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Sample records for pharyngeal aerobic microflora

  1. Aerobic cloacal and pharyngeal bacterial flora in six species of free-living birds.

    PubMed

    Stenkat, J; Krautwald-Junghanns, M-E; Schmitz Ornés, A; Eilers, A; Schmidt, V

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the culturable aerobic pharyngeal and cloacal bacterial flora of free-living birds, to determine the physiological bacterial microbiota, to identify possible interactions between feeding behaviour and the composition of the pharyngeal and cloacal microflora and to investigate the occurrence of pathogenic bacteria. Cloacal and pharyngeal swabs of 167 free-living birds, including water rails (Rallus aquaticus), spotted crakes (Porzana porzana), mute swans (Cygnus olor), barn swallows (Hirundo rustica), reed warblers (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) and black cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) from Germany, were cultured to determine the prevalence of aerobic bacteria. Statistical analysis of bacterial findings and feeding behaviour was performed. A widespread soil and water bacteria were isolated, which are expected to be present in the habitat and food. However, some potentially avian- and human-pathogenic bacteria, such as Aeromonas hydrophila, Elizabethkingia meningoseptica, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, were also recovered. Free-living birds of the examined species harbour several environmental bacteria, which could be facultative pathogenic. Prevalence of bacteria in healthy free-living birds of the species included in this survey is influenced by environmental and alimentary factors. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. [A standard tampon for quantitative studies of mixed anaerobic-aerobic microflora].

    PubMed

    Ushakov, R V; Tsarev, V N; Ushakov, T V

    1991-01-01

    A tampon made of the new spongy polyvinyl-formal AQUIPOR 3500/40 is suggested for quantitative studies of mixed anaerobic-aerobic microflora. Comparison of the adsorption characteristics, the preservation of the tested pathologic material during the collection and transportation of the material, and the potential antibacterial characteristics of the suggested tampon and the traditional cotton wool tampons has shown the advantages of the new tampon, that permits standardization of the investigation by the quantitative bacteriologic method and preserves both aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms viable. This tampon may be used in studies of purulent wound and periodontal pocket microflora.

  3. Developmental intestinal aerobic microflora in the kori bustard (Ardeotis kori).

    PubMed

    Naldo, J L; Silvanose, C D; Samour, J H; Bailey, T A

    1998-01-01

    A study was carried out to investigate the normal aerobic bacterial flora of developing kori bustard (Ardeotis kori) chicks, captive bred at the National Avian Research Center, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Faecal samples were collected from 14 birds at different ages from the first day of hatching until 99 days old and were cultured for aerobic bacteria. Several bacterial species were isolated from the cultures, they included Escherichia coli, Streptococcus viridians, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella oxytoca, Proteus spp., Enterobacter, spp. and Serratia marcescens. Gram-negative bacilli were isolated from all but one of the faecal samples collected. They were also the predominant bacteria, accounting for between 55.6 and 73.4% of the mean colony count of faecal cultures from all age groups. E. coli was the most frequently isolated bacteria, the frequency and mean colony count increased as the birds grew older. Gram-positive cocci were isolated from between 50 and 100% of the faecal samples from all age groups, and they accounted for between 26.6 and 44.4% of the mean colony count. Results from this study indicated that Gram-negative bacilli and Gram-positive cocci can be isolated frequently from the faeces of developing, clinically normal, captive bred kori bustard chicks.

  4. Examination of the Aerobic Microflora of Swine Feces and Stored Swine Manure.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Terence R; Cotta, Michael A

    2016-03-01

    Understanding antibiotic resistance in agricultural ecosystems is critical for determining the effects of subtherapeutic and therapeutic uses of antibiotics for domestic animals. This study was conducted to ascertain the relative levels of antibiotic resistance in the aerobic bacterial population to tetracycline, tylosin, and erythromycin. Swine feces and manure samples were plated onto various agar media with and without antibiotics and incubated at 37°C. Colonies were counted daily. Randomly selected colonies were isolated and characterized by 16S rRNA sequence analyses and additional antibiotic resistance and biochemical analyses. Colonies were recovered at levels of 10 to 10 CFU mL for swine slurry and 10 to 10 CFU g swine feces, approximately 100-fold lower than numbers obtained under anaerobic conditions. Addition of antibiotics to the media resulted in counts that were 60 to 80% of those in control media without added antibiotics. Polymerase chain reaction analyses for antibiotic resistance genes demonstrated the presence of a number of different resistance genes from the isolates. The recoverable aerobic microflora of swine feces and manure contain high percentages of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which include both known and novel genera and species, and a variety of antibiotic resistance genes. Further analyses of these and additional isolates should provide additional information on these organisms as potential reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes in these ecosystems.

  5. In vitro alterations in fecal short chain fatty acids and organic anions induced by the destruction of intestinal microflora under hypotonic and aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Araki, Yoshio; Andoh, Akira; Fujiyama, Yoshihide; Itoh, Akihiko; Bamba, Tadao

    2002-06-01

    The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains unknown. It has been suggested that luminal factors such as the microflora, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), food antigens and so on play important roles in the disease progression. Many reports have revealed alterations in the SCFA and organic acid concentration of the colon, especially increased lactate and decreased butyrate, in IBD patients. The mechanisms responsible for these alterations, however, remain unclear. Therefore, the effects of aerobic conditions on the alterations in the SCFA and organic anion levels in the feces was evaluated. Fecal specimens were collected from 5 healthy volunteers. Under aerobic condition, a mixture of feces and distilled water was incubated in 37 degrees C for 1 and 3 h. The pH, osmotic pressures, the concentrations of potassium, bicarbonate, SCFA and organic anion, and the activities of alpha-amylase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the mixture were then measured. We also examined any changes in the microscopic microflora under the hypotonic and aerobic conditions. The results showed the osmotic pressure, and the concentrations of lactate and SCFAs (formate, acetate, propionate and n-valerate) were progressively increased with longer incubation times, and reached a statistically significant difference. In particular, the ratios of lactate, succinate and n-valerate after 1 and 3 h of incubation increased remarkably. In contrast, the electrolyte levels and both alpha-amylase and LDH activities were not altered significantly. Microscopically, the microflora in the mixture decreased with prolonged incubation times. These data suggest that under these in vitro conditions, the organic anion and SCFA levels in the feces easily increased. It is probable that the alterations in the SCFA and organic anion levels in IBD patients may be partly due to intracellular components derived from microflora destroyed under hypotonic and aerobic conditions in the colonic lumen, for

  6. Microflora of the aerobic preservation of directly brined green olives from Hojiblanca cultivar.

    PubMed

    Fernández Gonzalez, M J; García García, P; Garrido Fernández, A; Durán Quintana, M C

    1993-09-01

    New procedures for the preservation stage of ripe olives from Hojiblanca cultivar were studied. An aerobic fermentative process was used with initial pH correction (0.3% acetic acid) and various NaCl concentrations: 6, 3 and 0% (w/v) in tap water. Treatments were carried out at industrial level and the spontaneous changes monitored. At initial salt concentrations of 6 and 3% (w/v) NaCl, pH rose progressively, reaching 4.3 at equilibrium maintaining during this period a constant free lactic acidity of around 0.4% (w/v). When the initial solution was tap waste, however, the pH decreased rapidly to stabilize at about 3.7, and lactic acidity increased continuously to reach values over 1% (w/v) at the end of the preservation process. In all treatments aeration effectively purged the carbon dioxide from the preservation brines, preventing shrivelling of olives. The microbial growth was strongly influenced by the initial NaCl concentration. At 6 and 3%, only yeasts grew, the most abundant being Pichia membranaefaciens, P. vini, P. fermentans and Hansenula polymorpha. However, when there was no NaCl, lactic acid bacteria colonized the solution. Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus inopinatus were the only species found. In this case there was a co-existence between yeasts and lactic acid bacteria. As the treatment that supported lactic acid bacteria achieved the best final pH and acidity for olive stability, it may help to overcome the obstacles to a lactic fermentative process during the preservation stage of ripe olives from the Hojiblanca cultivar.

  7. Aerobic bacterial microflora of Broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris) oral cavity and cloaca, originating from parque Zoológico Arruda Câmara, Paraíba, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, J.S.A.; Mota, R.A.; Pinheiro Júnior, J.W.; Almeida, M.C.S.; Silva, D.R.; Ferreira, D.R.A.; Azevedo, J.C.N.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate and identify the aerobic bacterial microflora from the oral cavity mucosa and cloaca’s samples, collected from Broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris), born and bred in captivity at Parque Zoológico Arruda Câmara, João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. The most common bacteria were Staphylococcus sp. (14.74%), Corynebacterium sp. (13.68%), Escherichia coli (13.68%) and Shigella sp.(11.58%), and the less common were Citrobacter sp. (1.05%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (1.05%) and Salmonella sp. (1.05%).This emphasizes the importance of these microorganisms’ participation in infectious processes (sepsis) and injuries caused by crocodilians. PMID:24031343

  8. Aerobic bacterial microflora of Broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris) oral cavity and cloaca, originating from parque Zoológico Arruda Câmara, Paraíba, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, J S A; Mota, R A; Pinheiro Júnior, J W; Almeida, M C S; Silva, D R; Ferreira, D R A; Azevedo, J C N

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate and identify the aerobic bacterial microflora from the oral cavity mucosa and cloaca's samples, collected from Broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris), born and bred in captivity at Parque Zoológico Arruda Câmara, João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. The most common bacteria were Staphylococcus sp. (14.74%), Corynebacterium sp. (13.68%), Escherichia coli (13.68%) and Shigella sp.(11.58%), and the less common were Citrobacter sp. (1.05%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (1.05%) and Salmonella sp. (1.05%).This emphasizes the importance of these microorganisms' participation in infectious processes (sepsis) and injuries caused by crocodilians.

  9. Bacterial microflora of nectarines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Microflora of fruit surfaces has been the best source of antagonists against fungi causing postharvest decays of fruit. However, there is little information on microflora colonizing surfaces of fruits other than grapes, apples, and citrus fruit. We characterized bacterial microflora on nectarine f...

  10. [Physiology of microflora in the digestive tract].

    PubMed

    Zboril, V

    2002-01-01

    The microflora of the digestive tract is a complex microbial ecosystem, well balanced, which in an aboral direction undergoes specific changes as to the ratio of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms the functions of which supplement each other--the aerobes ensure for the whole ecosystem the scavenger effect. The microbial profile of the digestive tract is typical by the absence of anaerobic microorganisms in the stomach and conversely their absolute predominance in the distal colon. The basic physiological functions of the microflora of the digestive tract can be characterized as follows: 1. microbial barrier against pathogens and potential pathogens, 2. formation of products of the microflora and their influence on the blood supply of the intestinal mucosa and peristaltics, 3. stimulation of the immune system in the gut, 4. reduction of bacterial translocation, 5. production of vitamins. To this problem in the world literature, contrary to ours, deserved attention has been paid for many years. Knowledge of the problem opens the door to expedient manipulation with the microbial flora of the digestive tract by the use of diet or prebiotics, probiotics as well as antibiotic treatment. The author presents a summary of basic findings which developed on the subject of physiological microflora of the digestive tract successively up to their present shape.

  11. Yeast microflora of nectarines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Resident fruit microflora has been the source of biocontrol agents for control of postharvest decays of fruits, and the active ingredient in commercialized biocontrol products. Except grapes and apples, information on the resident microflora of other fruits is only fragmentary, but greater knowledge...

  12. [Role of oral cavity anaerobic microflora in the pathogenesis of mandible traumatic osteomyelitis].

    PubMed

    Ivaniushko, T P; Tumbinskaia, L V; Smirnov, A V; Balykin, R A

    2012-01-01

    The role of conditionally pathogenic microflora in the pathogenesis of lower jaw bone traumatic osteomyelites was investigated. The different groups of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms were detected by real-time PCR. Role of conditionally pathogenic microflora in the pathogenesis of traumatic osteomielytis was shown.

  13. Streptococcal acute pharyngitis.

    PubMed

    Anjos, Lais Martins Moreira; Marcondes, Mariana Barros; Lima, Mariana Ferreira; Mondelli, Alessandro Lia; Okoshi, Marina Politi

    2014-07-01

    Acute pharyngitis/tonsillitis, which is characterized by inflammation of the posterior pharynx and tonsils, is a common disease. Several viruses and bacteria can cause acute pharyngitis; however, Streptococcus pyogenes (also known as Lancefield group A β-hemolytic streptococci) is the only agent that requires an etiologic diagnosis and specific treatment. S. pyogenes is of major clinical importance because it can trigger post-infection systemic complications, acute rheumatic fever, and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Symptom onset in streptococcal infection is usually abrupt and includes intense sore throat, fever, chills, malaise, headache, tender enlarged anterior cervical lymph nodes, and pharyngeal or tonsillar exudate. Cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, and diarrhea are uncommon, and their presence suggests a viral cause. A diagnosis of pharyngitis is supported by the patient's history and by the physical examination. Throat culture is the gold standard for diagnosing streptococcus pharyngitis. However, it has been underused in public health services because of its low availability and because of the 1- to 2-day delay in obtaining results. Rapid antigen detection tests have been used to detect S. pyogenes directly from throat swabs within minutes. Clinical scoring systems have been developed to predict the risk of S. pyogenes infection. The most commonly used scoring system is the modified Centor score. Acute S. pyogenes pharyngitis is often a self-limiting disease. Penicillins are the first-choice treatment. For patients with penicillin allergy, cephalosporins can be an acceptable alternative, although primary hypersensitivity to cephalosporins can occur. Another drug option is the macrolides. Future perspectives to prevent streptococcal pharyngitis and post-infection systemic complications include the development of an anti-Streptococcus pyogenes vaccine.

  14. [MICROFLORA AND ORAL DISEASE].

    PubMed

    Khavkin, A I; Ippolitov, Y A; Aleshina, E O; Komarova O N

    2015-01-01

    Acid-producing microorganisms are base etiological agents of lesions of tooth enamel and destruction of dentin. The process start by specific microflora of tooth deposit--Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacteria and Actinomycetis viscosus which ferment food carbogydrate to form acids. High titre of them in oral cavity may be considered like a marker of carbohydrate food. But the pathogenic bacteria don't have aggression to host organism until they will have virulent factors which help to get over protection of host organism. At the same time, microflora of oral cavity is involved to form pellicula. Pellicula is a biofilm which to protect tooth enamel and dentin. Understanding relationships between safety factors of host and pathogenic microflora of oral cavity will give to create effective methods of prevention and treatment.

  15. The Microflora of Frozen Passionfruit Nectar Base1

    PubMed Central

    Aea, Raymond T. F.; Bushnell, O. A.

    1962-01-01

    A considerable and varied microflora is introduced into passionfruit nectar base under present methods of production. In spite of the great acidity of the nectar base (pH range: 2.8 to 3.2), the high sucrose concentration (approximately 50%), and storage at -20 C, remnants of the microflora persist for a year or longer. During storage, however, there is a steady and gradual decrease, until after about 18 months the microflora is near to extinction. Sample regression lines show straight-line slopes for this diminution in numbers. A battery of nine media was used to grow a representative aerobic flora. Purified cultures of isolates were identified to genera. Yeasts were the most numerous organisms in all samples, followed by molds, bacteria, and streptomycetes. The bacteria were the first group to disappear during storage. No fecal streptococci or gram-negative bacilli were found in any samples. PMID:13859495

  16. Impact of gemifloxacin on the normal human intestinal microflora.

    PubMed

    Barker, P J; Sheehan, R; Teillol-Foo, M; Palmgren, A C; Nord, C E

    2001-02-01

    Gemifloxacin is a new fluoroquinolone that has been shown to possess a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms including methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant staphylococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and most members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of gemifloxacin on the human intestinal microflora. Gemifloxacin was given in oral doses of 320 mg for 7 days to 10 healthy subjects and 5 subjects received a once-daily dose of matched placebo for 7 days. Faecal samples were collected prior to administration (days -8 and -6), during the administration period (days 2 and 4) and after withdrawal of administration (days 8, 11, 21, 28 and 56). In the aerobic intestinal microflora the numbers of enterobacteria were suppressed during the gemifloxacin administration and the numbers of enterococci and streptococci were also decreased. No other aerobic microorganisms were affected. In the anaerobic microflora the numbers of anaerobic cocci and lactobacilli were suppressed during the gemifloxacin administration while no other changes occurred. The microflora was normalized 49 days after the administration of gemifloxacin had stopped. No selection or overgrowth of resistant bacterial strains or yeasts occurred. The ecological impact of gemifloxacin was shown to be selective and similar to that of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and ofloxacin.

  17. Swallowing and pharyngeal function in postoperative pharyngeal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Martini, D V; Har-El, G; Lucente, F E; Slavit, D H

    1997-07-01

    This study examines the pharyngeal phase of swallowing after the resection of pharyngeal cancer, and focuses on the pharynx as a functional organ. The purpose of the study was to obtain information on both reconstruction and rehabilitation in cases of surgically treated pharyngeal cancer. The records of 21 consecutive patients who underwent surgical treatment of oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma between 1990 and 1993 were reviewed. Functional results following surgery were graded on a numerical scale in three categories: pharyngeal swallow, laryngeal and lower airway protection, and oral alimentation. Three treatment groups were observed: group 1 = transoral excision with primary closure (six patients); group 2 = composite resection with primary closure (nine patients); and group 3 = composite resection with deltopectoral or pectoralis major flap closure (six patients). Comparison of pharyngeal swallow and laryngeal protection functions showed no significant difference between the three groups. However, oral alimentation performance in group 1 was significantly better than in group 3, and groups 1 and 2 achieved a similar level. In patients with T3 and T4 tumors postoperative function was poor and no difference in postoperative function was demonstrated between patients undergoing reconstruction with primary closure and patients undergoing reconstruction with deltopectoral or pectoralis major flaps. Patients with T3 and T4 tumors experienced impaired postoperative function regardless of the method of reconstruction used. This is not a condemnation of the surgical treatment of advanced pharyngeal tumors, but rather a suggestion that other reconstruction techniques be considered.

  18. [An influence of fungi spores consumption with food on intestinal microflora in rats].

    PubMed

    Batishcheva, S Iu; Kuznetsova, G G; Bykova, I B; Efimochkina, N R; Sheveleva, S A

    2009-01-01

    In experiments in rats it is set, that peroral introduction with the feed of mould spores in a doze 10(3) CFU/g results in a disbalance of microbiocenosis of intestine. It shows up violation of localization of bifido- and enterobacteria and their increased growth in a small intestine. Thus, also antagonistic activity of an aerobic component of microflora is reduced and frequency of detection of potential-pathogenic types of enterobacteriaceae is increased. Entering of fungi spores at a dose 10(6) CFU level is accompanied by more expressed infringements of aerobic populations of intestinal microflora in rats.

  19. An investigation into the microflora of heroin.

    PubMed

    McLauchlin, J; Mithani, V; Bolton, F J; Nichols, G L; Bellis, M A; Syed, Q; Thomson, R P M; Ashton, J R

    2002-11-01

    In 2000, an unusual increase of morbidity and mortality among illegal injecting drug users in the UK and Ireland was reported and Clostridium novyi was identified as the likely source of the serious infection, although infections due to C. botulinum and Bacillus cereus were also reported. Because heroin was a possibile source of infection, this study investigated the microflora of heroin samples seized in England during 2000 and 2002. Two methods were developed for the examination of the microflora of heroin. The first consisted of suspension of the drug in maximum recovery diluent (MRD) which was inoculated directly into Clostridium Botulinum Isolation Cooked Meat Broth (CBI). The second method rendered the heroin soluble in citric acid, concentrated particulate material (and bacterial cells) by filtration and removed heroin residues by washing with citric acid and phosphate-buffered saline before placing the filter in CBI broth. Duplicate CBI broths from both methods were incubated without heating and after heating at 60 degrees C for 30 min. Subcultures were made after incubation for 7 and 14 days on to eight different solid media. The methods were evaluated with heroin samples spiked with either C. botulinum or C. novyi spore suspensions; recovery of 10 spores in the original sample was demonstrated. Fifty-eight heroin samples were tested by citric acid solubilisation and 34 by the MRD suspension technique. Fifteen different gram-positive species of four genera were recognised. No fungi were isolated. Aerobic endospore-forming bacteria (Bacillus spp. and Paenibacillus macerans) were the predominant microflora isolated and at least one species was isolated from each sample. B. cereus was the most common species and was isolated from 95% of all samples, with B. licheniformis isolated from 40%. Between one and five samples yielded cultures of B. coagulans, B. laterosporus, B. pumilus, B. subtilis and P. macerans. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 23 (40

  20. [Is streptococcal pharyngitis diagnosis possible?].

    PubMed

    Marín Cañada, Jaime; Cubillo Serna, Ana; Gómez-Escalonilla Cruz, Nieves; Garzón de la Iglesia, Jesús; Benito Ortiz, Luis; Reyes Fernández, M Nieves

    2007-07-01

    To determine the validity of the Centor score (cervical adenopathy, tonsillar exudate, fever, and absence of catarrh symptoms) in diagnosing streptococcal pharyngitis (gold standard: throat swab). Descriptive study. San Fernando 2 Health Centre, Madrid (outer urban area), Spain. On hundred forty patients over 14 years old who had a "sore throat" as main symptom and attended clinic between 14 February and 12 May, 2005. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and the probability quotients of the Centor score were determined. Pharyngeal throat culture was used as the reference method. Thirty four patients had positive throat culture (24.3%; 95% CI, 17.6%-32.4%). Finding the 4 criteria in the Centor score had a positive predictive value (PPV) of 48.1% (95% CI, 30.7%-66.0%) and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 81.4% (95% CI, 73.3%-87.5%); although only fever (OR, 3.64; 95% CI, 1.40-9.49) and tonsillar exudate (OR, 6.18; 95% CI, 2.08-18.35) were linked to streptococcal aetiology. The high NPV and specificity of the clinical score makes the diagnosis of non-streptococcal pharyngitis very accurate. However, the PPV is low: a high Centor score (3 or 4 criteria) does not mean streptococcal pharyngitis with certainty. What approach to take with patients suspected of streptococcal pharyngitis is not yet resolved (microbiological test, early antibiotic, or postponed antibiotic).

  1. Synergistic effect of ionizing radiation on chemical disinfectant treatments for reduction of natural microflora on seafood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyunjoo; Ha, Ji-Hyoung; Lee, Ju-Woon; Jo, Cheorun; Ha, Sang-Do

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether combined treatments would produce synergistic disinfection effects on seafood products such as mussel and squid compared with single treatments. We investigated the bactericidal effects of chlorine and ionizing radiation on the natural microflora of mussel and squid. Total aerobic bacteria initially ranged from 102 to 104 Log CFU/g. More than 100 ppm of chlorine and irradiation at 1 kGy were sufficient to reduce the total aerobic bacteria on mussel and squid to a level lower than detection limit (10 CFU/g). Synergistic effects against natural microflora were observed for all combined treatment. These results suggest that a significant synergistic benefit results from combine chlorine-ionizing radiation treatment against natural microflora on mussel and squid.

  2. Stool microflora in extremely low birthweight infants

    PubMed Central

    Gewolb, I.; Schwalbe, R.; Taciak, V.; Harrison, T.; Panigrahi, P.

    1999-01-01

    AIM—To serially characterise aerobic and anaerobic stool microflora in extremely low birthweight infants and to correlate colonisation patterns with clinical risk factors.
METHODS—Stool specimens from 29 infants of birthweight <1000 g were collected on days 10, 20, and 30 after birth. Quantitative aerobic and anaerobic cultures were performed.
RESULTS—By day 30, predominant species were Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterbacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus haemolyticus. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria spp were identified in only one infant. In breast milk fed (but not in formula fed) infants, the total number of bacterial species/stool specimen increased significantly with time (2.50 (SE 0.34) on day 10; 3.13 (0.38) on day 20; 4.27 (0.45) on day 30) as did quantitative bacterial counts; Gram negative species accounted for most of the increase. On day 30, significant inverse correlations were found between days of previous antibiotic treatment and number of bacterial species (r=0.491) and total organisms/g of stool (r=0.482). Gestational age, birthweight, maternal antibiotic or steroid treatment, prolonged rupture of the membranes, and mode of delivery did not seem to affect colonisation patterns.
CONCLUSIONS—The gut of extremely low birthweight infants is colonised by a paucity of bacterial species. Breast milking and reduction of antibiotic exposure are critical to increasing fecal microbial diversity.

 PMID:10212075

  3. Common Questions About Streptococcal Pharyngitis.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Monica G; Higgins, Kim E; Perez, Evan D

    2016-07-01

    Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infection causes 15% to 30% of sore throats in children and 5% to 15% in adults, and is more common in the late winter and early spring. The strongest independent predictors of GABHS pharyngitis are patient age of five to 15 years, absence of cough, tender anterior cervical adenopathy, tonsillar exudates, and fever. To diagnose GABHS pharyngitis, a rapid antigen detection test should be ordered in patients with a modified Centor or FeverPAIN score of 2 or 3. First-line treatment for GABHS pharyngitis includes a 10-day course of penicillin or amoxicillin. Patients allergic to penicillin can be treated with firstgeneration cephalosporins, clindamycin, or macrolide antibiotics. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are more effective than acetaminophen and placebo for treatment of fever and pain associated with GABHS pharyngitis; medicated throat lozenges used every two hours are also effective. Corticosteroids provide only a small reduction in the duration of symptoms and should not be used routinely.

  4. Intestinal microflora and metabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Serino, M; Luche, E; Chabo, C; Amar, J; Burcelin, R

    2009-09-01

    Recent advances in molecular sequencing technology have allowed researchers to answer major questions regarding the relationship between a vast genomic diversity-such as found in the intestinal microflora-and host physiology. Over the past few years, it has been established that, in obesity, type 1 diabetes and Crohn's disease-to cite but a few-the intestinal microflora play a pathophysiological role and can induce, transfer or prevent the outcome of such conditions. A few of the molecular vectors responsible for this regulatory role have been determined. Some are related to control of the immune, vascular, endocrine and nervous systems located in the intestines. However, more important is the fact that the intestinal microflora-to-host relationship is bidirectional, with evidence of an impact of the host genome on the intestinal microbiome. This means that the ecology shared by the host and gut microflora should now be considered a new player that can be manipulated, using pharmacological and nutritional approaches, to control physiological functions and pathological outcomes. What now remains is to demonstrate the molecular connection between the intestinal microflora and metabolic diseases. We propose here that the proinflammatory lipopolysaccharides play a causal role in the onset of metabolic disorders.

  5. Pharyngeal satellite cells undergo myogenesis under basal conditions and are required for pharyngeal muscle maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Randolph, Matthew E.; Phillips, Brittany L.; Choo, Hyo-Jung; Vest, Katherine E.; Vera, Yandery; Pavlath, Grace K.

    2015-01-01

    The pharyngeal muscles of the nasal, oral, and laryngeal pharynxes are required for swallowing. Pharyngeal muscles are preferentially affected in some muscular dystrophies yet spared in others. Muscle stem cells, called satellite cells, may be critical factors in the development of pharyngeal muscle disorders; however, very little is known about pharyngeal satellite cells (PSC) and their role in pharyngeal muscles. We show that PSC are distinct from the commonly studied hindlimb satellite cells both transcriptionally and biologically. Under basal conditions PSC proliferate, progress through myogenesis, and fuse with pharyngeal myofibers. Furthermore, PSC exhibit biologic differences dependent on anatomic location in the pharynx. Importantly, PSC are required to maintain myofiber size and myonuclear number in pharyngeal myofibers. Together, these results demonstrate that PSC are critical for pharyngeal muscle maintenance and suggest that satellite cell impairment could contribute to pharyngeal muscle pathology associated with various muscular dystrophies and aging. PMID:26178867

  6. Pharyngeal Satellite Cells Undergo Myogenesis Under Basal Conditions and Are Required for Pharyngeal Muscle Maintenance.

    PubMed

    Randolph, Matthew E; Phillips, Brittany L; Choo, Hyo-Jung; Vest, Katherine E; Vera, Yandery; Pavlath, Grace K

    2015-12-01

    The pharyngeal muscles of the nasal, oral, and laryngeal pharynxes are required for swallowing. Pharyngeal muscles are preferentially affected in some muscular dystrophies yet spared in others. Muscle stem cells, called satellite cells, may be critical factors in the development of pharyngeal muscle disorders; however, very little is known about pharyngeal satellite cells (PSC) and their role in pharyngeal muscles. We show that PSC are distinct from the commonly studied hindlimb satellite cells both transcriptionally and biologically. Under basal conditions PSC proliferate, progress through myogenesis, and fuse with pharyngeal myofibers. Furthermore, PSC exhibit biologic differences dependent on anatomic location in the pharynx. Importantly, PSC are required to maintain myofiber size and myonuclear number in pharyngeal myofibers. Together, these results demonstrate that PSC are critical for pharyngeal muscle maintenance and suggest that satellite cell impairment could contribute to pharyngeal muscle pathology associated with various muscular dystrophies and aging.

  7. [Analysis of oral microflora early colonized in infants].

    PubMed

    Zou, Jing; Zhou, Xue-dong; Li, Shao-min

    2004-04-01

    To observe the dynamic changes of oral microflora early colonized in infants. The oral swab samples for the study were taken in 1 day, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 months after birth from 12 healthy neonates. By choosing suitable diluted concentration, the samples were incubated aerobically, facultative anaerobically and anaerobically. The strains were identified by observing colony characteristics, Gram staining and biochemical tests. S. salivarius was the most frequent microflora, followed by S. mitis, S. sanguis, S. gordonii and S. mutans occurred in oral cavity after tooth eruption. Veillonella spp. can be detected in oral cavity of 1-month-old babies, A. odontolyticus was isolated from 8.3% infants of more than 3 months old. L. acidophilus maintained the lower prevalence in oral cavity of babies. Leptotrichia buccalis and Capnocytophaga spp. occurred in oral cavity of some dentate infants. S. solivarius and S. mitis are predominant species in oral cavity of the infants, Veillonella spp. is the first and the most anaerobic species appeared in oral cavity of healthy babies. A. odontolyticus is the first actinomyces detected in oral cavity. With the increasing months, kind and amount of microflora increase dramatically.

  8. Development and Evolution of the Pharyngeal Apparatus

    PubMed Central

    Frisdal, Aude; Trainor, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    The oral or pharyngeal apparatus facilitates the dual functions of respiration and feeding. It develops during embryogenesis from transient structures called pharyngeal arches, which comprise a reiterated series of outgrowths on the lateral side of the head. The pharyngeal arches and their segmental arrangement are highly conserved throughout evolution from invertebrate chordates such as amphioxus, through to vertebrate agnathans including avians, squamates and mammals. The structural organization of the pharyngeal arches is also highly conserved and involves contributions from each of the three primary endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm germ layers. The endoderm is particularly important for pharyngeal arch formation and segmentation and also plays a critical role in tissue specific differentiation. The ectoderm gives rise to neural crest cells (NCC) which provides an additional layer of complexity to pharyngeal arch development and differentiation in vertebrates compared to invertebrate chordates that do not possess NCC. Collectively the pharyngeal arches give rise to much of the neurovasculature and musculoskeletal systems in the head and neck. The complexity of development renders the pharyngeal apparatus prone to perturbation and subsequently the pathogenesis of birth defects. Hence it is important to understand the signals and mechanisms that govern the development and evolution of the pharyngeal complex. PMID:25176500

  9. The IPA Categories "Pharyngeal" and "Epiglottal": Laryngoscopic Observations of Pharyngeal Articulations and Larynx Height.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esling, John H.

    1999-01-01

    Reexamines the sounds produced at the pharyngeal place of articulation to review the linguistic phonetic realizations of sounds that have been labeled "pharyngeal" and those that have been labeled "epiglottal," and to investigate the production of a series of pharyngeal sounds under conditions of larynx raising and larynx…

  10. The IPA Categories "Pharyngeal" and "Epiglottal": Laryngoscopic Observations of Pharyngeal Articulations and Larynx Height.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esling, John H.

    1999-01-01

    Reexamines the sounds produced at the pharyngeal place of articulation to review the linguistic phonetic realizations of sounds that have been labeled "pharyngeal" and those that have been labeled "epiglottal," and to investigate the production of a series of pharyngeal sounds under conditions of larynx raising and larynx…

  11. Feline gingivitis-stomatitis-pharyngitis.

    PubMed

    Diehl, K; Rosychuk, R A

    1993-01-01

    Inflammatory conditions of the feline mouth are commonly encountered in small animal practice. Although the majority can be attributed to dental disease and a small percentage are due to autoimmune diseases, the eosinophilic granuloma complex, neoplasia, and other miscellaneous syndromes, many cases appear to be due to a gingivitis-stomatitis-pharyngitis complex, which is likely multifactorial in origin. Viruses, bacterial infection, diet, dental disease, oral conformation, genetic predisposition, hypersensitivities, immunoinsufficiencies, and other defects in oral defense mechanisms may all be contributory. The complexities of this syndrome have made it one of the most challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problems in feline medicine.

  12. Microflora of Barley Kernels1

    PubMed Central

    Follstad, M. N.; Christensen, C. M.

    1962-01-01

    Numbers and kinds of microflora were determined in 160 samples of barley grown in different regions of the United States; microflora were more abundant in the grains grown in the central states than in those grown in the western states. During steeping and germination in micromalting equipment, the number of colonies of filamentous fungi increased from two to five times, colonies of yeasts from five to ten times, and bacteria from 50 to more than 100 times the numbers present in the grain before malting. Kiln drying according to a commercial schedule reduced the number of all types of microflora below the number present before kilning, but all were present in larger numbers in the kilned malt than in the original grain. In barley stored at room temperature and at a moisture content of 15 to 18%, members of the Aspergillus glaucus group increased with increasing time and increasing moisture content, and germination percentage of the seeds decreased. Stored free of storage fungi at room temperature, barley with a moisture content just over 15% retained a high germination percentage for 5 months, but at a moisture content of 16% the germination decreased to zero. PMID:13893856

  13. Effect of different holding regimens on the intestinal microflora of herring (Clupea harengus) larvae.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, G H; Strøm, E; Olafsen, J A

    1992-01-01

    The aerobic intestinal microflora of 2-week-old herring (Clupea harengus) larvae was characterized by using conventional microbiological methods and electron microscopy. Larvae were hatched and kept in filtered seawater or in seawater with penicillin and streptomycin. The gastrointestinal tract of herring larvae is essentially a straight tube divided into two compartments. Light microscopy revealed bacteria present in a progressively increasing amount throughout the length of the gastrointestinal tract from esophagus to anus. The posterior region of the intestinal lumen appeared completely occluded with bacteria. The intestinal microflora consisted mainly of members of the genera Pseudomonas and Alteromonas in the larvae incubated in filtered seawater, whereas Flavobacterium spp. dominated in larvae exposed to antibiotics. The intestinal microflora of untreated fish larvae was sensitive to all tested antibiotics, whereas multiple resistance was found in the intestinal microflora of the group given antibiotics. Thus, a dramatic change in the microflora resulted from incubation with antibiotics. Nonpigmented yeasts were detected in both larval groups. Ciliated epithelial cells were observed in the midgut, probably propeling bacteria towards the hindgut, where endocytosis of bacteria has been demonstrated. These findings suggest that transport and sequestering mechanisms resembling those of invertebrates may be found in the gut of fish larvae. The possible significance for larval health and nutrition is discussed. Images PMID:1610170

  14. Foodborne outbreak of group G streptococcal pharyngitis.

    PubMed

    Stryker, W S; Fraser, D W; Facklam, R R

    1982-09-01

    An outbreak of pharyngitis associated with beta-hemolytic streptococci of Lancefield group G occurred among persons who had attended a convention that was held June 21-24, 1979, in a Florida hotel. Seventy-two (31 per cent) of 231 interviewed conventioneers were ill. Group G streptococci were isolated from the throats of 10 (63 per cent) of 16 persons with pharyngitis and 1 (2 per cent) of 41 persons without pharyngitis (p less than 10(-5)). Antistreptolysin O titers in convalescent-phase serum samples from persons with pharyngitis were significantly higher than those from age-matched controls. Fifty-seven (51 per cent) of 111 conventioneers who had attended a convention luncheon developed pharyngitis compared with 12 (10 per cent) of 117 persons who did not (p less than 10(-9)). All persons who had attended the luncheon and had become ill had eaten a chicken salad served at the luncheon. Their median incubation period was two days. The cook who had prepared this chicken salad developed pharyngitis after the luncheon and had a throat culture positive for group G streptococci. No instances of rheumatic fever were identified and secondary illness in household contracts was rare. This outbreak indicates that group G streptococci can cause outbreaks of pharyngitis similar to those caused by group A streptococci and suggests that penicillin therapy and prophylaxis may not be needed.

  15. Impedance signature of pharyngeal gaseous reflux.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Osamu; Bajaj, Shailesh; Aslam, Muhammad; Hofmann, Candy; Rittmann, Tanya; Shaker, Reza

    2007-01-01

    Pharyngeal impedance changes induced by various pharyngeal reflux events have not been characterized. To characterize pharyngeal impedance changes induced by participant-perceived belching events. We systematically evaluated pharyngeal impedance and pH changes related to 453 belch events in 11 gastroesophageal reflux disease, 10 reflux attributed-laryngitis patients and 16 controls. Of 453 belch events, 362 were analyzable. Of these, 72% occurred within 10 s, 93% within 20 s, 99% within 30 s and 100% within 40 s of the time that participants marked a belch event. In 15% impedance changes in the pharynx preceded, in 12% they were simultaneous and in 73% they occurred after the start of the impedance change in the proximal esophagus. Time interval between the two events ranged between 0.4+/-0.03 and 0.7+/-0.1 s. In all, there were three types of belch-induced impedance changes: (a) impedance increase, (b) impedance decrease and (c) multiphasic. Twenty percent of impedance events associated with belching had less than 50% change from baseline, whereas in 51% changes exceeded or were equal to 50%. Among events with a drop in pharyngeal impedance, only two satisfied the criteria for the liquid reflux event. Pharyngeal ventilation of gastric gaseous content seems to have a unique impedance signature. During pharyngeal gas reflux events, impedance changes may start before or after proximal esophageal changes. Belching may induce negative pharyngeal changes that do not meet the criteria for liquid reflux. These findings need to be taken into consideration in the analysis of pharyngeal reflux events.

  16. [DEFINITION OF WOMEN REPRODUCTIVE TRACT MICROFLORA COMPOSITION USING TEST-SYSTEM "FEMOFLOR-17"].

    PubMed

    Sklyar, T V; Krysenko, O V; Voronkova, O S; Papiashvili, M G; Vinnikov, A I

    2015-01-01

    The data about composition of the vaginal microflora of women with use of the test system "Femoflor-17" was analyzed. Established that 92.7% of samples contained lactobacilli. For quantitaty of lactobacilli vaginal flora characterized as normobiosis. The dysbiosis in the background detection of mycoplasma, ureaplasma and yeast of genus Candida identified for 38.2% of the samples. Mycoplasma, ureaplasma and candida as monoinfection detected in 71% of cases and as an association of two pathogens in 29% of cases. In establishing compliance obtained by the test system "Femoflor-17" results to clinical and bacteriological markers of vaginal dysbiosis characterized as moderate anaerobic dysbiosis--6% of the samples, moderate aerobic dysbiosis--10%, moderate anaerobic-aerobic dysbiosis--35%, pronounced anaerobic dysbiosis--12% of the samples, expressed aerobic dysbiosis--10%, anaerobic-aerobic expressed dysbiosis--27% of the samples. Showing dominance of obligate anaerobic microorganisms associations among other microorganisms.

  17. Velo-pharyngeal dysfunction: Evaluation and management

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Jeffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Separation of the nasal and oral cavities by dynamic closure of the velo-pharyngeal port is necessary for normal speech and swallowing. Velo-pharyngeal dysfunction (VPD) may either follow repair of a cleft palate or be independent of clefting. While the diagnosis of VPD is made by audiologic perceptual evaluation of speech, identification of the mechanism of the dysfunction requires instrumental visualization of the velo-pharyngeal port during specific speech tasks. Matching the specific intervention for management of VPD with the type of dysfunction, i.e. differential management for differential diagnosis, maximizes the result while minimizing the morbidity of the intervention. PMID:19884668

  18. Isolation and characterization of the microflora of nixtamalized corn masa.

    PubMed

    Adolphson, Stephen J; Dunn, Michael L; Jefferies, Laura K; Steele, Frost M

    2013-08-01

    Corn tortillas are a staple in the diet among the Mexican population, and are traditionally produced through a process known as nixtamalization. This traditional process involves steeping whole-kernel corn in an alkaline solution overnight and then grinding the corn into dough (masa), which is then baked. While the masa is held before baking, significant microbial change can occur which leads to fermentation and spoilage. The objective of this research was to characterize and identify the microflora of nixtamalized corn masa from six different commercial tortilla mills throughout Guadalajara, Mexico. The identification of samples was conducted using the microbial identification system (MIS), which analyzes cellular fatty acids via gas chromatography to identify bacterial species. Lactic acid bacteria and aerobic mesophiles were the predominant organisms, with both groups having counts ranging from 10(4) to 10(7)cfu/g across all mills. Coliform populations were observed at counts of 10(2) to 10(3)cfu/g, while yeast and mold counts were typically less than 10(1)cfu/g. Some mills showed no presence of coliforms or yeast or mold. Streptococcus bovis and Lactobacillus oris were isolated from all mills, and were the most prevalent organisms representing 43% and 17% of all lactic acid bacteria isolated, respectively. S. bovis was also isolated on the aerobic tryptic soy plates and was the most prevalent species representing 19% of the total organisms from these aerobic plates.

  19. Influence of contraceptive choice on vaginal bacterial and fungal microflora.

    PubMed

    Donders, G; Bellen, G; Janssens, D; Van Bulck, B; Hinoul, P; Verguts, J

    2017-01-01

    The influence of contraception on vaginal microflora can have a major impact on the risk of developing acute or recurrent vaginal infections, but also may influence the risk of acquiring sexually transmissible infections (STI) such as HIV. A cohort of 248 women presenting for levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) insertion or reinsertion were stratified according to their current contraceptive method. Information concerning their menstrual pattern and data about the medical history were collected. The composition of their vaginal microflora was studied by detailed phase contrast microscopy of fresh vaginal fluid, and aerobic cultures were taken to detect enteric bacterial growth and fungal colonisation. LNG-IUS and progesterone-only-pill (POP) users had significantly lower blood loss (p < 0.001) than other women. Regardless of the type of contraception used, all women reported similar rates of symptomatic lower genital tract infection during the preceding year. Women using combined oral contraception (COC) and long-term LNG-IUS had the same bacterial composition of vaginal microflora as non-contraceptive users, even when infections were combined. Both hormonal and non-hormonal intrauterine device users had an increased tendency to have more vaginal colonisation with Candida. Women on POPs or subcutaneous implants had a tendency towards increased vaginal atrophy, but had a lower Candida carriage rate compared to IUCD users (LNG-IUS and Copper-IUCD, p = 0.037). Women with an increased risk of acquiring STIs or recurrent BV could benefit from LNG-IUS or COC due to a well-preserved vaginal bacterial flora. Women with a susceptibility for RVVC should prefer POPs, and avoid intrauterine contraception.

  20. Beryllium concentration in pharyngeal tonsils in children.

    PubMed

    Nogaj, Ewa; Kwapulinski, Jerzy; Misiołek, Maciej; Golusiński, Wojciech; Kowol, Jolanta; Wiechuła, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    Power plant dust is believed to be the main source of the increased presence of the element beryllium in the environment which has been detected in the atmospheric air, surface waters, groundwater, soil, food, and cigarette smoke. In humans, beryllium absorption occurs mainly via the respiratory system. The pharyngeal tonsils are located on the roof of the nasopharynx and are in direct contact with dust particles in inhaled air. As a result, the concentration levels of beryllium in the pharyngeal tonsils are likely to be a good indicator of concentration levels in the air. The presented study had two primary aims: to investigate the beryllium concentration in pharyngeal tonsils in children living in southern Poland, and the appropriate reference range for this element in children's pharyngeal tonsils. Pharyngeal tonsils were extracted from a total of 379 children (age 2-17 years, mean 6.2 ± 2.7 years) living in southern Poland. Tonsil samples were mineralized in a closed cycle in a pressure mineralizer PDS 6, using 65% spectrally pure nitric acid. Beryllium concentration was determined using the ICP-AES method with a Perkin Elmer Optima 5300DVTM. The software Statistica v. 9 was used for the statistical analysis. It was found that girls had a significantly greater beryllium concentration in their pharyngeal tonsils than boys. Beryllium concentration varies greatly, mostly according to the place of residence. Based on the study results, the reference value for beryllium in pharyngeal tonsils of children is recommended to be determined at 0.02-0.04 µg/g.

  1. Pharyngeal Swallowing Mechanics Secondary to Hemispheric Stroke.

    PubMed

    May, Nelson H; Pisegna, Jessica M; Marchina, Sarah; Langmore, Susan E; Kumar, Sandeep; Pearson, William G

    2017-05-01

    Computational analysis of swallowing mechanics (CASM) is a method that utilizes multivariate shape change analysis to uncover covariant elements of pharyngeal swallowing mechanics associated with impairment using videofluoroscopic swallowing studies. The goals of this preliminary study were to (1) characterize swallowing mechanics underlying stroke-related dysphagia, (2) decipher the impact of left and right hemispheric strokes on pharyngeal swallowing mechanics, and (3) determine pharyngeal swallowing mechanics associated with penetration-aspiration status. Videofluoroscopic swallowing studies of 18 dysphagic patients with hemispheric infarcts and age- and gender-matched controls were selected from well-controlled data sets. Patient data including laterality and penetration-aspiration status were collected. Coordinates mapping muscle group action during swallowing were collected from videos. Multivariate morphometric analyses of coordinates associated with stroke, affected hemisphere, and penetration-aspiration status were performed. Pharyngeal swallowing mechanics differed significantly in the following comparisons: stroke versus controls (D = 2.19, P < .0001), right hemispheric stroke versus controls (D = 3.64, P < .0001), left hemispheric stroke versus controls (D = 2.06, P < .0001), right hemispheric stroke versus left hemispheric stroke (D = 2.89, P < .0001), and penetration-aspiration versus within normal limits (D = 2.25, P < .0001). Differences in pharyngeal swallowing mechanics associated with each comparison were visualized using eigenvectors. Whereas current literature focuses on timing changes in stroke-related dysphagia, these data suggest that mechanical changes are also functionally important. Pharyngeal swallowing mechanics differed by the affected hemisphere and the penetration-aspiration status. CASM can be used to identify patient-specific swallowing impairment associated with stroke injury that could help

  2. Comparison of the fecal microflora of Seventh-Day Adventists with individuals consuming a general diet. Implications concerning colonic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, M J; Smith, J W; Nichols, R L

    1977-07-01

    Qualitative and quantitative fecal microflora was studied in a double blind fashion in 28 subjects. Fourteen were Seventh-Day Adventists, who were strict vegetarians, while the remaining 14 subjects were individuals consuming a general western diet. No statistically significant differences were identified in the fecal microflora of the two groups. The bacteriologic analysis included total aerobes and total anaerobes as well as each of the major fecal aerobes and anaerobes. This study seems to indicate that the dietary intake of animal fat and protein does not significantly alter the fecal microflora, a possibility which has previously been suggested as being part of the explanation for the higher incidence of colonic carcinoma in those who consume meat compared with vegetarians. It does not, however, invalidate the concept that dietary animal fat does increase bile acid degradation within the gastrointestinal tract, a factor which has been related to colon cancer. Future studies should be directed at identifying the factors that may be present in the gastrointestinal tracts of vegetarians which modify the ability of their colonic microflora to degrade bile acids, an essential step in the production of intraluminal carcinogens or co-carcinogens.

  3. Fecal Microflora in Healthy Persons in a Preindustrial Region

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Leonardo J.; Carrillo, Celina; Villatoro, Elba

    1969-01-01

    Procedures for quantitating the fecal microflora of man were described. Special attention was given to criteria for characterizing the culturable aerobic, Micro-aerophilic, and anaerobic bacteria. Three groups of healthy persons were studied: wholly breast—fed infants (2 to 4 month-olds), weanlings (1 to 2 year-olds), and adults. In breast-fed children, bifidobacteria predominate and outnumber by one or several logs all other culturable bacteria. The fecal flora of wholly breast-fed infants is “simpler” and more numerous [1011 to 1012 per g (wet weight) of feces than that of the adult 102 to 1011 per g]. In the adult, gram-negative anaerobic bacilli (bacteroides) outnumber all other groups by a factor of 1 log or more. Weanlings receiving an adult-type diet, but still breast-fed, showed a flora intermediate between that of the wholly breast-fed infant and that of the adult, but more similar to the latter. Anaerobes always constitute the predominant component of the culturable flora of children and adults and are always found in large numbers under conditions of health. The aerobes are significantly less numerous, and vary widely in their number and in the frequency with which they appear in feces. PMID:4890749

  4. Aerobic Tennis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Michael J.; Ahlschwede, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Increasing the aerobic nature of tennis drills in the physical education class may be necessary if tennis is to remain a part of the public school curriculum. This article gives two examples of drills that can be modified by teachers to increase activity level. (IAH)

  5. How the pharyngeal resonator is controlled articulatorily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esling, John H.

    2005-04-01

    Indigenous languages of North America, especially west coast Vancouver Island Nuuchahnulth and Interior BC Salish, illustrate an extensive range of use of the pharyngeal resonator. The pharynx is classified as part of the laryngeal articulator (rather than lingual) because the laryngeal constrictor mechanism (controlling changes from the glottis to the aryepiglottic folds) is the principal articulator whose movements determine the shape of the pharynx. The Nuuchahnulth (Nootka) dialects (e.g., Ahousaht) and Thompson, Moses-Columbia, and Spokane/Kalispel Salish varieties all close the larynx completely for the speech sound epiglottal stop. With the airway optimally shut, the pharynx is small; the aryepiglottic folds are pressed against the epiglottic tubercle, the tongue is retracted, and the larynx is raised. There are good indications that the thyroarytenoid, aryepiglottic, thyroepiglottic, hyoglossus and hyothyroid muscles participate in this buckling maneuvre. These languages also contain either a pharyngeal fricative or approximant (at the same place of articulation but with less stricture) and, in Thompson, also pharyngealized uvulars (with even less stricture). Pharyngeal resonance in all of these cases is dependent initially on the shortening of the supraglottic tube and subsequently on the combined effect of tongue retraction and larynx raising reducing the volume immediately above the supraglottic tube.

  6. Altered Pharyngeal Muscles in Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Liancai; Sobotka, Stanislaw; Chen, Jingming; Su, Hungxi; Sanders, Ira; Adler, Charles H.; Shill, Holly A.; Caviness, John N.; Samanta, Johan E.; Beach, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Dysphagia (impaired swallowing) is common in Parkinson disease (PD) patients and is related to aspiration pneumonia, the primary cause of death in PD. Therapies that ameliorate the limb motor symptoms of PD are ineffective for dysphagia. This suggests that the pathophysiology of PD dysphagia may differ from that affecting limb muscles but little is known about potential neuromuscular abnormalities in the swallowing muscles in PD. This study examined the fiber histochemistry of pharyngeal constrictor (PC) and cricopharyngeal (CP) sphincter muscles in postmortem specimens from 8 PD and 4 age-matched control patients. Pharyngeal muscles in PD patients exhibited many atrophic fibers, fiber type grouping, and fast-to-slow myosin heavy chain transformation. These alterations indicate that the pharyngeal muscles experienced neural degeneration and regeneration over the course of PD. Notably, the PD patients with dysphagia had a higher percentage of atrophic myofibers vs. with those without dysphagia and controls. The fast-to-slow fiber type transition is consistent with abnormalities in swallowing, slow movement of food and increased tone in the CP sphincter in PD patients. The alterations in the pharyngeal muscles may play a pathogenic role in the development of dysphagia in PD patients. PMID:22588389

  7. Streptococcal pharyngitis in schoolchildren in Bamako, Mali.

    PubMed

    Tapia, Milagritos D; Sow, Samba O; Tamboura, Boubou; Keita, Mahamadou M; Berthe, Abdoulaye; Samake, Mariam; Nataro, James P; Onwuchekwa, Uma O; Penfound, Thomas A; Blackwelder, William; Dale, James B; Kotloff, Karen L

    2015-05-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) pharyngitis is associated with high rates of rheumatic heart disease in developing countries. We sought to identify guidelines for empiric treatment of pharyngitis in low-resource settings. To inform the design of GAS vaccines, we determined the emm types associated with pharyngitis among African schoolchildren. Surveillance for pharyngitis was conducted among children 5-16 years of age attending schools in Bamako, Mali. Students were encouraged to visit a study clinician when they had a sore throat. Enrollees underwent evaluation and throat swab for isolation of GAS. Strains were emm typed by standard methods. GAS was isolated from 449 (25.5%) of the 1,759 sore throat episodes. Painful cervical adenopathy was identified in 403 children (89.8%) with GAS infection and was absent in 369 uninfected children (28.2%). Emm type was determined in 396 (88.2%) of the 449 culture-positive children; 70 types were represented and 14 types accounted for 49% of isolates. Based on the proportion of the 449 isolates bearing emm types included in the 30-valent vaccine (31.0%) plus nonvaccine types previously shown to react to vaccine-induced bactericidal antibodies (44.1%), the vaccine could protect against almost 75% of GAS infections among Bamako schoolchildren. Two promising strategies could reduce rheumatic heart disease in low-resource settings. Administering antibiotics to children with sore throat and tender cervical adenopathy could treat most GAS-positive children while reducing use of unnecessary antibiotics for uninfected children. Broad coverage against M types associated with pharyngitis in Bamako schoolchildren might be achieved with the 30-valent GAS vaccine under development.

  8. Streptococcal Pharyngitis in Schoolchildren in Bamako, Mali

    PubMed Central

    Tapia, Milagritos D.; Sow, Samba O.; Tamboura, Boubou; Keita, Mahamadou M.; Berthe, Abdoulaye; Samake, Mariam; Nataro, James P.; Onwuchekwa, Uma O.; Penfound, Thomas A.; Blackwelder, William; Dale, James B.; Kotloff, Karen L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Group A streptococcus (GAS) pharyngitis is associated with high rates of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in developing countries. We sought to identify guidelines for empiric treatment of pharyngitis in low resource settings. To inform the design of GAS vaccines, we determined the emm types associated with pharyngitis among African schoolchildren. Methods Surveillance for pharyngitis was conducted among children 5 to 16 years of age attending schools in Bamako, Mali. Students were encouraged to visit a study clinician when they had a sore throat. Enrollees underwent evaluation and throat swab for isolation of GAS. Strains were emm typed by standard methods. Results GAS was isolated from 449 (25.5%) of the 1,759 sore throat episodes. Painful cervical adenopathy identified 403 children (89.8%) with GAS infection and was absent in 369 uninfected children (28.2%). Emm type was determined in 396 (88.2%) of the 449 culture-positive children; 70 types were represented and 14 types accounted for 49% of isolates. Based on the proportion of the 449 isolates bearing emm types included in the 30-valent vaccine (31.0%) plus non-vaccine types previously shown to react to vaccine-induced bactericidal antibodies (44.1%), the vaccine could protect against almost 75% of GAS infections among Bamako schoolchildren. Conclusions Two promising strategies could reduce RHD in low resource settings. Administering antibiotics to children with sore throat and tender cervical adenopathy could treat most GAS-positive children while reducing use of unnecessary antibiotics for uninfected children. Broad coverage against M types associated with pharyngitis in Bamako schoolchildren might be achieved with the 30-valent GAS vaccine under development. PMID:25356953

  9. Peptides released from acid goat whey by a yeast-lactobacillus association isolated from cheese microflora.

    PubMed

    Didelot, Sandrine; Bordenave-Juchereau, Stephanie; Rosenfeld, Eric; Piot, Jean-Marie; Sannier, Frederic

    2006-05-01

    Seven lactobacilli and a variety of microflora extracted from twenty five commercial cheeses were grown on unsupplemented acid goat whey and screened for their capacity to hydrolyse whey proteins [alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-la) and beta-lactoglobulin (beta-lg)] and to generate peptides. Fermentations were performed aerobically or anaerobically at 37 degrees C using crude or pre-heated whey (10 min at 65, 75 or 85 degrees C). Under aerobic conditions, growth of lactobacilli was poor and protein hydrolysis did not occur. Anaerobic conditions slightly increased lactobacilli growth but neither beta-lg hydrolysis nor peptide generation were observed. More than 50% of alpha-la was digested into a truncated form of alpha-la (+/- 12 kDa) in crude whey and whey pre-heated at 65 degrees C. Twenty-five microflora extracted from raw milk cheeses were screened for their proteolytic activities on acid goat whey under the conditions previously described. Eight of them were able to hydrolyse up to 50% of alpha-la mainly during aerobic growth on crude or pre-heated whey. The corresponding hydrolysates were enriched in peptides. The hydrolysate involving microflora extracted from Comté cheese after or at 18 months ripening was the only one to exhibit hydrolysis of both alpha-la and beta-lg. Microbiological analysis showed that microorganisms originating from Comté cheese and capable of growth on unsupplemented whey consisted of Candida parapsilosis and Lactobacillus paracasei. Fermentation kinetic profiles suggested that peptides were released from alpha-la hydrolysis. The co-culture of both microorganisms was required for alpha-la hydrolysis that occurred concomitantly with the pH decrease. During whey fermentation, Cand. parapsilosis excrete at least one protease responsible for alpha-la hydrolysis, and Lb. paracasei is responsible for medium acidification that is required for protease activation.

  10. Bacterial microflora of the upper gastrointestinal tract in infants with protracted diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Challacombe, D. N.; Richardson, Judith M.; Rowe, B.; Anderson, Charlotte M.

    1974-01-01

    The aerobic and anaerobic bacterial microflora of the upper gastrointestinal tract in infants with protracted diarrhoea has been described and compared with a group of control infants without diarrhoea. The duodenal juice of patients with protracted diarrhoea was rarely sterile and was characterized by an increase in numbers and types of microorganisms and by the presence of coliforms, particularly Esch. coli. In individual patients the same serotypes of Esch. coli were found throughout the intestinal tract. The presence of Esch. coli in the upper small intestine may be as important to the aetiology of protracted diarrhoea as it is to acute diarrhoea. PMID:4598080

  11. Beta-haemolytic streptococci in acute pharyngitis.

    PubMed

    Boukadida, J; Hannechi, N; Boukadida, N; Ben Said, H; Elmherbech, H; Errai, S

    2003-01-01

    To determine the role and importance of beta-haemolytic streptococci in acute pharyngitis and its relative susceptibility to antibiotics, we cultured samples from 143 patients (age range: 3-72 years) who presented over a 5-month period in 2001 at three primary health care centres in Sousse, Tunisia. The cultures yielded 80 beta-haemolytic streptococci (59 group A streptococci and 21 non-group A streptococci). All strains were susceptible to benzylpenicillin, amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, rifampicin and pristinamycin. Susceptibility was variable in erythromycin, tetracycline, fosfomycin, telithromycin and levofloxacin. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined by E-test for penicillin, erythromycin and levofloxacin. Our results confirm that penicillin is still the reference treatment for acute pharyngitis. However, to minimize the potential for complications arising from its use, continued vigilance is required.

  12. Pulmonary Renal Syndrome After Streptococcal Pharyngitis

    PubMed Central

    Mara-Koosham, Gopi; Stoltze, Karl; Aday, Jeffrey; Rendon, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary renal syndrome is a class of small vessel vasculitides that are characterized by the dual presentation of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) and glomerulonephritis. Pulmonary renal syndrome has multiple etiologies, but its development has been rarely reported following infection with group A streptococcus. We present the case of a 36-year-old Native American male who was transferred to our facility due to refractory hypoxic respiratory failure. He had been diagnosed with streptococcal pharyngitis 2 weeks prior to admission. Given the presence of hemoptysis, bronchoscopy was performed and was consistent with DAH. Urinalysis demonstrated hematuria and proteinuria, in the setting of elevated creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Additionally, antistreptolysin O titer was positive. Given the constellation of laboratory findings and history of streptococcal pharyngitis, the patient was diagnosed with PRS secondary to streptococcal infection. High-dose methylprednisolone was initiated with concomitant plasmapheresis. He was extubated successfully after his respiratory status improved and was eventually discharged home after making a full recovery within 2 weeks after admission. This case illustrates the importance of clinically relevant sequelae of streptococcal infection as well as the appropriate treatment of PRS secondary to streptococcal pharyngitis with plasmapheresis and intravenous corticosteroids. PMID:27231692

  13. Pharyngeal pumping continues after laser killing of the pharyngeal nervous system of C. elegans

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, L.; Horvitz, H.R. )

    1989-10-01

    Using a laser microbeam to kill specific subsets of the pharyngeal nervous system of C. elegans, we found that feeding was accomplished by two separately controlled muscle motions, isthmus peristalsis and pumping. The single neuron M4 was necessary and sufficient for isthmus peristalsis. The MC neurons were necessary for normal stimulation of pumping in response to food, but pumping continued and was functional in MC- worms. The remaining 12 neuron types were also unnecessary for functional pumping. No operation we did, including destruction of the entire pharyngeal nervous system, abolished pumping altogether. When we killed all pharyngeal neurons except M4, the worms were viable and fertile, although retarded and starved. Since feeding is one of the few known essential actions controlled by the nervous system, we suggest that most of the C. elegans nervous system is dispensable in hermaphrodites under laboratory conditions. This may explain the ease with which nervous system mutants are isolated and handled in C. elegans.

  14. Relationship between posterior pharyngeal pouch and hiatus hernia

    PubMed Central

    Smiley, T. B.; Caves, P. K.; Porter, D. C.

    1970-01-01

    The formation of posterior pharyngeal pouches is generally attributed to dysfunction of the cricopharyngeal sphincter. The reason for this dysfunction and its exact nature have not been established. Observations in the Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast, suggested that an association exists between pharyngeal pouch and hiatus hernia. Barium studies performed in patients with a pharyngeal pouch using a described technique demonstrated the presence of a hiatus hernia in 32 out of 34 patients. Illustrative case histories and a review of published work on cricopharyngeal function are provided to support our conclusions that gastro-oesophageal reflux is the primary factor leading to cricopharyngeal dysfunction, with the formation of a pharyngeal pouch in some cases. Several possible criticisms of this theory are discussed and the need for further investigation in patients with a pharyngeal pouch is emphasized. The management of patients with a pharyngeal pouch and hiatus hernia is briefly outlined. Images PMID:5494681

  15. Morphological changes in development of pharyngeal teeth in Mylopharyngodon piceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Tsuneo; Yue, Pei-Qi

    1995-09-01

    Adult pharyngeal teeth in Mylopharyngodon piceus are molariform. Based on SEM observations of the developing teeth, this paper describes the morphological diversification of pharyngeal teeth in M. piceus. The larval and juvenile teeth are changed from conical to adult molariform teeth through seven stages. Comparisons are made between each stage and corresponding types in some species of different subfamilies in Cyprinidae. It is considered that the ontogenetic resemblances of the pharyngeal teeth bear relationship to the phylogeny of cyprinids.

  16. Similarity and Enhancement: Nasality from Moroccan Arabic Pharyngeals and Nasals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellou, Georgia Eve

    2012-01-01

    Experimental studies of the articulation, acoustics, and perception of nasal and pharyngeal consonants and adjacent vowels were conducted to investigate nasality in Moroccan Arabic (MA). The status of nasality in MA is described as coarticulatorily complex, where two phoneme types (pharyngeal segments and nasal segments) yield similar…

  17. Retrospective review of pharyngeal gonorrhea treatment failures in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gratrix, Jennifer; Bergman, Joshua; Egan, Cari; Drews, Steven J; Read, Ron; Singh, Ameeta E

    2013-11-01

    Our review of Neisseria gonorrhoeae pharyngeal treatment failures from sexually transmitted infection clinics in Alberta suggests that treatment failures with oral cefixime monotherapy were not related to elevated cefixime minimum inhibitory concentrations. Dual therapy with oral cefixime and azithromycin may be a suitable alternate for the treatment of pharyngeal gonorrhea.

  18. Similarity and Enhancement: Nasality from Moroccan Arabic Pharyngeals and Nasals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellou, Georgia Eve

    2012-01-01

    Experimental studies of the articulation, acoustics, and perception of nasal and pharyngeal consonants and adjacent vowels were conducted to investigate nasality in Moroccan Arabic (MA). The status of nasality in MA is described as coarticulatorily complex, where two phoneme types (pharyngeal segments and nasal segments) yield similar…

  19. Pharyngeal Fricatives, and Pike's "Fricative" and "Frictional" Categories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprigg, R. K.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion of pharyngeal fricatives in Arabic looks at voiced and voiceless varieties within the context of K. L. Pike's classifications. Pike treated pharyngeal fricatives as standing apart from others, including a number of oral fricatives and one glottal fricative in a category he called "frictionals." Later, however, he…

  20. Rare Posterior Pharyngeal Mass: Atypical Marginal Zone Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Eliçora, Sultan Şevik; Güven, Mehmet; Varli, Ali F; Yilmaz, Mahmut S; Alponat, Selin

    2016-03-01

    Cases of posterior pharyngeal masses are quite rare, and are typically derived from schwannoma or encephalocele, or are of vascular or infectious origin. They are clinically significant due to their tendency to cause airway obstruction. The aim of this study was to present a rare atypical marginal hyperplasia case of a posterior pharyngeal wall mass. A 10-year-old male was admitted to our clinic with dyspnea. A plane-surfaced 4 × 3 × 3 cm mass was observed on the posterior pharyngeal wall upon physical examination. The patient underwent magnetic resonance imaging and surgical treatment. Following excision of material from the patient's mass, a pathologic diagnosis of atypical marginal zone hyperplasia was made. Atypical marginal zone hyperplasia of the posterior pharyngeal wall has not yet been reported in the literature. Marginal zone hyperplasia associated with a lymphoproliferative disease should be considered when making differential diagnoses of posterior pharyngeal wall masses.

  1. A study of the microflora of some recycled fibre pulps, boards and kitchen rolls.

    PubMed

    Suihko, M L; Skyttä, E

    1997-08-01

    Current methodology used for studying the microflora of pulps and boards was assessed and some improvements are recommended. Microbiological quality of 37 samples including recycled fibre pulps, boards, kitchen rolls, virgin fibre sheets and circulating process water were investigated. The papermaking process had drastically reduced the total microbial counts. The dominant microflora in all the samples were aerobic bacteria. The amounts in boards were only 10(3)-10(6) cfu g-1 d.w., whereas the untreated pulps contained 10(8)-10(10) cfu g-1 d.w. Aerobic, anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic spore-forming bacteria formed a large group in the bacterial flora of pulp samples (10(3)-10(6) and 10(2)-10(4) cfu g-1 d.w., respectively). In the boards the maximum numbers of aerobic spore-forming bacteria were about 10(4) cfu g-1 d.w. and the numbers of anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic spore formers were negligible. Moulds were common in the untreated pulp sampled at 10(2)-10(6) cfu g-1 d.w., but their occurrence in boards was close to the detection limit. Yeasts were common only in the pulps of one mill, and were found to be present in the circulation process water. Both mesophilic and thermophilic actinomycetes were detected in pulps at levels up to 10(2)-10(5) cfu g-1 d.w. However, no mesophilic actinomycetes were detected in boards, although some boards contained up to 10(2) cfu g-1 d.w. of thermophilic actinomycetes. The virgin fibre sheets were practically free of microbes. Only a few bacterial colonies were detected from the kitchen rolls.

  2. Developmental and evolutionary origins of the pharyngeal apparatus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The vertebrate pharyngeal apparatus, serving the dual functions of feeding and respiration, has its embryonic origin in a series of bulges found on the lateral surface of the head, the pharyngeal arches. Developmental studies have been able to discern how these structures are constructed and this has opened the way for an analysis of how the pharyngeal apparatus was assembled and modified during evolution. For many years, the role of the neural crest in organizing pharyngeal development was emphasized and, as this was believed to be a uniquely vertebrate cell type, it was suggested that the development of the pharyngeal apparatus of vertebrates was distinct from that of other chordates. However, it has now been established that a key event in vertebrate pharyngeal development is the outpocketing of the endoderm to form the pharyngeal pouches. Significantly, outpocketing of the pharyngeal endoderm is a basal deuterostome character and the regulatory network that mediates this process is conserved. Thus, the framework around which the vertebrate pharyngeal apparatus is built is ancient. The pharyngeal arches of vertebrates are, however, more complex and this can be ascribed to these structures being populated by neural crest cells, which form the skeletal support of the pharynx, and mesoderm, which will give rise to the musculature and the arch arteries. Within the vertebrates, as development progresses beyond the phylotypic stage, the pharyngeal apparatus has also been extensively remodelled and this has seemingly involved radical alterations to the developmental programme. Recent studies, however, have shown that these alterations were not as dramatic as previously believed. Thus, while the evolution of amniotes was believed to have involved the loss of gills and their covering, the operculum, it is now apparent that neither of these structures was completely lost. Rather, the gills were transformed into the parathyroid glands and the operculum still exists as an

  3. Pharyngeal muscle contraction modifies peri-pharyngeal tissue pressure in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Kairaitis, Kristina; Verma, Manisha; Fish, Victoria; Wheatley, John R; Amis, Terence C

    2009-04-30

    We examined the influence of pharyngeal dilator muscle activity on upper airway extraluminal tissue pressure (ETP) distribution and upper airway patency. We studied seven anaesthetised, supine, spontaneously breathing NZ white rabbits. ETP was measured via pressure transducer tipped catheters in lateral (ETP(lat)) and anterior (ETP(ant)) pharyngeal wall tissues. Airflow (V) and tracheal pressure (P) were monitored and upper airway resistance (RUA) calculated. Genioglossus (GG) or bilateral sternohyoid (SH) muscles were electrically stimulated. Tongue protrusion (TP) during GG stimulation was measured. With GG stimulation, RUA decreased to 57.8+/-10.9% (mean+/-S.E.M.) of baseline and TP increased to 4.8+/-0.5mm (both p<0.05), but ETP(lat) (2.6+/-1.5 cm H(2)O) and ETP(ant) (1.4+/-0.8 cm H(2)O) were unchanged. SH stimulation reduced RUA to 53.6+/-6.8%, and ETP(lat) fell by 1.0+/-0.4 cm H(2)O (both p<0.05). ETP(ant) was unchanged. GG muscle contraction decreased RUA without altering ETP, whereas SH contraction altered RUA and ETP(lat), but not ETP(ant). Contraction of the upper airway dilator muscles results in improvements in upper airway patency associated with changes in peri-pharyngeal tissue pressure.

  4. Pharyngolaryngeal paralysis in a patient with pharyngeal tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ohki, Masafumi; Komiyama, Sakurako; Tayama, Niro

    2015-02-01

    Pharyngeal tuberculosis is a rare disease, and its commonly reported symptoms include sore throat, dysphagia, and throat discomfort. The dysphagia in pharyngeal tuberculosis cases is not due to pharyngolaryngeal paralysis but due to odynophagia. Herein, we describe the first case of dysphagia caused by pharyngolaryngeal paralysis secondary to pharyngeal tuberculosis. An irregular mass at the right nasopharynx was detected in a 57-year-old female patient, along with dysphagia and hoarseness. She had poor right soft palate elevation, inadequate right velopharyngeal closure, poor constrictor pharyngus muscle contraction, and an immobilized right vocal cord, which collectively indicate right pharyngolaryngeal paralysis. Pathological examination and culture testing revealed pharyngeal tuberculosis. She was diagnosed with pharyngolaryngeal paralysis secondary to pharyngeal tuberculosis. The pharyngolaryngeal paralysis resolved after beginning anti-tuberculous treatment. Right pharyngolaryngeal paralysis was attributed to glossopharyngeal and vagus nerve impairment in the parapharyngeal space. Prior reports indicate that peripheral nerve paralysis, including recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis caused by tuberculous lymphadenitis, often recovers after anti-tuberculous treatment. Pharyngeal tuberculosis rarely causes dysphagia and hoarseness attributable to pharyngolaryngeal paralysis. The neuropathy may recover after anti-tuberculous treatment. Pharyngeal tuberculosis is a new potential differential diagnosis in pharyngolaryngeal paralysis.

  5. Pharyngeal tuberculosis: Report of 5 cases.

    PubMed

    Mouhsine, Abdelilah; Temsamani, Hind; Belkouch, Ahmed; Atmane, ElMehdi; Elfikri, Abdelghani; Benariba, Fouad

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a public health problem for many countries, whether rich or poor. Extranodal ENT locations are rare, and it prevails in the cavum in the pharyngeal region. Based on a 3-year retrospective study of 5 clinical cases, the authors aim to highlight the epidemiological, clinical, radiological, therapeutic and prognostic aspects of this disease. Clinical aspects are not specific and there is often confusion in the differential diagnosis with tumoral lesions. Positive diagnosis is guided by the clinical and the radiological findings, and confirmed by histology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  6. Detritus in lake tahoe: structural modification by attached microflora.

    PubMed

    Paerl, H W

    1973-05-04

    Readily identifiable groups of microorganisms present on nonliving particulate organic matter (detritus) in the upper waters of Lake Tahoe are attached in specific ways and appear responsible for detrital aggregation. This microflora is associated with active heterotrophic metabolism, but deeper waters possess little detrital microflora and little heterotrophic activity.

  7. Aerobic exercise (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Aerobic exercise gets the heart working to pump blood through the heart more quickly and with more ... must be oxygenated more quickly, which quickens respiration. Aerobic exercise strengthens the heart and boosts healthy cholesterol ...

  8. Role of intestinal microflora in xenobiotic-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hye Gwang; Kang, Mi Jeong; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Oh, Do Gyeong; Kim, Jin Sung; Lee, Sang Kyu; Jeong, Tae Cheon

    2013-01-01

    In addition to its role in digestion of food in the gastrointestinal tract, the intestinal microflora is also capable of biotransforming numerous drugs. Likewise, the intestinal microflora may significantly modulate xenobiotic-induced toxicity by either activating or inactivating xenobiotics via metabolism. To date, most investigations of xenobiotic metabolism have focused not only on metabolism in host tissues, but the modulation of the pharmacological activity of drugs by the intestinal microflora. Despite its importance, the presumed role of intestinal microflora metabolism in xenobiotic-induced toxicity has been understudied. Therefore, it is appropriate to briefly review our current situation, and state which research in xenobiotic metabolism by intestinal microflora, particularly in the field of toxicology, is needed.

  9. Teaching Aerobic Fitness Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to teach aerobic fitness concepts to elementary students. Some of the K-2 activities include location, size, and purpose of the heart and lungs; the exercise pulse; respiration rate; and activities to measure aerobic endurance. Some of the 3-6 activities include: definition of aerobic endurance; heart disease risk factors;…

  10. Teaching Aerobic Fitness Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to teach aerobic fitness concepts to elementary students. Some of the K-2 activities include location, size, and purpose of the heart and lungs; the exercise pulse; respiration rate; and activities to measure aerobic endurance. Some of the 3-6 activities include: definition of aerobic endurance; heart disease risk factors;…

  11. Pharyngeal sense organs drive robust sugar consumption in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    LeDue, Emily E; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Jung, Aera Y; Dahanukar, Anupama; Gordon, Michael D

    2015-03-25

    The fly pharyngeal sense organs lie at the transition between external and internal nutrient-sensing mechanisms. Here we investigate the function of pharyngeal sweet gustatory receptor neurons, demonstrating that they express a subset of the nine previously identified sweet receptors and respond to stimulation with a panel of sweet compounds. We show that pox-neuro (poxn) mutants lacking taste function in the legs and labial palps have intact pharyngeal sweet taste, which is both necessary and sufficient to drive preferred consumption of sweet compounds by prolonging ingestion. Moreover, flies putatively lacking all sweet taste show little preference for nutritive or non-nutritive sugars in a short-term feeding assay. Together, our data demonstrate that pharyngeal sense organs play an important role in directing sustained consumption of sweet compounds, and suggest that post-ingestive sugar sensing does not effectively drive food choice in a simple short-term feeding paradigm.

  12. Analysis of pressure generation and bolus transit during pharyngeal swallowing.

    PubMed

    McConnel, F M

    1988-01-01

    Current pharyngeal deglutition theory has stressed the role of the pharyngeal constrictors as producing a peristaltic wave responsible for bolus propulsion through the pharynx. This thesis presents data obtained using manofluorography which supports the significance of tongue and laryngeal motion in swallowing. The usage of the term peristalsis to describe the constrictor contraction is challenged. The results of this quantitative study of swallowing in normal subjects, laryngectomized patients, and patients with restricted tongue motion show that tongue driving pressure and the negative pressure developed in the pharyngeal esophageal segment appear more important than the peristaltic-like pressure of the constrictors. Bolus transit is really dependent upon these two pressures. This model for analysis has clinical significance because it permits quantification of the pharyngeal swallowing mechanism.

  13. [The mathematical approaches to differential diagnostics of acute pharyngeal diseases].

    PubMed

    Yastremsky, A P; Izvin, A I

    The objective of the present study was to elaborate the program for differential diagnostics of acute pharyngeal diseases based on the 'ENT-Neuro' artificial neuronal network. The study group was formed by means of sampling patients with acute pharyngeal diseases from a set of case histories of the subjects presenting with acute inflammatory diseases. The data thus obtained were employed to develop the expert system to support the decision making process with the use of the 'ENT-Neuro' artificial neuronal network that allows to carry out diagnostics of various inflammatory diseases of the pharynx including the following nosological entities: paratonsillitis, parapharyngitis, acute tonsillitis, and acute pharyngitis, with the minimal probability of erroneous diagnosis (4%). The proposed expert system makes it possible to choose the optimal treatment strategy for the management of various pharyngeal diseases taking into consideration the severity of a concrete pathology and thereby to reduce to a minimum the risk of the related complications.

  14. The Cutaneous Bacterial Microflora of the Bodybuilders Using Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids

    PubMed Central

    Zomorodian, Kamiar; Rahimi, Mohammad Javad; Taheri, Mohammad; Ghanbari Asad, Ali; Khani, Soghra; Ahrari, Iman; Pakshir, Keyvan; Khashei, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) abuse by the athletes has dramatically increased during the recent decades. These substances might increase the skin lipids and enhance the cutaneous microbial proliferation. Objectives: The current study aimed to investigate the potential side effects of AAS on the bacterial microflora colonization of the bodybuilders` skin. Patients and Methods: The skin samples of 94 male bodybuilders (71 AAS users, 23 non-AAS users) and 46 subjects of the control group, with similar gender and age, were cultured and incubated in both aerobic condition to isolate Staphylococcus aureus and anaerobic condition for Propionibacterium acnes. The isolated bacteria were identified by standard microbiological techniques. Results: The skin lesions were more frequent in the body builders than the controls. Moreover, statistically significant differences were also observed in skin lesions among the AAS users and the non-AAS user athletes. The prevalence of S. aureus and P. acnes in the athletes was higher than that of the control group. In addition, there was a significant difference in distribution of P. acnes between the bodybuilders who used AAS and those who did not. Conclusions: A higher number of bacterial flora was found in the bodybuilders particularly those using AAS in comparison to the controls, which might be due to the influence of these AAS on the skin microflora and transmission of the bacteria through the direct contact of the naked skin with the exercise instruments. PMID:25789120

  15. Changes in oral microflora after full-mouth tooth extraction: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    de Waal, Yvonne C M; Winkel, Edwin G; Raangs, Gerwin C; van der Vusse, Marleen L; Rossen, John W A; van Winkelhoff, Arie Jan

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of full-mouth tooth extraction on the oral microflora, with emphasis on the presence and load of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Adult patients (n = 30), with moderate to advanced periodontitis and scheduled for full-mouth tooth extraction, were consecutively selected. Prior to and 1 and 3 months after full-mouth tooth extraction saliva, tongue, buccal and gingival mucosa and subgingival plaque/prosthesis samples were obtained. Aerobic and anaerobic culture techniques and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were employed for the detection of oral pathogens. Full-mouth tooth extraction resulted in reduction below detection level of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis in 15 of 16 and 8 of 16 previously positive patients using culture techniques and qPCR, respectively. Those patients remaining qPCR positive showed a significant reduction in load of these bacteria. Full-mouth tooth extraction significantly changes the oral microflora. These changes include reduction of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, frequently to levels below detection threshold. In some patients, A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis can persist in the edentulous oral cavity up to 3 months after full-mouth tooth extraction. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The Relationship Between Pharyngeal Constriction and Post-swallow Residue.

    PubMed

    Stokely, Shauna L; Peladeau-Pigeon, Melanie; Leigh, Chelsea; Molfenter, Sonja M; Steele, Catriona M

    2015-06-01

    Pharyngeal constriction has been proposed as a parameter that may distinguish functional from impaired swallows. We employed anatomically normalized pixel-based measures of pharyngeal area at maximum constriction, and the ratio of this measure to area at rest, and explored the association between these measures and post-swallow residue using the normalized residue ratio scale (NRRS). Videofluoroscopy data for 5 ml boluses of 22 % (w/v) liquid barium were analyzed from 20 healthy young adults and 40 patients with suspected neurogenic dysphagia. The frames of maximum pharyngeal constriction and post-swallow hyoid rest were extracted. Pixel-based measures of pharyngeal area were made using ImageJ and size-normalized using the squared C2-C4 vertebral distance as a reference scalar. Post-swallow residue and the areas of the vallecular and pyriform sinus spaces were measured on the hyoid rest frame to calculate the NRRSv and NRRSp. The dataset was divided into swallows with residue within or exceeding the upper confidence interval boundary seen in the healthy participants. Mixed model repeated measures ANOVAs were used to compare pharyngeal area (rest, constriction) and the pharyngeal constriction ratio, between individuals with and without residue. Measures of pharyngeal area at maximum constriction were significantly larger (i.e., less constricted, p = 0.000) in individuals with post-swallow residue in either the valleculae or the pyriform sinus. These results support the idea that interventions targeted toward improving pharyngeal constriction have the potential to be effective in reducing post-swallow residue.

  17. [Unknown pathogens from the human oral microflora of interest for otorhinolaryngology].

    PubMed

    Tets, V V; Tets, G V; Vikina, D S; Vecherovskaia, M F; Kharlamova, V V

    2014-01-01

    The identification of microorganisms from the human oral cavity is a topical problem in many clinical disciplines including otorhinolaryngology. Many bacterial species of oral microbiota are causative agents of ENT diseases, and poor conditions of the oral cavity, unhealthy teeth and gums increase the risk of the spread of infection. The objective of the present study was to distinguish and identify poorly explored and previously unknown aerobic opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms responsible for various ENT disorders. The normal microflora remains to be thoroughly studied with the use of the new culturing techniques that ensure the isolation of pure microbial cultures. The present publication reports for the first time isolation of the stable mixed microbial biofilms formed by unrelated bacterial species and containing the yet unknown microorganisms. The isolated bacteria were identified as previously unknown or poorly unexplored anaerobic opportunistic species capable of inducing ENT pathology; their sensitivity to antibiotics was evaluated.

  18. Endodermal/ectodermal interfaces during pharyngeal segmentation in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Shone, Victoria; Graham, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    A key event in the formation of the pharyngeal arches is the outpocketing of the endodermal pharyngeal pouches and the establishment of contact with the overlying ectoderm. However, relatively little is known about how the endoderm and ectoderm relate to each other at these points of contact and the extent to which this differs between the pouches. We have therefore detailed the interactions between the pharyngeal pouches and ectoderm in the chick embryo. Unlike the other pouches, the first pouch does not sustain direct contact with the ectoderm but separates after initial contact. Contrastingly, a perforation is formed between the second pouch and cleft that creates an external opening into the pharynx. Finally, the third and fourth pouch endoderm can be seen to bulge outwards through the ectoderm, although external openings to the pharyngeal lumen are not established. To understand whether these behaviours represent derived or ancestral features, we characterised the pharyngeal ectodermal–endodermal interfaces in the shark embryo. We found that the pouches of the posterior gill-bearing arches in this species also displayed the outward bulging of the endoderm into the ectoderm, although openings were established. We further used genetic tools to detail unambiguously the relationship between the endoderm and ectoderm in zebrafish and mouse embryos and again found that the posterior pouches break through the ectoderm. Thus different pharyngeal pouches establish different topological relationships with the overlying ectoderm and the posterior pouches initiate the developmental programme for the formation of gills, be they amniotes or anamniotes. PMID:25201771

  19. Performance and optimal technique for pharyngeal impedance recording: A simulated pharyngeal reflux study.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Muhammad; Bajaj, Shailesh; Easterling, Caryn; Kawamura, Osamu; Rittmann, Tanya; Hofmann, Candy; Liu, Jianxiang; Shaker, Reza

    2007-01-01

    Detection rate, influence of recording site, and subject posture for impedance monitoring of pharyngeal reflux of gastric contents remain unknown. We evaluated the ability of the impedance sensor for detection of various volumes of intrapharyngeal infusate at two sites and in two subject positions. Nineteen healthy subjects were studied using concurrent videoendoscopic, manometric, impedance, and pH recording. Detection rate of simulated pharyngeal reflux events ranged between 87% and 100% for 1-4 mL. Detection rate for 0.1-1 mL volumes in the upright position was significantly higher (78-85%) when the impedance sensor was located at the proximal margin of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) compared to 2 cm proximally (38-68%) (P < 0.001). With the sensor at 2 cm above the UES, the average detection rate for all volumes in the upright position was significantly less (P < 0.001) compared to the supine position (48%vs 84%). There was substantial variability in the magnitude of impedance changes induced by different infusates. Impedance sensors can detect as small a volume as 0.1 mL and combined with a pH sensor can detect acidic and nonacidic liquid and mist reflux events. Sensor placement at the proximal margin of the UES yields the highest detection rate irrespective of subject posture compared to placement 2 cm proximally. Depending on the volume of refluxate and location of the impedance sensor, a substantial minority of simulated reflux events can be missed.

  20. Microflora in soils of desert regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, R. E.

    1970-01-01

    Desert soil samples, collected using aseptic techniques, are low in organic matter and cation exchange capacity. Aerobic and microaerophilic bacteria are most abundant, next are algae and molds. Chemical and physical properties are determined by standard procedures, including the Kjeldahl method and the use of Munsell soil color charts.

  1. Pharyngeal swallowing phase and chronic cough

    PubMed Central

    Drozdz, Daniela Rejane Constantino; Costa, Cintia Conceição; Jesus, Paulo Roberto de Oliveira; Trindade, Mateus Silva; Weiss, Guilherme; Neto, Abdias Baptista M.; da Silva, Ana Maria T.; Mancopes, Renata

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: The act of swallowing depends on a complex and dynamic process which uses common structures to the act of breathing; respiratory problems can cause swallowing difficulties. Aim: To assess the swallowing pharyngeal phase in patients with chronic cough. Method: Retrospective study with 15 patients of both genders, patients with chronic cough and risk factors for aspiration defined by the pneumologic diagnosis. The patients were submitted to anamnesis on complaints related to swallowing, chewing and breathing, or related to food and to videofluoroscopic examination. Results: It was observed that 33.3% had normal and functional swallowing, being the last one of most prevalence. The mild dysphagia was observed in 20% of the patients, the mild to moderate dysphagia in 6.7% of them. In relation to the Rosenbek scale, 73.3% of patients presented degree 1, 6.7% presented degrees 2 and 3, and 13.3% presented degree 8. The most found pathology was the chronic cough with 40%, followed by asthma with 20%; 69.2% of patients presented stasis and of these, five used protection maneuvers, of these, seven were effective and only three were used in the presence of stasis. The most used maneuver was the multiple swallowing, being effective in 100%. Conclusion: There are peculiarities in the patients' swallowing with chronic cough that, although not presenting complaints relating to swallowing, it presents an important aspiration risk due to the presence of changes in breathing pattern that can intervene in the coordination between breathing and swallowing, which is essential to protect the lower airway. PMID:25991980

  2. A three-dimensional placoderm (stem-group gnathostome) pharyngeal skeleton and its implications for primitive gnathostome pharyngeal architecture.

    PubMed

    Brazeau, Martin D; Friedman, Matt; Jerve, Anna; Atwood, Robert C

    2017-09-01

    The pharyngeal skeleton is a key vertebrate anatomical system in debates on the origin of jaws and gnathostome (jawed vertebrate) feeding. Furthermore, it offers considerable potential as a source of phylogenetic data. Well-preserved examples of pharyngeal skeletons from stem-group gnathostomes remain poorly known. Here, we describe an articulated, nearly complete pharyngeal skeleton in an Early Devonian placoderm fish, Paraplesiobatis heinrichsi Broili, from Hunsrück Slate of Germany. Using synchrotron light tomography, we resolve and reconstruct the three-dimensional gill arch architecture of Paraplesiobatis and compare it with other gnathostomes. The preserved pharyngeal skeleton comprises elements of the hyoid arch (probable ceratohyal) and a series of branchial arches. Limited resolution in the tomography scan causes some uncertainty in interpreting the exact number of arches preserved. However, at least four branchial arches are present. The final and penultimate arches are connected as in osteichthyans. A single median basihyal is present as in chondrichthyans. No dorsal (epibranchial or pharyngobranchial) elements are observed. The structure of the pharyngeal skeleton of Paraplesiobatis agrees well with Pseudopetalichthys from the same deposit, allowing an alternative interpretation of the latter taxon. The phylogenetic significance of Paraplesiobatis is considered. A median basihyal is likely an ancestral gnathostome character, probably with some connection to both the hyoid and the first branchial arch pair. Unpaired basibranchial bones may be independently derived in chondrichthyans and osteichthyans. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Morphology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Pharyngeal odontoma in an adult walleye (Sander vitreus).

    PubMed

    Coffee, L L; Bogdanovic, L B; Cushing, T L; Bowser, P R

    2013-05-01

    An adult walleye (Sander vitreus) was submitted to Cornell University for evaluation of a hard pale-tan pharyngeal mass attached to the gill arches. Dozens of hard white conical structures radiated from the surface. Microscopically, conical structures were identified as denticles and rested on plates of dysplastic orthodentine, cementum, and acellular bone. A diagnosis of compound odontoma was made based upon the presence of proliferative epithelial and mesenchymal odontogenic tissues that recapitulated tooth structures normally present on gill rakers. Odontomas are classified as hamartomas and typically develop in immature diphyodont mammals. The pharyngeal location and lifelong regeneration of teeth in fish, however, both qualify the present diagnosis in the pharyngeal region of an adult teleost. Ontogenic and morphologic differences between mammalian and piscine dentition and differentials for tooth-bearing tumors in fish are presented within the context of a developmental anomaly.

  4. Displacement of maxillary third molar into the lateral pharyngeal space.

    PubMed

    Lee, Doksa; Ishii, Syoichiro; Yakushiji, Noboru

    2013-10-01

    Iatrogenic tooth displacement is a rare complication during extraction of impacted molars, but displacement of a maxillary third molar into the maxillary sinus, infratemporal fossa, buccal space, pterygomandibular space, and lateral pharyngeal space has been reported. Currently, 6 published reports describe third molar displacement into the lateral pharyngeal space, only 1 of which involved the loss of a maxillary third molar into this area, which occurred after an attempted self-extraction by the patient. There have been no reported cases of iatrogenic displacement of the maxillary third molar during an extraction procedure. This article describes the recovery, under general anesthesia, of a maxillary third molar from the lateral pharyngeal space after an iatrogenic displacement.

  5. [Physiology of pharyngeal muscles after surgical restoration of the velopharyngeal sphincter].

    PubMed

    Ysunza, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Speech velopharyngeal sphincter restoration is generally performed by pharyngeal flap or sphincter pharyngoplasty. Evaluate pharyngeal muscle physiology after pharyngeal flap or sphincter pharyngoplasty using simultaneous electromyography and videonasopharyngoscopy. Forty patients were studied. Twenty patients were operated on with an upper base pharyngeal flap. Twenty patients were operated on with sphincter pharyngoplasty. The following muscles were studied: superior constrictor pharyngeus, palatopharyngeus, and levator veli palatini. None of the patients studied showed electromyographic activity in the lateral flaps of tile pharyngoplasties. None showed electromyographic activity of the upper base pharyngeal flaps. All patients demonstrated strong electromyographic activity on the superior constrictor pharyngeus and the levator veli palatini. Lateral pharyngeal flaps in cases of sphincter pharyngoplasties and the central pharyngeal flap in cases of pharyngeal flaps, do not create new sphincters for velopharyngeal closure. The participation of these structures is passive, increasing tissue volume in specific areas, whereas their movements are caused by the contraction of the superior constrictor pharyngeus and the levator veli palatini.

  6. Intraluminal negative pressure wound therapy for optimizing pharyngeal reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Asher, Scott A; White, Hilliary N; Illing, Elisa A; Carroll, William R; Magnuson, J Scott; Rosenthal, Eben L

    2014-02-01

    Pharyngocutaneous fistula formation after pharyngeal reconstruction is one of the most common and challenging problems to manage. Despite many advances in management, the published success rates indicate a role for any adjuvant therapy that could potentially decrease this complication. To describe the use of intraluminal negative pressure dressings (NPDs) in pharyngeal reconstruction. Retrospective case series at a tertiary care academic hospital. Twelve laryngectomy patients underwent pharyngeal reconstruction augmented by placement of an intrapharyngeal NPD in combination with the introduction of vascularized tissue from August 2011 to May 2012. All patients had potential risk factors for compromised wound healing defined as previous radiation therapy, hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, compromised nutrition, or established pharyngocutaneous fistula. An NPD was placed in an intraluminal position spanning the length of the pharyngeal defect as part of the reconstructive procedure. The negative pressure sponge was attached to a standard nasogastric tube to which negative pressure was applied. External closure of the pharynx was then achieved with regional or free tissue transfer. Pharyngeal closure rates, timing until return to oral diet, identification of wound healing risk factors, and adverse events related to use of the device. Eleven of 12 patients (92%) achieved pharyngeal closure with reconstruction using negative pressure wound therapy. All patients had at least 1 potential risk factor for compromised wound healing, with 11 of 12 (92%) having 2 or more. Seven patients had an established pharyngocutaneous fistula, and 5 patients underwent primary reconstruction after laryngopharyngectomy. In 6 of these 7 patients undergoing fistula repair, pharyngeal closure was achieved, and they resumed an oral diet at 1 week postoperatively. The other had successful leak repair initially, but 1 week later developed a separate area of wound breakdown and a second fistula

  7. Functional Outcomes after Chemoradiotherapy of Laryngeal and Pharyngeal Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Hutcheson, Katherine A.; Lewin, Jan S.

    2014-01-01

    Organ preservation regimens that combine chemotherapy and radiotherapy (chemoradiotherapy) are increasingly used as the primary treatment of laryngeal and pharyngeal cancers. Meta-analytic data show a survival benefit with combined modality therapy, but the functional sequelae can be significant. Dysphagia is recognized as a common and often devastating late effect of chemoradiotherapy. This review examines functional outcomes after chemoradiotherapy for laryngeal and pharyngeal cancers, with a particular emphasis on dysphagia. Topics examined include the burden of dysphagia after chemoradiation, pathophysiology of dysphagia, baseline functioning, recommendations to improve long-term function, and voice outcomes. PMID:22249533

  8. Klebsiella pneumoniae pharyngitis mimicking malignancy: a diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Yeh, C-F; Li, W-Y; Hsu, Y-B

    2014-12-01

    Acute pharyngitis is a common disease. However, acute pharyngitis caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae with a gross appearance mimicking hypopharyngeal malignancy has never previously been reported. We report the case of a 57-year-old man with a right hypopharyngeal tumor which was disclosed by fiberoptic laryngoscopy and computed tomography scan. However, both the frozen and final pathologies showed no evidence of malignant cells, and a bacterial culture revealed the growth of K. pneumoniae. The hypopharyngeal lesion completely regressed after 2 weeks of antibiotic treatment. Clinicians should perform biopsy along with tissue culture for tumor-like lesions because infectious agents can lead to lesions with malignancy-like appearance.

  9. Simultaneous optogenetic stimulation of individual pharyngeal neurons and monitoring of feeding behavior in intact C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Trojanowski, Nicholas F

    2016-01-01

    Summary Optogenetic approaches have proven powerful for examining the role of neural circuits in generating behaviors, especially in systems where electrophysiological manipulation is not possible. Here we describe a method for optogenetically manipulating single pharyngeal neurons in intact C. elegans while monitoring pharyngeal behavior. This approach provides bidirectional and dynamic control of pharyngeal neural activity simultaneously with a behavioral readout, and has allowed us to test hypotheses about the roles of individual pharyngeal neurons in regulating feeding behavior. PMID:26423971

  10. [Microflora of periodontal pockets in advanced periodontitis].

    PubMed

    Sawicka-Grzelak, A; Meisel-Mikołajczyk, F; Słotwińska, S M; Wierzbicka, M

    1997-01-01

    The aim of study was the evaluation of periodontal pockets microflora in patients with advanced periodontitis. From each subject 16-20 samples were taken using paper points. Pooled sample after 60 s. mixing was serially diluted in reduced BHI. For total cell counts and for the isolation of black pigmented anaerobes Brucella agar supplemented with 5% sheep blood, hemin, menadione, with and without Kanamycin-Vancomycin mixture and BM agar plates were used. For isolation of A. actinomycetemcomitans TSBV agar plates were used. Cultures were incubated in anaerobic chamber at 37 degrees C for 7 days and TSBV agar plates in an atmosphere of 95% air-5% CO2 at 37 degrees C for 5 days. Microorganisms were identified by Gram staining, colony morphology, fluorescence in UV-light, haemagglutination of 3% sheep erythrocytes, fermentation of sugars, production of indole, urease (API 20A), specific enzymes (Rapid ID 32A). Twenty seven subjects with clinically recognized periodontitis were examined. Microorganisms important in periodontitis were isolated from periodontal pockets of almost all examined subjects. The number of bacteria obtained from the sample of one patient ranged from 1 x 10(4) CFU/ml to 3,6 x 10(6) CFU/ml. Porphyromonas gingivalis was identified in the samples taken from 17 patients, Prevotella intermedia-19, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans -11, Fusobacterium nucleatum-9, Peptostreptococcus spp.-22.

  11. Examination of the Aerobic Microflora of swine feces and stored swine manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Antimicrobial compounds are commonly used as feed additives for domestic animals to reduce infection and promote growth, but concerns have arisen that such feeding practices may result in increased microbial resistance to antibiotics used in human health. Our previous studies of the commensal anaer...

  12. [Recommendations for management of acute pharyngitis in adults].

    PubMed

    Cots, Josep M; Alós, Juan-Ignacio; Bárcena, Mario; Boleda, Xavier; Cañada, José L; Gómez, Niceto; Mendoza, Ana; Vilaseca, Isabel; Llor, Carles

    2015-10-01

    Acute pharyngitis in adults is one of the most common infectious diseases seen in general practitioners' consultations. Viral aetiology is the most common. Among bacterial causes, the main agent is Streptococcus pyogenes or group A β-haemolytic streptococcus (GABHS), which causes 5%-30% of the episodes. In the diagnostic process, clinical assessment scales can help clinicians to better predict suspected bacterial aetiology by selecting patients who should undergo a rapid antigen detection test. If these techniques are not performed, an overdiagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis often occurs, resulting in unnecessary prescriptions of antibiotics, most of which are broad spectrum. Consequently, management algorithms that include the use of predictive clinical rules and rapid tests have been set up. The aim of the treatment is speeding up symptom resolution, reducing the contagious time span and preventing local suppurative and non-suppurative complications. Penicillin and amoxicillin are the antibiotics of choice for the treatment of pharyngitis. The association of amoxicillin and clavulanate is not indicated as the initial treatment of acute infection. Neither are macrolides indicated as first-line therapy; they should be reserved for patients allergic to penicillin. The appropriate diagnosis of bacterial pharyngitis and proper use of antibiotics based on the scientific evidence available are crucial. Using management algorithms can be helpful in identifying and screening the cases that do not require antibiotic therapy. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  13. Speech outcomes following pharyngeal flap in patients with velocardiofacial syndrome.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Edward W; Sullivan, Stephen R; Ridgway, Emily B; Marrinan, Eileen M; Mulliken, John B

    2011-05-01

    Velocardiofacial syndrome is the most common defined disorder associated with palatal insufficiency. The authors' purpose is to evaluate one surgeon's experience with correction of velopharyngeal insufficiency in velocardiofacial syndrome using a tailored pharyngeal flap. The authors reviewed the records of all children with velocardiofacial syndrome and velopharyngeal insufficiency who were managed with a pharyngeal flap between 1983 and 2009. Data collected included age at operation, preoperative videofluoroscopic findings, speech outcomes, complications, and need for a secondary operation. The authors identified 33 patients with velocardiofacial syndrome and velopharyngeal insufficiency who had postoperative speech evaluations. Velopharyngeal insufficiency was diagnosed at a median age of 5 years. Palatal findings were: Veau type I (n = 4), overt submucous (n = 6), or occult submucous (n = 23). Median preoperative lateral pharyngeal wall movement was 22 percent (range, 0 to 90 percent). Successful correction of velopharyngeal insufficiency was achieved in 29 of 33 patients (88 percent). One patient had a medially displaced right internal carotid artery, and evidenced intraoperative bleeding and required a blood transfusion. One patient developed obstructive sleep apnea. A tailored pharyngeal flap is highly effective for correction of velopharyngeal insufficiency in velocardiofacial syndrome with few complications.

  14. Oral Bacteria as Potential Probiotics for the Pharyngeal Mucosa▿

    PubMed Central

    Guglielmetti, Simone; Taverniti, Valentina; Minuzzo, Mario; Arioli, Stefania; Stuknyte, Milda; Karp, Matti; Mora, Diego

    2010-01-01

    The research described here was aimed at the selection of oral bacteria that displayed properties compatible with their potential use as probiotics for the pharyngeal mucosa. We included in the study 56 bacteria newly isolated from the pharynges of healthy donors, which were identified at the intraspecies level and characterized in vitro for their probiotic potential. The experiments led us to select two potential probiotic bacterial strains (Streptococcus salivarius RS1 and ST3) and to compare them with the prototype oral probiotic S. salivarius strain K12. All three strains efficiently bound to FaDu human epithelial pharyngeal cells and thereby antagonized Streptococcus pyogenes adhesion and growth. All were sensitive to a variety of antibiotics routinely used for the control of upper respiratory tract infections. Immunological in vitro testing on a FaDu layer revealed different responses to RS1, ST3, and K12. RS1 and ST3 modulated NF-κB activation and biased proinflammatory cytokines at baseline and after interleukin-1β (IL-1β) induction. In conclusion, we suggest that the selected commensal streptococci represent potential pharyngeal probiotic candidates. They could display a good degree of adaptation to the host and possess potential immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:20418429

  15. Application of Classification Models to Pharyngeal High-Resolution Manometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielens, Jason D.; Hoffman, Matthew R.; Ciucci, Michelle R.; McCulloch, Timothy M.; Jiang, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The authors present 3 methods of performing pattern recognition on spatiotemporal plots produced by pharyngeal high-resolution manometry (HRM). Method: Classification models, including the artificial neural networks (ANNs) multilayer perceptron (MLP) and learning vector quantization (LVQ), as well as support vector machines (SVM), were…

  16. Radial and longitudinal asymmetry of human pharyngeal pressures during swallowing.

    PubMed

    Sears, V W; Castell, J A; Castell, D O

    1991-12-01

    Radial asymmetry of upper esophageal sphincter resting pressure has been previously described; however, neither radial nor longitudinal asymmetry of pharyngeal pressures has been demonstrated. The authors used a specially designed intraluminal transducer catheter (Konigsberg; Konigsberg Instruments, Pasadena, CA) with four solid-state transducers separated by 3 cm and oriented circumferentially at 90 degrees intervals to measure pharyngeal pressures. Two wet swallows at each 1-cm interval along the length of the pharynx were measured in 12 normal volunteers (10 male, 2 female; mean age, 38 years). Pressure data were collected on-line by an Apple IIe microcomputer (Apple Computer Inc., Cupertino, CA) at 100 Hz and analyzed for both radial and longitudinal asymmetry. Significant (P less than 0.05) longitudinal asymmetry was shown in all positions except right lateral. Radial asymmetry was present for the first 4 cm only, with anterior and posterior pressures significantly (P less than 0.05) higher than lateral pressures. It was concluded that pharyngeal pressure responses show both axial and longitudinal asymmetry in the distal pharynx. Awareness of transducer position and orientation is essential in the evaluation of pharyngeal pressures.

  17. Oral bacteria as potential probiotics for the pharyngeal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Guglielmetti, Simone; Taverniti, Valentina; Minuzzo, Mario; Arioli, Stefania; Stuknyte, Milda; Karp, Matti; Mora, Diego

    2010-06-01

    The research described here was aimed at the selection of oral bacteria that displayed properties compatible with their potential use as probiotics for the pharyngeal mucosa. We included in the study 56 bacteria newly isolated from the pharynges of healthy donors, which were identified at the intraspecies level and characterized in vitro for their probiotic potential. The experiments led us to select two potential probiotic bacterial strains (Streptococcus salivarius RS1 and ST3) and to compare them with the prototype oral probiotic S. salivarius strain K12. All three strains efficiently bound to FaDu human epithelial pharyngeal cells and thereby antagonized Streptococcus pyogenes adhesion and growth. All were sensitive to a variety of antibiotics routinely used for the control of upper respiratory tract infections. Immunological in vitro testing on a FaDu layer revealed different responses to RS1, ST3, and K12. RS1 and ST3 modulated NF-kappaB activation and biased proinflammatory cytokines at baseline and after interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) induction. In conclusion, we suggest that the selected commensal streptococci represent potential pharyngeal probiotic candidates. They could display a good degree of adaptation to the host and possess potential immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties.

  18. Pharyngeal stimulation with sugar triggers local searching behavior in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Murata, Satoshi; Brockmann, Axel; Tanimura, Teiichi

    2017-09-15

    Foraging behavior is essential for all organisms to find food containing nutritional chemicals. A hungry Drosophila melanogaster fly performs local searching behavior after drinking a small amount of sugar solution. Using video tracking, we examined how the searching behavior is regulated in D. melanogaster We found that a small amount of highly concentrated sugar solution induced a long-lasting searching behavior. After the intake of sugar solution, a fly moved around in circles and repeatedly returned to the position where the sugar droplet had been placed. The non-nutritious sugar d-arabinose, but not the non-sweet nutritious sugar d-sorbitol, was effective in inducing the behavior, indicating that sweet sensation is essential. Furthermore, pox-neuro mutant flies, which have no external taste bristles, showed local searching behavior, suggesting the involvement of the pharyngeal taste organ. Experimental activation of pharyngeal sugar-sensitive gustatory receptor neurons by capsaicin using the GAL4/UAS system induced local searching behavior. In contrast, inhibition of pharyngeal sugar-responsive gustatory receptor neurons abolished the searching behavior. Together, our results indicate that, in Drosophila, the pharyngeal taste-receptor neurons trigger searching behavior immediately after ingestion. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. A Longitudinal Study: Phonological Changes Associated with Pharyngeal Flap Surgery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letcher, Lisa M.; And Others

    The longitudinal study compared the speech of two children (beginning at age 3) with cleft palate and inadequate velopharyngeal closure in an attempt to identify the patterns of production observed prior to surgery and the course and rate of change in production following surgery. Subjects' speech samples were evaluated prior to pharyngeal flap…

  20. Application of Classification Models to Pharyngeal High-Resolution Manometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielens, Jason D.; Hoffman, Matthew R.; Ciucci, Michelle R.; McCulloch, Timothy M.; Jiang, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The authors present 3 methods of performing pattern recognition on spatiotemporal plots produced by pharyngeal high-resolution manometry (HRM). Method: Classification models, including the artificial neural networks (ANNs) multilayer perceptron (MLP) and learning vector quantization (LVQ), as well as support vector machines (SVM), were…

  1. Psychological Stress, Immunity, and the Effects on Indigenous Microflora.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    Psychological stress is an intrinsic part of life that affects all organs of the body through direct nervous system innervation and the release of neuroendocrine hormones. The field of PsychoNeuroImmunology (PNI) has clearly demonstrated that the physiological response to psychological stressors can dramatically impact the functioning of the immune system, thus identifying one way in which susceptibility to or severity of diseases are exacerbated during stressful periods. This chapter describes research at the interface between the fields of PNI and Microbial Endocrinology to demonstrate that natural barrier defenses, such as those provided by the commensal microflora, can be disrupted by exposure to psychological stressors. These stress effects are evident in the development of the intestinal microflora in animals born from stressful pregnancy conditions, and in older animals with fully developed microbial populations. Moreover, data are presented demonstrating that exposure to different types of stressors results in the translocation of microflora from cutaneous and mucosal surfaces into regional lymph nodes. When considered together, a scenario emerges in which psychological stressors induce a neuroendocrine response that has the potential to directly or indirectly affect commensal microflora populations, the integrity of barrier defenses, and the internalization of microbes. Finally, a hypothesis is put forth in which stressor-induced alterations of the microflora contribute to the observed stressor-induced increases in inflammatory markers in the absence of overt infection.

  2. Intrinsic capacities of soil microflorae for gasoline degradation.

    PubMed

    Solano-Serena, F; Marchal, R; Blanchet, D; Vandecasteele, J P

    1998-01-01

    A methodology to determine the intrinsic capacities of a microflora to degrade gasoline was developed, in particular for assessing the potential of autochtonous populations of polluted and non polluted soils for natural attenuation and engineered bioremediation. A model mixture (GM23) constituted of the 23 most representative hydrocarbons of a commercial gasoline was used. The capacities of the microflorae (kinetics and extent of biodegradation) were assessed by chromatographic analysis of hydrocarbon consumption and of CO2 production. The degradation of the components of GM23 was assayed in separate incubations of each component and in the complete mixture. For the microflora of an unpolluted spruce forest soil, all hydrocarbons of GM23 except cyclohexane, 2,2,4- and 2,3,4-trimethylpentane isomers were degraded to below detection limit in 28 days. This microflora was reinforced with two mixed microbial communities selected from gasoline-polluted sites and shown to degrade cyclohexane and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane. With the reinforced microflora, complete degradation of GM23 was observed. The degradation patterns of individual components of GM23 were similar when the compounds were present individually or in the GM23 mixture, as long as the concentrations of 2-ethyltoluene and trimethylbenzene isomers were kept sufficiently low (< or = 35 mg.l-1) to remain below their inhibitory level.

  3. [Effect of antibiotics on intestinal microflora and production of metabolites].

    PubMed

    Tamm, A O; Siĭgur, U Kh; Mikel'saar, M E

    1989-06-01

    Methodical approaches to detection of relation between intestinal microflora and its metabolites are described. The microbial origin of certain compounds can be asserted by a decrease in their production after exposure to antibacterial drugs or the absence of their production in microbe-free animals. The authors consider that parallel investigation of intestinal microflora and its metabolites after exposure to various agents e.g. narrow spectrum antibiotics or specific substrates is the most accurate methodical approach to detection of their interrelations. Data on the effect of four drugs i.e. kanamycin, metronidazole, cefotaxime and bactrim on production of 10 bacterial metabolites: p-cresol, phenol, indican, acetic, propionic, butyric, isobutyric, valeric, isovaleric and caproic acids in rats are presented. Correlation between the metabolites and the intestinal microflora composition was revealed. It is concluded that detection of microorganisms responsible for production of definite metabolites requires at the maximum: (1) exposure to drugs of different spectra, (2) detection of changes in intestinal microflora by biotope++ and (3) investigation of mucosa microflora which more exactly characterizes metabolism of definite biotops.

  4. Pharyngeal wall fold influences on the collapsibility of the pharynx.

    PubMed

    Kairaitis, Kristina

    2012-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a disease that is characterised by recurrent pharyngeal obstruction during sleep. The pharynx is a hollow muscular tube lined with epithelium that performs the competing functions of breathing, where it is required to be open and swallowing where it is required to close. The mechanical process by which these large changes in luminal dimensions occur have not been considered, however in other biological tubes such as the oesophagus and the bronchial airways narrowing and closure occurs via folding of the mucosal surface. The transmural pressure (P) required to collapse a tube is related to the number of folds (n) formed during collapse by the equation P=n(2)-1, so that the more folds formed during narrowing and closure, the greater the transmural pressure required to collapse the tube. In biomechanical models, the bronchial airway is modelled as a 2-layer tube with an inner epithelial lining and an outer layer of muscle. These models predict that fold numbers will be reduced with thickening and stiffening of the outer layer, accompanied by an increase in collapsibility. We hypothesise that, similar to other biological tubes the pharynx narrows and closes via folding of the surface of the tube, and that the pharynx can also be modelled as a 2-layer tube. We further hypothesise that when compared to healthy subjects, subjects with OSA will have less pharyngeal wall folds during narrowing and closure, and that this reduction in fold numbers will contribute to an increase in pharyngeal collapsibility. In the absence of muscle activity, subjects with OSA have increased pharyngeal collapsibility when compared with healthy subjects, supporting an anatomical contribution to pharyngeal collapse. Histopathological studies of the pharyngeal epithelium in subjects with OSA demonstrate that, compared with age matched subjects, there is thickening of the epithelial surface with oedema of the submucosal layer, with a loss of tethering of the

  5. Effects of combined heat and acetic acid on natural microflora reduction on cantaloupe melons.

    PubMed

    Fouladkhah, Aliyar; Avens, John S

    2010-05-01

    Produce is an important source of nutrients and phytochemicals, which is important in a healthy diet. However, perishable fresh produce has caused recent outbreaks of foodborne diseases. High level of nutrients and water activity, direct contact with soil, and lack of thermal procedures during primary processing make fresh produce a potential food safety hazard. Fruits and vegetables with rough surfaces can harbor microorganisms and support their multiplication, increasing the risk of this hazard. This study evaluated the effects of extreme thermal processes combined with acetic acid on natural microflora reduction on cantaloupe melons. Melons from a local supermarket were assigned into five treatment groups: control, water at 25 degrees C, water at 95 degrees C, 5% acetic acid at 25 degrees C, and 5% acetic acid at 95 degrees C. Four skin samples were obtained from each melon, separately stomached for 2 min with 0.1% peptone water, and serially diluted. Aerobic plate counts (APC) of dilutions were determined. Statistical analysis (least significant difference-based analysis of variance) showed that there were no significant (P > 0.05) differences in APC among control, water at 25 degrees C, and 5% acetic acid at 25 degrees C. Thermal treatments with water at 95 degrees C, and 5% acetic acid at 95 degrees C, were both significantly (P < 0.05) more effective in APC reduction than were nonthermal treatments, but were not significantly different from each other. Results indicated that a thermal water immersion intervention in primary processing of fresh melons can result in a 3-log reduction of natural microflora surface contamination, but 5% acetic acid will not significantly augment this reduction.

  6. Analysis of native microflora and selection of strains antagonistic to human pathogens on fresh produce.

    PubMed

    Liao, C H; Fett, W F

    2001-08-01

    The native microflora of three types of produce (green bell peppers, Romaine lettuce, and prepeeled baby carrots) and two types of sprouting seeds (alfalfa and clover) were investigated. Aerobic plate count (APC) for each produce or seed type as determined on Pseudomonas agar F (PAF) with incubation at 28 degrees C was in the range of 4 to 7 log CFU per g of tissue or seed. There was no significant difference (P > or = 0.05) in APC when the determinations were made with three agar media including PAF, brain heart infusion agar, and plate count agar. However, the APC as determined from plates that were incubated at 28 degrees C was significantly (P < or = 0.05) higher than with incubation at 37 degrees C. Fluorescent pseudomonads accounted for 23 to 73% of APC and 6 to 18% of APC recovered from carrots, pepper, and lettuce were pectolytic. Forty-eight strains of pectolytic bacteria were randomly isolated and identified, respectively, as members of the genera of Pseudomonas, Erwinia, Bacillus, Xanthomonas, or Flavobacterium. Lactic acid bacteria and/or yeast were consistently isolated from baby carrots, lettuce, and sprouting seeds (alfalfa or clover) but not from green bell peppers. Approximately 120 strains of indigenous microflora were tested for their ability to inhibit the growth of Salmonella Chester, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, or Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora on PAF. Six isolates capable of inhibiting the growth of at least one pathogen were isolated and identified, respectively, as Bacillus spp. (three strains), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (one strain), Pseudomonas fluorescens (strain A3), and yeast (strain D1). When green pepper disks were inoculated with strains A3 and D1, the growth of Salmonella Chester and L. monocytogenes on the disks was reduced by 1 and 2 logs, respectively, over a period of 3 days. Application of strains A3 and D1 as potential biopreservatives for enhancing the quality and safety of fresh produce is discussed.

  7. Microflora around teeth and dental implants

    PubMed Central

    Shahabouee, Mohammad; Rismanchian, Mansour; Yaghini, Jaber; Babashahi, Akram; Badrian, Hamid; Goroohi, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Background: When an implant is exposed to oral cavity, its surface gets colonized by micro-organisms. The aim of this study is to comparatively assess the microbiological parameters in sulci around the teeth and the crowns supported by dental implants. Materials and Methods: In this prospective, cross-sectional study, 34 partially edentulous patients aged between 40 and 50 years with total 50 anterior maxillary single implants with cemented crowns (depth of sulci <4 mm) and 34 similar teeth in the same jaw of the same patients were included. Excluded were the patients with compromised systemic and periodontal health and smoking habits. None of the patients had used any antimicrobial mouthwashes during at least two weeks before the study. All of the implants (ITI) were at least 6 months in place covered by definitive prostheses. Samples of gingival sulci were taken around teeth with paper cone and transported to Stuart transport medium. Samples were cultured and examined by a dark field microscope and eight laboratory tests were performed to determine the micro-organisms The data were evaluated statistically using Chi-square test (α=0.05). Results: Six anerobic bacteria found in teeth and implants sulci were Gram-positive cocci, Gram-negative cocci, Prevotella, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacteroid Fragilis and Fusobacterium. Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative cocci had maximum and minimum percentage frequency in the two groups, respectively. There were no significant differences between the two groups (P value >0.05). Conclusion: The present study indicated that microflora in implant sulci is similar to the tooth sulci, when the depth of sulci is normal (<4 mm). As a result, implants’ susceptibility to inflammation is the same as teeth. PMID:22623941

  8. [Pharyngeal ulcer in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome].

    PubMed

    Fang, Gaoli; Zhang, Luo; Wang, Chengshuo; Xiao, Jiang; Fu, Qian; Zhao, Hongxin

    2014-02-01

    To understand the high incidence of pharyngeal ulcer in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). By analyzing the clinical features in AIDS patients with pharyngeal ulcer, this study provided reference for clinicians. Twenty AIDS patients with pharyngeal ulcer were retrospectively analysed to explore its clinical features and mechanism, and to explore the feasible therapeutic methods. The patients generally had severe sore throat and dysphagia for 7 days to 8 months, resulting in significant weight loss. Common therapeutical method does not work. The ulcers developed mainly at vestibule of pharynx (10 cases), tonsil (3 cases), epiglottis (3 cases) and pyriform sinus (2 cases). Ulcer types included major aphthous ulcer (MaAU, 14 cases), fungal ulcer (2 cases), herpes zoster (1 case), ulcer secondary to drug eruption(1 case ), and lymphoma(2 cases). The disease course was long with CD4(+) T lymphocytes decreased significantly. Treatment was given with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HARRT), regulation of immune function, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti fungal. Treatment lasted from 2 weeks to 3 months, ulcer healed in 13 cases; 1 patient lost to follow-up, 6 patients dead. The manifestation of pharyngeal ulcer in AIDS patients has its particularity. It is often associated with a variety of opportunistic infection and tumors. Local treatment is preferred. HAART therapy and systemic comprehensive treatment play more important and effective role. Pharyngeal ulcer persists for a long time, complicated with fever, diarrhea and other symptoms. The history of blood transfusion, injection drug use or unsafe sexual behavior may predict HIV infection.

  9. Detection of group a streptococcal pharyngitis by quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Eileen M; Marshall, Julia L; Baker, Ciara A; Manning, Jayne; Gonis, Gena; Danchin, Margaret H; Smeesters, Pierre R; Satzke, Catherine; Steer, Andrew C

    2013-07-11

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) is the most common bacterial cause of sore throat. School-age children bear the highest burden of GAS pharyngitis. Accurate diagnosis is difficult: the majority of sore throats are viral in origin, culture-based identification of GAS requires 24-48 hours, and up to 15% of children are asymptomatic throat carriers of GAS. The aim of this study was to develop a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay for detecting GAS pharyngitis and assess its suitability for clinical diagnosis. Pharyngeal swabs were collected from children aged 3-18 years (n = 91) and adults (n = 36) located in the Melbourne area who presented with sore throat. Six candidate PCR assays were screened using a panel of reference isolates, and two of these assays, targeting speB and spy1258, were developed into qPCR assays. The qPCR assays were compared to standard culture-based methods for their ability to detect GAS pharyngitis. GAS isolates from culture positive swabs underwent emm-typing. Clinical data were used to calculate McIsaac scores as an indicator of disease severity. Twenty-four of the 127 samples (18.9%) were culture-positive for GAS, and all were in children (26%). The speB qPCR had 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity compared with gold-standard culture, whereas the spy1258 qPCR had 87% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Nine different emm types were found, of which emm 89, 3, and 28 were most common. Bacterial load as measured by qPCR correlated with culture load. There were no associations between symptom severity as indicated by McIsaac scores and GAS bacterial load. The speB qPCR displayed high sensitivity and specificity and may be a useful tool for GAS pharyngitis diagnosis and research.

  10. Evaluation of a streptococcal pharyngitis score in southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Shih, Ching-Tang; Lin, Ching-Chiang; Lu, Chung-Ching

    2012-02-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) pharyngitis can cause serious complications such as rheumatic heart disease. The McIsaac sore throat score is a clinical prediction score used to improve the detection rate of GAS pharyngitis. We evaluated the validity of the McIsaac sore throat score in Southern Taiwan and compared our findings to those of other studies. We retrospectively analyzed chart records from children aged 3 to 15 years old who complained of fever and sore throat. They had throat cultures collected at the outpatient pediatric clinic of Fooyin University Hospital, located in Pingtung County, Taiwan during the period between January 2007 and January 2010. Clinical characteristics were reviewed, and sore throat score was analyzed. A total of 342 throat cultures met the inclusion criteria of sore throat and fever. The positive rate of GAS was 4.1%. Culture-positive cases were associated with higher odds for a skin rash [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 14.66, 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.63-46.40, p < 0.001), lower odds for cough (AOR: 0.19, 95% CI: 0.04-0.85, p = 0.030) and having a runny nose (AOR: 0.22, 95% CI: 0.05-0.99, p = 0.048). The most common physical sign was scarlet fever rash (AOR: 57.35, 95% CI: 15.45-212.98, p < 0.001). A McIsaac score of 5 had a sensitivity of 71%, specificity of 70%, and a positive predictive value of only 9.3%. Pediatric streptococcal pharyngitis in Southern Taiwan is uncommon. Diagnosis of GAS pharyngitis based on the McIsaac sore throat score is unreliable among pediatric patients with febrile pharyngitis in Southern Taiwan. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. The Caenorhabditis elegans NK-2 homeobox gene ceh-22 activates pharyngeal muscle gene expression in combination with pha-1 and is required for normal pharyngeal development.

    PubMed

    Okkema, P G; Ha, E; Haun, C; Chen, W; Fire, A

    1997-10-01

    Pharyngeal muscle development in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans appears to share similarities with cardiac muscle development in other species. We have previously described CEH-22, an NK-2 class homeodomain transcription factor similar to Drosophila tinman and vertebrate Nkx2-5, which is expressed exclusively in the pharyngeal muscles. In vitro, CEH-22 binds the enhancer from myo-2, a pharyngeal muscle-specific myosin heavy chain gene. In this paper, we examine the role CEH-22 plays in pharyngeal muscle development and gene activation by (a) ectopically expressing ceh-22 in transgenic C. elegans and (b) examining the phenotype of a ceh-22 loss-of-function mutant. These experiments indicate that CEH-22 is an activator of myo-2 expression and that it is required for normal pharyngeal muscle development. However, ceh-22 is necessary for neither formation of the pharyngeal muscles, nor for myo-2 expression. Our data suggest parallel and potentially compensating pathways contribute to pharyngeal muscle differentiation. We also examine the relationship between ceh-22 and the pharyngeal organ-specific differentiation gene pha-1. Mutations in ceh-22 and pha-1 have strongly synergistic effects on pharyngeal muscle gene expression; in addition, a pha-1 mutation enhances the lethal phenotype caused by a mutation in ceh-22. Wild-type pha-1 is not required for the onset of ceh-22 expression but it appears necessary for maintained expression of ceh-22.

  12. Function of a key morphological innovation: fusion of the cichlid pharyngeal jaw

    PubMed Central

    Darrin Hulsey, C

    2005-01-01

    The pharyngeal jaw of cichlids may represent a key innovation that facilitated their unparalleled trophic divergence. In cichlids, ‘fusion’ of the lower pharyngeal jaw (LPJ) results from suturing between the two lower ceratobranchials. To examine, what novel abilities a more extensively fused pharyngeal jaw may confer, the function of LPJ suturing was examined in Heroine cichlids. Greater LPJ suturing, pharyngeal jaw splitting under compression and the forces used to crush molluscs in the wild suggest increased LPJ fusion in the trophically polymorphic Herichthys minckleyi operates to strengthen the pharyngeal jaw. Among Heroine cichlid species, the presence of an external LPJ suture and feeding specialization on molluscs was evolutionarily quite variable, but greater LPJ fusion estimated from the amount of external suturing was highly correlated with molluscivory. Throughout cichlid diversification, increased pharyngeal jaw fusion via suturing has likely helped to reinforce the LPJ during pharyngeal processing thereby facilitating the ability of cichlids to exploit durable prey. PMID:16608685

  13. [Testing aerobic power].

    PubMed

    Lehance, C; Bury, T

    2008-01-01

    Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) is regarded by some as the best single measurement of aerobic fitness. An other major determinant of successful endurance performance is the percentage of VO2 max that an athlete can maintain for a prolonged period. It is related to the lactate threshold. Two other factors also appear to be important for endurance activities as high economy of effort, or low VO2 value for the same rate of work; high percentage of ST muscle fibers. In the laboratory, the usual measurements of aerobic power include the determination of maximum oxygen consumption and the identification of lactate threshold. Testing aerobic power can help determine the type of aerobic training that should be emphasized.

  14. Aerobic Conditioning Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Neil R.

    1980-01-01

    An aerobic exercise class that focuses on the conditioning of the cardiovascular and muscular systems is presented. Students complete data cards on heart rate, pulse, and exercises to be completed during the forty minute course. (CJ)

  15. Cutting edge: the vaginal microflora and bacterial vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Verstraelen, H

    2008-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, the vaginal primarily harbours lactobacilli which ideally confer in mutualism with the vaginal epithelium colonisation resistance to other micro-organisms, thereby preventing ascending or systemic infection. Albeit only a few Lactobacillus species constitute the vaginal microflora, huge species- and strain-specific differences occur however, and these differences account for a wide variability in the intrinsic capability of the Lactobacillus microflora to maintain the vaginal ecosystem. Hence, among a substantial proportion of women, the picture of lactobacilli-driven mutualism is actually less ideal than one may assume. As the vagina is incessantly subjected to cyclic changes as well as behavioural exposures that may challenge the perpetuation of the Lactobacillus microflora, the intrinsic stability of the resident microflora is paramount to women's health. Considering the close concordance between the rectal and vaginal lactobacilli, future research may benefit from the study of food, oral, and intestinal microbiology in relation to the vaginal Lactobacillus microbiota. Loss of the hydrogen peroxide producing lactobacilli accompanied by massive anaerobic overgrowth is observed with bacterial vaginosis. Molecular studies of the bacterial vaginosis microflora have recently revealed a tremendous species variability further documenting the complex polymicrobial nature of this condition. Emerging issues include the predominance of G. vaginalis, a normal microflora constituent possibly eliciting a host of virulence mechanisms at increasing concentrations through quorum sensing, the associated abundance of A. vaginae as a rather specific marker of therapy failure and disease persistence or recurrence, and the discovery of an adherent, metronidazole-resistant biofilm consisting of the latter two species.

  16. Method of applying sanitizers and sample preparation affects recovery of native microflora and Salmonella on whole cantaloupe surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ukuku, Dike O; Fett, William F

    2004-05-01

    Standardized methods for applying sanitizer treatments to cantaloupes and for recovering surviving native microflora or Salmonella on inoculated cantaloupe after sanitizing are lacking. Accordingly, the objectives of this study were to compare four methods for applying sanitizers (dipping, dipping with rotation, dipping with agitation, and dipping with rubbing) using 200 ppm of chlorine or 5% H2O2, two recovery methods (homogenization of rind plugs in a stomacher or blender), and five selective recovery media for Salmonella. Whole cantaloupes were submerged in a cocktail of five strains of Salmonella (each at approximately 2 x 10(8) CFU/ml) for 10 min and allowed to dry for 1 h inside a biosafety cabinet and stored at 20 degrees C for approximately 23 h before sanitizing. The recovery of Salmonella from whole cantaloupe without sanitizing averaged 5.09 log CFU/cm2 by blending and 4.30 log CFU/cm2 by homogenization in a stomacher for the five selective agar media. Microbial populations (Salmonella or the indigenous aerobic mesophilic bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas spp., and yeast and mold) were not significantly (P > 0.05) reduced by treating with water regardless of the treatment method used. Sanitizing with chlorine or H2O2 by dipping, with or without rotation for 2 min, also did not reduce microbial populations. However, populations of all classes of native microflora and Salmonella were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced by sanitizer treatments (2 min) applied with agitation or by rubbing. In general, sanitizer treatments applied by rubbing resulted in greater log reductions (by up to 1.7 log unit) than for treatments applied with agitation. Populations of native microflora and Salmonella recovered from cantaloupe were higher (by up to 1.8 log unit) by blending compared to homogenization in a stomacher. In most instances, selective media used did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) for recovery of Salmonella after washing

  17. The in vitro effects of cetyltrimethylammonium naproxenate on oral and pharyngeal microorganisms of various ecological niches.

    PubMed

    Pilloni, A P; Buttini, G; Giordano, B; Iovene, M R; di Salvo, R; Buommino, E; Tufano, M A

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the in vitro susceptibility to cetyltrimethylammonium naproxenate for various aerobic and anaerobic micro-organisms responsible for oral and pharyngeal diseases by assessing the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) or minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) and by determining kill-times. The MICs of cetyltrimethylammonium naproxenate for 46 tested strains (25 reference strains and 21 clinical isolates) ranged from 8 to 500 micrograms/ml. The MIC was found to be 31.25 micrograms/ml for 36% of the reference strains. Even lower MIC values (15.63 micrograms/ml) were observed for some anaerobic strains, for Haemophilus influenzae and for Candida tropicalis. MIC and MBC values corresponded for the majority of strains tested while the MFC for C. tropicalis and C. albicans was much higher. Only 9.5% of the clinical isolates gave a MIC value of 31.25 micrograms/ml. Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus showed MIC at 62.5 micrograms/ml. The MIC and MBC values among the isolates were comparable, while the MFC value for the yeasts was greater. A concentration of 125 micrograms/ml of cetyltrimethylammonium naproxenate inhibited the growth of all bacteria, except Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonaceae, and yeasts. Cetyltrimethylammonium naproxenate shows very rapid kill-time for S. sanguis (0"), and rapid (15") for S. pyogenes, S. dysgalactiae and S. mutans and for Moraxella catarrhalis, while a longer kill-time was necessary for the other microbes tested.

  18. The vaginal microflora in relation to gingivitis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Gingivitis has been linked to adverse pregnancy outcome (APO). Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been associated with APO. We assessed if bacterial counts in BV is associated with gingivitis suggesting a systemic infectious susceptibilty. Methods Vaginal samples were collected from 180 women (mean age 29.4 years, SD ± 6.8, range: 18 to 46), and at least six months after delivery, and assessed by semi-quantitative DNA-DNA checkerboard hybridization assay (74 bacterial species). BV was defined by Gram stain (Nugent criteria). Gingivitis was defined as bleeding on probing at ≥ 20% of tooth sites. Results A Nugent score of 0–3 (normal vaginal microflora) was found in 83 women (46.1%), and a score of > 7 (BV) in 49 women (27.2%). Gingivitis was diagnosed in 114 women (63.3%). Women with a diagnosis of BV were more likely to have gingivitis (p = 0.01). Independent of gingival conditions, vaginal bacterial counts were higher (p < 0.001) for 38/74 species in BV+ in comparison to BV- women. Counts of four lactobacilli species were higher in BV- women (p < 0.001). Independent of BV diagnosis, women with gingivitis had higher counts of Prevotella bivia (p < 0.001), and Prevotella disiens (p < 0.001). P. bivia, P. disiens, M. curtisii and M. mulieris (all at the p < 0.01 level) were found at higher levels in the BV+/G+ group than in the BV+/G- group. The sum of bacterial load (74 species) was higher in the BV+/G+ group than in the BV+/G- group (p < 0.05). The highest odds ratio for the presence of bacteria in vaginal samples (> 1.0 × 104 cells) and a diagnosis of gingivitis was 3.9 for P. bivia (95% CI 1.5–5.7, p < 0.001) and 3.6 for P. disiens (95%CI: 1.8–7.5, p < 0.001), and a diagnosis of BV for P. bivia (odds ratio: 5.3, 95%CI: 2.6 to 10.4, p < 0.001) and P. disiens (odds ratio: 4.4, 95% CI: 2.2 to 8.8, p < 0.001). Conclusion Higher vaginal bacterial counts can be found in women with BV and gingivitis in comparison to women with BV but not gingivitis. P

  19. Aerobic bacterial flora of the nasal cavity in Gulf of California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto; Martínez-Chavarría, Luary; Díaz-Avelar, Adriana; Romero-Osorio, Alma; Godínez-Reyes, Carlos; Zavala-González, Alfredo; Verdugo-Rodríguez, Antonio

    2005-11-01

    Nasal swab samples from clinically healthy California sea lions pups (Zalophus californianus) from six different reproductive rookeries in the Gulf of California were collected to determine the type and frequency of the representative aerobic bacterial microflora of their nasal mucosa. A total of 114 samples were examined and 100 bacterial isolates were identified and typified by microbiological and biochemical standard tests. Fifty four isolates corresponded to Gram positive bacteria (54%) and 46 isolates to Gram negative bacteria (46%). Fifteen bacterial genera were identified, including Micrococcus, Arcanobacterium, Corynebacterium, Moraxella, Neisseria, Escherichia, Kurthia, Acinetobacter, Staphylococcus, Brevibacillus, Bacillus, Klebsiella, Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas and Aeromonas. The most frequently isolated genera were Moraxella (24%), Micrococcus (18%), and Corynebacterium (15%). These results show the presence in the nasal cavity of sea lions of several microorganisms. Although considered part of the normal microflora, they may also be opportunistic pathogens for their hosts and may act as a potential natural sentinel of environmental changes.

  20. Aerobic vaginitis: no longer a stranger.

    PubMed

    Donders, Gilbert G G; Bellen, Gert; Grinceviciene, Svitrigaile; Ruban, Kateryna; Vieira-Baptista, Pedro

    2017-05-11

    Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is the name given in 2002 to a vaginal infectious entity which was not recognized as such before. It is characterized by abnormal (dysbiotic) vaginal microflora containing aerobic, enteric bacteria, variable levels of vaginal inflammation and deficient epithelial maturation. Although AV and bacterial vaginosis (BV) share some characteristics, such as a diminished number or absence of lactobacilli, increased discharge (fishy smelling in BV, while in severe forms of AV, a foul, rather rotten smell may be present) and increased pH (often more pronounced in AV), there are also striking differences between the two. There is no inflammation in women with BV, whereas the vagina of women with AV often appears red and edematous, and may even display small erosions or ulcerations. The color of the discharge in BV is usually whitish or gray and of a watery consistency, whereas in AV it is yellow to green and rather thick and mucoid. Women with BV do not have dyspareunia, while some women with severe AV do. Finally, the microscopic appearance differs in various aspects, such as the presence of leucocytes and parabasal or immature epithelial cells in AV and the absence of the granular aspect of the microflora, typical of BV. Despite all these differences, the distinction between AV and BV was not recognized in many former studies, leading to incomplete and imprecise diagnostic workouts and erroneous management of patients in both clinical and research settings. The prevalence of AV ranges between 7 and 12%, and is therefore less prevalent than BV. Although still largely undiagnosed, many researchers and clinicians increasingly take it into account as a cause of symptomatic vaginitis. AV can co-occur with other entities, such as BV and candidiasis. It can be associated with dyspareunia, sexually transmitted infections (such as human papilloma virus, human immunodeficiency virus, Trichomonas vaginalis and Chlamydia trachomatis), chorioamnionitis, fetal

  1. Effects of Dry Chilling on the Microflora on Beef Carcasses at a Canadian Beef Packing Plant.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Youssef, M K; Yang, X

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the course of effects on the microflora on beef carcasses of a commercial dry chilling process in which carcasses were dry chilled for 3 days. Groups of 25 carcasses selected at random were sampled when the chilling process commenced and after the carcasses were chilled for 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 24, and 67 h for determination of the numbers of aerobes, coliforms, and Escherichia coli. The temperatures of the surfaces and the thickest part of the hip (deep leg) of carcasses, as well as the ambient air conditions, including air temperature, velocity, and relative humidity (RH), were monitored throughout the chilling process. The chiller was operated at 0°C with an off-coil RH of 88%. The air velocity was 1.65 m/s when the chiller was loaded. The initial RH levels of the air in the vicinity of carcasses varied with the locations of carcasses in the chiller and decreased rapidly during the first hour of chilling. The average times for shoulder surfaces, rump surfaces, and the deep leg of carcasses to reach 7°C were 13.6 ± 3.1, 16.0 ± 2.4 and 32.4 ± 3.2 h, respectively. The numbers of aerobes, coliforms, and E. coli on carcasses before chilling were 5.33 ± 0.42, 1.95 ± 0.77, 1.42 ± 0.78 log CFU/4,000 cm(2), respectively. The number of aerobes on carcasses was reduced by 1 log unit each in the first hour of chilling and in the subsequent 23 h of chilling. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the numbers of aerobes recovered from carcasses after 24 and 67 h of chilling. The total numbers (log CFU/100,000 cm(2)) on carcasses before chilling and after the first hour of chilling were 3.86 and 2.24 for coliforms and 3.30 and 2.04 for E. coli. The subsequent 23 h of chilling reduced the numbers of both groups of organisms by a further log unit. No coliforms or E. coli were recovered after 67 h of chilling. The findings show that the chilling regime investigated in this study resulted in significant reductions of all

  2. Influence of fruit variety, harvest technique, quality sorting, and storage on the native microflora of unpasteurized apple cider.

    PubMed

    Keller, Susanne E; Chirtel, Stuart J; Merker, Robert I; Taylor, Kirk T; Tan, Hsu Ling; Miller, Arthur J

    2004-10-01

    Apple variety, harvest, quality sorting, and storage practices were assessed to determine their impact on the microflora of unpasteurized cider. Seven apple varieties were harvested from the tree or the ground. The apples were used fresh or were stored at 0 to 4 degrees C for < or = 5 months and were pressed with or without quality selection. Cider yield, pH, Brix value, and titratable acidity were measured. Apples, postpressing apple pomace, and cider samples were analyzed for aerobic bacteria, yeasts, and molds. Aerobic bacterial plate counts (APCs) of ciders from fresh ground-picked apples (4.89 log CFU/ml) were higher than those of ciders made from fresh, tree-picked apples (3.45 log CFU/ml). Quality sorting further reduced the average APC to 2.88 log CFU/ml. Differences among all three treatment groups were significant (P < 0.0001). Apple and pomace microbial concentrations revealed harvest and postharvest treatment-dependent differences similar to those found in cider. There were significant differences in APC among apple varieties (P = 0.0001). Lower counts were associated with varieties exhibiting higher Brix values and higher titratable acidity. Differences in APC for stored and fresh apples used for cider production were not significant (P > 0.05). Yeast and mold counts revealed relationships similar to those for APCs. The relationship between initial microbial load found on incoming fruit and final cider microbial population was curvilinear, with the weakest correlations for the lowest apple microflora concentrations. The lack of linearity suggests that processing equipment contributed to cider contamination. Tree-picked quality fruit should be used for unpasteurized cider production, and careful manufacturing practices at cider plants can impact both safety and quality of the final product.

  3. Predominant microflora associated with human dental periapical abscesses.

    PubMed Central

    Oguntebi, B; Slee, A M; Tanzer, J M; Langeland, K

    1982-01-01

    The microflora of periapical abscesses of teeth free of periodontal disease was studied. Permucosal aspiration of abscess contents and anaerobic cultural, microscopic, and biochemical techniques indicated a mixed but somewhat specific and relatively limited facultative and obligate anaerobic flora with Fusobacterium nucleatum and Streptococcus mitis as a frequent pair. PMID:7096563

  4. Epiphytic microflora on alfalfa and whole-plant corn.

    PubMed

    Lin, C; Bolsen, K K; Brent, B E; Hart, R A; Dickerson, J T; Feyerherm, A M; Aimutis, W R

    1992-09-01

    Epiphytic microflora were identified and counted on four cuttings of alfalfa, each harvested at three stages of maturity, and on three whole-plant corn hybrids. Enterobacteriaceae were predominant on both crops. Yeasts and molds also were major epiphytic microorganisms on whole-plant corn. The group--including lactobacilli, pediococci, and leuconostocs, which are genera that produce lactic acid and thus are instrumental in silage preservation--constituted only a small proportion of the total population (less than .5%) on both crops. Lactate-fermenting clostridial spores were not detected on standing alfalfa, and occurrences of these spores on standing corn plants were due to soil contamination from rainfall prior to harvest. The numbers of epiphytic microorganisms, except for the lactobacilli, pediococci, and leuconostocs group, were higher on standing corn than on alfalfa. The epiphytic microflora on alfalfa increased with increasing temperature during the growing season. However, neither cutting number nor maturity affected the epiphytic microflora on standing alfalfa, and wilting following mowing had little effect on most populations. Higher temperatures during wilting increased yeast and mold counts but had no effect on other microbial counts. The chopping process tended to increase the epiphytic microflora populations compared with those on the standing crops, and the group containing lactobacilli, pediococci, and leuconostocs was most enhanced. Only yeast and mold counts on the chopped alfalfa increased with greater DM content and buffering capacity.

  5. [A study of urease activity of mouth cavity microflora].

    PubMed

    Bykov, S É; Bykov, A S

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of the prevalence of mouth cavity urealytic microflora and determination of the level of its enzymatic activity depending on concentration and amount of urea solution taken as a substrate. 62 randomly chosen patients at the age of 5-64 took part in the study. Each of them rinsed the mouth with 50 ml of 1% urea solution. Before and after rinsing the concentration of ammonia in the mouth cavity air was measured. In patients with highest and lowest activity of mouth cavity urealytic microflora a series of tests was carried out including mouth rinsing with urea solution in various concentrations and amounts and measuring ammonia concentration before and after rinsing. Obtained results were analyzed using mathematical statistics methods. It was found that in 91% ± 1.8% of randomly chosen patients (p < 0.05) mouth cavity microflora showed apparent urease activity. The lowest concentration (0.0625% in 50 ml) and volume (0.5 ml of 1% solution) levels of urea solution were obtained that can exert negative influence on the results of helicobacteriosis diagnosis by means of mouth cavity air analysis. Urealytic microflora in the mouth cavity is very common and may constitute a factor that decreases the specificity of helicobacteriosis diagnosis by means of the methods based on detection of indicators of gas metabolites resulting from the enzymatic reaction in air samples taken from the mouth cavity after oral administration of urea.

  6. [Recommendations for management of acute pharyngitis in adults].

    PubMed

    Cots, Josep M; Alós, Juan-Ignacio; Bárcena, Mario; Boleda, Xavier; Cañada, José L; Gómez, Niceto; Mendoza, Ana; Vilaseca, Isabel; Llor, Carles

    2015-10-01

    Acute pharyngitis in adults is one of the most common infectious diseases seen in general practitioners' consultations. Viral aetiology is the most common. Among bacterial causes, the main agent is Streptococcus pyogenes or group A β-haemolytic streptococcus (GABHS), which causes 5%-30% of the episodes. In the diagnostic process, clinical assessment scales can help clinicians to better predict suspected bacterial aetiology by selecting patients who should undergo a rapid antigen detection test. If these techniques are not performed, an overdiagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis often occurs, resulting in unnecessary prescriptions of antibiotics, most of which are broad spectrum. Consequently, management algorithms that include the use of predictive clinical rules and rapid tests have been set up. The aim of the treatment is speeding up symptom resolution, reducing the contagious time span and preventing local suppurative and non-suppurative complications. Penicillin and amoxicillin are the antibiotics of choice for the treatment of pharyngitis. The association of amoxicillin and clavulanate is not indicated as the initial treatment of acute infection. Neither are macrolides indicated as first-line therapy; they should be reserved for patients allergic to penicillin. The appropriate diagnosis of bacterial pharyngitis and proper use of antibiotics based on the scientific evidence available are crucial. Using management algorithms can be helpful in identifying and screening the cases that do not require antibiotic therapy. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Recommendations for management of acute pharyngitis in adults.

    PubMed

    Cots, Josep M; Alós, Juan-Ignacio; Bárcena, Mario; Boleda, Xavier; Cañada, José L; Gómez, Niceto; Mendoza, Ana; Vilaseca, Isabel; Llor, Carles

    2015-01-01

    Acute pharyngitis in adults is one of the most common infectious diseases seen in general practitioners' consultations. Viral aetiology is the most common. Among bacterial causes, the main agent is Streptococcus pyogenes or group A β-haemolytic streptococcus (GABHS), which causes 5%-30% of the episodes. In the diagnostic process, clinical assessment scales can help clinicians to better predict suspected bacterial aetiology by selecting patients who should undergo a rapid antigen detection test. If these techniques are not performed, an overdiagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis often occurs, resulting in unnecessary prescriptions of antibiotics, most of which are broad spectrum. Consequently, management algorithms that include the use of predictive clinical rules and rapid tests have been set up. The aim of the treatment is speeding up symptom resolution, reducing the contagious time span and preventing local suppurative and non-suppurative complications. Penicillin and amoxicillin are the antibiotics of choice for the treatment of pharyngitis. The association of amoxicillin and clavulanate is not indicated as the initial treatment of acute infection. Neither are macrolides indicated as first-line therapy; they should be reserved for patients allergic to penicillin. The appropriate diagnosis of bacterial pharyngitis and proper use of antibiotics based on the scientific evidence available are crucial. Using management algorithms can be helpful in identifying and screening the cases that do not require antibiotic therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  8. [Recommendations for management of acute pharyngitis in adults].

    PubMed

    Cots, Josep M; Alós, Juan-Ignacio; Bárcena, Mario; Boleda, Xavier; Cañada, José L; Gómez, Niceto; Mendoza, Ana; Vilaseca, Isabel; Llor, Carles

    2016-11-01

    Acute pharyngitis in adults is one of the most common infectious diseases seen in general practitioners' consultations. Viral aetiology is the most common. Among bacterial causes, the main agent is Streptococcus pyogenes or group A β-haemolytic streptococcus (GABHS), which causes 5%-30% of the episodes. In the diagnostic process, clinical assessment scales can help clinicians to better predict suspected bacterial aetiology by selecting patients who should undergo a rapid antigen detection test. If these techniques are not performed, an overdiagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis often occurs, resulting in unnecessary prescriptions of antibiotics, most of which are broad spectrum. Consequently, management algorithms that include the use of predictive clinical rules and rapid tests have been set up. The aim of the treatment is speeding up symptom resolution, reducing the contagious time span and preventing local suppurative and non-suppurative complications. Penicillin and amoxicillin are the antibiotics of choice for the treatment of pharyngitis. The association of amoxicillin and clavulanate is not indicated as the initial treatment of acute infection. Neither are macrolides indicated as first-line therapy; they should be reserved for patients allergic to penicillin. The appropriate diagnosis of bacterial pharyngitis and proper use of antibiotics based on the scientific evidence available are crucial. Using management algorithms can be helpful in identifying and screening the cases that do not require antibiotic therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  9. Cervical abscess and pharyngeal fistula in a horse.

    PubMed

    Scott, E A

    1975-04-15

    A weanling Quarter Horse filly developed ventral swelling of the lower cervical area after difficult passage of a stomach tube for deworming. Intermittent bilateral nasal discharge developed. Radiography revealed fluid and gas density dorsal to the trachea and esophagus. Surgical incision with drainage and debridement of the abscess and fistulous tract, facilitated by use of drains, led to complete recovery. Contrast medium injected after surgery demonstrated a communication between the abscess and the pharyngeal region.

  10. A Case of Persistent and Possibly Treatment Resistant Pharyngeal Gonorrhea.

    PubMed

    Levy, Vivian; Pandori, Mark; Berrada, Zenda L; Relucio, Karen I; Lopez, Teresa P; Samuel, Michael C; Park, Ina U

    2016-04-01

    An HIV-negative man with pharyngeal gonorrhea had a positive test-of-cure (nucleic acid amplification test) result 7 days after treatment with ceftriaxone/azithromycin. Neisseria gonorrhoeae Multi-Antigen Sequencing Type 1407 and mosaic pen A (XXXIV) gene were identified in the test-of-cure specimen, and culture was negative. Retreatment with ceftriaxone 500 mg intramuscularly plus azithromycin 2 g orally yielded a negative test-of-cure result.

  11. Sampling technique is important for optimal isolation of pharyngeal gonorrhoea.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, M; Rane, V; Fairley, C K; Whiley, D M; Bradshaw, C S; Bissessor, M; Chen, M Y

    2013-11-01

    Culture is insensitive for the detection of pharyngeal gonorrhoea but isolation is pivotal to antimicrobial resistance surveillance. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether recommendations provided to clinicians (doctors and nurses) on pharyngeal swabbing technique could improve gonorrhoea detection rates and to determine which aspects of swabbing technique are important for optimal isolation. This study was undertaken at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Australia. Detection rates among clinicians for pharyngeal gonorrhoea were compared before (June 2006-May 2009) and after (June 2009-June 2012) recommendations on swabbing technique were provided. Associations between detection rates and reported swabbing technique obtained via a clinician questionnaire were examined. The overall yield from testing before and after provision of the recommendations among 28 clinicians was 1.6% (134/8586) and 1.8% (264/15,046) respectively (p=0.17). Significantly higher detection rates were seen following the recommendations among clinicians who reported a change in their swabbing technique in response to the recommendations (2.1% vs. 1.5%; p=0.004), swabbing a larger surface area (2.0% vs. 1.5%; p=0.02), applying more swab pressure (2.5% vs. 1.5%; p<0.001) and a change in the anatomical sites they swabbed (2.2% vs. 1.5%; p=0.002). The predominant change in sites swabbed was an increase in swabbing of the oropharynx: from a median of 0% to 80% of the time. More thorough swabbing improves the isolation of pharyngeal gonorrhoea using culture. Clinicians should receive training to ensure swabbing is performed with sufficient pressure and that it covers an adequate area that includes the oropharynx.

  12. An optic pharyngeal manometric sensor for deglutition analysis.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Shuhei; Tohara, Haruka; Kudo, Hiroyuki; Otsuka, Kimio; Saito, Hirokazu; Uematsu, Hiroshi; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2007-12-01

    A micro optic pharyngeal manometric sensor for deglutition analysis was constructed. The optical manometric sensor was composed of a fluid-sensitive and air-sensitive fiber-optic pressure sensor (extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric type) and a lateral pressure-sensitive attachment. The manometric sensor was circumferential type, and had a very small diameter (distal: 2.08 mm, mesial: 0.99 mm). The output current of the sensor was linearly related to the output of a conventional catheter-type solid-state pressure sensor over a range of -3.0 x 10(4) to 3.0 x 10(4) N/m(2). The time constants of responsiveness were 12.2 +/- 2.7 ms during rapid decompression and 32.1 +/- 1.6 ms after a rapid return to ambient pressure. The optical pharyngeal manometric sensor had similar response time characteristics as the naked optical sensor and the conventional solid-state sensor. During in vivo measurement, the waveform of the optical pharyngeal manometer output was almost similar to the waveform of the output of the conventional sensor. The optical manometer could sufficiently detect the lateral pressure and the suction pressure for bolus transit generated in the P-E segment.

  13. Cephalometrics of Pharyngeal Airway Space in Lebanese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Daraze, Antoine; Delatte, Myriam; Liistro, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. The upper airway space is significant in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. The objectives of this study are to assess the dimensions of soft tissue elements of the upper pharyngeal space and evaluate potential correlations with modifying variables such as gender, skeletal class, and anthropometric parameters. Materials and Methods. Lateral cephalograms were obtained from 117 healthy young adult Lebanese subjects. Nineteen cephalometric linear/angular measurements of the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and hypopharynx were recorded. Anthropometric parameters including body mass index and neck circumference were measured. Results. Significant differences were demonstrated for 12 out of the 19 parameters considered between genders. Uvula and tongue dimensions and the distances between epiglottis-posterior pharyngeal wall and epiglottis-posterior nasal spine were significantly larger in males. The anteroposterior inclination of the uvula and the distances between the uvula and posterior pharyngeal wall were significantly greater in females. No significant differences were found between skeletal classes relative to most of the variables. Body mass index and neck circumference were positively correlated with the dimensions of tongue and uvula. Conclusions. Sexual dimorphism relative to some cephalometric variables and anthropometric parameters may account partly for larger oronasopharyngeal spaces in females. Anthropometric data need to be accounted for in population-related comparisons. PMID:28133482

  14. Clarithromycin versus penicillin in the treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis.

    PubMed

    Levenstein, J H

    1991-02-01

    The safety and efficacy of oral clarithromycin 250 mg every 12 h treatment and of oral penicillin VK (the potassium salt of phenoxymethylpenicillin) 250 mg every 6 h were compared in the treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes in an eight centre in-vivo study. A total of 243 patients were enrolled in the study and 125 patients were evaluated for efficacy; evaluable patients included 67 patients in the clarithromycin treatment group and 58 patients in the penicillin VK group. Both antibiotic regimens were effective in the treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis. The clinical cure rate during the initial post-treatment period (between two and ten days post-treatment) for the penicillin VK treated group was 98% (57/58) and for the clarithromycin treated group was 96% (64/67). The bacteriological cure rate during the initial post-treatment period for the penicillin VK treated group was 97% (56/58) and for the clarithromycin treated group was 100% (67/67). A total of 17 patients reported adverse events; seven patients were in the clarithromycin treatment group and ten patients in the penicillin VK treatment group. One patient in the penicillin VK group was withdrawn because of the severity of the adverse advent (balanitis). No clinically significant differences were reported between the two treatment groups for haematology, blood chemistry, or urinalysis evaluations. Oral clarithromycin 250 mg 12-hourly treatment was as safe and effective as penicillin VK 250 mg 6-hourly in the treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis.

  15. Evolution and development of the chordates: collagen and pharyngeal cartilage.

    PubMed

    Rychel, Amanda L; Smith, Shannon E; Shimamoto, Heather T; Swalla, Billie J

    2006-03-01

    Chordates evolved a unique body plan within deuterostomes and are considered to share five morphological characters, a muscular postanal tail, a notochord, a dorsal neural tube, an endostyle, and pharyngeal gill slits. The phylum Chordata typically includes three subphyla, Cephalochordata, Vertebrata, and Tunicata, the last showing a chordate body plan only as a larva. Hemichordates, in contrast, have pharyngeal gill slits, an endostyle, and a postanal tail but appear to lack a notochord and dorsal neural tube. Because hemichordates are the sister group of echinoderms, the morphological features shared with the chordates must have been present in the deuterostome ancestor. No extant echinoderms share any of the chordate features, so presumably they have lost these structures evolutionarily. We review the development of chordate characters in hemichordates and present new data characterizing the pharyngeal gill slits and their cartilaginous gill bars. We show that hemichordate gill bars contain collagen and proteoglycans but are acellular. Hemichordates and cephalochordates, or lancelets, show strong similarities in their gill bars, suggesting that an acellular cartilage may have preceded cellular cartilage in deuterostomes. Our evidence suggests that the deuterostome ancestor was a benthic worm with gill slits and acellular gill cartilages.

  16. Comparative Effectiveness of Instructional Methods: Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Examination

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Nereyda P.; Marks, John G.; Sandow, Pamela R.; Seleski, Christine E.; Logan, Henrietta L.

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of different methods of instruction for the oral and pharyngeal cancer examination. A group of thirty sophomore students at the University of Florida College of Dentistry were randomly assigned to three training groups: video instruction, a faculty-led hands-on instruction, or both video and hands-on instruction. The training intervention involved attending two sessions spaced two weeks apart. The first session used a pretest to assess students’ baseline didactic knowledge and clinical examination technique. The second session utilized two posttests to assess the comparative effectiveness of the training methods on didactic knowledge and clinical technique. The key findings were that students performed the clinical examination significantly better with the combination of video and faculty-led hands-on instruction (p < 0.01). All students improved their clinical exam skills, knowledge, and confidence in performing the oral and pharyngeal cancer examination independent of which training group they were assigned. Utilizing both video and interactive practice promoted greater performance of the clinical technique on the oral and pharyngeal cancer examination. PMID:24706693

  17. Comparative effectiveness of instructional methods: oral and pharyngeal cancer examination.

    PubMed

    Clark, Nereyda P; Marks, John G; Sandow, Pamela R; Seleski, Christine E; Logan, Henrietta L

    2014-04-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of different methods of instruction for the oral and pharyngeal cancer examination. A group of thirty sophomore students at the University of Florida College of Dentistry were randomly assigned to three training groups: video instruction, a faculty-led hands-on instruction, or both video and hands-on instruction. The training intervention involved attending two sessions spaced two weeks apart. The first session used a pretest to assess students' baseline didactic knowledge and clinical examination technique. The second session utilized two posttests to assess the comparative effectiveness of the training methods on didactic knowledge and clinical technique. The key findings were that students performed the clinical examination significantly better with the combination of video and faculty-led hands-on instruction (p<0.01). All students improved their clinical exam skills, knowledge, and confidence in performing the oral and pharyngeal cancer examination independent of which training group they were assigned. Utilizing both video and interactive practice promoted greater performance of the clinical technique on the oral and pharyngeal cancer examination.

  18. Laryngeal sensation and pharyngeal delay time after (chemo)radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Maruo, Takashi; Fujimoto, Yasushi; Ozawa, Kikuko; Hiramatsu, Mariko; Suzuki, Atsushi; Nishio, Naoki; Nakashima, Tsutomu

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the association between changes in laryngeal sensation and initiation of swallowing reflex or swallowing function before and after (chemo)radiotherapy. A prospective study was conducted in a tertiary referral university hospital. Thirteen patients who received (chemo)radiotherapy for treatment of laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer were included. Laryngeal sensation was evaluated at the tip of the epiglottis before and 1, 3 months, and 1 year after (chemo)radiotherapy. Videofluoroscopy was performed at the same time. Quantitative determinations included changes in laryngeal sensation, computed analysis of pharyngeal delay time, the distance and velocity of hyoid bone movement during the phase of hyoid excursion, and pharyngeal residue rate (the proportion of the bolus that was left as residue in the pharynx at the first swallow). Laryngeal sensation significantly deteriorated 1 month after (chemo)radiotherapy, but there was a tendency to return to pretreatment levels 1 year after treatment. Neither pharyngeal delay time nor displacement of the hyoid bone changed significantly before and after (chemo)radiotherapy. In addition, there was no significant difference in the mean velocity of hyoid bone movement and the amount of stasis in the pharynx at the first swallow before and after (chemo)radiotherapy. After (chemo)radiotherapy, laryngeal sensation deteriorated. But, in this study, videofluoroscopy showed that swallowing reflex and function were maintained.

  19. Respiratory-related pharyngeal constrictor muscle activity in decerebrate cats.

    PubMed

    Kuna, S T; Vanoye, C R

    1997-11-01

    Respiratory-related activity of the hyopharyngeus (middle pharyngeal constrictor) and thyropharyngeus (inferior pharyngeal constrictor) muscles was determined in decerebrate, tracheotomized adult cats and compared with the electromyographic activity of the thyroarytenoid, a vocal cord adductor. During quiet breathing, the hyopharyngeus and usually the thyroarytenoid exhibited phasic activity during expiration and tonic activity throughout the respiratory cycle. Respiratory-related thyropharyngeus activity was absent under these conditions. Progressive hyperoxic hypercapnia and progressive isocapnic hypoxia increased phasic expiratory activity in both pharyngeal constrictor (PC) muscles but tended to suppress thyroarytenoid activity. Passively induced hypocapnia and the central apnea that followed the cessation of the mechanical hyperventilation were associated with tonic activation of the hyopharyngeus and thyroarytenoid but no recruitment in thyropharyngeus activity. The expiratory phase of a sigh and progressive pneumothorax were associated with an increase in phasic thyroarytenoid activity but no change in phasic PC activity. The results indicate that a variety of stimuli modulate respiratory-related PC activity, suggesting that the PC muscles may have a role in the regulation of upper airway patency during respiration.

  20. A clinical decision rule for streptococcal pharyngitis management: An update

    PubMed Central

    Nasirian, Hosain; TarvijEslami, Saeedeh; Matini, Esfandiar; Bayesh, Seyedehsara; Omaraee, Yasaman

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis is a common disease worldwide. We aimed to establish a pragmatic program as a clinical decision rule for GAS pharyngitis diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This article derived from a research project on children aged 6–15 years. Five hundred and seventy-one children met the enrollment criteria on whom throat culture and validities of clinical findings were assessed in positive and negative throat culture groups. RESULTS: Positive GAS throat culture group included 99 (17.3%) patients with a positive culture. Negative GAS throat culture group included 472 (82.6%) patients. Exudate or enlarged tender nodes each one had 63% and 68% sensitivity and 31.5% and 37.5% specificity with a high percentage of negative predictive value (NPV) 80.54% and 85.09%, respectively. Sequence test revealed validities of exudate plus enlarged nodes at 43.62% sensitivity and 57.19% specificity with 83% NPV. CONCLUSIONS: High NPV of 83% indicated that similar prevalence in the absence of either exudate or enlarged tender lymph nodes. Probability of GAS negative throat cultures among children suspected of GAS pharyngitis was 83% and would correctly not receive inopportune antibiotics. PMID:28367027

  1. Pharyngeal swallowing disorders: selection for and outcome after myotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Mason, R J; Bremner, C G; DeMeester, T R; Crookes, P F; Peters, J H; Hagen, J A; DeMeester, S R

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop selection criteria based on the mechanical properties of pharyngoesophageal swallowing that indicate when patients with pharyngeal dysphagia will benefit from a myotomy. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The pathophysiology of pharyngoesophageal swallowing disorders is complex. The disorder is of interest to several medical specialists (gastroenterologists, otorhinolaryngologists, general and thoracic surgeons), which contributes to confusion about the entity. The management is compounded because it is most frequently seen in the elderly, is often associated with generalized neuromuscular disease, and occurs with a high prevalence of concomitant disease. The selection of patients for myotomy is difficult and of major importance to the quality of life of the affected patients. METHOD: One hundred seven patients without a Zenker diverticulum but with pharyngeal dysphagia underwent a detailed manometric assessment of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES). Cricopharyngeal opening was identified by the presence of a subatmospheric pressure drop before bolus arrival. Impaired pharyngoesophageal segment compliance resulting in a resistance to pharyngoesophageal flow was determined by measuring the intrabolus pressure generated by a 5-ml liquid bolus. RESULTS: Thirty-one of 107 patients underwent a myotomy (29%). Both impaired sphincter opening and increased intrabolus pressure predicted a good outcome. CONCLUSION: Myotomy is beneficial in patients with pharyngeal swallowing disorders and manometric evidence of defective sphincter opening and increased intrabolus pressure. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:9790349

  2. Craniofacial and pharyngeal airway morphology in patients with acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Balos Tuncer, Burcu; Canigur Bavbek, Nehir; Ozkan, Cigdem; Tuncer, Cumhur; Eroglu Altinova, Alev; Gungor, Kahraman; Akturk, Mujde; Balos Toruner, Fusun

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess differences in craniofacial characteristics, upper spine and pharyngeal airway morphology in patients with acromegaly compared with healthy individuals. Twenty-one patients with acromegaly were compared with 22 controls by linear and angular measurements on cephalograms. The differences between the mean values of cephalometric parameters were analyzed with Mann-Whitney U-test. With respect to controls, anterior (p<0.05), middle (p<0.01) and posterior (p<0.05) cranial base lengths were increased, sella turcica was enlarged (p<0.001) and upper spine morphology demonstrated differences in the height of atlas (p<0.01) and axis (p<0.05) in patients with acromegaly. Craniofacial changes were predominantly found in the frontal bone (p<0.01) and the mandible (p<0.05). As for the airway, patients with acromegaly exhibited diminished dimensions at nasal (p<0.001), uvular (p<0.01), mandibular (p<0.01) pharyngeal levels and at the narrowest point of the pharyngeal airway space (p<0.001) compared to healthy controls. Soft palate width was significantly higher (p<0.001) and the hyoid bone was more vertically positioned (p<0.01) in patients with acromegaly. Current results point to the importance of the reduced airway dimensions and that dentists and/or orthodontists should be aware of the cranial or dental abnormalities in patients with acromegaly.

  3. The oral microflora--friend or foe? Can we decide?

    PubMed

    Marsh, P D; Percival, R S

    2006-08-01

    This paper discusses the factors that determine whether the oral microflora play a beneficial or detrimental role in the health of an individual during their life. The resident microflora of the mouth is diverse, and distinct from that found elsewhere in the body due to its unique biological and physical properties. This natural microflora is essential for the normal development of the physiology of the host, and contributes to the host defences by excluding exogenous micro-organisms. The oral microflora varies in composition on distinct surfaces (e.g. teeth, mucosa), and at sites on a specific surface (e.g. fissures, gingival crevice), demonstrating that subtle properties of a habitat influence the ability of individual species to colonise and dominate. The composition of these oral microbial communities remains relatively stable over time (microbial homeostasis). This stability does not indicate a passive relationship with the host, but reflects a dynamic balance among the component species. However, this stability can be perturbed by significant changes to the oral environment or in a person's life-style that occur during the life of an individual. Alterations in diet, medication, smoking, saliva flow, denture wearing, general health, etc, can lead to overgrowth by previously minor components of the oral microflora, which can predispose a site to disease. Likewise, the immune response can wane in old age, which may result in colonisation by exogenous and often pathogenic micro-organisms. Oral micro-organisms can also act as opportunistic pathogens, and cause serious disease elsewhere in the body. Therefore, active oral health care management is needed in order to maintain microbial homeostasis throughout life to ensure that we reap the benefits of our resident oral bacteria and not suffer from their mischief.

  4. [The bacterial microflora of diabetic foot infection and factors determining its spectrum in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)].

    PubMed

    Guira, O; Tiéno, H; Traoré, S; Diallo, I; Ouangré, E; Sagna, Y; Zabsonré, J; Yanogo, D; Traoré, S S; Drabo, Y J

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the bacterial microflora of diabetic foot infection and to identify the factors which determine the bacterial spectrum in order to increase empiric antibiotic prescription in Ouagadougou. The study was a cross-sectional one, carried from July 1st, 2011 to June 30, 2012 in the departments of internal medicine and general and digestive surgery in Yalgado Ouédraogo teaching hospital. Samples for bacteriological tests consisted of aspiration of pus through the healthy skin, curettage and swab of the base of the ulceration or tissue biopsy from foot lesions. The bacteria's sensitivity to antibiotics has been tested by the qualitative method (Kirby-Bauer). The frequency of diabetic foot infection was 14.45% and the monthly incidence 5.33. The mean age of patients was 56 years and the sex ratio 1.37. Foot ulcerations were chronic in 33 (51.56%), necrotic in 51 (79.69%) and associated with osteitis in 40 (62.5%) patients. Infection was grade 3 in 70.3% cases. Thirty-nine patients had received antibiotics before hospital admission. Among the 71 samples, 62 (87.32%) cultures were positive: 53 (85.48%) monomicrobial and 9 (14.52%) bimicrobial. Aerobic Gram-positive cocci (76%) were the most frequent from ulcerations: Staphylococcus aureus (32.39%), Streptococcus sp (18.30%). Negative coagulase staphylococci have been found in 23.94% cases. Aerobic gram-negative bacilli have been isolated from 24% ulcerations. No factor was associated with the type of bacteria. Gram-positive pathogen cocci showed a high sensitivity to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and oxacillin. No methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or extended-spectrum beta lactamase Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL) have been isolated. A better design is necessary to a clarification of bacterial flora in diabetic foot infections. Prevention of bacterial resistance is also needed.

  5. Role of Hox PG2 genes in Nile tilapia pharyngeal arch specification: implications for gnathostome pharyngeal arch evolution.

    PubMed

    Le Pabic, Pierre; Scemama, Jean-Luc; Stellwag, Edmund J

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic reconstructions suggest that the ancestral osteichthyan Hox paralog group 2 gene complement was composed of two genes, Hoxa2 and b2, both of which have been retained in tetrapods, but only one of which functions as a selector gene of second pharyngeal arch identity (PA2). Genome duplication at the inception of the teleosts likely generated four Hox PG2 genes, only two of which, hoxa2b and b2a, have been preserved in zebrafish, where they serve as functionally redundant PA2 selector genes. Evidence from our laboratory has shown that other telelosts, specifically striped bass and Nile tilapia, harbor three transcribed Hox PG2 genes, hoxa2a, a2b, and b2a, with unspecified function(s). We have focused on characterizing the function of the three Nile tilapia Hox PG2 genes as a model to examine the effects of postgenome duplication gene loss on the evolution of developmental gene function. We studied Hox PG2 gene function in tilapia by examining the effects of independent morpholino oligonucleotide (MO)-induced knockdowns on pharyngeal arch morphology and Hox gene expression patterns. Morphological defects resulting from independent MO-induced knockdowns of tilapia hoxa2a, a2b, and b2a included the expected PA2 to PA1 homeotic transformations previously observed in tetrapods and zebrafish, as well as concordant and unexpected morphological changes in posterior arch-derived cartilages. Of particular interest, was the observation of a MO-induced supernumerary arch between PA6 and PA7, which occurred concomitantly with other MO-induced pharyngeal arch defects. Beyond these previously unreported morphant-induced transformations, a comparison of Hox PG2 gene expression patterns in tilapia Hox PG2 morphants were indicative of arch-specific auto- and cross-regulatory activities as well as a Hox paralog group 2 interdependent regulatory network for control of pharyngeal arch specification.

  6. Vocal Problems among Aerobic Instructors and Aerobic Participants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidel, Sandra E.; Torgerson, John K.

    1993-01-01

    Comparison of vocal problems of 50 female aerobic instructors and 50 female aerobic participants by means of questionnaires found that aerobic instructors generally experienced more hoarseness and episodes of voice loss during and after instructing and exhibited a significantly higher prevalence of nodules. (Author/DB)

  7. Dance--Aerobic and Anaerobic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arlette

    1984-01-01

    This article defines and explains aerobic exercise and its effects on the cardiovascular system. Various studies on dancers are cited indicating that dance is an anaerobic activity with some small degree of aerobic benefit. (DF)

  8. Dance--Aerobic and Anaerobic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arlette

    1984-01-01

    This article defines and explains aerobic exercise and its effects on the cardiovascular system. Various studies on dancers are cited indicating that dance is an anaerobic activity with some small degree of aerobic benefit. (DF)

  9. Unusual Pharyngeal Pain Caused by Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Report of Three Cases

    PubMed Central

    Anzai, Takashi; Hiroshige, Yuu; Nakamura, Masahiro; Iizuka, Takashi; Nakazato, Yuji; Ikeda, Katsuhisa

    2017-01-01

    Most patients complaining of pharyngeal pain have an upper respiratory tract infection or other local explanation for their pain. Here we show 3 rare cases of patients visiting our Otorhinolaryngology Department who had an initial symptom of pharyngeal pain caused by acute coronary syndrome (ACS). An electrocardiogram and a cardiac biomarker test are recommended to exclude ACS with atypical presentation in cases without pharyngolaryngeal findings comparable to pharyngeal pain. PMID:28243429

  10. The microflora of fermented nixtamalized corn.

    PubMed

    Sefa-Dedeh, Samuel; Cornelius, Beatrice; Amoa-Awua, Wisdom; Sakyi-Dawson, Esther; Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene

    2004-10-01

    Nixtamalization is a traditional process that improves the nutritional quality of corn. To provide a means of utilizing the nutritional benefits of nixtamalized corn and improve product acceptability, lactic acid fermentation was applied. The objective of the study was to study the microbial profile and establish the important lactobacilli of fermenting nixtamalized corn dough. Two batches of cleaned whole corn were subjected to the process of nixtamalization, using two concentrations of lime (0.5 or 1.0%), milled, made into a dough (50% moisture) and fermented spontaneously for 72 h. A control sample was prepared without alkaline treatment. pH and titratable acidity of the dough were measured. Aerobic mesophiles, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds were enumerated on Plate Count Agar (PCA), deMan, Rogossa and Sharpe (MRS) Agar and Malt Extract Agar (MEA), respectively. The identity of lactobacilli present was established at the species level using API 50 CHL. The pH of all the fermenting systems decreased with fermentation time with concomitant increase in titratable acidity. Lactic acid bacteria in numbers of 1.6 x 10(9), 2.3 x 10(9) and 1.8 x 10(9) cfu/g, respectively yeasts and molds, and numbers of 8.0 x 10(7), 5.0 x 10(5) and 1.7 x 10(5) cfu/g, respectively were observed in the control and the two nixtamalized (0.5% and 1.0% lime) samples after 48 h of fermentation. Lactobacilli identified in the fermenting nixtamalized corn dough were Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus cellobiosus as well as Pediococcus spp. The study demonstrates that nixtamalized corn though alkaline in nature can be subjected to spontaneous fermentation to produce a sour product.

  11. Oral and pharyngeal bolus transit in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Cassiani, Rachel Aguiar; Santos, Carla Manfredi; Baddini-Martinez, José; Dantas, Roberto Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with respiratory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), may have swallowing dysfunction. Objective The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the oral and pharyngeal phases of swallowing in patients with COPD. Methods We studied 16 patients with clinical manifestations and pulmonary function tests diagnosis of COPD (mean age: 68 years) and 15 nonsmoking healthy volunteers (mean age: 65 years) with normal pulmonary function tests. All subjects were submitted to clinical and videofluoroscopic evaluation of swallowing. Each subject performed in duplicate swallows of 5 mL and 10 mL of liquid bolus, paste bolus, and a solid bolus. Results In general, the duration of the events of the pharyngeal phase of swallowing was longer in COPD patients than controls. The difference was significant in the laryngeal vestibular closure, hyoid movement, and pharyngeal transit with swallows of both volumes of liquid bolus; in oral–pharyngeal transit with 5 mL paste bolus; and in pharyngeal and oral–pharyngeal transit with solid bolus. The difference between the duration of maximal laryngeal elevation and the duration of pharyngeal transit was higher in control subjects than in patients with COPD. Conclusion The results suggested that patients with COPD have a longer pharyngeal swallowing phase than normal subjects, which is associated with a decrease in the difference between the duration of maximal laryngeal elevation and the duration of pharyngeal transit. PMID:25784795

  12. A stem-deuterostome origin of the vertebrate pharyngeal transcriptional network

    PubMed Central

    Gillis, J. Andrew; Fritzenwanker, Jens H.; Lowe, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Hemichordate worms possess ciliated gills on their trunk, and the homology of these structures with the pharyngeal gill slits of chordates has long been a topic of debate in the fields of evolutionary biology and comparative anatomy. Here, we show conservation of transcription factor expression between the developing pharyngeal gill pores of the hemichordate Saccoglossus kowalevskii and the pharyngeal gill slit precursors (i.e. pharyngeal endodermal outpockets) of vertebrates. Transcription factors that are expressed in the pharyngeal endoderm, ectoderm and mesenchyme of vertebrates are expressed exclusively in the pharyngeal endoderm of S. kowalevskii. The pharyngeal arches and tongue bars of S. kowalevskii lack Tbx1-expressing mesoderm, and are supported solely by an acellular collagenous endoskeleton and by compartments of the trunk coelom. Our findings suggest that hemichordate and vertebrate gills are homologous as simple endodermal outpockets from the foregut, and that much vertebrate pharyngeal complexity arose coincident with the incorporation of cranial paraxial mesoderm and neural crest-derived mesenchyme within pharyngeal arches along the chordate and vertebrate stems, respectively. PMID:21676974

  13. Preservation of speech and swallowing after excision of a pharyngeal pouch tumour.

    PubMed

    Shakeel, Muhammad; Sankar, V; Vallamkondu, V; Chapman, A; Hussain, A

    2015-04-01

    A pharyngeal pouch is not an uncommon cause of dysphagia in older population. However, finding a tumour in a pharyngeal pouch is very rare. A 79-year-old gentleman presented with dysphagia and a neck lump. Videofluoroscopy showed a pharyngeal pouch. Rigid endoscopy confirmed a tumour arising from the pharyngeal pouch. The histology showed it to be squamous cell carcinoma. The MRI scan based staging was T3N1M0. The patient underwent modified right radical neck dissection, partial pharyngectomy with primary repair and tracheostomy. He completed postoperative radiotherapy and remained disease-free at 4 years follow-up.

  14. Delayed Failure after Endoscopic Staple Repair of an Anterior Spine Surgery Related Pharyngeal Diverticulum

    PubMed Central

    Al-Khudari, Samer; Succar, Eric; Ghanem, Tamer; Gardner, Glendon M.

    2013-01-01

    We present a rare complication of endoscopic staple repair of a pharyngeal diverticulum related to prior anterior cervical spine surgery. A 70-year-old male developed a symptomatic pharyngeal diverticulum 2 years after an anterior cervical fusion that was repaired via endoscopic stapler-assisted diverticulectomy. He initially had improvement of his symptoms after the stapler-assisted approach. Three years later, the patient presented with dysphagia and was found to have erosion of the cervical hardware into the pharyngeal lumen at the site of the prior repair. We present the first reported case of late hardware erosion into a pharyngeal diverticulum after endoscopic stapler repair. PMID:24454395

  15. Oral and pharyngeal bolus transit in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Cassiani, Rachel Aguiar; Santos, Carla Manfredi; Baddini-Martinez, José; Dantas, Roberto Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Patients with respiratory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), may have swallowing dysfunction. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the oral and pharyngeal phases of swallowing in patients with COPD. We studied 16 patients with clinical manifestations and pulmonary function tests diagnosis of COPD (mean age: 68 years) and 15 nonsmoking healthy volunteers (mean age: 65 years) with normal pulmonary function tests. All subjects were submitted to clinical and videofluoroscopic evaluation of swallowing. Each subject performed in duplicate swallows of 5 mL and 10 mL of liquid bolus, paste bolus, and a solid bolus. In general, the duration of the events of the pharyngeal phase of swallowing was longer in COPD patients than controls. The difference was significant in the laryngeal vestibular closure, hyoid movement, and pharyngeal transit with swallows of both volumes of liquid bolus; in oral-pharyngeal transit with 5 mL paste bolus; and in pharyngeal and oral-pharyngeal transit with solid bolus. The difference between the duration of maximal laryngeal elevation and the duration of pharyngeal transit was higher in control subjects than in patients with COPD. The results suggested that patients with COPD have a longer pharyngeal swallowing phase than normal subjects, which is associated with a decrease in the difference between the duration of maximal laryngeal elevation and the duration of pharyngeal transit.

  16. Mesodermal retinoic acid signaling regulates endothelial cell coalescence in caudal pharyngeal arch artery vasculogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Pashmforoush, Mohammad; Sucov, Henry M.

    2011-01-01

    Disruption of retinoic acid signaling causes a variety of pharyngeal arch artery and great vessel defects, as well as malformations in many other tissues, including those derived from the pharyngeal endoderm. Previous studies implied that arch artery defects in the context of defective RA signaling occur secondary to pharyngeal pouch segmentation defects, although this model has never been experimentally verified. In this study, we examined arch artery morphogenesis during mouse development, and the role of RA in this process. We show in normal embryos that the arch arteries form by vasculogenic differentiation of pharyngeal mesoderm. Using various genetic backgrounds and tissue-specific mutation approaches, we segregate pharyngeal arch artery and pharyngeal pouch defects in RA receptor mutants, and show that RA signal transduction only in pharyngeal mesoderm is required for arch artery formation. RA does not control pharyngeal mesodermal differentiation to endothelium, but instead promotes the aggregation of endothelial cells into nascent vessels. Expression of VE-cadherin was substantially reduced in RAR mutants, and this deficiency may underlie the arch artery defects. The consequences of disrupted mesodermal and endodermal RA signaling were restricted to the 4th and 6th arch arteries and to the 4th pharyngeal pouch, respectively, suggesting that different regulatory mechanisms control the formation of the more anterior arch arteries and pouches. PMID:22040871

  17. Implementation of Aerobic Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD).

    This information is intended for health professionals interested in implementing aerobic exercise programs in public schools, institutions of higher learning, and business and industry workplaces. The papers are divided into three general sections. The introductory section presents a basis for adhering to a health fitness lifestyle, using…

  18. Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Yurkov, Vladimir V.; Beatty, J. Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are a relatively recently discovered bacterial group. Although taxonomically and phylogenetically heterogeneous, these bacteria share the following distinguishing features: the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a incorporated into reaction center and light-harvesting complexes, low levels of the photosynthetic unit in cells, an abundance of carotenoids, a strong inhibition by light of bacteriochlorophyll synthesis, and the inability to grow photosynthetically under anaerobic conditions. Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are classified in two marine (Erythrobacter and Roseobacter) and six freshwater (Acidiphilium, Erythromicrobium, Erythromonas, Porphyrobacter, Roseococcus, and Sandaracinobacter) genera, which phylogenetically belong to the α-1, α-3, and α-4 subclasses of the class Proteobacteria. Despite this phylogenetic information, the evolution and ancestry of their photosynthetic properties are unclear. We discuss several current proposals for the evolutionary origin of aerobic phototrophic bacteria. The closest phylogenetic relatives of aerobic phototrophic bacteria include facultatively anaerobic purple nonsulfur phototrophic bacteria. Since these two bacterial groups share many properties, yet have significant differences, we compare and contrast their physiology, with an emphasis on morphology and photosynthetic and other metabolic processes. PMID:9729607

  19. Aerobic Dance in Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiles, Barbara Ann; Moore, Suzanne

    1981-01-01

    Aerobic dance offers a challenging workout in a social atmosphere. Though some physical education instructors tend to exclude dance units from the curriculum, most could teach aerobic dance if they had a basic knowledge of aerobic routines. The outline for a unit to be used in the class is presented. (JN)

  20. [Effect of fluoride on gut microflora of silkworm (Bombyx mori)].

    PubMed

    Li, Guannan; Xia, Xuejuan; Sendegeya, Parfait; Zhao, Huanhuan; Long, Yaohang; Zhu, Yong

    2015-07-04

    We examined the effect of fluoride on gut microflora of silkworm. After DNA extraction and PCR amplification, clone libraries of 16S rRNA gene fragment were constructed. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) was performed by digestion of the 16S rRNA gene, and each unique restriction fragment polymorphism pattern was designated as an operational taxonomic unit (OTU). A total of 14 OTUs were identified from intestinal samples of both T6 and 734. Phylogenetic trees of bacterial 16S rRNA nucleotide sequences were constructed and analyzed. Furthermore, the dominant bacteria were studied by the nested polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DDGE) technology. After fluorosis, the flora of Enterococcus and Bacillus reduced. However, the flora of Staphylococcus increased. Fluoride can destroy the balance of microflora in the gut of silkworm by changing the bacteria diversity and proportion, which has bigger effect to 734 than T6.

  1. Metabolism of 7-nitrogenz[a]anthracene by intestinal microflora

    SciTech Connect

    Morehead, M.C.; Franklin, W.; Fu, P.P.; Evans, F.E.; Heinze, T.M.; Cerniglia, C.E.

    1994-12-31

    Pure cultures of anaerobic intestinal bacteria and mixed fecal microflora from human, rat, mouse, and pig were screened for the ability to metabolize 7-nitrobenz[a]anthracene. Based on analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and by ultraviolent (UV), mass, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral techniques, the compounds were identified as 7-aminobenz[a]anthracene and benz[a]anthracene 7,12-dione. Identification of 7-NH{sub 2}BA as a metabolite of 7-NO{sub 2}BA indicates that the anaerobic intestinal bacteria are capable of reducing 7-NO{sub 2}BA to potentially bioactive intermediates. The reductive capacities of the mixed intestinal microflora were generally greater than those of pure cultures. Thus, metabolism of 7-NO{sub 2}BA in the intestinal tract may be underestimated if pure cultures are used as the sole method for evaluating the potential hazard.

  2. Effect of Propylene Oxide Treatment on the Microflora of Pecans

    PubMed Central

    Blanchard, Robert O.; Hanlin, Richard T.

    1973-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the effectiveness of propylene oxide (PO) treatment in controlling the microflora of pecans. As used commercially, PO has little effect on internal bacteria and fungi in pecan halves. Tests of surface washings of commercially treated pecans showed a reduction of 96% in coliform bacteria following PO treatment. Under controlled laboratory conditions, PO gave 80 to 92% reduction of surface microflora and at least 64% reduction of internal flora, but neither bacteria nor fungi could be eliminated completely, even with high dosages. Current assay methods for determining bacterial content of nutmeats were shown to be inadequate because they utilize only surface washings and thus do not give an accurate picture of the total bacterial population of the nutmeat. Consequently, such assays do not permit an accurate assessment of any potential health hazard related to these organisms. PMID:4202707

  3. Syndromes of the first and second pharyngeal arches: A review.

    PubMed

    Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita; Ornelas, Camila C; Fanganiello, Roberto D

    2009-08-01

    Our aim in this review is to discuss currently known mechanisms associated with three important syndromes of the first and second pharyngeal arches: Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS), Oculo-auriculo-vertebral syndrome (AOVS) and Auriculo-Condylar syndrome (ACS) or question mark ear syndrome. TCS and ACS are autosomal dominant diseases, with nearly complete penetrance and wide spectrum of clinical variability. The phenotype of the latter has several overlapping features with OAVS, but OAVS may exist in both sporadic and autosomal dominant forms. Mutations in the TCOF1 gene are predicted to cause premature termination codons, leading to haploinsuficiency of the protein treacle and causing TCS. Low amount of treacle leads ultimately to a reduction in the number of cranial neural crest cells migrating to the first and second pharyngeal arches. Other than TCS, the genes associated with ACS and OAVS are still unknown. The first locus for ACS was mapped by our group to 1p21-23 but there is genetic heretogeneity. Genetic heterogeneity is also present in OAVS. Based on the molecular analysis of balanced translocation in an OAVS patient, it has been suggested that abnormal expression of BAPX1 possibly due to epigenetic disregulation might be involved with the etiology of OAVS. Involvement of environmental events has also been linked to the causation of OAVS. Identification of factors leading to these disorders are important for a comprehensive delineation of the molecular pathways underlying the craniofacial development from the first and the second pharyngeal arches, for genetic counseling and to open alternative strategies for patient treatment.

  4. Estimation of Pharyngeal Collapsibility During Sleep by Peak Inspiratory Airflow.

    PubMed

    Azarbarzin, Ali; Sands, Scott A; Taranto-Montemurro, Luigi; Oliveira Marques, Melania D; Genta, Pedro R; Edwards, Bradley A; Butler, James; White, David P; Wellman, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Pharyngeal critical closing pressure (Pcrit) or collapsibility is a major determinant of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and may be used to predict the success/failure of non-continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapies. Since its assessment involves overnight manipulation of CPAP, we sought to validate the peak inspiratory flow during natural sleep (without CPAP) as a simple surrogate measurement of collapsibility. Fourteen patients with OSA attended overnight polysomnography with pneumotachograph airflow. The middle third of the night (non-rapid eye movement sleep [NREM]) was dedicated to assessing Pcrit in passive and active states via abrupt and gradual CPAP pressure drops, respectively. Pcrit is the extrapolated CPAP pressure at which flow is zero. Peak and mid-inspiratory flow off CPAP was obtained from all breaths during sleep (excluding arousal) and compared with Pcrit. Active Pcrit, measured during NREM sleep, was strongly correlated with both peak and mid-inspiratory flow during NREM sleep (r = -0.71, p < .005 and r = -0.64, p < .05, respectively), indicating that active pharyngeal collapsibility can be reliably estimated from simple airflow measurements during polysomnography. However, there was no significant relationship between passive Pcrit, measured during NREM sleep, and peak or mid-inspiratory flow obtained from NREM sleep. Flow measurements during REM sleep were not significantly associated with active or passive Pcrit. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of estimating active Pcrit using flow measurements in patients with OSA. This method may enable clinicians to estimate pharyngeal collapsibility without sophisticated equipment and potentially aid in the selection of patients for non- positive airway pressure therapies.

  5. [Pharmacological studies of trilex on treatment of pharyngitis].

    PubMed

    Jiang, J; Xu, S; Kong, Y

    2000-10-01

    Trilex consisted of three species: Ilex latifolia, Ilex asprella and Ilex rotunda. Trilex had the antipyretic effects, decreased the rat body temperature about 0.8 degree C on yeast induced hyperthermia. Trilex could obviously enhance the threshold of hot plate induced pain in mice. The maximum threshold increased 43.8%. Trilex could also inhibit acetic acid induced inflammatory ooze in mice abdominal cavity. The inhibitory rate was 34.8%. These results showed that trilex had antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. It could be used to treat acute and chromic pharyngitis.

  6. Design of sensors for microcirculation investigation in pharyngeal mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mareew, Gleb O.; Mareew, Oleg V.; Fedosov, Ivan V.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2004-08-01

    Sensors designed for research of blood microcirculation in pharyngeal mucosa by a laser Doppler flowmetry, are described and considered in view of anatomic and physiological features of objects of research. Two designs of sensors for laser Doppler flowmetry are described - non-contact and contact. The results of and clinical testing at norm and different pathologies of pharynx of on calibration of sensors, and also their comparative technical characteristics and materials of clinical researches of microcirculation are resulted at norm and at a various pathology.

  7. [Multiple antibiotic resistance of associative microflora during urogenital pathology].

    PubMed

    Akaeva, F S; Omarova, S M; Adieva, A A; Medzhidov, M M

    2008-01-01

    Susceptibility of associative microflora isolated from patients with inflammatory diseases of urogenital tract was investigated. Etiologic structure of the diseases and cross-resistance to antibiotics of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcusaureus, and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from women with endocervicitis and men with urethritiswas assessed. Ciprofloxacin and gentamycin had the highest activity, whereas beta-lactam antibiotics were mildly active. Isolated strainswere resistant to macrolides, penicillines and imipenem. Main types of multidrug resistance to antibiotics were presented in strains circulated in Dagestan.

  8. Enteral nutrition and microflora in pediatric Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Lionetti, Paolo; Callegari, Maria Luisa; Ferrari, Susanna; Cavicchi, Maria Chiara; Pozzi, Elena; de Martino, Maurizio; Morelli, Lorenzo

    2005-01-01

    Exclusive enteral nutrition (EN) is an established primary therapy for pediatric Crohn's disease (CD). The mechanism of action of such treatment is still conjectural. The aim of the present study was to investigate if EN-induced remission is associated with modification of the fecal microflora in CD. Stool samples were collected from 5 healthy children and adolescents over a period of 3 months, and from 9 children and adolescents with active CD. To induce disease remission, children with CD received a course of exclusive EN for 8 weeks with a polymeric formula (Modulen IBD, Nestlè). At the end of the course of exclusive EN, children returned to a free diet but continued to take 40% of the daily caloric intake as polymeric formula. Fecal microflora was analyzed by 16S ribosomal DNA polymerase chain reaction and temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) with direct visual comparison of band profiles of PCR products. In 8 of 9 children, the exclusive EN alone induced disease remission. In 1 child, it was necessary to add steroids to the exclusive EN course to achieve remission. In all children with CD, analysis of gel band distribution revealed profound modification of the fecal microflora after exclusive EN. Variations of band distribution corresponding to different bacterial species were observed also in children on partial EN and required time to achieve stability of the band profile. In contrast, control healthy children showed a host-specific and stable TGGE profile over time. These data suggest that a possible mechanism of action of EN in inducing disease remission in CD is the capacity of modification of gut microflora. Possible explanations of such capacity are both low residue and prebiotic properties of the polymeric liquid formula.

  9. Surface microflora of four smear-ripened cheeses.

    PubMed

    Mounier, Jérôme; Gelsomino, Roberto; Goerges, Stefanie; Vancanneyt, Marc; Vandemeulebroecke, Katrien; Hoste, Bart; Scherer, Siegfried; Swings, Jean; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Cogan, Timothy M

    2005-11-01

    The microbial composition of smear-ripened cheeses is not very clear. A total of 194 bacterial isolates and 187 yeast isolates from the surfaces of four Irish farmhouse smear-ripened cheeses were identified at the midpoint of ripening using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), repetitive sequence-based PCR, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing for identifying and typing the bacteria and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (mtDNA RFLP) analysis for identifying and typing the yeast. The yeast microflora was very uniform, and Debaryomyces hansenii was the dominant species in the four cheeses. Yarrowia lipolytica was also isolated in low numbers from one cheese. The bacteria were highly diverse, and 14 different species, Corynebacterium casei, Corynebacterium variabile, Arthrobacter arilaitensis, Arthrobacter sp., Microbacterium gubbeenense, Agrococcus sp. nov., Brevibacterium linens, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus equorum, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Micrococcus luteus, Halomonas venusta, Vibrio sp., and Bacillus sp., were identified on the four cheeses. Each cheese had a more or less unique microflora with four to nine species on its surface. However, two bacteria, C. casei and A. arilaitensis, were found on each cheese. Diversity at the strain level was also observed, based on the different PFGE patterns and mtDNA RFLP profiles of the dominant bacterial and yeast species. None of the ripening cultures deliberately inoculated onto the surface were reisolated from the cheeses. This study confirms the importance of the adventitious, resident microflora in the ripening of smear cheeses.

  10. [Vulvovaginitis: vaginal pH changes and associated microflora].

    PubMed

    Saturnino, Ana Conceiçáo Ribeiro Dantas; Sisenando, Herbert Ary Arzabe Anteza Costa Nóbrega; Pereira, Alessandra Ramalho; Vale, Ana Patrícia Medeiros; Pires, Leila Monte; de Araújo, Jarine Torres; Ramos, Eleni Souto Nóbrega

    2005-01-01

    To establish a correlation between pH vaginal and the microflora associated in carriers of vulvovaginites. In the present study, the cytopathological examination and the vaginal flow in a group of 65 sexually active women had been carried through, 20 and 72 years, taken care of in the Laboratório de Citologia Clínica do Departamento de Análises Clínicas e Toxicológicas da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, for determination of microorganisms in cervicovaginal sample and of pH in the vaginal flow. Associating pH vaginal with the presence of vulvovaginitis, it was evidenced that the Candida sp. occurred more frequently in pH 4.0, Trichomonas vaginalis in pH 6.0, Gardnerella vaginalis in pH 5.0, coconuts in pH 5.0, bacilli in pH 4.0 and cocos/bacilos in pH 6.0. It was observed that all the patients had presented at least one type of ethiological agent of vulvovaginiti and an associated microflora. The joint accomplishment of the cytological examinations and the determination of pH revealed important for directing the microflora associated with the vulvovaginiti, suggesting, of this form, that pH vaginal plays preponderant role how much to the presence of the infectious agents in the vaginal ecosystem.

  11. Starches, resistant starches, the gut microflora and human health.

    PubMed

    Bird, A R; Brown, I L; Topping, D L

    2000-03-01

    Starches are important as energy sources for humans and also for their interactions with the gut microflora throughout the digestive tact. Largely, those interactions promote human health. In the mouth, less gelatinised starches may lower risk of cariogensis. In the large bowel, starches which have escaped small intestinal digestion (resistant starch), together with proteins, other undigested carbohydrates and endogenous secretions are fermented by the resident microflora. The resulting short chain fatty acids contribute substantially to the normal physiological functions of the viscera. Specific types of resistant starch (e.g. the chemically modified starches used in the food industry) may be used to manipulate the gut bacteria and their products (including short chain fatty acids) so as to optimise health. In the upper gut, these starches may assist in the transport of probiotic organisms thus promoting the immune response and suppressing potential pathogens. However, it appears unlikely that current probiotic organisms can be used to modulate large bowel short chain fatty acids in adults although resistant starch and other prebiotics can do so. Suggestions that starch may exacerbate certain conditions (such as ulcerative colitis) through stimulating the growth of certain pathogenic organisms appear to be unfounded. Short chain fatty acids may modulate tissue levels and effects of growth factors in the gut and so modify gut development and risk of serious disease, including colo-rectal cancer. However, information on the relationship between starches and the microflora is relatively sparse and substantial opportunities exist both for basic research and food product development.

  12. Of mice and microflora: considerations for genetically engineered mice.

    PubMed

    Treuting, P M; Clifford, C B; Sellers, R S; Brayton, C F

    2012-01-01

    The phenotype of genetically engineered mice is a combination of both genetic and environmental factors that include the microflora of the mouse. The impact a particular microbe has on a mouse reflects the host-microbe interaction within the context of the mouse genotype and environment. Although often considered a confounding variable, many host-microbe interactions have resulted in the generation of novel model systems and characterization of new microbial agents. Microbes associated with overt disease in mice have been the historical focus of the laboratory animal medical and pathology community and literature. The advent of genetic engineering and the complex of mouse models have revealed previously unknown or disregarded agents that now oblige the attention of the biomedical research community. The purpose of this article is to describe and illustrate how phenotypes can be affected by microflora by focusing on the infectious diseases present in genetically engineered mouse (GEM) colonies of our collective institutions and by reviewing important agents that are rarely seen in most research facilities today. The goal is to introduce the concept of the role of microflora on phenotypes and in translational research using GEM models.

  13. Surface Microflora of Four Smear-Ripened Cheeses

    PubMed Central

    Mounier, Jérôme; Gelsomino, Roberto; Goerges, Stefanie; Vancanneyt, Marc; Vandemeulebroecke, Katrien; Hoste, Bart; Scherer, Siegfried; Swings, Jean; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Cogan, Timothy M.

    2005-01-01

    The microbial composition of smear-ripened cheeses is not very clear. A total of 194 bacterial isolates and 187 yeast isolates from the surfaces of four Irish farmhouse smear-ripened cheeses were identified at the midpoint of ripening using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), repetitive sequence-based PCR, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing for identifying and typing the bacteria and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (mtDNA RFLP) analysis for identifying and typing the yeast. The yeast microflora was very uniform, and Debaryomyces hansenii was the dominant species in the four cheeses. Yarrowia lipolytica was also isolated in low numbers from one cheese. The bacteria were highly diverse, and 14 different species, Corynebacterium casei, Corynebacterium variabile, Arthrobacter arilaitensis, Arthrobacter sp., Microbacterium gubbeenense, Agrococcus sp. nov., Brevibacterium linens, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus equorum, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Micrococcus luteus, Halomonas venusta, Vibrio sp., and Bacillus sp., were identified on the four cheeses. Each cheese had a more or less unique microflora with four to nine species on its surface. However, two bacteria, C. casei and A. arilaitensis, were found on each cheese. Diversity at the strain level was also observed, based on the different PFGE patterns and mtDNA RFLP profiles of the dominant bacterial and yeast species. None of the ripening cultures deliberately inoculated onto the surface were reisolated from the cheeses. This study confirms the importance of the adventitious, resident microflora in the ripening of smear cheeses. PMID:16269673

  14. [Sensitivity to antibiotics monitoring of oral microflora in practically sound children and patients with chronic gastroduodenitis].

    PubMed

    Gavrilova, O A; Davydov, B N; Chervinets, Iu V; Chervinets, V M

    2009-01-01

    Characteristic of oral microflora in practically sound children and patients with chronic gastroduodenitis was offered. Microflora singled out from ill persons differed by pathogenicity in previously opportunistic pathogenic forms. Monitoring of sensitivity and resistivity to antibiotics of the singled out microflora in practically sound children and ill with chronic gastroduodenitis was presented. When treating oral diseases one should take into account the high resistivity to antibiotics (especially to benzilpenicillin) of opportunistic pathogenic forms.

  15. Dual embryonic origin and patterning of the pharyngeal skeleton in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum).

    PubMed

    Sefton, Elizabeth M; Piekarski, Nadine; Hanken, James

    2015-01-01

    The impressive morphological diversification of vertebrates was achieved in part by innovation and modification of the pharyngeal skeleton. Extensive fate mapping in amniote models has revealed a primarily cranial neural crest derivation of the pharyngeal skeleton. Although comparable fate maps of amphibians produced over several decades have failed to document a neural crest derivation of ventromedial elements in these vertebrates, a recent report provides evidence of a mesodermal origin of one of these elements, basibranchial 2, in the axolotl. We used a transgenic labeling protocol and grafts of labeled cells between GFP+ and white embryos to derive a fate map that describes contributions of both cranial neural crest and mesoderm to the axolotl pharyngeal skeleton, and we conducted additional experiments that probe the mechanisms that underlie mesodermal patterning. Our fate map confirms a dual embryonic origin of the pharyngeal skeleton in urodeles, including derivation of basibranchial 2 from mesoderm closely associated with the second heart field. Additionally, heterotopic transplantation experiments reveal lineage restriction of mesodermal cells that contribute to pharyngeal cartilage. The mesoderm-derived component of the pharyngeal skeleton appears to be particularly sensitive to retinoic acid (RA): administration of exogenous RA leads to loss of the second basibranchial, but not the first. Neural crest was undoubtedly critical in the evolution of the vertebrate pharyngeal skeleton, but mesoderm may have played a central role in forming ventromedial elements, in particular. When and how many times during vertebrate phylogeny a mesodermal contribution to the pharyngeal skeleton evolved remain to be resolved. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The role of the endoderm in the development and evolution of the pharyngeal arches

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Anthony; Okabe, Masataka; Quinlan, Robyn

    2005-01-01

    The oro-pharyngeal apparatus has its origin in a series of bulges found on the lateral surface of the embryonic head, the pharyngeal arches. Significantly, the development of these structures is extremely complex, involving interactions between a number of disparate embryonic cell types: ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm and neural crest, each of which generates particular components of the arches, and whose development must be co-ordinated to generate the functional adult oro-pharyngeal apparatus. In the past most studies have emphasized the role played by the neural crest, which generates the skeletal elements of the arches, in directing pharyngeal arch development. However, it is now apparent that the pharyngeal endoderm plays an important role in directing arch development. Here we discuss the role of the pharyngeal endoderm in organizing the development of the pharyngeal arches, and the mechanisms that act to pattern the endoderm itself and those which direct its morphogenesis. Finally, we discuss the importance of modification to the pharyngeal endoderm during vertebrate evolution. In particular, we focus on the emergence of the parathyroid gland, which we have recently shown to be the result of the internalization of the gills. PMID:16313389

  17. Adverse effects of steroid therapy in children with pharyngitis with unsuspected malignancy.

    PubMed

    Sadowitz, Peter David; Page, Nancy E; Crowley, Kevin

    2012-08-01

    Pharyngitis is a common clinical complaint for children and accounts for 3.1% of all visits to selected ambulatory care settings. Most children with pharyngitis have benign, self-limited disease with infrequent complications such as peritonsillar abscess, mastoiditis, or lymphadenitis. Recent studies have touted the benefits of steroids in the treatment of children with pharyngitis for pain control. These studies do not address the potential life-threatening complication of steroids in patients with pharyngitis or lymphadenopathy in the setting of undiagnosed acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) or lymphoma. We report 4 cases of children treated with steroids for pharyngitis or adenitis that subsequently were diagnosed with ALL or lymphoma. If steroids are to be used in children with pharyngitis or adenitis, the following recommendations should be strongly considered: Careful history and physical examination should be obtained. Presence of hepatosplenomegaly or lymphadenopathy outside the cervical region should raise suspicions regarding an underlying malignancy. Normal results of complete blood cell count in the setting of clear cut pharyngitis with exudates and a lack of significant adenopathy essentially rules out the diagnosis of ALL. Because traditional analgesics are available, which do not affect the curability of ALL or lymphoma, the routine use of steroids in pharyngitis in children should be considered only in rare circumstances.

  18. Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nora S; Sartori-Valinotti, Julio C; Bruce, Alison J

    2016-01-01

    Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome, the most common periodic disorder of childhood, presents with the cardinal symptoms of periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis typically before age 5. This review presents the recent literature on PFAPA and summarizes key findings in the pathogenesis, evaluation, and treatment of the disease. Theories surrounding the pathogenesis of PFAPA include a faulty innate immunologic response in conjunction with dysregulated T-cell activation. A potential genetic link is also under consideration. Mediterranean fever (MEFV) gene variants have been implicated and appear to modify disease severity. In individuals with the heterozygous variant, PFAPA episodes are milder and shorter in duration. Diagnostic criteria include the traditional clinical signs, in addition to the following biomarkers: elevated C-reactive protein in the absence of elevated procalcitonin, vitamin D, CD64, mean corpuscular volume, and other nonspecific inflammatory mediators in the absence of an infectious explanation for fever. Treatment of PFAPA includes tonsillectomy, a single dose of corticosteroids, and, most recently, interleukin 1 blockers such as anakinra, rilonacept, and canakinumab. Tonsillectomy remains the only permanent treatment modality.

  19. Hallucigenia's head and the pharyngeal armature of early ecdysozoans.

    PubMed

    Smith, Martin R; Caron, Jean-Bernard

    2015-07-02

    The molecularly defined clade Ecdysozoa comprises the panarthropods (Euarthropoda, Onychophora and Tardigrada) and the cycloneuralian worms (Nematoda, Nematomorpha, Priapulida, Loricifera and Kinorhyncha). These disparate phyla are united by their means of moulting, but otherwise share few morphological characters--none of which has a meaningful fossilization potential. As such, the early evolutionary history of the group as a whole is largely uncharted. Here we redescribe the 508-million-year-old stem-group onychophoran Hallucigenia sparsa from the mid-Cambrian Burgess Shale. We document an elongate head with a pair of simple eyes, a terminal buccal chamber containing a radial array of sclerotized elements, and a differentiated foregut that is lined with acicular teeth. The radial elements and pharyngeal teeth resemble the sclerotized circumoral elements and pharyngeal teeth expressed in tardigrades, stem-group euarthropods and cycloneuralian worms. Phylogenetic results indicate that equivalent structures characterized the ancestral panarthropod and, seemingly, the ancestral ecdysozoan, demonstrating the deep homology of panarthropod and cycloneuralian mouthparts, and providing an anatomical synapomorphy for the ecdysozoan supergroup.

  20. Pharyngeal mesoderm regulatory network controls cardiac and head muscle morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Harel, Itamar; Maezawa, Yoshiro; Avraham, Roi; Rinon, Ariel; Ma, Hsiao-Yen; Cross, Joe W; Leviatan, Noam; Hegesh, Julius; Roy, Achira; Jacob-Hirsch, Jasmine; Rechavi, Gideon; Carvajal, Jaime; Tole, Shubha; Kioussi, Chrissa; Quaggin, Susan; Tzahor, Eldad

    2012-11-13

    The search for developmental mechanisms driving vertebrate organogenesis has paved the way toward a deeper understanding of birth defects. During embryogenesis, parts of the heart and craniofacial muscles arise from pharyngeal mesoderm (PM) progenitors. Here, we reveal a hierarchical regulatory network of a set of transcription factors expressed in the PM that initiates heart and craniofacial organogenesis. Genetic perturbation of this network in mice resulted in heart and craniofacial muscle defects, revealing robust cross-regulation between its members. We identified Lhx2 as a previously undescribed player during cardiac and pharyngeal muscle development. Lhx2 and Tcf21 genetically interact with Tbx1, the major determinant in the etiology of DiGeorge/velo-cardio-facial/22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Furthermore, knockout of these genes in the mouse recapitulates specific cardiac features of this syndrome. We suggest that PM-derived cardiogenesis and myogenesis are network properties rather than properties specific to individual PM members. These findings shed new light on the developmental underpinnings of congenital defects.

  1. Pharyngeal mesoderm regulatory network controls cardiac and head muscle morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Harel, Itamar; Maezawa, Yoshiro; Avraham, Roi; Rinon, Ariel; Ma, Hsiao-Yen; Cross, Joe W.; Leviatan, Noam; Hegesh, Julius; Roy, Achira; Jacob-Hirsch, Jasmine; Rechavi, Gideon; Carvajal, Jaime; Tole, Shubha; Kioussi, Chrissa; Quaggin, Susan; Tzahor, Eldad

    2012-01-01

    The search for developmental mechanisms driving vertebrate organogenesis has paved the way toward a deeper understanding of birth defects. During embryogenesis, parts of the heart and craniofacial muscles arise from pharyngeal mesoderm (PM) progenitors. Here, we reveal a hierarchical regulatory network of a set of transcription factors expressed in the PM that initiates heart and craniofacial organogenesis. Genetic perturbation of this network in mice resulted in heart and craniofacial muscle defects, revealing robust cross-regulation between its members. We identified Lhx2 as a previously undescribed player during cardiac and pharyngeal muscle development. Lhx2 and Tcf21 genetically interact with Tbx1, the major determinant in the etiology of DiGeorge/velo-cardio-facial/22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Furthermore, knockout of these genes in the mouse recapitulates specific cardiac features of this syndrome. We suggest that PM-derived cardiogenesis and myogenesis are network properties rather than properties specific to individual PM members. These findings shed new light on the developmental underpinnings of congenital defects. PMID:23112163

  2. [Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and adenitis syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kusuhara, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome is a non-hereditary autoinflammatory disease, characterized by relatively regular recurrence of febrile episodes of 3-6 days duration, accompanied by aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis/tonsillitis, and/or cervical adenititis. It is considered to be the most common periodic fever syndrome in Japan. Although no responsible gene is identified, some genetic factors may confer the predisposition toward this disorder. Important differential diagnosis includes hereditary periodic syndromes and cyclic neutropenia. Although its etiology is still to be elucidated, a recent study suggested an environmentally triggered activation of complement and IL-1β/IL-18 during PFAPA syndrome flares, with induction of Th1-chemokines and subsequent retention of activated T cells in peripheral tissues. This study also demonstrated the possibility that IP-10/CXCL10 might serve as a potential biomarker to differentiate PFAPA syndrome from other periodic fever syndromes. Therapeutic strategy for PFAPA syndrome has not been well established. Recent advances in the understating of etiology and pathophysiology might lead to re-evaluation of recent therapeutic options and/or development of new treatment.

  3. Numerical analysis of extensional flow through the pharyngeal duct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preciado-Méndez, M.; Salinas-Vázquez, M.; Vicente, W.; Brito-de la Fuente, E.; Ascanio, G.

    2017-01-01

    The flow through the pharynx from the glossopalatal junction (GPJ) to the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) has been numerically investigated with a non-Newtonian fluid obeying the power-law with similar rheological indices to a contrast medium used in videofluroscopy. For that purpose, a three-dimensional model of the transport of food bolus along the pharynx has been proposed using the immersed boundaries method, which allow representing the shape of the pharynx using Cartesian grids. The pharyngeal wall has been considered to be an elastic membrane. Flow fields in terms of the axial velocity, pressure, shear rate and strain rate were obtained. Results show that the highest velocity concentrates in the central stream as the fluid enters into the pharynx. In addition, as the flow quits the pharynx, a recirculation zone appears inside the cavity, resulting in low velocity zone, which increases with the coefficient of elasticity. A strong dependence on the coefficient of elasticity was observed on the pressure fields; so that as such a coefficient increases, the pressure in the pharyngeal wall will increase. It has been also observed that the bolus head travels faster than the bolus tail, which indicates that the bolus is not only subjected to shear but also to elongation. Results from this work can be further used for a rheological characterization (shear and extension) of oral nutritional supplements for patients suffering from swallowing disorders.

  4. Oral vs. pharyngeal dysphagia: surface electromyography randomized study.

    PubMed

    Vaiman, Michael; Nahlieli, Oded

    2009-05-21

    A clear differential diagnosis between oral and pharyngeal dysphagia remains an unsolved problem. Disorders of the oral cavity are frequently overlooked when dysphagia/odybophagia complaints are assessed. Surface electromyographic (sEMG) studies were performed on randomly assigned patients with oral and pharyngeal pathology to evaluate their dysphagia complaints for the sake of differential diagnosis. Parameters evaluated during swallowing for patients after dental surgery (1: n = 62), oral infections (2: n = 49), acute tonsillitis (3: n = 66) and healthy controls (4: n = 50) included timing and amplitude of sEMG activity of masseter, infrahyoid and submental muscles. The duration of swallows and drinking periods was significantly increased in dental patients and was normal in patients with tonsillitis. The electric activity of masseter was significantly lower in Groups 1 and 2 in comparison with the patients with tonsillitis and controls. The submental and infrahyoid activity was normal in dental patients but infrahyoid activity in patients with tonsillitis was high. Dysphagia following dental surgery or oral infections does not affect pharynx and submental muscles and has clear sEMG signs: increased duration of a single swallow, longer drinking time, low activity of the masseter, and normal range of submental activity. Patients with tonsillitis present hyperactivity of infrahyoid muscles. These data could be used for evaluation of symptoms when differential dental/ENT diagnosis is needed.

  5. Comparison of viscoelastic properties of the pharyngeal tissue: human and canine.

    PubMed

    Kim, S M; McCulloch, T M; Rim, K

    1999-01-01

    The viscoelastic properties of the human and canine pharyngeal tissue in tension were evaluated, based on both an experimental protocol-consisting of cyclic load, tensile stress relaxation, and incremental step load tests-and the quasi-linear viscoelastic theory. The reduced stress relaxation function and the elastic response of the pharyngeal tissues were derived from the experimental results specifically obtained from those tissues. The characteristic features of viscoelastic property were obtained for both human and canine pharyngeal tissues by applying the quasi-linear viscoelastic theory and compared with each other. The material properties of the pharyngeal tissue were sought to facilitate the three-dimensional biomechanical model of the pharyngeal function by using the finite element method.

  6. Swine waste treatment by self-heating aerobic thermophilic bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Juteau, Pierre; Tremblay, Danielle; Ould-Moulaye, Cheikh-Baye; Bisaillon, Jean-Guy; Beaudet, Réjean

    2004-02-01

    Pig manure represents a very high-strength wastewater that is well suited for a self-heating aerobic thermophilic treatment. Here we report the use of 59-L Aerobic Thermophilic Sequencing Batch Reactors (AT-SBR) to study the treatment of pig manure with a HRT of 6 days. Temperatures up to 75 degrees C were reached without external heating by using Venturi-type aerators but these conditions were detrimental for the respiratory activity of the microflora. For COD removal, better performances were achieved when the temperature was limited to 50 degrees C. However, higher temperatures increased the rate of phosphorus crystallisation and the volatilisation of ammonia. A temperature of 50 degrees C was enough to eliminate faecal coliforms and Campylobacter spp., but 60 degrees C was needed for the efficient destruction of Clostridium perfringens. Consequently, an operating temperature of 60 degrees C appears to be a good compromise. Under these conditions, the BOD(5) decreases from 50.5 to 1.0 g L(-1), yielding a 98% removal.

  7. Evaluation of the 3M™ Petrifilm™ Rapid Aerobic Count Plate for the Enumeration of Aerobic Bacteria: Collaborative Study, First Action 2015.13.

    PubMed

    Bird, Patrick; Flannery, Jonathan; Crowley, Erin; Agin, James; Goins, David; Jechorek, Robert

    2016-05-01

    The 3M™ Petrifilm™ Rapid Aerobic Count (RAC) Plate is a sample-ready culture medium system containing dual-sensor indicator technology for the rapid quantification of aerobic bacteria in food products. The 3M Petrifilm RAC Plate was compared to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA BAM) Chapter 3 (Aerobic Plate Count) for the enumeration of aerobic bacteria in raw easy-peel shrimp and the Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products (SMEDP) Chapter 6 (Standard Plate Count Method) for the enumeration of aerobic bacteria in pasteurized skim milk and instant nonfat dry milk (instant NFDM). The 3M Petrifilm RAC Plate was evaluated using a paired study design in a multilaboratory collaborative study following current AOAC validation guidelines. Three target contamination levels (low, 10-100 CFU/g; medium, 100-1000 CFU/g; and high 1000-10 000 CFU/g) were evaluated for naturally occurring aerobic microflora for each matrix. For raw easy-peel shrimp, duplicate 3M Petrifilm RAC Plates were enumerated after 24 ± 2 h incubation at both 32 and 35°C. Pasteurized skim milk 3M Petrifilm RAC Plates were enumerated after 24 ± 2 h incubation at 32°C, and instant NFDM 3M Petrifilm RAC Plates were enumerated after 48 ± 3 h incubation at 32°C. No statistical difference was observed between 3M Petrifilm RAC Plate and FDA BAM or SMEDP reference methods for each contamination level.

  8. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hudgins, M.P.; Bessette, B.J.; March, J.; McComb, S.T.

    2000-02-15

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120 F and 140 F in steady state.

  9. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John C; McComb, Scott T.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention includes a system of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  10. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John; McComb, Scott T.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  11. Aerobic glycolysis: beyond proliferation.

    PubMed

    Jones, William; Bianchi, Katiuscia

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic glycolysis has been generally associated with cancer cell proliferation, but fascinating and novel data show that it is also coupled to a series of further cellular functions. In this Mini Review, we will discuss some recent findings to illustrate newly defined roles for this process, in particular in non-malignant cells, supporting the idea that metabolism can be considered as an integral part of cellular signaling. Consequently, metabolism should be regarded as a plastic and highly dynamic determinant of a wide range of cellular specific functions.

  12. Three-dimensional changes in pharyngeal airway in skeletal class III patients undergoing orthognathic surgery.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ji-Suk; Park, Yang-Ho; Kim, Yoon-Ji; Hong, Soon-Min; Oh, Kyung-Min

    2011-11-01

    It has often been hypothesized that mandibular setback surgery causes narrowing of the pharyngeal airway. We examined whether the pharyngeal airway narrowed after orthognathic surgery in patients undergoing either mandibular setback surgery or bimaxillary surgery and whether the amount of narrowing of the pharyngeal airway was any different after mandibular setback surgery or bimaxillary surgery. Cone-beam computed tomography scans were obtained for 21 patients who were assigned to either mandibular setback surgery or bimaxillary surgery. The anteroposterior dimension, lateral width, cross-sectional area, and volume of each subject's pharyngeal airway were measured before and after surgery. The pharyngeal airway showed significant narrowing after both mandibular setback surgery and bimaxillary surgery. The amount of change in the anteroposterior dimension and cross-sectional area on the posterior nasal spine plane and the length of the pharyngeal airway showed significant differences between the 2 groups. The amount of narrowing of the pharyngeal airway was smaller in patients undergoing bimaxillary surgery than in the patients undergoing mandibular setback surgery. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ageing and muscular dystrophy differentially affect murine pharyngeal muscles in a region-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Randolph, Matthew E; Luo, Qingwei; Ho, Justin; Vest, Katherine E; Sokoloff, Alan J; Pavlath, Grace K

    2014-01-01

    The inability to swallow, or dysphagia, is a debilitating and life-threatening condition that arises with ageing or disease. Dysphagia results from neurological or muscular impairment of one or more pharyngeal muscles, which function together to ensure proper swallowing and prevent the aspiration of food or liquid into the lungs. Little is known about the effects of age or disease on pharyngeal muscles as a group. Here we show ageing affected pharyngeal muscle growth and atrophy in wild-type mice depending on the particular muscle analysed. Furthermore, wild-type mice also developed dysphagia with ageing. Additionally, we studied pharyngeal muscles in a mouse model for oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy, a dysphagic disease caused by a polyalanine expansion in the RNA binding protein, PABPN1. We examined pharyngeal muscles of mice overexpressing either wild-type A10 or mutant A17 PABPN1. Overexpression of mutant A17 PABPN1 differentially affected growth of the palatopharyngeus muscle dependent on its location within the pharynx. Interestingly, overexpression of wild-type A10 PABPN1 was protective against age-related muscle atrophy in the laryngopharynx and prevented the development of age-related dysphagia. These results demonstrate that pharyngeal muscles are differentially affected by both ageing and muscular dystrophy in a region-dependent manner. These studies lay important groundwork for understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate pharyngeal muscle growth and atrophy, which may lead to novel therapies for individuals with dysphagia. PMID:25326455

  14. Obesity and obstructive sleep apnoea: mechanisms for increased collapsibility of the passive pharyngeal airway.

    PubMed

    Isono, Shiroh

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests there are significant links between obesity and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), with a particular emphasis on the importance of fat distribution in the development of OSA. In patients with OSA, the structure of the pharyngeal airway collapses. A collapsible tube within a rigid box collapses either due to decreased intraluminal pressure or increased external tissue pressure (i.e. reduction in transmural pressure), or due to reduction in the longitudinal tension of the tube. Accordingly, obesity should structurally increase the collapsibility of the pharyngeal airway due to excessive fat deposition at two distinct locations. In the pharyngeal airway region, excessive soft tissue for a given maxillomandibular enclosure size (upper airway anatomical imbalance) can increase tissue pressure surrounding the pharyngeal airway, thereby narrowing the airway. Even mild obesity may cause anatomical imbalance in individuals with a small maxilla and mandible. Lung volume reduction due to excessive central fat deposition may decrease longitudinal tracheal traction forces and pharyngeal wall tension, changing the 'tube law' in the pharyngeal airway (lung volume dependence of the upper airway). The lung volume dependence of pharyngeal airway patency appears to contribute more significantly to the development of OSA in morbidly obese, apnoeic patients. Neurostructural interactions required for stable breathing may be influenced by obesity-related hormones and cytokines. Accumulating evidence strongly supports these speculations, but further intensive research is needed. © 2011 The Author. Respirology © 2011 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  15. A Pair of Pharyngeal Gustatory Receptor Neurons Regulates Caffeine-Dependent Ingestion in Drosophila Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jaekyun; van Giesen, Lena; Choi, Min Sung; Kang, KyeongJin; Sprecher, Simon G.; Kwon, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    The sense of taste is an essential chemosensory modality that enables animals to identify appropriate food sources and control feeding behavior. In particular, the recognition of bitter taste prevents animals from feeding on harmful substances. Feeding is a complex behavior comprised of multiple steps, and food quality is continuously assessed. We here examined the role of pharyngeal gustatory organs in ingestion behavior. As a first step, we constructed a gustatory receptor-to-neuron map of the larval pharyngeal sense organs, and examined corresponding gustatory receptor neuron (GRN) projections in the larval brain. Out of 22 candidate bitter compounds, we found 14 bitter compounds that elicit inhibition of ingestion in a dose-dependent manner. We provide evidence that certain pharyngeal GRNs are necessary and sufficient for the ingestion response of larvae to caffeine. Additionally, we show that a specific pair of pharyngeal GRNs, DP1, responds to caffeine by calcium imaging. In this study we show that a specific pair of GRNs in the pharyngeal sense organs coordinates caffeine sensing with regulation of behavioral responses such as ingestion. Our results indicate that in Drosophila larvae, the pharyngeal GRNs have a major role in sensing food palatability to regulate ingestion behavior. The pharyngeal sense organs are prime candidates to influence ingestion due to their position in the pharynx, and they may act as first level sensors of ingested food. PMID:27486388

  16. A Pair of Pharyngeal Gustatory Receptor Neurons Regulates Caffeine-Dependent Ingestion in Drosophila Larvae.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaekyun; van Giesen, Lena; Choi, Min Sung; Kang, KyeongJin; Sprecher, Simon G; Kwon, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    The sense of taste is an essential chemosensory modality that enables animals to identify appropriate food sources and control feeding behavior. In particular, the recognition of bitter taste prevents animals from feeding on harmful substances. Feeding is a complex behavior comprised of multiple steps, and food quality is continuously assessed. We here examined the role of pharyngeal gustatory organs in ingestion behavior. As a first step, we constructed a gustatory receptor-to-neuron map of the larval pharyngeal sense organs, and examined corresponding gustatory receptor neuron (GRN) projections in the larval brain. Out of 22 candidate bitter compounds, we found 14 bitter compounds that elicit inhibition of ingestion in a dose-dependent manner. We provide evidence that certain pharyngeal GRNs are necessary and sufficient for the ingestion response of larvae to caffeine. Additionally, we show that a specific pair of pharyngeal GRNs, DP1, responds to caffeine by calcium imaging. In this study we show that a specific pair of GRNs in the pharyngeal sense organs coordinates caffeine sensing with regulation of behavioral responses such as ingestion. Our results indicate that in Drosophila larvae, the pharyngeal GRNs have a major role in sensing food palatability to regulate ingestion behavior. The pharyngeal sense organs are prime candidates to influence ingestion due to their position in the pharynx, and they may act as first level sensors of ingested food.

  17. Correlation between nasopharyngoscopy and cephalometry in the diagnosis of hyperplasia of the pharyngeal tonsils

    PubMed Central

    Ritzel, Rodrigo Agne; Berwig, Luana Cristina; da Silva, Ana Maria Toniolo; Corrêa, Eliane Castilhos Rodrigues; Serpa, Eliane Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Hyperplasia of the pharyngeal tonsil is one of the main causes of mouth breathing, and accurate diagnosis of this alteration is important for proper therapeutic planning. Therefore, studies have been conducted in order to provide information regarding the procedures that can be used for the diagnosis of pharyngeal obstruction. Objective: To verify the correlation between nasopharyngoscopy and cephalometric examinations in the diagnosis of pharyngeal tonsil hyperplasia. Method: This was a cross-sectional, clinical, experimental, and quantitative study. Fifty-five children took part in this study, 30 girls and 25 boys, aged between 7 and 11 years. The children underwent nasofibropharyngoscopic and cephalometric evaluation to determine the grade of nasopharyngeal obstruction. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient at the 5% significance level was used to verify the correlation between these exams. Results: In the nasopharyngoscopy evaluation, most children showed grade 2 and 3 hyperplasia of the pharyngeal tonsil, which was followed by grade 1. In the cephalometry assessment, most children showed grade 1 hyperplasia of the pharyngeal tonsil, which was followed by grade 2. A statistically significant regular positive correlation was observed between the exams. Conclusion: It was concluded that the evaluation of the pharyngeal tonsil hyperplasia could be carried out by fiber optic nasopharyngoscopy and cephalometry, as these examinations were regularly correlated. However, it was found that cephalometry tended to underestimate the size of the pharyngeal tonsil relative to nasopharyngoscopy. PMID:25991937

  18. Periodic fevers with aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis (PFAPA).

    PubMed

    Vigo, Giulia; Zulian, Francesco

    2012-11-01

    PFAPA syndrome (acronym of periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenitis) is the most common cause of periodic fever in childhood. Nowadays, it is considered part of the wide family of the autoinflammatory diseases, but a genetic or molecular marker hasn't been identified yet, therefore, its etiology is still unknown. Diagnosis is essentially based on clinical criteria but, especially in younger children, it is sometimes difficult to differentiate it from other hereditary periodic fever syndromes. Fever attacks in PFAPA have a spontaneous resolution and in a high rate of patients the syndrome ends spontaneously over time. Treatment is still a matter of debate. Usually a single administration of oral corticosteroids aborts attacks. Tonsillectomy may be an alternative option but its role remains to be clarified.

  19. Streptococcal pharyngitis: an uncommon cause of subdural empyema.

    PubMed

    Walden, Jeffrey Howard; Hess, Bryan; Rigby, Michael

    2015-09-18

    A 7-year-old girl with an unremarkable medical history presented to a local paediatric emergency department with a 7-day history of fever, sore throat and vomiting, and a 1-day history of rash. She was admitted to the hospital, with presumed Kawasaki disease. A few hours after admission, the patient had sudden onset of two witnessed tonic-clonic seizures and subsequent decreased mental status. She was transferred to the paediatric intensive care unit and started on broad-spectrum antibiotics. On hospital day 2, cerebral spinal fluid cultures and blood cultures grew Streptococcus pyogenes, and repeat physical examination was consistent with acute streptococcal pharyngitis. On hospital day 3, the patient developed left-sided hemiparesis and had another witnessed seizure. A CT scan was obtained and revealed a subdural abscess. She was transferred to a tertiary care centre and underwent craniotomy with evacuation of her subdural abscess. Surgical cultures eventually grew S. pyogenes.

  20. Difficult retrograde endotracheal intubation: the utility of a pharyngeal loop.

    PubMed

    Arya, Virendra K; Dutta, Amitabh; Chari, Pramila; Sharma, Ramesh K

    2002-02-01

    Direct laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation remains the technique of choice to achieve control of the airway. Alternative or additional techniques of airway control are required whenever an airway is deemed difficult because of anatomical and/or technical reasons. The retrograde intubation technique is an important option for gaining airway access from below the vocal cords in such situations (1). We report successful management and the problems encountered while gaining the upper airway by the retrograde catheter method in a patient having bilateral fibrous ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). A 30-yr-old woman presented for redo-release of bilateral temporomandibular joint ankylosis under general anesthesia. During the previous anesthetic for primary release of ankylosis, tracheostomy was done, as conventional blind nasotracheal and retrograde intubation attempts failed several times. This case report describes the method for overcoming the difficulties of a retrograde intubation procedure in removing the guiding catheter nasally by using a pharyngeal loop assembly.

  1. The innervation of the zebrafish pharyngeal jaws and teeth

    PubMed Central

    Crucke, Jeroen; Van de Kelft, Annelore; Huysseune, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Zebrafish ( Danio rerio) teeth are increasingly used as a model to study odontogenesis in non-mammalians. Using serial semi-thin section histology and immunohistochemistry, the nerves innervating the pharyngeal jaws and teeth have been identified. The last pair of branchial arches, which are non-gill bearing but which carry the teeth, are innervated by an internal branch of a post-trematic ramus of the vagal nerve. Another, external, branch is probably responsible for the motor innervation of the branchiomeric musculature. Nerve fibres appear in the pulp cavity of the teeth only late during cytodifferentiation, and are therefore likely not involved in early steps of tooth formation. The precise role of the nervous system during continuous tooth replacement remains to be determined. Nonetheless, this study provides the necessary morphological background information to address this question. PMID:26018453

  2. Intestinal microflora as potential modifiers of sensitizer activity in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon, P.W.; Clarke, C.; Dawson, K.B.; Simpson, W.; Simmons, D.J.C.

    1984-08-01

    Treatment of mice (some bearing Lewis lung tumors), with penicillin (PEN) at 500 mg/l drinking water for one week prior to treatment with misonidazole (MIS), resulted in: the elimination of their anaerobic cecal flora; a decrease in MIS-induced neurotoxicity; an increase in pharmacological exposure to MIS; a decrease in MIS chemopotentiation; a probable increase in MIS radiosensitization; an increase in MIS induced hypothermia. Assuming no chemical interaction between PEN and MIS, these observations indicate that the intestinal microflora can influence the activity of MIS in vivo. The observed reduction in the neurotoxic but not the radiosensitizing potential of MIS following PEN treatment indicates a therapeutic benefit.

  3. Yeast microflora of nectarines and their potential for biocontrol of brown rot

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Resident fruit microflora has been the source of biocontrol agents for the control of postharvest decays of fruits and the active ingredient in commercialized biocontrol products. With the exception of grapes and apples, information on the resident microflora of other fruits is only fragmentary; ho...

  4. Characterizing culturable microflora of nectarines: bacteria and their potential for biological control of postharvest fruit decay

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Microorganisms isolated from fruit surfaces have been used to control postharvest decays of fruit. However, there is little information on microflora colonizing surfaces of fruits other than grapes, apples, and citrus. We characterized bacterial microflora on nectarine fruit surfaces during fruit ...

  5. Modulation of small intestinal homeostasis along with its microflora during acclimatization at simulated hypobaric hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Adak, Atanu; Ghosh; Mondal, Keshab Chandra

    2014-11-01

    At high altitude (HA) hypobaric hypoxic environment manifested several pathophysiological consequences of which gastrointestinal (GI) disorder are very common phenomena. To explore the most possible clue behind this disorder intestinal flora, the major player of the GI functions, were subjected following simulated hypobaric hypoxic treatment in model animal. For this, male albino rats were exposed to 55 kPa (approximately 4872.9 m) air pressure consecutively for 30 days for 8 h/day and its small intestinal microflora, their secreted digestive enzymes and stress induced marker protein were investigated of the luminal epithelia. It was observed that population density of total aerobes significantly decreased, but the quantity of total anaerobes and Escherichia coli increased significantly after 30 days of hypoxic stress. The population density of strict anaerobes like Bifidobacterium sp., Bacteroides sp. and Lactobacillus sp. and obligate anaerobes like Clostridium perfringens and Peptostreptococcus sp. were expanded along with their positive growth direction index (GDI). In relation to the huge multiplication of anaerobes the amount of gas formation as well as content of IgA and IgG increased in duration dependent manner. The activity of some luminal enzymes from microbial origin like a-amylase, gluco-amylase, proteinase, alkaline phosphatase and beta-glucuronidase were also elevated in hypoxic condition. Besides, hypoxia induced in formation of malondialdehyde along with significant attenuation of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase activity and lowered GSH/GSSG pool in the intestinal epithelia. Histological study revealed disruption of intestinal epithelial barrier with higher infiltration of lymphocytes in lamina propia and atrophic structure. It can be concluded that hypoxia at HA modified GI microbial imprint and subsequently causes epithelial barrier dysfunction which may relate to the small intestinal dysfunction at HA.

  6. Biomechanics of Pharyngeal Deglutitive Function following Total Laryngectomy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Teng; Szczesniak, Michal; Maclean, Julia; Bertrand, Paul; Wu, Peter I; Omari, Taher; Cook, Ian J

    2016-08-01

    Postlaryngectomy, pharyngeal weakness, and pharyngoesophageal junction (PEJ) restriction are the candidate mechanisms of dysphagia. The aims were, in laryngectomees, whether (1) hypopharyngeal propulsion is reduced and/or PEJ resistance is increased, (2) dilatation improves dysphagia, and (3) whether symptomatic improvement correlates with reduced PEJ resistance. Multidisciplinary cross-sectional study. Tertiary academic hospital. Swallow biomechanics were assessed in 30 laryngectomees. Patients were stratified into severe dysphagia (Sydney Swallow Questionnaire >500) and mild/nil dysphagia (Sydney Swallow Questionnaire ≤500). Average hypopharyngeal peak (contractile) pressure (hPP) and hypopharyngeal intrabolus pressure (hIBP) were measured from high-resolution manometry with concurrent videofluoroscopy based on barium swallows (2.5 and 10 mL). In consecutive 5 patients, measurements were repeated after dilatation. Dysphagia was reported by 87%, and 57% had severe and 43% had mild/nil dysphagia. hIBP increased with larger bolus volumes (P < .0001), while hPP stayed stable and PEJ diameter plateaued at 9 mm. Laryngectomees had lower hPP (110 ± 14 vs 170 ± 15 mm Hg; P = .0162) and higher hIBP (29 ± 5 vs 6 ± 5 mm Hg; P = .156) than controls. There were no differences in hPP between patient groups. However, hIBP was higher in severe than in mild/nil dysphagia (41 ± 10 vs 13 ± 3 mm Hg; P = .02). Predilation hIBP (R(2) = 0.97) and its decrement postdilatation (R(2) = 0.98) well predicted symptomatic improvement. PEJ resistance correlates better with dysphagia severity than peak pharyngeal pressure and is more sensitive to bolus sizes than PEJ diameter. Both baseline PEJ resistance and its decrement following dilatation are strong predictors of treatment outcome. PEJ resistance is vital to detect, as it is reversible and can predict the response to dilatation regimens. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  7. Community pharmacist-physician collaborative streptococcal pharyngitis management program.

    PubMed

    Klepser, Donald G; Klepser, Michael E; Dering-Anderson, Allison M; Morse, Jacqueline A; Smith, Jaclyn K; Klepser, Stephanie A

    2016-01-01

    To describe patient outcomes associated with a community pharmacy-based, collaborative physician-pharmacist group A Streptococcus (GAS) management program. Fifty-five chain and independent community pharmacies in Michigan, Minnesota, and Nebraska. Pharmacists screened clinically stable adult patients who presented with signs and symptoms consistent with GAS pharyngitis from October 1, 2013, to August 1, 2014, by means of Centor criteria, and performed a physical assessment followed by a rapid antigen detection test (RADT) for eligible patients. Patients were treated according to a collaborative practice agreement (CPA) with a licensed prescriber or a physician consult site model. Pharmacists followed up with patients 24-48 hours after the encounter to assess patient status and possible need for further intervention. Number of patients screened, tested, and treated, and health care utilization. Of 316 patients screened, 43 (13.6%) were excluded and referred for care. Of 273 patients (86.4%) eligible for testing, 48 (17.6%) had positive test results and 46 (16.8%) received amoxicillin or azithromycin per the CPA. Of those tested, 43.2% had no primary provider and 43.9% visited the pharmacy outside of traditional clinic office hours. Pharmacists demonstrated the ability and capacity to provide care for patients seeking treatment for pharyngitis. The number of patients without a primary care provider and seen at the pharmacy outside of normal office hours highlights the improved access that community pharmacy-based care offers. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Telomerase Expression in Medaka ( Oryzias melastigma) Pharyngeal Teeth.

    PubMed

    Tan, W H; Witten, P E; Winkler, C; Au, D W T; Huysseune, A

    2017-06-01

    Nonmammalian vertebrates have the capacity of lifelong tooth replacement. In all vertebrates, tooth formation requires contact and interaction between the oral or pharyngeal epithelium and the underlying mesenchyme. To secure lifelong replacement, the presence of odontogenic stem cells has been postulated, particularly in the epithelial compartment. This study uses an advanced teleost fish species, the marine medaka Oryzias melastigma, a close relative to Oryzias latipes, to examine the expression and distribution of telomerase reverse transcriptase (Tert), the catalytic unit of telomerase, in developing pharyngeal teeth and to relate these data to the proliferative activity of the cells. The data are complemented by expression analysis of the pluripotency marker oct4 and bona fide stem cell marker lgr5. Tert distribution and tert expression in developing tooth germs show a dynamic spatiotemporal pattern. Tert is present first in the mesenchyme but is downregulated as the odontoblasts differentiate. In contrast, in the epithelial enamel organ, Tert is absent during early stages of tooth formation and upregulated first in ameloblasts. Later, Tert is expressed and immunolocalized throughout the entire inner enamel epithelium. The pattern of Tert distribution is largely mutually exclusive with that of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunoreactivity: highly proliferative cells, as revealed by PCNA staining, are negative for Tert; conversely, PCNA-negative cells are Tert-positive. Only the early condensed mesenchyme is both Tert- and PCNA-positive. The absence of tert-positive cells in the epithelial compartment of early tooth germs is underscored by the absence of oct4- and lgr5-positive cells, suggesting ways other than stem cell involvement to secure continuous renewal.

  9. Activity of microorganisms in acid mine water. I. Influence of acid water on aerobic heterotrophs of a normal stream.

    PubMed

    Tuttle, J H; Randles, C I; Dugan, P R

    1968-05-01

    Comparison of microbial content of acid-contaminated and nonacid-contaminated streams from the same geographical area indicated that nonacid streams contained relatively low numbers of acid-tolerant heterotrophic microorganisms. The acid-tolerant aerobes survived when acid entered the stream and actually increased in number to about 2 x 10(3) per ml until the pH approached 3.0. The organisms then represented the heterotrophic aerobic microflora of the streams comprised of a mixture of mine drainage and nonacid water. A stream which was entirely acid drainage did not have a similar microflora. Most gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria died out very rapidly in acidic water, and they comprised a very small percentage of the microbial population of the streams examined. Iron- and sulfur-oxidizing autotrophic bacteria were present wherever mine water entered a stream system. The sulfur-oxidizing bacteria predominated over iron oxidizers. Ecological data from the field were verified by laboratory experiments designed to simulate stream conditions.

  10. Is routine sedation or topical pharyngeal anesthesia beneficial during upper endoscopy?

    PubMed

    Ristikankare, Matti; Hartikainen, Juha; Heikkinen, Markku; Julkunen, Risto

    2004-11-01

    Upper endoscopy is an invasive procedure. However, the benefits of routinely administered sedative medication or topical pharyngeal anesthesic are controversial. The aim of this study was to clarify their effects on patient tolerance and difficulty of upper endoscopy. A total of 252 patients scheduled for diagnostic upper endoscopy were randomly assigned to 4 groups: (1) sedation with midazolam and placebo pharyngeal spray (midazolam group), (2) placebo sedation and lidocaine pharyngeal spray (lidocaine group), (3) placebo sedation and placebo pharyngeal spray (placebo group), and (4) no intravenous cannula/pharyngeal spray (control group). The endoscopist and the patient assessed the procedure immediately after the examination. Another questionnaire was sent to the patients 2 weeks later. Patients in the midazolam group rated the examination easier and less uncomfortable compared with those in the other groups. The differences were especially evident in the questionnaires completed 2 weeks after the examination ( p < 0.001). Lidocaine did not significantly improve patient tolerance. However, endoscopists found the procedure easier in patients in the lidocaine group compared with the midazolam ( p < 0.01) and control groups ( p < 0.01) but not the placebo group. Routine administration of midazolam for sedation increased patient tolerance for upper endoscopy. However, endoscopists found intubation to be more difficult in sedated vs. non-sedated patients. Topical pharyngeal anesthesia did not enhance patient tolerance, but it did make upper endoscopy technically easier compared with endoscopy in patients sedated with midazolam without topical pharyngeal anesthesia, and in patients who had no sedation or pharyngeal anesthesia, but not in patients who received placebo sedation and placebo pharyngeal anesthesia.

  11. Pharyngeal airway wall mechanics using tagged magnetic resonance imaging during medial hypoglossal nerve stimulation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Brennick, Michael J; Pickup, Stephen; Dougherty, Lawrence; Cater, Jacqueline R; Kuna, Samuel T

    2004-01-01

    To better understand pharyngeal airway mechanics as it relates to the pathogenesis and treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea, we have developed a novel application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with non-invasive tissue tagging to measure pharyngeal wall tissue motion during active dilatation of the airway. Eleven anaesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats were surgically prepared with platinum electrodes for bilateral stimulation of the medial branch of the hypoglossus nerve that supplies motor output to the protrudor and intrinsic tongue muscles. Images of the pharyngeal airway were acquired before and during stimulation using a gated multislice, spoiled gradient recalled (SPGR) imaging protocol in a 4.7 T magnet. The tag pulses, applied before stimulation, created a grid pattern of magnetically imbedded dark lines that revealed tissue motion in images acquired during stimulation. Stimulation significantly increased cross-sectional area, and anteroposterior and lateral dimensions in the oropharyngeal and velopharyngeal airways when results were averaged across the rostral, mid- and caudal pharynx (P < 0.001). Customized software for tissue motion-tracking and finite element-analysis showed that changes in airway size were associated with ventral displacement of tissues in the ventral pharyngeal wall in the rostral, mid- and caudal pharyngeal regions (P < 0.0032) and ventral displacement of the lateral walls in the mid- and caudal regions (P < 0.0001). In addition, principal maximum stretch was significantly increased in the lateral walls (P < 0.023) in a ventral–lateral direction in the mid- and caudal pharyngeal regions and principal maximum compression (perpendicular to stretch) was significantly increased in the ventral walls in all regions (P < 0.0001). Stimulation did not cause lateral displacement of the lateral pharyngeal walls at any level. The results reveal that the increase in pharyngeal airway size resulting from stimulation of the medial branch of the

  12. Adaptation of swallowing hyo-laryngeal kinematics is distinct in oral vs. pharyngeal sensory processing

    PubMed Central

    Lokhande, Akshay; Christopherson, Heather; German, Rebecca; Stone, Alice

    2012-01-01

    Before a bolus is pushed into the pharynx, oral sensory processing is critical for planning movements of the subsequent pharyngeal swallow, including hyoid bone and laryngeal (hyo-laryngeal) kinematics. However, oral and pharyngeal sensory processing for hyo-laryngeal kinematics is not fully understood. In 11 healthy adults, we examined changes in kinematics with sensory adaptation, sensitivity shifting, with oropharyngeal swallows vs. pharyngeal swallows (no oral processing), and with various bolus volumes and tastes. Only pharyngeal swallows showed sensory adaptation (gradual changes in kinematics with repeated exposure to the same bolus). Conversely, only oropharyngeal swallows distinguished volume differences, whereas pharyngeal swallows did not. No taste effects were observed for either swallow type. The hyo-laryngeal kinematics were very similar between oropharyngeal swallows and pharyngeal swallows with a comparable bolus. Sensitivity shifting (changing sensory threshold for a small bolus when it immediately follows several very large boluses) was not observed in pharyngeal or oropharyngeal swallowing. These findings indicate that once oral sensory processing has set a motor program for a specific kind of bolus (i.e., 5 ml water), hyo-laryngeal movements are already highly standardized and optimized, showing no shifting or adaptation regardless of repeated exposure (sensory adaptation) or previous sensory experiences (sensitivity shifting). Also, the oral cavity is highly specialized for differentiating certain properties of a bolus (volume) that might require a specific motor plan to ensure swallowing safety, whereas the pharyngeal cavity does not make the same distinctions. Pharyngeal sensory processing might not be able to adjust motor plans created by the oral cavity once the swallow has already been triggered. PMID:22403349

  13. The Extracellular Matrix of the Lateral Pharyngeal Wall in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Dantas, Danielle Andrade da Silva; Mauad, Thais; Silva, Luiz F. F.; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Formigoni, Gilberto G. S.; Cahali, Michel B.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To compare the components of the extracellular matrix in the lateral pharyngeal muscular wall in patients with and without obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This may help to explain the origin of the increased collapsibility of the pharynx in patients with OSA. Design: Specimens from the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle, obtained during pharyngeal surgeries, were evaluated using histochemical and immunohistochemical analyses to determine the fractional area of collagen types I and III, elastic fibers, versican, fibronectin, and matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 2 in the endomysium. Setting: Academic tertiary center. Patiens: A total of 51 nonobese adult patients, divided into 38 patients with OSA and 13 nonsnoring control subjects without OSA. Interventions: Postintervention study performed on tissues from patients after elective surgery. Measurements and Results: Pharyngeal muscles of patients with OSA had significantly more collagen type I than pharyngeal muscles in control subjects. Collagen type I was correlated positively and independently with age. The other tested components of the extracellular matrix did not differ significantly between groups. In a logistic regression, an additive effect of both the increase of collagen type I and the increase in age with the presence of OSA was observed (odds ratio (OR), 2.06; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.17-3.63), when compared with the effect of increased age alone (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.03-1.20). Conclusion: Collagen type I in the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle was more prevalent in patients with OSA and also increased with age. It was hypothesized that this increase could delay contractile-relaxant responses in the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle at the expiratory-inspiratory phase transition, thus increasing pharyngeal collapsibility. Citation: Dantas DAS; Mauad T; Silva LFF; Lorenzi-Filho G; Formigoni GGS; Cahali MB. The extracellular matrix of the lateral pharyngeal wall in

  14. [Variation of microflora and enzyme activity in continuous cropping cucumber soil in solar greenhouse].

    PubMed

    Ma, Yunhua; Wei, Min; Wang, Xiufeng

    2004-06-01

    Variation of microflora and enzyme activity in solar greenhouse soil continuous cropping for 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 years was studied, in addition to the relationship between soil properities and microflora and enzyme activity. The results showed that number of bacteria, actinomyce as well as total microflora showed a trend with a saddle-shaped curve, while the number of fungi appeared an liner increase. Continuous cropping soil microflora shifted from bacteria type to fungi type significantly, of which Ammoniation bacterium and Fusarium oxysporum were main physiology groups. Path analysis results showed that microelements (Mn, Cu, Fe), organic matter, available N and bulk density are main restricted factors of soil microflora and enzyme activity in solar greenhouse.

  15. Ecological effects of perorally administered pivmecillinam on the normal vaginal microflora.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Asa; Fianu-Jonasson, Aino; Landgren, Britt-Marie; Nord, Carl Erik

    2005-01-01

    The knowledge of the effects of antimicrobial agents on the normal vaginal microflora is limited. The objective of the present study was to study the ecological impact of pivmecillinam on the normal vaginal microflora. In 20 healthy women, the estimated day of ovulation was determined during three subsequent menstrual cycles. Microbiological and clinical examinations were performed on the estimated day of ovulation and on day 3 in all cycles and also on day 7 after ovulation in cycles 1 and 2. Anaerobic and facultative anaerobic gram-positive rods, mainly species of lactobacilli and actinomycetes, dominated the microflora. One woman was colonized on the third day of administration with a resistant Escherichia coli strain, and Candida albicans was detected in one woman on days 3 and 7 in cycle 2. No other major changes in the normal microflora occurred during the study. Administration of pivmecillinam had a minor ecological impact on the normal vaginal microflora.

  16. Pharyngeal Pouch Co-existing with Thyroid Mass: A Rare Presentation.

    PubMed

    Niazi, Saleem Asif; Shah, Mohamad Yousaf; Ahmad, Maqsood; Ullah, Sibghat

    2015-12-01

    A 60-year male presented with a 4-year history of a mass in the lower third of the neck, which had gradually increased in size. On initial examination, it was considered a thyroid mass. On detailed examination, another mass was found in the upper neck which was doughy in consistency and reducible in size. With available investigations, he was diagnosed as a thyroid mass associated with pharyngeal pouch. On exploration of the neck, the whole mass revealed to be a pharyngeal pouch. We have discussed the patho-physiology of the pharyngeal pouch and reviewed the literature in detail.

  17. Endoscopic submucosal dissection of the pharyngeal region using anchored hemoclip with surgical thread: A novel method

    PubMed Central

    Minami, Hitomi; Tabuchi, Maiko; Matsushima, Kayoko; Akazawa, Yuko; Yamaguchi, Naoyuki; Ohnita, Ken; Takeshima, Fuminao; Nakao, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) of the pharyngeal region has not been well accepted, although ESD of the gastrointestinal tract is a standard procedure for treating early cancers. However, early detection and treatment of pharyngeal cancers is highly beneficial because surgical resection can be highly invasive and cause serious cosmetic deformities, swallowing disorders, dysgeusia, and speech defects. On the other hand, application of an anchored clip with surgical thread during ESD of the gastrointestinal tract has been reported to be beneficial. This pilot case series reveals the usefulness and clinical feasibility of applying a clip with thread in ESD of the pharyngeal region. PMID:27540568

  18. Cervical osteomyelitis after carbon dioxide laser excision of recurrent carcinoma of the posterior pharyngeal wall.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, A Jacqueline; Brandsma, Dieta; Smeele, Ludi E; Rosingh, Andert W; van den Brekel, Michiel W M; Lohuis, Peter J F M

    2013-04-01

    Two patients with recurrent carcinoma of the posterior pharyngeal wall, previously treated with carbon dioxide (CO2) laser excision and (chemo)radiotherapy, presented with neck pain due to cervical osteomyelitis. In one patient this led to cervical spine instability, for which a haloframe was applied. Our working hypothesis was that cervical osteomyelitis was caused by an infected wound bed induced by CO2 laser excision of the tumor in the already vascular-compromised area of the irradiated posterior pharyngeal wall. We discuss the risks of leaving a wound for secondary granulation after CO2 laser excision of the posterior pharyngeal wall and prophylactic antibiotic treatment.

  19. An audit of pharyngeal pouch surgery using endoscopic stapling. The patient's viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Weller, M D; Porter, M J; Rowlands, J

    2004-07-01

    We report an audit designed to assess patient satisfaction resulting from pharyngeal pouch surgery using an endoscopic stapler. A personal series of 16 patients all operated on by the senior author over a 3-year period is reported. Information was gathered using a retrospective telephone questionnaire to establish pre- and postoperative symptoms, complications of surgery and patient satisfaction. This showed endoscopic pharyngeal pouch surgery to be successful in the majority of cases. Eighty-seven percent of patients felt better as a result of surgery. Seventy-five percent had no symptoms postoperatively. This series shows that surgery on pharyngeal pouches results in significant improvement in patient symptoms with minimal morbidity and mortality.

  20. Nonrheumatic myopericarditis post acute streptococcal pharyngitis: An uncommon cause of sore throat with ST segment elevation.

    PubMed

    Pourmand, Ali; Gelman, Daniel; Davis, Steven; Shokoohi, Hamid

    2017-05-01

    Nonrheumatic myopericarditis is an uncommon complication of acute pharyngitis caused by Group A Streptococcal infection (GAS). While the natural history of carditis complicating acute rheumatic fever is well established, the incidence, pathophysiology and clinical course of nonrheumatic myopericarditis are ill defined. Advances in rapid bedside testing for both myocardial injury and GAS pharyngitis have allowed for increasing recognition of this uncommon complication in patients presenting with a sore throat with associated chest discomfort. We describe a case of a 34years old man with GAS pharyngitis complicated by acute myopericarditis who presented with chest pain, ST segment elevation on electrocardiogram, and elevated cardiac biomarkers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Exercise, Animal Aerobics, and Interpretation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Valerie

    1996-01-01

    Describes an aerobic activity set to music for children that mimics animal movements. Example exercises include walking like a penguin or jumping like a cricket. Stresses basic aerobic principles and designing the program at the level of children's motor skills. Benefits include reaching people who normally don't visit nature centers, and bridging…

  2. Exercise, Animal Aerobics, and Interpretation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Valerie

    1996-01-01

    Describes an aerobic activity set to music for children that mimics animal movements. Example exercises include walking like a penguin or jumping like a cricket. Stresses basic aerobic principles and designing the program at the level of children's motor skills. Benefits include reaching people who normally don't visit nature centers, and bridging…

  3. Effect of special Hungarian probiotic kefir on faecal microflora

    PubMed Central

    Figler, Mária; Mózsik, Gyula; Schaffer, Béla; Gasztonyi, Beáta; Ács, Pongrác; Szili, Béla; Rab, Regina; Szakály, Sándor

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of a four-week consumption of a special Hungarian probiotic agent (Biofir®) on the faecal microflora in human healthy subjects. METHODS: The effect of Biofir® with 106/cm3 initial germs on the faecal microflora was studied in 120 healthy volunteers (71 females, 49 males). The traditional Russian type kefir was used as control. The various germ groups and pH values were determined in wk 2, 4 and 6. RESULTS: The number of all microbes increased during the 4-week probiotic treatment. The number of microbes increased 4.3-fold in the control group and 6.8-fold in Biofir-treated group. The probiotic kefir caused multiplication of the probiotic flora, meanwhile the undesired bacteria multiplied in the control group. No significant change of pH values of the faeces was found in both groups. CONCLUSION: The Hungarian probiotic kefir (Biofir®) is capable of promoting multiplication of probiotic bacterial flora in the large bowel. PMID:16534858

  4. Lactic acid microflora of the gut of snail Cornu aspersum

    PubMed Central

    Koleva, Zdravka; Dedov, Ivaylo; Kizheva, Joana; Lipovanska, Roxana; Moncheva, Penka; Hristova, Petya

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal lactic acid microflora of the edible snail Cornu aspersum was studied by culture-based methods and was phenotypically and molecularly characterized. The antibacterial activity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates was investigated. Snails in different stages of development were collected from farms located in several regions of Bulgaria. One hundred twenty-two isolates, belonging to the group of LAB, were characterized morphologically and were divided into four groups. Representative isolates from each morphological type were subjected to phenotypic characterization and molecular identification. The snail gut lactic acid microflora was composed by Enterococcus (17 isolates), Lactococcus (12 isolates), Leuconostoc (7 isolates), Lactobacillus (18 isolates) and Weissella (1 isolate). The species affiliation of Lactococcus lactis (12), Leuconostoc mesenteroides (4) and Lactobacillus plantarum (2) was confirmed by species-specific primers. The Lactobacillus isolates were identified by sequence analysis of 16S rDNA as Lactobacillus brevis (12), L. plantarum (2), Lactobacillus graminis (1) and Lactobacillus curvatus (3). The species L. brevis, L. graminis and L. curvatus were found in snails in a phase of hibernation, whereas L. plantarum was identified both in active and hibernation phases. Antibacterial activity (bacteriocine-like) was shown only by one strain of L. mesentereoides P4/8 against Propionibacterium acnes. The present study showed that the LAB are a component of the microbial communities in the snail digestive system. This is the first report on Lactobacillus strains detected in the gut of C. aspersum. PMID:26019550

  5. Collier/OLF/EBF-dependent transcriptional dynamics control pharyngeal muscle specification from primed cardiopharyngeal progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Razy-Krajka, Florian; Lam, Karen; Wang, Wei; Stolfi, Alberto; Joly, Marine; Bonneau, Richard; Christiaen, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY In vertebrates, pluripotent pharyngeal mesoderm progenitors produce the cardiac precursors of the second heart field as well as the branchiomeric head muscles and associated stem cells. However, the mechanisms underlying the transition from multipotent progenitors to distinct muscle precursors remain obscured by the complexity of vertebrate embryos. Using Ciona intestinalis as a simple chordate model, we show that bipotent cardiopharyngeal progenitors are primed to activate both heart and pharyngeal muscle transcriptional programs, which progressively become restricted to corresponding precursors. The transcription factor COE (Collier/OLF/EBF) orchestrates the transition to pharyngeal muscle fate both by promoting an MRF-associated myogenic program in myoblasts and by maintaining an undifferentiated state in their sister cells through Notch-mediated lateral inhibition. The latter are stem cell-like muscle precursors that form most of the juvenile pharyngeal muscles. We discuss the implications of our findings for the development and evolution of the chordate cardiopharyngeal mesoderm. PMID:24794633

  6. Microstructure of pharyngeal tooth enameloid in the parrotfish Scarus rivulatus (Pisces: Scaridae).

    PubMed

    Carr, A; Kemp, A; Tibbetts, I; Truss, R; Drennan, J

    2006-01-01

    The microstructure of parrotfish pharyngeal teeth was examined using scanning electron microscopy to infer possible mechanical properties of the dentition with respect to their function. Parrotfish tooth enameloid is formed from fluorapatite crystals grouped into bundles. In the upper and lower pharyngeal jaw, the majority of the crystal bundles are orientated either perpendicularly or vertically to the enameloid surface. The only exception is in the trailing apical enameloid in which the majority of bundles are orientated perpendicularly or horizontally to the trailing surface. A distinct transition occurs through the middle of the apex between the leading and trailing enameloid in teeth of the lower pharyngeal jaw. This transition appears less distinct in the teeth of the upper pharyngeal jaw. Enameloid microstructure indicates that shear forces predominate at the apex of the teeth. In the remainder of the enameloid, the microstructure indicates that wear is predominant, and the shear forces are of less importance.

  7. An exceptional event during the moulting process of an eutardigrade: two bucco-pharyngeal apparatuses present.

    PubMed

    Pilato, Giovanni; Lisi, Oscar

    2014-05-26

    A specimen of Diphascon (Diphascon) procerum with two bucco-pharyngeal apparatuses (one of which should have been expelled during moulting process) is described, and that anomalous condition is discussed.

  8. Appropriateness of diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis among Thai community pharmacists according to the Centor criteria.

    PubMed

    Saengcharoen, Woranuch; Jaisawang, Pornchanok; Udomcharoensab, Palita; Buathong, Kittika; Lerkiatbundit, Sanguan

    2016-10-01

    Background Inappropriate use of antibiotic treatment for pharyngitis by community pharmacists is prevalent in developing countries. Little is known about how the pharmacists identify patients with bacterial pharyngitis. Objective To ascertain the appropriateness of diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis among Thai community pharmacists according to the Centor criteria and to identify factors related to antibiotic dispensing. Setting 1040 Thai community pharmacists. Method A cross-sectional survey of community pharmacists was conducted in November 2012 to March 2013. The self-administered questionnaires were mailed to 57 % of community pharmacists in the south of Thailand (n = 1040). The survey included questions on diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis, knowledge on pharyngitis, and attitudes and control beliefs regarding antibiotic dispensing. Main outcome measure The appropriateness of diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis according to the original and modified Centor criteria and determinants of antibiotic dispensing including demographic characteristics of pharmacists, knowledge on pharyngitis, and attitudes and control beliefs on antibiotic dispensing. Results Approximately 68 % completed the questionnaires (n = 703). Compared to the pharmacists who reported not dispensing antibiotics in the hypothetical case with common cold, those reported dispensing antibiotics were more likely to consider the following conditions-presence of cough, mild sore throat and patients with age >60 years as cues for diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis (p < 0.05). The use of fewer scores of the clinical prediction rules for diagnosis was observed in antibiotic dispensers, compared to who did not do so (p < 0.005). Antibiotic dispensing was positively associated with period of dispensing experience (>5 years) [odds ratio (OR) 1.52; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.03-2.23], belief that antibiotics could shorten duration of pharyngitis (OR 1.48; 95 % CI 1

  9. Aerobic granular sludge: recent advances.

    PubMed

    Adav, Sunil S; Lee, Duu-Jong; Show, Kuan-Yeow; Tay, Joo-Hwa

    2008-01-01

    Aerobic granulation, a novel environmental biotechnological process, was increasingly drawing interest of researchers engaging in work in the area of biological wastewater treatment. Developed about one decade ago, it was exciting research work that explored beyond the limits of aerobic wastewater treatment such as treatment of high strength organic wastewaters, bioremediation of toxic aromatic pollutants including phenol, toluene, pyridine and textile dyes, removal of nitrogen, phosphate, sulphate and nuclear waste and adsorption of heavy metals. Despite this intensive research the mechanisms responsible for aerobic granulation and the strategy to expedite the formation of granular sludge, and effects of different operational and environmental factors have not yet been clearly described. This paper provides an up-to-date review on recent research development in aerobic biogranulation technology and applications in treating toxic industrial and municipal wastewaters. Factors affecting granulation, granule characterization, granulation hypotheses, effects of different operational parameters on aerobic granulation, response of aerobic granules to different environmental conditions, their applications in bioremediations, and possible future trends were delineated. The review attempts to shed light on the fundamental understanding in aerobic granulation by newly employed confocal laser scanning microscopic techniques and microscopic observations of granules.

  10. Pharyngeal teeth of the freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) a predator of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P.

    1997-01-01

    The morphology of pharyngeal teeth of freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) was studied to determine changes that occur during growth of drum that may relate to consumption of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) by larger fish. Pharyngeal teeth were of three types. Cardiform teeth were replaced by villiform teeth, which were replaced by molariform teeth as the size class of drum increased. Molariform teeth comprised over 85% of total surface area of dentition in fish 265 mm long.

  11. Pharyngeal Residue Severity Rating Scales Based on Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Paul D; Hersey, Denise P; Leder, Steven B

    2016-06-01

    Identification of pharyngeal residue severity located in the valleculae and pyriform sinuses has always been a primary goal during fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES). Pharyngeal residue is a clinical sign of potential prandial aspiration making an accurate description of its severity an important but difficult challenge. A reliable, validated, and generalizable pharyngeal residue severity rating scale for FEES would be beneficial. A systematic review of the published English language literature since 1995 was conducted to determine the quality of existing pharyngeal residue severity rating scales based on FEES. Databases were searched using controlled vocabulary words and synonymous free text words for topics of interest (deglutition disorders, pharyngeal residue, endoscopy, videofluoroscopy, fiberoptic technology, aspiration, etc.) and outcomes of interest (scores, scales, grades, tests, FEES, etc.). Search strategies were adjusted for syntax appropriate for each database/platform. Data sources included MEDLINE (OvidSP 1946-April Week 3 2015), Embase (OvidSP 1974-2015 April 20), Scopus (Elsevier), and the unindexed material in PubMed (NLM/NIH) were searched for relevant articles. Supplementary efforts to identify studies included checking reference lists of articles retrieved. Scales were compared using qualitative properties (sample size, severity definitions, number of raters, and raters' experience and training) and psychometric analyses (randomization, intra- and inter-rater reliability, and construct validity). Seven articles describing pharyngeal residue severity rating scales met inclusion criteria. Six of seven scales had insufficient data to support their use as evidenced by methodological weaknesses with both qualitative properties and psychometric analyses. There is a need for qualitative and psychometrically reliable, validated, and generalizable pharyngeal residue severity rating scales that are anatomically specific, image

  12. Four-bar linkage modelling in teleost pharyngeal jaws: computer simulations of bite kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Grubich, Justin R; Westneat, Mark W

    2006-01-01

    The pharyngeal arches of the red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) possess large toothplates and a complex musculoskeletal design for biting and crushing hard prey. The morphology of the pharyngeal apparatus is described from dissections of six specimens, with a focus on the geometric conformation of contractile and rotational elements. Four major muscles operate the rotational 4th epibranchial (EB4) and 3rd pharyngobranchial (PB3) elements to create pharyngeal bite force, including the levator posterior (LP), levator externus 3/4 (LE), obliquus posterior (OP) and 3rd obliquus dorsalis (OD). A biomechanical model of upper pharyngeal jaw biting is developed using lever mechanics and four-bar linkage theory from mechanical engineering. A pharyngeal four-bar linkage is proposed that involves the posterior skull as the fixed link, the LP muscle as input link, the epibranchial bone as coupler link and the toothed pharyngobranchial as output link. We used a computer model to simulate contraction of the four major muscles, with the LP as the dominant muscle, the length of which determined the position of the linkage. When modelling lever mechanics, we found that the effective mechanical advantages of the pharyngeal elements were low, resulting in little resultant bite force. By contrast, the force advantage of the four-bar linkage was relatively high, transmitting approximately 50% of the total muscle force to the bite between the toothplates. Pharyngeal linkage modelling enables quantitative functional morphometry of a key component of the fish feeding system, and the model is now available for ontogenetic and comparative analyses of fishes with pharyngeal linkage mechanisms. PMID:16822272

  13. A simple procedure for measuring pharyngeal sensitivity: a contribution to the diagnosis of sleep apnoea

    PubMed Central

    Dematteis, M; Levy, P; Pepin, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Patients with severe apnoea may have an impaired pharyngeal dilating reflex related to decreased pharyngeal sensitivity. The accuracy of a simple new procedure to measure pharyngeal sensitivity and to diagnose sleep disordered breathing (SDB) was investigated. Methods: Pharyngeal disappearance and appearance sensory perception thresholds were measured by delivering different airflow rates on the soft palate using an intraoral device in 17 controls and 50 patients suffering from SDB evaluated by overnight polygraphy. The procedure was performed before (baseline) and after three successive administrations of a topical anaesthetic to sensitise the pharyngeal sensory impairment. Pharyngeal sensitivity was then evaluated according to SDB severity. SDB was classified as mild, moderate or severe according to the relative proportion of obstructive apnoeas-hypopnoeas and the amount of desaturation. Results: Patients had higher baseline disappearance and appearance sensory thresholds than controls (mean (SD) 0.62 (0.44) v 0.26 (0.06) l/min and 0.85 (0.40) v 0.40 (0.19) l/min, p<0.001, respectively). Such differences were enhanced by topical anaesthesia. Impairment of pharyngeal sensitivity and the number of patients with impaired sensitivity increased from the least to the most severe SDB group as indicated by the test sensitivity for a respiratory disturbance index of >20/hour (50%, 73.7% and 88.5% in the mild, moderate, and severely affected groups, respectively). Conclusions: This simple and safe procedure showed that impairment of pharyngeal sensitivity is correlated with severity of SDB. Using this test in routine clinical practice may simplify the diagnosis of sleep apnoea, particularly for the most severe patients. PMID:15860719

  14. Incidence and severity of obstructive sleep apnea following pharyngeal flap surgery in patients with cleft palate.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yu-Fang; Chuang, Ming-Lung; Chen, Philip K T; Chen, Ning-Hung; Yun, Claudia; Huang, Chiung-Shing

    2002-05-01

    To investigate the incidence and severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) associated with pharyngeal flap surgery in patients with cleft palate at least 6 months postoperatively and to determine whether age or the flap width had an effect on them. The hypothesis tested in this study was that the severity of OSA associated with pharyngeal flap surgery is greater in children than in adults. Ten adults, six men and four women, with a mean age of 28.0 years at pharyngeal flap (adult group). Twenty-eight children, 13 boys and 15 girls, with a mean age of 6.3 years at pharyngeal flap (child group). A prospective analysis. An overnight polysomnographic study was used to determine the incidence and severity of OSA 6 months after pharyngeal flap. The incidence of OSA following pharyngeal flap was high but not significantly different between these two groups (90% in adults and 93% in children, p = 1.000). When OSA was stratified into different levels of severity according to the values of respiratory disturbance index, there were noticeable differences between these two groups (p =.022). In the adult group, eight patients (89%) had mild OSA and 1 patient (11%) had moderate to severe OSA. In the child group, 11 patients (42%) were found to have mild OSA, and 15 patients (58%) had moderate to severe OSA. No relation was found between the flap width and the incidence (p =.435 in adults and.640 in children) or the severity (p =.325 in adults and.310 in children) of OSA in each group. Six months following pharyngeal flap surgery, more than 90% of the patients with cleft palate still had OSA. The severity of OSA associated with pharyngeal flap surgery tended to be greater in children than in adults. The flap width was unrelated to the incidence and severity of OSA, no matter in adults or in children.

  15. Profile of microflora of the posterior intestine of Chinook salmon before, during, and after administration of rations with and without erythromycin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moffitt, C.M.; Mobin, S.M.A.

    2006-01-01

    We describe the resident heterotrophic aerobic microflora of the salmonid posterior intestine before, during, and after the administration of rations with erythromycin in a hatchery raceway environment. We compare the profiles of medicated Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha with those of control fish that were not fed erythromycin. The combined counts of bacteria and yeasts per gram of fish intestine originating from four upstream raceways ranged from 3.0 ?? 102 to 9.6 ?? 105 colony-forming units (CFU) over the study period. Yeasts were commonly identified in the gut, and abundances ranged from 0% to more than 80% of the CFU. Erythromycin therapy decreased the total microbial population and altered the bacterial diversity in the gut during treatment. The intestinal microbial populations in fish medicated with erythromycin increased rapidly after treatment ceased, and by 25 d after treatment the CFU were similar in samples from both medicated and control fish populations. Of 325 isolates from fish selected for biochemical profiles, we identified a total of eight gram-positive and eight gram-negative genera. Bacillus spp. were common throughout sampling and were identified in samples of fish feed. Erythromycin-resistant, gram-positive bacteria were observed throughout the sampling in medicated and control fish. We identified seven gram-positive and two gram-negative genera in 74 selected isolates from control and erythromycin feeds. Our studies suggest that the aerobic microflora of the posterior intestine varies over time, and it is likely that few resistant genera of concern to human health are present.

  16. Effect of antimicrobial spice and herb extract combinations on Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and spoilage microflora growth on cooked ready-to-eat vacuum-packaged shrimp.

    PubMed

    Weerakkody, Nimsha S; Caffin, Nola; Dykes, Gary A; Turner, Mark S

    2011-07-01

    Two spice and herb extract combinations from galangal (Alpinia galanga), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), and lemon iron bark (Eucalyptus staigerana) were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the growth of inoculated Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus and naturally present spoilage microflora on cooked ready-to-eat shrimp stored for 16 days at 4 or 8 °C. A combination of galangal, rosemary, and lemon iron bark significantly reduced (P < 0.05) levels of aerobic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria at 4 °C on day 12 by 1.6 and 1.59 log CFU/g, respectively. By day 16, levels of these bacteria were equivalent to those of controls. The shrimp treated with this spice and herb extract combination had significantly lower (P < 0.05) lipid oxidation from day 4 to day 16. Similarly, a combination of galangal and rosemary extract significantly reduced (P < 0.05) levels of aerobic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria at 8 °C on day 8 by 2.82 and 2.61 log CFU/g, respectively. By days 12 and 16, levels of these bacteria were equivalent to those of controls. The shrimp treated with this spice and herb combination had significantly lower (P < 0.05) lipid oxidation on days 4 and 16. None of the spice and herb extract combinations had an effect on levels of L. monocytogenes or S. aureus or changed the color or pH of the shrimp during storage. The results of this study indicate that combinations of galangal, rosemary, and lemon iron bark extracts can be used to control the growth of spoilage microflora on ready-to-eat shrimp. Copyright ©, International Association for Food Protection

  17. Pharyngeal function and airway protection during subhypnotic concentrations of propofol, isoflurane, and sevoflurane: volunteers examined by pharyngeal videoradiography and simultaneous manometry.

    PubMed

    Sundman, E; Witt, H; Sandin, R; Kuylenstierna, R; Bodén, K; Ekberg, O; Eriksson, L I

    2001-11-01

    Anesthetic agents alter pharyngeal function with risk of impaired airway protection and aspiration. This study was performed to evaluate pharyngeal function during subhypnotic concentrations of propofol, isoflurane, and sevoflurane and to compare the drugs for possible differences in this respect. Forty-five healthy volunteers were randomized to receive propofol, isoflurane, or sevoflurane. During series of liquid contrast bolus swallowing, fluoroscopy and simultaneous solid state videomanometry was used to study the incidence of pharyngeal dysfunction, the initiation of swallowing, and the bolus transit time. Pressure changes were recorded at the back of the tongue, the pharyngeal constrictor muscles, and the upper esophageal sphincter. After control recordings, the anesthetic was delivered, and measurements were made at 0.50 and 0.25 predicted blood propotol concentration (Cp50(asleep)) for propofol and 0.50 and 0.25 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC)(awake) for the inhalational agents. Final recordings were made 20 min after the end of anesthetic delivery. All anesthetics caused an increased incidence of pharyngeal dysfunction with laryngeal bolus penetration. Propofol increased the incidence from 8 to 58%, isoflurane from 4 to 36%, and sevoflurane from 6 to 35%. Propofol in 0.50 and 0.25 Cp50(asleep) had the most extensive effect on the pharyngeal contraction patterns (P < 0.05). The upper esophageal sphincter resting tone was markedly reduced from 83 +/- 36 to 39 +/- 19 mmHg by propofol (P < 0.001), which differed from isoflurane (P = 0.03). Sevoflurane also reduced the upper esophageal sphincter resting tone from 65 +/- 16 to 45 +/- 18 mmHg at 0.50 MAC(awake)(P = 0.008). All agents caused a reduced upper esophageal sphincter peak contraction amplitude (P < 0.05), and the reduction was greatest in the propofol group (P = 0.002). Subhypnotic concentrations of propofol, isoflurane, and sevoflurane cause an increased incidence of pharyngeal dysfunction with

  18. PFAPA syndrome (Periodic Fever, Aphthous stomatitis, Pharyngitis, Adenitis).

    PubMed

    Lee, W I; Yang, M H; Lee, K F; Chen, L C; Lin, S J; Yeh, K W; Huang, J L

    1999-01-01

    This paper aims to remind paediatric clinicians to suspect and confirm 'PFAPA' syndrome (Periodic Fever, Aphthous stomatitis, Pharyngitis and cervical Adenitis syndrome). We report two cases of PFAPA syndrome: a 3-year-old healthy boy with atopic rhinitis and a boy aged 8 years 5 months who simultaneously had lymphocytic vasculitis syndrome treated with immunosuppressive drugs. Both met Marshall's criteria. The literature regarding PFAPA syndrome was complied using a Medline search for articles published between 1963 and 1998 and we then reviewed the reference lists of the articles. The Medline search revealed 28 cases with available clinical manifestations, management and prognosis. Our study describes two additional cases. We divided the cases into typical (28 cases) and atypical (two cases) PFAPA syndrome. In typical PFAPA, the age of onset was less than 5 years in most cases and the patients presented 4.9 +/- 1.4 days of fever (100%), pharyngitis (89.3%), cervical adenitis (72.1%), stomatitis (71.4%), malaise (64.3%), headache (60.7%), abdominal pain (53.6%) and nausea/vomiting (17.9%). Afebrile intervals were 3.2 +/- 2.4 months and increased with age. The time from initial onset to final episode was 3 years 7 months +/- 3 years 6 months. The total number of episodes was 8.3 +/- 2.5 (range 6-14). Effective treatment included steroids, tonsillectomy/adenoidectomy and cimetidine. The general outcome was good. In atypical PFAPF, the clinical manifestations were similar to those of typical PFAPA except that the age of onset was more than 5 years, and life-threatening intestinal perforation happened once in a patient with underlying Fanconi's anaemia. It was concluded that typical PFAPA syndrome is benign and can be diagnosed by detailed history-taking and from physical findings during repeated febrile episodes with tests to rule out other periodic fever syndromes. A review of the literatures since the first report in 1987 has shown that typical PFAPA syndrome is

  19. Evaluation of Pharyngeal Space in Different Combinations of Class II Skeletal Malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Jay; Shyagali, Tarulatha R.; Bhayya, Deepak P.; Shah, Romil

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The study was aimed to evaluate the pharyngeal airway linear measurements of untreated skeletal class II subjects with normal facial vertical pattern in prognathic maxilla with orthognathic mandible and orthognathic maxilla with retrognathic mandible. Materials and method: the sample comprised of lateral Cephalograms of two groups (30 each) of class II malocclusion variants. Group 1 comprised of class II malocclusion with prognathic maxilla and orthognathic mandible, whereas group 2 comprised of class II malocclusion with orthognathic maxilla and retrognathic mandible. Each group was traced for the linear measurements of the pharyngeal airway like the oropharynx, nasopharynx and soft palate. The obtained data was subjected to independent t test and the Mann Whitney test to check the difference between the two groups and within the groups respectively. Results: there was significant difference between all the linear measurements at the soft palate region and the distance between the tip of soft palate to its counter point on the pharyngeal wall in oropharynx region (p-ppm). Conclusion: the pharyngeal airway for class II malocclusion with various combination in an average growth pattern adult showed significant difference. The present results suggested, that the pharyngeal airway space might be the etiological factor for different sagittal growth pattern of the jaws and probable usage of different growth modification appliance can influence the pharyngeal airway. PMID:26635436

  20. Optimal site for throat culture: tonsillar surface versus posterior pharyngeal wall.

    PubMed

    van der Veen, E L; Sanders, E A M; Videler, W J M; van Staaij, B K; van Benthem, P P G; Schilder, A G M

    2006-08-01

    To determine the optimal site of throat culture for the detection of potential pathogens by comparing culture results from the tonsillar surface and the posterior pharyngeal wall in children selected for adenotonsillectomy and in children without upper respiratory disease. Cotton culture swabs were taken from the tonsillar surface and the posterior pharyngeal wall of 50 children selected for adenotonsillectomy for symptoms of recurrent tonsillitis and/or adenotonsillar hypertrophy and of 50 children without upper respiratory disease. Potential respiratory pathogens were identified. In the overall group (n = 100), positive culture results were found in 67 posterior pharyngeal wall samples and 47 tonsillar surface samples (P = 0.001). Haemophilus influenzae was the most frequently isolated micro-organism both in the posterior pharyngeal wall and the tonsillar surface samples; 55 and 35%, respectively (P = 0.001). Group A beta-haemolytic streptococci were found in the samples of the posterior pharyngeal wall and the tonsillar surface in 17 and 13%, respectively (P = 0.2). When dealing with patients with sore throat, sampling both tonsillar surfaces is enough for the detection of group A beta-haemolytic streptococci. When detection of other bacteria is also important, such as for research purposes, the posterior pharyngeal wall should be sampled as well.

  1. The use of magnetic resonance angiography prior to pharyngeal flap surgery in patients with velocardiofacial syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mitnick, R J; Bello, J A; Golding-Kushner, K J; Argamaso, R V; Shprintzen, R J

    1996-04-01

    Twenty consecutive patients with velocardiofacial syndrome underwent magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) to determine if abnormalities of the neck arteries would contraindicate pharyngeal flap surgery. All 20 patients were found to have anomalies to the carotid arteries, vertebral arteries, medially placed internal carotids, low carotid bifurcations, and tortuous or kinked internal carotids. The internal carotids were found to be almost directly under the mucous membrane of the pharynx in two patients. In these two patients, the arteries were close to the pharyngeal midline at the base of the first cervical vertebra and might easily be severed during the raising of a pharyngeal flap. Hypoplastic vertebral arteries also were found. One patient had an extra neck vessel. The anomalies of the internal carotids did not have a strong correlation with endoscopically observed pulsations in the position affected the location of the internal carotids did not have a strong posterior pharyngeal wall. It also was found that head position affected the location of the internal carotid arteries when they were located close to the pharyngeal mucous membrane. The information provided in the MRA studies allowed assessment of the arterial anomalies in relation to the flap donor site so that the patients in the sample who underwent pharyngeal flap surgery using a short superiorly based flap had no major bleeding complications.

  2. Pharyngeal aerodynamic characteristics of obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Zang, Hong-Rui; Li, Li-Feng; Zhou, Bing; Li, Yun-Chuan; Wang, Tong; Han, De-Min

    2012-09-01

    The role of nasal obstruction in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) has been debated for decades. In this prospective study, we compared the pharyngeal aerodynamic characteristics of OSAHS patients and normal people, and investigated the contribution of total nasal airway resistance to the pathophysiology of OSAHS. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to extract the average pressure and average airflow velocity in three transverse cross-sectional planes of the pharynx for statistical analysis, and the correlation between nasal resistance and the average pressure in the pharyngeal cavity was investigated. The negative pressure within the pharyngeal cavity was significantly higher in OSAHS patients than in normal subjects, and total nasal airway resistance correlated well with the average pressure in three consecutive transverse cross-sections of the pharyngeal cavity. Greater negative pressure within the pharyngeal cavity contributed to the increased collapsibility of the pharynx in OSAHS patients, and the strong correlation between nasal resistance and pharyngeal pressure suggests that the nose plays a role in the pathogenesis of OSAHS.

  3. Effects of meteorologic factors and schooling on the seasonality of group A streptococcal pharyngitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervás, Daniel; Hervás-Masip, Juan; Ferrés, Laia; Ramírez, Antonio; Pérez, José L.; Hervás, Juan A.

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the seasonal pattern of group A streptococcal pharyngitis in children attended at a hospital emergency department in the Mediterranean island of Mallorca (Spain), and its association with meteorologic factors and schooling. We conducted a retrospective review of the medical records of children aged 1-15 years with a diagnosis of Streptococcus pyogenes pharyngitis between January 2006 and December 2011. The number of S. pyogenes pharyngitis was correlated to temperature, humidity, rainfall, atmospheric pressure, wind speed, solar radiation, and schooling, using regression and time series techniques. A total of 906 patients (median, 4 years old) with S. pyogenes pharyngitis, confirmed by throat culture, were attended during the study period. A seasonal pattern was observed with a peak activity in June and a minimum in September. Mean temperature, solar radiation, and school holidays were the best predicting variables ( R 2 = 0.68; p < 0.001 ). S. pyogenes activity increased with the decrease of mean temperature ( z = -2.4; p < 0.05), the increase of solar radiation ( z = 4.2; p < 0.001), and/or the decrease in school holidays ( z = -2.4; p < 0.05). In conclusion, S. pyogenes pharyngitis had a clear seasonality predominating in springtime, and an association with mean temperature, solar radiation, and schooling was observed. The resulting model predicted 68 % of S. pyogenes pharyngitis.

  4. Quantifying factors limiting aerobic degradation during aerobic bioreactor landfilling.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, Ramin; Mostafid, M Erfan; Han, Byunghyun; Imhoff, Paul T; Chiu, Pei; Augenstein, Don; Kayhanian, Masoud; Tchobanoglous, George

    2010-08-15

    A bioreactor landfill cell at Yolo County, California was operated aerobically for six months to quantify the extent of aerobic degradation and mechanisms limiting aerobic activity during air injection and liquid addition. The portion of the solid waste degraded anaerobically was estimated and tracked through time. From an analysis of in situ aerobic respiration and gas tracer data, it was found that a large fraction of the gas-filled pore space was in immobile zones where it was difficult to maintain aerobic conditions, even at relatively moderate landfill cell-average moisture contents of 33-36%. Even with the intentional injection of air, anaerobic activity was never less than 13%, and sometimes exceeded 65%. Analyses of gas tracer and respiration data were used to quantify rates of respiration and rates of mass transfer to immobile gas zones. The similarity of these rates indicated that waste degradation was influenced significantly by rates of oxygen transfer to immobile gas zones, which comprised 32-92% of the gas-filled pore space. Gas tracer tests might be useful for estimating the size of the mobile/immobile gas zones, rates of mass transfer between these regions, and the difficulty of degrading waste aerobically in particular waste bodies.

  5. Evidence of a true pharyngeal tonsil in birds: a novel lymphoid organ in Dromaius novaehollandiae and Struthio camelus (Palaeognathae)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Tonsils are secondary lymphoid organs located in the naso- and oropharynx of most mammalian species. Most tonsils are characterised by crypts surrounded by dense lymphoid tissue. However, tonsils without crypts have also been recognised. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), although not well-organised and lacking tonsillar crypts, is abundant in the avian oropharynx and has been referred to as the “pharyngeal tonsil”. In this context the pharyngeal folds present in the oropharynx of ratites have erroneously been named the pharyngeal tonsils. This study distinguishes between the different types and arrangements of lymphoid tissue in the pharyngeal region of D. novaehollandiae and S. camelus and demonstrates that both species possess a true pharyngeal tonsil which fits the classical definition of tonsils in mammals. Results The pharyngeal tonsil (Tonsilla pharyngea) of D. novaehollandiae was located on the dorsal free surface of the pharyngeal folds and covered by a small caudo-lateral extension of the folds whereas in S. camelus the tonsil was similarly located on the dorsal surface of the pharyngeal folds but was positioned retropharyngeally and encapsulated by loose connective tissue. The pharyngeal tonsil in both species was composed of lymph nodules, inter-nodular lymphoid tissue, mucus glands, crypts and intervening connective tissue septa. In S. camelus a shallow tonsillar sinus was present. Aggregated lymph nodules and inter-nodular lymphoid tissue was associated with the mucus glands on the ventral surface of the pharyngeal folds in both species and represented the Lymphonoduli pharyngeales. Similar lymphoid tissue, but more densely packed and situated directly below the epithelium, was present on the dorsal, free surface of the pharyngeal folds and represented a small, non-follicular tonsil. Conclusions The follicular pharyngeal tonsils in D. novaehollandiae and S. camelus are distinct from the pharyngeal folds in these species and

  6. Severe mechanical dysfunction in pharyngeal muscle from adult mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Attal, P; Lambert, F; Marchand-Adam, S; Bobin, S; Pourny, J C; Chemla, D; Lecarpentier, Y; Coirault, C

    2000-07-01

    The mdx mouse is a widely used animal model of human muscular dystrophy. Although diaphragm muscle exhibits severe muscle weakness throughout the life of the animal, the limb muscle function of mdx mice spontaneously recovers by 6 mo of age. Pharyngeal dilator muscles such as sternohyoid (SH) contribute to upper airway patency during breathing. We hypothesized that SH muscle function was impaired in 6-mo-old mdx mice. Mechanical properties and myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition were investigated in isolated SH from 6-mo-old control (C, n = 10) and mdx (n = 10) mice. As compared with C, peak tetanic tension (Pmax) and maximum shortening velocity were 50% and 16% lower in mdx mice (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively). Peak mechanical power was lower in mdx than in C (19.0 +/- 3.2 versus 57.4 +/- 5.1 mW g(-)(1), p < 0.001). Both C and mdx SH were composed exclusively of fast myosin isoforms. As compared with C, mdx SH presented a higher proportion of IIX-MHC and a reduction in IIB-MHC (each p < 0.001). In conclusion, our results demonstrated severe SH muscle dysfunction in 6-mo-old mdx mice, that is, at a time when limb muscle function has recovered. Thus, SH muscle of the mdx mouse may be an excellent muscle for studying Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

  7. Pharyngeal-cervical-brachial variant of Guillain-Barre syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wakerley, Benjamin R; Yuki, Nobuhiro

    2014-03-01

    The pharyngeal-cervical-brachial (PCB) variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome is defined by rapidly progressive oropharyngeal and cervicobrachial weakness associated with areflexia in the upper limbs. Serial nerve conduction studies suggest that PCB represents a localised subtype of Guillain-Barré syndrome characterised by axonal rather than demyelinating neuropathy. Many neurologists are unfamiliar with PCB, which is often misdiagnosed as brainstem stroke, myasthenia gravis or botulism. The presence of additional ophthalmoplegia and ataxia indicates overlap with Fisher syndrome. Half of patients with PCB carry IgG anti-GT1a antibodies which often cross-react with GQ1b, whereas most patients with Fisher syndrome carry IgG anti-GQ1b antibodies which always cross-react with GT1a. Significant overlap between the clinical and serological profiles of these patients supports the view that PCB and Fisher syndrome form a continuous spectrum. In this review, we highlight the clinical features of PCB and outline new diagnostic criteria.

  8. [Pharyngitis due to Burkholderia cepacia. Person-to-person transmission].

    PubMed

    Fajardo Olivares, M; Cordero Carrasco, J L; Beteta López, A; Escobar Izquierdo, A B; Sacristán Enciso, B

    2004-06-01

    Burkholderia cepacia is a Gram-negative bacillus that is widely distributed in nature; it is isolated from the ground, water, plants and vegetables. Generally, it produces nosocomial infection due to contamination of disinfectants, medical equipment, prosthetic material and drugs, such as anesthetics or liquids used in urological irrigation. The most probable mechanism of transmission is through hospital material or through fomites among people after contact for several weeks or months. Recently, it has been considered as an important pathogen in immunocompromised patients, or in those with significant underlying diseases, such as chronic granulomastosis or cystic fibrosis. We present a case of pharyngitis due to B. cepacia and its transmission within a few days in two immunocompetent twin siblings without previous underlying diseases. The infection disappeared after specific treatment for this microorganism was started. We believe that samples should be taken from the pharynx and nasal pits in patients with acute upper respiratory tract processes that do not respond to empiric antibiotic treatment, before classifying them as viral infection without etiologic diagnosis.

  9. Periodic fever, apthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and adenitis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Caorsi, Roberta; Pelagatti, Maria Antonietta; Federici, Silvia; Finetti, Martina; Martini, Alberto; Gattorno, Marco

    2010-09-01

    Periodic fever, apthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome is the most common cause of periodic fever of unknown origin in childhood. During the last years a number of studies on large series of patients have shed more light on the actual clinical characterization, long-term outcome and response to treatment. Current PFAPA criteria have low specificity since they are positive in a considerable proportion of patients with inherited periodic fevers. We report on the findings coming from the analysis of large cohorts of PFAPA patients and the possible implication for the differential diagnosis. An update on the efficacy of possible prophylactic treatments and tonsillectomy is given. A diagnostic score developed in a large series of children identifies patients meeting PFAPA criteria and at higher risk to carry relevant mutations of genes associated with periodic fevers. Randomized studies on the efficacy of tonsillectomy give a more evidence-based justification to this possible therapeutic approach. The findings coming from the recent literature give new information to clinicians for the correct diagnostic approach to pediatric and adult patients presenting periodic fever of unknown origin and provide an updated overview on the therapeutic possibilities for patients presenting a persistence of fever attacks.

  10. The pharyngeal mucosa is not involved in eosinophilic oesophagitis.

    PubMed

    Bove, M; Tegtmeyer, B; Persson, S; Bergquist, H

    2009-09-01

    Eosinophilic oesophagitis is thought to be an isolated oesophageal disease associated with biopsy-verified eosinophilia of the squamous cell epithelium of the oesophagus. Food- or aeroallergens have been suggested to be the cause of eosinophilic oesophagitis; however, as these allergens pass through the pharynx sharing the same squamous cell epithelium, eosinophilic infiltration could be expected also here. Whether this is true or not has hitherto not been clarified. To find out whether eosinophilia is present also within the pharyngeal epithelium in patients with eosinophilic oesophagitis. In all, 10 patients (median age 34, range 15-70) with biopsy-verified eosinophilic oesophagitis [peak count >20 eosinophils per high power field (hpf)] were biopsied also in the pharynx. The biopsies underwent histopathological examination and at each level, the peak number of eosinophils per hpf was counted. None of the patients examined was found to have eosinophilia within the squamous cell epithelium of the pharynx (median peak count 0, range 0-1). The pronounced eosinophilic infiltration in eosinophilic oesophagitis appears to be an isolated oesophageal phenomenon not shared by the adjoining organ sites and in particular, not by the pharynx. This may have implications for future research.

  11. Coordination in oro-pharyngeal biomechanics during human swallowing.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Minagi, Yoshitomo; Hori, Kazuhiro; Kondoh, Jugo; Fujiwara, Shigehiro; Tamine, Kenichi; Inoue, Makoto; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Chen, Yongjin; Ono, Takahiro

    2015-08-01

    In swallowing, the tongue contacts against the hard palate to generate pressure for propelling a bolus from the oral cavity into the pharynx. Meanwhile, the hyoid and larynx move upward and forward to facilitate the bolus from the pharynx into the esophagus. It has been well known that sequential coordination between those actions is critical for safety accomplishment of swallowing. However, the absence of noninvasive assessment for it limits the detection to the physiological symptom of dysphagia. We applied a sensor sheet on the hard palate to measure tongue contact pressure and a bend sensor on the frontal neck to monitor the laryngeal movement, which was synchronized with hyoid motion for assessing the coordination between both actions in 14 healthy male subjects when swallowing 5ml of water. The sequential order of tongue pressure and hyoid movement was successfully displayed. Tongue pressure was produced after slight movement of the hyoid and closely to the hyoid elevation, then reached a maximum when the hyoid stabilized in the most anterior-superior position, and ceased concurrently with the onset of hyoid descent. Additionally, the synchronized data from both sensors showed positive correlations between identified time points on the laryngeal signal waveform and onset, peak and offset of tongue pressure. Our sensing system successfully showed the coordination between tongue pressure production and hyoid motion, and could be a simple and noninvasive method for clinicians to evaluate the oral and pharyngeal stages of swallowing.

  12. Pharyngeal wall vibration detection using an artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Behbehani, K; Lopez, F; Yen, F C; Lucas, E A; Burk, J R; Axe, J P; Kamangar, F

    1997-05-01

    An artificial-neural-network-based detector of pharyngeal wall vibration (PWV) is presented. PWV signals the imminent occurrence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) in adults who suffer from OSA syndrome. Automated detection of PWV is very important in enhancing continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy by allowing automatic adjustment of the applied airway pressure by a procedure called automatic positive airway pressure (APAP) therapy. A network with 15 inputs, one output, and two hidden layers, each with two Adaline-nodes, is used as part of a PWV detection scheme. The network is initially trained using nasal mask pressure data from five positively diagnosed OSA patients. The performance of the ANN-based detector is evaluated using data from five different OSA patients. The results show that on the average it correctly detects the presence of PWV events at a rate of approximately 92% and correctly distinguishes normal breaths approximately 98% of the time. Further, the ANN-based detector accuracy is not affected by the pressure level required for therapy.

  13. Pharyngeal Airway Changes after Bimaxillary Orthognathic Surgery--Preliminary Results.

    PubMed

    Stefanović, Neda Lj; Glišić, Branislav; Nikolić, Predrag V; Juloski, Jovana; Palomo, Juan Martin

    2015-01-01

    Dentofacial deformity, a deviation from normal facial proportions and dental relationships, is corrected by jaw repositioning in all three spatial planes, which changes the position and tension of the surrounding tissues, bones and muscles. These changes may also affect the dimensions of the pharyngeal airways (PA). The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare three-dimensional PA changes in patients treated by a combination mandibular set-back/maxillary advancement versus patients that had bimaxillary advancement with genioplasty. The sample consisted of 7 patients treated by combined mandibular set-back/maxillary advancement and 7 patients treated with bimaxillary advancement surgery. Nasopharyngeal (NP) volume, oropharyngeal (OP) volume and the area of maximum constriction (AMC) in the OP were measured on CBCT scans (2 mA/120 kV/12" FOV) taken before (T1) and 3 months after surgery (T2). Paired samples t-test was used for analyzing statistical significance of changes (p ≤ 0.05). OP volume and AMC increase after bimaxillary advancement was statistically significant, while for the mandibular set-back group the increase was non-significant. NP volume was not reduced in any of the two groups. No significant differences in PA dimensions were found between groups at neither T1 nor T2 time points. Results suggest that the combination of mandibular set-back/maxillary advancement did not reduce airway dimensions, while bimaxillary advancement surgery led to a statistically significant increase in the OP dimensions.

  14. Argyrophilic nucleolar organiser region counts and prognosis in pharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Pich, A.; Pisani, P.; Kzengli, M.; Cappello, N.; Navone, R.

    1991-01-01

    The prognostic significance of argyrophilic nucleolar organiser regions (AgNORs) has been evaluated in biopsy specimens from 61 primary squamous and undifferentiated carcinomas of the pharynx prior to therapy. The univariate Kaplan-Meyer survival analysis showed a significant correlation between 3- and 5-year survival rates and the mean AgNOR number per tumour cell (P less than 0.001). No significant correlation was found between prognosis and patients age and sex, tumour location, clinical stage, histologic grade, extent of lymphocytic infiltration, HMFG-2 positivity of tumour cells and UCHL1, LN2, MB2 positivity of infiltrating lymphocytes. There was no significant association between AgNOR counts and tumour histologic grade or clinical stage. Multivariate survival analysis showed that only two variables were significantly correlated with prognosis: AgNOR counts (P less than 0.001) and the extent of lymphocytic infiltration (P less than 0.027). Our results indicate the prognostic value of AgNOR counts and suggest the use of this method as a significant parameter in the pretherapeutic assessment of the aggressiveness of pharyngeal carcinomas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1716455

  15. Interaction of gut microflora with tannins in feeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, Gunjan; Puniya, A. K.; Aguilar, C. N.; Singh, Kishan

    2005-11-01

    Tannins (hydrolyzable and condensed) are water-soluble polyphenolic compounds that exert antinutritional effects on ruminants by forming complexes with dietary proteins. They limit nitrogen supply to animals, besides inhibiting the growth and activity of ruminal microflora. However, some gastrointestinal microbes are able to break tannin-protein complexes while preferentially degrading hydrolyzable tannins (HTs). Streptococcus gallolyticus, Lonepinella koalarum and Selenomonas ruminantium are the dominant bacterial species that have the ability to degrade HTs. These tanninolytic microorganisms possess tannin-degrading ability and have developed certain mechanisms to tolerate tannins in feeds. Hence, selection of efficient tanninolytic microbes and transinoculation among animals for long-term benefits become areas of intensive interest. Here, we review the effects of tannins on ruminants, the existence and significance of tannin-degrading microorganisms in diverse groups of animals and the mechanisms that tannin-degrading microorganisms have developed to counter the toxic effects of tannin.

  16. [Characterization of the microflora of the small intestine (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, H; Knoke, M

    1980-03-01

    Normal and abnormal microflora of the upper small intestine was studied in 356 patients. Low counts are characteristic of normal microbial colonization (eubiosis), changes in quality and/or quantity are pathological (dysbiosis). The latter status is described as overgrowth syndrome. We found some types of dysbiosis. Prevalent was type Dys1 with the highest counts and the greatest variety of bacteria and yeasts. In contrast to this, type Dys2 showed higher germ counts of only one genus like coliforms (Dys2 Coli), streptococci (Dys2 Str.), lactobacilli (Dys2 L.) or yeasts (Dys2 Y.). In dysbiosis, we frequently saw bifidobacterium and bacteroides. Simultaneous sampling from stomach, duodenum, and jejunum indicated different modes of colonization of these parts (oral or fecal type).

  17. Microflora analysis of a child with severe combined immune deficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. R.; Kropp, K. D.; Molina, T. C.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents a microflora analysis of a 5-year-old male child with severe combined immune deficiency who was delivered by Caesarean section and continuously maintained in an isolator. Despite precautions, it was found that the child had come in contact with at least 54 different microbial contaminants. While his skin autoflora was similar to that of a reference group of healthy male adults in numbers of different species and the number of viable cells present per square centimeter of surface area, the subject's autoflora differed from the reference group in that significantly fewer anaerobic species were recovered from the patient's mouth and feces. It is suggested that the child's remaining disease free shows that the reported bacteria are noninvasive or that the unaffected components of the child's immune defense mechanisms are important.

  18. Effects of intensity-modulated radiotherapy on human oral microflora.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zi-Yang; Tang, Zi-Sheng; Yan, Chao; Jiang, Yun-Tao; Ma, Rui; Liu, Zheng; Huang, Zheng-Wei

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate changes in the biodiversity of the oral microflora of patients with head and neck cancer treated with postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or conventional radiotherapy (CRT). Pooled dental plaque samples were collected during the radiation treatment from patients receiving IMRT (n = 13) and CRT (n = 12). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to analyze the temporal variation of these plaque samples. The stimulated and unstimulated salivary flow rates were also compared between IMRT and CRT patients. Reductions in the severity of hyposalivation were observed in IMRT patients compared with CRT patients. We also observed that the temporal stability of the oral ecosystem was significantly higher in the IMRT group (69.96 ± 7.82%) than in the CRT group (51.98 ± 10.45%) (P < 0.05). The findings of the present study suggest that IMRT is more conducive to maintaining the relative stability of the oral ecosystem than CRT.

  19. Microflora analysis of a child with severe combined immune deficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. R.; Kropp, K. D.; Molina, T. C.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents a microflora analysis of a 5-year-old male child with severe combined immune deficiency who was delivered by Caesarean section and continuously maintained in an isolator. Despite precautions, it was found that the child had come in contact with at least 54 different microbial contaminants. While his skin autoflora was similar to that of a reference group of healthy male adults in numbers of different species and the number of viable cells present per square centimeter of surface area, the subject's autoflora differed from the reference group in that significantly fewer anaerobic species were recovered from the patient's mouth and feces. It is suggested that the child's remaining disease free shows that the reported bacteria are noninvasive or that the unaffected components of the child's immune defense mechanisms are important.

  20. Operative control of human microflora in confined habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viacheslav, Ilyin; Solovieva, Zoya; Panina, Jana

    The problem of operative control and transmission of information on microbial state of humans in artificial environment is much actual especially in conditions of long-term space missions and in perspective mission to Mars. There was revealed that in long-term missions there is a periodical accumulation of pathogenicity potential in the system "human-microbes" which lead to possible development of opportunistic infections of crew members in spaceflight. To investigate covering tissues microflora of volunteers participated in 14 and 105 days isolation in confined habitat the new non-culture method was elaborated, based on computer treatment of native swab, equally distributed on total surface of microscopy glass and Gram stained. It allows to obtain information on 3 basic indices -morphology, tinctorial and quantitative, thus it could detect increasing of total microbial amount, growth of staphylococci which is important for early diagnostics of microbial disbalance on covering tissues of volunteers. The analysis is performed with the aid of authomatized system of digital microscopy dedicated to recognition of microbial images on the preparate and for further transmission of these digital images via telecommunication network, thus making possibility of remote consultancies. The data of 14-day experiment reveals increasing of potential pathogens on 7th day of isolation with further decrease on 14th day, changes of microflora in 105-day isolation has the tendency of periodical accumulation. In general, the results were compatible with ones obtained by classical bacteriological studies. The results are significant under the microbial quantity of 104 CFU/swab and higher, which is important for analyzing of microbial groups if they grow in quantities, increasing normal values.

  1. Effects of a skin neuropeptide (substance p) on cutaneous microflora.

    PubMed

    Mijouin, Lily; Hillion, Mélanie; Ramdani, Yasmina; Jaouen, Thomas; Duclairoir-Poc, Cécile; Follet-Gueye, Marie-Laure; Lati, Elian; Yvergnaux, Florent; Driouich, Azzedine; Lefeuvre, Luc; Farmer, Christine; Misery, Laurent; Feuilloley, Marc G J

    2013-01-01

    Skin is the largest human neuroendocrine organ and hosts the second most numerous microbial population but the interaction of skin neuropeptides with the microflora has never been investigated. We studied the effect of Substance P (SP), a peptide released by nerve endings in the skin on bacterial virulence. Bacillus cereus, a member of the skin transient microflora, was used as a model. Exposure to SP strongly stimulated the cytotoxicity of B. cereus (+553±3% with SP 10(-6) M) and this effect was rapid (<5 min). Infection of keratinocytes with SP treated B. cereus led to a rise in caspase1 and morphological alterations of the actin cytoskeleton. Secretome analysis revealed that SP stimulated the release of collagenase and superoxide dismutase. Moreover, we also noted a shift in the surface polarity of the bacteria linked to a peel-off of the S-layer and the release of S-layer proteins. Meanwhile, the biofilm formation activity of B. cereus was increased. The Thermo unstable ribosomal Elongation factor (Ef-Tu) was identified as the SP binding site in B. cereus. Other Gram positive skin bacteria, namely Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis also reacted to SP by an increase of virulence. Thermal water from Uriage-les-Bains and an artificial polysaccharide (Teflose®) were capable to antagonize the effect of SP on bacterial virulence. SP is released in sweat during stress and is known to be involved in the pathogenesis of numerous skin diseases through neurogenic inflammation. Our study suggests that a direct effect of SP on the skin microbiote should be another mechanism.

  2. Effects of a Skin Neuropeptide (Substance P) on Cutaneous Microflora

    PubMed Central

    Mijouin, Lily; Hillion, Mélanie; Ramdani, Yasmina; Jaouen, Thomas; Duclairoir-Poc, Cécile; Follet-Gueye, Marie-Laure; Lati, Elian; Yvergnaux, Florent; Driouich, Azzedine; Lefeuvre, Luc; Farmer, Christine; Misery, Laurent; Feuilloley, Marc G. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Skin is the largest human neuroendocrine organ and hosts the second most numerous microbial population but the interaction of skin neuropeptides with the microflora has never been investigated. We studied the effect of Substance P (SP), a peptide released by nerve endings in the skin on bacterial virulence. Methodology/Principal Findings Bacillus cereus, a member of the skin transient microflora, was used as a model. Exposure to SP strongly stimulated the cytotoxicity of B. cereus (+553±3% with SP 10−6 M) and this effect was rapid (<5 min). Infection of keratinocytes with SP treated B. cereus led to a rise in caspase1 and morphological alterations of the actin cytoskeleton. Secretome analysis revealed that SP stimulated the release of collagenase and superoxide dismutase. Moreover, we also noted a shift in the surface polarity of the bacteria linked to a peel-off of the S-layer and the release of S-layer proteins. Meanwhile, the biofilm formation activity of B. cereus was increased. The Thermo unstable ribosomal Elongation factor (Ef-Tu) was identified as the SP binding site in B. cereus. Other Gram positive skin bacteria, namely Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis also reacted to SP by an increase of virulence. Thermal water from Uriage-les-Bains and an artificial polysaccharide (Teflose®) were capable to antagonize the effect of SP on bacterial virulence. Conclusions/Significance SP is released in sweat during stress and is known to be involved in the pathogenesis of numerous skin diseases through neurogenic inflammation. Our study suggests that a direct effect of SP on the skin microbiote should be another mechanism. PMID:24250813

  3. A study of skin diseases in dogs and cats. III. III. Microflora of the skin of dogs with chronic eczema.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, S; Krogh, H V

    1978-01-01

    The microflora of the skin was studied in 10 dogs with chronic eczema without clinical signs of secondary infection (Table I). The skin surface was swabbed at 7 different sites, making a total of 70 swabs, 25 of which were taken from visibly inflamed areas and 45 from apparently unaffected skin (Table II). Staph. aureus, Staph. epidermidis, micrococci, alpha-hemolytic streptococci, and Acinetobacter spp. were found consistently. Ten different Gram-negative bacteria, 3 different Gram-positive bacteria, and 2 yeasts were found to occur sporadically (Table III). Compared to a group of 10 healthy dogs a more prolific growth of aerobic microorganisms, a greater number of sites carrying Staph. aureus, and a higher recovery of Gram-negative transients were found in dogs with eczema (Table IV--VII). Within the group of dogs with eczema the growth of Staph. aureus was significantly heavier from eczematous skin areas than from clinically normal skin (Table VIII). In dogs with non-infective dermatitides the colonization of the skin by potentially pathogenic microorganisms may have to be considered in the clinical handling of these diseases.

  4. Gram-negative, aerobic, enteric pathogens among intestinal microflora of wild turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) in west central Texas.

    PubMed Central

    Winsor, D K; Bloebaum, A P; Mathewson, J J

    1981-01-01

    The prevalence of gram-negative bacterial species in the intestines of 20 apparently healthy turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) was determined. Edwardsiella tarda, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Salmonella, and Arizona hinshawii (Salmonella arizonae) were each recovered from 15% of these birds. Turkey vultures may be important reservoirs of these bacterial pathogens. PMID:7032423

  5. Examination of the cultivatable, aerobic microflora of swine feces and stored swine manure on various media and antibiotics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Antimicrobial compounds have been commonly used as feed additives for domestic animals to reduce infection and promote growth. Recent concerns have suggested that such feeding practices may result in increased microbial resistance to antibiotics. Our laboratory has been studying the predominant comm...

  6. Effects of laryngeal restriction on pharyngeal peristalsis and biomechanics: Clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Shaker, Reza; Sanvanson, Patrick; Balasubramanian, Gokulakrishnan; Kern, Mark; Wuerl, Ashley; Hyngstrom, Allison

    2016-06-01

    To date, rehabilitative exercises aimed at strengthening the pharyngeal muscles have not been developed due to the inability to successfully overload and fatigue these muscles during their contraction, a necessary requirement for strength training. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that applying resistance against anterosuperior movement of the hyolaryngeal complex will overload the pharyngeal muscles and by repetitive swallowing will result in their fatigue manifested by a reduction in pharyngeal peristaltic amplitude. Studies were done in two groups. In group 1 studies 15 healthy subjects (age: 42 ± 14 yr, 11 females) were studied to determine whether imposing resistance to swallowing using a handmade device can affect the swallow-induced hyolaryngeal excursion and related upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening. In group 2, an additional 15 healthy subjects (age 56 ± 25 yr, 7 females) were studied to determine whether imposing resistance to the anterosuperior excursion of the hyolaryngeal complex induces fatigue manifested as reduction in pharyngeal contractile pressure during repeated swallowing. Analysis of the video recordings showed significant decrease in maximum deglutitive superior laryngeal excursion and UES opening diameter (P < 0.01) due to resistive load. Consecutive swallows against the resistive load showed significant decrease in pharyngeal contractile integral (PhCI) values (P < 0.01). Correlation analysis showed a significant negative correlation between PhCI and successive swallows, suggesting "fatigue" (P < 0.001). In conclusion, repeated swallows against a resistive load induced by restricting the anterosuperior excursion of the larynx safely induces fatigue in pharyngeal peristalsis and thus has the potential to strengthen the pharyngeal contractile function.

  7. A Regulatory Module Controlling Pharyngeal Development and Function in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Fay, David S.; Polley, Stanley R. G.; Kuang, Jujiao; Kuzmanov, Aleksandra; Hazel, James W.; Mani, Kumaran; Veo, Bethany L.; Yochem, John

    2012-01-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, the differentiation and morphogenesis of the foregut are controlled by several transcriptional regulators and cell signaling events, and by PHA-1, an essential cytoplasmic protein of unknown function. Previously we have shown that LIN-35 and UBC-18–ARI-1 contribute to the regulation of pha-1 and pharyngeal development through the Zn-finger protein SUP-35/ZTF-21. Here we characterize SUP-37/ZTF-12 as an additional component of the PHA-1 network regulating pharyngeal development. SUP-37 is encoded by four distinct splice isoforms, which contain up to seven C2H2 Zn-finger domains, and is localized to the nucleus, suggesting a role in transcription. Similar to sup-35, sup-37 loss-of-function mutations can suppress both LOF mutations in pha-1 as well as synthetic-lethal double mutants, including lin-35; ubc-18, which are defective in pharyngeal development. Genetic, molecular, and expression data further indicate that SUP-37 and SUP-35 may act at a common step to control pharyngeal morphogenesis, in part through the transcriptional regulation of pha-1. Moreover, we find that SUP-35 and SUP-37 effect pharyngeal development through a mechanism that can genetically bypass the requirement for pha-1 activity. Unlike SUP-35, SUP-37 expression is not regulated by either the LIN-35 or UBC-18–ARI-1 pathways. In addition, SUP-37 carries out two essential functions that are distinct from its role in regulating pharyngeal development with SUP-35. SUP-37 is required within a subset of pharyngeal muscle cells to facilitate coordinated rhythmic pumping and in the somatic gonad to promote ovulation. These latter observations suggest that SUP-37 may be required for the orchestrated contraction of muscle cells within several tissues. PMID:22542967

  8. Gastric acid reduction leads to an alteration in lower intestinal microflora

    SciTech Connect

    Kanno, Takayuki; Matsuki, Takahiro; Oka, Masashi; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi; Inada, Kenichi; Magari, Hirohito; Inoue, Izumi; Maekita, Takao; Ueda, Kazuki; Enomoto, Shotaro; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Yanaoka, Kimihiko; Tamai, Hideyuki; Akimoto, Shigeru; Nomoto, Koji; Tanaka, Ryuichiro; Ichinose, Masao

    2009-04-17

    To clarify the alterations in lower intestinal microflora induced by gastric acid reduction, the dynamics of 12 major genera or groups of bacteria comprising the microflora in feces and colonic contents were examined by quantitative real-time PCR in proton pump inhibitor-treated rats and in asymptomatic human subjects with hypochlorhydria. In both rat and human experiments, most genera or groups of intestinal microflora (facultative and obligate anaerobes) proliferated by gastric acid reduction, and marked and significant increases in the Lactobacilli group and Veillonella, oropharyngeal bacteria, were observed. In rats, potent gastric acid inhibition led to a marked and significant increase of intestinal bacteria, including the Bacteroidesfragilis group, while Bifidobacterium, a beneficial bacterial species, remained at a constant level. These results strongly indicate that the gastric acid barrier not only controls the colonization and growth of oropharyngeal bacteria, but also regulates the population and composition of lower intestinal microflora.

  9. Pharyngeal squamous cell papilloma in adult Japanese: comparison with laryngeal papilloma in clinical manifestations and HPV infection.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Ryoji; Makiyama, Kiyoshi; Higuti, Yusho; Ikeda, Atsuo; Miura, Masatoshi; Hasegawa, Hisashi; Kinukawa, Noriko; Ikeda, Minoru

    2012-10-01

    A number of reports have investigated the relationship between laryngeal papilloma and human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. On the other hand, it is unclear whether the HPV infection is involved in the occurrence of pharyngeal papilloma. We hypothesized that HPV infection was involved in the occurrence of pharyngeal papilloma similarly to laryngeal papilloma. To verify this hypothesis, we investigated the presence of HPV infection. Furthermore, clinical manifestations of pharyngeal papilloma, which had rarely been reported, were discussed. A male-to-female ratio, solitary or multiple occurrences, and koilocytosis were examined in cases with pharyngeal papilloma. HPV DNA was examined with unfixed surgically resected specimens of pharyngeal papilloma. A screening test by the liquid-phase hybridization method was carried out for the HPV high-risk group (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 56, 58, 59, and 68) and HPV low-risk group (6, 11, 42, 43, 44). As a control, 15 cases with laryngeal papilloma for which the same screening test was carried out were employed. Pharyngeal papilloma occurred as a solitary lesion more often, whereas laryngeal papilloma occurred as multiple tumors more frequently. The HPV infection rate was 0% in pharyngeal papilloma cases, which was in stark contrast with 66.7% in the HPV low-risk group in laryngeal papilloma cases. Pharyngeal papilloma occurred as a solitary lesion in females more frequently. Contrary to our hypothesis, the involvement of HPV infection was unlikely in the occurrence of pharyngeal papilloma.

  10. Anaerobic/aerobic treatment of selected azo dyes in wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Seshadri, S.; Bishop, P.L. . Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering); Agha, A.M. . Faculty of Civil Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    Azo dyes represent the largest class of dyes in use today. Current environmental concern with these dyes revolves around the potential carcinogenic health risk presented by these dyes or their intermediate biodegradation products when exposed to microflora in the human digestive tract. These dyes may build up in the environment, since many wastewater treatment plants allow these dyes to pass through the system virtually untreated. The initial step in the degradation of these dyes is the cleavage of the Azo bond. This cleavage is often impossible under aerobic conditions, but has been readily demonstrated under anaerobic conditions. The focus of the study was to determine the feasibility of using an anaerobic fluidized-bed reactor to accomplish this cleavage. The effects of typical process variables such as hydraulic retention time (HRT), influent dye concentration levels, and degree of bed fluidization on removal efficiencies were also studied. The four dyes selected for this study were Acid-Orange 7, Acid-Orange 8, Acid-Orange 10, and Acid-Red 14. The effectiveness of using a bench-scale-activated sludge reactor as a sequenced second stage was also examined. Results indicate that nearly complete cleavage of the Azo bond is easily accomplished for each of the four dyes under hydraulic retention times of either 12 or 24 h. Initial results indicate, though, that aromatic amine by-products remain. The sequenced second stage was able to remove the remaining Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) load to acceptable levels. Work is presently underway to determine the face of the anaerobic by-products in the aerobic second stage.

  11. Role of intestinal microflora in the degradation of DDT by rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedemeyer, G.

    1968-01-01

    Though liver homogenates show apparent microsomal enzyme DDT-dehydrochlorinase activity, in the intact fish the intestinal microflora play a major role in DDT detoxication. Since the presence of this microflora in fish depends on the recent intake of food (12), the rate of detoxication and hence the toxicity of ingested DDT to the rainbow trout will probably depend somewhat on the available food supply.

  12. [Microflora of gastric mucosa, its properties and role in the development of acute and chronic gastritis].

    PubMed

    Tsimmerman, Ia S; Zakharova, Iu A; Vedernikov, V E

    2012-01-01

    Gastric microflora was studied in 28 patients suffering acute and chronic gastritis with reference to the factors of pathogenicity and sensitivity to antibacterial preparations. A total of 55 bacterial species were isolated The microflora was dominated by streptoccoci while Helicobacter pylori occurred rather rarely 27.3 +/- 6.5% of the isolated strains showed urease activity 36.3 +/- 6.5% natural or acquired virulence, 45.5 +/- 6.7% resistance to eradication therapy.

  13. [Recognition of commensal microflora by pattern recognition receptors in human physiology and pathology].

    PubMed

    Bondarenko, V M; Likhoded, V G

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary data on the interaction of commensal microflora and Toll-like pattern recognition receptors are presented. These receptors recognize normal intestine microflora in physiological conditions, and this interaction is necessary for the maintenance of homeostasis and damage reparation of the intestine, for the induction of heat shock cytoprotective proteins. As a side effect in disruption of immunologic tolerance and misbalance of protective immunological mechanisms, multiorgan pathologic changes of organs and tissues may develop, including chronic inflammation processes of various localization.

  14. Effects of treatment with antimicrobial agents on the human colonic microflora

    PubMed Central

    Rafii, Fatemeh; Sutherland, John B; Cerniglia, Carl E

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial agents are the most valuable means available for treating bacterial infections. However, the administration of therapeutic doses of antimicrobial agents to patients is a leading cause of disturbance of the normal gastrointestinal microflora. This disturbance results in diminishing the natural defense mechanisms provided by the colonic microbial ecosystem, making the host vulnerable to infection by commensal microorganisms or nosocomial pathogens. In this minireview, the impacts of antimicrobials, individually and in combinations, on the human colonic microflora are discussed. PMID:19337440

  15. Evolutionary Trends of the Pharyngeal Dentition in Cypriniformes (Actinopterygii: Ostariophysi)

    PubMed Central

    Pasco-Viel, Emmanuel; Charles, Cyril; Chevret, Pascale; Semon, Marie; Tafforeau, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Background The fish order Cypriniformes is one of the most diverse ray-finned fish groups in the world with more than 3000 recognized species. Cypriniformes are characterized by a striking distribution of their dentition: namely the absence of oral teeth and presence of pharyngeal teeth on the last gill arch (fifth ceratobranchial). Despite this limited localisation, the diversity of tooth patterns in Cypriniformes is astonishing. Here we provide a further description of this diversity using X-ray microtomography and we map the resulting dental characters on a phylogenetic tree to explore evolutionary trends. Results We performed a pilot survey of dental formulae and individual tooth shapes in 34 adult species of Cypriniformes by X-ray microtomography (using either conventional X-ray machine, or synchrotron microtomography when necessary) or by dissecting. By mapping morphological results in a phylogenetic tree, it emerges that the two super-families Cobitoidea and Cyprinoidea have followed two distinct evolutionary pathways. Furthermore, our analysis supports the hypothesis of a three-row dentition as ancestral for Cyprinoidea and a general trend in tooth row reduction in most derived lineages. Yet, this general scheme must be considered with caution as several events of tooth row gain and loss have occurred during evolutionary history of Cyprinoidea. Significance Dentition diversity in Cypriniformes constitutes an excellent model to study the evolution of complex morphological structures. This morphological survey clearly advocates for extending the use of X-ray microtomography to study tooth morphology in Cypriniformes. Yet, our survey also underlines that improved knowledge of Cypriniformes life traits, such as feeding habits, is required as current knowledge is not sufficient to conclude on the link between diet and dental morphology. PMID:20585584

  16. Abdominal pain and nausea in the diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis in boys.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Hiroshi; Nago, Naoki; Kiyokawa, Hiromichi; Fukushi, Motoharu

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the accuracy of gastrointestinal symptoms, including abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting, in the diagnosis of Group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis in children and to determine differences in diagnostic accuracy in boys versus girls. This retrospective cross-sectional study included 5,755 consecutive patients aged <15 years with fever in the electronic database at a primary care practice. Gastrointestinal symptoms were recorded in the database according to the International Classification of Primary Care codes, and the data were extracted electronically. The reference standard was GAS pharyngitis diagnosed with a rapid test. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of probable GAS pharyngitis were excluded from the primary analysis. Among the 5,755 children with fever, 331 (5.8%) were coded as having GAS pharyngitis, including 218 (65.9%) diagnosed with rapid tests and 113 (34.1%) clinically diagnosed with probable GAS pharyngitis. Among patients with fever and abdominal pain, rapid-test-confirmed GAS pharyngitis was significantly more common in boys (11/120, 9.2%) than in girls (3/128, 2.3%; p=0.026). The positive likelihood ratio of abdominal pain was 1.49 (95% CI =0.88-2.51): 2.41 (95% CI =1.33-4.36) in boys and 0.63 (95% CI =0.20-1.94) in girls. The positive likelihood ratio of nausea was 2.05 (95% CI =1.06-4.00): 2.74 (95% CI =1.28-5.86) in boys and 1.09 (95% CI =0.27-4.42) in girls. The association between abdominal pain and GAS pharyngitis was stronger in boys aged <6 years than in boys aged 6-15 years. Abdominal pain and nausea were associated with GAS pharyngitis in boys, but not in girls. Abdominal pain and nausea may help determine the suitability of rapid tests in younger boys with fever and other clinical findings consistent with GAS pharyngitis, even in the absence of sore throat.

  17. Long-term changes in pharyngeal airway dimensions following activator-headgear and fixed appliance treatment.

    PubMed

    Hänggi, Michael P; Teuscher, Ullrich M; Roos, Malgorzata; Peltomäki, Timo A

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the pharyngeal airway in growing children and adolescents and to compare these with a group of children who received activator-headgear Class II treatment. The sample consisted of 64 children (32 males and 32 females), 32 had a combined activator-headgear appliance for at least 9 months (study group) followed by fixed appliance therapy in most patients, while the other half received only minor orthodontic treatment (control group). Lateral cephalograms before treatment (T1, mean age 10.4 years), at the end of active treatment (T2, mean age 14.5 years), and at the long-term follow-up (T3, mean age 22.1 years) were traced and digitized. To reveal the influence of somatic growth, body height measurements were also taken into consideration. A two-sample t-test was applied in order to determine differences between the groups. At T1, the study group had a smaller pharynx length (P = 0.030) and a greater ANB angle (P < 0.001) than the controls. The pharyngeal area and the smallest distance between the tongue and the posterior pharyngeal wall also tended to be smaller in the study group. During treatment (T1-T2), significant growth differences between the two groups were present: the study group had a greater reduction in ANB (P < 0.001) and showed a greater increase in pharyngeal area (P = 0.007), pharyngeal length (P < 0.001) and the smallest distance between the tongue and the posterior pharyngeal wall (P = 0.038). At T2, the values for the study group were similar to those of the control group and remained stable throughout the post-treatment interval (T2-T3). Activator-headgear therapy has the potential to increase pharyngeal airway dimensions, such as the smallest distance between the tongue and the posterior pharyngeal wall or the pharyngeal area. Importantly, this increase seems to be maintained long term, up to 22 years on average in the present study. This benefit may result in a reduced risk of developing long

  18. Empirical validation of Polish guidelines for the management of acute streptococcal pharyngitis in children.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Elżbieta; Bochyńska, Ewa; Juda, Marek; Kozioł-Montewka, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) pharyngitis is currently the only commonly occurring form of acute pharyngitis for which antibiotic therapy is definitely indicated. Polish guidelines advocate the use of modified Centor score (MCS) to assess the probability of GAS pharyngitis. They advise performing throat culture or rapid antigen detection test (RADT) in children with score 2-3 in MCS and treating with antibiotic only those in whom GAS was detected. Negative RADT results should be confirmed by culture. In children with score 4, the guidelines allow to introduce empiric antibiotic therapy. Phenoxymethyl penicillin is recommended as a drug of choice to treat GAS pharyngitis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the accuracy of strategy recommended by Polish guidelines in identifying those children with acute pharyngitis who require antibiotic treatment. Hence, diagnostic values of score 4 in MCS and RADT were assessed using throat culture as a reference standard. Phenoxymethyl penicillin efficacy in GAS eradication and prevention of post-streptococcal complications were estimated as well. Ninety children between 2 and 15 years of age with acute pharyngitis symptoms suggesting GAS etiology (MCS ≥ 2), participated in our study. At the initial visit MCS was evaluated and two throat swabs were collected to perform RADT and culture. In children with GAS pharyngitis treated with penicillin, microbiological cure was assessed by performing two control throat cultures. Next, children were under observation for 3 months. Positive predictive value of score 4 in MCS turned out to be 48.05% (95% CI: 36.5-59.7%). RADT sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy proved to be 100%, 96%, and 98%, respectively. GAS eradication rate in children treated with penicillin turned out to be 92.5%. No post-streptococcal sequelae occurred in any child in 3-month observation. Empiric antibiotic therapy in children with score 4 in MCS will result in significant overtreatment of those with

  19. Tooth replacement and putative odontogenic stem cell niches in pharyngeal dentition of medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    Abduweli, Dawud; Baba, Otto; Tabata, Makoto J; Higuchi, Kazunori; Mitani, Hiroshi; Takano, Yoshiro

    2014-04-01

    The small-sized teleost fish medaka, Oryzias latipes, has as many as 1000 pharyngeal teeth undergoing continuous replacement. In this study, we sought to identify the tooth-forming units and determine its replacement cycles, and further localize odontogenic stem cell niches in the pharyngeal dentition of medaka to gain insights into the mechanisms whereby continuous tooth replacement is maintained. Three-dimensional reconstruction of pharyngeal epithelium and sequential fluorochrome labeling of pharyngeal bones and teeth indicated that the individual functional teeth and their successional teeth were organized in families, each comprising up to five generations of teeth and successional tooth germs, and that the replacement cycle of functional teeth was approximately 4 weeks. BrdU label/chase experiments confirmed the existence of clusters of label-retaining epithelial cells at the posterior end of each tooth family where the expression of pluripotency marker Sox2 was confirmed by in situ hybridization. Label-retaining cells were also identified in the mesoderm immediately adjacent to the posterior end of each tooth family. These data suggest the importance of existence of slow-cycling dental epithelial cells and Sox2 expressions at the posterior end of each tooth family to maintain continuous tooth formation and replacement in the pharyngeal dentition of medaka.

  20. Endothelium in the pharyngeal arches 3, 4 and 6 is derived from the second heart field.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia; Chen, Dongying; Chen, Kelley; Jubran, Ali; Ramirez, AnnJosette; Astrof, Sophie

    2017-01-15

    Oxygenated blood from the heart is directed into the systemic circulation through the aortic arch arteries (AAAs). The AAAs arise by remodeling of three symmetrical pairs of pharyngeal arch arteries (PAAs), which connect the heart with the paired dorsal aortae at mid-gestation. Aberrant PAA formation results in defects frequently observed in patients with lethal congenital heart disease. How the PAAs form in mammals is not understood. The work presented in this manuscript shows that the second heart field (SHF) is the major source of progenitors giving rise to the endothelium of the pharyngeal arches 3 - 6, while the endothelium in the pharyngeal arches 1 and 2 is derived from a different source. During the formation of the PAAs 3 - 6, endothelial progenitors in the SHF extend cellular processes toward the pharyngeal endoderm, migrate from the SHF and assemble into a uniform vascular plexus. This plexus then undergoes remodeling, whereby plexus endothelial cells coalesce into a large PAA in each pharyngeal arch. Taken together, our studies establish a platform for investigating cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating PAA formation and alterations that lead to disease.

  1. Coffee, tea, and fatal oral/pharyngeal cancer in a large prospective US cohort.

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, Janet S; Patel, Alpa V; McCullough, Marjorie L; Gaudet, Mia M; Chen, Amy Y; Hayes, Richard B; Gapstur, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that coffee intake is associated with reduced risk of oral/pharyngeal cancer. The authors examined associations of caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and tea intake with fatal oral/pharyngeal cancer in the Cancer Prevention Study II, a prospective US cohort study begun in 1982 by the American Cancer Society. Among 968,432 men and women who were cancer free at enrollment, 868 deaths due to oral/pharyngeal cancer occurred during 26 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted relative risk. Intake of >4 cups/day of caffeinated coffee was associated with a 49% lower risk of oral/pharyngeal cancer death relative to no/occasional coffee intake (relative risk = 0.51, 95% confidence interval: 0.40, 0.64) (1 cup/day = 237 ml). A dose-related decline in relative risk was observed with each single cup/day consumed (P(trend) < 0.001). The association was not modified by sex, smoking status, or alcohol use. An inverse association for >2 cups/day of decaffeinated coffee intake was suggested (relative risk = 0.61, 95% confidence interval: 0.37, 1.01). No association was found for tea drinking. In this large prospective study, caffeinated coffee intake was inversely associated with oral/pharyngeal cancer mortality. Research is needed to elucidate biologic mechanisms whereby coffee might help to protect against these often fatal cancers.

  2. Effect of carbonated beverages on pharyngeal swallowing in young individuals and elderly inpatients.

    PubMed

    Morishita, Motoyoshi; Mori, Sanae; Yamagami, Shota; Mizutani, Masatoshi

    2014-04-01

    Gustatory and chemical stimulations of the oral cavity and pharyngeal mucosa by carbonated water improve pharyngeal swallowing. We compared changes in pharyngeal swallowing and sensory aspects induced by a carbonated beverage preferred by Japanese with those induced by carbonated water, a sports drink, and tap water in healthy young subjects and elderly inpatients with no swallowing problems. The duration of laryngeal elevation (DOLE) for swallowing the carbonated beverage and water in the second session was shorter compared to that for water in the first session in the elderly subjects. The DOLE and the duration of suprahyoid muscle activity for swallowing were longer in the elderly subjects than in the young subjects for all beverages. Beverages that the subjects subjectively felt were easy to swallow were the sports drink and carbonated beverage, whereas they stated that carbonated water was less easy to swallow. In the elderly subjects, swallowing ability latently decreased, even though they had no problem swallowing in their daily lives, and it was assumed that the carbonated beverage improved pharyngeal swallowing. In addition, the carbonated beverage also influenced the subsequent swallowing of water, showing a persistent effect. It was suggested that carbonated beverages are easy to swallow and effective for improving pharyngeal swallowing.

  3. Long-term pharyngeal airway changes after bionator treatment in adolescents with skeletal Class II malocclusions

    PubMed Central

    Han, Seimin; Choi, Yoon Jeong; Chung, Chooryung J.; Kim, Ji Young

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term changes in the pharyngeal airway dimensions after functional appliance treatment in adolescents with skeletal Class II malocclusions. Methods Pharyngeal airway dimensions were compared between subjects with skeletal Class II malocclusions (n = 24; mean age: 11.6 ± 1.29 years) treated with a Class II bionator and age-matched control subjects with skeletal Class I occlusions (n = 24; mean age: 11.0 ± 1.21 years) using a series of lateral cephalograms obtained at the initial visit (T0), after treatment (T1), and at the completion of growth (T2). Results The length of the nasopharyngeal region was similar between adolescents with skeletal Class I and Class II malocclusions at all time points, while the lengths of the upper and lower oropharyngeal regions and the pharyngeal airway areas were significantly smaller in the skeletal Class II adolescents before treatment when compared to the control adolescents (p < 0.05). However, following treatment with a functional appliance, the skeletal Class II adolescents had increased pharyngeal airway dimensions, which became similar to those of the control subjects. Conclusions Functional appliance therapy can increase the pharyngeal airway dimensions in growing adolescents with skeletal Class II malocclusions, and this effect is maintained until the completion of growth. PMID:24511511

  4. Inferring parrotfish (Teleostei: Scaridae) pharyngeal mill function from dental morphology, wear, and microstructure.

    PubMed

    Carr, Andrew; Tibbetts, Ian R; Kemp, Anne; Truss, Rowan; Drennan, John

    2006-10-01

    Morphology, occlusal surface topography, macrowear, and microwear features of parrotfish pharyngeal teeth were investigated to relate microstructural characteristics to the function of the pharyngeal mill using scanning electron microscopy of whole and sectioned pharyngeal jaws and teeth. Pharyngeal tooth migration is anterior in the lower jaw (fifth ceratobranchial) and posterior in the upper jaw (paired third pharyngobranchials), making the interaction of occlusal surfaces and wear-generating forces complex. The extent of wear can be used to define three regions through which teeth migrate: a region containing newly erupted teeth showing little or no wear; a midregion in which the apical enameloid is swiftly worn; and a region containing teeth with only basal enameloid remaining, which shows low to moderate wear. The shape of the occlusal surface alters as the teeth progress along the pharyngeal jaw, generating conditions that appear suited to the reduction of coral particles. It is likely that the interaction between these particles and algal cells during the process of the rendering of the former is responsible for the rupture of the latter, with the consequent liberation of cell contents from which parrotfish obtain their nutrients.

  5. Ecological diversification associated with the pharyngeal jaw diversity of Neotropical cichlid fishes.

    PubMed

    Burress, Edward D

    2016-01-01

    Innovations can facilitate bursts of diversification by increasing access to novel resources and the attainment of novel functional designs. Pharyngognathy, exhibited by highly diverse groups such as wrasses and cichlid fishes, is hypothesized to increase foraging capacity and efficiency. Here, I test the hypothesis that pharyngeal jaw shape and tooth morphology are adaptive in an ecologically diverse radiation of Neotropical cichlid fishes that spans North, Central and South America. I partitioned species into generalized trophic guilds using published stomach content analyses and quantified shape variation of the lower pharyngeal jaw (LPJ) using geometric morphometrics. Additionally, I tested for convergence in LPJ shape and trophic guild by mapping the phylogeny onto the principal components and testing for shifts towards similar evolutionary regimes. Major LPJ shape variation included the length and orientation (i.e. narrow or wide) of the lateral processes and length of the medial process, which varied based on the proportion of fishes and plants consumed. Pharyngeal tooth number, diversity and the frequency of tooth types were not evenly distributed among trophic guilds. There were seven distinct evolutionary regimes that converged upon four optima. Pharyngeal jaw diversification is associated with the exploitation of novel resources among Neotropical cichlids such that pharyngeal specialization has increased access to otherwise poorly accessible resources, such as resources that are difficult to crush (e.g. hard-shelled organisms) and assimilate (e.g. algae). © 2015 The Author. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2015 British Ecological Society.

  6. Head posture and pharyngeal airway volume changes after bimaxillary surgery for mandibular prognathism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Ah; Kim, Bo-Ram; Youn, Jong-Kuk; Kim, Yoon-Ji R; Park, Yang-Ho

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate head posture and the pharyngeal airway volume changes using 3D imaging after bimaxillary surgery in mandibular prognathism patients by null hypothesis. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans were obtained for 25 mandibular prognathism patients before bimaxillary surgery (T1) and 6 months after surgery (T2). The head posture of each patient was assessed by measuring cranio-cervical angle on a midsagittal plane passing through the anterior nasal spine at T1 and T2. Additionally, the volume of each subject's pharyngeal airway was measured using InVivoDental 3D imaging software. The cranio-cervical angle increased significantly 6 months after bimaxillary surgery (p < 0.01). The total volume of the pharyngeal airway slightly decreased (p > 0.05) at the same timepoints, while naso- and oro-pharyngeal airway volume decreased significantly (p < 0.05, p < 0.05). There was significant relationship between the changes of head posture and those of total airway volume (p < 0.05). The null hypothesis was rejected. Bimaxillary surgery resulted in significant head flexion and a slight decrease in total pharyngeal airway volume. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pharyngeal swallowing elicited by fluid infusion: role of volition and vallecular containment.

    PubMed

    Pouderoux, P; Logemann, J A; Kahrilas, P J

    1996-02-01

    Nonalimentary swallows minimize aspiration by clearing accumulated fluid from the pharynx. This study aimed to define 1) the pharyngeal sensory field to elicit swallowing and 2) the effect of infusion rate, volition, taste, and temperature on pharyngeal swallows. Test solutions were directed into the valleculae at 6.5, 11.5, and 32 ml/min through a catheter in eight healthy volunteers. Deglutition was signaled with electromyography and electroglottography. Spatial distribution of infusate before swallowing was studied using videofluoroscopy coupled with a video timer. Volitional control was assessed with rapid or restrained swallows. Pharyngeal swallow latency decreased as the instillation rate increased, was potently modified with volition, and was unchanged by infusate taste or temperature. Water infusion into the valleculae did not trigger pharyngeal swallowing until liquids overflowed and reached the aryepiglottic folds or pyriform sinuses. The variation in swallow latency among flow rates was mainly due to the duration of liquid containment within the valleculae. This suggests that the valleculae act to contain pharyngeal secretions and residue and prevent aspiration by diverting their contents around the larynx before swallowing.

  8. A follow up audit of pharyngeal pouch surgery using endoscopic stapling.

    PubMed

    Harris, Richard P; Weller, Matt D; Porter, Martin J

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study is to assess patient satisfaction, success at controlling symptoms and conversion rates to open surgery in patients undergoing pharyngeal pouch surgery using an endoscopic stapler in a second cycle of audit. The design consisted of a review of patient records augmented by an electronic search of operation codes in the hospitals' theatre records. The setting was in Worcester Royal Hospital, BUPA Southbank Hospital and Hereford Hospital, UK. Participants include all patients with pharyngeal pouches undergoing endoscopic pharyngeal pouch repair by the senior author between July 2002 and July 2007. The total number of participants was 31. All patients were undergoing treatment for the first time. The main outcome measures were pre- and postoperative symptom prevalence, conversion rates to open surgery, patient satisfaction. Endoscopic pharyngeal pouch surgery was successful in the vast majority of cases, with 97% of patients being satisfied with the result. The conversion rate to open surgery was 9.7%. These figures are improved from the last round of audit. In conclusion, endoscopic surgery to treat pharyngeal pouches is safe, effective and patient selection is improving. A modified method of endoscopy using a Negus scope rather than a Baldwin scope has allowed more patients to be treated via endoscopic methods. Open surgery is still required in some patients.

  9. Necrotic pharyngitis associated with Mycoplasma bovis infections in American bison (Bison bison).

    PubMed

    Dyer, Neil; Register, Karen B; Miskimins, Dale; Newell, Teresa

    2013-03-01

    Mycoplasma bovis has emerged as a significant and costly infectious disease problem in bison, generally presenting as severe, caseonecrotic pneumonia. Three diagnostic cases in which M. bovis is associated with necrotic pharyngitis in bison are described in the current study. The bacterium was isolated from lesions of the pharynx or lung of 3 American bison (Bison bison), at 2 different locations in the upper Midwestern United States, with severe, necrotic pharyngeal abscesses. Chronic caseonecrotic inflammation typical of M. bovis infection in bovines was observed microscopically in the pharynxes of affected bison. A mixed population of bacteria was recovered from the pharyngeal lesions, and Trueperella pyogenes, a frequent secondary pathogen in ruminant respiratory disease, was consistently isolated from the affected animals. Distinctive histopathological features of the pharyngeal lesions favor causation by M. bovis, although a role for T. pyogenes in the clinical presentation cannot be excluded. Veterinarians and producers working with bison should be aware that M. bovis may be associated with pharyngitis in bison.

  10. Effects of macrocyclic lactone anthelmintics on feeding and pharyngeal pumping in Trichostrongylus colubriformis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sheriff, J C; Kotze, A C; Sangster, N C; Martin, R J

    2002-11-01

    The effects of macrocyclic lactone anthelmintics (MLs) on feeding by Trichostrongylus colubriformis nematodes in vitro were examined using inulin uptake as a measure of ingestion and electropharyngeograms as a record of the electrical events associated with pharyngeal pumping. Inulin uptake was inhibited by the 4 MLs tested (EC50s 0.045-4.57 nM), with an order of potency of eprinomectin (most potent), ivermectin, ivermectin monosaccharide, and ivermectin aglycone. The MLs caused both the frequency and amplitude of pharyngeal electrical events to decrease. In individual worms the inhibition of pump frequency preceded the inhibition of pump amplitude. The order of potency of the MLs as inhibitors of frequency was ivermectin aglycone, ivermectin, ivermectin monosaccharide and eprinomectin. The difference compared with the inulin assay results are probably due to the dynamics of drug uptake in the two systems. It was possible that the nematodes in the electrophysiology experiments were effectively orally ligated by enclosure of the worm's head in the recording pipette which contained no drug. Despite this difference in relative potencies, both the ingestion assays and the electrical events indicate that MLs are potent inhibitors of the pharynx in T. colubriformis in vitro. The sequence of effects on pharyngeal electrical activity suggests that ML action involves an initial inhibitory effect on the rate of pharyngeal contractions, followed by a decrease in the amplitude of the potentials associated with pharyngeal pumping events.

  11. Longitudinal analysis of the vaginal microflora in pregnancy suggests that L. crispatus promotes the stability of the normal vaginal microflora and that L. gasseri and/or L. iners are more conducive to the occurrence of abnormal vaginal microflora.

    PubMed

    Verstraelen, Hans; Verhelst, Rita; Claeys, Geert; De Backer, Ellen; Temmerman, Marleen; Vaneechoutte, Mario

    2009-06-02

    Despite their antimicrobial potential, vaginal lactobacilli often fail to retain dominance, resulting in overgrowth of the vagina by other bacteria, as observed with bacterial vaginosis. It remains elusive however to what extent interindividual differences in vaginal Lactobacillus community composition determine the stability of this microflora. In a prospective cohort of pregnant women we studied the stability of the normal vaginal microflora (assessed on Gram stain) as a function of the presence of the vaginal Lactobacillus index species (determined through culture and molecular analysis with tRFLP). From 100 consecutive Caucasian women vaginal swabs were obtained at mean gestational ages of 8.6 (SD 1.4), 21.2 (SD 1.3), and 32.4 (SD 1.7) weeks, respectively. Based on Gram stain, 77 women had normal or Lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microflora (VMF) during the first trimester, of which 18 had grade Ia (L. crispatus cell morphotypes) VMF (23.4%), 16 grade Iab (L. crispatus and other Lactobacillus cell morphotypes) VMF (20.8%), and 43 grade Ib (non-L. crispatus cell morphotypes) VMF (55.8%). Thirteen women with normal VMF at baseline, converted in the second or third trimester (16.9%) to abnormal VMF defined as VMF dominated by non-Lactobacillus bacteria. Compared to grade Ia and grade Iab VMF, grade Ib VMF were 10 times (RR = 9.49, 95% CI 1.30 - 69.40) more likely to convert from normal to abnormal VMF (p = 0.009). This was explained by the observation that normal VMF comprising L. gasseri/iners incurred a ten-fold increased risk of conversion to abnormal VMF relative to non-L. gasseri/iners VMF (RR 10.41, 95% CI 1.39-78.12, p = 0.008), whereas normal VMF comprising L. crispatus had a five-fold decreased risk of conversion to abnormal VMF relative to non-L. crispatus VMF (RR 0.20, 95% CI 0.05-0.89, p = 0.04). The presence of different Lactobacillus species with the normal vaginal microflora is a major determinant to the stability of this microflora in pregnancy: L

  12. Effects of carbon dioxide on the fate of Listeria monocytogenes, of aerobic bacteria and on the development of spoilage in minimally processed fresh endive.

    PubMed

    Carlin, F; Nguyen-the, C; Abreu Da Silva, A; Cochet, C

    1996-09-01

    Minimally processed fresh broad-leaved endive (Cichorium endivia L.) were stored at 3 and 10 degrees C in modified atmospheres containing air, 10% CO2/10% O2, 30% CO2/10% O2, and 50% CO2/10% O2. The effects of these modified atmospheres on the fate of both aerobic bacteria and three strains of Listeria monocytogenes, was investigated. Increases in CO2 concentrations significantly reduced the growth of the aerobic microflora. The best preservation of the visual quality occurred on endive leaves stored in 10% CO2/10% O2, whereas leaves stored in 30% CO2/10% O2 and 50% CO2/10% O2, and to a lesser extent in air, showed extensive spoilage after storage. Listeria monocytogenes was slightly affected at 3 degrees C by the modified atmospheres, as compared to air. At 10 degrees C, results varied between replicate experiments, but L. monocytogenes generally grew better as the CO2 concentration was increased. The three test strains behaved in a similar way. In conclusion, among the modified atmospheres tested, a modified atmosphere containing 10% CO2/10% O2 resulted in improved visual quality of minimally processed fresh endive, without a marked effect on the growth of the aerobic microflora or of L. monocytogenes.

  13. Effective observation of treatment of chronic pharyngitis with semiconductor laser irradiation at acupuncture points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Suxian; Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yanrong

    1993-03-01

    The treatment of this disease with laser such as He-Ne laser, Nd:YAG laser, and CO2 laser, etc., has been applied in our country, but application of the semiconductor laser therapy has received few reports. It has many advantages, such as ting volume, steady function, simple operation (the patient can operate it by himself), no side effects, remarkable results, and it is very convenient. So the semiconductor laser can be used to treat the chronic pharyngitis with irradiation on acupunctural points. One-hundred-twenty chronic pharyngitis patients were divided into 2 groups, a laser group and a medicine group, 60 cases for each. The effective rate is 91.6% and 66.6%, respectively. Obviously the treatment of chronic pharyngitis with semiconductor laser is valuable for widespread use. The principle of the laser therapy is discussed in the last part of this paper.

  14. Die aerobe Glykolyse der Tumorzelle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Friedhelm

    1981-01-01

    A high aerobic glycolysis (aerobic lactate production) is the most significant feature of the energy metabolism of rapidly growing tumor cells. Several mechanisms, which may be different in different cell lines, seem to be involved in this characteristic of energy metabolism of the tumor cell. Changes in the cell membrane leading to increased uptake and utilization of glucose, a high level of fetal types of isoenzymes, a decreased number of mitochondria and a reduced capacity to metabolize pyruvate are some factors which must be taken into consideration. It is not possible to favour one of them at the present time.

  15. Postoperative evaluation of the folded pharyngeal flap operation for cleft palate patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimasu, Hidemi; Sato, Yutaka; Mishimagi, Takashi; Negishi, Akihide

    2015-01-01

    Background: Velopharyngeal function is very important for patients with cleft palate to acquire good speech. For patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency, prosthetic speech appliances and speech therapy are applied first, and then pharyngeal flap surgery to improve velopharyngeal function is performed in our hospital. The folded pharyngeal flap operation was first reported by Isshiki and Morimoto in 1975. We usually use a modification of the original method. Purpose: The purpose of this research was to introduce our method of the folded pharyngeal flap operation and report the results. Materials and Methods: The folded pharyngeal flap operation was performed for 110 patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency from 1982 to 2010. Of these, the 97 whose postoperative speech function was evaluated are reported. The cases included 61 males and 36 females, ranging in age from 7 to 50 years. The time from surgery to speech assessment ranged from 5 months to 6 years. In order to evaluate preoperative velopharyngeal function, assessment of speech by a trained speech pathologist, nasopharyngoscopy, and cephalometric radiography with contrast media were performed before surgery, and then the appropriate surgery was selected and performed. Postoperative velopharyngeal function was assessed by a trained speech pathologist. Results: Of the 97 patients who underwent the folded pharyngeal flap operation, 85 (87.6%) showed velopharyngeal competence, 8 (8.2%) showed marginal velopharyngeal incompetence, and only 2 (2.1%) showed velopharyngeal incompetence; in 2 cases (2.1%), hyponasality was present. Approximately 95% of patients showed improved velopharyngeal function. Conclusions: The folded pharyngeal flap operation based on appropriate preoperative assessment has been shown to be an effective method for the treatment of cleft palate patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency. PMID:26389036

  16. The Cape Town Clinical Decision Rule for Streptococcal Pharyngitis in Children.

    PubMed

    Engel, Mark E; Cohen, Karen; Gounden, Ronald; Kengne, Andre P; Barth, Dylan Dominic; Whitelaw, Andrew C; Francis, Veronica; Badri, Motasim; Stewart, Annemie; Dale, James B; Mayosi, Bongani M; Maartens, Gary

    2017-03-01

    Existing clinical decision rules (CDRs) to diagnose group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis have not been validated in sub-Saharan Africa. We developed a locally applicable CDR while evaluating existing CDRs for diagnosing GAS pharyngitis in South African children. We conducted a prospective cohort study and enrolled 997 children 3-15 years of age presenting to primary care clinics with a complaint of sore throat, and whose parents provided consent. Main outcome measures were signs and symptoms of pharyngitis and a positive GAS culture from a throat swab. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to develop the CDR. In addition, the diagnostic effectiveness of 6 existing rules for predicting a positive culture in our cohort was assessed. A total of 206 of 982 children (21%) had a positive GAS culture. Tonsillar swelling, tonsillar exudates, tender or enlarged anterior cervical lymph nodes, absence of cough and absence of rhinorrhea were associated with positive cultures in bivariate and multivariate analyses. Four variables (tonsillar swelling and one of tonsillar exudate, no rhinorrhea, no cough), when used in a cumulative score, showed 83.7% sensitivity and 32.2% specificity for GAS pharyngitis. Of existing rules tested, the rule by McIsaac et al had the highest positive predictive value (28%), but missed 49% of the culture-positive children who should have been treated. The new 4-variable CDR for GAS pharyngitis (ie, tonsillar swelling and one of tonsillar exudate, no rhinorrhea, no cough) outperformed existing rules for GAS pharyngitis diagnosis in children with symptomatic sore throat in Cape Town.

  17. Pharyngeal diameter in various head and neck positions during exercise in sport horses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In equine athletes, dynamic stenotic disorders of the upper airways are often the cause for abnormal respiratory noises and/or poor performance. There are hypotheses, that head and neck flexion may influence the morphology and function of the upper airway and thus could even induce or deteriorate disorders of the upper respiratory tract. Especially the pharynx, without osseous or cartilaginous support is prone to changes in pressure and airflow during exercise. The objective of this study was to develop a method for measuring the pharyngeal diameter in horses during exercise, in order to analyse whether a change of head-neck position may have an impact on the pharyngeal diameter. Results Under the assumption that the width of the epiglottis remains constant in healthy horses, the newly developed method for calculating the pharyngeal diameter in horses during exercise is unsusceptible against changes of the viewing-angle and distance between the endoscope and the structures, which are to be assessed. The quotient of the width of the epiglottis and the perpendicular from a fixed point on the dorsal pharynx to the epiglottis could be used to determine the pharyngeal diameter. The percentage change of this quotient (pharynx-epiglottis-ratio; PE-ratio) in the unrestrained head-neck position against the reference position was significantly larger than that of any other combination of the head-neck positions investigated. A relation between the percentage change in PE-ratio and the degree of head and neck flexion could not be confirmed. Conclusions It could be shown, that the pharyngeal diameter is reduced through the contact position implemented by the rider in comparison to the unrestrained head and neck position. An alteration of the pharyngeal diameter depending on the degree of head and neck flexion (represented by ground and withers angle) could not be confirmed. PMID:24886465

  18. Participatory Medicine: A Home Score for Streptococcal Pharyngitis Enabled by Real-Time Biosurveillance

    PubMed Central

    Fine, Andrew M.; Nizet, Victor; Mandl, Kenneth D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Consensus guidelines recommend that adults at low risk for group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis be neither tested nor treated Objective To help patients decide when to visit a clinician for the evaluation of sore throat. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting A national chain of retail health clinics. Patients 71 776 patients aged 15 years or older with pharyngitis who visited a clinic from September 2006 to December 2008. Measurements The authors created a score using information from patient-reported clinical variables plus the incidence of local disease and compared it with the Centor score and other traditional scores that require clinician-elicited signs. Results If patients aged 15 years or older with sore throat did not visit a clinician when the new score estimated the likelihood of GAS pharyngitis to be less than 10% instead of having clinicians manage their symptoms following guidelines that use the Centor score, 230 000 visits would be avoided in the United States each year and 8500 patients with GAS pharyngitis who would have received antibiotics would not be treated with them. Limitation Real-time information about the local incidence of GAS pharyngitis, which is necessary to calculate the new score, is not currently available. Conclusion A patient-driven approach to pharyngitis diagnosis that uses this new score could save hundreds of thousands of visits annually by identifying patients at home who are unlikely to require testing or treatment. Primary Funding Source Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. PMID:24189592

  19. Prevalence of Beta-Hemolytic Streptococci Groups A, C, and G in Patients with Acute Pharyngitis

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Trupti B; Nadagir, Shobha D; Biradar, Asmabegaum

    2016-01-01

    Context: Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci (GAS) is the most frequently isolated pathogen in acute pharyngitis. However, the role of Group C (GCS) and Group G (GGS) streptococci in disease burden is under recognized. The present study is carried out to find out the prevalence of acute pharyngitis caused by the different serogroups of streptococci and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of these streptococcal isolates. Study and Design: A cross sectional study. Materials and Methods: A total of 218 throat swabs from patients with acute pharyngitis and 82 from healthy controls were collected and processed as per standard protocol. Samples were inoculated on blood agar and Streptococcus selective agar. Isolates were identified by the conventional method and serogrouped by latex agglutination test using Remel Streptex kit. Results: Beta-hemolytic streptococci (BHS) were isolated from 34 (15.59%) of pharyngitis patients and 11 (13.41%) of the healthy carrier. Among pharyngitis, GAS was isolated from 20 (9.17%), GCS 7 (3.21%), and GGS 7 (3.21%) patients. Carriage rate of GAS was 6 (7.31%) and GCS, 5 (6.09%). Vancomycin (100%), amoxyclavulanic acid (90%), levofloxacin (85%), and cephotaxime (80%) were found to be most effective antibiotics. Comparatively, higher drug resistance was observed among GCS and GGS to all the drugs used in the study except for levofloxacin. Conclusions: Although rate of pharyngitis associated with GCS and GGS is marginally lower than GAS, their carriage rate among healthy and relative higher drug resistance emphasizes the need for periodic surveillance of infection by the different serogroups of BHS. PMID:27013813

  20. Impact of pharyngeal closure technique on fistula after salvage laryngectomy.

    PubMed

    Patel, Urjeet A; Moore, Brian A; Wax, Mark; Rosenthal, Eben; Sweeny, Larissa; Militsakh, Oleg N; Califano, Joseph A; Lin, Alice C; Hasney, Christian P; Butcher, R Brent; Flohr, Jamie; Arnaoutakis, Demetri; Huddle, Matthew; Richmon, Jeremy D

    2013-11-01

    No consensus exists as to the best technique, or techniques, to optimize wound healing, decrease pharyngocutaneous fistula formation, and shorten both hospital length of stay and time to initiation of oral intake after salvage laryngectomy. We sought to combine the recent experience of multiple high-volume institutions, with different reconstructive preferences, in the management of pharyngeal closure technique for post-radiation therapy salvage total laryngectomy in an effort to bring clarity to this clinical challenge. To determine if the use of vascularized flaps in either an onlay or interposed fashion reduces the incidence or duration of pharyngocutaneous fistula after salvage laryngectomy compared with simple primary closure of the pharynx. Multi-institutional retrospective review of all patients undergoing total laryngectomy after having received definitive radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy between January 2005 and January 2012, conducted at 7 academic medical centers. Academic, tertiary referral centers. The study population comprised 359 patients from 8 institutions. All patients had a history of laryngeal irradiation and underwent laryngectomy between 2005 and 2012. They were grouped as primary closure, pectoralis myofascial onlay flap, or interposed free tissue. All patients had a minimum of 4 months follow-up. Fistula incidence, severity, and predictors of fistula. Of the 359 patients, fistula occurred in 94 (27%). For patients with fistula, hospital stay increased from 8.9 to 12.1 days (P < .001) and oral diet initiation was delayed from 10.5 days to 29.9 days (P < .001). Patients were grouped according to closure technique: primary closure (n = 99), pectoralis onlay flap (n = 40), and interposed free tissue (n = 220). Incidence of fistula with primary closure was 34%. For the interposed free flap group, the fistula rate was lower at 25% (P = .07). Incidence of fistula was the lowest for the pectoralis onlay group at 15% (P = .02

  1. Toll-like receptor 3 stimulation triggers metabolic reprogramming in pharyngeal cancer cell line through Myc, MAPK, and HIF.

    PubMed

    Matijevic Glavan, Tanja; Cipak Gasparovic, Ana; Vérillaud, Benjamin; Busson, Pierre; Pavelic, Jasminka

    2017-04-01

    Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) has a dual role in cancer; its activation can trigger apoptosis as well as stimulate cancer cell survival, proliferation, and progression. We have shown here that TLR3 activation can induce metabolic reprogramming in a pharyngeal cancer cell line, leading to increased aerobic glycolysis, cell migration, elevated levels of reactive oxidative species (ROS), and decreased anti-oxidative response. Key proteins in these signaling pathways are heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNPA1), pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), and CD44 variants, which were over-expressed after TLR3 stimulation. TLR3 activation also induced upregulation of different genes involved in cancer progression (VEGF, MMP9, uPAR) and enzymes involved in glycolytic pathway. Most of the observed effects were Myc-dependent; however, some of them were also connected with MAPK and HIF signaling pathways. Since TLR3 agonists are being investigated as potential novel cancer therapy adjuvants and apoptosis inducers, alone or in combination with other therapeutic options, data presented here suggest extreme caution before their introduction into clinical practice. The fact that TLR3 ligands [poly(I:C) and poly(A:U)] can also aid cancer survival and progression, through induction of metabolic reprogramming, emphasizes the need to investigate this particular topic. Our data suggest that the combination of TLR3 ligands with Myc or MAPK inhibitors may be a way to neutralize their undesirable effects while enhancing their anti-tumor effect. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Metabolic adaptation of rat faecal microflora to cyclamate in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mallett, A K; Rowland, I R; Bearne, C A; Purchase, R; Gangolli, S D

    1985-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the rat faecal microflora maintained in vitro under conditions of continuous flow possesses bacteriological and metabolic characteristics similar to those of the native bacterial population of the caecum. Addition of sodium cyclamate (75 mM) to the culture concurrent with the progressive dilution of the growth medium promoted metabolism of cyclamate to cyclohexylamine (sulphamatase activity) within 4 wk. The maximum formation of cyclohexylamine was attained in about 8 wk and was equivalent to a 2-3% molar conversion of cyclamate to cyclohexylamine. The recovery of viable cells from the culture and the total microscopic count decreased during the adaptation period, although the relative proportions of the major bacterial types remained unchanged. Concurrent with the increase in sulphamatase activity, other enzyme functions (as assessed by the API-zym system) decreased markedly. The ability to hydrolyse cyclamate to cyclohexylamine developed independently of other bacterial biotransformation enzymes in vitro, and was not associated with any gross taxonomic changes. These studies demonstrate the suitability of continuous culture systems for investigating the metabolic activity of the rat gut flora.

  3. Microbiological toxicity of tilmicosin on human colonic microflora in chemostats.

    PubMed

    Hao, Haihong; Yao, Junping; Wu, Qinghua; Wei, Yajing; Dai, Menghong; Iqbal, Zahid; Wang, Xu; Wang, Yulian; Huang, Lingli; Chen, Dongmei; Tao, Yanfei; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the microbiological safety of tilmicosin on human intestinal microflora, four chemostat models of healthy human colonic ecosystems were exposed to tilmicosin (0, 0.436, 4.36, and 43.6 μg/mL) for 7 days. Prior to and during drug exposure, three microbiological endpoints were monitored daily including short-chain fatty acids, bacterial counts and macrolide susceptibility. Colonization resistance of each community was determined by 3 successive daily challenges of Salmonella typhimurium. Genes associated with virulence and macrolide resistance in Enterococcus faecalis were determined by PCR. Transcriptional expression of the virulence gene (gelE) in E. faecalis was determined by real-time RT-PCR. Our results showed that different concentrations of tilmicosin did not disrupt the colonization resistance in each chemostat. During exposure to 4.36 and 43.6 μg/mL tilmicosin, the Bacteroides fragilis population was significantly decreased while the proportion of resistant Enterococci increased. After long-term exposure to the highest concentration (43.6 μg/mL) of tilmicosin, the gelE gene was significantly up-regulated in the high-level macrolide resistant strains that also contained the ermB resistance gene. This study was the first of its kind to evaluate the microbiological toxicity of tilmicosin using a chemostat model. These findings also provide new insight into the co-occurrence of macrolide resistance and virulence in E. faecalis under tilmicosin selective pressure.

  4. Microflora associated with spacecraft and assembly facility surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Duc, M. T.; Osman, S.; Dekas, A. E.; Moissl, C.; Newcombe, D.; Venkateswaran, K.

    The direct analysis of microbial populations contained within low biomass samples is germane to a multitude of NASA programs Although stringent maintenance helps to keep the bioburden associated with spacecraft and assembly facility surfaces nominal the microorganisms that do persist however sparse they may be threaten forward contamination on future missions While examining the cultivable microbial diversity associated with spacecraft and assembly facility surfaces over the past 6 years 1999-2005 the recurring predominance of Bacillus pumilus has been observed Since its endospores are often capable of withstanding exposure to peroxides UV and gamma radiation and long bouts of desiccation the repeated isolation of B pumilus from the surfaces of spacecraft may bear great consequence to planetary protection Microflora seemingly tailored to enduring environmentally harsh extreme conditions have also been isolated from these surfaces Upon subjecting samples collected from clean room surfaces to UV-C irradiation 5 hydrogen peroxide heat shock 85 C 15 minutes acidic pH 3 0 alkaline pH 11 0 and saline 25 NaCl conditions and incubated at varying temperatures 4 C to 65 C members of the Bacillus genera accounted for a mere 40 of the isolated population Furthermore isolates belonging to the Bacillaceae family were more physiologically diverse than those isolated in previous studies including thermophiles

  5. Effect of leavening microflora on pizza dough properties.

    PubMed

    Coppola, S; Pepe, O; Mauriello, G

    1998-11-01

    Fourteen different starter cultures containing one strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with and without individual or combinations of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lact. sanfrancisco, Enterococcus faecium, Leuconostoc mesenteroides) were employed to investigate the role of leavening microflora on the properties of pizza doughs. Microbiological, chemical and physical characteristics of doughs prepared with the same flour and under the same processing conditions were determined. Leavening times and acidification properties depended on the microbial association used. The proportions of lactic and acetic acid produced by lactic acid bacteria were consistent with the metabolic properties of the strains employed. The bacteria/yeast ratios arising from microbial counts at the end of the leavening process were always lower in comparison to sour- or bread-doughs. The size of the yeast population did not change much, while bacteria showed from one to four duplications. Rheologically, the fermented doughs could only be significantly distinguished from the control dough with regard to the elastic modulus. Principal Component Analysis was applied to the acidimetric data. The scattergram of the two principal components effectively discriminated 13 of the 14 pizza dough types.

  6. Studies on the Cecal Microflora of Commercial Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Salanitro, J. P.; Blake, I. G.; Muirhead, P. A.

    1974-01-01

    A study was made of the cecal microflora isolated from broilers (5-week-old) reared under typical commercial husbandry conditions. Three hundred and twenty-five bacterial strains (randomly isolated from colonies representing 49 to 81% of the microscopic count) were isolated from cecal digesta of six animals on a rumen fluid roll tube medium (M98-5). Seventy-seven percent of these strains consisted of strict anaerobes: gram-negative, pleomorphic cocci (5.2%), Peptostreptococcus (1.5%), gram-positive rods (36.1% as Propionibacterium acnes and Eubacterium sp.), gram-negative rods (18.6% as Bacteroides clostridiiformis, B. hypermegas and B. fragilis) and sporeforming rods (15.7% as Clostridium sp.). Two types of facultatively anaerobic bacteria (gram-positive cocci and Escherichia coli) were also isolated and constituted 17.5% of the remaining flora. The distribution of the bacterial groups isolated from six cecal samples varied considerably. Data on the growth requirements of anaerobic strains indicated that many could be cultured in a simple medium consisting of an energy source, minerals, reducing agent, Trypticase, and yeast extract (or a vitamin mixture in place of yeast extract). The growth of some of these bacteria was also enhanced by CO2 and rumen fluid. These preliminary data suggest that some of the more numerous anaerobes isolated from the chicken cecum may not require complex nutrients for growth and, in fact, may be nutritionally similar to rumen anaerobes. PMID:4608322

  7. Gut microflora as a target for energy and metabolic homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Cani, Patrice D; Delzenne, Nathalie M

    2007-11-01

    Gut microbiota plays an important role in health and disease, but this ecosystem remains incompletely characterized and shows a wide diversity. This review discusses new findings that may explain how gut microbiota can be involved in the control of energy and metabolic homeostasis. Over the past 5 years studies have highlighted some key aspects of the mammalian host-gut microbial relationship. Gut microbiota could now be considered a 'microbial organ' placed within a host organ. Recent data suggest that the modulation of gut microbiota affects host metabolism and has an impact on energy storage. Several mechanisms are proposed that link events occurring in the colon and the regulation of energy metabolism. Gut microflora may play an even more important role in maintaining human health than previously thought. The literature provides new evidence that the increased prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes cannot be attributed solely to changes in the human genome, nutritional habits, or reduction of physical activity in our daily lives. One must also consider this important new environmental factor, namely gut microbiota. Scientists may take into consideration a key question: could we manipulate the microbiotic environment to treat or prevent obesity and type 2 diabetes? This opens up a new area in nutrition research.

  8. Tbx1, a DiGeorge syndrome candidate gene, is regulated by sonic hedgehog during pharyngeal arch development.

    PubMed

    Garg, V; Yamagishi, C; Hu, T; Kathiriya, I S; Yamagishi, H; Srivastava, D

    2001-07-01

    Appropriate interactions between the epithelium and adjacent neural crest-derived mesenchyme are necessary for normal pharyngeal arch development. Disruption of pharyngeal arch development in humans underlies many of the craniofacial defects observed in the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (del22q11), but the genes responsible remain unknown. Tbx1 is a T-box transcription factor that lies in the 22q11.2 locus. Tbx1 transcripts were found to be localized to the pharyngeal endoderm and the mesodermal core of the pharyngeal arches, but were not present in the neural crest-derived mesenchyme of the pharyngeal arches. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is also expressed in the pharyngeal arches and is necessary for normal craniofacial development. We found that Tbx1 expression was dependent upon Shh signaling in mouse embryos, consistent with their overlapping expression in the pharyngeal arches. Furthermore, Shh was sufficient to induce Tbx1 expression when misexpressed in selected regions of chick embryos. These studies reveal a Shh-mediated pathway that regulates Tbx1 during pharyngeal arch development.

  9. An early pharyngeal muscle enhancer from the Caenorhabditis elegans ceh-22 gene is targeted by the Forkhead factor PHA-4.

    PubMed

    Vilimas, Tomas; Abraham, Alin; Okkema, Peter G

    2004-02-15

    Caenorhabditis elegans pharyngeal muscle development involves ceh-22, an NK-2 family homeobox gene related to genes controlling heart development in other species. ceh-22 is the earliest known gene expressed in the pharyngeal muscles and is likely regulated directly by factors specifying pharyngeal muscle fate. We have previously implicated the ceh-22 distal enhancer in initiating ceh-22 expression. Here we analyze the distal enhancer using functional and comparative assays. The distal enhancer contains three subelements contributing additively to its activity, and functionally important regulatory sequences are highly conserved in Caenorhabditis briggsae. One subelement, termed DE3, is strongly active in the pharyngeal muscles, and we identified two short oligonucleotides (de199 and de209) contributing to DE3 activity. Multimerized de209 enhances transcription similarly to DE3 specifically in the pharyngeal muscles, suggesting it may be an essential site regulating ceh-22. de209 binds the pan-pharyngeal Forkhead factor PHA-4 in vitro and responds to ectopic pha-4 expression in vivo, suggesting that PHA-4 directly initiates ceh-22 expression through de209. Because de209 enhancer activity is primarily limited to the pharyngeal muscles, we hypothesize that de209 also binds factors functioning with PHA-4 to specifically activate ceh-22 expression in pharyngeal muscle.

  10. [Pediatrics. Using the McIsaac score for the indication of rapid diagnostic testing in children with streptococcal pharyngitis].

    PubMed

    Pauchard, J-Y; Gehri, M; Vaudaux, B

    2013-01-16

    The McIsaac scoring system is a tool designed to predict the probability of streptococcal pharyngitis in children aged 3 to 17 years with a sore throat. Although it does not allow the physician to make the diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis, it enables to identify those children with a sore throat in whom rapid antigen detection tests have a good predictive value.

  11. Acquired Pharyngeal Diverticulum after Anterior Cervical Fusion Operation Misdiagnosed as Typical Zenker Diverticulum

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong Myung; Kim, Chang Wan; Kim, Do Hyung

    2016-01-01

    A pharyngeal diverticulum is a rare complication of an anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). We present a case of a pharyngeal diverticulum after an ACDF, which was misdiagnosed as a typical Zenker diverticulum. A 54-year-old woman presented with dysphagia and a sense of irritation in the neck following C5 through C7 cervical fusion 3 years prior. The patient underwent open surgery to resect the diverticulum with concurrent cricopharyngeal myotomy. An ACDF-related diverticulum is difficult to distinguish from a typical Zenker diverticulum. PMID:27525244

  12. Biotypes of group A streptococci from patients with pharyngitis and soft tissue infections.

    PubMed

    Opavski, N; Mijac, V; Cirković, I; Feucht, H H; Ranin, L

    2007-03-01

    This study determined the biotypes of group A streptococci (GAS) isolated from 66 pharyngeal and 62 skin and soft-tissue infections. Among all GAS isolates tested, the most common biotypes were 1 and 3, irrespective of the isolation source and the severity of clinical symptoms. However, compared with the pharyngeal group, a more heterogeneous distribution of biotypes was observed among the cutaneous group of isolates, including seven isolates that were non-typeable but had an identical biotype pattern, suggesting that they may represent a new biotype.

  13. Lymphogranuloma venereum in an Italian MSM: concurrent pharyngeal and rectal infection.

    PubMed

    Foschi, Claudio; Filippini, Andrea; D'Antuono, Antonietta; Compri, Monica; Macca, Francesca; Banzola, Nicoletta; Marangoni, Antonella

    2014-07-01

    An Italian HIV-positive man having sex with men (MSM) attended the STIs Outpatients Clinic of Sant'Orsola Hospital in Bologna complaining of anal pain and constipation. According to patient's sexual history and repertoires, NAAT testing for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) was performed. Pharyngeal and anal swabs resulted positive for CT DNA detection and the following molecular genotyping identified a L2 serovar, coming to the final diagnosis of pharyngeal and rectal lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) infection. After an antibiotic therapy with doxycycline 100 mg twice a day for 3 weeks, the patient completely recovered and the test of cure was negative for LGV infection.

  14. Pharyngeal mesoderm development during embryogenesis: implications for both heart and head myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tzahor, Eldad; Evans, Sylvia M

    2011-07-15

    The pharyngeal mesoderm (PM), located in the head region of the developing embryo, recently triggered renewed interest as the major source of cells contributing to broad regions of the heart as well as to the head musculature. What exactly is PM? In this review, we describe the anatomical and molecular characteristics of this mesodermal population and its relationship to the first and second heart fields in chick and mouse embryos. The regulatory network of transcription factors and signalling molecules that regulate PM development is also discussed. In addition, we summarize recent studies into the evolutionary origins of this tissue and its multipotential contributions to both cardiac and pharyngeal muscle progenitors.

  15. Aerobic bacterial flora of biotic and abiotic compartments of a hyperendemic Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ZCL) focus.

    PubMed

    Maleki-Ravasan, Naseh; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Afshar, Davoud; Arandian, Mohammad Hossein; Hajikhani, Sara; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad; Yakhchali, Bagher; Shirazi, Mohammad Hasan; Rassi, Yavar; Jafari, Reza; Aminian, Koorosh; Fazeli-Varzaneh, Reza Ali; Durvasula, Ravi

    2015-01-29

    Identification of the microflora of the sand fly gut and the environmental distribution of these bacteria are important components for paratransgenic control of Leishmania transmission by sand flies. Biotic and abiotic bacterial communities of four compartments of a hyper-endemic focus of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ZCL) were investigated using 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing and phylogenetic tree construction. These compartments include Phlebotomus papatasi's gut, skin and intestinal tract of great gerbil Rhombomys opimus, the gerbil nest supplies, and plant food sources of the vectors and reservoirs. Sequence homology analysis using nine available 16S rDNA data bases revealed 40, 24, 15 and 14 aerobic bacterial species from the vector guts, the gerbil bodies, the gerbil nests, and the plants, respectively. The isolated bacteria belong to wide ranges including aerobic to facultative anaerobic, pathogen to commensals, sand fly oviposition inducers, land to air and ocean habitats, animal and human probiotics, and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Matching data analysis suggested that the adult P. papatasi gut bacteria could be acquired from three routes, adult sugar feeding on the plant saps, adult blood feeding on the animal host, and larval feeding from nest supplies. However, our laboratory experiment showed that none of the bacteria of the reservoir skin was transmitted to female sand fly guts via blood feeding. The microflora of sand fly guts were associated with the sand fly environment in which the predominant bacteria were Microbacterium, Pseudomonas, and Staphylococcus in human dwellings, cattle farms, and rodent colonies, respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common bacterium in sand fly guts. Presence of some sand fly ovipoisition inducers such Bacillus spp. and Staphylococcus saprophyticus support association between gut flora and oviposition induction. Results of this study showed that Bacillus subtilis and Enterobacter cloacae

  16. The Transition from Aerobic to Anaerobic Metabolism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, James S.; McLellan, Thomas H.

    1980-01-01

    The transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism is discussed. More research is needed on different kinds of athletes and athletic activities and how they may affect aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms. (CJ)

  17. The Transition from Aerobic to Anaerobic Metabolism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, James S.; McLellan, Thomas H.

    1980-01-01

    The transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism is discussed. More research is needed on different kinds of athletes and athletic activities and how they may affect aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms. (CJ)

  18. [A new approach to the evaluation of the state of the microcirculatory system in patients presenting with chronic atrophic pharyngitis and treated with a synthetic neuropeptide].

    PubMed

    Boldyreva, O V; Burenkov, G I; Toropova, L A

    2011-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the mechanisms of development of chronic atrophic pharyngitis. A method is proposed for studying microcirculation in the mucous membrane at the posterior pharyngeal wall of the patients with this condition using laser Doppler flowmetry. The role of chronic somatic pathology in the development of pharyngeal dystrophy is demonstrated. It is shown that therapy with the synthetic neuropeptide is highly efficacious for the treatment of chronic atrophic pharyngitis.

  19. Orosensory contributions to dysphagia: a link between perception of sweet and sour taste and pharyngeal delay time.

    PubMed

    Pauloski, Barbara R; Nasir, Sazzad M

    2016-06-01

    Pharyngeal delay is a significant swallowing disorder often resulting in aspiration. It is suspected that pharyngeal delay originates from sensory impairment, but a direct demonstration of a link between oral sensation and pharyngeal delay is lacking. In this study involving six patients with complaints of dysphagia, taste sensation of the oral tongue was measured and subsequently related to swallowing kinematics. It was found that a response bias for sour taste was significantly correlated with pharyngeal delay time on paste, highlighting oral sensory contributions to swallow motor dysfunctions. Investigating the precise nature of such a link between oral sensation and dysphagia would constitute a basis for understanding the disorder. The results of this study highlight oral sensory contributions to pharyngeal swallow events and provide impetus to examine this link in larger samples of dysphagic patients.

  20. Health Fitness Standards. Aerobic Endurance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotson, Chuck

    1988-01-01

    An exploration of the current thinking about levels of fitness necessary to meet health fitness standards, with particular focus on aerobic capacity, discusses major health problems, the prevalence of heart disease, how health standards are set, and how health habits change as people age. (CB)

  1. Arthritis and Aerobic Exercise: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ike, Robert W.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Arthritic patients who regularly do aerobic exercise make significant gains in aerobic and functional status, and in subjective areas like pain tolerance and mood. Still, they are often advised to curtail physical activity. Guidelines are presented for physicians prescribing aerobic exercise. An exercise tolerance test is recommended. (SM)

  2. Arthritis and Aerobic Exercise: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ike, Robert W.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Arthritic patients who regularly do aerobic exercise make significant gains in aerobic and functional status, and in subjective areas like pain tolerance and mood. Still, they are often advised to curtail physical activity. Guidelines are presented for physicians prescribing aerobic exercise. An exercise tolerance test is recommended. (SM)

  3. Occlusion of Tracheostomy Tubes Does Not Alter Pharyngeal Phase Kinematics But Reduces Penetration by Enhancing Pharyngeal Clearance: A Prospective Study in Patients With Neurogenic Dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Ledl, Christian; Ullrich, Ylva Yasmin

    2017-04-01

    Tracheostomy tubes (TT) are often needed in patients with severe neurologic injuries to protect the respiratory system from aspiration. However, TTs alter physiological oral-nasal airflow and are suspected to influence the pattern of pharyngeal swallowing. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of TT occlusion on pharyngeal swallowing physiology and to determine penetration-aspiration (PA) values of open versus closed TTs in neurogenic dysphagia. Prospective controlled clinical study with 20 tracheotomized patients after unilateral hemispheric stroke. Pharyngeal manometry and flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing were performed simultaneously to determine pharyngoesophageal pressure and timing, as well as PA scores with open and occluded TTs. In each condition, patients had to swallow 5 mL of puree 5 times. Pharyngoesophageal pressure amplitudes, duration, and timing of the swallows did not change as a result of the tracheostomy tube status. Penetration-aspiration values were significantly lower in the occluded tube condition (P = 0.024). Airflow and tracheostomy tube status did not influence the physiology of pharyngoesophageal swallowing in patients with neurogenic dysphagia. However, occluded TTs permitted the voluntary clearance of laryngeal residue and resulted in improved PA scores. We recommend performing dysphagia therapy in tracheotomized patients as soon as possible with uncuffed and occluded tubes.

  4. Suppression of Listeria monocytogenes by the Native Micro-Flora in Teewurst Sausage.

    PubMed

    Austin-Watson, Clytrice; Grant, Ar'Quette; Brice, Michline

    2013-10-21

    Modern consumers are interested in the use of non-chemical methods to control pathogens when heat sterilization is not an option. Such is the case with teewurst sausage, a raw spreadable sausage and a popular German commodity. Although Listeria was not found in teewurst, the optimal microbial growing conditions of teewurst coupled with the ubiquity of L. monocytogenes in nature, makes the possibility of contamination of products very possible. This pilot study was conducted to examine teewurst's native micro-flora's ability to suppress the outgrowth of L. monocytogenes at 10 °C using standard plate counts and PCR-DGGE. Traditional plating methods showed L. monocytogenes growth significantly decreased when in competition with the teewurst's native micro-flora (p < 0.05). The native micro-flora of the teewurst suppressed the overall growth of L. monocytogenes by an average of two logs, under these conditions. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) amplicons with unique banding patterns were extracted from DGGE gel for identification. Brochothrix thermosphacta and Lactobacillus curvatus were identified as a part of the teewurst's native micro-flora. Although the native micro-flora did not decrease L. monocytogenes to below limits of detection, it was enough of a decrease to warrant further investigation.

  5. [Oral cavity microflora in patients with non-specific ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease].

    PubMed

    Kondrakova, O A; Muliar, E A; Voropaeva, E A; Babin, V N; Dubinin, A V; Briko, N I

    2009-01-01

    Results of study of microecological disorders in oral cavity of patients with non-specific ulcerative colitis (NSUC) and Crohn's disease (CD) and control subjects (patients with hypertension). Condition of mucosa was assessed on the basis of morphological data and electrophoretic mobility of cell nuclei, whereas structure of microbiocenosis and metabolic activity of microflora--on the basis of saliva bacterial culture and contents and profile of volatile fat acids in it. Detection rate of negative charge of the cell nuclei (decrease of functional activity of epithelium) was significantly higher in patients with NSUC and CD (66.6%) compared with controls (10%). This fact was directly related with hypercolonization of oral cavity by Gram-negative microflora. Lesions of mucosa which are characteristic of NSUC and CD and determined by pathologic immune mechanisms correlated with quantity of pathogenic microflora (Staphylococcus aureus and Candida). Marked differences of chromatograms' patterns were observed in patients with NSUC and CD indicating the suppression of anaerobic microflora in patients with CD and hypercolonization of oral cavity by anaerobic microflora in majority of patients with NSUC.

  6. Speech Outcomes After Clinically Indicated Posterior Pharyngeal Flap Takedown.

    PubMed

    Katzel, Evan B; Shakir, Sameer; Naran, Sanjay; MacIsaac, Zoe; Camison, Liliana; Greives, Matthew; Goldstein, Jesse A; Grunwaldt, Lorelei J; Ford, Matthew D; Losee, Joseph E

    2016-10-01

    Velopharyngeal insufficiency affects as many as one in three patients after cleft palate repair. Correction using a posterior pharyngeal flap (PPF) has been shown to improve clinical speech symptomatology; however, PPFs can be complicated by hyponasality and obstructive sleep apnea. The goal of this study was to assess if speech outcomes revert after clinically indicated PPF takedown. The cleft-craniofacial database of the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center was retrospectively queried to identify patients with a diagnosis of velopharyngeal insufficiency treated with PPF who ultimately required takedown. Using the Pittsburgh Weighted Speech Score (PWSS), preoperative scores were compared to those after PPF takedown. Outcomes after 2 different methods of PPF takedown (PPF takedown alone or PPF takedown with conversion to Furlow palatoplasty) were stratified and cross-compared. A total of 64 patients underwent takedown of their PPF. Of these, 18 patients underwent PPF takedown alone, and 46 patients underwent PPF takedown with conversion to Furlow Palatoplasty. Patients averaged 12.43 (range, 3.0-22.0)(SD: 3.93) years of age at the time of PPF takedown, and 58% were men. Demographics between groups were not statistically different. The mean duration of follow-up after surgery was 38.09 (range, 1-104) (SD, 27.81) months. For patients undergoing PPF takedown alone, the mean preoperative and postoperative PWSS was 3.83 (range, 0.0-23.0) (SD, 6.13) and 4.11 (range, 0.0-23.0) (SD, 5.31), respectively (P = 0.89). The mean change in PWSS was 0.28 (range, -9.0 to 7.0) (SD, 4.3). For patients undergoing takedown of PPF with conversion to Furlow palatoplasty, the mean preoperative and postoperative PWSS was 6.37 (range, 0-26) (SD, 6.70) and 3.11 (range, 0.0-27.0) (SD, 4.14), respectively (P < 0.01). The mean change in PWSS was -3.26 (range, -23.0 to 4.0) (SD, 4.3). For all patients, the mean preoperative PWSS was 5.66 (range, 0

  7. Subgingival microflora in inflammatory bowel disease patients with untreated periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Brito, Fernanda; Zaltman, Cyrla; Carvalho, Ana T P; Fischer, Ricardo G; Persson, Rutger; Gustafsson, Anders; Figueredo, Carlos M S

    2013-02-01

    To analyze the subgingival microflora composition of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients with untreated chronic periodontitis and compare them with systemically healthy controls also having untreated chronic periodontitis. Thirty IBD patients [15 with Crohn's disease (CD) and 15 with ulcerative colitis (UC)] and 15 control individuals participated in the study. All patients had been diagnosed with untreated chronic periodontitis. From every patient, subgingival plaque was collected from four gingivitis and four periodontitis sites with paper points. Samples from the same category (gingivitis or periodontitis) in each patient were pooled together and stored at -70 °C until analysis using a checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique for 74 bacterial species. Multiple-comparison analysis showed that the groups differed in bacterial counts for Bacteroides ureolyticus, Campylobacter gracilis, Parvimonas micra, Prevotella melaninogenica, Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Treponema denticola (P<0.001). CD patients had significantly higher levels of these bacteria than UC patients either in gingivitis or in periodontitis sites (P<0.05). CD patients harbored higher levels of P. melaninogenica, S. aureus, S. anginosus, and S. mutans compared with controls both at gingivitis and at periodontitis sites (P<0.05). UC patients harbored higher levels of S. aureus (P=0.01) and P. anaerobius (P=0.05) than controls only in gingivitis sites. Our study showed that even with similar clinical periodontal parameters, IBD patients harbor higher levels of bacteria that are related to opportunistic infections in inflamed subgingival sites that might be harmful for the crucial microbe-host interaction.

  8. Fruit and vegetable fiber fermentation by gut microflora from canines.

    PubMed

    Swanson, K S; Grieshop, C M; Clapper, G M; Shields, R G; Belay, T; Merchen, N R; Fahey, G C

    2001-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess fermentability by canine gut microflora to include shortchain fatty acid (SCFA) production, organic matter (OM) disappearance, and gas production of vegetable and fruit fiber sources compared to fiber standards (psyllium, citrus pectin, and Solka Floc). Fiber sources included apple pomace, carrot pomace, flaxseed, fruit blend (mixture of peach, almond, nectarine, and plum), grape pomace, pea hulls, pistachio, and tomato pomace. Substrates were fermented in vitro for 4, 12, and 24 h with fecal flora obtained from three healthy dogs. Citrus pectin had the highest OM disappearance, SCFA production, and gas production at all times of fermentation; psyllium was intermediate and Solka Floc was lowest. A wide variation in fermentability was noted among the vegetable and fruit fiber sources. Apple pomace, carrot pomace, and flaxseed had the greatest fermentability as assessed by OM disappearance. Pea hulls and tomato pomace had intermediate OM disappearances, and fruit blend, grape pomace, and pistachio were poorly fermented. Carrot pomace produced the largest amounts of gas and SCFA. Apple pomace produced high concentrations of gas but intermediate concentrations of SCFA. Pea hulls and tomato pomace produced intermediate concentrations of gas and SCFA, whereas flaxseed, fruit blend, grape pomace, and pistachio produced low amounts of these fermentation products. For all substrates collectively, OM disappearance was highly correlated with both gas production (r2 = 0.782 and 0.723 for 12- and 24-h values, respectively) and SCFA production (r2 = 0.737 and 0.738 for 12- and 24-h values, respectively). In general, OM disappearance, gas production, and SCFA production were related to the insoluble:soluble fiber ratio in the samples; as the insoluble:soluble ratio decreased (increased soluble fiber), the OM disappearance, gas production, and SCFA production increased.

  9. Differential impact of lactose/lactase phenotype on colonic microflora

    PubMed Central

    Szilagyi, Andrew; Shrier, Ian; Heilpern, Debra; Je, Jung Sung; Park, Sunghoon; Chong, George; Lalonde, Catherine; Cote, Louis-Francois; Lee, Byong

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ability to digest lactose divides the world’s population into two phenotypes that may be risk variability markers for several diseases. Prebiotic effects likely favour lactose maldigesters who experience lactose spilling into their colon. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of fixed-dose lactose solutions on fecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in digesters and maldigesters, and to determine whether the concept of a difference in ability to digest lactose is supported. METHODS: A four-week study was performed in 23 lactose mal-digesters and 18 digesters. Following two weeks of dairy food withdrawal, subjects ingested 25 g of lactose twice a day for two weeks. Stool bifidobacteria and lactobacilli counts pre- and postintervention were measured as the primary outcome. For secondary outcomes, total anaerobes, Enterobacteriaceae, beta-galactosidase and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase activity in stool, as well as breath hydrogen and symptoms following lactose challenge tests, were measured. RESULTS: Lactose maldigesters had a mean change difference (0.72 log10 colony forming units/g stool; P=0.04) in bifidobacteria counts compared with lactose digesters. Lactobacilli counts were increased, but not significantly. Nevertheless, reduced breath hydrogen after lactose ingestion correlated with lactobacilli (r=−0.5; P<0.001). Reduced total breath hydrogen and symptom scores together, with a rise in fecal enzymes after intervention, were appropriate, but not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Despite failure to achieve full colonic adaptation, the present study provided evidence for a differential impact of lactose on microflora depending on genetic lactase status. A prebiotic effect was evident in lactose maldigesters but not in lactose digesters. This may play a role in modifying the mechanisms of certain disease risks related to dairy food consumption between the two phenotypes. PMID:20559580

  10. Impact of cyadox on human colonic microflora in chemostat models.

    PubMed

    Hao, Haihong; Guo, Weige; Iqbal, Zahid; Cheng, Guyue; Wang, Xu; Dai, Menghong; Huang, Lingli; Wang, Yulian; Peng, Dapeng; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological safety of cyadox, a new member of quinoxaline-1,4-dioxides (QdNOs), on human intestinal flora. Four chemostats containing human fecal flora were exposed to 0, 16, 32, and 128 μg/mL of cyadox, respectively. Bacterial populations, resistance rates of two predominant bacteria and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) were monitored daily prior to and during drug MOA Laboratory of Risk Assessment for Quality and Safety of Livestock and Poultry Products exposure. Colonization resistance (CR) of each community was determined by three successive daily challenges of Salmonella typhimurium. Efflux pump gene (oqxAB) in the Escherichia coli and Enterococcus strains were analyzed by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing. No change in SCFA was observed after exposure to different concentrations of cyadox. Lower concentration of cyadox (16 μg/mL) had no adverse effect on human microflora. However, higher concentrations of cyadox (32 and 128 μg/mL) could change bacterial population and increase the proportion of resistant E. coli and Enterococcus. More than 26% (12/46) of cyadox resistant E. coli strains contained oqxAB gene, while all the resistant Enterococcus were negative to oqxAB gene. Relationship between the occurrence of oqxAB gene and cyadox exposure is inconclusive. Our data indicated that 16 μg/mL might be the no observed effect concentration (NOEC) of cyadox. Derived microbiological acceptable daily intake (mADI) would be 1552.03 μg/kg d. The data obtained in present study indicated that cyadox was a safe member of QdNOs family of antimicrobial agents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular analysis of the microflora associated with dental caries.

    PubMed

    Munson, M A; Banerjee, A; Watson, T F; Wade, W G

    2004-07-01

    Molecular techniques have revealed many novel, presumed unculturable, taxa in oral infections. The aim of this study was to characterize the bacterial community of the middle and advancing front of carious dental lesions by cultural and molecular analyses. Samples were collected with a hand excavator from five teeth with carious lesions involving dentine. Samples were cultured on blood agar and Rogosa agar incubated in air plus 5% CO(2) and on fastidious anaerobe agar anaerobically. DNA was also extracted directly from the samples and 16S rRNA genes were amplified by PCR with universal primers. PCR products were singularized by cloning, and the cloned inserts and cultured isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. We identified 95 taxa among the 496 isolates and 1,577 clones sequenced; 44 taxa were detected by the molecular method alone; 31 taxa were previously undescribed. Only three taxa, Streptococcus mutans, Rothia dentocariosa, and an unnamed Propionibacterium sp., were found in all five samples. The predominant taxa by anaerobic cultivation were the novel Propionibacterium sp. (18%), Olsenella profusa (14%), and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (8%). The predominant taxa in the molecular analysis were Streptococcus mutans (16%), Lactobacillus gasseri/johnsonii (13%), and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (8%). There was no significant difference between the compositions of the microflora in the middle and advancing front samples (P < 0.05, Wilcoxon matched pairs, signed ranks test). In conclusion, combined cultural and molecular analyses have shown that a diverse bacterial community is found in dentinal caries and that numerous novel taxa are present.

  12. [Influence of predominant aerobic bacteria isolated from different healthy animals on daidzein biotransforming capacity by co-culture with different daidzein biotransforming bacteria].

    PubMed

    Luo, Jinglong; Wang, Xiuling; Fan, Jinru; Wang, Shiying; Li, Jia

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the influence of isolated predominant aerobic bacteria on daidzein biotransformation capacity by co-culture with daidzein biotransforming bacteria. Predominant aerobic bacteria were isolated from diluted feces solutions of different healthy animals, including ICR mice, Luhua chicken, Landrace pigs and Rex rabbits. Daidzein biotransforming bacteria were anaerobically co-cultured with the isolated predominant aerobic bacteria and the cultural broth was extracted and detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Twenty two predominant aerobic bacteria were isolated from the four different healthy animals mentioned above. Based on the analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences, morphology study and relative biophysico-biochemical characteristics, all 22 isolates belong to the 5 genera, i. e. Escherichia (10) , Proteus (5) , Enterococcus (4), Bacillus (2) and Pseudomonas (1). Co-culture between predominant aerobic bacteria and daidzein biotransforming bacteria was carried out under anaerobic conditions. The results showed that the biotransformation capacity was totally lost when different daidzein biotransforming bacterium was co-cultured with either Bacillus cereus ( R1 ) or Pseudomonas aerginosa (R5) and continuously inoculated for 2 or 3 passages. However, no obvious influence was observed when daidzein biotransforming bacteria were co-cultured with all the other isolated predominant aerobic bacteria except R1 and R5. In addition, when strain R1 and R5 was co-cultured with the intestinal microflora of the ICR mice anaerobically and continuously inoculated for 5 passages, about 90% of the co-cultures totally lost the activity to convert daidzein to equol effectively. Different predominant aerobic bacteria showed different influence on daidzein biotransformation capacity after being co-cultured with different daidzein biotransforming bacteria. Among all the isolated predominant aerobic bacteria used for co-culture, both Bacillus cereus ( R1) and

  13. Delayed Initiation of the Pharyngeal Swallow: Normal Variability in Adult Swallows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Harris, Bonnie; Brodsky, Martin B.; Michel, Yvonne; Lee, Fu-Shing; Walters, Bobby

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to determine bolus head timing and location relations with the onset of hyoid movement at the initiation of the pharyngeal swallow and at the onset of swallow-related apnea. Method: Bolus head timing and location and the timing of swallow-related apnea were recorded from frame-by-frame analyses of…

  14. Pharyngeal Pressure Generation during Tongue-Hold Swallows across Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doeltgen, Sebastian H.; Macrae, Phoebe; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the effects of the tongue-hold swallowing maneuver on pharyngeal pressure generation in healthy young and elderly research volunteers. Method: Sixty-eight healthy research volunteers (young, n = 34, mean age = 26.8 years, SD = 5.5; elderly, n = 34, mean age = 72.6 years, SD = 4.8; sex equally represented) performed 5…

  15. [Veterinary dentistry (11). Feline gingivitis-stomatitis-pharyngitis complex. Chronic/recurrent stomatitis in cats].

    PubMed

    van Foreest, A

    1995-10-01

    This is the fourth article in a series on veterinary dentistry in cats. This article describes the clinical signs, possible investigations, and differential diagnosis of the gingivitis-stomatitis pharyngitis complex (GSP complex), a complex and frequently occurring disease. Strategies for the treatment of feline chronic stomatitis complex, which is frequently idiopathic, are presented.

  16. Two siblings with periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Isabel Cristina Ramos Melo; Rodrigo, Maria João; Monteiro Marques, José Gonçalo Duque Pereira

    2009-03-01

    PFAPA syndrome (periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, adenitis) is a benign sporadic syndrome of unknown cause. We report 2 siblings diagnosed with this syndrome. The second case started crisis simultaneously with recurrence of crisis after a 3-year free interval in her brother. This temporal relation suggests environmental factor acting in genetically predisposed children.

  17. Recurrent aseptic encephalitis in periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and adenopathy (PFAPA) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Frye, Richard E

    2006-05-01

    An 11-year-old boy with episodes of periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and adenitis (PFAPA) is reported. Two PFAPA episodes were associated with aseptic encephalitis and seizures. Recurrent acute aseptic encephalitis or seizures have never been reported during the febrile episodes of PFAPA. This possible association is discussed within the context of the etiology of PFAPA.

  18. Macrolide and Clindamycin Resistance in Group a Streptococci Isolated From Children With Pharyngitis.

    PubMed

    DeMuri, Gregory P; Sterkel, Alana K; Kubica, Phillip A; Duster, Megan N; Reed, Kurt D; Wald, Ellen R

    2017-03-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) is responsible for 15%-30% of cases of acute pharyngitis in children. Macrolides such as azithromycin have become popular for treating GAS pharyngitis. We report macrolide resistance rates in a primary care setting in our geographic area over the past 5 years and discuss the implications of resistance in making treatment decisions. Throat swabs were collected from children with pharyngitis from May 2011 to May 2015 in a primary care setting in Madison, Wisconsin. Susceptibility testing was performed for erythromycin and clindamycin using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. GAS was identified on 143 throat cultures. Overall, 15% of GAS isolates demonstrated nonsusceptibility for both clindamycin and erythromycin. Inducible resistance (positive D-test) was detected in 17 isolates (12%). The rate of detection of nonsusceptibility in each year of the study did not change over time. Azithromycin should only be used for patients with pharyngitis and substantial manifestations of penicillin hypersensitivity and when used, susceptibility testing should always be performed.

  19. Developmental Sexual Dimorphism of the Oral and Pharyngeal Portions of the Vocal Tract: An Imaging Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorperian, Houri K.; Wang, Shubing; Schimek, E. Michael; Durtschi, Reid B.; Kent, Ray D.; Gentry, Lindell R.; Chung, Moo K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The anatomic origin for prepubertal vowel acoustic differences between male and female subjects remains unknown. The purpose of this study is to examine developmental sex differences in vocal tract (VT) length and its oral and pharyngeal portions. Method: Nine VT variables were measured from 605 imaging studies (magnetic resonance imaging…

  20. Behavioural and neurophysiological disruption of corticobulbar motor systems and their effects on sequential pharyngeal swallowing.

    PubMed

    Al-Toubi, Aamir; Daniels, Stephanie K; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee; Corey, David M; Doeltgen, Sebastian H

    2016-10-15

    Primary motor networks are known to be involved in the control of voluntary oral movements as well as the modulation of pharyngeal movements during experimentally controlled single swallows performed on command. The role of these networks in the more typical task of sequential swallowing remains unexplored. This study evaluated the hypothesis that experimental disruption of motor cortical activation would reduce the rate and regularity of repeatedly performed volitional or volitionally initiated motor tasks controlled by corticospinal (finger tapping) and corticobulbar (eyebrow movement, jaw opening, volitional sequential swallowing) motor systems, but would not influence a more reflexive corticobulbar task (reflexive sequential swallowing to pharyngeal water infusion). This premise was investigated in 24 healthy participants using two techniques: a dual task paradigm and a transcranial magnetic stimulation paradigm. Disruption effects were quantified by changes in rate and regularity of performance for each tested motor task. In summary, volitional motor tasks controlled by corticospinal motor networks (finger tapping) are more susceptible to behavioural and neurophysiological disruption than tasks controlled by cortiobulbar motor networks containing a reflexive component (both volitional and experimentally initiated consecutive swallowing). Purely volitional motor tasks controlled by the corticobulbar motor system (eyebrow raising or jaw opening) were affected in similar ways as the volitional corticospinal motor tasks. In summary, tasks involving sequential pharyngeal swallowing - whether volitionally or experimentally initiated - are largely robust against disruption of primary cortical motor networks, supporting a key role of medullary CPGs in the motor control of sequential pharyngeal swallowing.

  1. Pharyngeal Pressure Generation during Tongue-Hold Swallows across Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doeltgen, Sebastian H.; Macrae, Phoebe; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the effects of the tongue-hold swallowing maneuver on pharyngeal pressure generation in healthy young and elderly research volunteers. Method: Sixty-eight healthy research volunteers (young, n = 34, mean age = 26.8 years, SD = 5.5; elderly, n = 34, mean age = 72.6 years, SD = 4.8; sex equally represented) performed 5…

  2. Effect of nasal noninvasive respiratory support methods on pharyngeal provocation-induced aerodigestive reflexes in infants.

    PubMed

    Jadcherla, Sudarshan R; Hasenstab, Kathryn A; Sitaram, Swetha; Clouse, Brian J; Slaughter, Jonathan L; Shaker, Reza

    2016-06-01

    The pharynx is a locus of provocation among infants with aerodigestive morbidities manifesting as dysphagia, life-threatening events, aspiration-pneumonia, atelectasis, and reflux, and such infants often receive nasal respiratory support. We determined the impact of different oxygen delivery methods on pharyngeal stimulation-induced aerodigestive reflexes [room air (RA), nasal cannula (NC), and nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP)] while hypothesizing that the sensory motor characteristics of putative reflexes are distinct. Thirty eight infants (28.0 ± 0.7 wk gestation) underwent pharyngoesophageal manometry and respiratory inductance plethysmography to determine the effects of graded pharyngeal stimuli (n = 271) on upper and lower esophageal sphincters (UES, LES), swallowing, and deglutition-apnea. Comparisons were made between NC (n = 19), nCPAP (n = 9), and RA (n = 10) groups. Importantly, NC or nCPAP (vs. RA) had: 1) delayed feeding milestones (P < 0.05), 2) increased pharyngeal waveform recruitment and duration, greater UES nadir pressure, decreased esophageal contraction duration, decreased distal esophageal contraction amplitude, and decreased completely propagated esophageal peristalsis (all P < 0.05), and 3) similarly developed UES contractile and LES relaxation reflexes (P > 0.05). We conclude that aerodigestive reflexes were similarly developed in infants using noninvasive respiratory support with adequate upper and lower aerodigestive protection. Increased concern for GERD is unfounded in this population. These infants may benefit from targeted oromotor feeding therapies and safe pharyngeal bolus transit to accelerate feeding milestones. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Case of pharyngeal cancer not detected during preoperative transoral endoscopy with narrow band imaging.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Kunihiro; Doyama, Hisashi; Nakanishi, Hiroyoshi; Takemura, Kenichi; Moriyama, Hideki; Sakumoto, Makoto; Tsuyama, Sho; Kurumaya, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    We herein report a case of pharyngeal cancer that was not detected during preoperative transoral endoscopy with narrow band imaging (NBI). A 61-year-old female was referred to our hospital for further evaluation of a pharyngeal lesion. Endoscopy revealed a small, elevated lesion, approximately 7 mm in size, at the right pyriform sinus. We performed endoscopic resection to remove this lesion under general anesthesia based on the biopsy results. Intraoperatively, we detected another tumor in the left oropharyngeal wall with Lugol staining after insertion of a curved laryngoscope. Although this lesion was ≥20 mm in diameter, we were unable to detect it during preoperative transoral endoscopy with NBI and white light imaging. We performed endoscopic treatment for this lesion 2 months later. The pathological diagnosis was pharyngeal cancer; the lesion had low vascularity. This case report provides an example of false-negative endoscopy with NBI. Although transoral endoscopy with NBI has improved the early diagnosis of superficial squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck, pharyngeal cancers that are less vascular may be missed with NBI.

  4. A preoperative sleep study with nasal airway occlusion in pharyngeal flap surgery.

    PubMed

    Morita, Takeshi; Kurata, Kyosuke; Hiratsuka, Yasuyuki; Ito, Juichi

    2004-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is a major complication of pharyngeal flap surgery. The purpose of the present study is to predict preoperatively the risk of upper airway obstruction after surgery. We performed an overnight sleep study preoperatively and postoperatively in 16 pediatric patients considered for pharyngeal flap surgery. Preoperative sleep study was done for two nights, once in normal breathing condition and once with complete nasal occlusion by packing of nostril with tampon gauze. In preoperative sleep recordings in normal breathing condition, all subjects had a normal apnea hypopnea index (AHI) less than 5/h. In preoperative recording with complete nasal occlusion, five patients exceeded 5/h in AHI. In particular, for two patients who had AHI higher than 15/h, we gave up a surgery in one case and performed pharyngeal flap operation for the other following a tracheotomy for severe disturbance of oral breathing. The remaining 14 subjects underwent surgery without airway obstructive complications. There was strong correlation between preoperative AHI with nasal tampon gauze and AHI at two weeks postoperatively (r = 0.88 P < .0001). There was no significant correlation between preoperative AHI in normal breathing condition and postoperative AHI (P > .05). These results exhibit preoperative sleep study with complete nasal airway occlusion represent postoperative breathing condition well during early postoperative period. Preoperative sleep study with complete nasal airway occlusion with nasal tampons could be useful for predicting the risk of upper airway obstruction secondary to pharyngeal flap surgery.

  5. Anomalous ascending pharyngeal artery arising from the internal carotid artery: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Franco, Severiano; Muñoz, Asís Lorente; Franco, Trinidad Cortes; Ruiz, Tomas

    2013-02-01

    Anomalous branches from the internal carotid artery (ICA) have been reported rarely in the literature. We report three cases of ascending pharyngeal arising from the ICA. It is essential to be aware of these variations in carotid artery surgery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of nasal noninvasive respiratory support methods on pharyngeal provocation-induced aerodigestive reflexes in infants

    PubMed Central

    Hasenstab, Kathryn A.; Sitaram, Swetha; Clouse, Brian J.; Slaughter, Jonathan L.; Shaker, Reza

    2016-01-01

    The pharynx is a locus of provocation among infants with aerodigestive morbidities manifesting as dysphagia, life-threatening events, aspiration-pneumonia, atelectasis, and reflux, and such infants often receive nasal respiratory support. We determined the impact of different oxygen delivery methods on pharyngeal stimulation-induced aerodigestive reflexes [room air (RA), nasal cannula (NC), and nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP)] while hypothesizing that the sensory motor characteristics of putative reflexes are distinct. Thirty eight infants (28.0 ± 0.7 wk gestation) underwent pharyngoesophageal manometry and respiratory inductance plethysmography to determine the effects of graded pharyngeal stimuli (n = 271) on upper and lower esophageal sphincters (UES, LES), swallowing, and deglutition-apnea. Comparisons were made between NC (n = 19), nCPAP (n = 9), and RA (n = 10) groups. Importantly, NC or nCPAP (vs. RA) had: 1) delayed feeding milestones (P < 0.05), 2) increased pharyngeal waveform recruitment and duration, greater UES nadir pressure, decreased esophageal contraction duration, decreased distal esophageal contraction amplitude, and decreased completely propagated esophageal peristalsis (all P < 0.05), and 3) similarly developed UES contractile and LES relaxation reflexes (P > 0.05). We conclude that aerodigestive reflexes were similarly developed in infants using noninvasive respiratory support with adequate upper and lower aerodigestive protection. Increased concern for GERD is unfounded in this population. These infants may benefit from targeted oromotor feeding therapies and safe pharyngeal bolus transit to accelerate feeding milestones. PMID:27012774

  7. Hox-mediated endodermal identity patterns pharyngeal muscle formation in the chordate pharynx.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Keita; Nakahata, Azusa; Treen, Nicholas; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Sasakura, Yasunori

    2017-05-01

    The chordate pharynx, possessing gill slits and the endostyle, is a complex of multiple tissues that are highly organized along the anterior-posterior (AP) axis. Although Hox genes show AP coordinated expression in the pharyngeal endoderm, tissue-specific roles of these factors for establishing the regional identities within this tissue have not been demonstrated. Here, we show that Hox1 is essential for the establishment of AP axial identity of the endostyle, a major structure of the pharyngeal endoderm, in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis We found that knockout of Hox1 causes posterior-to-anterior transformation of the endostyle identity, and that Hox1 represses Otx expression and anterior identity, and vice versa. Furthermore, alteration of the regional identity of the endostyle disrupts the formation of body wall muscles, suggesting that the endodermal axial identity is essential for coordinated pharyngeal development. Our results demonstrate an essential role of Hox genes in establishment of the AP regional identity in the pharyngeal endoderm and reveal crosstalk between endoderm and mesoderm during development of chordate pharynx. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. The role of foods and nutrients on oral and pharyngeal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Garavello, W; Lucenteforte, E; Bosetti, C; La Vecchia, C

    2009-01-01

    The relation between selected aspects of diet and the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer was considered in a few cohort studies and approximately 30 case-control studies. These studies reported consistent inverse associations with fruit and vegetable consumption. beta-carotene, vitamin C and selected flavonoids were also inversely related to risk, although it remains difficult to disentangle their potential effect from that of fruit and vegetables. Whole-grain cereals, but not refined grain ones, were also favorably related to the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer. The results were not consistent for other foods, including meat, fish, eggs, milk and dairy products, but it is now possible to exclude a strong relation with oral and pharyngeal cancer risk. Data are also reassuring for coffee and tea, while hot maté drinking has been related to increased risk in studies from Argentina and Brazil. There is no consistent association with total fat intake, but monounsaturated fats (and olive oil) have resulted inversely related to risk. In developed countries, selected aspects of diet may account for 20% to 25% of oral and pharyngeal cancers. This proportion is likely greater in selected developing countries.

  9. Pharyngeal neuromuscular dysfunction associated with bilateral guttural pouch tympany in a foal

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Chris

    2007-01-01

    A 2-month-old warmblood filly was presented for a 1-week history of a large, nonpainful, fluctuant swelling of the parotid and laryngeal area. Bilateral guttural pouch tympany was diagnosed. Surgical correction resolved the guttural pouch tympany; however, postoperative pharyngeal neuromuscular dysfunction developed. PMID:17334035

  10. Developmental Sexual Dimorphism of the Oral and Pharyngeal Portions of the Vocal Tract: An Imaging Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorperian, Houri K.; Wang, Shubing; Schimek, E. Michael; Durtschi, Reid B.; Kent, Ray D.; Gentry, Lindell R.; Chung, Moo K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The anatomic origin for prepubertal vowel acoustic differences between male and female subjects remains unknown. The purpose of this study is to examine developmental sex differences in vocal tract (VT) length and its oral and pharyngeal portions. Method: Nine VT variables were measured from 605 imaging studies (magnetic resonance imaging…

  11. Quantitative Lingual, Pharyngeal and Laryngeal Ultrasonography in Swallowing Research: A Technical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chi-Fishman, Gloria

    2005-01-01

    Because of its distinct advantage in radiation-free soft tissue imaging, ultrasonography has been widely used to study lingual, pharyngeal, hyoid, laryngeal, and even esophageal action during swallowing in individuals of all ages. Qualitative ultrasonographic observations have made considerable contributions to our understanding of deglutition.…

  12. Patterns of esophageal inhibition during swallowing, pharyngeal stimulation, and transient LES relaxation. Lower esophageal sphincter.

    PubMed

    Pouderoux, Philippe; Verdier, Eric; Kahrilas, Peter J

    2003-02-01

    Lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation and esophageal body inhibition co-occur during esophageal peristalsis but not necessarily during pharyngeal stimulation or transient LES relaxation (tLESR). This study examined these relationships and the impact on reflux. Nine young volunteers were studied. An artificial high-pressure zone (HPZ) was established, and pH was recorded 8 and 5 cm proximal to the LES. Pharyngeal stimulation was by water injection and gastric distension with liquid or gas. Peristalsis, pharyngeal stimulation, and spontaneous events were recorded. Swallowing relaxed the LES in 100% of trials (the HPZ in 80%) and caused no reflux. Pharyngeal stimulation relaxed the LES in two-thirds of trials, had no effect on the HPZ, and caused no reflux. Gastric distension was associated with 117 tLESRs, 48% with acid reflux, and 32% with gas reflux; there was no effect on the HPZ. We conclude that LES relaxation is a necessary but not sufficient condition for reflux. LES relaxation and esophageal body inhibition are independent events that may be concurrent (swallowing) or dissociated (tLESR).

  13. Pharyngeal swallow adaptations to bolus volume measured with high resolution manometry

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Matthew R.; Ciucci, Michelle R.; Mielens, Jason D.; Jiang, Jack J.; McCulloch, Timothy M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of bolus volume on pharyngeal swallowing using high resolution manometry (HRM). Study design Repeated measures with subjects serving as own controls. Methods Twelve subjects swallowed four bolus volumes in the neutral head position: saliva; 5 ml water; 10 ml water; and 20 ml water. Pressure measurements were taken along the length of the pharynx using a high resolution manometer, with emphasis placed on the velopharynx, tongue base, and upper esophageal sphincter (UES). Variables were analyzed across bolus volumes using three-way repeated measures analysis of co-variance (ANCOVA) investigating the effect of sex, bolus volume, and pharynx length. Pearson’s product moment tests were performed to evaluate how pharyngeal pressure and timing events changed across bolus volume. Results Velopharyngeal duration, maximum tongue base pressure, tongue base pressure rise rate, UES opening duration, and total swallow duration varied significantly across bolus volume. Sex did not have an effect, while pharynx length appeared to affect tongue base pressure duration. Maximum velopharyngeal pressure and minimum UES pressure had a direct relationship with bolus volume, while maximum tongue base pressure had an inverse relationship. Velopharyngeal pressure duration, UES opening duration, and total swallow duration increased as bolus volume increased. Conclusions Differences in pharyngeal pressures and timing of key pressure events were detected across varying bolus volumes. Knowing the relationships between bolus volume and pharyngeal pressure activity can be valuable when diagnosing and treating dysphagic patients. Level of evidence N/A. PMID:21108425

  14. The influence of orolingual pressure on the timing of pharyngeal pressure events.

    PubMed

    Steele, Catriona M; Huckabee, Maggie Lee

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the influence of two methods of effortful swallow execution on the timing of pharyngeal pressure events. Participants were asked to either emphasize or minimize tongue-to-palate contact during performance of the maneuver. Twenty healthy participants were evaluated using concurrent submental surface electromyography (sEMG), orolingual manometry, and pharyngeal manometry. Each subject performed three repetitions of three counterbalanced tasks (noneffortful dry swallows, effortful dry swallows with tongue-to-palate emphasis, and effortful dry swallows with tongue-to-palate de-emphasis). Four variables were measured: Onset Lag vs. sEMG Peak, Peak Lag vs. sEMG Peak, Total Duration, and Percent Rise Time to Peak. Compared to noneffortful swallows, the effortful swallow task elicited significantly earlier onsets and peaks of pharyngeal pressures relative to the submental sEMG peak. Total pressure event durations were greater and rise times were significantly shorter. When comparing the two methods of effortful swallow execution, a longer latency to peak proximal pharyngeal pressure was found in the tongue-to-palate emphasis condition. These results support the interpretation that the effortful swallow maneuver involves generation of higher velocity bolus driving forces that propel the bolus into and through the pharynx with greater efficiency and that pressure is then sustained to facilitate more complete bolus clearance.

  15. Quantitative Lingual, Pharyngeal and Laryngeal Ultrasonography in Swallowing Research: A Technical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chi-Fishman, Gloria

    2005-01-01

    Because of its distinct advantage in radiation-free soft tissue imaging, ultrasonography has been widely used to study lingual, pharyngeal, hyoid, laryngeal, and even esophageal action during swallowing in individuals of all ages. Qualitative ultrasonographic observations have made considerable contributions to our understanding of deglutition.…

  16. Necrotic pharyngitis associated with Mycoplasma bovis infections in American bison (Bison bison)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) has recently emerged as a significant and costly infectious disease problem in bison, generally presenting as severe, caseonecrotic pneumonia. Here we describe three diagnostic cases in which M. bovis is strongly implicated as a causative agent of necrotic pharyngitis. ...

  17. Effects of Breathing Pattern on Oxygen Delivery Via a Nasal or Pharyngeal Cannula.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Natsuhiro; Miyashita, Tetsuya; Takaki, Shunsuke; Goto, Takahisa

    2015-12-01

    During sedation for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, oxygen delivery via a nasal cannula is often necessary. However, the influences of the oxygen delivery route and breathing pattern on the F(IO2) have not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of this simulation study was to investigate the difference in the F(IO2) with a pharyngeal cannula versus nasal cannula during high- or low-tidal volume (V(T)) ventilation and open- or closed-mouth breathing. Six healthy volunteers were asked to breathe using 2 patterns of ventilation (high or low V(T)) via a sealed face mask connected to an endotracheal tube that was retrogradely inserted into the trachea of a mannequin. The mannequin also had a pharyngeal or nasal cannula inserted into the pharynx or attached to the nose, through which oxygen (2 or 5 L/min) was delivered. The mouth of the mannequin was kept open or closed by packing. We measured the F(IO2) of every breath for 1 min at each setting. During low- and high-V(T) ventilation, the F(IO2) was highest at a flow of 5 L/min with a pharyngeal cannula. Oxygen delivery was higher with the pharyngeal cannula compared with the nasal cannula at all settings. Differences in flow did not result in significant differences in the F(IO2) with high- and low-V(T) ventilation. At a flow of 5 L/min via a pharyngeal cannula, open-mouth breathing resulted in a significantly higher F(IO2) compared with closed-mouth breathing. A pharyngeal cannula provided a higher F(IO2) compared with a nasal cannula at the same oxygen flow. Open-mouth breathing resulted in a higher F(IO2) compared with closed-mouth breathing when 5 L/min oxygen was delivered via a pharyngeal cannula. The breathing pattern did not affect the F(IO2) in this study. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  18. Transoral surgery for laryngo-pharyngeal cancer - The paradigm shift of the head and cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Tateya, Ichiro; Shiotani, Akihiro; Satou, Yasuo; Tomifuji, Masayuki; Morita, Shuko; Muto, Manabu; Ito, Juichi

    2016-02-01

    Transoral surgery is a less invasive treatment that is becoming a major strategy in the treatment of laryngo-pharyngeal cancer. It is a minimally invasive approach that has no skin incision and limits the extent of tissue dissection, disruption of speech and swallowing muscles, blood loss, damage to major neurovascular structures, and injury to normal tissue. Transoral approaches to the laryngo-pharynx, except for early glottis cancer, had been limited traditionally to tumors that can be observed directly and manipulated with standard instrumentation and lighting. Since the 1990s, transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) has been used as an organ preservation strategy with good oncological control and good functional results, although it has not been widely used because of its technical difficulty. Recently, transoral robotic surgery (TORS) is becoming popular as a new treatment modality for laryngo-pharyngeal cancer, and surgical robots are used widely in the world since United States FDA approval in 2009. In spite of the global spread of TORS, it has not been approved by the Japan FDA, which has led to the development of other low-cost transoral surgical techniques in Japan. Transoral videolaryngoscopic surgery (TOVS) was developed as a new transoral surgery system for laryngo-pharyngeal lesions to address the problems of TLM. In TOVS, a rigid endoscope is used to visualize the surgical field instead of a microscope and the advantages of TOVS include the wide operative field and working space achieved using the distending laryngoscope and videolaryngoscope. Also, with the spread of narrow band imaging (NBI), endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), which are widely used for superficial cancers in the gastrointestinal tract, have been applied for the superficial laryngo-pharyngeal cancer. Both EMR and ESD are performed mainly by gastroenterologists with a sharp dissector and magnifying endoscopy (ME)-NBI with minimal surgical margin

  19. Microflora distributions in paleosols: a method for calculating the validity of radiocarbon-dated surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Mahaney, W.C.; Boyer, M.G.

    1986-08-01

    Microflora (bacteria and fungi) distributions in several paleosols from Mount Kenya, East Africa, provide important information about contamination of buried soil horizons dated by radiocarbon. High counts of bacteria and fungi in buried soils provide evidence for contamination by plant root effects or ground water movement. Profiles with decreasing counts versus depth appear to produce internally consistent and accurate radiocarbon dates. Profiles with disjunct or bimodal distributions of microflora at various depths produce internally inconsistent chronological sequences of radiocarbon-dated buried surfaces. Preliminary results suggest that numbers up to 5 x 10/sup 2/ g/sup -1/ for bacteria in buried A horizons do not appear to affect the validity of /sup 14/C dates. Beyond this threshold value, contamination appears to produce younger dates, the difference between true age and /sup 14/C age increasing with the amount of microflora contamination.

  20. Recovery and differentiation of long ripened cheese microflora through a new cheese-based cultural medium.

    PubMed

    Neviani, Erasmo; De Dea Lindner, Juliano; Bernini, Valentina; Gatti, Monica

    2009-05-01

    A partial picture of the typical microflora of PDO Parmigiano Reggiano cheese was achieved by studying the cultivability of lactic acid bacteria associated with its manufacturing and ripening. A comprehensive sampling design allowed for the analysis of the cheese microflora during its production over 20 months of ripening. An innovative cheese agar medium (CAM) was prepared after testing 18 formulations all based on grated Parmigiano Reggiano ripened cheese. During cheese manufacturing and ripening, different samples were sampled and their microflora was recovered using CAM in comparison with other traditional media. Colonies which formed units from the different agar media tested were picked and isolated; the phylogenetic positions of 154 isolated strains were studied at level of species by 16S-rRNA gene sequencing. CAM seems to be able to recover the minority population coming from milk and whey starter, hardly estimable, during the first hours of production, on traditional media.

  1. In vivo effects on the intestinal microflora of Physalis alkekengi var. francheti extracts.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinli; Zhang, Cuili; Li, Weiling; Wu, Dachang; Liu, Jianjun; Tang, Li; Xin, Yi

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects on the intestinal microflora balance of Physalis alkekengi var. francheti extracts (PE) using in vivo mouse model. Luteolin-7-O-β-glycoside, Physalin J, Physalin D, and Physalin P were isolated from PE extracts and identified. Bacteroides, Lactobacillus, Helicobacter, Prevotella, Odoribacter and Oribacterium were detected as dominant organisms in the intestinal tract of mice by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. The quality and quantity of Lactobacillus genus increased significantly with increasing concentration of PE. This study shows that the intestinal microflora balance could be improved by PE, and thus, it has the significant potential to be used as a natural agent for restoring the intestinal microflora balance. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Growth characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes as affected by a -native microflora in cooked ham under refrigerated and temperature abuse conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study examined the growth characteristics of L. monocytogenes as affected by a native microflora in cooked ham at refrigerated and abuse temperatures. A five-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes and a native microflora isolated from cooked meat were inoculated alone (monocultured) or co-inoculate...

  3. Digestion of rice straw and oil palm fronds by microflora from rumen and termite bacteria, in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ramin, M; Alimon, A R; Panandam, J M; Sijam, K; Javanmard, A; Abdullah, N

    2008-02-15

    The digestion and Volatile Fatty Acid (VFA) production from rice straw and oil palm fronds by cellulolytic bacteria isolated from the termite Coptotermes curvignathus were investigated. The bacteria were Acinetobacter strain Raminalimon, Enterobacter aerogenes strain Razmin C, Enterobacter cloacae strain Razmin B, Bacillus cereus strain Razmin A and Chryseobacterium kwangyangense strain Cb. Acinetobacter strain Raminalimon is an aerobic bacterium, while the other species are facultative anaerobes. There were significant differences (p<0.05) among the bacteria for Dry Matter (DM) lost and acetic acid production from rice straw and Acinetobacter strain Raminalimon showed the highest activity. The facultative bacteria C. kwangyangense strain Cb (cfu mL(-1) 231 x 10(-6), OD: 0.5), E. cloacae (cfu mL(-1) 68 x 10(-7), OD: 0.5) and E. aerogenes (cfu mL(-1) 33 x 10(-7), OD: 0.5) were used for digestion study with the rumen fluid microflora. The in vitro gas production technique was applied for the comparative study and the parameters measured were pH, gas (volume), dry matter lost, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid concentrations. pH was not significantly (p<0.05) different among the five treatments. The bacterium C. kwangyangense strain Cb showed the highest activity (p<0.05) for DM lost, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid production from rice straw when compared to the other bacterial activities. There was no significance (p<0.05) difference between the three bacteria for the dry matter lost of oil palm fronds but the production of Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA) was significantly (p<0.05) high in the treatment which was inoculated with C. kwangyangense strain Cb. The Gen Bank NCBI/EMBL accession numbers for the bacterial strains are EU332791, EU305608, EU305609, EU294508 and EU169201.

  4. Tube Law of the Pharyngeal Airway in Sleeping Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Genta, Pedro R; Edwards, Bradley A; Sands, Scott A; Owens, Robert L; Butler, James P; Loring, Stephen H; White, David P; Wellman, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by repetitive pharyngeal collapse during sleep. However, the dynamics of pharyngeal narrowing and re-expansion during flow-limited breathing are not well described. The static pharyngeal tube law (end-expiratory area versus luminal pressure) has demonstrated increasing pharyngeal compliance as luminal pressure decreases, indicating that the airway would be sucked closed with sufficient inspiratory effort. On the contrary, the airway is rarely sucked closed during inspiratory flow limitation, suggesting that the airway is getting stiffer. Therefore, we hypothesized that during inspiratory flow limitation, as opposed to static conditions, the pharynx becomes stiffer as luminal pressure decreases. Upper airway endoscopy and simultaneous measurements of airflow and epiglottic pressure were performed during natural nonrapid eye movement sleep. Continuous positive (or negative) airway pressure was used to induce flow limitation. Flow-limited breaths were selected for airway cross-sectional area measurements. Relative airway area was quantified as a percentage of end-expiratory area. Inspiratory airway radial compliance was calculated at each quintile of epiglottic pressure versus airway area plot (tube law). Eighteen subjects (14 males) with OSA (apnea-hypopnea index = 57 ± 27 events/h), aged 49 ± 8 y, with a body mass index of 35 ± 6 kg/m(2) were studied. A total of 163 flow limited breaths were analyzed (9 ± 3 breaths per subject). Compliances at the fourth (2.0 ± 4.7 % area/cmH2O) and fifth (0.0 ± 1.7 % area/cmH2O) quintiles were significantly lower than the first (12.2 ± 5.5 % area/cmH2O) pressure quintile (P < 0.05). The pharyngeal tube law is concave (airway gets stiffer as luminal pressure decreases) during respiratory cycles under inspiratory flow limitation. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  5. Prognostic factors associated with the survival of oral and pharyngeal carcinoma in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ping-Ho; Shieh, Tien-Yu; Ho, Pei-Shan; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Ying-Chu; Ko, Min-Shan; Tsai, Pei-Chien; Chiang, Shang-Lun; Tu, Hung-Pin; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2007-01-01

    Background In Taiwan, a distinct ethnic group variation in incidence and mortality rates has been suggested for most carcinomas. Our aim is to identify the role of prognostic factors associated with the survival of oral and pharyngeal carcinoma in Taiwan. Methods Taiwan Cancer Registry records of 9039 subjects diagnosed with oral and pharyngeal carcinoma were analyzed. The population was divided into three ethnic groups by residence, which were Taiwanese aborigines, Hakka and Hokkien communities. Five-year survival rates were estimated by Kaplan-Meier methods. Ethnic curves differed significantly by log-rank test; therefore separate models for Taiwanese aborigines, Hakka and Hokkien were carried out. The Cox multivariate proportional hazards model was used to examine the role of prognostic factors on ethnic survival. Results The five-year survival rates of oral and pharyngeal carcinoma were significantly poorer for Hokkien community (53.9%) and Taiwanese aborigines community (58.1%) compared with Hakka community (60.5%). The adjusted hazard ratio of Taiwanese aborigines versus Hakka was 1.07 (95%CI, 0.86–1.33) for oral and pharyngeal carcinoma mortality, and 1.16 (95%CI, 1.01–1.33) for Hokkien versus Hakka. Males had significantly poor prognosis than females. Subjects with tongue and/or mouth carcinoma presented the worst prognosis, whereas lip carcinoma had the best prognosis. Subjects with verrucous carcinoma had better survival than squamous cell carcinoma. Prognosis was the worst in elderly subjects, and subjects who underwent surgery had the highest survival rate. Conclusion Our study presented that predictive variables in oral and pharyngeal carcinoma survival have been: ethnic groups, period of diagnosis, gender, diagnostic age, anatomic site, morphologic type, and therapy. PMID:17573960

  6. Effect of a bitter bolus on oral, pharyngeal and esophageal transit of healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Alves, Leda Maria Tavares; Secaf, Marie; Dantas, Roberto Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    During swallowing, boluses stimulate sensory receptors of the oral, pharyngeal, laryngeal, and esophageal regions. Sweet and tasteless foods are more acceptable for swallowing than bitter foods. A bitter bolus is unpleasant for most subjects. Our hypothesis was that the ingestion of a bitter bolus might alter the oral behavior, pharyngeal and esophageal transit when compared to a sweet bolus. To evaluate whether the bitter taste of a liquid bolus causes alteration on oral, pharyngeal and/or esophageal transit in normal subjects in comparison with sweet bolus.' Scintigraphic evaluation of oral, pharyngeal and esophageal transit was performed in 43 asymptomatic subjects, 22 women and 21 men, ages 23-71 years, without problems with the ingestion of liquid and solid foods, and without digestive, cardiac or neurologic diseases. Each subject swallowed in random sequence and at room temperature 5 mL of a liquid bolus with bitter taste, prepared with 50 mL of water with 2 g of leaves of Peumus boldus, heated until boiling (boldus tea), and 5 mL of a liquid bolus with sweet taste, prepared with 50 mL of water with 3 g of sucrose, both labeled with 37 MBq of technetium phytate (Tc99m). There was no difference between the bitter bolus and the sweet bolus in mouth, pharynx and esophageal transit and clearance duration and in the amount of residues. A bitter bolus, considered an unpleasant bolus, does not alter the duration of oral, pharyngeal and esophageal phases of swallowing, when compared with a sweet bolus, considered a pleasant bolus.

  7. Formation of oral and pharyngeal dentition in teleosts depends on differential recruitment of retinoic acid signaling

    PubMed Central

    Gibert, Yann; Bernard, Laure; Debiais-Thibaud, Melanie; Bourrat, Franck; Joly, Jean-Stephane; Pottin, Karen; Meyer, Axel; Retaux, Sylvie; Stock, David W.; Jackman, William R.; Seritrakul, Pawat; Begemann, Gerrit; Laudet, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    One of the goals of evolutionary developmental biology is to link specific adaptations to changes in developmental pathways. The dentition of cypriniform fishes, which in contrast to many other teleost fish species possess pharyngeal teeth but lack oral teeth, provides a suitable model to study the development of feeding adaptations. Here, we have examined the involvement of retinoic acid (RA) in tooth development and show that RA is specifically required to induce the pharyngeal tooth developmental program in zebrafish. Perturbation of RA signaling at this stage abolished tooth induction without affecting the development of tooth-associated ceratobranchial bones. We show that this inductive event is dependent on RA synthesis from aldh1a2 in the ventral posterior pharynx. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling has been shown to be critical for tooth induction in zebrafish, and its loss has been associated with oral tooth loss in cypriniform fishes. Pharmacological treatments targeting the RA and FGF pathways revealed that both pathways act independently during tooth induction. In contrast, we find that in Mexican tetra and medaka, species that also possess oral teeth, both oral and pharyngeal teeth are induced independently of RA. Our analyses suggest an evolutionary scenario in which the gene network controlling tooth development obtained RA dependency in the lineage leading to the cypriniforms. The loss of pharyngeal teeth in this group was cancelled out through a shift in aldh1a2 expression, while oral teeth might have been lost ultimately due to deficient RA signaling in the oral cavity.—Gibert, Y., Bernard, L., Debiais-Thibaud, M., Bourrat, F., Joly, J.-S., Pottin, K., Meyer, A., Retaux, S., Stock, D. W., Jackman, W. R., Seritrakul, P., Begemann, G., Laudet, V. Formation of oral and pharyngeal dentition in teleosts depends on differential recruitment of retinoic acid signaling. PMID:20445074

  8. Coffee is protective against oral and pharyngeal cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Miranda, J; Monteiro, L; Albuquerque, R; Pacheco, J-J; Khan, Z; Lopez-Lopez, J; Warnakulasuryia, S

    2017-09-01

    Coffee is one of the most popular and consumable drinks worldwide. However, there are conflicting results on the influence of this drink in oral and pharyngeal cancer risk. To clarify this, we aimed to systemically review and carry out a meta-analysis of the relevant literature on the association between coffee and oral and pharyngeal cancer. We carried out an electronic search of publications up to August 2016 from PubMed, National Library of Medicines Medline, Embase, Science Direct and the Cochrane Central Register. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used to address the quality of the studies a meta-analysis was carried out using random-effects models. From the 22,515 entries identified in the search, 13 case-control and 4 cohort studies were selected. With regards to quality on the Newcastle-Ottawa scale, an overall value of 6.06 was obtained. The analysis for oral and pharyngeal cancer grouped together indicated a pooled OR of .69 (95% CI of .57-.84; p<.001) for high versus low coffee consumption with a moderate heterogeneity (I2: 50.3%; p=.009). Regarding studies on oral cavity cancers we observed a pooled OR of 0.82; 95% CI =.58-1.16; p=.257) and for pharyngeal cancers a pooled OR of .72 (95% CI of 0.54-.95; p=.019). There was no significant publication bias. The results show an inverse association between high coffee consumption and the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancers, which indicates that coffee may have a protective role against these cancers. Further larger prospective observational cohort studies are needed to address any effect of other possible co-factors.

  9. Effects of birth asphyxia on the modulation of pharyngeal provocation-induced adaptive reflexes

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Ish K.; Shubert, Theresa R.; Sitaram, Swetha; Wei, Lai

    2015-01-01

    Perinatal asphyxia and aerodigestive symptoms are troublesome. We tested the hypothesis that pharyngeal provocation alters proximal and distal aerodigestive reflex coordination and kinetics in infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), compared with healthy controls. Specifically, we characterized the sensory-motor properties of pharyngeal provocation-induced effects on upper esophageal sphincter (UES) and lower esophageal sphincter (LES) reflexes. Ten orally fed controls (32.0 ± 1.5 wk gestation) and 25 infants with HIE (38.1 ± 0.4 wk gestation) were evaluated at 39.7 ± 0.9 and 41.9 ± 0.6 wk postmenstrual age respectively. Pharyngo-esophageal reflexes evoked upon graded water stimuli were tested using water-perfusion micromanometry methods. Analysis included sensory-motor characteristics of pharyngeal reflexive swallow (PRS), pharyngo-UES-contractile reflex (PUCR), esophageal body-waveform kinetics, and pharyngo-LES-relaxation reflex (PLESRR). For controls vs. infants with HIE, median appearance, pulse, grimace, activity, respiration (APGAR) scores were 6 vs. 1 at 1 min (P < 0.001) and 8 vs. 3 at 5 min (P < 0.001). Upon pharyngeal- stimulation, HIE infants (vs. controls) had frequent PUCR (P = 0.01); increased UES basal tone (P = 0.03); decreased LES basal tone (P = 0.002); increased pharyngeal-waveforms per stimulus (P = 0.03); decreased frequency of LES relaxation (P = 0.003); and decreased proximal esophageal contractile amplitude (P = 0.002), with prolonged proximal esophageal contractile duration (P = 0.008). Increased tonicity and reactivity of the UES and dysregulation of LES may provide the pathophysiological basis for pooling of secretions, improper bolus clearance, and aspiration risk. Deficits in function at the nuclear or supranuclear level involving glossopharyngeal and vagal neural networks and respiratory regulatory pathways involved with aerodigestive protection may be contributory. PMID:26272260

  10. A Novel Imaging Analysis Method for Capturing Pharyngeal Constriction During Swallowing.

    PubMed

    Schwertner, Ryan W; Garand, Kendrea L; Pearson, William G

    2016-01-01

    Videofluoroscopic imaging of swallowing known as the Modified Barium Study (MBS) is the standard of care for assessing swallowing difficulty. While the clinical purpose of this radiographic imaging is to primarily assess aspiration risk, valuable biomechanical data is embedded in these studies. Computational analysis of swallowing mechanics (CASM) is an established research methodology for assessing multiple interactions of swallowing mechanics based on coordinates mapping muscle function including hyolaryngeal movement, pharyngeal shortening, tongue base retraction, and extension of the head and neck, however coordinates characterizing pharyngeal constriction is undeveloped. The aim of this study was to establish a method for locating the superior and middle pharyngeal constrictors using hard landmarks as guides on MBS videofluoroscopic imaging, and to test the reliability of this new method. Twenty de-identified, normal, MBS videos were randomly selected from a database. Two raters annotated landmarks for the superior and middle pharyngeal constrictors frame-by-frame using a semi-automated MATLAB tracker tool at two time points. Intraclass correlation coefficients were used to assess test-retest reliability between two raters with an ICC = 0.99 or greater for all coordinates for the retest measurement. MorphoJ integrated software was used to perform a discriminate function analysis to visualize how all 12 coordinates interact with each other in normal swallowing. The addition of the superior and middle pharyngeal constrictor coordinates to CASM allows for a robust analysis of the multiple components of swallowing mechanics interacting with a wide range of variables in both patient specific and cohort studies derived from common use imaging data.

  11. Molecular and Clinical Diagnosis of Group A Streptococcal Pharyngitis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Faddoul, Diala; Sposto, Richard; Batoon, Kristine; Polanco, Claudia M.; Dien Bard, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) pharyngitis is a very common condition causing significant morbidity in children. Accurate diagnosis followed by appropriate antimicrobial therapy is recommended to prevent postinfectious sequelae. Diagnosis of GAS pharyngitis by a rapid antigen detection test (RADT) or culture in the absence of discriminating clinical findings remains challenging. Validation of new sensitive rapid diagnostic tests is therefore a priority. The performance of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay (illumigene assay) for the diagnosis of GAS pharyngitis was compared with that of a RADT and standard culture in 361 pediatric throat swab samples. Discrepant results were resolved using an alternate molecular assay. Test results were correlated with clinical presentations in patients positive by either method. The closest estimate of the true prevalence of GAS pharyngitis was 19.7% (71/361 samples). The illumigene assay alone detected 70/71 GAS-positive samples; RADT and culture detected 35/71 and 55/71 samples, respectively. RADT followed by culture confirmation of RADT-negative specimens detected 58/71 cases. The illumigene assay increased identification among children eligible for testing by American College of Physicians (ACP)/American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) criteria from 31 to 39 positive cases, five of which were false positives. Analysis of clinical data in GAS-positive patients indicated that a significantly greater proportion of children with McIsaac scores of ≥4 tested positive by the illumigene assay versus RADT and culture. Overall, the illumigene assay was much more sensitive and was similarly specific for GAS detection, compared to culture alone, RADT alone, or the ACP/AAFP RADT/culture algorithm. Combining high sensitivity with rapidly available results, the illumigene GAS assay is an appropriate alternative to culture for the laboratory diagnosis of GAS pharyngitis in patients for whom testing is clinically

  12. Endoderm-specific deletion of Tbx1 reveals an FGF-independent role for Tbx1 in pharyngeal apparatus morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Abigail; Kasah, Sahrunizam; Mansour, Suzanne L.; Morrow, Bernice; Basson, M. Albert

    2015-01-01

    Background The T-box transcription factor Tbx1, is essential for the normal development of multiple organ systems in the embryo. One of the most striking phenotypes in Tbx1−/− embryos is the failure of the caudal pharyngeal pouches to evaginate from the foregut endoderm. Despite considerable interest in the role of Tbx1 in development, the mechanisms whereby Tbx1 controls caudal pouch formation have remained elusive. In particular, the question as to how Tbx1 expression in the pharyngeal endoderm regulates pharyngeal pouch morphogenesis in the mouse embryo is not known. Results To address this question, we produced mouse embryos in which Tbx1 was specifically deleted from the pharyngeal endoderm and as expected, embryos failed to form caudal pharyngeal pouches. To determine the molecular mechanism, we examined expression of Fgf3 and Fgf8 ligands and downstream effectors. Although Fgf8 expression is greatly reduced in Tbx1-deficient endoderm, FGF signaling levels are unaffected. Furthermore, pouch morphogenesis is only partially perturbed by the loss of both Fgf3 and Fgf8 from the endoderm, indicating that neither are required for pouch formation. Conclusions Tbx1 deletion from the pharyngeal endoderm is sufficient to cause caudal pharyngeal arch segmentation defects by FGF-independent effectors that remain to be identified. PMID:24812002

  13. Alpha-synuclein pathology and axonal degeneration of the peripheral motor nerves innervating pharyngeal muscles in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Mu, Liancai; Sobotka, Stanislaw; Chen, Jingming; Su, Hungxi; Sanders, Ira; Adler, Charles H; Shill, Holly A; Caviness, John N; Samanta, Johan E; Beach, Thomas G

    2013-02-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease primarily characterized by cardinal motor manifestations and CNS pathology. Current drug therapies can often stabilize these cardinal motor symptoms, and attention has shifted to the other motor and nonmotor symptoms of PD that are resistant to drug therapy. Dysphagia in PD is perhaps the most important drug-resistant symptom because it leads to aspiration and pneumonia, the leading cause of death. Here, we present direct evidence for degeneration of the pharyngeal motor nerves in PD. We examined the cervical vagal nerve (cranial nerve X), pharyngeal branch of nerve X, and pharyngeal plexus innervating the pharyngeal muscles in 14 postmortem specimens, that is, from 10 patients with PD and 4 age-matched control subjects. Synucleinopathy in the pharyngeal nerves was detected using an immunohistochemical method for phosphorylated α-synuclein. Alpha-synuclein aggregates were revealed in nerve X and the pharyngeal branch of nerve X, and immunoreactive intramuscular nerve twigs and axon terminals within the neuromuscular junctions were identified in all of the PD patients but in none of the controls. These findings indicate that the motor nervous system of the pharynx is involved in the pathologic process of PD. Notably, PD patients who have had dysphagia had a higher density of α-synuclein aggregates in the pharyngeal nerves than those without dysphagia. These findings indicate that motor involvement of the pharynx in PD is one of the factors leading to oropharyngeal dysphagia commonly seen in PD patients.

  14. Effect of dietary probiotic and high stocking density on the performance, carcass yield, gut microflora, and stress indicators of broilers.

    PubMed

    Cengiz, Özcan; Köksal, Bekir H; Tatlı, Onur; Sevim, Ömer; Ahsan, Umair; Üner, Aykut G; Ulutaş, Pınar A; Beyaz, Devrim; Büyükyörük, Sadık; Yakan, Akın; Önol, Ahmet G

    2015-10-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary probiotic supplementation and stocking density on the performance, relative carcass yield, gut microflora, and stress markers of broilers. One-day-old Ross 308 male broiler chickens (n = 480) were allocated to 4 experimental groups for 42 d. Each treatment had 8 replicates of 15 chicks each. Two groups were subjected to a high stocking density (HSD) of 20 birds/m² and the other 2 groups were kept at low stocking density (LSD) of 10 birds/m². A basal diet supplemented with probiotic 1 and 0.5 g/kg of diet (in starter and finisher diets, respectively) was fed to 2 treatments, one with HSD and the other with LSD, thereby making a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. There was no interaction between stocking density (LSD and HSD) and dietary probiotic (supplemented and unsupplemented) for all the variables. Feed intake and weight gain were significantly low and feed conversion ratio was poor in broilers at HSD. Dietary probiotic significantly enhanced the feed intake and weight gain in starter phase only. Dietary probiotic supplementation had no effect (P > 0.05) on total aerobs, Salmonella sp., and Lactobacilli populations in the intestines of broilers. However, HSD reduced the Lactobacilli population only (P < 0.05). Relative breast yields were significantly higher in broilers reared at LSD than HSD. Thigh meat yield was higher in broilers in HSD group compared to LSD. Dietary probiotic did not affect the relative carcass yield and weight of lymphoid organs. Serum malondialdehyde, corticosterone, nitric oxide, and plasma heterophil:lymphocyte ratio were not affected either by stocking density or dietary probiotic supplementation. In conclusion, HSD negatively affected the performance and intestinal Lactobacilli population of broilers only, whereas probiotic supplementation enhanced the performance of broilers during the starter phase only. Total aerobes, Salmonella, Lactobacilli carcass yield, and stress indicators

  15. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Torsvik, T.; Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.

    1995-12-31

    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  16. Calcium precipitate induced aerobic granulation.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chunli; Lee, Duu-Jong; Yang, Xue; Wang, Yayi; Wang, Xingzu; Liu, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic granulation is a novel biotechnology for wastewater treatment. This study refined existing aerobic granulation mechanisms as a sequencing process including formation of calcium precipitate under alkaline pH to form inorganic cores, followed by bacterial attachment and growth on these cores to form the exopolysaccharide matrix. Mature granules comprised an inner core and a matrix layer and a rim layer with enriched microbial strains. The inorganic core was a mix of different crystals of calcium and phosphates. Functional strains including Sphingomonas sp., Paracoccus sp. Sinorhizobium americanum strain and Flavobacterium sp. attached onto the cores. These functional strains promote c-di-GMP production and the expression by Psl and Alg genes for exopolysaccharide production to enhance formation of mature granules.

  17. Neisseria gonorrhoeae Bacterial DNA Load in the Pharynges and Saliva of Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    PubMed

    Chow, Eric P F; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Phillips, Samuel; Lee, David; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Chen, Marcus Y; Fairley, Christopher K

    2016-10-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae can be cultured in the saliva of individuals with pharyngeal gonorrhea. The aim of this study was to quantify the gonococcal bacterial DNA loads in the pharynges and saliva among men who have sex with men (MSM) with untreated pharyngeal gonorrhea. Untreated MSM who tested positive for pharyngeal gonorrhea by culture and returned for antibiotic treatment within 14 days at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between October 2014 and March 2015 were eligible for this study. The gonococcal bacterial DNA load was measured using real-time quantitative PCR. The median gonococcal bacterial DNA loads in the pharynges and saliva were calculated and compared to culture positivity using the Mann-Whitney U test. A total of 33 men were included in this study. The median gonococcal bacterial DNA load did not differ between the pharynges in men who were culture positive (2.5 × 10(5) copies/swab) and culture negative (2.9 × 10(4) copies/swab) (P = 0.166) and the saliva (culture positive, 2.2 × 10(5) copies/ml; culture negative, 2.7 × 10(5) copies/ml) (P = 0.499). The bacterial DNA load in the pharynges (P = 0.695) and saliva (P = 0.969) did not differ between who men returned for treatment within 7 days and those who returned 8 to 14 days later. Substantial gonococcal bacterial DNA loads were detected in both saliva and pharynges among MSM with pharyngeal gonorrhea. These findings suggest that gonorrhea can be transmitted via sexual practices involving exposure to saliva, such as oroanal practices (rimming) and saliva use as a lubricant for anal sex.

  18. Neisseria gonorrhoeae Bacterial DNA Load in the Pharynges and Saliva of Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Tabrizi, Sepehr N.; Phillips, Samuel; Lee, David; Bradshaw, Catriona S.; Chen, Marcus Y.; Fairley, Christopher K.

    2016-01-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae can be cultured in the saliva of individuals with pharyngeal gonorrhea. The aim of this study was to quantify the gonococcal bacterial DNA loads in the pharynges and saliva among men who have sex with men (MSM) with untreated pharyngeal gonorrhea. Untreated MSM who tested positive for pharyngeal gonorrhea by culture and returned for antibiotic treatment within 14 days at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between October 2014 and March 2015 were eligible for this study. The gonococcal bacterial DNA load was measured using real-time quantitative PCR. The median gonococcal bacterial DNA loads in the pharynges and saliva were calculated and compared to culture positivity using the Mann-Whitney U test. A total of 33 men were included in this study. The median gonococcal bacterial DNA load did not differ between the pharynges in men who were culture positive (2.5 × 105 copies/swab) and culture negative (2.9 × 104 copies/swab) (P = 0.166) and the saliva (culture positive, 2.2 × 105 copies/ml; culture negative, 2.7 × 105 copies/ml) (P = 0.499). The bacterial DNA load in the pharynges (P = 0.695) and saliva (P = 0.969) did not differ between who men returned for treatment within 7 days and those who returned 8 to 14 days later. Substantial gonococcal bacterial DNA loads were detected in both saliva and pharynges among MSM with pharyngeal gonorrhea. These findings suggest that gonorrhea can be transmitted via sexual practices involving exposure to saliva, such as oroanal practices (rimming) and saliva use as a lubricant for anal sex. PMID:27413195

  19. WWOX loss activates aerobic glycolysis.

    PubMed

    Abu-Remaileh, Muhannad; Seewaldt, Victoria L; Aqeilan, Rami I

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells undergo reprogramming of glucose metabolism to limit energy production to glycolysis-a state known as "aerobic glycolysis." Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1α) is a transcription factor that regulates many genes responsible for this switch. As discussed here, new data suggest that the tumor suppressor WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) modulates HIF1α, thereby regulating this metabolic state.

  20. WWOX loss activates aerobic glycolysis

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Remaileh, Muhannad; Seewaldt, Victoria L; Aqeilan, Rami I

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells undergo reprogramming of glucose metabolism to limit energy production to glycolysis—a state known as “aerobic glycolysis.” Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1α) is a transcription factor that regulates many genes responsible for this switch. As discussed here, new data suggest that the tumor suppressor WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) modulates HIF1α, thereby regulating this metabolic state. PMID:27308416

  1. [Species composition of anaerobic microflora in parodontal pocket depending upon disease stage].

    PubMed

    Zyrianova, N V; Grigor'ian, A S; Grudianov, A I; Frolova, O A; Shil'nikova, I I; Kobozev, M I

    2009-01-01

    With the help of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) the dynamic of species composition of anaerobic microflora in cases of generalized parodontitis was established. It was detected that disease severity increase was followed by the increase of the number of anaerobic microflora species in parodontal pocket; at that it was impossible to connect the presence of some determined type of microorganism with the inflammatory parodontal process intensity. It was shown that proteins fimbrilin and gingipain were not the only parodontitis pathogenic factors although the first one (fimbrilin) could be connected with aggressive disease flow. The suggested PCR scheme could be useful for early disease stage diagnostic and substantiation of antimicrobial therapy method selection.

  2. Analysis of the microflora in Tibetan kefir grains using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianzhong; Liu, Xiaoli; Jiang, Hanhu; Dong, Mingsheng

    2009-12-01

    The microflora of Tibetan kefir grains was investigated by culture- independent methods. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of partially amplified 16S rRNA for bacteria and 26S rRNA for yeasts, followed by sequencing of the most intense bands, showed that the dominant microorganisms were Pseudomonas sp., Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus kefiri, Lactobacillus casei, Kazachstania unispora, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Kazachstania exigua. The bacterial communities between three kinds of Tibetan kefir grains showed 78-84% similarity, and yeasts 80-92%. The microflora is held together in the matrix of fibrillar material composed largely of a water-insoluble polysaccharide.

  3. Aerobic Metabolism of Streptococcus agalactiae

    PubMed Central

    Mickelson, M. N.

    1967-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae cultures possess an aerobic pathway for glucose oxidation that is strongly inhibited by cyanide. The products of glucose oxidation by aerobically grown cells of S. agalactiae 50 are lactic and acetic acids, acetylmethylcarbinol, and carbon dioxide. Glucose degradation products by aerobically grown cells, as percentage of glucose carbon, were 52 to 61% lactic acid, 20 to 23% acetic acid, 5.5 to 6.5% acetylmethylcarbinol, and 14 to 16% carbon dioxide. There was no evidence for a pentose cycle or a tricarboxylic acid cycle. Crude cell-free extracts of S. agalactiae 50 possessed a strong reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH2) oxidase that is also cyanide-sensitive. Dialysis or ultrafiltration of the crude, cell-free extract resulted in loss of NADH2 oxidase activity. Oxidase activity was restored to the inactive extract by addition of the ultrafiltrate or by addition of menadione or K3Fe(CN)6. Noncytochrome iron-containing pigments were present in cell-free extracts of S. agalactiae. The possible participation of these pigments in the respiration of S. agalactiae is presently being studied. PMID:4291090

  4. Microflora inside closed modules with plant growth facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyablova, Natalya V.; Berkovich, Yuliy A.; Shanturin, Nikolai; Deshevaya, Elena; Smolyanina, Svetlana O.

    Currently, plant growth facility (PGF) is included in the LSS in many scenarios of Martian expedition. A number of investigators assume growing of crops can accelerate microflora re-production in closed ecological system. To estimate experimentally the change of density of microbiological community in the isolated module, Chinese cabbage Brassica hinensis L., cv. Vesnyanka, has been grown in the closed climatic chambers in volume 0.07 m3, 3 m3 and 250 m3 under continuous illumination in the range of values of temperature and relative humidity of air 23 -270 and 30 -60%, respectively. There were no differences in growth and develop-ment of plants grown during 30 days on the test-beds in the laboratory room (control) and in the closed chamber by 0.07 m3 volume (test). The microbiological analysis of root zone has revealed the presence of exclusively saprophytic species -the typical representatives of the soil microbiota. Then the plants were growing during 45 days in the prototype of the conveyor space PGF "Phytocycle LED" placed inside the chamber of 3 m3 volume. Every 3 days 50 -60 cm3 of liquid imitator of air condensate (IAC) from inhabited module had been injected to the chamber to simulate air pollution. The content of colony-forming units of the micromycetes in the air of the chamber, on the inner surfaces of the climate chamber, internal and external surfaces of the PGF and the leaves did not exceed the permissible values. When the PGF has been installed during 14 days inside the inhabited module with volume of 250 m3, the representatives of saprophytic and conditioned-pathogenic species of micromycetes (Trichethe-cium rozeum, Trichoderma sp., Fuzarrium sp., Mucor sp., Penicillium sp.) have been found out exclusively on the open surfaces of artificial soil and water-saturated porous passage. The obtained data shows that PGF inside closed modules can assure microbiological safety when all wet surfaces are isolated from the gas environment.

  5. Ablation of specific expression domains reveals discrete functions of ectoderm- and endoderm-derived FGF8 during cardiovascular and pharyngeal development.

    PubMed

    Macatee, Timothy L; Hammond, Benjamin P; Arenkiel, Benjamin R; Francis, Lily; Frank, Deborah U; Moon, Anne M

    2003-12-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 8 (Fgf8) is expressed in many domains of the developing embryo. Globally decreased FGF8 signaling during murine embryogenesis results in a hypomorphic phenotype with a constellation of heart, outflow tract, great vessel and pharyngeal gland defects that phenocopies human deletion 22q11 syndromes, such as DiGeorge. We postulate that these Fgf8 hypomorphic phenotypes result from disruption of local FGF8 signaling from pharyngeal arch epithelia to mesenchymal cells populating and migrating through the third and fourth pharyngeal arches. To test our hypothesis, and to determine whether the pharyngeal ectoderm and endoderm Fgf8 expression domains have discrete functional roles, we performed conditional mutagenesis of Fgf8 using novel Crerecombinase drivers to achieve domain-specific ablation of Fgf8 gene function in the pharyngeal arch ectoderm and endoderm. Remarkably, ablating FGF8 protein in the pharyngeal arch ectoderm causes failure of formation of the fourth pharyngeal arch artery that results in aortic arch and subclavian artery anomalies in 95% of mutants; these defects recapitulate the spectrum and frequency of vascular defects reported in Fgf8 hypomorphs. Surprisingly, no cardiac, outflow tract or glandular defects were found in ectodermal-domain mutants, indicating that ectodermally derived FGF8 has essential roles during pharyngeal arch vascular development distinct from those in cardiac, outflow tract and pharyngeal gland morphogenesis. By contrast, ablation of FGF8 in the third and fourth pharyngeal endoderm and ectoderm caused glandular defects and bicuspid aortic valve, which indicates that the FGF8 endodermal domain has discrete roles in pharyngeal and valvar development. These results support our hypotheses that local FGF8 signaling from the pharyngeal epithelia is required for pharyngeal vascular and glandular development, and that the pharyngeal ectodermal and endodermal domains of FGF8 have separate functions.

  6. Molecular cloning, overexpression, purification, and characterization of an aerobic FMN-dependent azoreductase from Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huizhong; Wang, Rong-Fu; Cerniglia, Carl E

    2004-04-01

    Azo dyes represent a major class of synthetic colorants that are ubiquitous in foods and consumer products. Enterococcus faecalis is a predominant member of the human gastrointestinal microflora. Strain ATCC 19433 grew in the presence of azo dyes and metabolized them to colorless products. A gene encoding a putative FMN-dependent aerobic azoreductase that shares 34% identity with azoreductase (AcpD) of Escherichia coli has been identified in this strain. The gene in E. faecalis, designated as azoA, encoded a protein of 208 amino acids with a calculated isoelectric point of 4.8. AzoA was heterologously overexpressed in E. coli with a strong band of 23 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The purified recombinant enzyme was a homodimer with a molecular weight of 43 kDa, probably containing one molecule of FMN per dimer. AzoA required FMN and NADH, but not NADPH, as a preferred electron donor for its activity. The apparent Km values for both NADH and 2-[4-(dimethylamino)phenylazo]benzoic acid (Methyl red) substrates were 0.14 and 0.024 mM, respectively. The apparent Vmax was 86.2 microM/min/mg protein. The enzyme was not only able to decolorize Methyl red, but was also able to convert sulfonated azo dyes Orange II, Amaranth, Ponceau BS, and Ponceau S. AzoA is the first aerobic azoreductase to be identified and characterized from human intestinal gram-positive bacteria.

  7. Tube Law of the Pharyngeal Airway in Sleeping Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Genta, Pedro R.; Edwards, Bradley A.; Sands, Scott A.; Owens, Robert L.; Butler, James P.; Loring, Stephen H.; White, David P.; Wellman, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by repetitive pharyngeal collapse during sleep. However, the dynamics of pharyngeal narrowing and re-expansion during flow-limited breathing are not well described. The static pharyngeal tube law (end-expiratory area versus luminal pressure) has demonstrated increasing pharyngeal compliance as luminal pressure decreases, indicating that the airway would be sucked closed with sufficient inspiratory effort. On the contrary, the airway is rarely sucked closed during inspiratory flow limitation, suggesting that the airway is getting stiffer. Therefore, we hypothesized that during inspiratory flow limitation, as opposed to static conditions, the pharynx becomes stiffer as luminal pressure decreases. Methods: Upper airway endoscopy and simultaneous measurements of airflow and epiglottic pressure were performed during natural nonrapid eye movement sleep. Continuous positive (or negative) airway pressure was used to induce flow limitation. Flow-limited breaths were selected for airway cross-sectional area measurements. Relative airway area was quantified as a percentage of end-expiratory area. Inspiratory airway radial compliance was calculated at each quintile of epiglottic pressure versus airway area plot (tube law). Results: Eighteen subjects (14 males) with OSA (apnea-hypopnea index = 57 ± 27 events/h), aged 49 ± 8 y, with a body mass index of 35 ± 6 kg/m2 were studied. A total of 163 flow limited breaths were analyzed (9 ± 3 breaths per subject). Compliances at the fourth (2.0 ± 4.7 % area/cmH2O) and fifth (0.0 ± 1.7 % area/cmH2O) quintiles were significantly lower than the first (12.2 ± 5.5 % area/cmH2O) pressure quintile (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The pharyngeal tube law is concave (airway gets stiffer as luminal pressure decreases) during respiratory cycles under inspiratory flow limitation. Citation: Genta PR, Edwards BA, Sands SA, Owens RL, Butler JP, Loring SH, White DP, Wellman A. Tube law of

  8. Adaptive phenotypic plasticity in the Midas cichlid fish pharyngeal jaw and its relevance in adaptive radiation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Phenotypic evolution and its role in the diversification of organisms is a central topic in evolutionary biology. A neglected factor during the modern evolutionary synthesis, adaptive phenotypic plasticity, more recently attracted the attention of many evolutionary biologists and is now recognized as an important ingredient in both population persistence and diversification. The traits and directions in which an ancestral source population displays phenotypic plasticity might partly determine the trajectories in morphospace, which are accessible for an adaptive radiation, starting from the colonization of a novel environment. In the case of repeated colonizations of similar environments from the same source population this "flexible stem" hypothesis predicts similar phenotypes to arise in repeated subsequent radiations. The Midas Cichlid (Amphilophus spp.) in Nicaragua has radiated in parallel in several crater-lakes seeded by populations originating from the Nicaraguan Great Lakes. Here, we tested phenotypic plasticity in the pharyngeal jaw of Midas Cichlids. The pharyngeal jaw apparatus of cichlids, a second set of jaws functionally decoupled from the oral ones, is known to mediate ecological specialization and often differs strongly between sister-species. Results We performed a common garden experiment raising three groups of Midas cichlids on food differing in hardness and calcium content. Analyzing the lower pharyngeal jaw-bones we find significant differences between diet groups qualitatively resembling the differences found between specialized species. Observed differences in pharyngeal jaw expression between groups were attributable to the diet's mechanical resistance, whereas surplus calcium in the diet was not found to be of importance. Conclusions The pharyngeal jaw apparatus of Midas Cichlids can be expressed plastically if stimulated mechanically during feeding. Since this trait is commonly differentiated - among other traits - between

  9. Revision rates and speech outcomes following pharyngeal flap surgery for velopharyngeal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Setabutr, Dhave; Roth, Christina T; Nolen, David D; Cervenka, Brian; Sykes, Jonathan M; Senders, Craig W; Tollefson, Travis T

    2015-01-01

    Velopharyngeal insufficiency in children with cleft palate (and other causes) contributes to difficulty with communication and quality of life. The pharyngeal flap is a workhorse to address hypernasality and nasal air escape. However, there is a paucity of literature on the characteristics of cases that require revision. To measure the revision rate of pharyngeal flaps, compare the preperceptual and postperceptual speech scores, and identify the characteristics of those patients who required revision. A retrospective medical record review was completed for patients who underwent pharyngeal flap surgery from June 1, 2008, through January 31, 2013, at a tertiary academic center. Perceptual speech analyses and surgical revision rates. Perceptual speech patterns before and after surgery were compared using nasal air emission and resonance scores. The association between requiring revision surgery and covariates was analyzed using multivariable mixed-effects logistic regression. Sixty-one patients were identified, including 24 boys (39%) and 37 girls (61%). The mean (SD) patient age at the time of pharyngeal flap surgery was 8.2 (6.8) years (range, 3-55 years). Velopharyngeal insufficiency was associated with cleft palate in 51 patients (84%), and 17 patients (28%) had a syndrome. The mean (SD) time to surgery after the speech evaluation was 225 (229) days (range, 14-1341 days). The mean (SD) nasal air emission scores decreased by -1.1 (2.0 [1.1] preoperatively to 0.8 [1.1] postoperatively). The mean (SD) resonance score decreased by -1.5 (2.4 [1.1] preoperatively to 0.9 [1.1] postoperatively; P < .001). Flaps were revised in 12 patients (20%), including port revision in 9, complete flap revision in 2, and flap takedown in 1. The only covariate that was significantly associated with revision rates was increased age at surgery, which was associated with a higher probability of revision surgery (odds ratio, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.03-1.66; P = .04). Pharyngeal flap

  10. Selecting anti-microbial treatment of aerobic vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Donders, Gilbert G G; Ruban, Katerina; Bellen, Gert

    2015-05-01

    Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is a vaginal infectious condition which is often confused with bacterial vaginosis (BV) or with the intermediate microflora as diagnosed by Nugent's method to detect BV on Gram-stained specimens. However, although both conditions reflect a state of lactobacillary disruption in the vagina, leading to an increase in pH, BV and AV differ profoundly. While BV is a noninflammatory condition composed of a multiplex array of different anaerobic bacteria in high quantities, AV is rather sparely populated by one or two enteric commensal flora bacteria, like Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylocuccus aureus, or Escherichia coli. AV is typically marked by either an increased inflammatory response or by prominent signs of epithelial atrophy or both. The latter condition, if severe, is also called desquamative inflammatory vaginitis. As AV is per exclusionem diagnosed by wet mount microscopy, it is a mistake to treat just vaginal culture results. Vaginal cultures only serve as follow-up data in clinical research projects and are at most used in clinical practice to confirm the diagnosis or exclude Candida infection. AV requires treatment based on microscopy findings and a combined local treatment with any of the following which may yield the best results: antibiotic (infectious component), steroids (inflammatory component), and/or estrogen (atrophy component). In cases with Candida present on microscopy or culture, antifungals must be tried first in order to see if other treatment is still needed. Vaginal rinsing with povidone iodine can provide rapid relief of symptoms but does not provide long-term reduction of bacterial loads. Local antibiotics most suitable are preferably non-absorbed and broad spectrum, especially those covering enteric gram-positive and gram-negative aerobes, like kanamycin. To achieve rapid and short-term improvement of severe symptoms, oral therapy with amoxyclav or moxifloxacin can be used, especially in deep dermal vulvitis and

  11. Effect of various chemical decontamination treatments on natural microflora and sensory characteristics of poultry.

    PubMed

    del Río, Elena; Panizo-Morán, Mónica; Prieto, Miguel; Alonso-Calleja, Carlos; Capita, Rosa

    2007-04-20

    Regulation (EC) No. 853/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council provides a legal basis permitting the use of antimicrobial treatments to remove surface contamination from poultry. This paper reports the results of research into the effects on natural microflora, pH, and sensorial characteristics achieved by dipping chicken legs (15 min, 18+/-1 degrees C) into solutions (wt/vol) of 12% trisodium phosphate (TSP), 1200 ppm acidified sodium chlorite (ASC), 2% citric acid (CA), 220 ppm peroxyacids (Inspexx 100; PA), and water. Samples were collected immediately after evisceration, subjected to the treatments listed or left untreated (control) and tested after 0, 1, 3 and 5 days of storage (3 degrees C+/-1 degrees C). For most microbial groups similar counts were observed on water-dipped and on untreated legs. All the chemical compounds were effective in reducing microbial populations throughout storage, with TSP, ASC and CA showing the strongest antimicrobial activity. The average reductions (mean+/-standard deviation) relative to untreated samples caused by chemical treatments when considering simultaneously all storage days ranged (log(10) cfu/g skin) from 0.53+/-0.83 (PA) to 1.98+/-0.62 (TSP) for mesophilic aerobic counts, from 0.11+/-0.89 (PA) to 1.27+/-1.02 (CA) (psychrotrophs), from 1.34+/-1.40 (PA) to 2.15+/-1.20 (CA) (Enterobacteriaceae), from 1.18+/-1.24 (PA) to 1.98+/-1.16 (CA) (coliforms), from 0.66+/-0.99 (PA) to 1.86+/-1.80 (TSP) (Micrococcaceae), from 0.54+/-0.74 (TSP) to 2.17+/-1.37 (CA) (enterococci), from 0.72+/-0.66 (TSP) to 2.08+/-1.60 (CA) (Brochothrix thermosphacta), from 0.78+/-1.02 (PA) to 1.99+/-0.96 (TSP) (pseudomonads), from 0.21+/-0.61 (PA) to 1.23+/-0.60 (TSP) (lactic acid bacteria), and from 1.14+/-0.89 (PA) to 1.45+/-0.61 (ASC) (moulds and yeasts). The microbial reductions throughout storage increased, decreased, or did not vary, in accordance with microbial group and chemical involved. Similar pH values were observed for

  12. [Investigation of Helicobacter pylori colonization in pharyngeal and palatine tonsils with rapid urease test and immunohistochemical analysis].

    PubMed

    Dağtekin-Ergür, Emine Nur; Eren, Funda; Ustün, Mustafa Burak; Eren, Yusuf; Taş, Ebru; Gürsel, Ali Okan

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the presence and frequency of Helicobacter pylori in palatine and pharyngeal tonsil tissues of children. The study included 20 patients (15 males, 5 females; mean age 8.2 years; range 5 to 13 years) with chronic or recurrent tonsillitis and/or snoring. Of these, 17 patients underwent adenoidectomy and tonsillectomy, two patients underwent adenoidectomy and tonsillectomy with bilateral ventilation tube insertion, and one patient underwent adenoidectomy with bilateral ventilation tube insertion. H. pylori colonization was sought in all tonsillar specimens by rapid urease test and immunohistochemical analysis. Rapid urease test showed H. pylori colonization in the palatine and pharyngeal tonsil specimens of one patient (5%), whereas immunohistochemical analysis showed four H. pylori-positive patients (20%), whose pharyngeal tonsil (n=2) or palatine tonsil (n=2) specimens were individually affected. The presence of H. pylori in both palatine and pharyngeal tonsil tissues of children suggests that these tissues can be a reservoir for H. pylori.

  13. Increased Bolus Volume Effect on Delayed Pharyngeal Swallowing Response in Post-stroke Oropharyngeal Dysphagia: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To confirm a relationship between the pharyngeal response and bolus volume, and examine whether increasing the fluid bolus volume can improve penetration and aspiration for stroke dysphagic patients. Methods Ten stroke patients with a delayed pharyngeal response problem confirmed by a videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) were enrolled. Each subject completed two swallows each of 2 mL, 5 mL, and 10 mL of barium liquid thinned with water. The pharyngeal delay time (PDT) and penetration-aspiration scale (PAS) were measured and the changes among the different volumes were analyzed. Results PDTs were shortened significantly when 5 mL and 10 mL of thin barium were swallowed compared to 2 mL. However, there was no significant difference in PAS as the bolus volume increased. Conclusion The increased fluid bolus volume reduced the pharyngeal delay time, but did not affect the penetration and aspiration status. PMID:28119831

  14. Associations of GI microflora with campylobacter status in commercial broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction: Nextgeneration DNA sequencing is a powerful tool for food safety. One potential use for this technology is to compare the microflora of food animals hosting foodborne pathogens to pathogen-free animals to better understand the ecology of foodborne pathogens to design possible intervent...

  15. Dietary squid ink polysaccharides ameliorated the intestinal microflora dysfunction in mice undergoing chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qingjuan; Zuo, Tao; Lu, Shangyun; Wu, Juan; Wang, Jianghua; Zheng, Rong; Chen, Shiguo; Xue, Changhu

    2014-10-01

    Gastrointestinal mucositis and infection by chemotherapy treatment are associated with alteration of intestinal microflora and bacterial translocation due to the potential damage induced by anti-cancer drugs on the intestinal barrier and microbiota homeostasis. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of dietary polysaccharides on chemotherapy induced intestinal microflora dysfunction. In the current contribution, with a mouse model intraperitoneally injected with 50 mg kg(-1) of cyclophosphamide (Cy) for 2 days, we revealed that polysaccharides from the ink of Ommastrephes bartrami (OBP) altered the intestinal microflora composition. OBP retarded the excessive growth of intestinal bacteria induced by cyclophosphamide, based on 16S rRNA gene (16S rDNA) quantification. The clone libraries of intestinal bacteria 16S rDNA were used to decipher the difference in bacterial community structures in different groups of mice. Followed by RFLP evaluation and OTU abundance analysis, they imply that OBP changed the intestinal microflora composition, in which the quantity of probiotic Bifidobacterium got up-regulated but Bacteroidetes decreased in mice undergoing chemotherapy. Our results may have important implications for OBP as a functional food component or nutrient against chemotherapy induced intestinal injury and potential pathogenic intestinal disorders involving inflammation and infection.

  16. Microflora Changes with Norfloxacin and Pivmecillinam in Women with Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Norinder, Birgit Stattin; Norrby, Ragnar; Palmgren, Ann-Chatrin; Hollenberg, Sofia; Eriksson, Ulla; Nord, Carl Erik

    2006-01-01

    Similar changes in the periurethral and vaginal microflora were observed in 19 women with recurrent urinary tract infection following treatment with norfloxacin (NOR) or pivmecillinam (PIV). Escherichia coli strains were suppressed by both treatments. Staphylococcus spp. and enterococci colony counts increased following PIV treatment in the periurethral flora but remained stable with NOR. PMID:16569875

  17. MODELING THE GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES AND NATIVE MICROFLORA IN SMOKED SALMON

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Smoked salmon contaminated with L. monocytogenes has been implicated in foodborne listeriosis. The objectives of this study were to model the growth characteristics and examine the growth relationship of L. monocytogenes and native microflora in smoked salmon. Smoked salmon samples with a native m...

  18. Early life events influence whole-of-life metabolic health via gut microflora and gut permeability.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Caroline A; Grice, Desma M; Tran, Cuong D; Bauer, Denis C; Li, Dongmei; Hendry, Phil; Hannan, Garry N

    2015-01-01

    The capacity of our gut microbial communities to maintain a stable and balanced state, termed 'resilience', in spite of perturbations is vital to our achieving and maintaining optimal health. A loss of microbial resilience is observed in a number of diseases including obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. There are large gaps in our understanding of why an individual's co-evolved microflora consortium fail to develop resilience thereby establishing a trajectory towards poor metabolic health. This review examines the connections between the developing gut microbiota and intestinal barrier function in the neonate, infant and during the first years of life. We propose that the effects of early life events on the gut microflora and permeability, whilst it is in a dynamic and vulnerable state, are fundamental in shaping the microbial consortia's resilience and that it is the maintenance of resilience that is pivotal for metabolic health throughout life. We review the literature supporting this concept suggesting new potential research directions aimed at developing a greater understanding of the longitudinal effects of the gut microflora on metabolic health and potential interventions to recalibrate the 'at risk' infant gut microflora in the direction of enhanced metabolic health.

  19. Regional aerobic glycolysis in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Vaishnavi, S. Neil; Vlassenko, Andrei G.; Rundle, Melissa M.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Mintun, Mark A.; Raichle, Marcus E.

    2010-01-01

    Aerobic glycolysis is defined as glucose utilization in excess of that used for oxidative phosphorylation despite sufficient oxygen to completely metabolize glucose to carbon dioxide and water. Aerobic glycolysis is present in the normal human brain at rest and increases locally during increased neuronal activity; yet its many biological functions have received scant attention because of a prevailing energy-centric focus on the role of glucose as substrate for oxidative phosphorylation. As an initial step in redressing this neglect, we measured the regional distribution of aerobic glycolysis with positron emission tomography in 33 neurologically normal young adults at rest. We show that the distribution of aerobic glycolysis in the brain is differentially present in previously well-described functional areas. In particular, aerobic glycolysis is significantly elevated in medial and lateral parietal and prefrontal cortices. In contrast, the cerebellum and medial temporal lobes have levels of aerobic glycolysis significantly below the brain mean. The levels of aerobic glycolysis are not strictly related to the levels of brain energy metabolism. For example, sensory cortices exhibit high metabolic rates for glucose and oxygen consumption but low rates of aerobic glycolysis. These striking regional variations in aerobic glycolysis in the normal human brain provide an opportunity to explore how brain systems differentially use the diverse cell biology of glucose in support of their functional specializations in health and disease. PMID:20837536

  20. Lower limb loading in step aerobic dance.

    PubMed

    Wu, H-W; Hsieh, H-M; Chang, Y-W; Wang, L-H

    2012-11-01

    Participation in aerobic dance is associated with a number of lower extremity injuries, and abnormal joint loading seems to be a factor in these. However, information on joint loading is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinetics of the lower extremity in step aerobic dance and to compare the differences of high-impact and low-impact step aerobic dance in 4 aerobic movements (mambo, kick, L step and leg curl). 18 subjects were recruited for this study. High-impact aerobic dance requires a significantly greater range of motion, joint force and joint moment than low-impact step aerobic dance. The peak joint forces and moments in high-impact step aerobic dance were found to be 1.4 times higher than in low-impact step aerobic dance. Understanding the nature of joint loading may help choreographers develop dance combinations that are less injury-prone. Furthermore, increased knowledge about joint loading may be helpful in lowering the risk of injuries in aerobic dance instructors and students.

  1. Microbial DNA fingerprinting of human fingerprints: dynamic colonization of fingertip microflora challenges human host inferences for forensic purposes.

    PubMed

    Tims, Sebastian; van Wamel, Willem; Endtz, Hubert P; van Belkum, Alex; Kayser, Manfred

    2010-09-01

    Human fingertip microflora is transferred to touched objects and may provide forensically relevant information on individual hosts, such as on geographic origins, if endogenous microbial skin species/strains would be retrievable from physical fingerprints and would carry geographically restricted DNA diversity. We tested the suitability of physical fingerprints for revealing human host information, with geographic inference as example, via microbial DNA fingerprinting. We showed that the transient exogenous fingertip microflora is frequently different from the resident endogenous bacteria of the same individuals. In only 54% of the experiments, the DNA analysis of the transient fingertip microflora allowed the detection of defined, but often not the major, elements of the resident microflora. Although we found microbial persistency in certain individuals, time-wise variation of transient and resident microflora within individuals was also observed when resampling fingerprints after 3 weeks. While microbial species differed considerably in their frequency spectrum between fingerprint samples from volunteers in Europe and southern Asia, there was no clear geographic distinction between Staphylococcus strains in a cluster analysis, although bacterial genotypes did not overlap between both continental regions. Our results, though limited in quantity, clearly demonstrate that the dynamic fingerprint microflora challenges human host inferences for forensic purposes including geographic ones. Overall, our results suggest that human fingerprint microflora is too dynamic to allow for forensic marker developments for retrieving human information.

  2. Surgical treatment for sleep apnea: changes in craniofacial and pharyngeal airway morphology in a child with achondroplasia.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kieko; Niikuni, Naoko; Nakajima, Ichiro; Shirakawa, Tetsuo; Sakata, Hideaki

    2007-06-01

    Here, we report the case of a male child with achondroplasia who was diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea and underwent adenoidectomy and tonsillectomy. By analyzing lateral cephalograms, we evaluated the craniofacial and pharyngeal airway morphology immediately before surgery (age, 5 years 6 months) and 1 year 2 months after surgery (age, 6 years 8 months). Adenoidectomy and tonsillectomy dilated the pharynx and improved the craniofacial and pharyngeal morphologies, apparently thus improving the sleep apnea.

  3. [The role of environmental factors in the development of pathology of the lymphadenoid pharyngeal ring in children].

    PubMed

    Nikolaeva, A I; Vakhrushev, S G; Terskova, N V; Toropova, L A

    2011-01-01

    The authors present the analysis of the prevalence and structure of pathology of the lymphadenoid pharyngeal ring in children living in the districts of the city of Krasnoyarsk differing in terms of atmospheric pollution. It is shown that that pharyngeal adenoid hypertrophy occurs significantly more frequently in the children from the districts exposed to an extremely high level of atmospheric pollution than in those residing under more favourable environmental conditions.

  4. Exudative pharyngitis possibly due to Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum, a new challenge in the differential diagnosis of diphtheria.

    PubMed Central

    Izurieta, H. S.; Strebel, P. M.; Youngblood, T.; Hollis, D. G.; Popovic, T.

    1997-01-01

    Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum has rarely been reported to cause disease in humans, despite its common presence in the flora of the upper respiratory tract. We report here a case of exudative pharyngitis with pseudomembrane possibly caused by C. pseudodiphtheriticum in a 4-year-old girl. The case initially triggered clinical and laboratory suspicion of diphtheria. Because C. pseudodiphtheriticum can be easily confused with Corynebacterium diphtheriae in Gram stain, clarification of its role in the pathogenesis of exudative pharyngitis in otherwise healthy persons is of public health importance. Simple and rapid screening tests to differentiate C. pseudodiphtheriticum from C. diphtheriae should be performed to prevent unnecessary concern in the community and unnecessary outbreak control measures. PMID:9126447

  5. Pharyngeal Neisseria gonorrhoeae detection in oral-throat wash specimens of male patients with urethritis.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Satoshi; Kurimura, Yuichiro; Hashimoto, Jiro; Takeyama, Koh; Koroku, Mikio; Tanda, Hitoshi; Nishimura, Masahiro; Tsukamoto, Taiji

    2008-12-01

    Detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis in the pharynx has been highlighted in the prevention of the unexpected spread of sexually transmitted diseases. We tried to clarify the detection rate of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the pharynx and the clinical relevance of oral-throat wash specimens to detect the organism in heterosexual men with gonococcal and nongonococcal urethritis. In our cohort of 79 male patients with urethritis, oral throat wash specimens were collected after they had gargled with normal saline for approximately 30 to 60 s. Positive pharyngeal N. gonorrhoeae was defined as a positive result on the strand displacement amplification test for the specimen from the oral-throat wash. N. gonorrhoeae was detected in the oral-throat wash specimens of 13 (31.7%) of the 41 male patients with gonococcal urethritis. Oral-throat wash with a nucleic acid amplification test can detect pharyngeal N. gonorrhoeae easily and efficiently.

  6. [Use of group A streptococcal rapid diagnostic test in extra-pharyngeal infections].

    PubMed

    Wollner, A; Levy, C; Benani, M; Thollot, F; Béchet, S; Cohen, J; Bonacorsi, S; Bidet, Ph; Cohen, R

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the performances of the group A streptococcus (GAS) rapid antigen diagnostic tests (RADTs) in extra-pharyngeal infections. Between October 2009 and June 2014, 368 patients (median age: 48 months) were enrolled. The pathologies involved were : 160 perineal infections (44 %), 69 blistering distal dactylitis (19 %), 55 cervical lymphadenitis (15 %), 31 crusty or bleeding rhinitis (8 %), and 53 other diseases (14 %). The sensitivity of GAS-RADT used was 96 % (95 % CI: 92-99 %), the specificity 81 % (95 % CI: 75- 86 %), the negative predictive value 97 % (CI 95 %: 93-99 %), and the positive predictive value 79 % (95 % CI: 73-85 %). Finally, positive and negative likelihood ratio were 5 (95 % CI: 4-7) and 0.05 (95 % CI: 0.02-0.11) respectively. The GAS-RADTs developed for pharyngitis have comparable performances in these settings and therefore can be used.

  7. [Analysis of pharyngeal phase of swallowing after supracricoid partial laryngectomy with cricohyopexia (CHP) and cricohyoepiglottopexia (CHEP)].

    PubMed

    Firlit, Katarzyna; Zietek, Eugeniusz; Tarnowska, Czesława; Posio, Violetta

    2005-09-01

    The analysis of efficiency and timing of pharyngeal phase events after supracricoid reconstructive laryngectomy was presented. Material consist of 15 patients after partial laryngectomy with cricohyopexia (CHP) and 19 with cricohyoepiglottopexia (CHEP) in average age of 53 (41-66) years. The video-radiographic examination of swallowing was done in the early period (max. 120, average 72 days) and in the late period (min. 10, average 24 months) after surgery. The larynx closure improved and the wide of upper oesophageal sphincter (UES) increased in the late period comparing to first examination. The duration of UES relaxation and the duration of pharyngeal phase were similar to physiological status but the time of larynx closure was longer in both periods.

  8. Pediatric Pharyngeal IgD-positive Monoclonal Plasmacytoid and Plasma Cell Neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shanxiang; Long, Catherine

    2015-11-01

    Pediatric neoplasm with monoclonal proliferation of lymphoplasmacytoid lymphocytes and plasma cells is exceedingly rare and has essentially never been reported in immunocompetent children. Here, we report a previously healthy 13-year-old girl with a pharyngeal mass and enlarged cervical lymph nodes. The pharyngeal mass was composed of CD138, CD79a, MUM-1, IgD, CD20, PAX-5, CD43, λ-restricted monoclonal plasmacytoid, and plasma cells. Scattered CD20, PAX-5 B cells were present in the background. The patient was treated as localized non-Hodgkin lymphoma (stage II) with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone and is in complete remission at 17 months from the last chemotherapy.

  9. Sparc (Osteonectin) functions in morphogenesis of the pharyngeal skeleton and inner ear

    PubMed Central

    Rotllant, Josep; Liu, Dong; Yan, Yin-Lin; Postlethwait, John H.; Westerfield, Monte; Du, Shao-Jun

    2008-01-01

    Sparc (Osteonectin), a matricellular glycoprotein expressed by many differentiated cells, is a major non-collagenous constituent of vertebrate bones. Recent studies indicate that Sparc expression appears early in development, although its function and regulation during embryogenesis are largely unknown. We cloned zebrafish sparc and investigated its role during development, using a morpholino antisense oligonucleotide-based knockdown approach. Consistent with its strong expression in the otic vesicle and developing pharyngeal cartilages, knockdown of Sparc function resulted in specific inner ear and cartilage defects that are highlighted by changes in gene expression, morphology and behavior. We rescued the knockdown phenotypes by co-injecting sparc mRNA, providing evidence that the knockdown phenotype is due specifically to impairment of Sparc function. A comparison of the phenotypes of Sparc knockdown and known zebrafish mutants with similar defects places Sparc downstream of sox9 in the genetic network that regulates development of the pharyngeal skeleton and inner ear of vertebrates. PMID:18430553

  10. Slow Ca2+ dynamics in pharyngeal muscles in Caenorhabditis elegans during fast pumping.

    PubMed

    Shimozono, Satoshi; Fukano, Takashi; Kimura, Koutarou D; Mori, Ikue; Kirino, Yutaka; Miyawaki, Atsushi

    2004-05-01

    The pharyngeal muscles of Caenorhabditis elegans are composed of the corpus, isthmus and terminal bulb from anterior to posterior. These components are excited in a coordinated fashion to facilitate proper feeding through pumping and peristalsis. We analysed the spatiotemporal pattern of intracellular calcium dynamics in the pharyngeal muscles during feeding. We used a new ratiometric fluorescent calcium indicator and a new optical system that allows simultaneous illumination and detection at any two wavelengths. Pumping was observed with fast, repetitive and synchronous spikes in calcium concentrations in the corpus and terminal bulb, indicative of electrical coupling throughout the muscles. The posterior isthmus, however, responded to only one out of several pumping spikes to produce broad calcium transients, leading to peristalsis, the slow and gradual motion needed for efficient swallows. The excitation-calcium coupling may be uniquely modulated in this region at the level of calcium channels on the plasma membrane.

  11. [The delay of pharyngeal phase initiation vs the course of the deglutition act in patients after partial or total tongue excision due to oral cancer].

    PubMed

    Halczy-Kowalik, Ludmiła; Wysocki, Rościsław; Posio, Violetta

    2006-01-01

    The coordination of the respiratory and alimentary function is indispensable to transport the food from the oral cavity to the stomach without aspiration risk. Disturbances during pharyngeal phase of swallowing, registered after oral tumour excision, are caused by diminishing of the tongue shape, decreasing of gustatory sensitivity and oral stereognosis. The aim of the work is to estimate the influence the oral tissue excision to the pharyngeal phase of deglution. videoradiological examination of deglutition by W.J. Dodds - for 95 patients after oral tumour excision, with swallowing disturbances. Duration of oral and pharyngeal activities, degree of realization these activities and aspiration risk were valued. Abnormal mobility of tongue, lack of palato-pharyngeal and glosso-pharyngeal closure, abnormal formation of bolus accompanied to delayed initiation of pharyngeal phase. The delay of pharyngeal phase initiation was the most important for beginning and ending of the larynx closure, oesophagus opening, pharynx emptying. This delay wasn't statistically significant for duration these activities. The retention in oral cavity and in lower throat, additional deglutitions, inter-deglutition and postdeglutition leakage correlated with delay of the pharyngeal phase initiation. 1. The delay of pharyngeal phase initation after oral tumour excision is caused by oral swallowing disturbances. 2. The delay of pharyngeal phase initiation after oral tumor excision is dependent on the range of surgery and reconstruction. 3. The delay of pharyngeal phase initiation after oral tumour excision is important for beginning and ending of the pharyngeal phase activities, it isn't important for their duration. 4. The deficit of oral sensory stimuli causes desynchronization of the pharyngeal phase activities and diminishes the swallowing efficiency. 5. Improvement of the swallowing efficiency after partial or total tongue excision is possible by oral phase elongation, by monitoring of the

  12. Evaluation of the location of capsules swallowed with food during the pharyngeal phase triggering in asymptomatic adults.

    PubMed

    Uchimura, Érica Mayumi Takase; Barcelos, Irene Harumi Kamata; Paiva, Deborah Brandão de; Mourão, Lucia Figueiredo; Crespo, Agricio Nubiato

    2014-01-01

    To assess the location of hard gelatin capsules in the pharyngeal phase triggering among asymptomatic adults. The location of the bolus during the pharyngeal phase triggering provides information about the sensorimotor model of the beginning of deglutition onset. To evaluate the location of hard gelatin capsules in the pharyngeal phase triggering among asymptomatic adults. A videofluoroscopy swallowing study was carried out in 60 subjects (14 male and 46 female participants) aged between 27 and 55 years, who were evaluated with hard gelatin capsules #00 and #3 containing barium sulfate, swallowed with liquid food and pudding, in free volume. The first laryngeal elevation movement was the criterion to locate the pharyngeal phase triggering. Statistical analysis was based on the McNemar test. Capsule #3 presented higher percentage of location in the tongue dorsum compared to capsule #00, and capsule #00 presented higher percentage of location in the tongue base and vallecula compared to capsule #3. There was a difference between different capsules swallowed with liquid (p=0.016) and pudding (p=0.037). The capsule size influenced the location of the pharyngeal phase triggering. Smaller capsules started pharyngeal phase in the most anterior region (tongue dorsum) compared to larger capsules.

  13. α-Synuclein Pathology and Axonal Degeneration of the Peripheral Motor Nerves Innervating Pharyngeal Muscles in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Liancai; Sobotka, Stanislaw; Chen, Jingming; Su, Hungxi; Sanders, Ira; Adler, Charles H.; Shill, Holly A.; Caviness, John N.; Samanta, Johan E.; Beach, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease primarily characterized by cardinal motor symptoms and central nervous system pathology. As current drug therapies can often stabilize these cardinal motor symptoms attention has shifted to the other motor and non-motor symptoms of PD which are resistant to drug therapy. Dysphagia in PD is perhaps the most important drug resistant symptom as it leads to aspiration and pneumonia, the leading cause of death. Here, we present direct evidence for degeneration of the pharyngeal motor nerves in PD. In this study, we examined the cervical vagal (X) nerve, pharyngeal branch of the X nerve (Ph-X), and pharyngeal plexus innervating the pharyngeal muscles in 14 postmortem specimens, 10 subjects with PD and 4 age-matched control subjects. Synucleinopathy in the pharyngeal nerves was detected using an immunohistochemical method for phosphorylated α-synuclein. α-Synuclein aggregates were revealed in the X nerve and Ph-X and immunoreactive intramuscular nerve twigs and axon terminals within the neuromuscular junctions were identified in all the PD subjects and in none of the controls. These findings indicate that the motor nervous system of the pharynx is involved in the pathological process of PD. Notably, PD subjects with dysphagia had a higher density of α-synuclein aggregates in the pharyngeal nerves as compared with those without dysphagia. Motor involvement of the pharynx in PD appears to be one of the factors leading to oropharyngeal dysphagia commonly seen in PD patients. PMID:23334595

  14. Aural-pharyngeal polyps associated with Cryptosporidium infection in three iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    PubMed

    Uhl, E W; Jacobson, E; Bartick, T E; Micinilio, J; Schimdt, R

    2001-03-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. infection was associated with aural-pharyngeal polyps in three iguanas (Iguana iguana). All iguanas were presented for masses protruding from the ear canal, and the disease was characterized by a chronic clinical course. The masses consisted of nests of cystic glands surrounded by abundant fibrous connective tissue and lined by hyperplastic cuboidal to pseudostratified columnar epithelium that was moderately to heavily colonized by cryptosporidial organisms. Electron microscopy revealed that the majority of organisms were trophozoites.

  15. Syndrome of periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis (PFAPA) in siblings.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Patricia M; Majerson, Daniela; Tapia, Jose L; Talesnik, Eduardo

    2009-10-01

    PFAPA syndrome is characterized by episodes of periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis. PFAPA syndrome usually begins in children under 5 years old and normally has self-resolution. The etiology of PFAPA syndrome remains unknown. In this paper, we report the cases of two different families with siblings with PFAPA syndrome: two sisters and two brothers. To our knowledge, this is the first report of siblings with PFAPA syndrome.

  16. Deglutition disorder as a late sequel of radiotherapy for a pharyngeal tumor.

    PubMed

    Dejaeger, E; Goethals, P

    1995-03-01

    We present the case of a 62-yr-old patient who developed severe swallowing problems 5 yr after radiotherapy for a pharyngeal carcinoma. Although peripheral and cranial nerves are thought to be relatively radioresistant, cranial nerve damage can occur many years after radiotherapy. This may result in severe deglutition disorders and lead to a complete inability to eat normally. The aim is to demonstrate how these late sequelae can cause impairment of different structures involved in the swallowing process.

  17. Family History in Periodic Fever, Aphthous Stomatitis, Pharyngitis, Adenitis (PFAPA) Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Manthiram, Kalpana; Nesbitt, Emily; Morgan, Thomas; Edwards, Kathryn M

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this study was to describe family history and inheritance patterns in patients with periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, cervical adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome. We performed a case-control study to compare the family histories of patients with PFAPA recruited from Vanderbilt University Medical Center and matched healthy control subjects from a pediatric primary care practice in Nashville, Tennessee, by using a structured questionnaire. Characteristics of paired case subjects, control subjects, and their family members were compared by using McNemar's test and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Eighty PFAPA index case subjects and 80 control subjects were recruited. Eighteen PFAPA case subjects (23%) had ≥1 family member with PFAPA. Parents of PFAPA index case subjects were more likely to have recurrent pharyngitis (36% vs 16%; P < .001) and recurrent aphthous stomatitis (46% vs 28%; P = .002) compared with parents of control subjects. Siblings of case subjects had a higher prevalence of PFAPA (10% vs 2%; P = .04), recurrent pharyngitis (24% vs 10%; P = .03), and recurrent aphthous stomatitis (27% vs 7%; P = .003) compared with siblings of control subjects. A portion of PFAPA case subjects seems to be familial, implying an inherited genetic predisposition to the disorder and/or shared environmental exposures. First-degree relatives (parents and siblings) of patients with PFAPA have a higher prevalence of recurrent pharyngitis and aphthous stomatitis than relatives of control subjects, which suggests that these disorders represent reduced penetrance phenotypes of PFAPA. Further characterization of the genetics and inflammatory profiles of these patients and their relatives is warranted. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Pharyngeal mis-sequencing in dysphagia: characteristics, rehabilitative response, and etiological speculation.

    PubMed

    Huckabee, Maggie-Lee; Lamvik, Kristin; Jones, Richard

    2014-08-15

    Clinical data are submitted as documentation of a pathophysiologic feature of dysphagia termed pharyngeal mis-sequencing and to encourage clinicians and researchers to adopt more critical approaches to diagnosis and treatment planning. Recent clinical experience has identified a cohort of patients who present with an atypical dysphagia not specifically described in the literature: mis-sequenced constriction of the pharynx when swallowing. As a result, they are unable to coordinate streamlined bolus transfer from the pharynx into the esophagus. This mis-sequencing contributes to nasal redirection, aspiration, and, for some, the inability to safely tolerate an oral diet. Sixteen patients (8 females, 8 males), with a mean age of 44 years (range=25-78), had an average time post-onset of 23 months (range=2-72) at initiation of intensive rehabilitation. A 3-channel manometric catheter was used to measure pharyngeal pressure. The average peak-to-peak latency between nadir pressures at sensor-1 and sensor-2 was 15 ms (95% CI, -2 to 33 ms), compared to normative mean latency of 239 ms (95% CI, 215 to 263 ms). Rehabilitative responses are summarized, along with a single detailed case report. It is unclear from these data if pharyngeal mis-sequencing is (i) a pathological feature of impaired motor planning from brainstem damage or (ii) a maladaptive compensation developed in response to chronic dysphagia. Future investigation is needed to provide a full report of pharyngeal mis-sequencing, and the implications on our understanding of underlying neural control of swallowing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Patient and Parent-Reported Signs and Symptoms for Group A Streptococcal Pharyngitis.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Christina; Neuman, Mark I; Monuteaux, Michael C; Mandl, Kenneth D; Fine, Andrew M

    2016-07-01

    Identifying symptomatic patients who are at low risk for group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis could reduce unnecessary visits and antibiotic use. The accuracy with which patients and parents report signs and symptoms of GAS has not been studied. Our objectives were to measure agreement between patient or parent and physician-reported signs and symptoms of GAS and to evaluate the performance of a modified Centor score, based on patient or parent and physician reports, for identifying patients at low risk for GAS pharyngitis. Children 3 to 21 years old presenting to a single tertiary care emergency department between October 2013 and January 2015 were included if they complained of a sore throat and were tested for GAS. Patients or parents and physicians completed surveys assessing signs and symptoms to determine a modified age-adjusted Centor score for GAS. We evaluated the overall agreement and κ between patient or parent and physician-reported signs and symptoms and compared the performance of the scores based on assessments by patients or parents and physicians and the risk of GAS. Of 320 patients enrolled, 107 (33%) tested GAS positive. Agreement was higher for symptoms (fever [agreement = 82%, κ = 0.64] and cough [72%, 0.45]) than for signs (exudate [80%, 0.41] and tender cervical nodes [73%, 0.18]). Agreement was highest when no signs and symptoms contained in the Centor score were present (94%, κ = 0.61). The proportion of patients testing GAS positive rose as the modified Centor score increased. For identifying GAS pharyngitis, patients or parents and physicians showed moderate to substantial agreement for 3 of 4 key pharyngitis signs and symptoms. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Pharyngeal airway effects of Herbst and skeletal anchored Forsus FRD EZ appliances.

    PubMed

    Celikoglu, Mevlut; Buyuk, Suleyman Kutalmis; Ekizer, Abdullah; Unal, Tuba

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the skeletal and pharyngeal airway effects of skeletal anchored Forsus FRD EZ appliance using bilateral miniplates inserted on mandibular symphyses and to compare the findings with a well matched control group treated using a Herbst appliance. Thirty patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion due to mandibular retrusion were divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 15 patients (8 females and 7 males; mean age: 13.11 ± 1.29 years) treated using the Herbst appliance and Group 2 consisted of 15 patients (9 females and 7 males; 12.84 ± 1.27 years) treated using the skeletal anchored Forsus FRD EZ appliance. Treatment changes were assessed by means of linear, angular, and area measurements. The groups were well matched regarding to the chronological ages, gender distribution and initial cephalometric values (P > 0.05). In both groups, skeletal Class II malocclusion was corrected by decrease in SNA and increase in SNB, Co-Gn, VRL-B and VRL-Pog measurements. Those changes caused a significant correction in the maxillo-mandibular relationship. Upper and lower pharyngeal airway dimensions were increased in both group, while the increase in the lower pharyngeal dimension was found to be statistically significant in the skeletal anchored Forsus FRD EZ group (P < 0.05). Oropharyngeal area measurements significantly increased in both groups (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively). Comparison of the groups showed that both groups had similar changes with no statistically significant differences (P > 0.05). Skeletal changes produced by both appliances caused significant pharyngeal airway changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Recurrence in oral and pharyngeal cancer is associated with quantitative MGMT promoter methylation

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Biomarkers that predict clinical response, tumor recurrence or patient survival are severely lacking for most cancers, particularly for oral and pharyngeal cancer. This study examines whether gene-promoter methylation of tumor DNA correlates with survival and recurrence rates in a population of patients with oral or pharyngeal cancer. Methods The promoter methylation status of the DNA repair gene MGMT and the tumor suppressor genes CDKN2A and RASSF1 were evaluated by methylation-specific PCR in 88 primary oral and pharyngeal tumors and correlated with survival and tumor recurrence. Quantitative MGMT methylation was also assessed. Results 29.6% of the tumors presented with MGMT methylation, 11.5% with CDKN2A methylation and 12.1% with RASSF1 methylation. MGMT promoter methylation was significantly associated with poorer overall and disease-free survival. No differences in methylation status of MGMT and RASSF1 with HPV infection, smoking or drinking habits were observed. A significant inverse trend with the amount of MGMT methylation and overall and disease-free survival was observed (ptrend = 0.002 and 0.001 respectively). Conclusion These results implicate MGMT promoter methylation as a possible biomarker for oral and pharyngeal cancer prognosis. The critical role of MGMT in DNA repair suggests that defective DNA repair may be correlative in the observed association between MGMT promoter methylation and tumor recurrence. Follow-up studies should include further quantitative MSP-PCR measurement, global methylation profiling and detailed analysis of downstream DNA repair genes regulated by promoter methylation. PMID:19807915

  2. Intensive Care Unit Monitoring After Pharyngeal Flap Surgery: Is It Necessary?

    PubMed

    Reddy, Sashank; Susarla, Srinivas; Yuan, Nance; Walia, Gurjot; Rochlin, Danielle; Redett, Richard

    2017-05-01

    To assess the incidence of perioperative complications and the utility of intensive care monitoring in patients undergoing posterior pharyngeal flap surgery for velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD). This study was a retrospective evaluation of patients who underwent posterior pharyngeal flap surgery for treatment of VPD and an assessment of the incidence of perioperative complications. Descriptive statistics were computed. Over an 18-year period, 145 patients underwent pharyngeal flap surgery for VPD; 133 (91.7%) had complete data and were included as subjects. Mean patient age was 9.4 ± 7.4 years; 50.4% were female. One hundred twenty-six patients (94.7%) had a history of cleft palate. Thirty-four patients (25.5%) had asthma or obstructive sleep apnea. Eighty-three patients (62.4%) were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for postoperative monitoring. The average length of hospital stay was 1.9 ± 0.9 days (range, 1 to 5 days). There were no incidents of serious postoperative complications, including death, bleeding, flap dehiscence or loss, or airway compromise requiring reintubation. Two patients (1.5%) had perioperative complications related to respiratory issues, one of whom required readmission to the ICU (0.8%). There were no differences in complications between those who were routinely admitted to the ICU and those who went directly to the floor (P = 1.00). There was no association between respiratory comorbidities and complications (P = .06). The perioperative complication rate for posterior pharyngeal flap surgery is low (<2%). Routine ICU admission for monitoring is not necessary. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Does transpalatal distraction affect pharyngeal airway dimensions and related soft tissues?

    PubMed

    Akay, Mehmet Cemal; Aras, Işıl; Günbay, Tayfun; Aras, Aynur

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies of transpalatal distraction (TPD) have been based on dentoskeletal alterations of the jaws and nasal airway changes. The main aim of this study was to determine the effects of TPD on soft palate and pharyngeal airway dimensions and tongue posture. This was a retrospective cohort study. The sample was comprised of 16 patients with skeletal maxillary deficiency who had bilateral crossbite combined with a high palatal vault and partial or near total nasal obstruction treated with TPD using bone-borne distractors (Transpalatal Distractor, SurgiTec NV, Bruges, Belgium). This research was carried out on lateral cephalometric radiographs taken before distraction and after a distraction period of 6.75 ± 1.61 months. The primary predictor variable was pharyngeal airway dimensions and tongue posture. Other variables were demographic and lateral cephalometric parameters. Changes in the length, angle, and thickness of the soft palate; nasopharyngeal, retropalatal, retroglossal, and lower pharyngeal airway dimensions; and tongue length and height were evaluated. Data were analyzed by paired t test. The sample included 16 adult patients (mean age, 25.13 ± 6.13 yr; 7 women, 9 men). The desired amount of distraction was achieved in all patients within 7 to 10 days. The total activation average was 8.38 ± 0.96. TPD caused statistically significant changes in sagittal nasopharyngeal airway dimensions (1.19 mm), the minimal oropharyngeal distance behind the tongue base (1.81 mm), and tongue height (2.12 mm). The results of this study suggest that, in adult patients with nasal obstruction, TPD has the potential to increase sagittal nasopharyngeal airway dimensions and the minimal oropharyngeal distance behind the tongue, with an elevation in tongue posture. Further studies using cone-beam computed tomography that focus on how the bone-borne expander alters pharyngeal airway volume will make valuable contributions to the literature. Copyright © 2014 American

  4. Characterization and mechanisms of the pharyngeal swallow activated by stimulation of the esophagus.

    PubMed

    Lang, Ivan M; Medda, Bidyut K; Jadcherla, Sudarshan R; Shaker, Reza

    2016-11-01

    Stimulation of the esophagus activates the pharyngeal swallow response (EPSR) in human infants and animals. The aims of this study were to characterize the stimulus and response of the EPSR and to determine the function and mechanisms generating the EPSR. Studies were conducted in 46 decerebrate cats in which pharyngeal, laryngeal, and esophageal motility was monitored using EMG, strain gauges, or manometry. The esophagus was stimulated by balloon distension or luminal fluid infusion. We found that esophageal distension increased the chance of occurrence of the EPSR, but the delay was variable. The chance of occurrence of the EPSR was related to the position, magnitude, and length of the stimulus in the esophagus. The most effective stimulus was long, strong, and situated in the cervical esophagus. Acidification of the esophagus activated pharyngeal swallows and sensitized the receptors that activate the EPSR. The EPSR was blocked by local anesthesia applied to the esophageal lumen, and electrical stimulation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve caudal to the cricoid cartilage (RLNc) activated the pharyngeal swallow response. We conclude that the EPSR is activated in a probabilistic manner. The receptors mediating the EPSR are probably mucosal slowly adapting tension receptors. The sensory neural pathway includes the RLNc and superior laryngeal nerve. We hypothesize that, because the EPSR is observed in human infants and animals, but not human adults, activation of EPSR is related to the elevated position of the larynx. In this situation, the EPSR occurs rather than secondary peristalsis to prevent supraesophageal reflux when the esophageal bolus is in the proximal esophagus. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  5. THE INCIDENCE AND PATHOGENESIS OF MYOCARDITIS IN RABBITS AFTER GROUP A STREPTOCOCCAL PHARYNGEAL INFECTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Robert J.; Thomas, Wilbur A.; Morse, Stephen I.; Darnell, James E.

    1956-01-01

    Rabbits subjected to single pharyngeal infections with group A streptococci developed cardiac lesions characterized by myofiber necrosis and a non-granulocytic cellular reaction with histiocytes, lymphocytes, and Anitschkow myocytes. The histopathologic changes were demonstrable in some animals within 24 hours of inoculation, apparently were maximal 72 hours after induction of infection (at which time they were seen in the hearts of all nine rabbits studied), and thereafter healed in the course of the following 2 weeks. The extent of involvement was variable, and with healing the necrotic areas were replaced by fibrous tissue. When intradermal infections with the same organisms were produced in rabbits, cardiac lesions, indistinguishable from those observed in the pharyngeally infected group, appeared in a much smaller number of animals. The hearts of five of six rabbits sacrificed a month or more following the last of a series of streptococcal pharyngeal infections exhibited lesions characterized chiefly by fibrosis, although mononuclear cellular infiltrations were also noted. In these repetitively infected animals the presence of occasional multinucleated giant cells and a few small foci of calcification were features not encountered in the single infection group. In a second series of rabbits sacrificed 3 days after the last of three pharyngeal infections with different strains of streptococci, acute as well as more chronic changes were observed. In none of the lesions in rabbits subjected to single or multiple streptococcal infections were bacteria demonstrable, either in histologic sections or in cultures of myocardial tissue. A large number of control animals was studied concomitantly, and in only one instance was a lesion, considered comparable to those described in the streptococcal series, encountered. The implications of these findings, particularly in terms of the non-suppurative sequelae of streptococcal infections in man, are discussed. PMID:13278463

  6. Reflexive culture in adolescents and adults with group A streptococcal pharyngitis.

    PubMed

    Dingle, Tanis C; Abbott, April N; Fang, Ferric C

    2014-09-01

    Guidelines currently provide conflicting recommendations regarding the diagnosis of group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis in adults. Clinical guidelines state that negative rapid antigen detection tests (RADTs) do not require confirmation by a backup method in adults, whereas laboratory-based guidelines mandate confirmation of a negative RADT in patients of all ages. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of reflexive culture following a negative RADT in adolescents and adults with suspected GAS pharyngitis. A retrospective analysis of 726 patients, aged ≥13 years, with negative RADTs and positive GAS throat cultures, was performed between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2011 at 2 academic medical centers in Seattle, Washington. Complication rates, treatment, modified Centor score, and bacterial burden in patients with negative RADTs and positive GAS throat cultures were assessed. Modified Centor scores ≥2 were observed in 55% of patients with a negative RADT and positive GAS culture. Of these, 77% of patients had a moderate or heavy bacterial burden (≥2+). RADTs failed to detect some patients who presented with serious complications of GAS pharyngitis: 29 (4.0%) had peritonsillar abscesses and 2 (0.28%) were diagnosed with acute rheumatic fever. Providers found culture results to be useful for initiating antibiotic therapy or confirming a clinical diagnosis. Antibiotic treatment was prescribed in 68.7% of patients, with culture-directed initiation of therapy documented in 43.5%. Reflexive GAS culture is clinically useful when RADTs are negative. RADTs fail to detect a substantial number of adult patients with clinically significant pharyngitis who can benefit from treatment. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Risk factors for oral and pharyngeal cancer in women: a study from Italy and Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Bosetti, C; Negri, E; Franceschi, S; Conti, E; Levi, F; Tomei, F; Vecchia, C La

    1999-01-01

    We analysed two case–control studies of women from Italy and Switzerland, including 195 cases of oral and pharyngeal cancers and 1113 controls. The multivariate odds ratio was 4.6 for heavy smokers and 2.7 for high alcohol intake. Vegetables, fruit, β-carotene and wholegrain foods were inversely, butter and retinol directly, related to risk. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10638990

  8. Plasma cell stomatitis-pharyngitis in cats: 40 cases (1973-1991).

    PubMed

    White, S D; Rosychuk, R A; Janik, T A; Denerolle, P; Schultheiss, P

    1992-05-01

    Clinical signs, laboratory findings, and treatment results of 40 cats with the histologic diagnosis of plasma cell stomatitis-pharyngitis are discussed. Median age was 7.1 years, with no discernable sex predilection. Anorexia and difficulty prehending food were the most common clinical signs. Hyperproteinemia with associated hyperglobulinemia was the most common laboratory finding. Of various treatments, administration of corticosteroids or injectable gold (aurothioglucose) proved most effective in controlling the clinical signs.

  9. Effects of high pressure and mild heat on endogenous microflora and on the inactivation and sublethal injury of Escherichia coli inoculated into fruit juices and vegetable soup.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Marina; de Ancos, Begoña; Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; Cano, M Pilar

    2007-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of high-pressure treatments and mild temperatures on endogenous microflora and Escherichia coli CECT 515 artificially inoculated into orange and apple juices and vegetable soup. In general, the viability of aerobic bacteria was significantly reduced as pressure and temperature increased. Although the greatest reduction in the concentration of aerobic mesophilic vegetative cells was reached at 350 MPa and 60 degrees C, the same reduction occurred in fruit juices at 350 MPa and 20 degrees C. Yeasts and molds were below the level of detection (1 log CFU/ml) for the fruit juices and did not exceed 2 log CFU/ml for vegetable soup. Foods inoculated with E. coli were subjected to several treatments as indicated by the mathematical model applied in response surface methodology to obtain the maximum information with the minimum number of experiments. The number of tests for a range of pressures (150 to 350 MPa) and temperatures (20 to 60 degrees C) was limited to 11. The models were considered adequate because of satisfactory R2 values. The optimum process parameters (pressure and temperature) for a 6-log reduction of E. coli were obtained at 248.25 MPa and 59.91 degrees C in orange juice, 203.50 MPa and 57.18 degrees C in apple juice, and 269.8 MPa and 59.9 degrees C in vegetable soup. Sublethal injury of E. coli occurred as pressure and temperature increased. Nearly all of the E. coli cells were injured at 350 MPa and 20 degrees C in fruit juices and after all treatments in vegetable soup.

  10. Effect of native microflora, waiting period, and storage temperature on Listeria monocytogenes serovars transferred from cantaloupe rind to fresh-cut pieces during preparation.

    PubMed

    Ukuku, Dike O; Olanya, Modesto; Geveke, David J; Sommers, Christopher H

    2012-11-01

    The most recent outbreak of listeriosis linked to consumption of fresh-cut cantaloupes indicates the need to investigate the behavior of Listeria monocytogenes in the presence of native microflora of cantaloupe pieces during storage. Whole cantaloupes were inoculated with L. monocytogenes (10(8)-CFU/ml suspension) for 10 min and air dried in a biosafety cabinet for 1 h and then treated (unwashed, water washed, and 2.5% hydrogen peroxide washed). Fresh-cut pieces (∼3 cm) prepared from these melons were left at 5 and 10°C for 72 h and room temperature (20°C) for 48 h. Some fresh-cut pieces were left at 20°C for 2 and 4 h and then refrigerated at 5°C. Microbial populations of fresh-cut pieces were determined by the plate count method or enrichment method immediately after preparation. Aerobic mesophilic bacteria, yeast and mold of whole melon, and inoculated populations of L. monocytogenes on cantaloupe rind surfaces averaged 6.4, 3.3, and 4.6 log CFU/cm(2), respectively. Only H(2)O(2) (2.5%) treatment reduced the aerobic mesophilic bacteria, yeast and mold, and L. monocytogenes populations to 3.8, 0.9, and 1.8 log CFU/cm(2), respectively. The populations of L. monocytogenes transferred from melon rinds to fresh-cut pieces were below detection but were present by enrichment. Increased storage temperatures enhanced the lag phases and growth of L. monocytogenes. The results of this study confirmed the need to store fresh-cut cantaloupes at 5°C immediately after preparation to enhance the microbial safety of the fruit.

  11. Dry heat effects on survival of indigenous soil particle microflora and particle viability studies of Kennedy Space Center soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruschmeyer, O. R.; Pflug, I. J.; Gove, R.; Heisserer, Y.

    1975-01-01

    Research efforts were concentrated on attempts to obtain data concerning the dry heat resistance of particle microflora in Kennedy Space Center soil samples. The in situ dry heat resistance profiles at selected temperatures for the aggregate microflora on soil particles of certain size ranges were determined. Viability profiles of older soil samples were compared with more recently stored soil samples. The effect of increased particle numbers on viability profiles after dry heat treatment was investigated. These soil particle viability data for various temperatures and times provide information on the soil microflora response to heat treatment and are useful in making selections for spacecraft sterilization cycles.

  12. Does body mass index matter while selecting the flap type for pharyngeal reconstructions?

    PubMed

    Calli, Caglar; Teknos, Theodoros N; Agrawal, Amit; Schuller, David E; Ozer, Enver; Songu, Murat

    2014-05-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of patient-related factors, such as the body mass index (BMI) and tumor size, in selecting the flap type for the reconstruction of pharyngeal defects. This retrospective review included 182 patients with pharyngeal defect reconstructions with free and pedicled flaps at the Ohio State University from January 2005 to December 2008. We conducted a retrospective comparison of variety of different flap reconstruction techniques. We compared different flap reconstruction with BMI and tumor size without functional outcome such as swallowing and speech data. Although there was no statistically significant correlation (P > 0.05) when comparing the free flaps with pedicled flaps according to the BMI and tumor size, there was an obvious tendency to prefer radial forearm free flap over anterolateral thigh free flap in patients who are overweight and those with obesity with a ratio of 32:3. In the same group of patients, a similar tendency was observed to prefer fibular free flap over iliac crest free flap with a ratio of 14:5, whereas the ratio was becoming 3:5 in favor of iliac crest free flap over fibular free flap in patients with BMI of 24 or lower. Despite the fact that surgeons' experience with a certain flap type is one of the most important factors while determining which flap to reconstruct, BMI might have a significant impact while selecting the free flap types for the reconstruction of pharyngeal defects.

  13. Outbreak of Group A beta hemolytic Streptococcus pharyngitis in a Peruvian military facility, April 2012.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Mariana; Valle, Ruben; Reaves, Eric J; Loayza, Luis; Gonzalez, Sofia; Bernal, Maria; Soto, Giselle; Hawksworth, Anthony W; Kasper, Matthew R; Tilley, Drake H; De Mattos, Carlos A; Brown, Jason R; Bausch, David G

    2013-06-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS), or Streptococcus pyogenes, is a common cause of acute pharyngitis as well as other diseases. Closed populations such as those living on military bases, nursing homes, and prisons are particularly vulnerable to GAS outbreaks due to crowding that facilitates person-to-person transmission. This report details a large outbreak of GAS pharyngitis at a Peruvian military training facility near Lima, Peru, in April 2012. Initial findings showed 145 cases. However, as the investigation continued it was revealed that some trainees may have concealed their illness to avoid real or perceived negative consequences of seeking medical care. A subsequent anonymous survey of all trainees revealed at least 383 cases of pharyngitis among the facility's 1,549 trainees and an attack rate of 34 percent among the 1,137 respondents. The epidemic curve revealed a pattern consistent with routine person-to-person transmission, although a point-source initiating event could not be excluded. Laboratory results showed GAS emm type 80.1 to be the culprit pathogen, an organism not commonly implicated in outbreaks of GAS in the Americas. Barious unique and illustrative features of outbreak investigation in military facilities and populations are discussed.

  14. Hh signaling regulates patterning and morphogenesis of the pharyngeal arch-derived skeleton.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Mary E; Nguyen, Van; McCarthy, Neil Q; Eberhart, Johann K

    2012-09-01

    The proper function of the craniofacial skeleton requires the proper shaping of many individual skeletal elements. Neural crest cells generate much of the craniofacial skeleton and morphogenesis of skeletal elements occurs in transient, reiterated structures termed pharyngeal arches. The shape of individual elements depends upon intrinsic patterning within the neural crest as well as extrinsic signals to the neural crest from adjacent tissues within the arches. Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is known to play roles in craniofacial development, yet its involvement in intrinsic and extrinsic patterning of the craniofacial skeleton is still not well understood. Here, we show that morphogenetic movements of the pharyngeal arches and patterning of the neural crest require Hh signaling. Loss of Hh signaling, in smoothened (smo) mutants, disrupts the expression of some Dlx genes as well as other markers of dorsal/ventral patterning of the neural crest. Transplantation of wild-type neural crest cells into smo mutants rescues this defect, demonstrating that the neural crest requires reception of Hh signals for proper patterning. Despite the rescue, morphogenesis of the facial skeleton is not fully recovered. Through transplant analyses, we find two additional requirements for Hh signaling. The endoderm requires the reception of Hh signals for proper morphogenetic movements of the pharyngeal arches and the neural crest require the reception of Hh signaling for the activity of a reverse signal that maintains sonic hedgehog expression in the endoderm. Collectively, these results demonstrate that Hh signaling is essential to establish intrinsic and extrinsic patterning information for the craniofacial skeleton.

  15. [Rapid antigen detection tests for group A streptococcus in children with pharyngitis].

    PubMed

    Cohen, J; Levy, C; Chalumeau, M; Bidet, Ph; Cohen, R

    2014-11-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) is the most frequently identified bacterium in children with acute pharyngitis. Clinical signs and symptoms cannot distinguish accurately between viral and GAS pharyngitis. Rapid antigen detection tests (RADTs) can identify GAS by an immunologic reaction within a few minutes. Compared to throat culture, most RADTs have a high specificity (around 95 %), allowing antibiotic prescribing on the basis of a positive RADT result. Similarly, the negative predictive value of RADTs seems sufficiently high (around 95 %) to ensure against the presence of GAS in case of a negative RADT result. Among several factors affecting RADT sensitivity, the training and expertise of the person performing the test and the quality of the throat swab specimen seem to be key determinants. Available evidence suggests that clinical prediction rules for the triage of children who should undergo GAS testing are not sufficiently accurate. Implementing RADTs into clinical practice has an important impact on antibiotic prescription rates, for a reduction of about 30 %. French guidelines that recommend using RADTs in all children above 3 years of age presenting with pharyngitis without backup culture of negative tests seem relevant in this context.

  16. Mucosal vaccine made from live, recombinant Lactococcus lactis protects mice against pharyngeal infection with Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Mannam, Praveen; Jones, Kevin F; Geller, Bruce L

    2004-06-01

    A novel vaccine (LL-CRR) made from live, nonpathogenic Lactococcus lactis that expresses the conserved C-repeat region (CRR) of M protein from Streptococcus pyogenes serotype 6 was tested in mice. Nasally vaccinated mice produced CRR-specific salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) and serum IgG. Subcutaneously vaccinated mice produced CRR-specific serum IgG but not salivary IgA. A combined regimen produced responses similar to the salivary IgA of nasally vaccinated mice and serum IgG of subcutaneously vaccinated mice. Mice vaccinated nasally or with the combined regimen were significantly protected against pharyngeal infection following a nasal challenge with S. pyogenes M serotype 14. Mice vaccinated subcutaneously were not protected against pharyngeal infection. Mice in all three LL-CRR vaccination groups were significantly protected against the lethal effects of S. pyogenes. Only 1 of 77 challenged mice that were vaccinated with LL-CRR died, whereas 60 of 118 challenged mice that were vaccinated with a control strain or phosphate-buffered saline died. In conclusion, mucosal vaccination with LL-CRR produced CRR-specific salivary IgA and serum IgG, prevented pharyngeal infection with S. pyogenes, and promoted survival.

  17. Central regulation of the pharyngeal and upper esophageal reflexes during swallowing in the Japanese eel.

    PubMed

    Mukuda, Takao; Ando, Masaaki

    2010-02-01

    We investigated the regulation of the pharyngeal and upper esophageal reflexes during swallowing in eel. By retrograde tracing from the muscles, the motoneurons of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) were located caudally within the mid-region of the glossopharyngeal-vagal motor complex (mGVC). In contrast, the motoneurons innervating the pharyngeal wall were localized medially within mGVC. Sensory pharyngeal fibers in the vagal nerve terminated in the caudal region of the viscerosensory column (cVSC). Using the isolated brain, we recorded 51 spontaneously active neurons within mGVC. These neurons could be divided into rhythmically (n = 8) and continuously (n = 43) firing units. The rhythmically firing neurons seemed to be restricted medially, whereas the continuously firing neurons were found caudally within mGVC. The rhythmically firing neurons were activated by the stimulation of the cVSC. In contrast, the stimulation of the cVSC inhibited firing of most, but not all the continuously firing neurons. The inhibitory effect was blocked by prazosin in 17 out of 38 neurons. Yohimbine also blocked the cVSC-induced inhibition in five of prazosin-sensitive neurons. We suggest that the neurons in cVSC inhibit the continuously firing motoneurons to relax the UES and stimulate the rhythmically firing neurons to constrict the pharynx simultaneously.

  18. Group A Streptococcus pharyngitis outbreak among university students in a judo club.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Akiko; Ashizawa, Tatsuto; Ebata, Akira; Nasu, Yutaka; Fujii, Takeshi

    2014-03-01

    We report on an outbreak of Group A Streptococcus (GAS) pharyngitis among university students in a judo club. Eventually, 14 of total 23 club members developed acute pharyngitis clinically. In a span of 15 days in April 2013, 12 students visited our hospital complaining of sore throat and high fever. All were men with a median age of 19.5 years (interquartile range, 18-21). The rapid streptococcal antigen test was positive in 3 of 4 patients (75%) without previous antibiotic treatment, and in 2 of 8 patients (25%) with previous antibiotic treatment. The definitive diagnosis of GAS pharyngitis was made by either a positive RADT or positive throat culture of GAS when patients had more than 2 findings from the Centor scoring system in this study. 5 students received the definitive diagnosis. The throat culture results showed that 1 out of 9 asymptomatic students was GAS-positive. The outbreak might have occurred by person-to-person contact while living in a dormitory and during judo training, which is a highly close-contact sport. However, there was also the possibility of oral transmission by the shared use of water bottles, although the culture from 1 bottle was negative. Some students continued to participate in the judo club activities after the onset of sore throat or fever. Healthcare professionals, teachers, and coaches should be aware of the potential outbreaks of infectious diseases among university students engaged in athletic activities. Furthermore, it is important to educate athletes about infectious diseases.

  19. Hh signaling regulates patterning and morphogenesis of the pharyngeal arch-derived skeleton

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Mary E.; Nguyen, Van; McCarthy, Neil Q.

    2012-01-01

    The proper function of the craniofacial skeleton requires the proper shaping of many individual skeletal elements. Neural crest cells generate much of the craniofacial skeleton and morphogenesis of skeletal elements occurs in transient, reiterated structures termed pharyngeal arches. The shape of individual elements depends upon intrinsic patterning within the neural crest as well as extrinsic signals to the neural crest from adjacent tissues within the arches. Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is known to play roles in craniofacial development, yet its involvement in intrinsic and extrinsic patterning of the craniofacial skeleton is still not well understood. Here, we show that morphogenetic movements of the pharyngeal arches and patterning of the neural crest require Hh signaling. Loss of Hh signaling, in smoothened (smo) mutants, disrupts the expression of some Dlx genes as well as other markers of dorsal/ventral patterning of the neural crest. Transplantation of wild-type neural crest cells into smo mutants rescues this defect, demonstrating that the neural crest requires reception of Hh signals for proper patterning. Despite the rescue, morphogenesis of the facial skeleton is not fully recovered. Through transplant analyses, we find two additional requirements for Hh signaling. The endoderm requires the reception of Hh signals for proper morphogenetic movements of the pharyngeal arches and the neural crest require the reception of Hh signaling for the activity of a reverse signal that maintains sonic hedgehog expression in the endoderm. Collectively, these results demonstrate that Hh signaling is essential to establish intrinsic and extrinsic patterning information for the craniofacial skeleton. PMID:22709972

  20. barx1 is necessary for ectomesenchyme proliferation and osteochondroprogenitor condensation in the zebrafish pharyngeal arches

    PubMed Central

    Sperber, Steven M.; Dawid, Igor B.

    2009-01-01

    Barx1 modulates cellular adhesion molecule expression and participates in specification of tooth-types, but little is understood of its role in patterning the pharyngeal arches. We examined barx1 expression during zebrafish craniofacial development and performed a functional analysis using morpholino oligonucleotides. Barx1 is expressed in the rhombencephalic neural crest, the pharyngeal arches, the pectoral fin buds and the gut in contrast to its paralogue barx2, which is most prominently expressed in the arch epithelium. Additionally, barx1 transient expression was observed in the posterior lateral line ganglia and developing trunk/tail. We show that Barx1 is necessary for proliferation of the arch osteochondrogenic progenitors, and that morphants exhibit diminished and dysmorphic arch cartilage elements due to reductions in chondrocyte differentiation and condensation. Attenuation of Barx1 results in lost arch expression of osteochondrogenic markers col2a1, runx2a and chondromodulin, as well as odontogenic marker dlx2b. Further, loss of barx1 positively influenced gdf5 and chordin, markers of jaw joint patterning. FGF signaling is required for maintaining barx1 expression, and that ectopic BMP4 induces expression of barx1 in the intermediate region of the second pharyngeal arch. Together, these results indicate an essential role for barx1 at early stages of chondrogenesis within the developing zebrafish viscerocranium. PMID:18590717

  1. Three-dimensional assessment of pharyngeal airway in nasal- and mouth-breathing children.

    PubMed

    Alves, Matheus; Baratieri, Carolina; Nojima, Lincoln I; Nojima, Matilde C G; Ruellas, Antônio C O

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the pharyngeal airway space (PAS) in nasal and mouth-breathing children using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Volume, area, minimum axial area and linear measurements (PAS-NL, PAS-UP, PAS-OccL, PAS-UT, PAS-Bgo, PAS-ML, PAS-TP) of the pharyngeal airway of 50 children (mean age 9.16 years) were obtained from the CBCT images. The means and standard deviations were compared according to sexes (28 male and 22 female) and breathers patterns (25 nasal breathers and 25 mouth breathers). There were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) between all variables when compared by sexes. Comparisons between nasal and mouth breathers showed significant differences only in two linear measurements: PAS-OccL (p<0.001) and PAS-UP (P<0.05). Airway volume (p<0.001), area (p<0.001) and minimum axial area (p<0.01) had significant differences between the groups. The CBCT evaluation showed that pharyngeal airway dimensions were significantly greater in nasal-breathers than in mouth-breathers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prospective evaluation of oro-pharyngeal dysphagia after severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Terré, Rosa; Mearin, Fermín

    2007-12-01

    To evaluate clinical, videofluoroscopic findings and clinical evolution of neurogenic dysphagia and to establish the prognostic factors. Prospective cohort study. Forty-eight patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and clinically-suspected oro-pharyngeal dysphagia were studied. Clinical evaluation of oro-pharyngeal dysphagia and videofluoroscopic examination were performed. Clinical evolution was based on feeding mode at discharge, the presence of respiratory complications and body mass index (BMI) at admission and at discharge. Sixty-five per cent of patients had impaired gag reflex and 44% cough during oral feeding. Videofluoroscopy revealed some type of disorder in 90% of cases: 65% in the oral phase and 73% in the pharyngeal phase (aspiration in 62.5%, being silent in 41%). At discharge, 45% were on normal diet, 27% on a modified oral diet, 14% combined oral intake and gastrostomy feeding and 14% were fed exclusively by gastrostomy. Feeding mode at discharge substantially correlated with RLCF score at admission (p=0.04) and with RLCF (p=0.009) and DRS (p=0.02) scores at discharge. Aspiration is very frequent in patients with severe TBI, being silent in almost half. Cognitive function evaluated with the RLCF is the best prognostic factor. At discharge, 72% of the patients were on oral food intake despite having severe TBI.

  3. Usefulness of Leukocyte Esterase Test Versus Rapid Strep Test for Diagnosis of Acute Strep Pharyngitis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A study to compare the usage of throat swab testing for leukocyte esterase on a test strip(urine dip stick-multi stick) to rapid strep test for rapid diagnosis of Group A Beta hemolytic streptococci in cases of acute pharyngitis in children. Hypothesis: The testing of throat swab for leukocyte esterase on test strip currently used for urine testing may be used to detect throat infection and might be as useful as rapid strep. Methods: All patients who come with a complaint of sore throat and fever were examined clinically for erythema of pharynx, tonsils and also for any exudates. Informed consent was obtained from the parents and assent from the subjects. 3 swabs were taken from pharyngo-tonsillar region, testing for culture, rapid strep & Leukocyte Esterase. Results: Total number is 100. Cultures 9(+); for rapid strep== 84(-) and16 (+); For LE== 80(-) and 20(+) Statistics: From data configuration Rapid Strep versus LE test don’t seem to be a random (independent) assignment but extremely aligned. The Statistical results show rapid and LE show very agreeable results. Calculated Value of Chi Squared Exceeds Tabulated under 1 Degree Of Freedom (P<.0.0001) reject Null Hypothesis and Conclude Alternative Conclusions: Leukocyte esterase on throat swab is as useful as rapid strep test for rapid diagnosis of strep pharyngitis on test strip currently used for urine dip stick causing acute pharyngitis in children. PMID:27335975

  4. Usefulness of Leukocyte Esterase Test Versus Rapid Strep Test for Diagnosis of Acute Strep Pharyngitis.

    PubMed

    Nibhanipudi, Kumara V

    2015-01-01

    A study to compare the usage of throat swab testing for leukocyte esterase on a test strip(urine dip stick-multi stick) to rapid strep test for rapid diagnosis of Group A Beta hemolytic streptococci in cases of acute pharyngitis in children. The testing of throat swab for leukocyte esterase on test strip currently used for urine testing may be used to detect throat infection and might be as useful as rapid strep. All patients who come with a complaint of sore throat and fever were examined clinically for erythema of pharynx, tonsils and also for any exudates. Informed consent was obtained from the parents and assent from the subjects. 3 swabs were taken from pharyngo-tonsillar region, testing for culture, rapid strep & Leukocyte Esterase. Total number is 100. Cultures 9(+); for rapid strep== 84(-) and16 (+); For LE== 80(-) and 20(+) From data configuration Rapid Strep versus LE test don't seem to be a random (independent) assignment but extremely aligned. The Statistical results show rapid and LE show very agreeable results. Calculated Value of Chi Squared Exceeds Tabulated under 1 Degree Of Freedom (P<.0.0001) reject Null HYPOTHESIS and Conclude Alternative Conclusions: Leukocyte esterase on throat swab is as useful as rapid strep test for rapid diagnosis of strep pharyngitis on test strip currently used for urine dip stick causing acute pharyngitis in children.

  5. Developmental changes in pharyngeal swallowing acoustics: a comparison of adults and children.

    PubMed

    Hennessey, Neville W; Fisher, Gemma; Ciccone, Natalie

    2017-05-19

    This study examined developmental differences in the acoustics of pharyngeal swallowing. Thirty-one young children (M = 4.5 years) and 29 adults (M = 22.5 years) were recorded swallowing thin liquid and puree boluses. In comparison with adults, children showed longer total swallow sound duration and duration to peak intensity, as well as greater variability in the duration to peak intensity and mean of the averaged spectrum in Hz. Thin and puree boluses differed in measures of duration, intensity and frequency of the averaged sound spectrum, although these effects did not interact with age. The increased variability in swallowing observed in children paralleled that found in acoustic measures of vowel formants, although speech and swallowing acoustic measures were uncorrelated. Using Formant 2 frequency as a proxy measure of vocal tract length, the age differences in swallowing acoustics appear to be independent of physical size, although associations between duration to peak intensity and pharyngeal size warrant further investigation. These findings suggest acoustic measures of swallowing are sensitive to developmental status, possibly reflecting ongoing refinement of the pharyngeal swallow across childhood, and support continued research into the use of digital cervical auscultation as a tool to assess the efficiency and stability of the swallowing neuromuscular control system in children and adults.

  6. Ambient ozone and bacterium Streptococcus: A link between cellulitis and pharyngitis.

    PubMed

    Valacchi, Giuseppe; Porada, Eugeniusz; Rowe, Brian H

    2015-01-01

    Ambient air pollution, as many publications indicate, may have associations with skin condition. The aim of this study has been to examine such common relations for cellulitis and pharyngitis. The hypothesis is that ambient ground-level ozone may help bacteria to penetrate skin or throat. We used the emergency department (ED) visits data in Edmonton, Canada for the period from 1992 (April) to 2002 (March). We retrieved all the diagnosed ED visits for cellulitis and pharyngitis. Case-crossover design was used to study potential association between ozone and those visits. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The results are reported for the interquartile range (IQR = 17.9 ppb) for 8 h maximum ozone. Positive and statistical significant results were obtained as follows: for lags from 0 to 3 (OR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.03-1.12, lag 2); for lags from 0 to 6 days (OR = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.03-1.12, lag 3); for lags from 0 to 4 (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.03-1.09, for lag 2 and 3). The findings suggest the response to exposure to ambient ground-level ozone for skin and pharyngitis considered separately and jointly. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  7. Intranasal immunization with lipoteichoic acid and cholera toxin evokes specific pharyngeal IgA and systemic IgG responses and inhibits streptococcal adherence to pharyngeal epithelial cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Yuji; Harabuchi, Yasuaki

    2002-05-15

    Streptococcus (S.) pyogenes is common cause of acute tonsillitis. Lipoteichoic acid (LTA), which is a common constitute of the cell surface of most gram positive bacteria, is known to act as a substance of bacterial site for adherence to epithelium and antiserum to LTA is reported to inhibit bacterial attachment to epithelial cells in vitro. Cholera toxin subunit B (CT-B) is known to be a mucosal adjuvant. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether intranasal immunization with LTA and CT-B may be a possible candidate for vaccine formulation. Six-week-old male BALB/c mice were assigned to three experimental groups, mice immunized with LTA and CT-B, with LTA alone and with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) as a control. Immunizations were performed intranasally every 2 days for 2 weeks in every group. At the 21 days after immunization, sera, pharyngeal washings and pharyngeal epithelial cells were taken. The levels of serum IgG and pharyngeal IgA antibodies to LTA were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The adherence rates of S. pyogenes pretreated by pharyngeal washings to pharyngeal epithelial cells from the mice were determined by in vitro adherence assay. The serum anti-LTA IgG antibody levels of either mice immunized with LTA and CT-B or mice immunized with LTA alone were significantly higher than those of mice administered with PBS alone. The pharyngeal anti-LTA IgA antibody levels of the mice immunized with LTA and CT-B were significantly higher than those of either mice with LTA alone or mice with PBS alone. The streptococcal adherence rates to pharyngeal epithelial cells were significantly decreased by pretreatment with pharyngeal washings from the mice immunized with LTA and CT-B as compared with pretreatment with those from either mice with PBS or mice with LTA alone. These data shows that intranasal immunization with LTA and CT-B evokes a good pharyngeal IgA response as well as systemic IgG response to LTA and inhibits

  8. Influence of Phytase Transgenic Corn on the Intestinal Microflora and the Fate of Transgenic DNA and Protein in Digesta and Tissues of Broilers.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lin; Guo, Jiang; Li, Sufen; Li, Ang; Zhang, Liyang; Liu, Zhenhua; Luo, Xugang

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of phytase transgenic corn (PTC) on intestinal microflora, and the fate of transgenic DNA and protein in the digesta and tissues of broilers. A total of 160 1-day-old Arbor Acres commercial male broilers were randomly assigned to 20 cages (8 chicks per cage) with 10 cages (replicates) for each treatment. Birds were fed with a diet containing either PTC (54.0% during 1-21 days and 61.0% during 22-42 days) or non-transgenic isogenic control corn (CC) for a duration of 42 days. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between birds fed with the PTC diets and those fed with the CC diets in the quantities of aerobic bacteria, anaerobic bacteria, colibacillus and lactobacilli, or microbial diversities in the contents of ileum and cecum. Transgenic phyA2 DNA was not detected, but phyA2 protein was detected in the digesta of duodenum and jejunum of broilers fed with the PTC diets. Both transgenic phyA2 DNA and protein fragments were not found in the digesta of the ileum and rectum, heart, liver, kidney, and breast or thigh muscles of broilers fed with the PTC diets. It was concluded that PTC had no adverse effect on the quantity and diversity of gut microorganisms; Transgenic phyA2 DNA or protein was rapidly degraded in the intestinal tract and was not transferred to the tissues of broilers.

  9. Effect of organic acids in drinking water for young broilers on Campylobacter infection, volatile fatty acid production, gut microflora and histological cell changes.

    PubMed

    Chaveerach, P; Keuzenkamp, D A; Lipman, L J A; Van Knapen, F

    2004-03-01

    Water is a prominent vehicle for Campylobacter spread throughout a chicken flock. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of organic acids administered through the drinking water, as a decontamination method, on gut microflora and the development of lesions in the gastrointestinal tracts of young broilers inoculated with 2 different doses of Campylobacter. The results revealed that most of the chickens were infected with Campylobacter at the end of the experiment. The drinking water was free of Campylobacter throughout the study. No difference of volatile fatty acid levels between treatment and control groups was observed in the crop and cecal contents. In the cecal contents, the total aerobic bacteria numbers were significantly higher in the treatment groups compared with the control groups (P < 0.01 and P < 0.04, respectively). Moreover, no damaged epithelial cells were observed in the chicken gut due to consumption of acidified drinking water. Acidified drinking water could therefore play a crucial role in a biosecurity strategy of preventing Campylobacter spread via drinking water in broiler flocks.

  10. Influence of Phytase Transgenic Corn on the Intestinal Microflora and the Fate of Transgenic DNA and Protein in Digesta and Tissues of Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sufen; Li, Ang; Zhang, Liyang; Liu, Zhenhua; Luo, Xugang

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of phytase transgenic corn (PTC) on intestinal microflora, and the fate of transgenic DNA and protein in the digesta and tissues of broilers. A total of 160 1-day-old Arbor Acres commercial male broilers were randomly assigned to 20 cages (8 chicks per cage) with 10 cages (replicates) for each treatment. Birds were fed with a diet containing either PTC (54.0% during 1–21 days and 61.0% during 22–42 days) or non-transgenic isogenic control corn (CC) for a duration of 42 days. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between birds fed with the PTC diets and those fed with the CC diets in the quantities of aerobic bacteria, anaerobic bacteria, colibacillus and lactobacilli, or microbial diversities in the contents of ileum and cecum. Transgenic phyA2 DNA was not detected, but phyA2 protein was detected in the digesta of duodenum and jejunum of broilers fed with the PTC diets. Both transgenic phyA2 DNA and protein fragments were not found in the digesta of the ileum and rectum, heart, liver, kidney, and breast or thigh muscles of broilers fed with the PTC diets. It was concluded that PTC had no adverse effect on the quantity and diversity of gut microorganisms; Transgenic phyA2 DNA or protein was rapidly degraded in the intestinal tract and was not transferred to the tissues of broilers. PMID:26599444

  11. Effect of low-dose (1 kGy) gamma radiation and selected phosphates on the microflora of vacuum-packaged ground pork

    SciTech Connect

    Ehioba, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of low-dose (1 kGy) gamma radiation and selected phosphates on the microbiology of refrigerated, vacuum-packaged ground pork were studied. Low-dose gamma radiation reduced the numbers of naturally occurring mesophiles, psychrotrophs, and anaerobes. The effect of low-dose radiation on the populations of lactic acid bacteria was minimal. On storage of the irradiated vacuum-packaged ground pork at 5/sup 0/C, there was a partial bacterial recovery, suggesting sublethal bacterial injury due to irradiation. When 10/sup 7/ CFU/g of meat is taken to be the level beyond which the meat would be considered spoiled, uninoculated, vacuum-packaged ground pork treated with 1 kGy (100 krad) of gamma radiation had 3.5 more days of shelf-life in terms of psychrotrophic total counts. In relation to anaerobic bacterial numbers, meat shelf-life was extended 2.5 days, while the shelf-life of meat was extended 1 day in terms of aerobic mesophilic bacteria. Irradiation prolonged shelf-life in inoculated (10/sup 5/CFU/g) meat for 1.0-1.5 days. Addition of 0.4% sodium acid pyrophosphate (SAPP) contributed 2 additional days to inoculated, irradiated vacuum-packaged ground pork shelf-life. However, SAPP had no added effect on naturally occurring microflora. Irradiation greatly decreased the numbers of gram-negative microorganisms, resulting in predominance of the gram-positive, nonsporeforming Lactobacillus and coryneform bacteria.

  12. Aerobic Fitness for the Moderately Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Dan

    1981-01-01

    Intended for physical education teachers, the booklet offers ideas for incorporating aerobic conditioning into programs for moderately mentally retarded students. An explanation of aerobic fitness and its benefits is followed by information on initiating a fitness program with evaluation of height, weight, body fat, resting heart rate, and…

  13. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  14. Aerobic Dancing--A Rhythmic Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Jacki

    Fitness programs now and in the future must offer built-in cardiovascular conditioning, variety, novelty, and change to meet the physical, mental, and emotional needs of our society. Aerobic dancing (dancing designed to train and strengthen the heart, lungs, and vascular system) is one of the first indoor group Aerobic exercise programs designed…

  15. Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy after Aerobic Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Adam R.; Harber, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Current dogma suggests aerobic exercise training has minimal effect on skeletal muscle size. We and others have demonstrated that aerobic exercise acutely and chronically alters protein metabolism and induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy. These findings promote an antithesis to the status quo by providing novel perspective on skeletal muscle mass regulation and insight into exercise-countermeasures for populations prone to muscle loss. PMID:24508740

  16. Aerobic Dancing--A Rhythmic Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Jacki

    Fitness programs now and in the future must offer built-in cardiovascular conditioning, variety, novelty, and change to meet the physical, mental, and emotional needs of our society. Aerobic dancing (dancing designed to train and strengthen the heart, lungs, and vascular system) is one of the first indoor group Aerobic exercise programs designed…

  17. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy after aerobic exercise training.

    PubMed

    Konopka, Adam R; Harber, Matthew P

    2014-04-01

    Current dogma suggests that aerobic exercise training has minimal effects on skeletal muscle size. We and others have demonstrated that aerobic exercise acutely and chronically alters protein metabolism and induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy. These findings promote an antithesis to the status quo by providing novel perspective on skeletal muscle mass regulation and insight into exercise countermeasures for populations prone to muscle loss.

  18. Clinical analysis of pharyngeal musculature and genioglossus exercising to treat obstructive sleep apnea and hypopnea syndrome*#

    PubMed Central

    TANG, Shi-xiong; QING, Jing; WANG, Yao-wen; CHAI, Liang; ZHANG, Wei-min; Ye, Xian-wang; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Yi-qin; Cheng, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of pharyngeal musculature and genioglossus exercising on obstructive sleep apnea and hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). Methods: We conducted a non-randomized retrospective clinical trial of 75 patients with OSAHS. Fifty-four patients were managed by exercising of the pharyngeal musculature and genioglossus (exercising group). Twenty-one patients, who refused to undertake any treatment, were defined as the control group. We took the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), checked patients’ polysomnography, and took 320 detector computed tomography (CT) before treatment. Six and twelve months later, we made records of apnea hypopnea index (AHI), lowest arterial oxygen saturation (LSaO2), body mass index (BMI), the shortest sagittal diameter, and transverse diameter, and the effective rates of exercising were calculated and compared with the 21 patients without any treatment (control group) at the same time. SPSS 10.0 was used to analyze the data. Results: Before treatment, the ESS value was 7.67; 6 and 12 months later, the values were 3.54 and 3.25, respectively in the exercising group. AHI was decreased to 15.36 after 6 months and 13.79 after 12 months from 22.84 at the beginning. LSaO2 values were up to 81.18% after 6 months and 81.93% after 12 months from 74.05% at the beginning. There were significant differences in ESS scores, AHI, and LSaO2 between pre-treatment and post-treatment in the exercising group (P<0.05). However, there was no statistical difference in all the parameters between 6 and 12 months of exercising. The effective rates were 70.37% and 74.07% after 6- and 12-month exercising, respectively. There were significant differences between the exercising and control groups (P<0.0001). There was no statistical difference in the effective rate of the exercising group between 6 and 12 months of exercising (P>0.05). At 12 months of exercising, the compliance of the anteroposterior pharyngeal wall of the retropalatal area was lower (P

  19. The Yale Pharyngeal Residue Severity Rating Scale: An Anatomically Defined and Image-Based Tool.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Paul D; Rademaker, Alfred W; Leder, Steven B

    2015-10-01

    The Yale Pharyngeal Residue Severity Rating Scale was developed, standardized, and validated to provide reliable, anatomically defined, and image-based assessment of post-swallow pharyngeal residue severity as observed during fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES). It is a five-point ordinal rating scale based on residue location (vallecula and pyriform sinus) and amount (none, trace, mild, moderate, and severe). Two expert judges reviewed a total of 261 FEES evaluations and selected a no residue exemplar and three exemplars each of trace, mild, moderate, and severe vallecula and pyriform sinus residue. Hard-copy color images of the no residue, 12 vallecula, and 12 pyriform sinus exemplars were randomized by residue location for hierarchical categorization by 20 raters with a mean of 8.3 years of experience (range 2-27 years) performing and interpreting FEES. Severity ratings for all images were performed by the same 20 raters, 2 weeks apart, and with the order of image presentations randomized. Intra-rater test-retest reliability, inter-rater reliability, and construct validity were determined by pooled multi-category multi-rater kappa statistics. Residue ratings were excellent for intra-rater reliability for vallecula (kappa = 0.957 ± 0.014) and pyriform sinus (kappa = 0.854 ± 0.021); very good to excellent for inter-rater reliability for vallecula (kappa = 0.868 ± 0.011) and pyriform sinus (kappa = 0.751 ± 0.011); and excellent for validity for vallecula (kappa = 0.951 ± 0.014) and pyriform sinus (kappa = 0.908 ± 0.017). Clinical uses include accurate classification of vallecula and pyriform sinus residue severity patterns as none, trace, mild, moderate, or severe for diagnostic purposes, determination of functional therapeutic change, and precise dissemination of shared information. Scientific uses include tracking outcome measures, demonstrating efficacy of interventions to reduce pharyngeal residue, investigating morbidity and mortality

  20. Lidocaine spray alone is similar to spray plus viscous solution for pharyngeal observation during transoral endoscopy: a clinical randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Tomoyuki; Asahina, Yoshiro; Waseda, Yohei; Kitamura, Kazuya; Kagaya, Takashi; Seike, Takuya; Okada, Kazuhiro; Inada, Yuki; Takabatake, Hisashi; Orita, Noriaki; Yanase, Yuko; Yamashita, Tatsuya; Ninomiya, Itasu; Yoshimura, Kenichi; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2017-01-01

    Background and study aims It is important to examine the pharynx during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Pharyngeal anesthesia using topical lidocaine is generally used as pretreatment. In Japan, lidocaine viscous solution is the anesthetic of choice, but lidocaine spray is applied when the former is considered insufficient. However, the relationship between the extent of pharyngeal anesthesia and accuracy of observation is unclear. We compared the performance of lidocaine spray alone versus lidocaine spray combined with lidocaine viscous solution for pharyngeal observation during transoral endoscopy. Patients and methods In this prospective, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial conducted between January and March 2015, 327 patients were randomly assigned to lidocaine spray alone (spray group, n = 157) or a combination of spray and viscous solution (combination group, n = 170). We compared the number of pharyngeal observable sites (non-inferiority test), pain by visual analogue scale, observation time, and the number of gag reflexes between the two groups. Results The mean number of images of suitable quality taken at the observable pharyngeal sites in the spray group was 8.33 (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 7.94 – 8.72) per patient, and 8.77 (95 % CI: 8.49 – 9.05) per patient in the combination group. The difference in the number of observable pharyngeal sites was – 0.44 (95 % CI: – 0.84 to – 0.03, P = 0.01). There were no differences in pain, observation time, or number of gag reflexes between the 2 groups. Subgroup analysis of the presence of sedation revealed no differences between the two groups for the number of pharyngeal observation sites and the number of gag reflexes. However, the number of gag reflexes was higher in the spray group compared to the combination group in a subgroup analysis that looked at the absence of sedation. Conclusions Lidocaine spray for pharyngeal anesthesia was not

  1. In vitro selection of enteric microflora for potential use as a competitive exclusion culture against Campylobacter in poultry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The administration of nonpathogenic microflora in neonatal poultry has been employed to reduce or eliminate the colonization of enteric pathogens. This concept, also called competitive exclusion (CE), although effective against Salmonella, has not consistently worked against Campylobacter. Most CE...

  2. NK4 Antagonizes Tbx1/10 to Promote Cardiac versus Pharyngeal Muscle Fate in the Ascidian Second Heart Field

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Razy-Krajka, Florian; Siu, Eric; Ketcham, Alexandra; Christiaen, Lionel

    2013-01-01

    The heart and head muscles share common developmental origins and genetic underpinnings in vertebrates, including humans. Parts of the heart and cranio-facial musculature derive from common mesodermal progenitors that express NKX2-5, ISL1, and TBX1. This ontogenetic kinship is dramatically reflected in the DiGeorge/Cardio-Velo-Facial syndrome (DGS/CVFS), where mutations of TBX1 cause malformations in the pharyngeal apparatus and cardiac outflow tract. Cardiac progenitors of the first heart field (FHF) do not require TBX1 and segregate precociously from common progenitors of the second heart field (SHF) and pharyngeal muscles. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that govern heart versus pharyngeal muscle specification within this lineage remain elusive. Here, we harness the simplicity of the ascidian larva to show that, following asymmetric cell division of common progenitors, NK4/NKX2-5 promotes GATAa/GATA4/5/6 expression and cardiac specification in the second heart precursors by antagonizing Tbx1/10-mediated inhibition of GATAa and activation of Collier/Olf/EBF (COE), the determinant of atrial siphon muscle (ASM) specification. Our results uncover essential regulatory connections between the conserved cardio-pharyngeal factor Tbx1/10 and muscle determinant COE, as well as a mutual antagonism between NK4 and Tbx1/10 activities upstream of GATAa and COE. The latter cross-antagonism underlies a fundamental heart versus pharyngeal muscle fate choice that occurs in a conserved lineage of cardio-pharyngeal progenitors. We propose that this basic ontogenetic motif underlies cardiac and pharyngeal muscle development and evolution in chordates. PMID:24311985

  3. NK4 antagonizes Tbx1/10 to promote cardiac versus pharyngeal muscle fate in the ascidian second heart field.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Razy-Krajka, Florian; Siu, Eric; Ketcham, Alexandra; Christiaen, Lionel

    2013-12-01

    The heart and head muscles share common developmental origins and genetic underpinnings in vertebrates, including humans. Parts of the heart and cranio-facial musculature derive from common mesodermal progenitors that express NKX2-5, ISL1, and TBX1. This ontogenetic kinship is dramatically reflected in the DiGeorge/Cardio-Velo-Facial syndrome (DGS/CVFS), where mutations of TBX1 cause malformations in the pharyngeal apparatus and cardiac outflow tract. Cardiac progenitors of the first heart field (FHF) do not require TBX1 and segregate precociously from common progenitors of the second heart field (SHF) and pharyngeal muscles. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that govern heart versus pharyngeal muscle specification within this lineage remain elusive. Here, we harness the simplicity of the ascidian larva to show that, following asymmetric cell division of common progenitors, NK4/NKX2-5 promotes GATAa/GATA4/5/6 expression and cardiac specification in the second heart precursors by antagonizing Tbx1/10-mediated inhibition of GATAa and activation of Collier/Olf/EBF (COE), the determinant of atrial siphon muscle (ASM) specification. Our results uncover essential regulatory connections between the conserved cardio-pharyngeal factor Tbx1/10 and muscle determinant COE, as well as a mutual antagonism between NK4 and Tbx1/10 activities upstream of GATAa and COE. The latter cross-antagonism underlies a fundamental heart versus pharyngeal muscle fate choice that occurs in a conserved lineage of cardio-pharyngeal progenitors. We propose that this basic ontogenetic motif underlies cardiac and pharyngeal muscle development and evolution in chordates.

  4. Effectiveness of Rehabilitative Balloon Swallowing Treatment on Upper Esophageal Sphincter Relaxation and Pharyngeal Motility for Neurogenic Dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Kyun; Choi, Sung Sik; Choi, Jung Hwa; Yoon, Jeong-Gyu

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the relationship between dysphagia severity and opening of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES), and to assess the effect of balloon size on functional improvement after rehabilitative balloon swallowing treatment in patients with severe dysphagia with cricopharyngeus muscle dysfunction (CPD). We reviewed videofluoroscopic swallowing studies (VFSS) conducted in the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Myongji Hospital from January through December in 2012. All subjects diagnosed with CPD by VFSS further swallowed a 16-Fr Foley catheter filled with barium sulfate suspension for three to five minutes. We measured the maximum diameter of the balloon that a patient could swallow into the esophagus and subsequently conducted a second VFSS. Then, we applied a statistical technique to correlate the balloon diameter with functional improvement after the balloon treatment. Among 283 inpatients who received VFSS, 21 subjects were diagnosed with CPD. It was observed that the degree of UES opening evaluated by swallowing a catheter balloon had inverse linear correlations with pharyngeal transit time and post-swallow pharyngeal remnant. Videofluoroscopy guided iterative balloon swallowing treatment for three to five minutes, significantly improved the swallowing ability in terms of pharyngeal transit time and pharyngeal remnant (p<0.005 and p<0.001, respectively). Correlation was seen between balloon size and reduction in pharyngeal remnants after balloon treatment (Pearson correlation coefficient R=-0.729, p<0.001), whereas there was no definite relationship between balloon size and improvement in pharyngeal transit time (R=-0.078, p=0.738). The maximum size of the balloon that a patient with CPD can swallow possibly indicates the maximum UES opening. The iterative balloon swallowing treatment is safe without the risk of aspiration, and it can be an effective technique to improve both pharyngeal motility and UES relaxation.

  5. Does upper premolar extraction affect the changes of pharyngeal airway volume after bimaxillary surgery in skeletal class III patients?

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Ah; Park, Yang-Ho

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the pharyngeal airway volume change after bimaxillary surgery in patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion and evaluate the difference in postoperative pharyngeal airway space between upper premolar extraction cases and nonextraction cases. Cone-beam computed tomographic scans were obtained for 23 patients (13 in extraction group and 10 in nonextraction group) who were diagnosed with mandibular prognathism before surgery (T0) and then 2 months (T2) and 6 months after surgery (T3). Using InVivoDental 3-dimensional imaging software, volumetric changes in the pharyngeal airway space were assessed at T0, T2, and T3. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to determine whether there were significant changes in pharyngeal airway volume between time points. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to determine whether there were significant differences in volumetric changes between the extraction and nonextraction groups. Volumes in all subsections of the pharyngeal airway were decreased (P < .05) except for changes in the oropharyngeal airway volume in the nonextraction group from T0 to T2. There were significant differences between the extraction and nonextraction groups in the changes of oro- and total pharyngeal airway volumes from T0 to T3. The null hypothesis was rejected. The extraction of upper premolars rather than nonextraction decreased the pharyngeal airway space more in patients with mandibular prognathism who planned to have bimaxillary surgery. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Bioremediation of oil-polluted soil with an association including the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus and soil microflora].

    PubMed

    Pozdniakova, N N; Nikitina, V E; Turkovskaia, O V

    2008-01-01

    The possibility of application of the Pleurotus ostreatus D1-soil microflora to bioremediation of oil-polluted soils was studied. The fungus degraded mainly the aromatic fraction, whereas soil microflora intensely degraded paraffin and naphthene oil fractions. Introduction of the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus D to soil induces degradation of a wider range of oil hydrocarbons. It is reasonable to further investigate the discovered phenomenon in order to improve procedures of remediation of oil-polluted soils.

  7. Aerobic glycolysis and lymphocyte transformation

    PubMed Central

    Hume, David A.; Radik, Judith L.; Ferber, Ernst; Weidemann, Maurice J.

    1978-01-01

    1. The role of enhanced aerobic glycolysis in the transformation of rat thymocytes by concanavalin A has been investigated. Concanavalin A addition doubled [U-14C]glucose uptake by rat thymocytes over 3h and caused an equivalent increased incorporation into protein, lipids and RNA. A disproportionately large percentage of the extra glucose taken up was converted into lactate, but concanavalin A also caused a specific increase in pyruvate oxidation, leading to an increase in the percentage contribution of glucose to the respiratory fuel. 2. Acetoacetate metabolism, which was not affected by concanavalin A, strongly suppressed pyruvate oxidation in the presence of [U-14C]glucose, but did not prevent the concanavalin A-induced stimulation of this process. Glucose uptake was not affected by acetoacetate in the presence or absence of concanavalin A, but in each case acetoacetate increased the percentage of glucose uptake accounted for by lactate production. 3. [3H]Thymidine incorporation into DNA in concanavalin A-treated thymocyte cultures was sensitive to the glucose concentration in the medium in a biphasic manner. Very low concentrations of glucose (25μm) stimulated DNA synthesis half-maximally, but maximum [3H]thymidine incorporation was observed only when the glucose concentration was raised to 1mm. Lactate addition did not alter the sensitivity of [3H]-thymidine uptake to glucose, but inosine blocked the effect of added glucose and strongly inhibited DNA synthesis. 4. It is suggested that the major function of enhanced aerobic glycolysis in transforming lymphocytes is to maintain higher steady-state amounts of glycolytic intermediates to act as precursors for macromolecule synthesis. PMID:310305

  8. Aerobic scope in chicken embryos.

    PubMed

    Ide, Satoko T; Ide, Ryoji; Mortola, Jacopo P

    2017-10-01

    We investigated the aerobic scope of chicken embryos, that is, the margin of increase of oxygen consumption ( [Formula: see text] ) above its normal value. [Formula: see text] was measured by an open-flow methodology at embryonic ages E3, E7, E11, E15, E19 and at E20 at the internal (IP) and external pipping (EP) phases, at the normal incubation temperature (Ta=38°C), in hypothermia (Ta=30°C) and in hyperthermia (Ta=41 and 44°C). In the cold, Q10 averaged ~2 at all ages, except in IP and EP when lower values (~1.5) indicated some degree of thermogenesis. In hyperthermia (38-44°C) Q10 was between 1 and 1.4. Hyperthermia had no significant effects on [Formula: see text] whether the results combined all ages or considered individual age groups, except in IP (in which [Formula: see text] increased 8% with 44°C) and EP embryos (+13%). After opening the air cell, which exposed the embryo to a higher O2 pressure, hyperthermic [Formula: see text] was significantly higher than in normothermia in E19 (+13%), IP (+22%) and EP embryos (+22%). We conclude that in chicken embryos throughout most of incubation neither heat nor oxygen availability limits the normal (normoxic-normothermic) values of [Formula: see text] . Only close to hatching O2-diffusion represents a limiting factor to the embryo's [Formula: see text] . Hence, embryos differ from postnatal animals for a nearly absent aerobic scope, presumably because their major sources of energy expenditure (growth and tissue maintenance) are constantly maximized. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Aerobic fitness testing: an update.

    PubMed

    Stevens, N; Sykes, K

    1996-12-01

    This study confirms that all three tests are reliable tools for the assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness and the prediction of aerobic capacity. While this particular study consisted of active, youthful subjects, subsequent studies at University College Chester have found similar findings with larger databases and a wider cross-section of subjects. The Astrand cycle test and Chester step test are submaximal tests with error margins of 5-15 per cent and therefore, not as precise as maximal testing. However, they still give a reasonably accurate reflection of an individual's fitness without the cost, time, effort and risk on the part of the subject. The bleep test is a low-cost maximal test designed for well-motivated, active individuals who are used to running to physical exhaustion. Used on other groups, results will not accurately reflect cardiorespiratory fitness values. While all three tests have inherent advantages and disadvantages, perhaps the most important factors are the knowledge and skills of the tester. Without a sound understanding of the physiological principles underlying these tests, and the ability to conduct an accurate assessment and evaluation of results in a knowledgeable and meaningful way, then the credibility of the tests and the results become suspect. However, used correctly, aerobic capacity tests can provide valuable baseline data about the fitness levels of individuals and data from which exercise programmes may be developed. The tests also enable fitness improvements to be monitored, help to motivate participants by establishing reasonable and achievable goals, assist in risk stratification and facilitate participants' education about the importance of physical fitness for work and for life. Since this study was completed, further tests have been repeated on 140 subjects of a wider age and ability range. This large database confirms the results found in this study.

  10. The pharyngeal organ in the buccal cavity of the male Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, supplies mucus for building bubble nests.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chao-Kai; Lee, Tsung-Han

    2010-11-01

    The male Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, builds a bubble nest on the water surface to care for offspring during the reproductive period. To our knowledge, this study is the first to determine the composition of the bubble nest and to compare the pharyngeal organs of male and female Siamese fighting fish to determine the relationship between the pharyngeal organ and the ability to make bubble nests. Dot blots of the bubble nest probed with periodic acid-Schiff's (PAS) staining and Ponceau S solution revealed that the contents of the nest are glycoprotein rich. Dissection of the heads of Siamese fighting fish showed that the pharyngeal organ is located in the position through which inhaled air passes. The epithelial structure of the pharyngeal organ of the Siamese fighting fish, like that of other teleosts, has numerous wrinkles and papillae. Mucous goblet cells were observed on the epithelium of pharyngeal organs in male and female fish. The pharyngeal organ was found to be larger in male than in female fish. In addition, the epithelium of the pharyngeal organ in male fish has a greater number of mucous goblet cells than that in female fish. In Siamese fighting fish, this sexual dimorphism of the pharyngeal organ suggests that the male fish secretes more glycoprotein-rich mucus to build the bubble nest. Future work will focus on the type of mucous cells found in the epithelium of the pharyngeal organ that contributes to bubble formation and will determine the components of the mucus in the bubble nest.

  11. Transitions in oral and intestinal microflora composition and innate immune receptor-dependent stimulation during mouse development.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Mizuho; Osaka, Toshifumi; Tawaratsumida, Kazuki; Yamazaki, Takashi; Tada, Hiroyuki; Chen, Grace Y; Tsuneda, Satoshi; Núñez, Gabriel; Inohara, Naohiro

    2010-02-01

    Commensal bacteria possess immunostimulatory activities that can modulate host responses to affect development and homeostasis in the intestine. However, how different populations of resident bacteria stimulate the immune system remains largely unknown. We characterized here the ability of intestinal and oral microflora to stimulate individual pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in bone marrow-derived macrophages and mesothelial cells. The intestinal but not oral microflora elicited age- and cell type-specific immunostimulation. The immunostimulatory activity of the intestinal microflora varied among individual mice but was largely mediated via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) during breast-feeding, whereas it became TLR4 independent after weaning. This transition was associated with a change from a microflora rich in TLR4-stimulatory proteobacteria to one dominated by Bacteroidales and/or Clostridiales that poorly stimulate TLR4. The major stimulatory activity of the intestinal microflora was still intact in NOD1-, NOD2-, TLR2-, TLR4-, TLR5-, TLR9-, TLR11-, ASC-, or RICK-deficient cells but still relied on the adaptor MyD88. These studies demonstrate a transition in the intestinal microflora accompanied by a dynamic change of its ability to stimulate different PRRs which control intestinal homeostasis.

  12. [Basic patterns of microflora development in the environment of orbital complex Mir].

    PubMed

    Novikova, N D

    2001-01-01

    During the multi-year operation of orbital complex Mir a systematic survey of development and behavior of microflora was performed in order to assess the associated risks to the piloted vehicle. Microorganisms isolated from the Mir environment represented 234 species of which 108 were bacteria and 126 microscopic fungi. Bacteria included opportunistic pathogens causing opportunistic infections. There were also fungi that were pathogenic for humans leading to mycosis and mycotoxication. The largest species diversity was characteristic of fungi, so-called technophils damaging polymers and corroding metals. Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Corynebacterium Bacillus dominated among the bacteria and Penicullium, Aspergillus and Cladosporium were most common, omnipresent and numerous among the fungi. Microbial contamination of Mir undulated so that activation periods alternated period of stabilization and other species prevailed in number and spread. Evaluation of microflora in this environment was conducive of medical and technological risks.

  13. The influence of air pollution on the phyllosphere microflora composition of Tillandsia leaves (Bromeliaceae).

    PubMed

    Brighigna, L; Gori, A; Gonnelli, S; Favilli, F

    2000-01-01

    The effect of air pollution on total phyllospheric microflora from two species of the epiphytic neotropical genus Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae) was studied by comparing unpolluted plants living in a forest (Escazú, San José) with polluted ones from an urban site of Costa Rica (San José city). Dilutions of homogenized leaf samples were plated on media suitable for each microbial group. For each microorganism group, total counts were performed and purified strains of randomly chosen colonies were identified. There was a global reduction in the number of living microorganisms due to pollution effects, especially yeasts and bacteria, while nitrogen-fixing microorganisms and fungi were less affected. Our results showed that the phyllosphere microflora of Tillandsia plants living in a tropical urban environment changes in terms of number and species composition of yeasts and bacteria with respect to plants living in unpolluted environment.

  14. Oral microflora and selection of resistance after a single dose of amoxicillin.

    PubMed

    Khalil, D; Hultin, M; Rashid, M U; Lund, B

    2016-11-01

    The study aimed to determine the effects of a single-dose antibiotic prophylaxis on normal oral microflora. A single dose of 2 g amoxicillin was given to 29 healthy volunteers. Saliva was collected before antibiotic administration (day 1), and again on days 2, 5, 10, 17 and 24 and subjected to culturing and antibiotic sensitivity analysis. Twenty-one per cent (6/29) of the individuals carried penicillin-V- and amoxicillin-resistant viridans streptococci before antibiotic administration. After a single dose of amoxicillin there was a significant reduction in Streptococcus salivarius on days 2 and 5, a significant reduction in other viridans streptococci on day 2 and the proportion of viridans streptococci with reduced susceptibility to amoxicillin was significantly increased on days 2 and 5. A single dose of amoxicillin can cause an ecological disturbance and induce selection of resistant strains in the oral microflora.

  15. Effect of a triazole fungicide on the cellulose decomposition by the soil microflora.

    PubMed

    Munier-Lamy, C; Borde, O

    2000-10-01

    The effect of flutriafol on the cellulose decomposition was studied in the laboratory as a dose-response experiment using a trade marked formulation. Cellulose degradation rates were determined by the weight loss from cellulose filter disks buried in soil samples and by the CO2 evolved during batch incubation experiments. To amounts recommended for field applications and ten-fold these dosages, flutriafol did not affect the cellulose decomposition ability of the soil-microflora. Highest dosages provoked an initial inhibitory effect, followed by a stimulation in cellulolytic activity. Possible reasons for the dose-response relationship were changes in the soil microflora in favour of bacteria, indicating the importance of the persistence and repeated applications of flutriafol.

  16. Water soluble nanocurcumin extracted from turmeric challenging the microflora from human oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Gopal, Judy; Muthu, Manikandan; Chun, Se-Chul

    2016-11-15

    Water soluble nanocurcumin prepared from commercial turmeric powders was compared against ethanol extracted curcumin particles. The oral microflora from five different human volunteers was collected and the efficacy of solvent extracted curcumin versus water extracted nanocurcumin was demonstrated. Nanocurcumin activity against oral microflora confirms its antimicrobial potency. Confocal laser scanning microscopic results revealed the enhanced entry of nanocurcumin particles into microbial cells. The nanosized nature of nanocurcumin appears to have led to increased cellular interaction and thereby efficient destruction of microbial cells in the mouth. In addition, solubility of nanocurcumin is also believed to be a crucial factor behind its successful antimicrobial activity. This study proves that the bioactivity of a compound is greatly influenced by its solubility in water. This work recommends the use of water soluble nanocurcumin (extracted from turmeric) as potent substitute for curcumin in dental formulations.

  17. Molecular-based analysis of changes in indigenous milk microflora during the grazing period.

    PubMed

    Hagi, Tatsuro; Kobayashi, Miho; Nomura, Masaru

    2010-01-01

    Variations in milk microflora caused by changes in the cow feeding environment (from inside to outside grazing) were analyzed using a molecular-based approach comprising denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time PCR. After 8 d of outside grazing, changes in milk microflora were observed. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis showed that the predominant bacterial group in the milk belonged to the Lactobacillus species during the experimental period, whereas the genus Staphylococcus gained in numbers during the outside grazing period in addition to Lactobacillus. To investigate the quantitative dynamics of staphylococci, real-time PCR was performed using staphylococcal-specific primers. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the population of staphylococci increased during the outside grazing period. Our combined denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time PCR approach enables precise monitoring of the dynamics of both total bacteria and specific bacterial species in milk. Our results provide information on grazing management and the manufacture of dairy products.

  18. CONVERSION OF LACTATE-C14 TO PROPIONATE BY THE RUMEN MICROFLORA12

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, R. L.; Wood, W. A.; Emery, R. S.

    1962-01-01

    Baldwin, R. L. (Michigan State University, East Lansing), W. A. Wood, and R. S. Emery. Conversion of lactate-C14 to propionate by the rumen microflora. J. Bacteriol. 83:907–913. 1962.—Rumen microflora enriched on five different diets calculated to present increasing carbohydrate or lactate availability were used to determine the contribution of the randomizing (succinate) and nonrandomizing (acrylate) routes to propionate with lactate-2-C14 and -3-C14 as substrates. Propionate was labeled as though 70 to 90% was formed via the nonrandomizing route. This percentage was highest on diets containing high levels of carbohydrate or lactate or both. Evidence for the presence of succinic dehydrogenase, acetokinase, phosphotransacetylase, and coenzyme A transphorase was obtained with cell-free extracts. Propionate-2-C14 and lactate-2-C14 were converted by extracts to the activated derivatives of acrylate, lactate, propionate, and acetate. PMID:13864343

  19. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance.

    PubMed

    Edvardsen, Elisabeth; Ingjer, Frank; Bø, Kari

    2011-12-01

    Edvardsen, E, Ingjer, F, and Bø, K. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3479-3485, 2011-This study compared the aerobic capacity during maximal aerobic dance and treadmill running in fit women. Thirteen well-trained female aerobic dance instructors aged 30 ± 8.17 years (mean ± SD) exercised to exhaustion by running on a treadmill for measurement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max) and peak heart rate (HRpeak). Additionally, all subjects performed aerobic dancing until exhaustion after a choreographed videotaped routine trying to reach the same HRpeak as during maximal running. The p value for statistical significance between running and aerobic dance was set to ≤0.05. The results (mean ± SD) showed a lower VO(2)max in aerobic dance (52.2 ± 4.02 ml·kg·min) compared with treadmill running (55.9 ± 5.03 ml·kg·min) (p = 0.0003). Further, the mean ± SD HRpeak was 182 ± 9.15 b·min in aerobic dance and 192 ± 9.62 b·min in treadmill running, giving no difference in oxygen pulse between the 2 exercise forms (p = 0.32). There was no difference in peak ventilation (aerobic dance: 108 ± 10.81 L·min vs. running: 113 ± 11.49 L·min). In conclusion, aerobic dance does not seem to be able to use the whole aerobic capacity as in running. For well endurance-trained women, this may result in a lower total workload at maximal intensities. Aerobic dance may therefore not be as suitable as running during maximal intensities in well-trained females.

  20. The impact of systemic and copper pesticide applications on the phyllosphere microflora of tomatoes

    PubMed Central

    Ottesen, Andrea R; Gorham, Sasha; Pettengill, James B; Rideout, Steven; Evans, Peter; Brown, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Background Contamination of tomatoes by Salmonella can occur in agricultural settings. Little is currently understood about how agricultural inputs such as pesticide applications may impact epiphytic crop microflora and potentially play a role in contamination events. We examined the impact of two materials commonly used in Virginia tomato agriculture: acibenzolar-S-methyl (crop protectant) and copper oxychloride (pesticide) to identify the effects these materials may exert on baseline tomato microflora and on the incidence of three specific genera; Salmonella, Xanthomonas and Paenibacillus. Results Approximately 186 441 16S rRNA gene and 39 381 18S rRNA gene sequences per independent replicate were used to analyze the impact of the pesticide applications on tomato microflora. An average of 3 346 677 (634 892 974 bases) shotgun sequences per replicate were used for metagenomic analyses. Conclusion A significant decrease in the presence of Gammaproteobacteria was observed between controls and copper-treated plants, suggesting that copper is effective at suppressing growth of certain taxa in this class. A higher mean abundance of Salmonella and Paenibacillus in control samples compared to treatments may suggest that both systemic and copper applications diminish the presence of these genera in the phyllosphere; however, owing to the lack of statistical significance, this could also be due to other factors. The most distinctive separation of shared membership was observed in shotgun data between the two different sampling time-points (not between treatments), potentially supporting the hypothesis that environmental pressures may exert more selective pressures on epiphytic microflora than do certain agricultural management practices. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:25410588

  1. The impact of systemic and copper pesticide applications on the phyllosphere microflora of tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Ottesen, Andrea R; Gorham, Sasha; Pettengill, James B; Rideout, Steven; Evans, Peter; Brown, Eric

    2015-03-30

    Contamination of tomatoes by Salmonella can occur in agricultural settings. Little is currently understood about how agricultural inputs such as pesticide applications may impact epiphytic crop microflora and potentially play a role in contamination events. We examined the impact of two materials commonly used in Virginia tomato agriculture: acibenzolar-S-methyl (crop protectant) and copper oxychloride (pesticide) to identify the effects these materials may exert on baseline tomato microflora and on the incidence of three specific genera; Salmonella, Xanthomonas and Paenibacillus. Approximately 186 441 16S rRNA gene and 39 381 18S rRNA gene sequences per independent replicate were used to analyze the impact of the pesticide applications on tomato microflora. An average of 3 346 677 (634 892 974 bases) shotgun sequences per replicate were used for metagenomic analyses. A significant decrease in the presence of Gammaproteobacteria was observed between controls and copper-treated plants, suggesting that copper is effective at suppressing growth of certain taxa in this class. A higher mean abundance of Salmonella and Paenibacillus in control samples compared to treatments may suggest that both systemic and copper applications diminish the presence of these genera in the phyllosphere; however, owing to the lack of statistical significance, this could also be due to other factors. The most distinctive separation of shared membership was observed in shotgun data between the two different sampling time-points (not between treatments), potentially supporting the hypothesis that environmental pressures may exert more selective pressures on epiphytic microflora than do certain agricultural management practices. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Orthogonal array design in optimizing ERIC-PCR system for fingerprinting rat's intestinal microflora.

    PubMed

    Peng, Y; Jin, J; Wu, C; Yang, J; Li, X

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to rapidly optimize enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR amplification systems for fingerprinting rat's intestinal microflora. Orthogonal array design and statistic analysis methods were attempted to rapidly optimize ERIC-PCR reaction system for fingerprinting intestinal microflora. The results showed that variations of the four factors (Mg(2+), dNTP, primer and HotstarTaq polymerase concentrations) changed the fingerprinting patterns significantly. The order of effects of those factors on fingerprinting patterns was primers (F = 274.000, P = 0.000), Hotstar Taq polymerase (F = 197.000, P = 0.001), Mg(2+) (F = 181.000, P = 0.001) and dNTP (F = 27.000, P = 0.011). The optimal ERIC-PCR condition was containing 200 micromol l(-1) dNTP, 2.5 mmol l(-1) Mg(2+), 0.4 micromol l(-1) primer, 1 U HotstarTaq DNA polymerase namely 25 microl reaction system, which is proved to be a simple, fast and reliable method suitable for fingerprinting rat's intestinal microflora. The results suggest that Mg(2+), dNTP, primer and HotstarTaq polymerase concentrations play important roles on ERIC-PCR fingerprinting patterns. Orthogonal array design is a considerable method to optimize ERIC-PCR reaction system for its rapidness, simplicity, potential to investigate mutual effects of parameters. It is the first report on optimization of ERIC-PCR amplification systems for fingerprinting intestinal microflora using orthogonal array design or statistic analysis methods and systematically observing the effects of variables of reaction conditions.

  3. [Metabolic activity of intestinal microflora and its role in determination of nutritional support tactic after gastrectomy].

    PubMed

    Kuz'mina, T N; Sil'vestrova, S Iu; Ruchkina, I N; Petrakov, A V

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition recommendations in symptoms of postgastrectomy syndroms is very different. The calculation of regimen using the parenteral and enteral alimentation may be established in the control test of definition of fecal short-chain fatty acids and microflora in such patients. Probiotics attach to the intestinal wall and protect it from the attacks of pathologic microorganisms. Probiotics are especially useful in the complex treatment of postgastrectomy syndroms.

  4. Age-Related Variations in Intestinal Microflora of Free-Range and Caged Hens

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yizhe; Wang, Qiuju; Liu, Shengjun; Sun, Rui; Zhou, Yaqiang; Li, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Free range feeding pattern puts the chicken in a mixture of growth materials and enteric bacteria excreted by nature, while it is typically unique condition materials and enteric bacteria in commercial caged hens production. Thus, the gastrointestinal microflora in two feeding patterns could be various. However, it remains poorly understood how feeding patterns affect development and composition of layer hens’ intestinal microflora. In this study, the effect of feeding patterns on the bacteria community in layer hens’ gut was investigated using free range and caged feeding form. Samples of whole small intestines and cecal digesta were collected from young hens (8-weeks) and mature laying hens (30-weeks). Based on analysis using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing of bacterial 16S rDNA gene amplicons, the microflora of all intestinal contents were affected by both feeding patterns and age of hens. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Fusobacteria were the main components. Additionally, uncultured environmental samples were found too. There were large differences between young hens and adult laying hens, the latter had more Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, and bacterial community is more abundant in 30-weeks laying hens of all six phyla than 8-weeks young hens of only two phyla. In addition, the differences were also observed between free range and caged hens. Free range hens had richer Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria. Most of strains found were detected more abundant in small intestines than in cecum. Also the selected Lactic acid bacteria from hens gut were applied in feed and they had beneficial effects on growth performance and jejunal villus growth of young broilers. This study suggested that feeding patterns have an importance effect on the microflora composition of hens, which may impact the host nutritional status and intestinal health. PMID:28744281

  5. A description on pharyngeal jaw apparatus and diets of halfbeak fish Zenarchopterus buffonis (Valenciennes 1847) in Malaysian waters

    SciTech Connect

    Abidin, Diana Atiqah Zainal Hashim, Marina; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon K.

    2015-09-25

    Information on the feeding mechanism and diet of halfbeak fish species in harsh estuarine environment ecosystem is still lacking. The present study investigates the fine structure of pharyngeal jaw apparatus and diets of halfbeak fish Zenarchopterus buffonis. A total of 84 halfbeak fish samples have been collected from the coastal water of Peninsular Malaysia using fishing rod. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the micrographs of fine microstructure of the pharyngeal teeth. The fundamental anatomy of pharyngeal jaw apparatus displayed that the upper pharyngeal jaw (third pharyngobranchials) displays larger size of hook-like or tricuspid teeth which was analogous to tricuspid morphology. The lower pharyngeal jaw (fifth ceratobranchial) bears mainly conical teeth and appears triangular shape with two, short projections. The estimated TROPH values (1 − 3.2±0.55) denoted that halfbeak fish were omnivores in nature. The findings of this study was found to be useful as a baseline information for a better representation of the trophic flows associated with large medium and small surface water fishes.

  6. A description on pharyngeal jaw apparatus and diets of halfbeak fish Zenarchopterus buffonis (Valenciennes 1847) in Malaysian waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, Diana Atiqah Zainal; Hashim, Marina; Das, Simon K.; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.

    2015-09-01

    Information on the feeding mechanism and diet of halfbeak fish species in harsh estuarine environment ecosystem is still lacking. The present study investigates the fine structure of pharyngeal jaw apparatus and diets of halfbeak fish Zenarchopterus buffonis. A total of 84 halfbeak fish samples have been collected from the coastal water of Peninsular Malaysia using fishing rod. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the micrographs of fine microstructure of the pharyngeal teeth. The fundamental anatomy of pharyngeal jaw apparatus displayed that the upper pharyngeal jaw (third pharyngobranchials) displays larger size of hook-like or tricuspid teeth which was analogous to tricuspid morphology. The lower pharyngeal jaw (fifth ceratobranchial) bears mainly conical teeth and appears triangular shape with two, short projections. The estimated TROPH values (1 - 3.2±0.55) denoted that halfbeak fish were omnivores in nature. The findings of this study was found to be useful as a baseline information for a better representation of the trophic flows associated with large medium and small surface water fishes.

  7. A preliminary evaluation of myoelectrical energy distribution of the front neck muscles in pharyngeal phase during normal swallowing.

    PubMed

    Mingxing Zhu; Wanzhang Yang; Samuel, Oluwarotimi Williams; Yun Xiang; Jianping Huang; Haiqing Zou; Guanglin Li

    2016-08-01

    Pharyngeal phase is a central hub of swallowing in which food bolus pass through from the oral cavity to the esophageal. Proper understanding of the muscular activities in the pharyngeal phase is useful for assessing swallowing function and the occurrence of dysphagia in humans. In this study, high-density (HD) surface electromyography (sEMG) was used to study the muscular activities in the pharyngeal phase during swallowing tasks involving three healthy male subjects. The root mean square (RMS) of the HD sEMG data was computed by using a series of segmented windows as myoelectrical energy. And the RMS of each window covering all channels (16×5) formed a matrix. During the pharyngeal phase of swallowing, three of the matrixes were chosen and normalized to obtain the HD energy maps and the statistical parameter. The maps across different viscosity levels offered the energy distribution which showed the muscular activities of the left and right sides of the front neck muscles. In addition, the normalized average RMS (NARE) across different viscosity levels revealed a left-right significant correlation (r=0.868±0.629, p<;0.01) quantitatively, while it showed even stronger correlation when swallowing water. This pilot study suggests that HD sEMG would be a potential tool to evaluate muscular activities in pharyngeal phase during normal swallowing. Also, it might provide useful information for dysphagia diagnosis.

  8. Aerobic granular processes: Current research trends.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quanguo; Hu, Jianjun; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-06-01

    Aerobic granules are large biological aggregates with compact interiors that can be used in efficient wastewater treatment. This mini-review presents new researches on the development of aerobic granular processes, extended treatments for complicated pollutants, granulation mechanisms and enhancements of granule stability in long-term operation or storage, and the reuse of waste biomass as renewable resources. A discussion on the challenges of, and prospects for, the commercialization of aerobic granular process is provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Condom use and its association with bacterial vaginosis and bacterial vaginosis-associated vaginal microflora.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Katherine B; Kip, Kevin E; Ness, Roberta B

    2007-11-01

    Previous studies have been inconsistent with regard to whether condom use is associated with bacterial vaginosis. We evaluated this association using case-crossover analyses. A total of 871 women at high risk for sexually transmitted diseases were followed for a median of 3 years. At baseline and at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months thereafter, vaginal swabs were obtained for gram stain diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis, culture of microflora, and DNA amplification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. Case-crossover analyses using incident and recurrent incident case periods were used to assess the associations among condom use, bacterial vaginosis, and vaginal microflora. Consistent condom use (10 out of 10 sexual encounters) was associated with a decreased frequency of bacterial vaginosis (adjusted odds ratio = 0.55 [95% confidence interval 0.35-0.88]). When we excluded women with intermediate flora, consistent condom use was even more strongly protective against bacterial vaginosis (0.37 [0.20-0.70]). Consistent condom use was similarly protective against carriage of anaerobic gram-negative pigmented rods (0.58 [0.36-0.94]). Results were similar when analyses were repeated to capture only first occurrences of outcomes among women without bacterial vaginosis at baseline, suggesting a protective effect against the acquisition of bacterial vaginosis. Consistent condom use was associated with a decrease in the risk for bacterial vaginosis and associated vaginal microflora.

  10. Umbilical Microflora, Antiseptic Skin Preparation, and Surgical Site Infection in Abdominal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kleeff, Jörg; Erkan, Mert; Jäger, Carsten; Menacher, Maximilian; Gebhardt, Friedemann; Hartel, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Surgical site infections (SSI) following abdominal surgery are frequent and a major cause of postoperative morbidity and prolonged hospital stay. Besides antibiotic prophylaxis, antiseptic skin preparation is an important measure to prevent SSI. Here we prospectively analyzed the effectiveness of antiseptic skin preparation in a cohort of 93 patients undergoing laparotomy, with special emphasis on the umbilical region. The microflora of the umbilicus contained a large number of resident (mostly staphylococci species and corynebacteria) and transient germs (including enterococci species). Following antiseptic skin preparation, bacteria could still be cultured from 24.7% of the patients' umbilici. In case of postoperative SSI, only one of seven SSI was caused by the microorganism that was present in the umbilicus before and after skin preparation. Antiseptic skin preparation fails to completely eradicate the microflora of the umbilical region in one quarter of the patients. However, at least in abdominal surgery, the vast majority of SSI are caused by intra-abdominal contamination rather than the skin microflora.

  11. Gut microflora of vervet and samango monkeys in relation to diet.

    PubMed Central

    Bruorton, M R; Davis, C L; Perrin, M R

    1991-01-01

    The microflora in the gastrointestinal tracts of wild vervet and samango monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops and C. mitis, respectively) were studied, using fermentation acid analysis, electron microscopy, and culturing methods. The diets of the two species of monkey differ considerably, with that of the samango including a greater proportion of cellulose-rich leaf material, and this is reflected in the microflora. Volatile fatty acid measurements along the gut of both species showed that these end products of bacterial metabolism were concentrated in the cecum and colon. Electron microscopy indicated that morphologically similar bacteria were present in the cecum and colon of both species, but the samango possessed a distinct stomach microflora. Bacteria in the lumina of the four main regions of the gut of the monkeys (stomach, small intestine, cecum, and colon) were plated on a number of anaerobic media (Mann, Rogosa, and Sharp; clostridial basal; and complex media). The cecum and colon were found to contain higher numbers of microbes per gram (wet weight) of gut content than the stomach and small intestine. Microbial isolates were able to catabolize carboxymethyl cellulose and other polymers. This may aid the monkeys, particularly samangos, in the digestion of fibrous dietary components such as leaves. Images PMID:2014992

  12. Gut microflora of vervet and samango monkeys in relation to diet.

    PubMed

    Bruorton, M R; Davis, C L; Perrin, M R

    1991-02-01

    The microflora in the gastrointestinal tracts of wild vervet and samango monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops and C. mitis, respectively) were studied, using fermentation acid analysis, electron microscopy, and culturing methods. The diets of the two species of monkey differ considerably, with that of the samango including a greater proportion of cellulose-rich leaf material, and this is reflected in the microflora. Volatile fatty acid measurements along the gut of both species showed that these end products of bacterial metabolism were concentrated in the cecum and colon. Electron microscopy indicated that morphologically similar bacteria were present in the cecum and colon of both species, but the samango possessed a distinct stomach microflora. Bacteria in the lumina of the four main regions of the gut of the monkeys (stomach, small intestine, cecum, and colon) were plated on a number of anaerobic media (Mann, Rogosa, and Sharp; clostridial basal; and complex media). The cecum and colon were found to contain higher numbers of microbes per gram (wet weight) of gut content than the stomach and small intestine. Microbial isolates were able to catabolize carboxymethyl cellulose and other polymers. This may aid the monkeys, particularly samangos, in the digestion of fibrous dietary components such as leaves.

  13. Improvement of intestinal microflora balance by polysaccharide from Physalis alkekengi var. francheti.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinli; Yang, Guang; Zhang, Cuili; Wu, Dachang; Tang, Li; Xin, Yi

    2014-02-01

    A water‑soluble polysaccharide fraction (PPSB) was fractionated from Physalis alkekengi var. francheti and purified using DEAE‑52 Cellulose and Sephadex G‑200 chromatography. The physicochemical properties of PPSB and its molecular activities involved in the improvement of intestinal microflora balance were evaluated. PPSB (12.5‑25.0 mg/ml) was shown to promote the growth of Lactobacillus delbrueckii and to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis identified Bacteroides, Lactobacillus, Helicobacter, Prevotella, Enterococcus, Odoribacter, Alistipes and Akkermansia as dominant organisms in the intestinal tract of mice. PPSB exhibited stimulatory effects on the growth of probiotic bacteria but inhibitory effects on the growth of pathogenic bacteria in vitro. The number of species and quantity of the Lactobacillus genus increased significantly with increasing concentrations of PPSB in vivo. Experimental results of this study suggest that PPSB may improve intestinal microflora imbalances and therefore has strong potential as a natural agent for restoring the intestinal microflora balance.

  14. Relationship between mucositis and changes in oral microflora during cancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Napeñas, Joel J; Brennan, Michael T; Bahrani-Mougeot, Farah K; Fox, Philip C; Lockhart, Peter B

    2007-01-01

    It is thought that the incidence and severity of cancer chemotherapy-associated mucositis is caused in part by changes in the oral bacterial microflora. This systematic review examined the role of oral bacterial microflora changes in the development of oral mucositis during chemotherapy. Thirteen prospective clinical trials were identified, involving 300 patients with 13 different cancer diagnoses. There was great variability in patient populations, bacterial sample collection methodology, and oral sample sites. No clear pattern regarding qualitative and quantitative oral flora changes emerged among these studies. The most frequent Gram-negative species isolated during chemotherapy were from the Enterobacteriaceae family, Pseudomonas sp. and E. coli. The most common Gram-positive species isolated were Staphylococcus sp. and Streptococcus sp. Five studies assessed the role of oral flora changes in the genesis of oral mucosal changes, with no consensus among them. More detailed studies are required to understand the relationship between chemotherapy, alterations in the nature and magnitude of the oral microflora, and the presence of mucositis.

  15. [Bacterial diversity analysis of moderately thermophilic microflora enriched by different energy sources].

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei-fei; Zhou, Hong-bo; Fu, Bo; Qiu, Guan-zhou

    2007-06-01

    Bacterial biodiversities of three moderately thermophilic bioleaching microfloras grown at 50 degrees C on media with pyrite, chalcopyrite, and pure ferrous iron supplemented with sulfur as energy sources were investigated respectively. The 16S rRNA genes of the microorganisms in the cultures flasks were PCR amplified and cloned to identify the bacterial species by comparative sequence analysis, the structural differences of microfloras enriched by different energy sources were compared. A total of 303 clones were recovered and evaluated by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Cluster analysis identified 29 unique RFLP patterns, and the inserted 16S rRNA genes sequences were determined and for phylogenetic analysis. Most of sequences obtained were similar (89.1%-99.7%) to the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the reported bioleaching microorganisms. The species identified from the flasks during bioleaching of pyrite, pure ferrous iron supplemented with sulfur, and chalcopyrite were closely related to Acidithiobacillus caldus, Sulfobacillus thermotolerans, Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans, Leptospirillum ferriphilum, two uncultured forest soil bacterium clones and one uncultured proteobacterium clone. Among these bacteria, Acidithiobacillus caldus, Sulfobacillus thermotolerans and Leptospirillum ferriphilum were the dominant bacterial species. L. ferriphilum was the most dominant species in microfloras enriched in media with pyrite and ferrous iron supplemented with sulfur as energy sources, the abundance were 53.8% and 45.9% respectively. In the culture with chalcopyrite as energy sources, S. thermotolerans had the highest abundance of 70.1%.

  16. Modifications of mice gut microflora following oral consumption ofLactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum probiotics.

    PubMed

    Khavari-Daneshvar, Hossein; Mosavi, Maryam; Khodayari, Hamid; Rahimi, Ebrahim; Ranji, Peyman; Mohseni, Amir Hossein; Mahmudian, Reyhaneh; Shidfar, Farzad; Agah, Shahram; Alizadeh, Ali Mohammad

    2017-04-18

    Thirty male BALB/c mice were equally divided into three groups: control, L. acidophilus, and B. bifidum for the assessment of the probiotics' stability in the gut microflora. First, the gut microflora of the mice was checked every 3 days (days 3, 6, 9, and 12) without probiotic consumption, and then the mice were daily given orally 1.5 g of probiotics in 30 cc of drinking water. The consumption of probiotics was then stopped for recovery and then the consumption continued for 5 months. On day 9 after the consumption of the probiotics, L. acidophilus and B. bifidum were significantly increased from 4% to 83% and from 1% to 61%, respectively. L. acidophilus count showed no significant decrease at the end of 5 months compared to day 9 of probiotic consumption (74%), but B. bifidum count was dramatically decreased to 45% and 36% at the end of 1 and 5 months, respectively. Our results revealed that, unlike B. bifidum, the amount of L. acidophilus remained almost unchanged in the long term, indicating more stability of L. acidophilus than B. bifidum in the gut microflora.

  17. [Age-related aspects of intestinal microflora and the intestinal immune system].

    PubMed

    Alibek, K; Grechanaia, T; Grechanyĭ, L; Romanenko, M; Klimenko, T

    2008-01-01

    The importance of influence of microorganisms on human health has been recognized for years. Vast amount of data has been collected regarding interaction of intestinal microflora and elements of gut immune system. Novel technologies are offering new insights into bi-directional host-flora exchange along mucosal surfac