysis of species relationships, the ITS region (incl. 5.8S nrDNA) was sequenced for the available type strains and/or representative isolates of Talaromyces and related biverticillate anamorphic species. Extrolite profiles were compiled for all type strains and many supplementary cultures. All evidence supports our conclusions that Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium is distinct from other subgenera in Penicillium and should be taxonomically unified with the Talaromyces species that reside in the same clade. Following the concepts of nomenclatural priority and single name nomenclature, we transfer all accepted species of Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium to Talaromyces. A holomorphic generic diagnosis for the expanded concept of Talaromyces, including teleomorph and anamorph characters, is provided. A list of accepted Talaromyces names and newly combined Penicillium names is given. Species of biotechnological and medical importance, such as P. funiculosum and P. marneffei, are now combined in Talaromyces. Excluded species and taxa that need further taxonomic study are discussed. An appendix lists other generic names, usually considered synonyms of Penicillium sensu lato that

  1. The descriptive nomenclature and classification of growth fabrics in fossil scleractinian reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Insalaco, Enzo

    1998-06-01

    genesis is discussed. A review of the classification of reef fabrics suggests that there is currently no adequate system to describe fossil scleractinian growth fabrics. The most commonly used classification of reefal fabrics is that of Embry and Klovan (1971). [Embry, A.F., Klovan, J.E., 1971. A Late Devonian reef tract on northeastern Banks Island, Northwest Territories. Bull. Can. Pet. Geol. 33, 730-781.] There are a number of shortcomings in this scheme which may be grouped into three categories: (1) the interpretative nature of the classification; (2) problems in interpreting biological effect from form; and (3) insufficient categories to adequately describe Mesozoic and Cenozoic growth fabrics. Moreover, there appears to be a lack of a standardised nomenclature for growth fabrics which has hindered meaningful comparisons of scleractinian growth fabrics through time and space. A descriptive system based on a modification and expansion of the Embry and Klovan system (1971) is proposed and a revised nomenclature for growth fabrics presented. The system is designed to be flexible in its application — it can be used simply to describe a growth fabric, or, through the use of genetic and non-genetic modifiers, to imply types of reef-building processes and growth fabric heterogeneity. Although the concepts and terminology discussed in this paper relate to scleractinian growth fabric, they are equally applicable to fabrics comprising other organisms.

  2. Pharmacological Fingerprints of Contextual Uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Ruge, Diane; Stephan, Klaas E.

    2016-01-01

    Successful interaction with the environment requires flexible updating of our beliefs about the world. By estimating the likelihood of future events, it is possible to prepare appropriate actions in advance and execute fast, accurate motor responses. According to theoretical proposals, agents track the variability arising from changing environments by computing various forms of uncertainty. Several neuromodulators have been linked to uncertainty signalling, but comprehensive empirical characterisation of their relative contributions to perceptual belief updating, and to the selection of motor responses, is lacking. Here we assess the roles of noradrenaline, acetylcholine, and dopamine within a single, unified computational framework of uncertainty. Using pharmacological interventions in a sample of 128 healthy human volunteers and a hierarchical Bayesian learning model, we characterise the influences of noradrenergic, cholinergic, and dopaminergic receptor antagonism on individual computations of uncertainty during a probabilistic serial reaction time task. We propose that noradrenaline influences learning of uncertain events arising from unexpected changes in the environment. In contrast, acetylcholine balances attribution of uncertainty to chance fluctuations within an environmental context, defined by a stable set of probabilistic associations, or to gross environmental violations following a contextual switch. Dopamine supports the use of uncertainty representations to engender fast, adaptive responses. PMID:27846219

  3. Cardiovascular Safety Pharmacology of Sibutramine

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jaesuk; Chung, Eunyong; Choi, Ki Hwan; Cho, Dae Hyun; Song, Yun Jeong; Han, Kyoung Moon; Cha, Hey Jin; Shin, Ji Soon; Seong, Won-Keun; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Hyung Soo

    2015-01-01

    Sibutramine is an anorectic that has been banned since 2010 due to cardiovascular safety issues. However, counterfeit drugs or slimming products that include sibutramine are still available in the market. It has been reported that illegal sibutramine-contained pharmaceutical products induce cardiovascular crisis. However, the mechanism underlying sibutramine-induced cardiovascular adverse effect has not been fully evaluated yet. In this study, we performed cardiovascular safety pharmacology studies of sibutramine systemically using by hERG channel inhibition, action potential duration, and telemetry assays. Sibutramine inhibited hERG channel current of HEK293 cells with an IC50 of 3.92 μM in patch clamp assay and increased the heart rate and blood pressure (76 Δbpm in heart rate and 51 ΔmmHg in blood pressure) in beagle dogs at a dose of 30 mg/kg (per oral), while it shortened action potential duration (at 10 μM and 30 μM, resulted in 15% and 29% decreases in APD50, and 9% and 17% decreases in APD90, respectively) in the Purkinje fibers of rabbits and had no effects on the QTc interval in beagle dogs. These results suggest that sibutramine has a considerable adverse effect on the cardiovascular system and may contribute to accurate drug safety regulation. PMID:26157557

  4. Phage therapy pharmacology phage cocktails.

    PubMed

    Chan, Benjamin K; Abedon, Stephen T

    2012-01-01

    Phage therapy is the clinical or veterinary application of bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) as antibacterial "drugs." More generally, phages can be used as biocontrol agents against plant as well as foodborne pathogens. In this chapter, we consider the therapeutic use of phage cocktails, which is the combining of two or more phage types to produce more pharmacologically diverse formulations. The primary motivation for the use of cocktails is their broader spectra of activity in comparison to individual phage isolates: they can impact either more bacterial types or achieve effectiveness under a greater diversity of conditions. The combining of phages can also facilitate better targeting of multiple strains making up individual bacterial species or covering multiple species that might be responsible for similar disease states, in general providing, relative to individual phage isolates, a greater potential for presumptive or empirical treatment. Contrasting the use of phage banks, or even phage isolation against specific etiologies that have been obtained directly from patients under treatment, here we consider the utility as well as potential shortcomings associated with the use of phage cocktails as therapeutic antibacterial agents.

  5. Physiology and Pharmacology of Ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Clement, Pierre; Giuliano, François

    2016-10-01

    Ejaculation is the final stage of coitus in mammalian male and is mandatory for natural procreation. Two synchronized phases, emission and expulsion, form the ejaculatory response and involve specific organs and anatomical structures. The peripheral events leading to ejaculation are commanded by autonomic (sympathetic and parasympathetic) and somatic divisions of the nervous system. The autonomic and somatic motor efferents originate in spinal nuclei located in thoracolumbar and lumbosacral segments. Co-ordinated activation of autonomic and somatic spinal nuclei is orchestrated by a group of lumbar spinal interneurons defined as the spinal generator of ejaculation. The generator of ejaculation together with the autonomic and somatic spinal nuclei constitutes a spinal network that is under the strong influence of stimulating or inhibiting genital sensory and supraspinal inputs. A brain circuitry dedicated to ejaculation has been delineated that is part of a more global network controlling other aspects of the sexual response. This circuitry includes discrete neuronal populations distributed in all divisions of the brain. The corollary to the expanded CNS network is the variety of neurotransmitter systems participating in the ejaculatory process. Among them, serotonin neurotransmission plays a key role and its targeting led to the development of the first registered pharmacological treatment of premature ejaculation in human beings. Critical gaps remain in the understanding of neurophysiopharmacology of ejaculation and management of ejaculatory disorders in human beings needs improvement. Because the ejaculatory response in laboratory animals and in human beings shares many similarities, the use of animal models will certainly provide further advances in the field.

  6. [Pharmacologic treatment of osteoporosis--2011].

    PubMed

    Lakatos, Péter

    2011-08-14

    Osteoporosis affects approximately 9% of the population in Hungary resulting in about 100 000 osteoporotic fractures annually. Thirty-five percent of patients with hip fractures due to osteoporosis will die within 1 year. Direct costs of osteoporosis exceed 25 billion forints per year. Apparently, cost-effective reduction of bone loss and consequent fracture risk will add up to not only financial savings but improvement in quality of life, as well. A number of pharmacological modalities are available for this purpose. The mainstay of the treatment of osteoporosis is the bisphosphonate group that includes effective anti-resorptive compounds mitigating bone loss and fragility. The recently registered denosumab exhibits similar efficacy by neutralizing RANK ligand, however, marked differences can be observed between the two drug classes. Strontium has a unique mechanism of action by rebalancing bone turnover, and thus, providing an efficient treatment option for the not fast bone losers who are at high fracture risk. The purely anabolic teriparatide is available for the extremely severe osteoporotic patients and for those who do not respond to other types of therapy. Older treatment options such as hormone replacement therapy, raloxifene, tibolone or calcitonin may also have a restricted place in the management of osteoporosis.

  7. Standardized terminology and nomenclature for pancreatobiliary cytology: The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Pitman, Martha B; Centeno, Barbara A; Ali, Syed Z; Genevay, Muriel; Stelow, Ed; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Castillo, Carlos Fernandez-Del; Schmidt, C Max; Brugge, William R; Layfield, Lester J

    2014-01-01

    The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines for pancreatobiliary cytology including indications for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, techniques of EUS-FNA, terminology and nomenclature of pancreatobiliary disease, ancillary testing and post-biopsy treatment and management. All documents are based on the expertise of the authors, a review of the literature, discussion of the draft document at several national and international meetings over an 18 month period and synthesis of online comments of the draft document on the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology web site [www.papsociety.org]. This document selectively presents the results of these discussions and focuses on a proposed standardized terminology scheme for pancreatobiliary specimens that correlate cytological diagnosis with biological behavior and increasingly conservative patient management of surveillance only. The proposed terminology scheme recommends a six-tiered system: Non-diagnostic, negative, atypical, neoplastic [benign or other], suspicious and positive. Unique to this scheme is the "neoplastic" category separated into "benign" (serous cystadenoma) or "other" (premalignant mucinous cysts, neuroendocrine tumors and solid-pseudopapillary neoplasms (SPNs)). The positive or malignant category is reserved for high-grade, aggressive malignancies including ductal adenocarcinoma, acinar cell carcinoma, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas, pancreatoblastoma, lymphoma and metastases. Interpretation categories do not have to be used. Some pathology laboratory information systems require an interpretation category, which places the cytological diagnosis into a general category. This proposed scheme provides terminology that standardizes the category of the various diseases of the pancreas, some of which are difficult to diagnose specifically by cytology. In addition, this terminology scheme attempts to provide maximum

  8. Novel femoral artery terminology: integrating anatomy and clinical procedures leading to standardized intuitive nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Benninger, Brion

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the terminology of the femoral artery and recommended alternative terminology that satisfies both anatomy and clinical arenas.The femoral artery (FA) is often defined as the continuation of the external iliac artery. Specifically, when the external iliac artery reaches directly beneath the inguinal ligament, it becomes the FA. Currently, Terminologia Anatomica (TA) records the profunda femoris or deep femoral as a terminal branch. Clinicians often use superficial femoral artery (SFA) rather than FA and profunda or deep FA. SFA is actually very deep and well protected for most of its journey. On observation, the terminology in current use is not intuitive. The objective of this study was to investigate the terminology associated with the anatomical and clinical anatomical interpretations of the FA and its terminal branches and to suggest a more appropriate terminology that addresses the points of view of the macro anatomist, as well as that of the clinician. Literature search was conducted regarding the nomenclature of the FA and its terminal branches. Dissection of 89 embalmed cadavers (49F, 40M, ages 47-89) was conducted to analyze the morphology of the FA and its branches. Perusal of the literature revealed a difference in terminology between anatomical and clinical textbooks/atlases/journals regarding the FA and its terminal branch. Our dissections suggested that the FA may be better defined vis-à-vis its relationship to the anterior and posterior compartments of the thigh. A difference in terminology exists between the anatomical and clinical arenas. A need for a standardized terminology is necessary because clinicians and their publishers have not adopted TA. This study suggests that the current FA be considered the common FA and the continuation of the FA, the SFA be renamed the anterior FA and the current profunda (the deep FA) be renamed the posterior FA, respectively. The proposed terminology mirrors the lower

  9. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily in plants: gene nomenclature and comparative genomics

    PubMed Central

    Brocker, Chad; Vasiliou, Melpomene; Carpenter, Sarah; Carpenter, Christopher; Zhang, Yucheng; Wang, Xiping; Kotchoni, Simeon O.; Wood, Andrew J.; Kirch, Hans-Hubert; Kopečný, David; Nebert, Daniel W.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the number of completely sequenced plant genomes. The comparison of fully sequenced genomes allows for identification of new gene family members, as well as comprehensive analysis of gene family evolution. The aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene superfamily comprises a group of enzymes involved in the NAD+- or NADP+-dependent conversion of various aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids. ALDH enzymes are involved in processing many aldehydes that serve as biogenic intermediates in a wide range of metabolic pathways. In addition, many of these enzymes function as ‘aldehyde scavengers’ by removing reactive aldehydes generated during the oxidative degradation of lipid membranes, also known as lipid peroxidation. Plants and animals share many ALDH families, and many genes are highly conserved between these two evolutionarily distinct groups. Conversely, both plants and animals also contain unique ALDH genes and families. Herein we carried outgenome-wide identification of ALDH genes in a number of plant species—including Arabidopsis thaliana (thale crest), Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (unicellular algae), Oryza sativa (rice), Physcomitrella patens (moss), Vitis vinifera (grapevine) and Zea mays (maize). These data were then combined with previous analysis of Populus trichocarpa (poplar tree), Selaginella moellindorffii (gemmiferous spikemoss), Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) and Volvox carteri (colonial algae) for a comprehensive evolutionary comparison of the plant ALDH superfamily. As a result, newly identified genes can be more easily analyzed and gene names can be assigned according to current nomenclature guidelines; our goal is to clarify previously confusing and conflicting names and classifications that might confound results and prevent accurate comparisons between studies. PMID:23007552

  10. Lectotype designations and nomenclatural changes in Xylographus Mellié (Coleoptera, Ciidae)

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval-Gómez, Vivian Eliana; Lopes-Andrade, Cristiano; Lawrence, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We designate lectotypes and propose nomenclatural changes in Xylographus Mellié (Coleoptera, Ciidae) based on type specimens deposited in the Museum of Comparative Zoology (USA), Museum für Naturkunde Berlin (Germany), the Natural History Museum (UK), Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de la Ville de Genève (Switzerland), Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle (France), Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet (Sweden) and Naturhistorisches Museum Wien (Austria). We designate lectotypes for the following species: Cis fultoni Broun, 1886, Xylographus anthracinus Mellié, 1849, X. bicolor Pic, 1916, X. brasiliensis Pic, 1916, X. ceylonicus Ancey, 1876, X. contractus Mellié, 1849, X. corpulentus Mellié, 1849, X. dentatus Pic, 1922, X. gibbus Mellié, 1849, X. hypocritus Mellié, 1849, X. javanus Pic, 1937, X. lemoulti Pic, 1916, X. longicollis Pic, 1922, X. madagascariensis Mellié, 1849, X. nitidissimus Pic, 1916, X. perforatus Gerstaecker, 1871, X. porcus Gorham, 1886, X. punctatus Mellié, 1849, X. ritsemai Pic, 1921, X. rufescens Pic, 1921, X. rufipennis Pic, 1934, X. rufipes Pic, 1930, X. seychellensis Scott, 1926, X. subopacus Pic, 1929, X. subsinuatus Pic, 1916, X. suillus Gorham, 1886, X. testaceitarsis Pic, 1916 and X. tomicoides Reitter, 1902. We propose the following syn. n. (senior synonym listed first): X. anthracinus = X. testaceitarsis, X. brasiliensis = X. lucasi Lopes-Andrade & Zacaro, X. corpulentus = X. lemoulti and X. richardi Mellié, X. madagascariensis = X. eichelbaumi Reitter, X. rufipennis, X. seychellensis Scott and X. tarsalis Fåhraeus, X. nitidissimus = X. longicollis, X. subsinuatus = X. rufescens. We exclude three species from Xylographus: Cis renominatus, nom. n. (for X. dentatus Pic, 1922, not C. dentatus Mellié, 1849), Paratrichapus fultoni (Broun, 1886), comb. n. and P. javanus (Pic, 1937), comb. n. PMID:24493963

  11. Standardized terminology and nomenclature for pancreatobiliary cytology: the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology guidelines.

    PubMed

    Pitman, Martha B; Centeno, Barbara A; Ali, Syed Z; Genevay, Muriel; Stelow, Ed; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Fernandez-del Castillo, Carlos; Max Schmidt, C; Brugge, William; Layfield, Lester

    2014-04-01

    The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines for pancreatobiliary cytology including indications for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, techniques of EUS-FNA, terminology and nomenclature of pancreatobiliary disease, ancillary testing, and postbiopsy treatment and management. All documents are based on the expertise of the authors, a review of the literature, discussions of the draft document at several national and international meetings over an 18-month period and synthesis of online comments of the draft document on the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology web site (www.papsociety.org). This document selectively presents the results of these discussions and focuses on a proposed standardized terminology scheme for pancreatobiliary specimens that correlate cytological diagnosis with biological behavior and increasingly conservative patient management of surveillance only. The proposed terminology scheme recommends a six-tiered system: Nondiagnostic, Negative, Atypical, Neoplastic (benign or other), Suspicious and Positive. Unique to this scheme is the "Neoplastic" category separated into "benign" (serous cystadenoma), or "Other" (premalignant mucinous cysts, neuroendocrine tumors, and solid-pseudopapillary neoplasms). The positive or malignant category is reserved for high-grade, aggressive malignancies including ductal adenocarcinoma, acinar cell carcinoma, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas, pancreatoblastoma, lymphoma, and metastases. Interpretation categories do not have to be used. Some pathology laboratory information systems require an interpretation category, which places the cytological diagnosis into a general category. This proposed scheme provides terminology that standardizes the category of the various diseases of the pancreas, some of which are difficult to diagnose specifically by cytology. In addition, this terminology scheme attempts to provide maximum flexibility

  12. Revisiting nomenclature for the description of prostate cancer androgen-responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Heemers, Hannelore V; Mohler, James L

    2014-01-01

    Ever since the Noble prize-winning findings of Huggins and Hodges, the androgen receptor (AR) has been the main target for treatment of advanced prostate cancer (CaP). Today, second- and even third-line androgen deprivation strategies, which have been designed rationally to interfere with the AR signaling that re-emerges under conditions of androgen deprivation and is at least in part responsible for disease recurrence, are effective in impeding progression of advanced CaP. The therapeutic success of these novel agents in CaP that has failed initial androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and subsequent chemotherapy is prompting studies to explore their use earlier in the course of CaP progression. Repositioning of these drugs, along with alterations in the timing, sequencing and/or combination of traditional or novel ADTs, either alone or in combination with radiation or chemo- or immuno-therapies are expected to broaden significantly the scope of treatment options for CaP. Despite the rapidly changing and continuously innovating landscape of CaP therapies that target AR activity, the terminology that is used to describe CaP androgen status has not evolved. Currently available nomenclature falls short in capturing the sustained androgen-responsiveness of mostCaPs after ADT, does not distinguish readily between CaP’s responsiveness to androgens and other steroid hormones, and does not specify the treatment condition(s) under which CaP recurs. A novel vocabulary is introduced to solve these limitations and to facilitate optimal communication among physicians, scientists and CaP patients. PMID:25374913

  13. Standardized terminology and nomenclature for pancreatobiliary cytology: The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Pitman, Martha B.; Centeno, Barbara A.; Ali, Syed Z.; Genevay, Muriel; Stelow, Ed; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Castillo, Carlos Fernandez-del; Schmidt, C. Max; Brugge, William R.; Layfield, Lester J.

    2014-01-01

    The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines for pancreatobiliary cytology including indications for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, techniques of EUS-FNA, terminology and nomenclature of pancreatobiliary disease, ancillary testing and post-biopsy treatment and management. All documents are based on the expertise of the authors, a review of the literature, discussion of the draft document at several national and international meetings over an 18 month period and synthesis of online comments of the draft document on the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology web site [www.papsociety.org]. This document selectively presents the results of these discussions and focuses on a proposed standardized terminology scheme for pancreatobiliary specimens that correlate cytological diagnosis with biological behavior and increasingly conservative patient management of surveillance only. The proposed terminology scheme recommends a six-tiered system: Non-diagnostic, negative, atypical, neoplastic [benign or other], suspicious and positive. Unique to this scheme is the “neoplastic” category separated into “benign” (serous cystadenoma) or “other” (premalignant mucinous cysts, neuroendocrine tumors and solid-pseudopapillary neoplasms (SPNs)). The positive or malignant category is reserved for high-grade, aggressive malignancies including ductal adenocarcinoma, acinar cell carcinoma, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas, pancreatoblastoma, lymphoma and metastases. Interpretation categories do not have to be used. Some pathology laboratory information systems require an interpretation category, which places the cytological diagnosis into a general category. This proposed scheme provides terminology that standardizes the category of the various diseases of the pancreas, some of which are difficult to diagnose specifically by cytology. In addition, this terminology scheme attempts to provide

  14. Pāhoehoe, `a`ā, and block lava: an illustrated history of the nomenclature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Andrew J. L.; Rowland, Scott K.; Villeneuve, Nicolas; Thordarson, Thor

    2017-01-01

    Lava flows occur worldwide, and throughout history, various cultures (and geologists) have described flows based on their surface textures. As a result, surface morphology-based nomenclature schemes have been proposed in most languages to aid in the classification and distinction of lava surface types. One of the first to be published was likely the nine-class, Italian-language description-based classification proposed by Mario Gemmellaro in 1858. By far, the most commonly used terms to describe lava surfaces today are not descriptive but, instead, are merely words, specifically the Hawaiian words `a`ā (rough brecciated basalt lava) and pāhoehoe (smooth glassy basalt lava), plus block lava (thick brecciated lavas that are typically more silicic than basalt). `A`ā and pāhoehoe were introduced into the Western geological vocabulary by American geologists working in Hawai`i during the 1800s. They and other nineteenth century geologists proposed formal lava-type classification schemes for scientific use, and most of them used the Hawaiian words. In 1933, Ruy Finch added the third lava type, block lava, to the classification scheme, with the tripartite system being formalized in 1953 by Gordon Macdonald. More recently, particularly since the 1980s and based largely on studies of lava flow interiors, a number of sub-types and transitional forms of all three major lava types have been defined. This paper reviews the early history of the development of the pāhoehoe, `a`ā, and block lava-naming system and presents a new descriptive classification so as to break out the three parental lava types into their many morphological sub-types.

  15. Regulatory RNAs in the Less Studied Streptococcal Species: From Nomenclature to Identification

    PubMed Central

    Zorgani, Mohamed A.; Quentin, Roland; Lartigue, Marie-Frédérique

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcal species are Gram-positive bacteria involved in severe and invasive diseases in humans and animals. Although, this group includes different pathogenic species involved in life-threatening infections for humans, it also includes beneficial species, such as Streptococcus thermophilus, which is used in yogurt production. In bacteria virulence factors are controlled by various regulatory networks including regulatory RNAs. For clearness and to develop logical thinking, we start this review with a revision of regulatory RNAs nomenclature. Previous reviews are mostly dealing with Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae regulatory RNAs. We especially focused our analysis on regulatory RNAs in Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus thermophilus and other less studied Streptococcus species. Although, S. agalactiae RNome remains largely unknown, sRNAs (small RNAs) are supposed to mediate regulation during environmental adaptation and host infection. In the case of S. mutans, sRNAs are suggested to be involved in competence regulation, carbohydrate metabolism, and Toxin–Antitoxin systems. A new category of miRNA-size small RNAs (msRNAs) was also identified for the first time in this species. The analysis of S. thermophilus sRNome shows that many sRNAs are associated to the bacterial immune system known as CRISPR-Cas system. Only few of the other different Streptococcus species have been the subject of studies pointed toward the characterization of regulatory RNAs. Finally, understanding bacterial sRNome can constitute one step forward to the elaboration of new strategies in therapy such as substitution of antibiotics in the management of S. agalactiae neonatal infections, prevention of S. mutans dental caries or use of S. thermophilus CRISPR-Cas system in genome editing applications. PMID:27507970

  16. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily in plants: gene nomenclature and comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Brocker, Chad; Vasiliou, Melpomene; Carpenter, Sarah; Carpenter, Christopher; Zhang, Yucheng; Wang, Xiping; Kotchoni, Simeon O; Wood, Andrew J; Kirch, Hans-Hubert; Kopečný, David; Nebert, Daniel W; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the number of completely sequenced plant genomes. The comparison of fully sequenced genomes allows for identification of new gene family members, as well as comprehensive analysis of gene family evolution. The aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene superfamily comprises a group of enzymes involved in the NAD(+)- or NADP(+)-dependent conversion of various aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids. ALDH enzymes are involved in processing many aldehydes that serve as biogenic intermediates in a wide range of metabolic pathways. In addition, many of these enzymes function as 'aldehyde scavengers' by removing reactive aldehydes generated during the oxidative degradation of lipid membranes, also known as lipid peroxidation. Plants and animals share many ALDH families, and many genes are highly conserved between these two evolutionarily distinct groups. Conversely, both plants and animals also contain unique ALDH genes and families. Herein we carried out genome-wide identification of ALDH genes in a number of plant species-including Arabidopsis thaliana (thale crest), Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (unicellular algae), Oryza sativa (rice), Physcomitrella patens (moss), Vitis vinifera (grapevine) and Zea mays (maize). These data were then combined with previous analysis of Populus trichocarpa (poplar tree), Selaginella moellindorffii (gemmiferous spikemoss), Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) and Volvox carteri (colonial algae) for a comprehensive evolutionary comparison of the plant ALDH superfamily. As a result, newly identified genes can be more easily analyzed and gene names can be assigned according to current nomenclature guidelines; our goal is to clarify previously confusing and conflicting names and classifications that might confound results and prevent accurate comparisons between studies.

  17. Current and future pharmacologic treatment of sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Rolland, Yves; Onder, Graziano; Morley, John E; Gillette-Guyonet, Sophie; Abellan van Kan, Gabor; Vellas, Bruno

    2011-08-01

    Sarcopenia is a complex multifactorial condition that can by treated with multimodal approaches. No pharmacologic agent to prevent or treat sarcopenia has been as efficacious as exercise (mainly resistance training) in combination with nutritional intervention (adequate protein and energy intake). However, performing resistance training sessions and following nutritional advice can be challenging, especially for frail, sarcopenic, elderly patients, and results remain only partial. Therefore, new pharmacologic agents may substantially reduce the functional decline in older people. This article reviews the new pharmacologic agents currently being assessed for treating sarcopenia.

  18. [Contribution of animal experimentation to pharmacology].

    PubMed

    Sassard, Jean; Hamon, Michel; Galibert, Francis

    2009-11-01

    Animal experimentation is of considerable importance in pharmacology and cannot yet be avoided when studying complex, highly integrated physiological functions. The use of animals has been drastically reduced in the classical phases of pharmacological research, for example when comparing several compounds belonging to the same pharmacological class. However, animal experiments remain crucial for generating and validating new therapeutic concepts. Three examples of such research, conducted in strict ethical conditions, will be used to illustrate the different ways in which animal experimentation has contributed to human therapeutics.

  19. Pharmacology and therapeutics of bronchodilators.

    PubMed

    Cazzola, Mario; Page, Clive P; Calzetta, Luigino; Matera, M Gabriella

    2012-07-01

    regimens as much as possible. This review will describe the pharmacology and therapeutics of old, new, and emerging classes of bronchodilator.

  20. INTERSPECIES DOSIMETRY MODELS FOR PULMONARY PHARMACOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interspecies Dosimetry Models for Pulmonary Pharmacology

    Ted B. Martonen, Jeffry D. Schroeter, and John S. Fleming

    Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangl...

  1. Anti-aging pharmacology: Promises and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Vaiserman, Alexander M; Lushchak, Oleh V; Koliada, Alexander K

    2016-11-01

    Life expectancy has grown dramatically in modern times. This increase, however, is not accompanied by the same increase in healthspan. Efforts to extend healthspan through pharmacological agents targeting aging-related pathological changes are now in the spotlight of geroscience, the main idea of which is that delaying of aging is far more effective than preventing the particular chronic disorders. Currently, anti-aging pharmacology is a rapidly developing discipline. It is a preventive field of health care, as opposed to conventional medicine which focuses on treating symptoms rather than root causes of illness. A number of pharmacological agents targeting basic aging pathways (i.e., calorie restriction mimetics, autophagy inducers, senolytics etc.) are now under investigation. This review summarizes the literature related to advances, perspectives and challenges in the field of anti-aging pharmacology.

  2. Pharmacological prophylaxis of venous thrombo-embolism.

    PubMed

    Flute, P T

    1976-02-07

    The pathogenesis of venous thrombosis is briefly discussed as a basis for the understanding of preventive measures used in this condition. Prophylaxis in venous thrombosis is then reviewed with emphasis on pharmacological treatment, and more particularly on heparin.

  3. Amyloid fibril proteins and amyloidosis: chemical identification and clinical classification International Society of Amyloidosis 2016 Nomenclature Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Sipe, Jean D; Benson, Merrill D; Buxbaum, Joel N; Ikeda, Shu-Ichi; Merlini, Giampaolo; Saraiva, Maria J M; Westermark, Per

    2016-12-01

    The Nomenclature Committee of the International Society of Amyloidosis (ISA) met during the XVth Symposium of the Society, 3 July-7 July 2016, Uppsala, Sweden, to assess and formulate recommendations for nomenclature for amyloid fibril proteins and the clinical classification of the amyloidoses. An amyloid fibril must exhibit affinity for Congo red and with green, yellow or orange birefringence when the Congo red-stained deposits are viewed with polarized light. While congophilia and birefringence remain the gold standard for demonstration of amyloid deposits, new staining and imaging techniques are proving useful. To be included in the nomenclature list, in addition to congophilia and birefringence, the chemical identity of the protein must be unambiguously characterized by protein sequence analysis when possible. In general, it is insufficient to identify a mutation in the gene of a candidate amyloid protein without confirming the variant changes in the amyloid fibril protein. Each distinct form of amyloidosis is uniquely characterized by the chemical identity of the amyloid fibril protein that deposits in the extracellular spaces of tissues and organs and gives rise to the disease syndrome. The fibril proteins are designated as protein A followed by a suffix that is an abbreviation of the parent or precursor protein name. To date, there are 36 known extracellular fibril proteins in humans, 2 of which are iatrogenic in nature and 9 of which have also been identified in animals. Two newly recognized fibril proteins, AApoCII derived from apolipoprotein CII and AApoCIII derived from apolipoprotein CIII, have been added. AApoCII amyloidosis and AApoCIII amyloidosis are hereditary systemic amyloidoses. Intracellular protein inclusions displaying some of the properties of amyloid, "intracellular amyloid" have been reported. Two proteins which were previously characterized as intracellular inclusions, tau and α-synuclein, are now recognized to form extracellular

  4. What's in a Name? A Coordinated Approach toward the Correct Use of a Uniform Nomenclature to Improve Patient Reports and Databases.

    PubMed

    Tack, Véronique; Deans, Zandra C; Wolstenholme, Nicola; Patton, Simon; Dequeker, Elisabeth M C

    2016-06-01

    The Human Genome Variation Society (HGVS) recommendations provide standardized nomenclature for reporting variants. This should be encouraged in molecular pathology-both for issuing diagnostic reports and for correct data recording in electronic databases. Many providers of external quality assessment (EQA) promote the correct use of HGVS nomenclature by scoring variant descriptions used in EQA reports. This study focuses on the type and impact of variant nomenclature errors. An assessment was made of EGFR gene variant nomenclature by four EQA providers (European Society of Pathology [ESP], European Molecular Genetics Quality Network [EMQN], United Kingdom National External Quality Assessment Service for Molecular Genetics, and the French national Gen&Tiss EQA scheme) for two EQA distributions. Laboratories testing for oncology biomarkers make different errors when describing EGFR gene variants. Significant differences were observed regarding inclusion of the correct reference sequence: EMQN participants made fewer errors compared to ESP EQA participants (P-value = 0.015). The analysis of ESP EQA participants showed significant improvement over 2 years (P-value = 0.016). Results demonstrate the need for improvement of variant reporting according to HGVS guidelines. Consequences of using incorrect mutation nomenclature are currently perceived as low by many laboratories, but the impact will rise with an increased reliance on databases to assist in result analysis.

  5. Neuroimmune pharmacology as a component of pharmacology in medical school curriculum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuh F

    2011-03-01

    An introduction to the discipline of pharmacology is a standard part of the scientific foundation of medical school curricula. Neuroimmune pharmacology is a new subtopic that integrates fundamental concepts of neuroscience, immunology, infectious disease, and pharmacology. The integration of these areas is important to medical training in view of the growing concern over neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive disorders. This article introduces a submodule and concomitant syllabus for inclusion of neuroimmune pharmacology as a component of a pharmacology curriculum. The introductory lectures of neuroimmune pharmacology will concentrate on the role of the immune system in (1) schizophrenia and major depression; (2) neurodegenerative disorders; and (3) drug addiction. Emphasis will be placed on the competencies of critical thinking, problem solving, learning interest, and effectiveness of medical students. Problem-based learning and case study discussions will also be applied.

  6. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics: Past, Present, and Future.

    PubMed

    Waldman, S A; Terzic, A

    2017-03-01

    Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics (CPT), the definitive and timely source for advances in human therapeutics, transcends the drug discovery, development, regulation, and utilization continuum to catalyze, evolve, and disseminate discipline-transformative knowledge. Prioritized themes and multidisciplinary content drive the science and practice of clinical pharmacology, offering a trusted point of reference. An authoritative herald across global communities, CPT is a timeless information vehicle at the vanguard of discovery, translation, and application ushering therapeutic innovation into modern healthcare.

  7. Annotated checklist of the recent and extinct pythons (Serpentes, Pythonidae), with notes on nomenclature, taxonomy, and distribution

    PubMed Central

    Schleip, Wulf D.; O’Shea, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Abstract McDiarmid et al. (1999) published the first part of their planned taxonomic catalog of the snakes of the world. Since then, several new python taxa have been described in both the scientific literature and non-peer-reviewed publications. This checklist evaluates the nomenclatural status of the names and discusses the taxonomic status of the new taxa, and aims to continue the work of McDiarmid et al. (1999) for the family Pythonidae, covering the period 1999 to 2010. Numerous new taxa are listed, and where appropriate recent synonymies are included and annotations are made. A checklist and a taxonomic identification key of valid taxa are provided. PMID:21594030

  8. Revised stratigraphic nomenclature for the Wasatch and Green River formations of Eocene age, Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Roehler, H.W.

    1991-01-01

    In this book the nomenclature of the Eocene Wasatch and Green River formations is revised to establish a stratigraphic framework that can be used for the accurate basinwide correlations of lithologic and chronologic units. To implement these revisions, the names Alkali Creek Tongue of the Wasatch Formation, and Farson Sandstone Member of the Green River Formation, Scheggs and Rife beds of the Tipton Shale Member of the Green River Formation are introduced. The continued use of the names New Fork Tongue, Desertion Point Tongue, and upper tongue of the Wasatch Formation, and the Fontenelle Tongue, upper Tipton Shale Member, middle tongue, and upper tongue of the Green River Formation is discouraged.

  9. [Central nervous system vasculitis according to the 2012 revise international Chapel Hill consensus conference nomenclature of vasculitides].

    PubMed

    Koike, Haruki; Sobue, Gen

    2015-03-01

    Vasculitis can be primarily or secondarily to various underlying diseases. It frequently affects the nervous system, and neurological deficits may remain even after disease remission. Because the progression of vasculitides is usually acute to subacute, early initiation of treatment is important from the viewpoint of patients' functional status. However, early diagnosis may be difficult, particularly in patients with central nervous system vasculitis. Hence, it is important to understand the wide-ranging clinical manifestations of vasculitides. Here, we summarize the 2012 revised International Chapel Hill Consensus Conference nomenclature of vasculitides from the standpoint of central nervous system vasculitis.

  10. Medical curriculum and pharmacology: An appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Haranath, P.S.R.K.

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacology was introduced with Western Medical Education in India in 1900s. RN Chopra was the first Professor of Pharmacology along with patient care in School of Tropical Medicine Calcutta. Now Pharmacologists do not have clinical care nor give laboratory services to hospitals. Medical Education advanced in the West in 1960s with more emphasis on Integrated Teaching and Student Self-study and less on didactic lectures. System Based Learning and Problem Based Learning reduced importance of individual subjects. Medical Council of India (MCI) has mandatory regulations with no major changes in the last 5 decades. Universities and Medical institutions have no freedom in teaching programs. In Pharmacology didactic lectures dominate teaching. Practicals started with Dispensing Pharmacy were later replaced with Experimental Pharmacology. At present after restrictions on animals for study practicals are converted to Theoretical Exercises on Prescription writing and Incompatibilities. Students study mostly before examinations with little influence of yearlong teaching. Suggestions in line with Western Countries: Reduce the course of Pharmacology to 6 months. Examinations should be completely Internal with frequent tests by Internal Examiners. MD (Therapeutics) course may be introduced to teach Pharmacology in first semester. MCI rules to be only advisory and not mandatory. Teaching Institutions should form an independent Association and have freedom in teaching programs. A Nonofficial National Board of Medical Examination has to be formed to conduct an Entrance Test for admissions to Medical College and a National test for each graduate before registration. PMID:28031600

  11. Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer with Pharmacological Ascorbate.

    PubMed

    Cieslak, John A; Cullen, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    The prognosis for patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer remains dismal, with less than 3% survival at 5 years. Recent studies have demonstrated that high-dose, intravenous pharmacological ascorbate (ascorbic acid, vitamin C) induces cytotoxicity and oxidative stress selectively in pancreatic cancer cells vs. normal cells, suggesting a promising new role of ascorbate as a therapeutic agent. At physiologic concentrations, ascorbate functions as a reducing agent and antioxidant. However, when pharmacological ascorbate is given intravenously, it is possible to achieve millimolar plasma concentration. At these pharmacological levels, and in the presence of catalytic metal ions, ascorbate can induce oxidative stress through the generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Recent in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated ascorbate oxidation occurs extracellularly, generating H2O2 flux into cells resulting in oxidative stress. Pharmacologic ascorbate also inhibits the growth of pancreatic tumor xenografts and displays synergistic cytotoxic effects when combined with gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer. Phase I trials of pharmacological ascorbate in pancreatic cancer patients have demonstrated safety and potential efficacy. In this chapter, we will review the mechanism of ascorbate-induced cytotoxicity, examine the use of pharmacological ascorbate in treatment and assess the current data supporting its potential as an adjuvant in pancreatic cancer.

  12. Methodological innovations expand the safety pharmacology horizon.

    PubMed

    Pugsley, M K; Curtis, M J

    2012-09-01

    Almost uniquely in pharmacology, drug safety assessment is driven by the need for elaboration and validation of methods for detecting drug actions. This is the 9th consecutive year that the Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods (JPTM) has published themed issues arising from the annual meeting of the Safety Pharmacology Society (SPS). The SPS is now past its 10th year as a distinct (from pharmacology to toxicology) discipline that integrates safety pharmacologists from industry with those in academia and the various global regulatory authorities. The themes of the 2011 meeting were (i) the bridging of safety assessment of a new chemical entity (NCE) between all the parties involved, (ii) applied technologies and (iii) translation. This issue of JPTM reflects these themes. The content is informed by the regulatory guidance documents (S7A and S7B) that apply prior to first in human (FIH) studies, which emphasize the importance of seeking model validation. The manuscripts encompass a broad spectrum of safety pharmacology topics including application of state-of-the-art techniques for study conduct and data processing and evaluation. This includes some exciting novel integrated core battery study designs, refinements in hemodynamic assessment, arrhythmia analysis algorithms, and additionally an overview of safety immunopharmacology, and a brief survey discussing similarities and differences in business models that pharmaceutical companies employ in safety pharmacology, together with SPS recommendations on 'best practice' for the conduct of a non-clinical cardiovascular assessment of a NCE.

  13. Drug reformulations and repositioning in pharmaceutical industry and its impact on market access: reassessment of nomenclature

    PubMed Central

    Murteira, Susana; Ghezaiel, Zied; Karray, Slim; Lamure, Michel

    2013-01-01

    classifications in the literature, a harmonized nomenclature for drug repositioning, reformulation, and combination cases will allow for a robust analysis of the added value and market access conditions attributed for each strategy and case type as assessed by regulators and payors in Europe and the United States. After evaluation of the existing terminologies and given the absence of clear and consistent definitions for drug reformulation and repositioning in the literature, we propose a global terminology and taxonomy in order to cover all of the previously unclear definitions and classifications for repositioned and reformulated products. PMID:27226826

  14. The pharmacology of topical analgesics.

    PubMed

    Barkin, Robert L

    2013-07-01

    Pain management of patients continues to pose challenges to clinicians. Given the multiple dimensions of pain--whether acute or chronic, mild, moderate, or severe, nociceptive or neuropathic--a multimodal approach may be needed. Fortunately, clinicians have an array of nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment choices; however, each modality must be chosen carefully, because some often used oral agents are associated with safety and tolerability issues that restrict their use in certain patients. In particular, orally administered nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, opioids, antidepressants, and anticonvulsants are known to cause systemic adverse effects in some patients. To address this problem, a number of topical therapies in various therapeutic classes have been developed to reduce systemic exposure and minimize the risks of patients developing adverse events. For example, topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug formulations produce a site-specific effect (ie, cyclo-oxygenase inhibition) while decreasing the systemic exposure that may lead to undesired effects in patients. Similarly, derivatives of acetylsalicylic acid (ie, salicylates) are used in topical analgesic formulations that do not significantly enter the patient's systemic circulation. Salicylates, along with capsaicin, menthol, and camphor, compose the counterirritant class of topical analgesics, which produce analgesia by activating and then desensitizing epidermal nociceptors. Additionally, patches and creams that contain the local anesthetic lidocaine, alone or co-formulated with other local anesthetics, are also used to manage patients with select acute and chronic pain states. Perhaps the most common topical analgesic modality is the cautious application of cutaneous cold and heat. Such treatments may decrease pain not by reaching the target tissue through systemic distribution, but by acting more directly on the affected tissue. Despite the tolerability benefits associated with avoiding

  15. Finding a VOICE for UK clinical pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Aronson, Jeffrey K

    2012-01-01

    At a James Black Conference held in Oxford on 20–22 June 2011, a group of senior clinical pharmacologists and their junior colleagues, other medical specialists, and pharmacists discussed an agenda for UK clinical pharmacology for the next 5 years, addressing the following broad questions. How should UK clinical pharmacology be further developed and delivered as a discipline in universities, the NHS, pharmaceutical companies, and regulatory authorities? How should teaching and training in UK clinical pharmacology and therapeutics be delivered and assessed? What topics should be priorities for research in UK academic clinical pharmacology? How should clinical pharmacology contribute to UK drugs policy? How should pharmacology and clinical pharmacology be further integrated, to the benefit of both? Numerous recommendations emerged, under the collective acronym VOICE, standing for Visibility, Outreach, Integration, Coverage and Emissaries. Visibility The visibility of the discipline needs to be increased. This could be done, for example, by increased activities in acute general medicine/toxicology, through activities of Medicines and Therapeutics Committees, participation in grand rounds, teaching and training, and monitoring therapeutic interventions, and by offering bolt-on training for other specialists (for example, short courses, MSc courses, and training programmes). Outreach Methods of increasing outreach include roadshows in schools/medical schools, national special study modules, public education, press coverage, and social marketing. Integration Closer collaborations with pharmacologists, clinical pharmacists, other prescribers, and pharmaceutical companies (e.g. through joint training programmes) are desirable. Coverage Attention to neglected areas, such as general practice, paediatrics, obstetrics, geriatrics, anaesthetics, cancer, and immunology. Emissaries Trainees to spread the word. PMID:22360150

  16. Finding a VOICE for UK clinical pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Jeffrey K

    2012-06-01

    At a James Black Conference held in Oxford on 20-22 June 2011, a group of senior clinical pharmacologists and their junior colleagues, other medical specialists, and pharmacists discussed an agenda for UK clinical pharmacology for the next 5 years, addressing the following broad questions. How should UK clinical pharmacology be further developed and delivered as a discipline in universities, the NHS, pharmaceutical companies, and regulatory authorities? How should teaching and training in UK clinical pharmacology and therapeutics be delivered and assessed? What topics should be priorities for research in UK academic clinical pharmacology? How should clinical pharmacology contribute to UK drugs policy? How should pharmacology and clinical pharmacology be further integrated, to the benefit of both? Numerous recommendations emerged, under the collective acronym VOICE, standing for Visibility, Outreach, Integration, Coverage and Emissaries. VISIBILITY: The visibility of the discipline needs to be increased. This could be done, for example, by increased activities in acute general medicine/toxicology, through activities of Medicines and Therapeutics Committees, participation in grand rounds, teaching and training, and monitoring therapeutic interventions, and by offering bolt-on training for other specialists (for example, short courses, MSc courses, and training programmes). OUTREACH: Methods of increasing outreach include roadshows in schools/medical schools, national special study modules, public education, press coverage, and social marketing. INTEGRATION: Closer collaborations with pharmacologists, clinical pharmacists, other prescribers, and pharmaceutical companies (e.g. through joint training programmes) are desirable. COVERAGE: Attention to neglected areas, such as general practice, paediatrics, obstetrics, geriatrics, anaesthetics, cancer, and immunology. EMISSARIES: Trainees to spread the word.

  17. Proposed stratigraphic nomenclature and macroscopic identification of lithostratigraphic units of the Paintbrush Group exposed at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Buesch, D.C.; Spengler, R.W.; Moyer, T.C.; Geslin, J.K.

    1996-09-01

    This paper describes the formations of the Paintbrush Group exposed at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, presents a detailed stratigraphic nomenclature for the Tiva Canyon and Topopah spring Tuffs, and discusses the criteria that define lithostratigraphic units. The Tiva Canyon and Topopah Spring Tuffs are divided into zones, subzones, and intervals on the basis of macroscopic features observed in surface exposures and borehole samples. Primary divisions reflect depositional and compositional zoning that is expressed by variations in crystal content, phenocryst assemblage, pumice content and composition, and lithic content. Secondary divisions define welding and crystlalization zones, depositional features, or fracture characteristics. Both formations are divided into crystal-rich and crystal-poor members that have an identical sequency of zones, although subzone designations vary slightly between the two units. The identified lithostratigraphic divisions can be used to approximate thermal-mechanical and hydrogeologic boundaries in the field. Linking these three systems of nomenclature provides a framework within which to correlate these properties through regions of sparse data.

  18. Species concept and nomenclatural changes within the genera Elliptochloris and Pseudochlorella (Trebouxiophyceae) based on an integrative approach.

    PubMed

    Darienko, Tatyana; Gustavs, Lydia; Pröschold, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    The genera Elliptochloris and Pseudochlorella were erected for Chlorella-like green algae producing two types of autospores and cell packages, respectively. Both genera are widely distributed in different soil habitats, either as free living or as photobionts of lichens. The species of these genera are often difficult to identify because of the high phenotypic plasticity and occasional lack of characteristic features. The taxonomic and nomenclatural status of these species, therefore, remains unclear. In this study, 34 strains were investigated using an integrative approach. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the isolates belong to two independent lineages of the Trebouxiophyceae (Elliptochloris and Prasiola clades) and confirmed that the genera are not closely related. The comparison of morphology, molecular phylogeny, and analyses of secondary structures of SSU and ITS rDNA sequences revealed that all of the strains belong to three genera: Elliptochloris, Pseudochlorella, and Edaphochlorella. As a consequence of the taxonomic revisions, we propose two new combinations (Elliptochloris antarctica and Pseudochlorella signiensis) and validate Elliptochloris reniformis, which is invalidly described according to the International Code for Nomenclature (ICN), by designating a holotype. To reflect the high phenotypic plasticity of P. signiensis, two new varieties were described: P. signiensis var. magna and P. signiensis var. communis. Chlorella mirabilis was not closely related to any of these genera and was, therefore, transferred to the new genus Edaphochlorella. All of the taxonomic changes were highly supported by all phylogenetic analyses and were confirmed by the ITS-2 Barcodes using the ITS-2/CBC approach.

  19. State of the art, nomenclature, and points of consensus and controversy concerning benign melanocytic lesions: outcome of an international workshop.

    PubMed

    Barnhill, Raymond L; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Cook, Martin; Elder, David E; Kerl, Helmut; LeBoit, Philip E; McCarthy, Stanley W; Mihm, Martin C; Mooi, Wolter J; Piepkorn, Michael W; Prieto, Victor G; Scolyer, Richard A

    2010-03-01

    The following communication summarizes the proceedings of a one-day International Workshop focusing on the histology of benign melanocytic nevi. Areas of controversy identified in 6 focus sessions were the nomenclature and relationships among common nevi including nevi with halo reactions, traumatized nevi, "dysplastic" nevi, and nevi from particular anatomic sites; developmental biology and frequency of malignant transformation associated with congenital nevi; the characterization and biologic nature of atypical spitzoid neoplasms; the basic definition of particular melanocytic cellular phenotypes, and the nomenclature and biologic nature of many candidate blue nevi, combined nevi, and other controversial lesions such as deep penetrating nevus and pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma. Concentrated data collection and follow-up, molecular characterization, and future consensus Workshops may facilitate the resolution of some of these problems. The Group recommended the description of ambiguous or "borderline" lesions as tumors with indeterminate or uncertain biologic/malignant potential. The participants also advised that such lesions at a minimum should be managed by complete excision with clear surgical margins.

  20. A single nomenclature and associated database for alleles at the major histocompatibility complex class II DRB1 locus of sheep.

    PubMed

    Ballingall, K T; Herrmann-Hoesing, L; Robinson, J; Marsh, S G E; Stear, M J

    2011-06-01

    The development of standardised nomenclatures with associated databases containing reference sequences for alleles at polymorphic loci within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has been facilitated by the development of the immuno polymorphism database (IPD). Recently, included within IPD-MHC is information on allelic diversity within sheep species (IPD-MHC-OLA). Here, we present the first report of progress in populating the sheep IPD-MHC database with alleles at the class II MHC DRB1 locus. The sequence of 63 Ovar-DRB1 alleles within 24 allelic families is now held within the database, each meeting the minimum requirement of a complete second exon. These sequences are derived from a combination of genomic and cDNA-based approaches and represent the most extensive collection of validated alleles at the sheep DRB1 locus yet described. Although these 63 alleles probably represent only a fraction of the DRB1 allelic diversity in sheep species worldwide, we encourage the research community to use the official allelic nomenclature and to contribute allelic sequences to the database via its web-based submission tool. In time, the IPD-MHC-OLA resource will underpin population-based MHC genotyping studies and help to simplify meta-analyses of multi-source data from wild and domestic sheep populations.

  1. Toward a More Precise and Informative Nomenclature Describing Fetal and Neonatal Male Germ Cells in Rodents1

    PubMed Central

    McCarrey, John R.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The germ cell lineages are among the best characterized of all cell lineages in mammals. This characterization includes precise nomenclature that distinguishes among numerous, often subtle, changes in function or morphology as development and differentiation of germ cells proceed to form the gametes. In male rodents, there are at least 41 distinct cell types that occur during progression through the male germ cell lineage that gives rise to spermatozoa. However, there is one period during male germ cell development—that which occurs immediately following the primordial germ cell stage and prior to the spermatogonial stage—for which the system of precise and informative cell type terminology is not adequate. Often, male germ cells during this period are referred to simply as “gonocytes.” However, this term is inadequate for multiple reasons, and it is suggested here that nomenclature originally proposed in the 1970s by Hilscher et al., which employs the terms M-, T1-, and T2-prospermatogonia, is preferable. In this Minireview, the history, proper utilization, and advantages of this terminology relative to that of the term gonocytes are described. PMID:23843236

  2. Application of a revised hydrostratigraphical classification and nomenclature to the Mesozoic and Cenozoic succession of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Bassam, Abdulaziz M.; Al-Dabbagh, Mohammed E.; Hussein, Mohammed Tahir

    2000-05-01

    At the dawn of the 21st century many parts of the world are suffering a shortage of water resources. Arid and semi-arid areas in particular are facing challenges and increasing pressure is being put on their groundwater management plans. Such a situation created an urgent need to put forward a design for classification and nomenclature that can help to differentiate highly productive zones from small locally exploited productive zones. A previously proposed hydrostratigraphical classification and nomenclature scheme is revised, modified, and applied to the Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary succession of Saudi Arabia. The scheme utilised in the present paper is modified to include, in addition, productivity, water quality criteria, usability, and recharge as criteria reflecting the hydrogeological importance of the productive zones. The Triassic Sudair Mega-aquitard forms the lower hydrostratigraphic boundary for the Ad-Dahna'a Aquasystem. The Ad-Dahna'a Aquasystem comprises two aquagroups: the Riyadh and Rub'Al-Khali Aquagroups. Each aquagroup is in turn subdivided into superaquifers, aquifers and possibly subaquifers, separated by aquitards of different ranks. The physical and hydrogeological characteristics of each unit are also discussed.

  3. Revised nomenclature, definitions, and correlations for the Cretaceous formations in USGS-Clubhouse Crossroads #1, Dorchester County, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gohn, Gregory S.

    1992-01-01

    The stratigraphy of the Cretaceous section in a continuously cored stratigraphic test hole, USGS-Clubhouse Crossroads #1, is reviewed and amended herein. Located in southern Dorchester County, S.C., the Clubhouse Crossroads #1 core is one of the principal stratigraphic reference sections in the southern Atlantic Coastal Plain. Traditional and revised systems of stratigraphic nomenclature for the outcropping Cretaceous formations of the Carolinas are reviewed for their applicability in defining subsurface Cretaceous formations at Clubhouse Crossroads. The revised nomenclature, exemplified by the formations proposed by J. P. Owens in 1989 and by N. F. Sohl and Owens in 1991, is preferred for this purpose over the traditional nomenclature established by D.J.P. Swift and S.D. Heron, Jr., in 1969. The revised nomenclature is selected because of its greater emphasis on the historical succession of entire sedimentary systems (timeparallel formations), in contrast to the emphasis placed on the physical continuity of individual facies through time (time-transgressive formations) in the traditional nomenclature. Physical relationships between the two types of formations are discerned by using K.E. Caster's 1934 facies model, in which the time-transgressive units of the traditional model are his magnafacies and the time-parallel units of the revised model are sets of his laterally contiguous parvafacies. In 1977, G.S. Gohn and others and J.E. Hazel and others provisionally delineated Cretaceous formations in the Clubhouse Crossroads #1 core by using Swift and Heron's traditional units. The publication of additional lithologic and paleontologic data since 1977 for Cretaceous units in the core and for Cretaceous units throughout the Carolinas provides a basis for reviewing and amending the original definitions of the Cretaceous formations at Clubhouse Crossroads. Ages assigned to the Cretaceous units at Clubhouse Crossroads by Hazel and others are also reviewed. The boundaries

  4. Non Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers – Current Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Kuldip; Anand, Kuljeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Cognition refers to the mental processes involved in thinking, knowing, remembering, judging, and problem solving. Cognitive dysfunctions are an integral part of neuropsychiatric disorders as well as in healthy ageing. Cognitive Enhancers are molecules that help improve aspects of cognition like memory, intelligence, motivation, attention and concentration. Recently, Non Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers have gained popularity as effective and safe alternative to various established drugs. Many of these Non Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers seem to be more efficacious compared to currently available Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers. This review describes and summarizes evidence on various Non Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers such as physical exercise, sleep, meditation and yoga, spirituality, nutrients, computer training, brain stimulation, and music. We also discuss their role in ageing and different neuro-psychiatric disorders, and current status of Cochrane database recommendations. We searched the Pubmed database for the articles and reviews having the terms ‘non pharmacological and cognitive’ in the title, published from 2000 till 2014. A total of 11 results displayed, out of which 10 were relevant to the review. These were selected and reviewed. Appropriate cross-references within the articles along with Cochrane reviews were also considered and studied. PMID:26393186

  5. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXIX. Cannabinoid Receptors and Their Ligands: Beyond CB1 and CB2

    PubMed Central

    Howlett, A. C.; Abood, M. E.; Alexander, S. P. H.; Di Marzo, V.; Elphick, M. R.; Greasley, P. J.; Hansen, H. S.; Kunos, G.; Mackie, K.; Mechoulam, R.; Ross, R. A.

    2010-01-01

    There are at least two types of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2). Ligands activating these G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) include the phytocannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, numerous synthetic compounds, and endogenous compounds known as endocannabinoids. Cannabinoid receptor antagonists have also been developed. Some of these ligands activate or block one type of cannabinoid receptor more potently than the other type. This review summarizes current data indicating the extent to which cannabinoid receptor ligands undergo orthosteric or allosteric interactions with non-CB1, non-CB2 established GPCRs, deorphanized receptors such as GPR55, ligand-gated ion channels, transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, and other ion channels or peroxisome proliferator-activated nuclear receptors. From these data, it is clear that some ligands that interact similarly with CB1 and/or CB2 receptors are likely to display significantly different pharmacological profiles. The review also lists some criteria that any novel “CB3” cannabinoid receptor or channel should fulfil and concludes that these criteria are not currently met by any non-CB1, non-CB2 pharmacological receptor or channel. However, it does identify certain pharmacological targets that should be investigated further as potential CB3 receptors or channels. These include TRP vanilloid 1, which possibly functions as an ionotropic cannabinoid receptor under physiological and/or pathological conditions, and some deorphanized GPCRs. Also discussed are 1) the ability of CB1 receptors to form heteromeric complexes with certain other GPCRs, 2) phylogenetic relationships that exist between CB1/CB2 receptors and other GPCRs, 3) evidence for the existence of several as-yet-uncharacterized non-CB1, non-CB2 cannabinoid receptors; and 4) current cannabinoid receptor nomenclature. PMID:21079038

  6. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXIX. Cannabinoid receptors and their ligands: beyond CB₁ and CB₂.

    PubMed

    Pertwee, R G; Howlett, A C; Abood, M E; Alexander, S P H; Di Marzo, V; Elphick, M R; Greasley, P J; Hansen, H S; Kunos, G; Mackie, K; Mechoulam, R; Ross, R A

    2010-12-01

    There are at least two types of cannabinoid receptors (CB(1) and CB(2)). Ligands activating these G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) include the phytocannabinoid Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, numerous synthetic compounds, and endogenous compounds known as endocannabinoids. Cannabinoid receptor antagonists have also been developed. Some of these ligands activate or block one type of cannabinoid receptor more potently than the other type. This review summarizes current data indicating the extent to which cannabinoid receptor ligands undergo orthosteric or allosteric interactions with non-CB(1), non-CB(2) established GPCRs, deorphanized receptors such as GPR55, ligand-gated ion channels, transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, and other ion channels or peroxisome proliferator-activated nuclear receptors. From these data, it is clear that some ligands that interact similarly with CB(1) and/or CB(2) receptors are likely to display significantly different pharmacological profiles. The review also lists some criteria that any novel "CB(3)" cannabinoid receptor or channel should fulfil and concludes that these criteria are not currently met by any non-CB(1), non-CB(2) pharmacological receptor or channel. However, it does identify certain pharmacological targets that should be investigated further as potential CB(3) receptors or channels. These include TRP vanilloid 1, which possibly functions as an ionotropic cannabinoid receptor under physiological and/or pathological conditions, and some deorphanized GPCRs. Also discussed are 1) the ability of CB(1) receptors to form heteromeric complexes with certain other GPCRs, 2) phylogenetic relationships that exist between CB(1)/CB(2) receptors and other GPCRs, 3) evidence for the existence of several as-yet-uncharacterized non-CB(1), non-CB(2) cannabinoid receptors; and 4) current cannabinoid receptor nomenclature.

  7. Applications of stable isotopes in clinical pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Schellekens, Reinout C A; Stellaard, Frans; Woerdenbag, Herman J; Frijlink, Henderik W; Kosterink, Jos G W

    2011-01-01

    This review aims to present an overview of the application of stable isotope technology in clinical pharmacology. Three main categories of stable isotope technology can be distinguished in clinical pharmacology. Firstly, it is applied in the assessment of drug pharmacology to determine the pharmacokinetic profile or mode of action of a drug substance. Secondly, stable isotopes may be used for the assessment of drug products or drug delivery systems by determination of parameters such as the bioavailability or the release profile. Thirdly, patients may be assessed in relation to patient-specific drug treatment; this concept is often called personalized medicine. In this article, the application of stable isotope technology in the aforementioned three areas is reviewed, with emphasis on developments over the past 25 years. The applications are illustrated with examples from clinical studies in humans. PMID:21801197

  8. Heterocyclic Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids: Biosynthesis and Pharmacological Applications.

    PubMed

    Hotchandani, Tarun; Desgagne-Penix, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Amaryllidaceae alkaloids (AAs), which are natural heterocyclic compounds, are isolated from Amaryllidaceae plants such as narcissus, snowdrop and spider lily. AAs have been extensively studied due to their multiple pharmacological properties. Nevertheless, knowledge of AA synthesis in plants is lacking and most genes encoding enzymes involved in their production remain unknown. AAs are structurally complex compounds which are challenging for total chemical synthesis that is economically viable. Therefore the understanding of AA biosynthesis could allow for the development of biotechnologies for the production of natural AAs or analogues, maintaining or improving their pharmacological properties. In this review, we describe the progress regarding the biosynthesis and pharmacological properties of AAs. The most recent developments in neurological, anti-cancer and anti-microbial bioactivities of heterocyclic AAs are covered.

  9. Strychnos potatorum: Phytochemical and pharmacological review

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Kavita N.; Kadam, Prasad V.; Patel, Jigna A.; Patil, Manohar J.

    2014-01-01

    In traditional system of medicine, the seeds of Strychnos potatorum Linn. (family: Loganiaceae) are used in the treatment of gonorrhea, leukorrhea leukeorrhea, gastropathy, bronchitis, chronic diarrhea, dysentery, renal and vesicle calculi, diabetes, conjunctivitis, scleritis, ulcers and other eye disease. An attempt has been made to highlight this medicinal seeds through phytochemical and pharmacological study. The present review deals with the phytochemical and pharmacological screening of therapeutic importance from Strychnos potatorum L., an important medicinal plant. This study includes the collective information of different medicinal uses of Strychnos potatorum. The generated data has provided the basis for its wide use as the therapeutant both in the traditional and folk medicines. PMID:24600197

  10. Rhein: A Review of Pharmacological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yan-Xi; Xia, Wei; Yue, Wei; Peng, Cheng; Rahman, Khalid; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Rhein (4, 5-dihydroxyanthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid) is a lipophilic anthraquinone extensively found in medicinal herbs, such as Rheum palmatum L., Cassia tora L., Polygonum multiflorum Thunb., and Aloe barbadensis Miller, which have been used medicinally in China for more than 1,000 years. Its biological activities related to human health are being explored actively. Emerging evidence suggests that rhein has many pharmacological effects, including hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, and antimicrobial activities. The present review provides a comprehensive summary and analysis of the pharmacological properties of rhein, supporting the potential uses of rhein as a medicinal agent. PMID:26185519

  11. Pharmacological aspects of the safety of gliflozins.

    PubMed

    Faillie, Jean-Luc

    2017-04-01

    Sodium-glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, also known as gliflozins, are a new class of orally active drugs used in the management of type 2 diabetes. By inhibiting the SGLT responsible for the reabsorption of glucose from the kidney, their use aims primarily to induce glycosuria and, as a consequence, lower glycemic levels. However, their specific mechanism of action involves other pharmacodynamic consequences including potentially harmful adverse reactions. This manuscript reviews the physiological and pharmacological background behind inhibition of SGLTs, and discusses the pharmacological aspects of the safety of gliflozins.

  12. [Pharmacology and clinical aspects of benzodiazepines].

    PubMed

    Mendlewicz, J; Sevy, S

    1985-01-01

    The widespread use of benzodiazepines has led the authors to review the pharmacological and clinical aspects of these substances. On a molecular level, the benzodiazepines have an effect on receptors in relation with the GABA system. Presently, endogenous ligand(s) to these receptors have not yet been fully demonstrated. The main benzodiazepines are also compared for their kinetics which is function of absorption, metabolisation and various factors such as binding to the receptor, age, hepatic and renal disorders. These pharmacological studies have clinical implications. The authors finally make a brief review of the clinical indications of the benzodiazepines.

  13. Statistical reporting of clinical pharmacology research.

    PubMed

    Ring, Arne; Schall, Robert; Loke, Yoon K; Day, Simon

    2017-03-21

    Research in clinical pharmacology covers a wide range of experiments, trials and investigations: clinical trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses of drug usage after market approval, the investigation of pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships, the search for mechanisms of action or for potential signals for efficacy and safety using biomarkers. Often these investigations are exploratory in nature, which has implications for the way the data should be analysed and presented. Here we summarize some of the statistical issues that are of particular importance in clinical pharmacology research.

  14. Methods in pharmacology: measurement of cardiac output

    PubMed Central

    Geerts, Bart F; Aarts, Leon P; Jansen, Jos R

    2011-01-01

    Many methods of cardiac output measurement have been developed, but the number of methods useful for human pharmacological studies is limited. The ‘holy grail’ for the measurement of cardiac output would be a method that is accurate, precise, operator independent, fast responding, non-invasive, continuous, easy to use, cheap and safe. This method does not exist today. In this review on cardiac output methods used in pharmacology, the Fick principle, indicator dilution techniques, arterial pulse contour analysis, ultrasound and bio-impedance are reviewed. PMID:21284692

  15. The pharmacological treatment of nystagmus: a review.

    PubMed

    McLean, Rebecca Jane; Gottlob, Irene

    2009-08-01

    Nystagmus is an involuntary, to-and-fro movement of the eyes that can result in a reduction in visual acuity and oscillopsia. Mechanisms that cause nystagmus are better understood in some forms, such as acquired periodic alternating nystagmus, than in others, for example acquired pendular nystagmus, for which there is limited knowledge. Effective pharmacological treatment exists to reduce nystagmus, particularly in acquired nystagmus and, more recently, infantile nystagmus. However, as there are very few randomized controlled trials in the area, most pharmacological treatment options in nystagmus remain empirical.

  16. NOMENCLATURAL NOTES ON THE EURYTOMIDS (CHALCIDOIDEA: EURYTOMIDAE) DESCRIBED BY JEAN BRÈTHES HOUSED IN MUSEO ARGENTINO DE CIENCIAS NATURALES “BERNARDINO RIVADAVIA”

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nine species parasitic eurytomid wasps described by Jean Brèthes and deposited in the National Insect Collection of Argentina, Buenos Aires are treated and their nomenclature stabilized. The condition of the type material is described. Lectotypes are designated for Prodecatoma parodii, Eudecatoma o...

  17. Elucidating Article 45.6 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature: A dichotomous key for the determination of subspecific or infrasubspecific rank

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We present an overview of the difficulties sometimes encountered when determining whether a published name following a binomen is available or infrasubspecific and unavailable, following Article 45.6 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN, 1999). We propose a dichotomous key that...

  18. Amendment of Articles 8, 9, 10, 21 and 78 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature to expand and refine methods of publication.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature has voted in favour of a revised version of the amendment to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature that was proposed in 2008. The purpose of the amendment is to expand and refine the methods of publication allowed by the Code, particularly in relation to electronic publication. The amendment establishes an Official Register of Zoological Nomenclature (with ZooBank as its online version), allows electronic publication after 2011 under certain conditions, and disallows publication on optical discs after 2012. The requirements for electronic publications are that the work be registered in ZooBank before it is published, that the work itself state the date of publication and contain evidence that registration has occurred, and that the ZooBank registration state both the name of an electronic archive intended to preserve the work and the ISSN or ISBN associated with the work. Registration of new scientific names and nomenclatural acts is not required. The Commission has confirmed that ZooBank is ready to handle the requirements of the amendment.

  19. Impacts of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants (Melbourne Code) on the scientific names of plant pathogenic fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent changes in the new International Code of Nomenclature (ICN) for algae, fungi and plants require that only one name be used for pleomorphic fungi many of which have two or more scientific names at present. It is necessary to decide which of two competing scientific names will be applied to one...

  20. SIU/ICUD Consultation On Urethral Strictures: Epidemiology, etiology, anatomy, and nomenclature of urethral stenoses, strictures, and pelvic fracture urethral disruption injuries.

    PubMed

    Latini, Jerilyn M; McAninch, Jack W; Brandes, Steven B; Chung, Jae Yong; Rosenstein, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    This committee reviewed and evaluated published data, and recommended standardized terminology relating to the epidemiology, etiology, anatomy, and nomenclature of urethral stenoses, urethral strictures, and pelvic fracture urethral disruption injuries, as well as their surgical management. A literature search using Medline, PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health), Embase, online acronym databases, and abstracts from scientific meetings was performed from 1980-2010. Articles were evaluated using the Levels of Evidence adapted by the International Consultation on Urological Diseases (ICUD) from the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. Recommendations were based on the level of evidence and discussed among the committee to reach a consensus. There is expert opinion to support standards regarding the epidemiology, anatomy, and nomenclature of urethral stenoses, urethral strictures, and pelvic fracture urethral disruption injuries. There is level 3 evidence regarding the epidemiology and etiology of urethral stenoses, urethral strictures, and pelvic fracture urethral injuries. The literature regarding the epidemiology, anatomy, and nomenclature of urethral stenoses, urethral strictures, and pelvic fracture urethral disruption injuries are sparse and generally of a low level of evidence. The proposed ICUD system does not readily apply to these areas. Further research is needed so that stronger levels of evidence can be developed leading to recommendations regarding the accuracy of the data. To improve future research and promote effective scientific progress and communication, a standardized nomenclature and anatomy regarding the urethra and urethral surgery is detailed herein.