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Sample records for pharyngeal aerobic microflora

  1. [Normal microflora of the pharyngeal mucosa].

    PubMed

    Kolotilova, L V; Akishina, T M; Zargarian, O P; Lomnitskaia, V B; Pruzhniak, O V; Lutsik, T S

    1989-10-01

    Aerobic microflora of the throat mucosa was studied in 518 healthy persons aged 1 to 50 years. On the basis of the study results, criteria for estimating microbiocenoses of the upper respiratory tracts were defined. It was shown that the throat symbiotic flora included three groups of microorganisms playing different roles in the development of microbiocenosis. The indigenous group consisted of representatives of Streptococcus and Neisseria and was characterized by permanent (90-100 per cent) and intensive (3-8 lg CFU/ml) colonization, broad species spectrum, associations of 2-3 and more species and no significant influence of sociological, age and season factors. The representatives of the facultative group i.e. bacteria belonging to Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium and Haemophilus were less frequent (25-50 per cent). The intensity of their isolation was lower (1-4 lg CFU/ml) and their species spectrum was narrow. The microorganisms of the transitory group were characterized by low frequency (5-20 per cent) and insignificant contamination of the throat mucosa (1-2 lg CFU/ml). The nature of the colonization was monospecific. The group was more numerous by generic composition (Candida, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, Branhamella, Moraxella and Micrococcus). However, it was generally limited by one colonization type. The facultative and transitory groups were subject to age and season variation. They were also different in urban and rural populations.

  2. [Microflora of pharyngeal mucosa in children with solid tumors].

    PubMed

    Polishchuk, V B; Baturo, A P; Romanenko, E E; Kostinov, M P; Zaeva, G E; Mikhaĭlova, S N; Leonova, A Iu; Moiseenko, E I

    2008-01-01

    Microbiological study of pharyngeal mucosa in 43 children with solid tumors revealed that 77.2% of isolated microorganisms belonged to Gram-positive flora. It was shown that streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus were the main species. Species composition of streptococci included both pyogenic (S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. dysgalactiae, S. equi) andviridans species (S. acidominimus, S. oralis and "S. milleri" group). Nocardioform actinomycetes, corynebacteria and other staphylococci were referred to additional microflora. Accidental microflora was represented by Neisseria spp., non-fermenting Gram-negative bacteria, enterobacteria and yeast-like fungi. Microbiologic study of pharyngeal mucosa biocenosis showed that monoculture was present only in 2.3% of cases; in other cases microorganisms formed both intra-genus and inter-species associations. 2-6-component associations were revealed with predominance of 3-4-component associations (37.2% and 32.6% respectively). Relationship of distribution of microorganisms belonging to main and additional microflora was revealed. PMID:19186552

  3. [Immunity and normal pharyngeal microflora in persons living in a technogenically exposed area].

    PubMed

    Kolenchukova, O A; Savchenko, A A

    2006-01-01

    The impact of industrial emissions of an aluminum plant of immunity and pharyngeal mucosal biocenosis were studied in healthy individuals living in the Sovetsky district. The effect of sodium fluoride in various concentrations on the activity of metabolic enzymes in the bacterial Staphylococcus epidermis cells isolated from the pharyngeal mucosa of the healthy individuals was also studied. The persons living in the Sovetsky district were found to have higher values of cellular immunity, an increase in the quantitative composition of the oral microflora being observed when its qualitative composition was worse. Various concentrations of sodium fluoride were ascertained to have a heterodirectional impact on microbial metabolism. PMID:17190044

  4. [The aerobic air microflora in airplanes on various international routes].

    PubMed

    Năstoiu, I; Răduică, C; Soitu, V; Gavrilă, I

    1989-01-01

    Aerobic microflora (bacteria, fungi), in the cock pits of the TAROM company (Boeing 707 and Il 62 M) airships flying on various international routes and airports was studied during November 1988-January 1989. 157-8,800 bacteria and 78-1,336 fungi per m3 air were recorded. Except for Staphylococcus aureus (hemolytic and non hemolytic) the greatest part of the isolated microorganisms was nonpathogenic for man: Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Neisseria, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Sarcina, Aspergillus, Penicillium etc. Several airships on the Asian airports contained a higher amount of bacteria and fungi but not higher than in the living rooms. Likewise, in high altitude flights, the microorganism amount was less than on the ground. The taxonomic spectrum of the bacteria and fungi isolated was almost identical on all the 9 international airports, thus suggesting the homogeneous and international character of saprophyte and pathogenic air microflora by means of the passenger and goods air flights.

  5. Developmental intestinal aerobic microflora in the kori bustard (Ardeotis kori).

    PubMed

    Naldo, J L; Silvanose, C D; Samour, J H; Bailey, T A

    1998-01-01

    A study was carried out to investigate the normal aerobic bacterial flora of developing kori bustard (Ardeotis kori) chicks, captive bred at the National Avian Research Center, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Faecal samples were collected from 14 birds at different ages from the first day of hatching until 99 days old and were cultured for aerobic bacteria. Several bacterial species were isolated from the cultures, they included Escherichia coli, Streptococcus viridians, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella oxytoca, Proteus spp., Enterobacter, spp. and Serratia marcescens. Gram-negative bacilli were isolated from all but one of the faecal samples collected. They were also the predominant bacteria, accounting for between 55.6 and 73.4% of the mean colony count of faecal cultures from all age groups. E. coli was the most frequently isolated bacteria, the frequency and mean colony count increased as the birds grew older. Gram-positive cocci were isolated from between 50 and 100% of the faecal samples from all age groups, and they accounted for between 26.6 and 44.4% of the mean colony count. Results from this study indicated that Gram-negative bacilli and Gram-positive cocci can be isolated frequently from the faeces of developing, clinically normal, captive bred kori bustard chicks. PMID:18484014

  6. Developmental intestinal aerobic microflora in the kori bustard (Ardeotis kori).

    PubMed

    Naldo, J L; Silvanose, C D; Samour, J H; Bailey, T A

    1998-01-01

    A study was carried out to investigate the normal aerobic bacterial flora of developing kori bustard (Ardeotis kori) chicks, captive bred at the National Avian Research Center, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Faecal samples were collected from 14 birds at different ages from the first day of hatching until 99 days old and were cultured for aerobic bacteria. Several bacterial species were isolated from the cultures, they included Escherichia coli, Streptococcus viridians, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella oxytoca, Proteus spp., Enterobacter, spp. and Serratia marcescens. Gram-negative bacilli were isolated from all but one of the faecal samples collected. They were also the predominant bacteria, accounting for between 55.6 and 73.4% of the mean colony count of faecal cultures from all age groups. E. coli was the most frequently isolated bacteria, the frequency and mean colony count increased as the birds grew older. Gram-positive cocci were isolated from between 50 and 100% of the faecal samples from all age groups, and they accounted for between 26.6 and 44.4% of the mean colony count. Results from this study indicated that Gram-negative bacilli and Gram-positive cocci can be isolated frequently from the faeces of developing, clinically normal, captive bred kori bustard chicks.

  7. [Monitoring of microflora localized at the pharyngeal tonsil surface in the children residing in the city of Chelyabinsk and presenting with chronic adenoiditis].

    PubMed

    Gizinger, O A; Shchetinin, S A

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present retrospective study based on the analysis of 791 medical cards was to investigate microflora localized at the pharyngeal tonsil surface in the children living in the city of Chelyabinsk and presenting with exacerbation of chronic adenoiditis. 66% of the patients with this condition were 4-6 year old children. The most commonly documented were the associations composed of resident species S. alpha-haemoliticus and S. epidermidis together with pathobiontic S. aureus. S. beta-haemoliticus and S. pneumoniae occurred most frequently whereas H. influenza and some representatives of the genus Enterobacteriaceae were less numerous. Fungi of the genus Candida were identified in 25.4% of the samples at a titer above 10^4. In 23.7% of the cases, these fungi were found in the associations with S. aureus which resulted in mutual potentiation of the pathogenicity factor. PMID:26977565

  8. A study of predominant aerobic microflora of black bears (Ursus americanus) and grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in northwestern Alberta.

    PubMed

    Goatcher, L J; Barrett, M W; Coleman, R N; Hawley, A W; Qureshi, A A

    1987-11-01

    Swab specimens were obtained from nasal, rectal, and preputial or vaginal areas of 37 grizzly and 17 black bears, captured during May to June of 1981 to 1983, to determine the types and frequency of predominant aerobic microflora. Bacterial genera most frequently isolated from bears were Escherichia, Citrobacter, Hafnia, Proteus, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus species, comprising about 65% of the isolates. Erwinia, Xanthomonas, Agrobacterium, Rhizobium, and Gluconobacter/Acetobacter were also isolated but at lower frequencies (less than 5%). Comparison of bacterial generic composition using similarity quotient values showed no appreciable differences between grizzly and black bear flora. Also, no outstanding differences in bacterial generic composition were observed among grizzly bear samples; however, differences were noted among black bear samples. Fungal genera most commonly encountered included Cryptococcus, Rhodotorula, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Sporobolomyces, and Candida. In general, the microflora of both bear types were marked by generic diversity and random distribution. The majority of microorganisms isolated from the plant samples in the study area were also found in bear samples. This observation and the presence of certain water and soil bacteria in samples from bears suggest that the predominant microflora of both grizzly and black bears were transient and probably influenced by their foraging habits and surrounding environments.

  9. Aerobic and Facultative Microflora of Fresh and Spoiled Refrigerated Dough Products

    PubMed Central

    Hesseltine, C. W.; Graves, R. R.; Rogers, Ruth; Burmeister, H. R.

    1969-01-01

    The microbial flora of fresh, unsterile, dough products held at refrigeration temperatures was compared with the microbial flora of the same products that had spoiled spontaneously. Various methods based on selective media were used to determine molds, yeasts, and bacteria present. Except for two special cases in which a yeast and Penicillium roqueforti induced spoilage, all of the samples deteriorated because of bacterial growth. A total of 1,132 bacterial isolates was subjected to further classification. In the spoiled products, 92% of the isolates belonged to the Lactobacillaceae. More than one-half of these (53%) belonged to the genus Lactobacillus, and an additional 36% were in the genus Leuconostoc. In the genus Leuconostoc almost all of the strains (94%) were L. mesenteroides. The third most common genus present was Streptococcus, represented by 3% of the total isolates. A preliminary taxonomic study of the microflora of refrigerated dough products revealed none of the isolates to be indicators of fecal contamination and none to be forms known to produce toxins. The highest counts encountered in the moist, fresh products were up to 200 million lactic acid bacteria per g in buttermilk biscuits, with a psychrophilic count as high as 4.8 million. In the spoiled samples, the highest total counts were 820 million in buttermilk biscuits. Mold counts were no higher than 1,800, except in the sample ruined by P. roqueforti where the count was 130,000 mold colonies. PMID:4905604

  10. Influence of intravenously administered ciprofloxacin on aerobic intestinal microflora and fecal drug levels when administered simultaneously with sucralfate.

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, W A; Ruckdeschel, G; Unertl, K

    1997-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin, when given intravenously (i.v.), is secreted in significant amounts via the mucosa into the intestinal lumen. Sucralfate inhibits the antimicrobial activity of ciprofloxacin. The effect of combined therapy on the intestinal flora was investigated in 16 healthy volunteers. They were randomly assigned to two groups. Group A received 2 g of sucralfate orally three times a day for 7 days and 400 mg of ciprofloxacin i.v. twice a day (b.i.d.) starting 3 days after the sucralfate administration began. Group B was given only 400 mg of ciprofloxacin i.v. b.i.d. for 4 days. A total of 9 stool samples were collected from each subject beginning the week before ciprofloxacin was administered and on days -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 9, and 10 or 11 after commencement of the infusion period. The aerobic fecal flora was determined by standard microbiological methods. Measurements of fecal ciprofloxacin levels were based on high-performance liquid chromatography. Counts of bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae decreased in all subjects and were below 10(2) CFU/g in eight of eight subjects (group A) and six of eight subjects (group B) on day 4, but they returned to normal in all but one subject (group A) 10 days after the last infusion. The decreases in levels of bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae were not significantly different in groups A and B (Kaplan-Meier test). Staphylococci and nonfermenters responded variably, enterococci and lactobacilli remained unchanged, and candida levels increased transiently in four subjects (two in each group). Maximum fecal drug levels ranged from 251 to 811 microg/g. No significant difference could be found between the two groups. The i.v. application of ciprofloxacin eliminates intestinal bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae in a rapid and selective manner. This effect is not affected by simultaneous oral application of sucralfate. PMID:9257749

  11. [Pharyngeal tuberculosis: Case report].

    PubMed

    Spini, Roxana Gabriela; Bordino, Lucas; Cohen, Daniela; Martins, Andrea; Ramírez, Zaida; González, Norma E

    2015-08-01

    Pharyngeal tuberculosis is a rare extrapulmonary manifestation. In Argentina, the number of cases of tuberculosis reported in children under 19 years in 2012 was 1752. Only 12.15% had extrapulmonary manifestation. A case of a 17 year old girl with pharyngeal tuberculosis is reported. The patient presented intermittent fever and swallowing pain for 6 months, without response to conventional antibiotic treatment. Chest X-ray showedbilateral micronodular infiltrate, so hospitalization was decided to study and treat. The sputum examination for acid-fast resistant bacilli was positive and treatment with four antituberculous drugs was started, with good evolution and disappearance of symptoms. Diagnostic confirmation with the isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum culture was obtained. The main symptoms of pharyngeal tuberculosis are sore throat and difficulty in swallowing of long evolution. It is important to consider tuberculosis as differential diagnosis in patients with chronic pharyngitis unresponsive to conventional treatment. PMID:26172025

  12. Pharyngitis - sore throat

    MedlinePlus

    Pharyngitis - bacterial; Sore throat ... caused by swelling in the back of the throat (pharynx) between the tonsils and the voice box (larynx). Most sore throats are caused by colds, the flu, coxsackie virus ...

  13. [Physiology of microflora in the digestive tract].

    PubMed

    Zboril, V

    2002-01-01

    The microflora of the digestive tract is a complex microbial ecosystem, well balanced, which in an aboral direction undergoes specific changes as to the ratio of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms the functions of which supplement each other--the aerobes ensure for the whole ecosystem the scavenger effect. The microbial profile of the digestive tract is typical by the absence of anaerobic microorganisms in the stomach and conversely their absolute predominance in the distal colon. The basic physiological functions of the microflora of the digestive tract can be characterized as follows: 1. microbial barrier against pathogens and potential pathogens, 2. formation of products of the microflora and their influence on the blood supply of the intestinal mucosa and peristaltics, 3. stimulation of the immune system in the gut, 4. reduction of bacterial translocation, 5. production of vitamins. To this problem in the world literature, contrary to ours, deserved attention has been paid for many years. Knowledge of the problem opens the door to expedient manipulation with the microbial flora of the digestive tract by the use of diet or prebiotics, probiotics as well as antibiotic treatment. The author presents a summary of basic findings which developed on the subject of physiological microflora of the digestive tract successively up to their present shape.

  14. Common Questions About Streptococcal Pharyngitis.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Monica G; Higgins, Kim E; Perez, Evan D

    2016-07-01

    Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infection causes 15% to 30% of sore throats in children and 5% to 15% in adults, and is more common in the late winter and early spring. The strongest independent predictors of GABHS pharyngitis are patient age of five to 15 years, absence of cough, tender anterior cervical adenopathy, tonsillar exudates, and fever. To diagnose GABHS pharyngitis, a rapid antigen detection test should be ordered in patients with a modified Centor or FeverPAIN score of 2 or 3. First-line treatment for GABHS pharyngitis includes a 10-day course of penicillin or amoxicillin. Patients allergic to penicillin can be treated with firstgeneration cephalosporins, clindamycin, or macrolide antibiotics. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are more effective than acetaminophen and placebo for treatment of fever and pain associated with GABHS pharyngitis; medicated throat lozenges used every two hours are also effective. Corticosteroids provide only a small reduction in the duration of symptoms and should not be used routinely. PMID:27386721

  15. Pharyngeal Satellite Cells Undergo Myogenesis Under Basal Conditions and Are Required for Pharyngeal Muscle Maintenance.

    PubMed

    Randolph, Matthew E; Phillips, Brittany L; Choo, Hyo-Jung; Vest, Katherine E; Vera, Yandery; Pavlath, Grace K

    2015-12-01

    The pharyngeal muscles of the nasal, oral, and laryngeal pharynxes are required for swallowing. Pharyngeal muscles are preferentially affected in some muscular dystrophies yet spared in others. Muscle stem cells, called satellite cells, may be critical factors in the development of pharyngeal muscle disorders; however, very little is known about pharyngeal satellite cells (PSC) and their role in pharyngeal muscles. We show that PSC are distinct from the commonly studied hindlimb satellite cells both transcriptionally and biologically. Under basal conditions PSC proliferate, progress through myogenesis, and fuse with pharyngeal myofibers. Furthermore, PSC exhibit biologic differences dependent on anatomic location in the pharynx. Importantly, PSC are required to maintain myofiber size and myonuclear number in pharyngeal myofibers. Together, these results demonstrate that PSC are critical for pharyngeal muscle maintenance and suggest that satellite cell impairment could contribute to pharyngeal muscle pathology associated with various muscular dystrophies and aging.

  16. Synergistic effect of ionizing radiation on chemical disinfectant treatments for reduction of natural microflora on seafood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyunjoo; Ha, Ji-Hyoung; Lee, Ju-Woon; Jo, Cheorun; Ha, Sang-Do

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether combined treatments would produce synergistic disinfection effects on seafood products such as mussel and squid compared with single treatments. We investigated the bactericidal effects of chlorine and ionizing radiation on the natural microflora of mussel and squid. Total aerobic bacteria initially ranged from 102 to 104 Log CFU/g. More than 100 ppm of chlorine and irradiation at 1 kGy were sufficient to reduce the total aerobic bacteria on mussel and squid to a level lower than detection limit (10 CFU/g). Synergistic effects against natural microflora were observed for all combined treatment. These results suggest that a significant synergistic benefit results from combine chlorine-ionizing radiation treatment against natural microflora on mussel and squid.

  17. Development and Evolution of the Pharyngeal Apparatus

    PubMed Central

    Frisdal, Aude; Trainor, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    The oral or pharyngeal apparatus facilitates the dual functions of respiration and feeding. It develops during embryogenesis from transient structures called pharyngeal arches, which comprise a reiterated series of outgrowths on the lateral side of the head. The pharyngeal arches and their segmental arrangement are highly conserved throughout evolution from invertebrate chordates such as amphioxus, through to vertebrate agnathans including avians, squamates and mammals. The structural organization of the pharyngeal arches is also highly conserved and involves contributions from each of the three primary endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm germ layers. The endoderm is particularly important for pharyngeal arch formation and segmentation and also plays a critical role in tissue specific differentiation. The ectoderm gives rise to neural crest cells (NCC) which provides an additional layer of complexity to pharyngeal arch development and differentiation in vertebrates compared to invertebrate chordates that do not possess NCC. Collectively the pharyngeal arches give rise to much of the neurovasculature and musculoskeletal systems in the head and neck. The complexity of development renders the pharyngeal apparatus prone to perturbation and subsequently the pathogenesis of birth defects. Hence it is important to understand the signals and mechanisms that govern the development and evolution of the pharyngeal complex. PMID:25176500

  18. The IPA Categories "Pharyngeal" and "Epiglottal": Laryngoscopic Observations of Pharyngeal Articulations and Larynx Height.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esling, John H.

    1999-01-01

    Reexamines the sounds produced at the pharyngeal place of articulation to review the linguistic phonetic realizations of sounds that have been labeled "pharyngeal" and those that have been labeled "epiglottal," and to investigate the production of a series of pharyngeal sounds under conditions of larynx raising and larynx lowering. (Author/VWL)

  19. Velo-pharyngeal dysfunction: Evaluation and management

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Jeffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Separation of the nasal and oral cavities by dynamic closure of the velo-pharyngeal port is necessary for normal speech and swallowing. Velo-pharyngeal dysfunction (VPD) may either follow repair of a cleft palate or be independent of clefting. While the diagnosis of VPD is made by audiologic perceptual evaluation of speech, identification of the mechanism of the dysfunction requires instrumental visualization of the velo-pharyngeal port during specific speech tasks. Matching the specific intervention for management of VPD with the type of dysfunction, i.e. differential management for differential diagnosis, maximizes the result while minimizing the morbidity of the intervention. PMID:19884668

  20. Beryllium concentration in pharyngeal tonsils in children.

    PubMed

    Nogaj, Ewa; Kwapulinski, Jerzy; Misiołek, Maciej; Golusiński, Wojciech; Kowol, Jolanta; Wiechuła, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    Power plant dust is believed to be the main source of the increased presence of the element beryllium in the environment which has been detected in the atmospheric air, surface waters, groundwater, soil, food, and cigarette smoke. In humans, beryllium absorption occurs mainly via the respiratory system. The pharyngeal tonsils are located on the roof of the nasopharynx and are in direct contact with dust particles in inhaled air. As a result, the concentration levels of beryllium in the pharyngeal tonsils are likely to be a good indicator of concentration levels in the air. The presented study had two primary aims: to investigate the beryllium concentration in pharyngeal tonsils in children living in southern Poland, and the appropriate reference range for this element in children's pharyngeal tonsils. Pharyngeal tonsils were extracted from a total of 379 children (age 2-17 years, mean 6.2 ± 2.7 years) living in southern Poland. Tonsil samples were mineralized in a closed cycle in a pressure mineralizer PDS 6, using 65% spectrally pure nitric acid. Beryllium concentration was determined using the ICP-AES method with a Perkin Elmer Optima 5300DVTM. The software Statistica v. 9 was used for the statistical analysis. It was found that girls had a significantly greater beryllium concentration in their pharyngeal tonsils than boys. Beryllium concentration varies greatly, mostly according to the place of residence. Based on the study results, the reference value for beryllium in pharyngeal tonsils of children is recommended to be determined at 0.02-0.04 µg/g.

  1. Pharyngeal Packing during Rhinoplasty: Advantages and Disadvantages

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Majid; Taghavi Gilani, Mehryar; Bameshki, Ali Reza; Behdani, Reza; Khadivi, Ehsan; Bakhshaee, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Controversy remains as to the advantages and disadvantages of pharyngeal packing during septorhinoplasty. Our study investigated the effect of pharyngeal packing on postoperative nausea and vomiting and sore throat following this type of surgery or septorhinoplasty. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was performed on 90 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) I or II patients who were candidates for septorhinoplasty. They were randomly divided into two groups. Patients in the study group had received pharyngeal packing while those in the control group had not. The incidence of nausea and vomiting and sore throat based on the visual analog scale (VAS) was evaluated postoperatively in the recovery room as well as at 2, 6 and 24 hours. Results: The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) was 12.3%, with no significant difference between the study and control groups. Sore throat was reported in 50.5% of cases overall (56.8% on pack group and 44.4% on control). Although the severity of pain was higher in the study group at all times, the incidence in the two groups did not differ significantly. Conclusion: The use of pharyngeal packing has no effect in reducing the incidence of nausea and vomiting and sore throat after surgery. Given that induced hypotension is used as the routine method of anesthesia in septorhinoplasty surgery, with a low incidence of hemorrhage and a high risk of unintended retention of pharyngeal packing, its routine use is not recommended for this procedure. PMID:26788486

  2. [DEFINITION OF WOMEN REPRODUCTIVE TRACT MICROFLORA COMPOSITION USING TEST-SYSTEM "FEMOFLOR-17"].

    PubMed

    Sklyar, T V; Krysenko, O V; Voronkova, O S; Papiashvili, M G; Vinnikov, A I

    2015-01-01

    The data about composition of the vaginal microflora of women with use of the test system "Femoflor-17" was analyzed. Established that 92.7% of samples contained lactobacilli. For quantitaty of lactobacilli vaginal flora characterized as normobiosis. The dysbiosis in the background detection of mycoplasma, ureaplasma and yeast of genus Candida identified for 38.2% of the samples. Mycoplasma, ureaplasma and candida as monoinfection detected in 71% of cases and as an association of two pathogens in 29% of cases. In establishing compliance obtained by the test system "Femoflor-17" results to clinical and bacteriological markers of vaginal dysbiosis characterized as moderate anaerobic dysbiosis--6% of the samples, moderate aerobic dysbiosis--10%, moderate anaerobic-aerobic dysbiosis--35%, pronounced anaerobic dysbiosis--12% of the samples, expressed aerobic dysbiosis--10%, anaerobic-aerobic expressed dysbiosis--27% of the samples. Showing dominance of obligate anaerobic microorganisms associations among other microorganisms.

  3. [DEFINITION OF WOMEN REPRODUCTIVE TRACT MICROFLORA COMPOSITION USING TEST-SYSTEM "FEMOFLOR-17"].

    PubMed

    Sklyar, T V; Krysenko, O V; Voronkova, O S; Papiashvili, M G; Vinnikov, A I

    2015-01-01

    The data about composition of the vaginal microflora of women with use of the test system "Femoflor-17" was analyzed. Established that 92.7% of samples contained lactobacilli. For quantitaty of lactobacilli vaginal flora characterized as normobiosis. The dysbiosis in the background detection of mycoplasma, ureaplasma and yeast of genus Candida identified for 38.2% of the samples. Mycoplasma, ureaplasma and candida as monoinfection detected in 71% of cases and as an association of two pathogens in 29% of cases. In establishing compliance obtained by the test system "Femoflor-17" results to clinical and bacteriological markers of vaginal dysbiosis characterized as moderate anaerobic dysbiosis--6% of the samples, moderate aerobic dysbiosis--10%, moderate anaerobic-aerobic dysbiosis--35%, pronounced anaerobic dysbiosis--12% of the samples, expressed aerobic dysbiosis--10%, anaerobic-aerobic expressed dysbiosis--27% of the samples. Showing dominance of obligate anaerobic microorganisms associations among other microorganisms. PMID:26638489

  4. Altered pharyngeal muscles in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Mu, Liancai; Sobotka, Stanislaw; Chen, Jingming; Su, Hungxi; Sanders, Ira; Adler, Charles H; Shill, Holly A; Caviness, John N; Samanta, Johan E; Beach, Thomas G

    2012-06-01

    Dysphagia (impaired swallowing) is common in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and is related to aspiration pneumonia, the primary cause of death in PD. Therapies that ameliorate the limb motor symptoms of PD are ineffective for dysphagia. This suggests that the pathophysiology of PD dysphagia may differ from that affecting limb muscles, but little is known about potential neuromuscular abnormalities in the swallowing muscles in PD. This study examined the fiber histochemistry of pharyngeal constrictor and cricopharyngeal sphincter muscles in postmortem specimens from 8 subjects with PD and 4 age-matched control subjects. Pharyngeal muscles in subjects with PD exhibited many atrophic fibers, fiber type grouping, and fast-to-slow myosin heavy chain transformation. These alterations indicate that the pharyngeal muscles experienced neural degeneration and regeneration over the course of PD. Notably, subjects with PD with dysphagia had a higher percentage of atrophic myofibers versus with those without dysphagia and controls. The fast-to-slow fiber-type transition is consistent with abnormalities in swallowing, slow movement of food, and increased tone in the cricopharyngeal sphincter in subjects with PD. The alterations in the pharyngeal muscles may play a pathogenic role in the development of dysphagia in subjects with PD.

  5. How the pharyngeal resonator is controlled articulatorily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esling, John H.

    2005-04-01

    Indigenous languages of North America, especially west coast Vancouver Island Nuuchahnulth and Interior BC Salish, illustrate an extensive range of use of the pharyngeal resonator. The pharynx is classified as part of the laryngeal articulator (rather than lingual) because the laryngeal constrictor mechanism (controlling changes from the glottis to the aryepiglottic folds) is the principal articulator whose movements determine the shape of the pharynx. The Nuuchahnulth (Nootka) dialects (e.g., Ahousaht) and Thompson, Moses-Columbia, and Spokane/Kalispel Salish varieties all close the larynx completely for the speech sound epiglottal stop. With the airway optimally shut, the pharynx is small; the aryepiglottic folds are pressed against the epiglottic tubercle, the tongue is retracted, and the larynx is raised. There are good indications that the thyroarytenoid, aryepiglottic, thyroepiglottic, hyoglossus and hyothyroid muscles participate in this buckling maneuvre. These languages also contain either a pharyngeal fricative or approximant (at the same place of articulation but with less stricture) and, in Thompson, also pharyngealized uvulars (with even less stricture). Pharyngeal resonance in all of these cases is dependent initially on the shortening of the supraglottic tube and subsequently on the combined effect of tongue retraction and larynx raising reducing the volume immediately above the supraglottic tube.

  6. Streptococcal Pharyngitis in Schoolchildren in Bamako, Mali

    PubMed Central

    Tapia, Milagritos D.; Sow, Samba O.; Tamboura, Boubou; Keita, Mahamadou M.; Berthe, Abdoulaye; Samake, Mariam; Nataro, James P.; Onwuchekwa, Uma O.; Penfound, Thomas A.; Blackwelder, William; Dale, James B.; Kotloff, Karen L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Group A streptococcus (GAS) pharyngitis is associated with high rates of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in developing countries. We sought to identify guidelines for empiric treatment of pharyngitis in low resource settings. To inform the design of GAS vaccines, we determined the emm types associated with pharyngitis among African schoolchildren. Methods Surveillance for pharyngitis was conducted among children 5 to 16 years of age attending schools in Bamako, Mali. Students were encouraged to visit a study clinician when they had a sore throat. Enrollees underwent evaluation and throat swab for isolation of GAS. Strains were emm typed by standard methods. Results GAS was isolated from 449 (25.5%) of the 1,759 sore throat episodes. Painful cervical adenopathy identified 403 children (89.8%) with GAS infection and was absent in 369 uninfected children (28.2%). Emm type was determined in 396 (88.2%) of the 449 culture-positive children; 70 types were represented and 14 types accounted for 49% of isolates. Based on the proportion of the 449 isolates bearing emm types included in the 30-valent vaccine (31.0%) plus non-vaccine types previously shown to react to vaccine-induced bactericidal antibodies (44.1%), the vaccine could protect against almost 75% of GAS infections among Bamako schoolchildren. Conclusions Two promising strategies could reduce RHD in low resource settings. Administering antibiotics to children with sore throat and tender cervical adenopathy could treat most GAS-positive children while reducing use of unnecessary antibiotics for uninfected children. Broad coverage against M types associated with pharyngitis in Bamako schoolchildren might be achieved with the 30-valent GAS vaccine under development. PMID:25356953

  7. Oral and pharyngeal cancers in Yemen: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Halboub, E S; Abdulhuq, M; Al-Mandili, A

    2012-09-01

    Hospital-based studies have revealed very high relative frequencies of oral and pharyngeal cancers in Yemen. This study estimated the relative frequencies of oral and pharyngeal cancers among Yemeni cancer patients registered in 2007 and 2008 and determined patients' demographic and tumour characteristics. Of the registered 7515 cases, 302 (4.0%) were oral cancer and 239 (3.2%) pharyngeal cancer. Oral cancer was significantly more frequent among females while pharyngeal cancer was significantly more frequent among males. Oral cancer patients were significantly older than pharyngeal cancer patients. The tongue was the most affected oral site (53.6%) while the nasopharynx comprised 89.5% of pharyngeal cancers. The most frequent morphological type was squamous cell carcinoma (93.2%). High proportions of oral cancer (71.5%) and pharyngeal cancer (77.4%) patients were diagnosed at advanced stages. Compared with other countries in the region, oral cancer and nasopharyngeal cancer represent substantial national health burdens in Yemen.

  8. [Clinical diagnosis and treatment of allergic pharyngitis].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinfeng; Yan, Zhanfeng; Zhang, Mingxia

    2015-08-01

    Although the concept of united airway disease has been widely accepted, most scholars emphasize only the effect of rhino-sinusitis while ignoring the pharyngeal factors to the lower airway, especially to the allergic pharyngitis (AP), which still lacks enough awareness. First of all, absence of unified diagnostic standard leads to the lack of epidemiological data, which, results in doctors' personal experience but no guideline in treatments. In addition, it is still not clear that the role of AP in the allergic airway diseases and its relationship with asthma. However, the number of patients with AP has been increasing obviously in daily clinic practice. Combined with the previous observation, this paper does a systematic review about the clinical problems of AP, expecting to give a hand to the clinical diagnosis and treatment of AP. PMID:26685417

  9. Pharyngitis of infectious mononucleosis: computed tomography findings.

    PubMed

    Kutuya, Naoki; Kurosaki, Yoshihisa; Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Takata, Koremochi; Shiraihshi, Akihiko

    2008-05-01

    Two women presented with sore throat and fever. Their symptoms were not alleviated by antibiotics. Cervical computed tomography (CT) with contrast enhancement demonstrated enlargement of predominant posterior cervical lymph nodes and streaky heterogeneous tonsils with interspersed low attenuation. They were diagnosed as having infectious mononucleosis by their laboratory data. Thus, when radiologists encounter these CT findings of pharyngitis that is not alleviated by antibiotic therapy, infectious mononucleosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis.

  10. [Resolution of radiodiagnosis of pharyngeal tumors].

    PubMed

    Ismagulova, E K; Antoniv, V F

    2005-01-01

    The authors show informative value of radiomethods in diagnosis of pharyngeal tumors, analyse resolution of x-ray investigation, computed tomography and ultrasound, present roentgenological semiotics of patients with nasopharyngeal cancer (45 patients), analyse results of x-ray examination of 45 patients with primary laryngopharyngeal tumors. In diagnosis of metastases to the neck lymph nodes ultrasound investigation (159 patients) is used as a screening method and provides additional information about tumor relationships with the major vessels.

  11. Comparison of the fecal microflora of Seventh-Day Adventists with individuals consuming a general diet. Implications concerning colonic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, M J; Smith, J W; Nichols, R L

    1977-07-01

    Qualitative and quantitative fecal microflora was studied in a double blind fashion in 28 subjects. Fourteen were Seventh-Day Adventists, who were strict vegetarians, while the remaining 14 subjects were individuals consuming a general western diet. No statistically significant differences were identified in the fecal microflora of the two groups. The bacteriologic analysis included total aerobes and total anaerobes as well as each of the major fecal aerobes and anaerobes. This study seems to indicate that the dietary intake of animal fat and protein does not significantly alter the fecal microflora, a possibility which has previously been suggested as being part of the explanation for the higher incidence of colonic carcinoma in those who consume meat compared with vegetarians. It does not, however, invalidate the concept that dietary animal fat does increase bile acid degradation within the gastrointestinal tract, a factor which has been related to colon cancer. Future studies should be directed at identifying the factors that may be present in the gastrointestinal tracts of vegetarians which modify the ability of their colonic microflora to degrade bile acids, an essential step in the production of intraluminal carcinogens or co-carcinogens.

  12. Pulmonary Renal Syndrome After Streptococcal Pharyngitis

    PubMed Central

    Mara-Koosham, Gopi; Stoltze, Karl; Aday, Jeffrey; Rendon, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary renal syndrome is a class of small vessel vasculitides that are characterized by the dual presentation of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) and glomerulonephritis. Pulmonary renal syndrome has multiple etiologies, but its development has been rarely reported following infection with group A streptococcus. We present the case of a 36-year-old Native American male who was transferred to our facility due to refractory hypoxic respiratory failure. He had been diagnosed with streptococcal pharyngitis 2 weeks prior to admission. Given the presence of hemoptysis, bronchoscopy was performed and was consistent with DAH. Urinalysis demonstrated hematuria and proteinuria, in the setting of elevated creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Additionally, antistreptolysin O titer was positive. Given the constellation of laboratory findings and history of streptococcal pharyngitis, the patient was diagnosed with PRS secondary to streptococcal infection. High-dose methylprednisolone was initiated with concomitant plasmapheresis. He was extubated successfully after his respiratory status improved and was eventually discharged home after making a full recovery within 2 weeks after admission. This case illustrates the importance of clinically relevant sequelae of streptococcal infection as well as the appropriate treatment of PRS secondary to streptococcal pharyngitis with plasmapheresis and intravenous corticosteroids. PMID:27231692

  13. Pharyngeal pumping continues after laser killing of the pharyngeal nervous system of C. elegans

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, L.; Horvitz, H.R. )

    1989-10-01

    Using a laser microbeam to kill specific subsets of the pharyngeal nervous system of C. elegans, we found that feeding was accomplished by two separately controlled muscle motions, isthmus peristalsis and pumping. The single neuron M4 was necessary and sufficient for isthmus peristalsis. The MC neurons were necessary for normal stimulation of pumping in response to food, but pumping continued and was functional in MC- worms. The remaining 12 neuron types were also unnecessary for functional pumping. No operation we did, including destruction of the entire pharyngeal nervous system, abolished pumping altogether. When we killed all pharyngeal neurons except M4, the worms were viable and fertile, although retarded and starved. Since feeding is one of the few known essential actions controlled by the nervous system, we suggest that most of the C. elegans nervous system is dispensable in hermaphrodites under laboratory conditions. This may explain the ease with which nervous system mutants are isolated and handled in C. elegans.

  14. [Characteristics of associated microflora of ejaculate from males with gonococcal infections].

    PubMed

    Voronina, L G; Mikhaĭlova, E A; Perunova, N B; Kuznetsova, E K

    2006-01-01

    Species composition and biological properties of aerobic and anaerobic microflora from an ejaculate from males with acute and chronic gonococcal infection and from healthy men were studied. Patients with gonococcal infection were shown to present quantitative and qualitative changes in microbiocenosis of the reproductive tract. Patients with acute gonorrhea displayed decreased species diversity in contrast to healthy persons, while different species of associated with gonococci microbes with high persistent potential, were cultured in patients suffering from a chronic form of infection. The role of revealed pathological biocenosis patterns in developing chronic infection as well as postgonorrheal gonococci-free urethritis is discussed. PMID:16941881

  15. Pharyngeal tuberculosis: Report of 5 cases.

    PubMed

    Mouhsine, Abdelilah; Temsamani, Hind; Belkouch, Ahmed; Atmane, ElMehdi; Elfikri, Abdelghani; Benariba, Fouad

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a public health problem for many countries, whether rich or poor. Extranodal ENT locations are rare, and it prevails in the cavum in the pharyngeal region. Based on a 3-year retrospective study of 5 clinical cases, the authors aim to highlight the epidemiological, clinical, radiological, therapeutic and prognostic aspects of this disease. Clinical aspects are not specific and there is often confusion in the differential diagnosis with tumoral lesions. Positive diagnosis is guided by the clinical and the radiological findings, and confirmed by histology.

  16. Isolated pharyngeal Neisseria gonorrhoeae in heterosexual male contacts.

    PubMed

    Thomson-Glover, Rebecca; Brown, Ruth; Edirisinghe, Damitha N

    2013-12-01

    Pharyngeal infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) in heterosexual men is thought to be of low prevalence and the value of routinely testing this group of patients is uncertain. We present two cases of NG, isolated only in the pharynx, in asymptomatic heterosexual male contacts. The presence of pharyngeal NG was found irrespective of direct oropharyngeal sexual exposure.

  17. Pharyngeal Fricatives, and Pike's "Fricative" and "Frictional" Categories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprigg, R. K.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion of pharyngeal fricatives in Arabic looks at voiced and voiceless varieties within the context of K. L. Pike's classifications. Pike treated pharyngeal fricatives as standing apart from others, including a number of oral fricatives and one glottal fricative in a category he called "frictionals." Later, however, he distinguished the…

  18. Similarity and Enhancement: Nasality from Moroccan Arabic Pharyngeals and Nasals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellou, Georgia Eve

    2012-01-01

    Experimental studies of the articulation, acoustics, and perception of nasal and pharyngeal consonants and adjacent vowels were conducted to investigate nasality in Moroccan Arabic (MA). The status of nasality in MA is described as coarticulatorily complex, where two phoneme types (pharyngeal segments and nasal segments) yield similar…

  19. Quantitative assessment of vaginal microflora during use of tampons of various compositions.

    PubMed

    Onderdonk, A B; Zamarchi, G R; Rodriguez, M L; Hirsch, M L; Muñoz, A; Kass, E H

    1987-12-01

    Although the effect of vaginal tampons on the microbial flora during menstruation has recently been studied by several investigators, quantitative effects attributable to particular tampon fibers have received less attention. The purposes of the present study were (i) to determine and then to compare the effects of polyacrylate rayon tampons and viscose rayon tampons on the normal vaginal flora, (ii) to compare quantitative bacterial counts obtained from these tampons with those obtained from concomitant vaginal swabs, and (iii) to determine whether either of these tampon types alters the vaginal microflora when compared with the microflora in the same women using all-cotton tampons or external catamenial pads. Tampon and swab samples were obtained at predetermined times from 18 women for an average of seven menstrual cycles. Samples consisting of swabs from women wearing menstrual pads were compared with swab and tampon samples taken at predetermined times during the menstrual cycle from women using cotton, polyacrylate rayon, or viscose rayon tampons. Samples were analyzed for total aerobic, facultative, and anaerobic bacterial counts. Statistical evaluation of the results indicated that, on the whole, total bacterial counts decreased during menstruation and that the numbers of bacteria in tampons tended to be lower than those in swab samples taken at the same time. The tampon type had little effect on the vaginal microflora.

  20. Foodborne streptococcal pharyngitis after a party.

    PubMed

    Berkley, S F; Rigau-Pérez, J G; Facklam, R; Broome, C V

    1986-01-01

    Following a private party in Río Piedras, PR, 23 (56 percent) of those who attended developed an illness characterized by pharyngitis, myalgia, fatigue, headache, and fever. Consumption of carrucho (conch) salad was significantly associated with illness (P = 0.013, Fisher's exact test). Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci (M nontypable T12, serum opacity factor positive) were isolated both from throat cultures in 11 of 47 persons who attended the party and from the implicated food. The original source of contamination of the conch salad was not identified. Because complications may still occur from such infections and only a small percentage of persons with sore throats seek medical attention and ultimately receive treatment for their illnesses, it is important to recognize these outbreaks.

  1. Foodborne streptococcal pharyngitis after a party.

    PubMed

    Berkley, S F; Rigau-Pérez, J G; Facklam, R; Broome, C V

    1986-01-01

    Following a private party in Río Piedras, PR, 23 (56 percent) of those who attended developed an illness characterized by pharyngitis, myalgia, fatigue, headache, and fever. Consumption of carrucho (conch) salad was significantly associated with illness (P = 0.013, Fisher's exact test). Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci (M nontypable T12, serum opacity factor positive) were isolated both from throat cultures in 11 of 47 persons who attended the party and from the implicated food. The original source of contamination of the conch salad was not identified. Because complications may still occur from such infections and only a small percentage of persons with sore throats seek medical attention and ultimately receive treatment for their illnesses, it is important to recognize these outbreaks. PMID:3083478

  2. Endoscopic stapling diverticulotomy of pharyngeal pouch.

    PubMed

    Bates, G J; Koay, C B

    1996-03-01

    Endoscopic diverticulotomy (Dohlman's procedure) is a well-established and effective alternative to external diverticulectomy in the treatment of pharyngeal pouch. The division of the common septum between the pouch and the oesophagus is usually performed either with electrocautery or with a laser. We describe a new technique of endoscopic diverticulotomy using a linear cutter stapling gun. This technique has the advantages of being quick and bloodless, avoiding the need for a nasogastric tube, permitting oral intake as early as the first postoperative day and allowing early discharge from hospital. It also has the theoretical advantage over the electrocautery or the laser technique of reducing the risk of fistula formation, mediastinitis and thermal injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve. PMID:8678451

  3. Pharyngeal sense organs drive robust sugar consumption in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    LeDue, Emily E; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Jung, Aera Y; Dahanukar, Anupama; Gordon, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    The fly pharyngeal sense organs lie at the transition between external and internal nutrient sensing mechanisms. Here, we investigate the function of pharyngeal sweet gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs), demonstrating that they express a subset of the nine previously identified sweet receptors and respond to stimulation with a panel of sweet compounds. We show that pox-neuro (poxn) mutants lacking taste function in the legs and labial palps have intact pharyngeal sweet taste, which is both necessary and sufficient to drive preferred consumption of sweet compounds by prolonging ingestion. Moreover, flies putatively lacking all sweet taste show little preference for nutritive or non-nutritive sugars in a short-term feeding assay. Together, our data demonstrate that pharyngeal sense organs play an important role in directing sustained consumption of sweet compounds, and suggest that post-ingestive sugar sensing does not effectively drive food choice in a simple short-term feeding paradigm. PMID:25807033

  4. Endodermal/ectodermal interfaces during pharyngeal segmentation in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Shone, Victoria; Graham, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    A key event in the formation of the pharyngeal arches is the outpocketing of the endodermal pharyngeal pouches and the establishment of contact with the overlying ectoderm. However, relatively little is known about how the endoderm and ectoderm relate to each other at these points of contact and the extent to which this differs between the pouches. We have therefore detailed the interactions between the pharyngeal pouches and ectoderm in the chick embryo. Unlike the other pouches, the first pouch does not sustain direct contact with the ectoderm but separates after initial contact. Contrastingly, a perforation is formed between the second pouch and cleft that creates an external opening into the pharynx. Finally, the third and fourth pouch endoderm can be seen to bulge outwards through the ectoderm, although external openings to the pharyngeal lumen are not established. To understand whether these behaviours represent derived or ancestral features, we characterised the pharyngeal ectodermal–endodermal interfaces in the shark embryo. We found that the pouches of the posterior gill-bearing arches in this species also displayed the outward bulging of the endoderm into the ectoderm, although openings were established. We further used genetic tools to detail unambiguously the relationship between the endoderm and ectoderm in zebrafish and mouse embryos and again found that the posterior pouches break through the ectoderm. Thus different pharyngeal pouches establish different topological relationships with the overlying ectoderm and the posterior pouches initiate the developmental programme for the formation of gills, be they amniotes or anamniotes. PMID:25201771

  5. Variability of the Pharyngeal Phase of Swallow in the Cat

    PubMed Central

    Spearman, Daniel G.; Poliacek, Ivan; Rose, Melanie J.; Bolser, Donald C.; Pitts, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Objective The pharyngeal phase of swallow has been thought to be a stereotypical motor behavior. Study Design This is a prospective, preclinical, hypothesis driven, one group by three-task design. Methods We sought to compare the effects of pharyngeal swabbing, water only, and water plus punctate mechanical stimulation on the spatiotemporal features of the pharyngeal phase of swallow in the cat. Swallow was elicited under these three conditions in six anaesthetized cats. Electromyographic activity was recorded from seven muscles used to evaluate swallow: mylohyoid, geniohyoid, thyrohyoid, thyroarytenoid, thyropharyngeus, cricopharyngeus, and parasternal. Results Pharyngeal swabbing in comparison to the other stimulus conditions, results in decreases in post-swallow cricopharyngeus activity (upper esophageal sphincter); a significant increase in parasternal (schluckatmung; swallow breath) activity; and increases in thyrohyoid (laryngeal elevator), thyroarytenoid (laryngeal adductor) and parasternal muscles burst duration. Pearson correlations were found of moderate strength between 19% of burst duration comparisons and weak to moderate relationships between 29% of burst amplitude comparisons. However, there were no positive significant relationships between phase durations and electromyogram amplitudes between any of the muscles studied during swallow. Conclusions The results support the concept that a stereotypical behavior, such as pharyngeal swallowing in animal models, can be modified by sensory feedback from pharyngeal mucosal mechanoreceptors. Furthermore, differences in swallow phase durations and amplitudes provide evidence that separate regulatory mechanisms exist which regulate spatial and temporal aspects of the behavior. PMID:25171095

  6. Onyx embolization of dural arteriovenous fistulas of the cavernous sinus through the superior pharyngeal branch of the ascending pharyngeal artery

    PubMed Central

    Pero, Guglielmo; Quilici, Luca; Piano, Mariangela; Valvassori, Luca; Boccardi, Edoardo

    2014-01-01

    We report three cases of dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) of the cavernous sinus treated by Onyx injection through the superior pharyngeal branch of the ascending pharyngeal artery. The treatment of choice of DAVFs of the cavernous sinus is endovascular, and it is preferentially done via transvenous occlusion of the cavernous sinus. The cavernous sinus can be reached through either the inferior petrosal sinus or the superior ophthalmic vein. When these venous routes are occluded, the first attempt is to pass through the occluded inferior petrosal sinus, but sometimes this attempt can fail. In some cases there are small transosseous feeders to the fistula arising from the superior pharyngeal branch of the ascending pharyngeal artery. When all of the more conventional approaches are unattainable, this route can be attempted. In our experience, it allowed safe and rapid occlusion of the fistula. PMID:24759156

  7. [Intestinal microflora, obesity and type 2 diabetes].

    PubMed

    Bondarenko, V M; Maleev, V V; Likhoded, V G

    2014-01-01

    The review of data of the literature on a role of intestinal microflora, genetic features of a macroorganism, exogenic factors and character of a food is presented at obesity and a type 2 diabetes. Researches establish, that development in experimental animals of the induced obesity and the type 2 diabetes, depends on a diet and presence of intestinal microflora. The factors increasing permeability mucous intestines, promote a translocation of intestinal automicroflora and its toxins into macroorganism and a system blood-circulation. Long introduction LPS (endotoxin) of gram-negative bacteria to the special laboratory animals led to development of inflammatory reaction, adiposity and resistance to insulin. The specified phenomena did not develop at LPS introduction to the animals, who have lost receptor CD14 which is necessary for linkage and endotoxin action. Data about change of intestinal microflora and a role of immune infringements are discussed at obesity and the type 2 diabetes occurring into background of low-grade chronic inflammation and metabolic disorders.

  8. Teaching Aerobic Fitness Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to teach aerobic fitness concepts to elementary students. Some of the K-2 activities include location, size, and purpose of the heart and lungs; the exercise pulse; respiration rate; and activities to measure aerobic endurance. Some of the 3-6 activities include: definition of aerobic endurance; heart disease risk factors;…

  9. Pharyngeal swallowing phase and chronic cough

    PubMed Central

    Drozdz, Daniela Rejane Constantino; Costa, Cintia Conceição; Jesus, Paulo Roberto de Oliveira; Trindade, Mateus Silva; Weiss, Guilherme; Neto, Abdias Baptista M.; da Silva, Ana Maria T.; Mancopes, Renata

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: The act of swallowing depends on a complex and dynamic process which uses common structures to the act of breathing; respiratory problems can cause swallowing difficulties. Aim: To assess the swallowing pharyngeal phase in patients with chronic cough. Method: Retrospective study with 15 patients of both genders, patients with chronic cough and risk factors for aspiration defined by the pneumologic diagnosis. The patients were submitted to anamnesis on complaints related to swallowing, chewing and breathing, or related to food and to videofluoroscopic examination. Results: It was observed that 33.3% had normal and functional swallowing, being the last one of most prevalence. The mild dysphagia was observed in 20% of the patients, the mild to moderate dysphagia in 6.7% of them. In relation to the Rosenbek scale, 73.3% of patients presented degree 1, 6.7% presented degrees 2 and 3, and 13.3% presented degree 8. The most found pathology was the chronic cough with 40%, followed by asthma with 20%; 69.2% of patients presented stasis and of these, five used protection maneuvers, of these, seven were effective and only three were used in the presence of stasis. The most used maneuver was the multiple swallowing, being effective in 100%. Conclusion: There are peculiarities in the patients' swallowing with chronic cough that, although not presenting complaints relating to swallowing, it presents an important aspiration risk due to the presence of changes in breathing pattern that can intervene in the coordination between breathing and swallowing, which is essential to protect the lower airway. PMID:25991980

  10. Pharyngeal odontoma in an adult walleye (Sander vitreus).

    PubMed

    Coffee, L L; Bogdanovic, L B; Cushing, T L; Bowser, P R

    2013-05-01

    An adult walleye (Sander vitreus) was submitted to Cornell University for evaluation of a hard pale-tan pharyngeal mass attached to the gill arches. Dozens of hard white conical structures radiated from the surface. Microscopically, conical structures were identified as denticles and rested on plates of dysplastic orthodentine, cementum, and acellular bone. A diagnosis of compound odontoma was made based upon the presence of proliferative epithelial and mesenchymal odontogenic tissues that recapitulated tooth structures normally present on gill rakers. Odontomas are classified as hamartomas and typically develop in immature diphyodont mammals. The pharyngeal location and lifelong regeneration of teeth in fish, however, both qualify the present diagnosis in the pharyngeal region of an adult teleost. Ontogenic and morphologic differences between mammalian and piscine dentition and differentials for tooth-bearing tumors in fish are presented within the context of a developmental anomaly.

  11. The development and evolution of the pharyngeal arches

    PubMed Central

    GRAHAM, ANTHONY

    2001-01-01

    A muscularised pharynx, with skeletal support, serving the dual functions of feeding and respiration, is a fundamental vertebrate characteristic. Embryologically, the pharyngeal apparatus has its origin in a series of bulges that form on the lateral surface of the embryonic head, the pharyngeal arches, whose development is complex. These structures are composed of a number of disparate embryonic cell types: ectoderm, endoderm, neural crest and mesoderm, whose development must be coordinated to generate the functional adult apparatus. In the past, most studies have emphasised the role played by the neural crest, which generates the skeletal elements of the arches, in directing pharyngeal arch development, but it has also become apparent that the endoderm plays a prominent role in directing arch development. Neural crest cells are not required for arch formation, their regionalisation nor to some extent their sense of identity. Furthermore, the endoderm is the major site of expression of a number of important signalling molecules, and this tissue has been shown to be responsible for promoting the formation of particular components of the arches. Thus vertebrate pharyngeal morphogenesis can now be seen to be a more complex process than was previously believed, and must result from an integration of both neural crest and endodermal patterning mechanisms. Interestingly, this also mirrors the fact that the evolutionary origin of pharyngeal segmentation predates that of the neural crest, which is an exclusively vertebrate characteristic. As such, the evolution of the vertebrate pharynx is also likely to have resulted from an integration between these 2 patterning systems. Alterations in the interplay between neural crest and endodermal patterning are also likely to be responsible for the evolutionary that occurred to the pharyngeal region during subsequent vertebrate evolution. PMID:11523815

  12. Nitrite loss and spoilage microflora development in chub-packed luncheon meat.

    PubMed

    Bell, R G; De Lacy, K M

    1983-12-01

    Residual nitrite was lost from chub-packed luncheon meat during storage through both chemical breakdown and microbial consumption. The relative importance of these mechanisms in this pasteurized product was determined by the speed of development of the spoilage microflora, which is influenced by storage conditions. The nitrite half-life due to chemical loss was 13 d at 25 degrees C and 36 d at 10 degrees C. When microbial growth occurred these half-lives were reduced to 2.6 d and 21 d, respectively. Qualitative differences in the microflora that developed at these two temperatures (denitrifying Bacillus spp. at 25 degrees C and non-denitrifying Streptococcus spp. at 10 degrees C) account for the large temperature effect. Growth of Streptococcus spp. increased the rate of chemical nitrite loss in chubs by reducing the pH value. Nitrite did not inhibit the aerobic growth of either Bacillus or Streptococcus species associated with spoilage but did inhibit the anaerobic growth of Bacillus spp. This bacteriostatic effect of residual nitrite in anaerobic conditions will decrease during storage as nitrite level falls and oxygen penetrates the chub pack. Nitrite-mediated bacteriostasis does not obviate the need for refrigerated storage but does afford a real, if ephemeral, safeguard against spoilage occurring during short periods of temperature abuse.

  13. The Cutaneous Bacterial Microflora of the Bodybuilders Using Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids

    PubMed Central

    Zomorodian, Kamiar; Rahimi, Mohammad Javad; Taheri, Mohammad; Ghanbari Asad, Ali; Khani, Soghra; Ahrari, Iman; Pakshir, Keyvan; Khashei, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) abuse by the athletes has dramatically increased during the recent decades. These substances might increase the skin lipids and enhance the cutaneous microbial proliferation. Objectives: The current study aimed to investigate the potential side effects of AAS on the bacterial microflora colonization of the bodybuilders` skin. Patients and Methods: The skin samples of 94 male bodybuilders (71 AAS users, 23 non-AAS users) and 46 subjects of the control group, with similar gender and age, were cultured and incubated in both aerobic condition to isolate Staphylococcus aureus and anaerobic condition for Propionibacterium acnes. The isolated bacteria were identified by standard microbiological techniques. Results: The skin lesions were more frequent in the body builders than the controls. Moreover, statistically significant differences were also observed in skin lesions among the AAS users and the non-AAS user athletes. The prevalence of S. aureus and P. acnes in the athletes was higher than that of the control group. In addition, there was a significant difference in distribution of P. acnes between the bodybuilders who used AAS and those who did not. Conclusions: A higher number of bacterial flora was found in the bodybuilders particularly those using AAS in comparison to the controls, which might be due to the influence of these AAS on the skin microflora and transmission of the bacteria through the direct contact of the naked skin with the exercise instruments. PMID:25789120

  14. Functional Outcomes after Chemoradiotherapy of Laryngeal and Pharyngeal Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Hutcheson, Katherine A.; Lewin, Jan S.

    2014-01-01

    Organ preservation regimens that combine chemotherapy and radiotherapy (chemoradiotherapy) are increasingly used as the primary treatment of laryngeal and pharyngeal cancers. Meta-analytic data show a survival benefit with combined modality therapy, but the functional sequelae can be significant. Dysphagia is recognized as a common and often devastating late effect of chemoradiotherapy. This review examines functional outcomes after chemoradiotherapy for laryngeal and pharyngeal cancers, with a particular emphasis on dysphagia. Topics examined include the burden of dysphagia after chemoradiation, pathophysiology of dysphagia, baseline functioning, recommendations to improve long-term function, and voice outcomes. PMID:22249533

  15. Icariin Metabolism by Human Intestinal Microflora.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hailong; Kim, Mihyang; Han, Jaehong

    2016-01-01

    Icariin is a major bioactive compound of Epimedii Herba, a traditional oriental medicine exhibiting anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and anti-osteoporosis activities. Recently, the estrogenic activities of icariin drew significant attention, but the published scientific data seemed not to be so consistent. To provide fundamental information for the study of the icaritin metabolism, the biotransformation of icariin by the human intestinal bacteria is reported for the first time. Together with human intestinal microflora, the three bacteria Streptococcus sp. MRG-ICA-B, Enterococcus sp. MRG-ICA-E, and Blautia sp. MRG-PMF-1 isolated from human intestine were reacted with icariin under anaerobic conditions. The metabolites including icariside II, icaritin, and desmethylicaritin, but not icariside I, were produced. The MRG-ICA-B and E strains hydrolyzed only the glucose moiety of icariin, and icariside II was the only metabolite. However, the MRG-PMF-1 strain metabolized icariin further to desmethylicaritin via icariside II and icaritin. From the results, along with the icariin metabolism by human microflora, it was evident that most icariin is quickly transformed to icariside II before absorption in the human intestine. We propose the pharmacokinetics of icariin should focus on metabolites such as icariside II, icaritin and desmethylicaritin to explain the discrepancy between the in vitro bioassay and pharmacological effects. PMID:27589718

  16. The influence of mannan oligosaccharides, acidifiers and their combination on caecal microflora of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Bonos, Eleftherios; Christaki, Efterpi; Abrahim, Amin; Soultos, Nikolaos; Florou-Paneri, Panagiota

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the dietary supplementation of mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) extracted from yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, acidifiers-calcium formate (CF), calcium propionate (CP)- and their combination on the caecal microflora of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Four hundred and fifty 1-day old quail where divided in six groups with three replicates each. One group that served as control received the basal diet. The five experimental diets consisted of the basal diet to which either 1 g MOS/kg, or 6 g CF/kg, or 6 g CP/kg, or 1 g MOS plus 6 g CF/kg or 1 g MOS plus 6 g CP/kg were added. The body weight was examined at weekly intervals and mortality was recorded daily. At days 21 and 42 of age, the total count of aerobic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, enterobacteriaceae and coliforms in the caecal content of one bird of each replicate was determined. Also, at day 42 of age, two birds of each replicate were slaughtered and their carcass weight was determined. The results showed that MOS significantly (P ≤ 0.050) increased the total aerobic plate and lactic acid bacteria counts on day 21. Furthermore, CP significantly (P ≤ 0.050) decreased the total aerobic plate and lactic acid bacteria counts compared to controls on day 21. Significant interaction between MOS and acidifiers was noticed on total aerobic plate count on day 21. No significant (P > 0.050) difference was found in the caecal microflora on day 42. Finally, no significant (P > 0.050) difference was noticed on mortality, body and carcass weight.

  17. Application of Classification Models to Pharyngeal High-Resolution Manometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielens, Jason D.; Hoffman, Matthew R.; Ciucci, Michelle R.; McCulloch, Timothy M.; Jiang, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The authors present 3 methods of performing pattern recognition on spatiotemporal plots produced by pharyngeal high-resolution manometry (HRM). Method: Classification models, including the artificial neural networks (ANNs) multilayer perceptron (MLP) and learning vector quantization (LVQ), as well as support vector machines (SVM), were…

  18. Placoderm fishes, pharyngeal denticles, and the vertebrate dentition.

    PubMed

    Johanson, Zerina; Smith, Moya M

    2003-09-01

    The correlation of the origin of teeth with jaws in vertebrate history has recently been challenged with an alternative to the canonical view of teeth deriving from separate skin denticles. This alternative proposes that organized denticle whorls on the pharyngeal (gill) arches in the fossil jawless fish Loganellia are precursors to tooth families developing from a dental lamina along the jaw, such as those occurring in sharks, acanthodians, and bony fishes. This not only indicates that homologs of tooth families were present, but also illustrates that they possessed the relevant developmental controls, prior to the evolution of jaws. However, in the Placodermi, a phylogenetically basal group of jawed fishes, the state of pharyngeal denticles is poorly known, tooth whorls are absent, and the presence of teeth homologous to those in extant jawed fishes (Chondrichthyes + Osteichthyes) is controversial. Thus, placoderms would seem to provide little evidence for the early evolution of dentitions, or of denticle whorls, or tooth families, at the base of the clade of jawed fishes. However, organized denticles do occur at the rear of the placoderm gill chamber, but are associated with the postbranchial lamina of the anterior trunkshield, assumed to be part of the dermal cover. Significantly, these denticles have a different organization and morphology relative to the external dermal trunkshield tubercles. We propose that they represent a denticulate part of the visceral skeleton, under the influence of pharyngeal patterning controls comparable to those for pharyngeal denticles in other jawed vertebrates and Loganellia.

  19. [Recommendations for management of acute pharyngitis in adults].

    PubMed

    Cots, Josep M; Alós, Juan-Ignacio; Bárcena, Mario; Boleda, Xavier; Cañada, José L; Gómez, Niceto; Mendoza, Ana; Vilaseca, Isabel; Llor, Carles

    2015-10-01

    Acute pharyngitis in adults is one of the most common infectious diseases seen in general practitioners' consultations. Viral aetiology is the most common. Among bacterial causes, the main agent is Streptococcus pyogenes or group A β-haemolytic streptococcus (GABHS), which causes 5%-30% of the episodes. In the diagnostic process, clinical assessment scales can help clinicians to better predict suspected bacterial aetiology by selecting patients who should undergo a rapid antigen detection test. If these techniques are not performed, an overdiagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis often occurs, resulting in unnecessary prescriptions of antibiotics, most of which are broad spectrum. Consequently, management algorithms that include the use of predictive clinical rules and rapid tests have been set up. The aim of the treatment is speeding up symptom resolution, reducing the contagious time span and preventing local suppurative and non-suppurative complications. Penicillin and amoxicillin are the antibiotics of choice for the treatment of pharyngitis. The association of amoxicillin and clavulanate is not indicated as the initial treatment of acute infection. Neither are macrolides indicated as first-line therapy; they should be reserved for patients allergic to penicillin. The appropriate diagnosis of bacterial pharyngitis and proper use of antibiotics based on the scientific evidence available are crucial. Using management algorithms can be helpful in identifying and screening the cases that do not require antibiotic therapy.

  20. Recommendations for management of acute pharyngitis in adults.

    PubMed

    Cots, Josep M; Alós, Juan-Ignacio; Bárcena, Mario; Boleda, Xavier; Cañada, José L; Gómez, Niceto; Mendoza, Ana; Vilaseca, Isabel; Llor, Carles

    2015-01-01

    Acute pharyngitis in adults is one of the most common infectious diseases seen in general practitioners' consultations. Viral aetiology is the most common. Among bacterial causes, the main agent is Streptococcus pyogenes or group A β-haemolytic streptococcus (GABHS), which causes 5%-30% of the episodes. In the diagnostic process, clinical assessment scales can help clinicians to better predict suspected bacterial aetiology by selecting patients who should undergo a rapid antigen detection test. If these techniques are not performed, an overdiagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis often occurs, resulting in unnecessary prescriptions of antibiotics, most of which are broad spectrum. Consequently, management algorithms that include the use of predictive clinical rules and rapid tests have been set up. The aim of the treatment is speeding up symptom resolution, reducing the contagious time span and preventing local suppurative and non-suppurative complications. Penicillin and amoxicillin are the antibiotics of choice for the treatment of pharyngitis. The association of amoxicillin and clavulanate is not indicated as the initial treatment of acute infection. Neither are macrolides indicated as first-line therapy; they should be reserved for patients allergic to penicillin. The appropriate diagnosis of bacterial pharyngitis and proper use of antibiotics based on the scientific evidence available are crucial. Using management algorithms can be helpful in identifying and screening the cases that do not require antibiotic therapy.

  1. Pharyngeal wall fold influences on the collapsibility of the pharynx.

    PubMed

    Kairaitis, Kristina

    2012-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a disease that is characterised by recurrent pharyngeal obstruction during sleep. The pharynx is a hollow muscular tube lined with epithelium that performs the competing functions of breathing, where it is required to be open and swallowing where it is required to close. The mechanical process by which these large changes in luminal dimensions occur have not been considered, however in other biological tubes such as the oesophagus and the bronchial airways narrowing and closure occurs via folding of the mucosal surface. The transmural pressure (P) required to collapse a tube is related to the number of folds (n) formed during collapse by the equation P=n(2)-1, so that the more folds formed during narrowing and closure, the greater the transmural pressure required to collapse the tube. In biomechanical models, the bronchial airway is modelled as a 2-layer tube with an inner epithelial lining and an outer layer of muscle. These models predict that fold numbers will be reduced with thickening and stiffening of the outer layer, accompanied by an increase in collapsibility. We hypothesise that, similar to other biological tubes the pharynx narrows and closes via folding of the surface of the tube, and that the pharynx can also be modelled as a 2-layer tube. We further hypothesise that when compared to healthy subjects, subjects with OSA will have less pharyngeal wall folds during narrowing and closure, and that this reduction in fold numbers will contribute to an increase in pharyngeal collapsibility. In the absence of muscle activity, subjects with OSA have increased pharyngeal collapsibility when compared with healthy subjects, supporting an anatomical contribution to pharyngeal collapse. Histopathological studies of the pharyngeal epithelium in subjects with OSA demonstrate that, compared with age matched subjects, there is thickening of the epithelial surface with oedema of the submucosal layer, with a loss of tethering of the

  2. Group C beta-hemolytic streptococci causing pharyngitis and scarlet fever.

    PubMed

    Corson, A P; Garagusi, V F; Chretien, J H

    1989-09-01

    After a young woman had scarlet fever associated with group C beta-hemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis, we reviewed all cases of pharyngitis treated at a student health clinic during that semester. From 541 cases of pharyngitis, 34 cultures yielded group C Streptococcus. The patients who harbored group C organisms were similar to the patients with group A streptococcal pharyngitis in the presence of fever, exudate, and cervical adenopathy. The severity of symptoms and the demonstration of scarlet fever developing from infection with this organism supports antibiotic treatment of patients with group C streptococcal pharyngitis.

  3. Microflora in soils of desert regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, R. E.

    1970-01-01

    Desert soil samples, collected using aseptic techniques, are low in organic matter and cation exchange capacity. Aerobic and microaerophilic bacteria are most abundant, next are algae and molds. Chemical and physical properties are determined by standard procedures, including the Kjeldahl method and the use of Munsell soil color charts.

  4. Function of a key morphological innovation: fusion of the cichlid pharyngeal jaw

    PubMed Central

    Darrin Hulsey, C

    2005-01-01

    The pharyngeal jaw of cichlids may represent a key innovation that facilitated their unparalleled trophic divergence. In cichlids, ‘fusion’ of the lower pharyngeal jaw (LPJ) results from suturing between the two lower ceratobranchials. To examine, what novel abilities a more extensively fused pharyngeal jaw may confer, the function of LPJ suturing was examined in Heroine cichlids. Greater LPJ suturing, pharyngeal jaw splitting under compression and the forces used to crush molluscs in the wild suggest increased LPJ fusion in the trophically polymorphic Herichthys minckleyi operates to strengthen the pharyngeal jaw. Among Heroine cichlid species, the presence of an external LPJ suture and feeding specialization on molluscs was evolutionarily quite variable, but greater LPJ fusion estimated from the amount of external suturing was highly correlated with molluscivory. Throughout cichlid diversification, increased pharyngeal jaw fusion via suturing has likely helped to reinforce the LPJ during pharyngeal processing thereby facilitating the ability of cichlids to exploit durable prey. PMID:16608685

  5. moz regulates Hox expression and pharyngeal segmental identity in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Miller, Craig T; Maves, Lisa; Kimmel, Charles B

    2004-05-01

    In vertebrate embryos, streams of cranial neural crest (CNC) cells migrate to form segmental pharyngeal arches and differentiate into segment-specific parts of the facial skeleton. To identify genes involved in specifying segmental identity in the vertebrate head, we screened for mutations affecting cartilage patterning in the zebrafish larval pharynx. We present the positional cloning and initial phenotypic characterization of a homeotic locus discovered in this screen. We show that a zebrafish ortholog of the human oncogenic histone acetyltransferase MOZ (monocytic leukemia zinc finger) is required for specifying segmental identity in the second through fourth pharyngeal arches. In moz mutant zebrafish, the second pharyngeal arch is dramatically transformed into a mirror-image duplicated jaw. This phenotype resembles a similar but stronger transformation than that seen in hox2 morpholino oligo (hox2-MO) injected animals. In addition, mild anterior homeotic transformations are seen in the third and fourth pharyngeal arches of moz mutants. moz is required for maintenance of most hox1-4 expression domains and this requirement probably at least partially accounts for the moz mutant homeotic phenotypes. Homeosis and defective Hox gene expression in moz mutants is rescued by inhibiting histone deacetylase activity with Trichostatin A. Although we find early patterning of the moz mutant hindbrain to be normal, we find a late defect in facial motoneuron migration in moz mutants. Pharyngeal musculature is transformed late, but not early, in moz mutants. We detect relatively minor defects in arch epithelia of moz mutants. Vital labeling of arch development reveals no detectable changes in CNC generation in moz mutants, but later prechondrogenic condensations are mispositioned and misshapen. Mirror-image hox2-dependent gene expression changes in postmigratory CNC prefigure the homeotic phenotype in moz mutants. Early second arch ventral expression of goosecoid (gsc) in moz

  6. Maternal adaptive immunity influences the intestinal microflora of suckling mice.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Rosa L; Hoang, Lisa; Wang, Jiafang; Vela, Jose L; Jenkins, Shannon; Aranda, Richard; Martín, Martín G

    2004-09-01

    The microflorae in the intestine of breast-fed infants are distinct from those that typically populate the intestine of formula-fed infants. Although the acquisition of passive immunity through breast-feeding may play a critical role in influencing the pattern of bacterial colonization of the gut, the precise mechanisms underlying the differences in the commensal microflorae of breast and formula-fed children have not been established. We hypothesized that the assemblage of commensal microflorae in suckling and weaned mice may be influenced by the maternal adaptive immune system. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the intestinal microflorae of mice reared in the presence (wild-type) or absence of an intact maternal immune system (T- and B-cell deficient). Several types of bacteria (Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, Clostridium perfringens, Bifidobacterium, and Bacteroides) were isolated and enumerated from both the small and large intestine of 10-, 18-, 25- and 40- to 60-d old mice using selective media. The densities of bacteria were significantly lower in the small intestine of weaned mice that were reared by wild-type (WT) compared with immunodeficient (ID) dams. However, the microflorae were generally more abundant in the large intestine of suckling pups reared by WT compared with ID dams. Our results indicate that intestinal microflorae change throughout the suckling phase of development and that the maternal adaptive immune system influences the pattern and abundance of bacteria within the gut in an age- and site-specific manner.

  7. GASTROINTESTINAL MICROFLORA OF MUTTON BIRDS (PUFFINUS TENUIROSTRIS) IN RELATION TO “LIMY” DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Mushin, Rose; Ashburner, Frances M.

    1962-01-01

    Mushin, Rose (University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia) and Frances M. Ashburner. Gastrointestinal microflora of mutton birds (Puffinus tenuirostris) in relation to “limy” disease. J. Bacteriol. 83:1260–1267. 1962.—The aerobic bacterial intestinal flora of mutton birds, healthy and affected with “limy” disease, was investigated, mainly in birds from Great Dog Island, Bass Strait, Australia. A total of 1,274 specimens from gut on post-mortem and from cloacal swabs was examined. No indication was obtained of a pathogenic bacterial species concerned in “limy” disease. A study was made of the types of organisms and their distribution in the gut of mutton birds. The sparsity, or occasional absence, of aerobic bacterial flora in some birds, especially adults, was noticed. The “limy” birds, by comparison with normal chicks, had a richer flora more evenly distributed through the alimentary canal. A higher ratio of gram-negative to gram-positive bacterial types was recorded in chicks; adult birds had a lower or an even numerical ratio. The comparatively frequent occurrence of Proteus species, except P. mirabilis, and of irregular and intermediate coliform types was evident. Escherichia coli type I was not a constant inhabitant of the gut. The gram-positive flora consisted mostly of Staphylococcus saprophyticus, S. lactis, and Enterococcus. The possibility that “limy” disease may be caused by physiological factors is discussed. PMID:14477540

  8. The in vitro effects of cetyltrimethylammonium naproxenate on oral and pharyngeal microorganisms of various ecological niches.

    PubMed

    Pilloni, A P; Buttini, G; Giordano, B; Iovene, M R; di Salvo, R; Buommino, E; Tufano, M A

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the in vitro susceptibility to cetyltrimethylammonium naproxenate for various aerobic and anaerobic micro-organisms responsible for oral and pharyngeal diseases by assessing the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) or minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) and by determining kill-times. The MICs of cetyltrimethylammonium naproxenate for 46 tested strains (25 reference strains and 21 clinical isolates) ranged from 8 to 500 micrograms/ml. The MIC was found to be 31.25 micrograms/ml for 36% of the reference strains. Even lower MIC values (15.63 micrograms/ml) were observed for some anaerobic strains, for Haemophilus influenzae and for Candida tropicalis. MIC and MBC values corresponded for the majority of strains tested while the MFC for C. tropicalis and C. albicans was much higher. Only 9.5% of the clinical isolates gave a MIC value of 31.25 micrograms/ml. Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus showed MIC at 62.5 micrograms/ml. The MIC and MBC values among the isolates were comparable, while the MFC value for the yeasts was greater. A concentration of 125 micrograms/ml of cetyltrimethylammonium naproxenate inhibited the growth of all bacteria, except Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonaceae, and yeasts. Cetyltrimethylammonium naproxenate shows very rapid kill-time for S. sanguis (0"), and rapid (15") for S. pyogenes, S. dysgalactiae and S. mutans and for Moraxella catarrhalis, while a longer kill-time was necessary for the other microbes tested.

  9. Rapid group A streptococcal antigen detection kit: effect on antimicrobial therapy for acute pharyngitis.

    PubMed

    Redd, S C; Facklam, R R; Collin, S; Cohen, M L

    1988-10-01

    Newly introduced rapid diagnostic tests for group A streptococcal pharyngitis should facilitate appropriate antimicrobial use in patients with group A streptococcal pharyngitis. Because of high rates of acute pharyngitis in Tuba City, AZ, at the Navajo Indian reservation, the use of rapid diagnostic test was prospectively evaluated. The sensitivity and specificity of the test was measured and changes in physician prescribing patterns attributable to use of the test were correlated. Of 320 patients with pharyngitis enrolled during the present 3-week study, 86 met the study's definition of a patient with streptococcal pharyngitis and 163 met the study's definition of a patient with nonstreptococcal pharyngitis. The rapid test was 62.8% sensitive and 96.9% specific in identifying patients from whom group A streptococci were isolated. Although treatment of patients with streptococcal pharyngitis at the time of the first visit increased from 36.5% in a retrospective sample to 72.5% during the study, treatment of patients in whom cultures were negative remained the same. Further analyses showed that physicians tended to treat patients with signs characteristic of streptococcal pharyngitis and, as the study progressed, to rely less on negative rapid test results as a reason to withhold antimicrobial agents. It was concluded that rapid tests with good specificity but limited sensitivity may improve treatment of patients with streptococcal pharyngitis by allowing earlier specific therapy. A more sensitive test with a higher negative predictive value would be necessary to prevent treatment of persons with nonstreptococcal pharyngitis. PMID:3050865

  10. A Case of Persistent and Possibly Treatment Resistant Pharyngeal Gonorrhea.

    PubMed

    Levy, Vivian; Pandori, Mark; Berrada, Zenda L; Relucio, Karen I; Lopez, Teresa P; Samuel, Michael C; Park, Ina U

    2016-04-01

    An HIV-negative man with pharyngeal gonorrhea had a positive test-of-cure (nucleic acid amplification test) result 7 days after treatment with ceftriaxone/azithromycin. Neisseria gonorrhoeae Multi-Antigen Sequencing Type 1407 and mosaic pen A (XXXIV) gene were identified in the test-of-cure specimen, and culture was negative. Retreatment with ceftriaxone 500 mg intramuscularly plus azithromycin 2 g orally yielded a negative test-of-cure result. PMID:26967304

  11. Effect of inspiratory nasal loading on pharyngeal resistance.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, K; Zwillich, C W; Bendrick, T W; White, D P

    1986-06-01

    Nasal obstruction has been shown to increase the number of apneas during sleep in normal subjects and in some may actually cause the sleep apnea syndrome. We postulated that the pharynx may act as a Starling resistor, where increases in negative inspiratory pressure result in elevated resistance across a collapsible pharyngeal segment. To test this theory in normal subjects we studied 10 men and 10 women during wakefulness. Pharyngeal resistance (the resistance across the airway segment between the choanae and the epiglottis) was determined in the normal state and with three inspiratory loads added externally. Flow was measured using a pneumotachometer and a sealed face mask; epiglottic pressure by a latex balloon placed just above the epiglottis and choanal pressure by anterior rhinometry. Pharyngeal resistance (measured at 300 ml/s) could thus be determined. Base-line inspiratory pharnygeal resistance was 1.6 +/- 0.2 cmH2O . l-1 . s. This increased to 2.3 +/- 0.3, 2.8 +/- 0.4, and 2.9 +/- 0.4 cmH2O . l-1 . s, respectively, with the addition of 1.3, 2.7, and 6.7 cmH2O . l-1 . s inspiratory load. The resistance at each level of load was significantly different from the base-line resistance determination (P less than 0.05) but not different from each other. We conclude that added nasal resistive loads during inspiration cause an increase in pharyngeal resistance during wakefulness but that this resistance does not increase further with additional increments of load. PMID:3722059

  12. Pulmonary Renal Syndrome After Streptococcal Pharyngitis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Mara-Koosham, Gopi; Stoltze, Karl; Aday, Jeffrey; Rendon, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary renal syndrome is a class of small vessel vasculitides that are characterized by the dual presentation of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) and glomerulonephritis. Pulmonary renal syndrome has multiple etiologies, but its development has been rarely reported following infection with group A streptococcus. We present the case of a 36-year-old Native American male who was transferred to our facility due to refractory hypoxic respiratory failure. He had been diagnosed with streptococcal pharyngitis 2 weeks prior to admission. Given the presence of hemoptysis, bronchoscopy was performed and was consistent with DAH. Urinalysis demonstrated hematuria and proteinuria, in the setting of elevated creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Additionally, antistreptolysin O titer was positive. Given the constellation of laboratory findings and history of streptococcal pharyngitis, the patient was diagnosed with PRS secondary to streptococcal infection. High-dose methylprednisolone was initiated with concomitant plasmapheresis. He was extubated successfully after his respiratory status improved and was eventually discharged home after making a full recovery within 2 weeks after admission. This case illustrates the importance of clinically relevant sequelae of streptococcal infection as well as the appropriate treatment of PRS secondary to streptococcal pharyngitis with plasmapheresis and intravenous corticosteroids. PMID:27231692

  13. Laryngeal sensation and pharyngeal delay time after (chemo)radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Maruo, Takashi; Fujimoto, Yasushi; Ozawa, Kikuko; Hiramatsu, Mariko; Suzuki, Atsushi; Nishio, Naoki; Nakashima, Tsutomu

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the association between changes in laryngeal sensation and initiation of swallowing reflex or swallowing function before and after (chemo)radiotherapy. A prospective study was conducted in a tertiary referral university hospital. Thirteen patients who received (chemo)radiotherapy for treatment of laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer were included. Laryngeal sensation was evaluated at the tip of the epiglottis before and 1, 3 months, and 1 year after (chemo)radiotherapy. Videofluoroscopy was performed at the same time. Quantitative determinations included changes in laryngeal sensation, computed analysis of pharyngeal delay time, the distance and velocity of hyoid bone movement during the phase of hyoid excursion, and pharyngeal residue rate (the proportion of the bolus that was left as residue in the pharynx at the first swallow). Laryngeal sensation significantly deteriorated 1 month after (chemo)radiotherapy, but there was a tendency to return to pretreatment levels 1 year after treatment. Neither pharyngeal delay time nor displacement of the hyoid bone changed significantly before and after (chemo)radiotherapy. In addition, there was no significant difference in the mean velocity of hyoid bone movement and the amount of stasis in the pharynx at the first swallow before and after (chemo)radiotherapy. After (chemo)radiotherapy, laryngeal sensation deteriorated. But, in this study, videofluoroscopy showed that swallowing reflex and function were maintained.

  14. Examination of the Aerobic Microflora of swine feces and stored swine manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antimicrobial compounds are commonly used as feed additives for domestic animals to reduce infection and promote growth, but concerns have arisen that such feeding practices may result in increased microbial resistance to antibiotics used in human health. Our previous studies of the commensal anaer...

  15. Aerobic Conditioning Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Neil R.

    1980-01-01

    An aerobic exercise class that focuses on the conditioning of the cardiovascular and muscular systems is presented. Students complete data cards on heart rate, pulse, and exercises to be completed during the forty minute course. (CJ)

  16. Effects of combined heat and acetic acid on natural microflora reduction on cantaloupe melons.

    PubMed

    Fouladkhah, Aliyar; Avens, John S

    2010-05-01

    Produce is an important source of nutrients and phytochemicals, which is important in a healthy diet. However, perishable fresh produce has caused recent outbreaks of foodborne diseases. High level of nutrients and water activity, direct contact with soil, and lack of thermal procedures during primary processing make fresh produce a potential food safety hazard. Fruits and vegetables with rough surfaces can harbor microorganisms and support their multiplication, increasing the risk of this hazard. This study evaluated the effects of extreme thermal processes combined with acetic acid on natural microflora reduction on cantaloupe melons. Melons from a local supermarket were assigned into five treatment groups: control, water at 25 degrees C, water at 95 degrees C, 5% acetic acid at 25 degrees C, and 5% acetic acid at 95 degrees C. Four skin samples were obtained from each melon, separately stomached for 2 min with 0.1% peptone water, and serially diluted. Aerobic plate counts (APC) of dilutions were determined. Statistical analysis (least significant difference-based analysis of variance) showed that there were no significant (P > 0.05) differences in APC among control, water at 25 degrees C, and 5% acetic acid at 25 degrees C. Thermal treatments with water at 95 degrees C, and 5% acetic acid at 95 degrees C, were both significantly (P < 0.05) more effective in APC reduction than were nonthermal treatments, but were not significantly different from each other. Results indicated that a thermal water immersion intervention in primary processing of fresh melons can result in a 3-log reduction of natural microflora surface contamination, but 5% acetic acid will not significantly augment this reduction.

  17. Psychological Stress, Immunity, and the Effects on Indigenous Microflora.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    Psychological stress is an intrinsic part of life that affects all organs of the body through direct nervous system innervation and the release of neuroendocrine hormones. The field of PsychoNeuroImmunology (PNI) has clearly demonstrated that the physiological response to psychological stressors can dramatically impact the functioning of the immune system, thus identifying one way in which susceptibility to or severity of diseases are exacerbated during stressful periods. This chapter describes research at the interface between the fields of PNI and Microbial Endocrinology to demonstrate that natural barrier defenses, such as those provided by the commensal microflora, can be disrupted by exposure to psychological stressors. These stress effects are evident in the development of the intestinal microflora in animals born from stressful pregnancy conditions, and in older animals with fully developed microbial populations. Moreover, data are presented demonstrating that exposure to different types of stressors results in the translocation of microflora from cutaneous and mucosal surfaces into regional lymph nodes. When considered together, a scenario emerges in which psychological stressors induce a neuroendocrine response that has the potential to directly or indirectly affect commensal microflora populations, the integrity of barrier defenses, and the internalization of microbes. Finally, a hypothesis is put forth in which stressor-induced alterations of the microflora contribute to the observed stressor-induced increases in inflammatory markers in the absence of overt infection. PMID:26589222

  18. Preservation of speech and swallowing after excision of a pharyngeal pouch tumour.

    PubMed

    Shakeel, Muhammad; Sankar, V; Vallamkondu, V; Chapman, A; Hussain, A

    2015-04-01

    A pharyngeal pouch is not an uncommon cause of dysphagia in older population. However, finding a tumour in a pharyngeal pouch is very rare. A 79-year-old gentleman presented with dysphagia and a neck lump. Videofluoroscopy showed a pharyngeal pouch. Rigid endoscopy confirmed a tumour arising from the pharyngeal pouch. The histology showed it to be squamous cell carcinoma. The MRI scan based staging was T3N1M0. The patient underwent modified right radical neck dissection, partial pharyngectomy with primary repair and tracheostomy. He completed postoperative radiotherapy and remained disease-free at 4 years follow-up.

  19. Syndromes of the first and second pharyngeal arches: A review.

    PubMed

    Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita; Ornelas, Camila C; Fanganiello, Roberto D

    2009-08-01

    Our aim in this review is to discuss currently known mechanisms associated with three important syndromes of the first and second pharyngeal arches: Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS), Oculo-auriculo-vertebral syndrome (AOVS) and Auriculo-Condylar syndrome (ACS) or question mark ear syndrome. TCS and ACS are autosomal dominant diseases, with nearly complete penetrance and wide spectrum of clinical variability. The phenotype of the latter has several overlapping features with OAVS, but OAVS may exist in both sporadic and autosomal dominant forms. Mutations in the TCOF1 gene are predicted to cause premature termination codons, leading to haploinsuficiency of the protein treacle and causing TCS. Low amount of treacle leads ultimately to a reduction in the number of cranial neural crest cells migrating to the first and second pharyngeal arches. Other than TCS, the genes associated with ACS and OAVS are still unknown. The first locus for ACS was mapped by our group to 1p21-23 but there is genetic heretogeneity. Genetic heterogeneity is also present in OAVS. Based on the molecular analysis of balanced translocation in an OAVS patient, it has been suggested that abnormal expression of BAPX1 possibly due to epigenetic disregulation might be involved with the etiology of OAVS. Involvement of environmental events has also been linked to the causation of OAVS. Identification of factors leading to these disorders are important for a comprehensive delineation of the molecular pathways underlying the craniofacial development from the first and the second pharyngeal arches, for genetic counseling and to open alternative strategies for patient treatment.

  20. Motor unit regulation of mammalian pharyngeal dilator muscle activity.

    PubMed Central

    van Lunteren, E; Dick, T E

    1989-01-01

    The present study examined the cellular regulation of one of the pharyngeal dilator muscles, the geniohyoid, by assessing its motor unit (MU) behavior in anesthetized cats. During spontaneous breathing, MU that (a) were active during inspiration only (I-MU) and (b) were active during both inspiration and expiration (I/E-MU) were identified. I-MU had a later inspiratory onset time and a shorter duration of inspiratory firing than did I/E-MU (P less than 0.002 and P less than 0.0001, respectively). I-MU were usually quiescent whereas I/E-MU were usually active during the last 20% of inspiration. I/E-MU fired more rapidly (P less than 0.00001) and for relatively longer periods of time (P less than 0.00001) during inspiration than during expiration. End-expiratory airway occlusion (preventing lung expansion during inspiration) augmented the inspiratory activity of both I-MU and I/E-MU. Conversely, end-expiratory airway occlusion reduced the absolute and relative firing durations (P less than 0.002 and P less than 0.00002, respectively) and the firing frequency (P less than 0.001) of I/E-MU activity during expiration. These results indicate that (a) the complex pattern of pharyngeal dilator muscle activity is due to the integrated activity of a heterogeneous group of MU, (b) changes in the degree to which pharyngeal dilator muscles are active result from combinations of MU recruitment/decruitment and modulations of the frequency and duration of MU firing, and (c) gating of lung-volume afferent information occurs during the respiratory cycle. PMID:2760202

  1. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC FEATURES OF PHARYNGEAL NEOPLASIA IN 25 DOGS.

    PubMed

    Carozzi, Gregorio; Zotti, Alessandro; Alberti, Monica; Rossi, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is commonly used to investigate head tumors in dogs, however little information is available for lesions of the pharyngeal area. The purpose of this multicentric, retrospective, cross-sectional study was to describe the CT findings in a sample of dogs with pathologically confirmed pharyngeal neoplasia and determine whether any CT features allowed differentiation of tumor type. Location of lesions, size and shape, margins, relationship with surrounding structures and vessels, attenuation characteristics and enhancement pattern, regional lymph node changes, and presence of metastasis were recorded by three observers (1 DECVDI). The effect of final diagnosis on each CT feature was tested. A total of 25 dogs were included: 15 with carcinomas, five sarcomas, four melanomas, and one lymphoma. The oropharynx and laryngopharynx were more frequently involved. Among tumor groups, lesions were of similar size, irregularly shaped, had ill-defined margins, and had moderate-to-marked heterogeneous contrast enhancement. Lysis of hyoid bones was recorded in two carcinomas and infiltration of the lingual artery occurred in one case. Marked medial retropharyngeal lymphoadenomegaly was recorded in 11 of 14 carcinomas, in all sarcomas and in two of four melanomas. The single lymphoma case showed ill-defined thickening of the oropharyngeal and laryngeal wall with retropharyngeal and mandibular lymphadenomegaly. Lung metastases were found in two of five sarcomas and two of four melanomas. Findings from the current study did not support the hypothesis that CT features could be used to predict pharyngeal tumor type in dogs. However, CT was helpful for determining mass extension, lymph node involvement, and distant metastatic spread. PMID:26173553

  2. Design of sensors for microcirculation investigation in pharyngeal mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mareew, Gleb O.; Mareew, Oleg V.; Fedosov, Ivan V.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2004-08-01

    Sensors designed for research of blood microcirculation in pharyngeal mucosa by a laser Doppler flowmetry, are described and considered in view of anatomic and physiological features of objects of research. Two designs of sensors for laser Doppler flowmetry are described - non-contact and contact. The results of and clinical testing at norm and different pathologies of pharynx of on calibration of sensors, and also their comparative technical characteristics and materials of clinical researches of microcirculation are resulted at norm and at a various pathology.

  3. Growth and parameters of microflora in intestinal and faecal samples of piglets due to application of a phytogenic feed additive.

    PubMed

    Muhl, A; Liebert, F

    2007-10-01

    A commercial phytogenic feed additive (PFA), containing the fructopolysaccharide inulin, an essential oil mix (carvacrol, thymol), chestnut meal (tannins) and cellulose powder as carrier substance, was examined for effects on growth and faecal and intestinal microflora of piglets. Two experiments (35 days) were conducted, each with 40 male castrated weaned piglets. In experiment 1, graded levels of the PFA were supplied (A1: control; B1: 0.05% PFA; C1: 0.1% PFA; D1: 0.15% PFA) in diets based on wheat, barley, soybean meal and fish meal with lysine as the limiting amino acid. In experiment 2, a similar diet with 0.1% of the PFA (A2: control; B2: 0.1% PFA; C2: +0.35% lysine; D2: 0.1% PFA + 0.35% lysine) and lysine supplementation was utilized. During experiment 1, no significant effect of the PFA on growth, feed intake and feed conversion rate was observed (p > 0.05). Lysine supplementation in experiment 2 improved growth performance significantly, but no significant effect of the PFA was detected. Microbial counts in faeces (aerobes, Gram negatives, anaerobes and lactobacilli) during the first and fifth week did not indicate any significant PFA effect (p > 0.05). In addition, microflora in intestinal samples was not significantly modified by supplementing the PFA (p > 0.05). Lysine supplementation indicated lysine as limiting amino acid in the basal diet, but did not influence the microbial counts in faeces and small intestine respectively.

  4. Aerobic microorganisms associated with alfalfa leafcutter bees (megachile rotundata).

    PubMed

    Inglis, G D; Sigler, L; Goette, M S

    1993-09-01

    Characterization of microorganisms associated with alfalfa leaf-cutter bee (Megachile rotundata) nectar, pollen, provisions, larval guts, and frass (excreta) in Alberta demonstrated a varied aerobic microflora. Yeasts were isolated frequently from nectar, pollen, and provisions but rarely from guts or frass. The most prevalent yeast taxa were: Candida bombicola, Cryptococcus albidus, Metschnikowia reukaufii, and Rhodotorula glutinis. Although few filamentous fungi were found in nectar, they were frequently isolated from pollen and provisions; the predominant taxa were Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, C. herbarum, Epicoccum nigrum, and Penicillium chrysogenum. Bacteria, including species of Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Micrococcus, and the actinomycete Streptomyces, also were prevalent in provisions and/or on pollen. In general, the diversity of microorganisms isolated from alimentary canals and frass was lower than from nectar, pollen, and provisions. Bacillus firmus, B. licheniformis, B. megaterium, B. pumilus, and Streptomyces spp. were the most frequently isolated bacteria, whereas Trichosporonoides megachiliensis was the most common filamentous fungus isolated from larval guts and/or frass. These taxa may be part of the resident microflora of the alimentary canal. Populations of bacteria and filamentous fungi, but not yeasts, were larger from Ascosphaera aggregata-infected larvae than from healthy larvae. However, with the exception of Aspergillus niger and T. megachiliensis in frass from healthy larvae, no taxon of filamentous fungi was conspicuously present or absent in infected larvae, healthy larvae, or their frass. PMID:24190009

  5. The role of the endoderm in the development and evolution of the pharyngeal arches

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Anthony; Okabe, Masataka; Quinlan, Robyn

    2005-01-01

    The oro-pharyngeal apparatus has its origin in a series of bulges found on the lateral surface of the embryonic head, the pharyngeal arches. Significantly, the development of these structures is extremely complex, involving interactions between a number of disparate embryonic cell types: ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm and neural crest, each of which generates particular components of the arches, and whose development must be co-ordinated to generate the functional adult oro-pharyngeal apparatus. In the past most studies have emphasized the role played by the neural crest, which generates the skeletal elements of the arches, in directing pharyngeal arch development. However, it is now apparent that the pharyngeal endoderm plays an important role in directing arch development. Here we discuss the role of the pharyngeal endoderm in organizing the development of the pharyngeal arches, and the mechanisms that act to pattern the endoderm itself and those which direct its morphogenesis. Finally, we discuss the importance of modification to the pharyngeal endoderm during vertebrate evolution. In particular, we focus on the emergence of the parathyroid gland, which we have recently shown to be the result of the internalization of the gills. PMID:16313389

  6. Dual embryonic origin and patterning of the pharyngeal skeleton in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum).

    PubMed

    Sefton, Elizabeth M; Piekarski, Nadine; Hanken, James

    2015-01-01

    The impressive morphological diversification of vertebrates was achieved in part by innovation and modification of the pharyngeal skeleton. Extensive fate mapping in amniote models has revealed a primarily cranial neural crest derivation of the pharyngeal skeleton. Although comparable fate maps of amphibians produced over several decades have failed to document a neural crest derivation of ventromedial elements in these vertebrates, a recent report provides evidence of a mesodermal origin of one of these elements, basibranchial 2, in the axolotl. We used a transgenic labeling protocol and grafts of labeled cells between GFP+ and white embryos to derive a fate map that describes contributions of both cranial neural crest and mesoderm to the axolotl pharyngeal skeleton, and we conducted additional experiments that probe the mechanisms that underlie mesodermal patterning. Our fate map confirms a dual embryonic origin of the pharyngeal skeleton in urodeles, including derivation of basibranchial 2 from mesoderm closely associated with the second heart field. Additionally, heterotopic transplantation experiments reveal lineage restriction of mesodermal cells that contribute to pharyngeal cartilage. The mesoderm-derived component of the pharyngeal skeleton appears to be particularly sensitive to retinoic acid (RA): administration of exogenous RA leads to loss of the second basibranchial, but not the first. Neural crest was undoubtedly critical in the evolution of the vertebrate pharyngeal skeleton, but mesoderm may have played a central role in forming ventromedial elements, in particular. When and how many times during vertebrate phylogeny a mesodermal contribution to the pharyngeal skeleton evolved remain to be resolved. PMID:25963195

  7. Dual embryonic origin and patterning of the pharyngeal skeleton in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum).

    PubMed

    Sefton, Elizabeth M; Piekarski, Nadine; Hanken, James

    2015-01-01

    The impressive morphological diversification of vertebrates was achieved in part by innovation and modification of the pharyngeal skeleton. Extensive fate mapping in amniote models has revealed a primarily cranial neural crest derivation of the pharyngeal skeleton. Although comparable fate maps of amphibians produced over several decades have failed to document a neural crest derivation of ventromedial elements in these vertebrates, a recent report provides evidence of a mesodermal origin of one of these elements, basibranchial 2, in the axolotl. We used a transgenic labeling protocol and grafts of labeled cells between GFP+ and white embryos to derive a fate map that describes contributions of both cranial neural crest and mesoderm to the axolotl pharyngeal skeleton, and we conducted additional experiments that probe the mechanisms that underlie mesodermal patterning. Our fate map confirms a dual embryonic origin of the pharyngeal skeleton in urodeles, including derivation of basibranchial 2 from mesoderm closely associated with the second heart field. Additionally, heterotopic transplantation experiments reveal lineage restriction of mesodermal cells that contribute to pharyngeal cartilage. The mesoderm-derived component of the pharyngeal skeleton appears to be particularly sensitive to retinoic acid (RA): administration of exogenous RA leads to loss of the second basibranchial, but not the first. Neural crest was undoubtedly critical in the evolution of the vertebrate pharyngeal skeleton, but mesoderm may have played a central role in forming ventromedial elements, in particular. When and how many times during vertebrate phylogeny a mesodermal contribution to the pharyngeal skeleton evolved remain to be resolved.

  8. Dance--Aerobic and Anaerobic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arlette

    1984-01-01

    This article defines and explains aerobic exercise and its effects on the cardiovascular system. Various studies on dancers are cited indicating that dance is an anaerobic activity with some small degree of aerobic benefit. (DF)

  9. Influence of fruit variety, harvest technique, quality sorting, and storage on the native microflora of unpasteurized apple cider.

    PubMed

    Keller, Susanne E; Chirtel, Stuart J; Merker, Robert I; Taylor, Kirk T; Tan, Hsu Ling; Miller, Arthur J

    2004-10-01

    Apple variety, harvest, quality sorting, and storage practices were assessed to determine their impact on the microflora of unpasteurized cider. Seven apple varieties were harvested from the tree or the ground. The apples were used fresh or were stored at 0 to 4 degrees C for < or = 5 months and were pressed with or without quality selection. Cider yield, pH, Brix value, and titratable acidity were measured. Apples, postpressing apple pomace, and cider samples were analyzed for aerobic bacteria, yeasts, and molds. Aerobic bacterial plate counts (APCs) of ciders from fresh ground-picked apples (4.89 log CFU/ml) were higher than those of ciders made from fresh, tree-picked apples (3.45 log CFU/ml). Quality sorting further reduced the average APC to 2.88 log CFU/ml. Differences among all three treatment groups were significant (P < 0.0001). Apple and pomace microbial concentrations revealed harvest and postharvest treatment-dependent differences similar to those found in cider. There were significant differences in APC among apple varieties (P = 0.0001). Lower counts were associated with varieties exhibiting higher Brix values and higher titratable acidity. Differences in APC for stored and fresh apples used for cider production were not significant (P > 0.05). Yeast and mold counts revealed relationships similar to those for APCs. The relationship between initial microbial load found on incoming fruit and final cider microbial population was curvilinear, with the weakest correlations for the lowest apple microflora concentrations. The lack of linearity suggests that processing equipment contributed to cider contamination. Tree-picked quality fruit should be used for unpasteurized cider production, and careful manufacturing practices at cider plants can impact both safety and quality of the final product. PMID:15508636

  10. Influence of fruit variety, harvest technique, quality sorting, and storage on the native microflora of unpasteurized apple cider.

    PubMed

    Keller, Susanne E; Chirtel, Stuart J; Merker, Robert I; Taylor, Kirk T; Tan, Hsu Ling; Miller, Arthur J

    2004-10-01

    Apple variety, harvest, quality sorting, and storage practices were assessed to determine their impact on the microflora of unpasteurized cider. Seven apple varieties were harvested from the tree or the ground. The apples were used fresh or were stored at 0 to 4 degrees C for < or = 5 months and were pressed with or without quality selection. Cider yield, pH, Brix value, and titratable acidity were measured. Apples, postpressing apple pomace, and cider samples were analyzed for aerobic bacteria, yeasts, and molds. Aerobic bacterial plate counts (APCs) of ciders from fresh ground-picked apples (4.89 log CFU/ml) were higher than those of ciders made from fresh, tree-picked apples (3.45 log CFU/ml). Quality sorting further reduced the average APC to 2.88 log CFU/ml. Differences among all three treatment groups were significant (P < 0.0001). Apple and pomace microbial concentrations revealed harvest and postharvest treatment-dependent differences similar to those found in cider. There were significant differences in APC among apple varieties (P = 0.0001). Lower counts were associated with varieties exhibiting higher Brix values and higher titratable acidity. Differences in APC for stored and fresh apples used for cider production were not significant (P > 0.05). Yeast and mold counts revealed relationships similar to those for APCs. The relationship between initial microbial load found on incoming fruit and final cider microbial population was curvilinear, with the weakest correlations for the lowest apple microflora concentrations. The lack of linearity suggests that processing equipment contributed to cider contamination. Tree-picked quality fruit should be used for unpasteurized cider production, and careful manufacturing practices at cider plants can impact both safety and quality of the final product.

  11. Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nora S; Sartori-Valinotti, Julio C; Bruce, Alison J

    2016-01-01

    Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome, the most common periodic disorder of childhood, presents with the cardinal symptoms of periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis typically before age 5. This review presents the recent literature on PFAPA and summarizes key findings in the pathogenesis, evaluation, and treatment of the disease. Theories surrounding the pathogenesis of PFAPA include a faulty innate immunologic response in conjunction with dysregulated T-cell activation. A potential genetic link is also under consideration. Mediterranean fever (MEFV) gene variants have been implicated and appear to modify disease severity. In individuals with the heterozygous variant, PFAPA episodes are milder and shorter in duration. Diagnostic criteria include the traditional clinical signs, in addition to the following biomarkers: elevated C-reactive protein in the absence of elevated procalcitonin, vitamin D, CD64, mean corpuscular volume, and other nonspecific inflammatory mediators in the absence of an infectious explanation for fever. Treatment of PFAPA includes tonsillectomy, a single dose of corticosteroids, and, most recently, interleukin 1 blockers such as anakinra, rilonacept, and canakinumab. Tonsillectomy remains the only permanent treatment modality. PMID:27343963

  12. Update on the management of acute pharyngitis in children.

    PubMed

    Regoli, Marta; Chiappini, Elena; Bonsignori, Francesca; Galli, Luisa; de Martino, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcal pharyngitis is a very common pathology in paediatric age all over the world. Nevertheless there isn't a joint agreement on the management of this condition. Some authors recommend to perform a microbiological investigation in suspected bacterial cases in order to treat the confirmed cases with antibiotics so to prevent suppurative complications and acute rheumatic fever. Differently, other authors consider pharyngitis, even streptococcal one, a benign, self-limiting disease. Consequently they wouldn't routinely perform microbiological tests and, pointing to a judicious use of antibiotics, they would reserve antimicrobial treatment to well-selected cases. It has been calculated that the number of patients needed to treat to prevent one complication after upper respiratory tract infections (including sore throat), was over 4000. Even the use of the Centor score, in order to evaluate the risk of streptococcal infection, is under debate and the interpretation of the test results may vary considerably. Penicillin is considered all over the world as first line treatment, but oral amoxicillin is also accepted and, due to its better palatability, can be a suitable option. Macrolides should be reserved to the rare cases of proved allergy to β-lactams. Cephalosporins can be used in patients allergic to penicillin (with the exception of type I hypersensibility) and have been also proposed to treat the relapses. PMID:21281502

  13. Update on the management of acute pharyngitis in children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcal pharyngitis is a very common pathology in paediatric age all over the world. Nevertheless there isn't a joint agreement on the management of this condition. Some authors recommend to perform a microbiological investigation in suspected bacterial cases in order to treat the confirmed cases with antibiotics so to prevent suppurative complications and acute rheumatic fever. Differently, other authors consider pharyngitis, even streptococcal one, a benign, self-limiting disease. Consequently they wouldn't routinely perform microbiological tests and, pointing to a judicious use of antibiotics, they would reserve antimicrobial treatment to well-selected cases. It has been calculated that the number of patients needed to treat to prevent one complication after upper respiratory tract infections (including sore throat), was over 4000. Even the use of the Centor score, in order to evaluate the risk of streptococcal infection, is under debate and the interpretation of the test results may vary considerably. Penicillin is considered all over the world as first line treatment, but oral amoxicillin is also accepted and, due to its better palatability, can be a suitable option. Macrolides should be reserved to the rare cases of proved allergy to β-lactams. Cephalosporins can be used in patients allergic to penicillin (with the exception of type I hypersensibility) and have been also proposed to treat the relapses. PMID:21281502

  14. Hallucigenia's head and the pharyngeal armature of early ecdysozoans.

    PubMed

    Smith, Martin R; Caron, Jean-Bernard

    2015-07-01

    The molecularly defined clade Ecdysozoa comprises the panarthropods (Euarthropoda, Onychophora and Tardigrada) and the cycloneuralian worms (Nematoda, Nematomorpha, Priapulida, Loricifera and Kinorhyncha). These disparate phyla are united by their means of moulting, but otherwise share few morphological characters--none of which has a meaningful fossilization potential. As such, the early evolutionary history of the group as a whole is largely uncharted. Here we redescribe the 508-million-year-old stem-group onychophoran Hallucigenia sparsa from the mid-Cambrian Burgess Shale. We document an elongate head with a pair of simple eyes, a terminal buccal chamber containing a radial array of sclerotized elements, and a differentiated foregut that is lined with acicular teeth. The radial elements and pharyngeal teeth resemble the sclerotized circumoral elements and pharyngeal teeth expressed in tardigrades, stem-group euarthropods and cycloneuralian worms. Phylogenetic results indicate that equivalent structures characterized the ancestral panarthropod and, seemingly, the ancestral ecdysozoan, demonstrating the deep homology of panarthropod and cycloneuralian mouthparts, and providing an anatomical synapomorphy for the ecdysozoan supergroup.

  15. Endoscopic Identification of the Pharyngeal (Palatovaginal) Canal: An Overlooked Area

    PubMed Central

    Herzallah, Islam R.; Amin, Sameh; El-Hariri, Mona A.; Casiano, Roy R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The pharyngeal or palatovaginal canal (PC) is a small tunnel that lies between the sphenoid process of the palatine bone and the vaginal process of the sphenoid bone. Currently, little endoscopic information is available about this region. Design and Setting Endoscopic endonasal cadaveric study. Subjects and Methods Twenty sides in 10 adult cadaver heads were studied endoscopically. The sphenopalatine foramen (SPF) and the adjacent pterygopalatine fossa were exposed. Dissection medial to the vidian canal demonstrated a tunnel that runs posteromedially in the sphenoid floor. Endoscopic data were documented. Additionally, canal measurements were obtained on 20 sides from coronal CT scans of paranasal sinuses. Results The PC was identifiable in 85% of the sides, although thickness of its bony wall was variable. The endoscopic relationship of the canal and its artery with other landmarks is described. Radiologically, the diameter of the PC averaged 1.7 mm, and the mean distance from the PC to the vidian canal was 3.78 mm. Conclusion The current study provides a novel endoscopic identification of an overlooked canal. The pharyngeal artery can be a source of bleeding during extended endoscopic procedures. The PC itself could be a place for finger-like projections of anatomically related neoplasms. PMID:24083128

  16. Hallucigenia's head and the pharyngeal armature of early ecdysozoans.

    PubMed

    Smith, Martin R; Caron, Jean-Bernard

    2015-07-01

    The molecularly defined clade Ecdysozoa comprises the panarthropods (Euarthropoda, Onychophora and Tardigrada) and the cycloneuralian worms (Nematoda, Nematomorpha, Priapulida, Loricifera and Kinorhyncha). These disparate phyla are united by their means of moulting, but otherwise share few morphological characters--none of which has a meaningful fossilization potential. As such, the early evolutionary history of the group as a whole is largely uncharted. Here we redescribe the 508-million-year-old stem-group onychophoran Hallucigenia sparsa from the mid-Cambrian Burgess Shale. We document an elongate head with a pair of simple eyes, a terminal buccal chamber containing a radial array of sclerotized elements, and a differentiated foregut that is lined with acicular teeth. The radial elements and pharyngeal teeth resemble the sclerotized circumoral elements and pharyngeal teeth expressed in tardigrades, stem-group euarthropods and cycloneuralian worms. Phylogenetic results indicate that equivalent structures characterized the ancestral panarthropod and, seemingly, the ancestral ecdysozoan, demonstrating the deep homology of panarthropod and cycloneuralian mouthparts, and providing an anatomical synapomorphy for the ecdysozoan supergroup. PMID:26106857

  17. [Clinical study on Qinghouyan lozenge in treatment of acute pharyngitis].

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiao-iiao; Xuan, Zhen-yu; Ruan, Yan; Zhang, Hui-yong; Shi, Ke-hua; Guo, Yu

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of Qinghouyan lozenge in the treatment of acute pharyngitis due to Lung-heat and Yin-deficiency, and compare with Qinghouyan oral Liquid. Totally 144 subjects were enrolled and randomly divided into two groups (72 in the test group and 72 in the control group). The participants in the test group were given Qinghouyan lozenge for 5 days, and those in the control group were given Qinghouyan oral Liquid for 5 days. The effectiveness evaluation indexes were pharyngalgia/odynophagia disappearance rate, overall efficacy of TCM syndromes, TCM syndrome scores, and single syndrome and sign disappearance rate. During the test, the safety was evaluated by vital sign, lab examination indexes and adverse events. The results for the full analysis set showed that the couth disappearance rate, the incidence rate of TCM syndromes, and the throat/uvula congestion disappearance rate of the test group were higher than that of the control group (P < 0.05), with significant differences in the changes in syndrome scores between the two groups (P < 0.05). Altogether 3 adverse events were observed in the test group while 6 adverse events in the control group, without significant differences in the adverse event rate between the two groups (P < 0.05), serious abnormal laboratory examinations and vital signs. In conclusion, Qinghouyan lozenge has better efficacy in treatment of acute pharyngitis due to Lung-heat and Yin-deficiency than Qinghouyan oral liquid, with good safety. PMID:26080572

  18. [The bacterial microflora of diabetic foot infection and factors determining its spectrum in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)].

    PubMed

    Guira, O; Tiéno, H; Traoré, S; Diallo, I; Ouangré, E; Sagna, Y; Zabsonré, J; Yanogo, D; Traoré, S S; Drabo, Y J

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the bacterial microflora of diabetic foot infection and to identify the factors which determine the bacterial spectrum in order to increase empiric antibiotic prescription in Ouagadougou. The study was a cross-sectional one, carried from July 1st, 2011 to June 30, 2012 in the departments of internal medicine and general and digestive surgery in Yalgado Ouédraogo teaching hospital. Samples for bacteriological tests consisted of aspiration of pus through the healthy skin, curettage and swab of the base of the ulceration or tissue biopsy from foot lesions. The bacteria's sensitivity to antibiotics has been tested by the qualitative method (Kirby-Bauer). The frequency of diabetic foot infection was 14.45% and the monthly incidence 5.33. The mean age of patients was 56 years and the sex ratio 1.37. Foot ulcerations were chronic in 33 (51.56%), necrotic in 51 (79.69%) and associated with osteitis in 40 (62.5%) patients. Infection was grade 3 in 70.3% cases. Thirty-nine patients had received antibiotics before hospital admission. Among the 71 samples, 62 (87.32%) cultures were positive: 53 (85.48%) monomicrobial and 9 (14.52%) bimicrobial. Aerobic Gram-positive cocci (76%) were the most frequent from ulcerations: Staphylococcus aureus (32.39%), Streptococcus sp (18.30%). Negative coagulase staphylococci have been found in 23.94% cases. Aerobic gram-negative bacilli have been isolated from 24% ulcerations. No factor was associated with the type of bacteria. Gram-positive pathogen cocci showed a high sensitivity to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and oxacillin. No methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or extended-spectrum beta lactamase Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL) have been isolated. A better design is necessary to a clarification of bacterial flora in diabetic foot infections. Prevention of bacterial resistance is also needed.

  19. [The bacterial microflora of diabetic foot infection and factors determining its spectrum in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)].

    PubMed

    Guira, O; Tiéno, H; Traoré, S; Diallo, I; Ouangré, E; Sagna, Y; Zabsonré, J; Yanogo, D; Traoré, S S; Drabo, Y J

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the bacterial microflora of diabetic foot infection and to identify the factors which determine the bacterial spectrum in order to increase empiric antibiotic prescription in Ouagadougou. The study was a cross-sectional one, carried from July 1st, 2011 to June 30, 2012 in the departments of internal medicine and general and digestive surgery in Yalgado Ouédraogo teaching hospital. Samples for bacteriological tests consisted of aspiration of pus through the healthy skin, curettage and swab of the base of the ulceration or tissue biopsy from foot lesions. The bacteria's sensitivity to antibiotics has been tested by the qualitative method (Kirby-Bauer). The frequency of diabetic foot infection was 14.45% and the monthly incidence 5.33. The mean age of patients was 56 years and the sex ratio 1.37. Foot ulcerations were chronic in 33 (51.56%), necrotic in 51 (79.69%) and associated with osteitis in 40 (62.5%) patients. Infection was grade 3 in 70.3% cases. Thirty-nine patients had received antibiotics before hospital admission. Among the 71 samples, 62 (87.32%) cultures were positive: 53 (85.48%) monomicrobial and 9 (14.52%) bimicrobial. Aerobic Gram-positive cocci (76%) were the most frequent from ulcerations: Staphylococcus aureus (32.39%), Streptococcus sp (18.30%). Negative coagulase staphylococci have been found in 23.94% cases. Aerobic gram-negative bacilli have been isolated from 24% ulcerations. No factor was associated with the type of bacteria. Gram-positive pathogen cocci showed a high sensitivity to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and oxacillin. No methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or extended-spectrum beta lactamase Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL) have been isolated. A better design is necessary to a clarification of bacterial flora in diabetic foot infections. Prevention of bacterial resistance is also needed. PMID:26187771

  20. A Pair of Pharyngeal Gustatory Receptor Neurons Regulates Caffeine-Dependent Ingestion in Drosophila Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jaekyun; van Giesen, Lena; Choi, Min Sung; Kang, KyeongJin; Sprecher, Simon G.; Kwon, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    The sense of taste is an essential chemosensory modality that enables animals to identify appropriate food sources and control feeding behavior. In particular, the recognition of bitter taste prevents animals from feeding on harmful substances. Feeding is a complex behavior comprised of multiple steps, and food quality is continuously assessed. We here examined the role of pharyngeal gustatory organs in ingestion behavior. As a first step, we constructed a gustatory receptor-to-neuron map of the larval pharyngeal sense organs, and examined corresponding gustatory receptor neuron (GRN) projections in the larval brain. Out of 22 candidate bitter compounds, we found 14 bitter compounds that elicit inhibition of ingestion in a dose-dependent manner. We provide evidence that certain pharyngeal GRNs are necessary and sufficient for the ingestion response of larvae to caffeine. Additionally, we show that a specific pair of pharyngeal GRNs, DP1, responds to caffeine by calcium imaging. In this study we show that a specific pair of GRNs in the pharyngeal sense organs coordinates caffeine sensing with regulation of behavioral responses such as ingestion. Our results indicate that in Drosophila larvae, the pharyngeal GRNs have a major role in sensing food palatability to regulate ingestion behavior. The pharyngeal sense organs are prime candidates to influence ingestion due to their position in the pharynx, and they may act as first level sensors of ingested food. PMID:27486388

  1. A Pair of Pharyngeal Gustatory Receptor Neurons Regulates Caffeine-Dependent Ingestion in Drosophila Larvae.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaekyun; van Giesen, Lena; Choi, Min Sung; Kang, KyeongJin; Sprecher, Simon G; Kwon, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    The sense of taste is an essential chemosensory modality that enables animals to identify appropriate food sources and control feeding behavior. In particular, the recognition of bitter taste prevents animals from feeding on harmful substances. Feeding is a complex behavior comprised of multiple steps, and food quality is continuously assessed. We here examined the role of pharyngeal gustatory organs in ingestion behavior. As a first step, we constructed a gustatory receptor-to-neuron map of the larval pharyngeal sense organs, and examined corresponding gustatory receptor neuron (GRN) projections in the larval brain. Out of 22 candidate bitter compounds, we found 14 bitter compounds that elicit inhibition of ingestion in a dose-dependent manner. We provide evidence that certain pharyngeal GRNs are necessary and sufficient for the ingestion response of larvae to caffeine. Additionally, we show that a specific pair of pharyngeal GRNs, DP1, responds to caffeine by calcium imaging. In this study we show that a specific pair of GRNs in the pharyngeal sense organs coordinates caffeine sensing with regulation of behavioral responses such as ingestion. Our results indicate that in Drosophila larvae, the pharyngeal GRNs have a major role in sensing food palatability to regulate ingestion behavior. The pharyngeal sense organs are prime candidates to influence ingestion due to their position in the pharynx, and they may act as first level sensors of ingested food. PMID:27486388

  2. Correlation between nasopharyngoscopy and cephalometry in the diagnosis of hyperplasia of the pharyngeal tonsils

    PubMed Central

    Ritzel, Rodrigo Agne; Berwig, Luana Cristina; da Silva, Ana Maria Toniolo; Corrêa, Eliane Castilhos Rodrigues; Serpa, Eliane Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Hyperplasia of the pharyngeal tonsil is one of the main causes of mouth breathing, and accurate diagnosis of this alteration is important for proper therapeutic planning. Therefore, studies have been conducted in order to provide information regarding the procedures that can be used for the diagnosis of pharyngeal obstruction. Objective: To verify the correlation between nasopharyngoscopy and cephalometric examinations in the diagnosis of pharyngeal tonsil hyperplasia. Method: This was a cross-sectional, clinical, experimental, and quantitative study. Fifty-five children took part in this study, 30 girls and 25 boys, aged between 7 and 11 years. The children underwent nasofibropharyngoscopic and cephalometric evaluation to determine the grade of nasopharyngeal obstruction. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient at the 5% significance level was used to verify the correlation between these exams. Results: In the nasopharyngoscopy evaluation, most children showed grade 2 and 3 hyperplasia of the pharyngeal tonsil, which was followed by grade 1. In the cephalometry assessment, most children showed grade 1 hyperplasia of the pharyngeal tonsil, which was followed by grade 2. A statistically significant regular positive correlation was observed between the exams. Conclusion: It was concluded that the evaluation of the pharyngeal tonsil hyperplasia could be carried out by fiber optic nasopharyngoscopy and cephalometry, as these examinations were regularly correlated. However, it was found that cephalometry tended to underestimate the size of the pharyngeal tonsil relative to nasopharyngoscopy. PMID:25991937

  3. PHARYNGEAL MOTOR CONTROL AND THE PATHOGENESIS OF OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Amy S; White, David P

    2008-01-01

    The upper airway in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is thought to collapse during sleep at least in part, because of a sleep related reduction in upper airway dilator muscle activity. Therefore a comprehensive understanding of the neural regulation of these muscles is warranted. The dilator muscles can be classified in two broad categories; those that have respiratory related activity and those that fire constantly throughout the respiratory cycle. The motor control of these two groups likely differs with the former receiving input from respiratory neurons and negative pressure reflex circuits. The activity of both muscle groups is reduced shortly after sleep onset, indicating that both receive input from brainstem neurons involved in sleep regulation. In the apnea patient, this may lead to pharyngeal airway collapse. This review briefly describes the currently proposed sleep and respiratory neural pathways and how these circuits interact with the upper airway dilator muscle motorneurones, including recent evidence from animal studies. PMID:17869188

  4. The innervation of the zebrafish pharyngeal jaws and teeth.

    PubMed

    Crucke, Jeroen; Van de Kelft, Annelore; Huysseune, Ann

    2015-07-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) teeth are increasingly used as a model to study odontogenesis in non-mammalians. Using serial semi-thin section histology and immunohistochemistry, the nerves innervating the pharyngeal jaws and teeth have been identified. The last pair of branchial arches, which are non-gill bearing but which carry the teeth, are innervated by an internal branch of a post-trematic ramus of the vagal nerve. Another, external, branch is probably responsible for the motor innervation of the branchiomeric musculature. Nerve fibres appear in the pulp cavity of the teeth only late during cytodifferentiation, and are therefore likely not involved in early steps of tooth formation. The precise role of the nervous system during continuous tooth replacement remains to be determined. Nonetheless, this study provides the necessary morphological background information to address this question.

  5. Adaptation of swallowing hyo-laryngeal kinematics is distinct in oral vs. pharyngeal sensory processing

    PubMed Central

    Lokhande, Akshay; Christopherson, Heather; German, Rebecca; Stone, Alice

    2012-01-01

    Before a bolus is pushed into the pharynx, oral sensory processing is critical for planning movements of the subsequent pharyngeal swallow, including hyoid bone and laryngeal (hyo-laryngeal) kinematics. However, oral and pharyngeal sensory processing for hyo-laryngeal kinematics is not fully understood. In 11 healthy adults, we examined changes in kinematics with sensory adaptation, sensitivity shifting, with oropharyngeal swallows vs. pharyngeal swallows (no oral processing), and with various bolus volumes and tastes. Only pharyngeal swallows showed sensory adaptation (gradual changes in kinematics with repeated exposure to the same bolus). Conversely, only oropharyngeal swallows distinguished volume differences, whereas pharyngeal swallows did not. No taste effects were observed for either swallow type. The hyo-laryngeal kinematics were very similar between oropharyngeal swallows and pharyngeal swallows with a comparable bolus. Sensitivity shifting (changing sensory threshold for a small bolus when it immediately follows several very large boluses) was not observed in pharyngeal or oropharyngeal swallowing. These findings indicate that once oral sensory processing has set a motor program for a specific kind of bolus (i.e., 5 ml water), hyo-laryngeal movements are already highly standardized and optimized, showing no shifting or adaptation regardless of repeated exposure (sensory adaptation) or previous sensory experiences (sensitivity shifting). Also, the oral cavity is highly specialized for differentiating certain properties of a bolus (volume) that might require a specific motor plan to ensure swallowing safety, whereas the pharyngeal cavity does not make the same distinctions. Pharyngeal sensory processing might not be able to adjust motor plans created by the oral cavity once the swallow has already been triggered. PMID:22403349

  6. Influence of wakefulness on pharyngeal airway muscle activity

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Yu‐Lun; Jordan, Amy S; Malhotra, Atul; Wellman, Andrew; Heinzer, Raphael A; Eikermann, Matthias; Schory, Karen; Dover, Louise; White, David P

    2007-01-01

    Background Whether loss of wakefulness itself can influence pharyngeal dilator muscle activity and responsiveness is currently unknown. A study was therefore undertaken to assess the isolated impact of sleep on upper airway muscle activity after minimising respiratory/mechanical inputs. Methods Ten healthy subjects were studied. Genioglossus (GG), tensor palatini (TP) and diaphragm (DIA) electromyography (EMG), ventilation and sleep‐wake status were recorded. Non‐invasive positive pressure ventilation was applied. Expiratory pressure was adjusted to yield the lowest GGEMG, thereby minimising airway negative pressure (mechanoreceptor) effects. Inspiratory pressure, respiratory rate and inspiratory time were adjusted until the subjects ceased spontaneous ventilation, thereby minimising central respiratory input. Muscle activity during wakefulness, wake‐sleep transitions, stable non‐rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep were evaluated in the supine position. Results In transitions from wakefulness to sleep, significant decrements were observed in both mean GGEMG and TPEMG (1.6 (0.5)% to 1.3 (0.4)% of maximal GGEMG; 4.3 (2.3)% to 3.7 (2.1)% of maximal TPEMG). Compared with sleep onset, the activity of TP during stable NREM sleep and REM sleep was further decreased (3.7 (2.1)% vs 3.0 (2.0)% vs 3.0 (2.0)% of maximal EMG). However, GGEMG was only further reduced during REM sleep (1.3 (0.4)% vs 1.0 (0.3)% vs 1.1 (0.4)% of maximal EMG). Conclusion This study suggests that wakefulness per se, independent of respiratory/mechanical stimuli, can influence pharyngeal dilator muscle activity. PMID:17389755

  7. Endoscopic submucosal dissection of the pharyngeal region using anchored hemoclip with surgical thread: A novel method

    PubMed Central

    Minami, Hitomi; Tabuchi, Maiko; Matsushima, Kayoko; Akazawa, Yuko; Yamaguchi, Naoyuki; Ohnita, Ken; Takeshima, Fuminao; Nakao, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) of the pharyngeal region has not been well accepted, although ESD of the gastrointestinal tract is a standard procedure for treating early cancers. However, early detection and treatment of pharyngeal cancers is highly beneficial because surgical resection can be highly invasive and cause serious cosmetic deformities, swallowing disorders, dysgeusia, and speech defects. On the other hand, application of an anchored clip with surgical thread during ESD of the gastrointestinal tract has been reported to be beneficial. This pilot case series reveals the usefulness and clinical feasibility of applying a clip with thread in ESD of the pharyngeal region. PMID:27540568

  8. Evaluation of the 3M™ Petrifilm™ Rapid Aerobic Count Plate for the Enumeration of Aerobic Bacteria: Collaborative Study, First Action 2015.13.

    PubMed

    Bird, Patrick; Flannery, Jonathan; Crowley, Erin; Agin, James; Goins, David; Jechorek, Robert

    2016-05-01

    The 3M™ Petrifilm™ Rapid Aerobic Count (RAC) Plate is a sample-ready culture medium system containing dual-sensor indicator technology for the rapid quantification of aerobic bacteria in food products. The 3M Petrifilm RAC Plate was compared to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA BAM) Chapter 3 (Aerobic Plate Count) for the enumeration of aerobic bacteria in raw easy-peel shrimp and the Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products (SMEDP) Chapter 6 (Standard Plate Count Method) for the enumeration of aerobic bacteria in pasteurized skim milk and instant nonfat dry milk (instant NFDM). The 3M Petrifilm RAC Plate was evaluated using a paired study design in a multilaboratory collaborative study following current AOAC validation guidelines. Three target contamination levels (low, 10-100 CFU/g; medium, 100-1000 CFU/g; and high 1000-10 000 CFU/g) were evaluated for naturally occurring aerobic microflora for each matrix. For raw easy-peel shrimp, duplicate 3M Petrifilm RAC Plates were enumerated after 24 ± 2 h incubation at both 32 and 35°C. Pasteurized skim milk 3M Petrifilm RAC Plates were enumerated after 24 ± 2 h incubation at 32°C, and instant NFDM 3M Petrifilm RAC Plates were enumerated after 48 ± 3 h incubation at 32°C. No statistical difference was observed between 3M Petrifilm RAC Plate and FDA BAM or SMEDP reference methods for each contamination level.

  9. Evaluation of the 3M™ Petrifilm™ Rapid Aerobic Count Plate for the Enumeration of Aerobic Bacteria: Collaborative Study, First Action 2015.13.

    PubMed

    Bird, Patrick; Flannery, Jonathan; Crowley, Erin; Agin, James; Goins, David; Jechorek, Robert

    2016-05-01

    The 3M™ Petrifilm™ Rapid Aerobic Count (RAC) Plate is a sample-ready culture medium system containing dual-sensor indicator technology for the rapid quantification of aerobic bacteria in food products. The 3M Petrifilm RAC Plate was compared to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA BAM) Chapter 3 (Aerobic Plate Count) for the enumeration of aerobic bacteria in raw easy-peel shrimp and the Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products (SMEDP) Chapter 6 (Standard Plate Count Method) for the enumeration of aerobic bacteria in pasteurized skim milk and instant nonfat dry milk (instant NFDM). The 3M Petrifilm RAC Plate was evaluated using a paired study design in a multilaboratory collaborative study following current AOAC validation guidelines. Three target contamination levels (low, 10-100 CFU/g; medium, 100-1000 CFU/g; and high 1000-10 000 CFU/g) were evaluated for naturally occurring aerobic microflora for each matrix. For raw easy-peel shrimp, duplicate 3M Petrifilm RAC Plates were enumerated after 24 ± 2 h incubation at both 32 and 35°C. Pasteurized skim milk 3M Petrifilm RAC Plates were enumerated after 24 ± 2 h incubation at 32°C, and instant NFDM 3M Petrifilm RAC Plates were enumerated after 48 ± 3 h incubation at 32°C. No statistical difference was observed between 3M Petrifilm RAC Plate and FDA BAM or SMEDP reference methods for each contamination level. PMID:27297837

  10. Therapeutic approaches targeting intestinal microflora in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Andoh, Akira; Fujiyama, Yoshihide

    2006-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn’s disease, are chronic intestinal disorders of unknown etiology in which in genetically susceptible individuals, the mucosal immune system shows an aberrant response towards commensal bacteria. The gastrointestinal tract has developed ingenious mechanisms to coexist with its autologous microflora, but rapidly responds to invading pathogens and then returns to homeostasis with its commensal bacteria after the pathogenic infection is cleared. In case of disruption of this tightly-regulated homeostasis, chronic intestinal inflammation may be induced. Previous studies showed that some commensal bacteria are detrimental while others have either no influence or have a protective action. In addition, each host has a genetically determined response to detrimental and protective bacterial species. These suggest that therapeutic manipulation of imbalance of microflora can influence health and disease. This review focuses on new insights into the role of commensal bacteria in gut health and disease, and presents recent findings in innate and adaptive immune interactions. Therapeutic approaches to modulate balance of intestinal microflora and their potential mechanisms of action are also discussed. PMID:16874854

  11. Microflora in inflammatory bowel diseases: a pediatric perspective.

    PubMed

    Bruzzese, Eugenia; Canani, Roberto Berni; De Marco, Giulio; Guarino, Alfredo

    2004-07-01

    Several lines of evidence link inflammatory bowel diseases to modifications of intestinal microflora. Epidemiologic and clinical data suggest a triggering role for select agents in ulcerative colitis and in Crohn disease. Experimental evidence indicates that intestinal microorganisms are needed for developing intestinal inflammation in IL-10 knockout mice, and this is associated with an increased number of adherent clostridia and a decrease of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. It may be hypothesized that a host-agent-specific relationship leads to an abnormal immune response, which may be genetically driven in select inflammatory bowel diseases. However, different from adults, the pattern of intestinal microflora undergoes profound changes during the early stage of life, contributing to the development of the immune system. A close relationship exists between microbiologic and immunologic imprinting. The microbiologic imprinting in neonates may be modified using bacterial probiotics that colonize the intestine, modify the immune response, and decrease the risk for atopy. Probiotics may decrease the recurrences of inflammatory bowel diseases. Preliminary evidence of intestinal antiinflammatory effects has been detected in children with cystic fibrosis. Overall these data provide the rationale to investigate the interaction between intestinal microflora and the local and general immune response in children with, or at risk for, inflammatory bowel diseases. This approach may be a key for understanding the pathophysiology of intestinal inflammation and may disclose novel strategies to educate better the immune system, particularly during its developmental stage. PMID:15220668

  12. Fatal verminous pharyngitis and esophagitis caused by Streptocara incognita in mute swans (Cygnus olor).

    PubMed

    Alić, A; Prasović, S; Hodzić, A; Besirović, H; Residbegović, Emina; Omeragić, J

    2013-03-01

    Streptocara spp. infections are reported to cause gastritis, proventriculitis, esophagitis, and pharyngitis in various waterfowls, especially diving ducks. In the present paper, we describe severe fatal diphtheritic pharyngitis and esophagitis caused by Streptocara incognita in three female mute swans (Cygnus olor) in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Prior to death, the swans were showing signs of lethargy, anorexia, and reluctance to move. At necropsy, in all swans severe diphtheritic pharyngitis and esophagitis with deep, dark red hemorrhagic ulcerations were observed. Numerous thin, white, up to 1-cm-long nematodes, identified as S. incognita, were observed embedded in the pharyngeal and esophageal mucosa under the diphtheritic membranes. Histopathology revealed severe fibrinonecrotic inflammation with numerous cross-sections of the parasites. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of severe, fatal streptocariasis in mute swans. PMID:23678745

  13. An exceptional event during the moulting process of an eutardigrade: two bucco-pharyngeal apparatuses present.

    PubMed

    Pilato, Giovanni; Lisi, Oscar

    2014-05-26

    A specimen of Diphascon (Diphascon) procerum with two bucco-pharyngeal apparatuses (one of which should have been expelled during moulting process) is described, and that anomalous condition is discussed.

  14. An exceptional event during the moulting process of an eutardigrade: two bucco-pharyngeal apparatuses present.

    PubMed

    Pilato, Giovanni; Lisi, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    A specimen of Diphascon (Diphascon) procerum with two bucco-pharyngeal apparatuses (one of which should have been expelled during moulting process) is described, and that anomalous condition is discussed. PMID:24871010

  15. Appropriateness of diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis among Thai community pharmacists according to the Centor criteria.

    PubMed

    Saengcharoen, Woranuch; Jaisawang, Pornchanok; Udomcharoensab, Palita; Buathong, Kittika; Lerkiatbundit, Sanguan

    2016-10-01

    Background Inappropriate use of antibiotic treatment for pharyngitis by community pharmacists is prevalent in developing countries. Little is known about how the pharmacists identify patients with bacterial pharyngitis. Objective To ascertain the appropriateness of diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis among Thai community pharmacists according to the Centor criteria and to identify factors related to antibiotic dispensing. Setting 1040 Thai community pharmacists. Method A cross-sectional survey of community pharmacists was conducted in November 2012 to March 2013. The self-administered questionnaires were mailed to 57 % of community pharmacists in the south of Thailand (n = 1040). The survey included questions on diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis, knowledge on pharyngitis, and attitudes and control beliefs regarding antibiotic dispensing. Main outcome measure The appropriateness of diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis according to the original and modified Centor criteria and determinants of antibiotic dispensing including demographic characteristics of pharmacists, knowledge on pharyngitis, and attitudes and control beliefs on antibiotic dispensing. Results Approximately 68 % completed the questionnaires (n = 703). Compared to the pharmacists who reported not dispensing antibiotics in the hypothetical case with common cold, those reported dispensing antibiotics were more likely to consider the following conditions-presence of cough, mild sore throat and patients with age >60 years as cues for diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis (p < 0.05). The use of fewer scores of the clinical prediction rules for diagnosis was observed in antibiotic dispensers, compared to who did not do so (p < 0.005). Antibiotic dispensing was positively associated with period of dispensing experience (>5 years) [odds ratio (OR) 1.52; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.03-2.23], belief that antibiotics could shorten duration of pharyngitis (OR 1.48; 95 % CI 1

  16. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John C; McComb, Scott T.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention includes a system of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  17. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John; McComb, Scott T.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  18. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hudgins, M.P.; Bessette, B.J.; March, J.; McComb, S.T.

    2000-02-15

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120 F and 140 F in steady state.

  19. A simple procedure for measuring pharyngeal sensitivity: a contribution to the diagnosis of sleep apnoea

    PubMed Central

    Dematteis, M; Levy, P; Pepin, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Patients with severe apnoea may have an impaired pharyngeal dilating reflex related to decreased pharyngeal sensitivity. The accuracy of a simple new procedure to measure pharyngeal sensitivity and to diagnose sleep disordered breathing (SDB) was investigated. Methods: Pharyngeal disappearance and appearance sensory perception thresholds were measured by delivering different airflow rates on the soft palate using an intraoral device in 17 controls and 50 patients suffering from SDB evaluated by overnight polygraphy. The procedure was performed before (baseline) and after three successive administrations of a topical anaesthetic to sensitise the pharyngeal sensory impairment. Pharyngeal sensitivity was then evaluated according to SDB severity. SDB was classified as mild, moderate or severe according to the relative proportion of obstructive apnoeas-hypopnoeas and the amount of desaturation. Results: Patients had higher baseline disappearance and appearance sensory thresholds than controls (mean (SD) 0.62 (0.44) v 0.26 (0.06) l/min and 0.85 (0.40) v 0.40 (0.19) l/min, p<0.001, respectively). Such differences were enhanced by topical anaesthesia. Impairment of pharyngeal sensitivity and the number of patients with impaired sensitivity increased from the least to the most severe SDB group as indicated by the test sensitivity for a respiratory disturbance index of >20/hour (50%, 73.7% and 88.5% in the mild, moderate, and severely affected groups, respectively). Conclusions: This simple and safe procedure showed that impairment of pharyngeal sensitivity is correlated with severity of SDB. Using this test in routine clinical practice may simplify the diagnosis of sleep apnoea, particularly for the most severe patients. PMID:15860719

  20. Pharyngeal teeth of the freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) a predator of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P.

    1997-01-01

    The morphology of pharyngeal teeth of freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) was studied to determine changes that occur during growth of drum that may relate to consumption of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) by larger fish. Pharyngeal teeth were of three types. Cardiform teeth were replaced by villiform teeth, which were replaced by molariform teeth as the size class of drum increased. Molariform teeth comprised over 85% of total surface area of dentition in fish 265 mm long.

  1. Low-Impact Aerobics: Better than Traditional Aerobic Dance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koszuta, Laurie Einstein

    1986-01-01

    A form of dance exercise called low-impact aerobics is being touted as a misery-free form of aerobic dance. Because this activity is relatively new, the exact kinds and frequencies of injuries are not known and the fitness benefits have not been examined. (MT)

  2. Effects of meteorologic factors and schooling on the seasonality of group A streptococcal pharyngitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervás, Daniel; Hervás-Masip, Juan; Ferrés, Laia; Ramírez, Antonio; Pérez, José L.; Hervás, Juan A.

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the seasonal pattern of group A streptococcal pharyngitis in children attended at a hospital emergency department in the Mediterranean island of Mallorca (Spain), and its association with meteorologic factors and schooling. We conducted a retrospective review of the medical records of children aged 1-15 years with a diagnosis of Streptococcus pyogenes pharyngitis between January 2006 and December 2011. The number of S. pyogenes pharyngitis was correlated to temperature, humidity, rainfall, atmospheric pressure, wind speed, solar radiation, and schooling, using regression and time series techniques. A total of 906 patients (median, 4 years old) with S. pyogenes pharyngitis, confirmed by throat culture, were attended during the study period. A seasonal pattern was observed with a peak activity in June and a minimum in September. Mean temperature, solar radiation, and school holidays were the best predicting variables ( R 2 = 0.68; p < 0.001 ). S. pyogenes activity increased with the decrease of mean temperature ( z = -2.4; p < 0.05), the increase of solar radiation ( z = 4.2; p < 0.001), and/or the decrease in school holidays ( z = -2.4; p < 0.05). In conclusion, S. pyogenes pharyngitis had a clear seasonality predominating in springtime, and an association with mean temperature, solar radiation, and schooling was observed. The resulting model predicted 68 % of S. pyogenes pharyngitis.

  3. Effects of meteorologic factors and schooling on the seasonality of group A streptococcal pharyngitis.

    PubMed

    Hervás, Daniel; Hervás-Masip, Juan; Ferrés, Laia; Ramírez, Antonio; Pérez, José L; Hervás, Juan A

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the seasonal pattern of group A streptococcal pharyngitis in children attended at a hospital emergency department in the Mediterranean island of Mallorca (Spain), and its association with meteorologic factors and schooling. We conducted a retrospective review of the medical records of children aged 1-15 years with a diagnosis of Streptococcus pyogenes pharyngitis between January 2006 and December 2011. The number of S. pyogenes pharyngitis was correlated to temperature, humidity, rainfall, atmospheric pressure, wind speed, solar radiation, and schooling, using regression and time series techniques. A total of 906 patients (median, 4 years old) with S. pyogenes pharyngitis, confirmed by throat culture, were attended during the study period. A seasonal pattern was observed with a peak activity in June and a minimum in September. Mean temperature, solar radiation, and school holidays were the best predicting variables (R(2) = 0.68; p < 0.001). S. pyogenes activity increased with the decrease of mean temperature (z = -2.4; p < 0.05), the increase of solar radiation (z = 4.2; p < 0.001), and/or the decrease in school holidays (z = -2.4; p < 0.05). In conclusion, S. pyogenes pharyngitis had a clear seasonality predominating in springtime, and an association with mean temperature, solar radiation, and schooling was observed. The resulting model predicted 68 % of S. pyogenes pharyngitis. PMID:26446674

  4. Evaluation of Pharyngeal Space in Different Combinations of Class II Skeletal Malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Jay; Shyagali, Tarulatha R.; Bhayya, Deepak P.; Shah, Romil

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The study was aimed to evaluate the pharyngeal airway linear measurements of untreated skeletal class II subjects with normal facial vertical pattern in prognathic maxilla with orthognathic mandible and orthognathic maxilla with retrognathic mandible. Materials and method: the sample comprised of lateral Cephalograms of two groups (30 each) of class II malocclusion variants. Group 1 comprised of class II malocclusion with prognathic maxilla and orthognathic mandible, whereas group 2 comprised of class II malocclusion with orthognathic maxilla and retrognathic mandible. Each group was traced for the linear measurements of the pharyngeal airway like the oropharynx, nasopharynx and soft palate. The obtained data was subjected to independent t test and the Mann Whitney test to check the difference between the two groups and within the groups respectively. Results: there was significant difference between all the linear measurements at the soft palate region and the distance between the tip of soft palate to its counter point on the pharyngeal wall in oropharynx region (p-ppm). Conclusion: the pharyngeal airway for class II malocclusion with various combination in an average growth pattern adult showed significant difference. The present results suggested, that the pharyngeal airway space might be the etiological factor for different sagittal growth pattern of the jaws and probable usage of different growth modification appliance can influence the pharyngeal airway. PMID:26635436

  5. Upper and lower pharyngeal airway space in West-Tamil Nadu population

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Prabhakaran; Muthukumar, Karthi; Krishnan, Prabhakar; Senthil Kumar, K. P.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare the upper and lower pharyngeal airway (LPA) width in Class II malocclusion patients with low, average, and high vertical growth patterns. Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study. Materials and Methods: Pretreatment lateral cephalometric films of 90 Class II subjects were used to measure the upper and LPAs. The inclusion criteria were subjects of West-Tamil Nadu, aged between 14 and 25 years, only skeletal Class II subjects of either gender and no pharyngeal pathology at initial visit. The sample comprised a total of 90 Class II subjects divided into three groups according to the vertical facial pattern: Normodivergent (n = 30), hypodivergent (n = 30), and hyperdivergent (n = 30). The assessment of upper and LPAs was done according to McNamara's airway analysis. Statistical Analysis: The intergroup comparison of the upper and LPAs was performed with one-way analysis of variance and the Tukey test was used to compare among the various vertical patterns. Results: Skeletal Class II subjects with hyperdivergent facial pattern showed statistically significant narrow upper pharyngeal width when compared to normodivergent and hypodivergent facial patterns. No statistically significant difference was found in the lower pharyngeal width in all three vertical facial growth patterns. Conclusion: Subjects with Class II malocclusions and hyperdivergent growth pattern have significantly narrow upper pharyngeal airway space when compared to other two vertical patterns. Narrow pharyngeal airway space is one of the predisposing factors for mouth breathing and obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:26538913

  6. Aerobic Fitness and School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, J. Scott

    1997-01-01

    Provides school counselors with information on aerobic exercise (specifically running) and the psychological, behavioral, and physical benefits children obtained by participating in fitness programs. Recommends collaboration between school counselors and physical education teachers and gives a preliminary discussion of aerobic running and its…

  7. Aerobic Fitness and School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, J. Scott

    1992-01-01

    Provides school counselors with information regarding aerobic exercise (specifically running), and the psychological, behavioral, and physical benefits children obtain by participating in fitness programs. Presents methods of collaboration between school counselors and physical education teachers. Offers preliminary discussion of aerobic running…

  8. Exercise, Animal Aerobics, and Interpretation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Valerie

    1996-01-01

    Describes an aerobic activity set to music for children that mimics animal movements. Example exercises include walking like a penguin or jumping like a cricket. Stresses basic aerobic principles and designing the program at the level of children's motor skills. Benefits include reaching people who normally don't visit nature centers, and bridging…

  9. Coordination in oro-pharyngeal biomechanics during human swallowing.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Minagi, Yoshitomo; Hori, Kazuhiro; Kondoh, Jugo; Fujiwara, Shigehiro; Tamine, Kenichi; Inoue, Makoto; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Chen, Yongjin; Ono, Takahiro

    2015-08-01

    In swallowing, the tongue contacts against the hard palate to generate pressure for propelling a bolus from the oral cavity into the pharynx. Meanwhile, the hyoid and larynx move upward and forward to facilitate the bolus from the pharynx into the esophagus. It has been well known that sequential coordination between those actions is critical for safety accomplishment of swallowing. However, the absence of noninvasive assessment for it limits the detection to the physiological symptom of dysphagia. We applied a sensor sheet on the hard palate to measure tongue contact pressure and a bend sensor on the frontal neck to monitor the laryngeal movement, which was synchronized with hyoid motion for assessing the coordination between both actions in 14 healthy male subjects when swallowing 5ml of water. The sequential order of tongue pressure and hyoid movement was successfully displayed. Tongue pressure was produced after slight movement of the hyoid and closely to the hyoid elevation, then reached a maximum when the hyoid stabilized in the most anterior-superior position, and ceased concurrently with the onset of hyoid descent. Additionally, the synchronized data from both sensors showed positive correlations between identified time points on the laryngeal signal waveform and onset, peak and offset of tongue pressure. Our sensing system successfully showed the coordination between tongue pressure production and hyoid motion, and could be a simple and noninvasive method for clinicians to evaluate the oral and pharyngeal stages of swallowing.

  10. [Pharyngitis due to Burkholderia cepacia. Person-to-person transmission].

    PubMed

    Fajardo Olivares, M; Cordero Carrasco, J L; Beteta López, A; Escobar Izquierdo, A B; Sacristán Enciso, B

    2004-06-01

    Burkholderia cepacia is a Gram-negative bacillus that is widely distributed in nature; it is isolated from the ground, water, plants and vegetables. Generally, it produces nosocomial infection due to contamination of disinfectants, medical equipment, prosthetic material and drugs, such as anesthetics or liquids used in urological irrigation. The most probable mechanism of transmission is through hospital material or through fomites among people after contact for several weeks or months. Recently, it has been considered as an important pathogen in immunocompromised patients, or in those with significant underlying diseases, such as chronic granulomastosis or cystic fibrosis. We present a case of pharyngitis due to B. cepacia and its transmission within a few days in two immunocompetent twin siblings without previous underlying diseases. The infection disappeared after specific treatment for this microorganism was started. We believe that samples should be taken from the pharynx and nasal pits in patients with acute upper respiratory tract processes that do not respond to empiric antibiotic treatment, before classifying them as viral infection without etiologic diagnosis.

  11. Argyrophilic nucleolar organiser region counts and prognosis in pharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Pich, A.; Pisani, P.; Kzengli, M.; Cappello, N.; Navone, R.

    1991-01-01

    The prognostic significance of argyrophilic nucleolar organiser regions (AgNORs) has been evaluated in biopsy specimens from 61 primary squamous and undifferentiated carcinomas of the pharynx prior to therapy. The univariate Kaplan-Meyer survival analysis showed a significant correlation between 3- and 5-year survival rates and the mean AgNOR number per tumour cell (P less than 0.001). No significant correlation was found between prognosis and patients age and sex, tumour location, clinical stage, histologic grade, extent of lymphocytic infiltration, HMFG-2 positivity of tumour cells and UCHL1, LN2, MB2 positivity of infiltrating lymphocytes. There was no significant association between AgNOR counts and tumour histologic grade or clinical stage. Multivariate survival analysis showed that only two variables were significantly correlated with prognosis: AgNOR counts (P less than 0.001) and the extent of lymphocytic infiltration (P less than 0.027). Our results indicate the prognostic value of AgNOR counts and suggest the use of this method as a significant parameter in the pretherapeutic assessment of the aggressiveness of pharyngeal carcinomas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1716455

  12. Pulmonary clearance and phagocytic cell response to normal pharyngeal flora.

    PubMed

    Onofrio, J M; Shulkin, A N; Heidbrink, P J; Toews, G B; Pierce, A K

    1981-02-01

    Because human lungs are repetitively inoculated with the normal bacterial flora of the pharynx, we determined the pulmonary clearance of representative species after aerosol inoculation of a murine model, and characterized the phagocytic cell response by bronchoalveolar lavage. Viable bacteria remaining in the lungs at 1, 2, and 4 h were: Streptococcus sanguis, 24%, 8%, and 1%; Streptococcus salivarius, 49%, 24%, and 5%; Neisseria catarrhalis, 69%, 49%, and 22%. Clearance of Streptococcus sanguis was associated with a twofold increase in alveolar macrophages (p less than 0.05); Streptococcus salivarius evoked a doubling of alveolar macrophages and a 20-fold rise in granulocytes (p less than 0.05); the response to Neisseria catarrhalis was a 400-fold increase in granulocytes (p less than 0.05). Thus, normal pharyngeal organisms are cleared rapidly from the lung by a dual phagocytic cell system. It is speculated that bacteria-phagocyte interaction allows the possibility of lung injury from proteolytic enzymes released from either set of phagocytes.

  13. Variability of Oral and Pharyngeal Transit Between Two Consecutive Swallows in Chagas’ Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dantas, Roberto Oliveira; dos Santos, Carla Manfredi; de Aguiar Cassiani, Rachel; do Nascimento, Weslania Viviane

    2013-01-01

    Background Chagas’ disease causes dysphagia, regurgitation and retention of food in the esophageal body. Patients have longer pharyngeal clearance, which might be consequent of the involvement of the central nervous system or an adaptation to the esophageal transit impairment. If there is central nervous system involvement by the disease, we expect a larger difference in the oral and pharyngeal phases of swallowing between two consecutive swallows than that seen in controls. Our objective was to evaluate the difference of oral and pharyngeal transit duration between two consecutive swallows in patients with Chagas’ disease compared with controls. Methods By videofluoroscopy, the duration of oral and pharyngeal transit, pharyngeal clearance, upper esophageal sphincter transit, hyoid movement and oropharyngeal transit was measured in 17 patients with Chagas’ disease and 15 asymptomatic volunteers. Each subject swallowed in duplicate and in sequence 5 mL and 10 mL of barium liquid and 5 mL and 10 mL of barium paste boluses. The differences were calculated between the two swallows of each volume and consistency in patients and controls. Results There were no differences between controls and patients in the values of the differences between the two consecutive swallows, except for the hyoid movement duration of the 5 mL liquid bolus, causing a higher difference in controls than in patients. Conclusion Oral and pharyngeal transit variation between two consecutive swallows is similar between patients with Chagas’ disease and controls, which suggests that the longer pharyngeal clearance duration previously described is not a consequence of impairment of the central nervous system control of swallowing.

  14. Effects of laryngeal restriction on pharyngeal peristalsis and biomechanics: Clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Shaker, Reza; Sanvanson, Patrick; Balasubramanian, Gokulakrishnan; Kern, Mark; Wuerl, Ashley; Hyngstrom, Allison

    2016-06-01

    To date, rehabilitative exercises aimed at strengthening the pharyngeal muscles have not been developed due to the inability to successfully overload and fatigue these muscles during their contraction, a necessary requirement for strength training. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that applying resistance against anterosuperior movement of the hyolaryngeal complex will overload the pharyngeal muscles and by repetitive swallowing will result in their fatigue manifested by a reduction in pharyngeal peristaltic amplitude. Studies were done in two groups. In group 1 studies 15 healthy subjects (age: 42 ± 14 yr, 11 females) were studied to determine whether imposing resistance to swallowing using a handmade device can affect the swallow-induced hyolaryngeal excursion and related upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening. In group 2, an additional 15 healthy subjects (age 56 ± 25 yr, 7 females) were studied to determine whether imposing resistance to the anterosuperior excursion of the hyolaryngeal complex induces fatigue manifested as reduction in pharyngeal contractile pressure during repeated swallowing. Analysis of the video recordings showed significant decrease in maximum deglutitive superior laryngeal excursion and UES opening diameter (P < 0.01) due to resistive load. Consecutive swallows against the resistive load showed significant decrease in pharyngeal contractile integral (PhCI) values (P < 0.01). Correlation analysis showed a significant negative correlation between PhCI and successive swallows, suggesting "fatigue" (P < 0.001). In conclusion, repeated swallows against a resistive load induced by restricting the anterosuperior excursion of the larynx safely induces fatigue in pharyngeal peristalsis and thus has the potential to strengthen the pharyngeal contractile function. PMID:27079611

  15. Modulation of small intestinal homeostasis along with its microflora during acclimatization at simulated hypobaric hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Adak, Atanu; Ghosh; Mondal, Keshab Chandra

    2014-11-01

    At high altitude (HA) hypobaric hypoxic environment manifested several pathophysiological consequences of which gastrointestinal (GI) disorder are very common phenomena. To explore the most possible clue behind this disorder intestinal flora, the major player of the GI functions, were subjected following simulated hypobaric hypoxic treatment in model animal. For this, male albino rats were exposed to 55 kPa (approximately 4872.9 m) air pressure consecutively for 30 days for 8 h/day and its small intestinal microflora, their secreted digestive enzymes and stress induced marker protein were investigated of the luminal epithelia. It was observed that population density of total aerobes significantly decreased, but the quantity of total anaerobes and Escherichia coli increased significantly after 30 days of hypoxic stress. The population density of strict anaerobes like Bifidobacterium sp., Bacteroides sp. and Lactobacillus sp. and obligate anaerobes like Clostridium perfringens and Peptostreptococcus sp. were expanded along with their positive growth direction index (GDI). In relation to the huge multiplication of anaerobes the amount of gas formation as well as content of IgA and IgG increased in duration dependent manner. The activity of some luminal enzymes from microbial origin like a-amylase, gluco-amylase, proteinase, alkaline phosphatase and beta-glucuronidase were also elevated in hypoxic condition. Besides, hypoxia induced in formation of malondialdehyde along with significant attenuation of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase activity and lowered GSH/GSSG pool in the intestinal epithelia. Histological study revealed disruption of intestinal epithelial barrier with higher infiltration of lymphocytes in lamina propia and atrophic structure. It can be concluded that hypoxia at HA modified GI microbial imprint and subsequently causes epithelial barrier dysfunction which may relate to the small intestinal dysfunction at HA.

  16. Intestinal microflora as potential modifiers of sensitizer activity in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon, P.W.; Clarke, C.; Dawson, K.B.; Simpson, W.; Simmons, D.J.C.

    1984-08-01

    Treatment of mice (some bearing Lewis lung tumors), with penicillin (PEN) at 500 mg/l drinking water for one week prior to treatment with misonidazole (MIS), resulted in: the elimination of their anaerobic cecal flora; a decrease in MIS-induced neurotoxicity; an increase in pharmacological exposure to MIS; a decrease in MIS chemopotentiation; a probable increase in MIS radiosensitization; an increase in MIS induced hypothermia. Assuming no chemical interaction between PEN and MIS, these observations indicate that the intestinal microflora can influence the activity of MIS in vivo. The observed reduction in the neurotoxic but not the radiosensitizing potential of MIS following PEN treatment indicates a therapeutic benefit.

  17. [PATHOGENIC MIKO,- AND MICROFLORA OF FRAXINUS EXCELSIOR IN PODOLYA UKRAINE].

    PubMed

    Kulbanska, I N; Goychuk, A F

    2015-01-01

    The article summarizes our research results of pathogenic myco- and microflora, as well as harmful entomofauna on European Ash. It is shown that the most common and harmful diseaseis tuberculosis (its causal agent--bacteria Pseudomonas syringae pv.savastanoi (Smith 1908), which affects trunks, branches, twigs and buds of European Ash. It describes a number of pathogens and representatives mikofitozov malicious entomofauna that by virtue of its activities significantly weaken the growth, development and underestimate the qualitative characteristics of wood European Ash. PMID:26638486

  18. Evolutionary Trends of the Pharyngeal Dentition in Cypriniformes (Actinopterygii: Ostariophysi)

    PubMed Central

    Pasco-Viel, Emmanuel; Charles, Cyril; Chevret, Pascale; Semon, Marie; Tafforeau, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Background The fish order Cypriniformes is one of the most diverse ray-finned fish groups in the world with more than 3000 recognized species. Cypriniformes are characterized by a striking distribution of their dentition: namely the absence of oral teeth and presence of pharyngeal teeth on the last gill arch (fifth ceratobranchial). Despite this limited localisation, the diversity of tooth patterns in Cypriniformes is astonishing. Here we provide a further description of this diversity using X-ray microtomography and we map the resulting dental characters on a phylogenetic tree to explore evolutionary trends. Results We performed a pilot survey of dental formulae and individual tooth shapes in 34 adult species of Cypriniformes by X-ray microtomography (using either conventional X-ray machine, or synchrotron microtomography when necessary) or by dissecting. By mapping morphological results in a phylogenetic tree, it emerges that the two super-families Cobitoidea and Cyprinoidea have followed two distinct evolutionary pathways. Furthermore, our analysis supports the hypothesis of a three-row dentition as ancestral for Cyprinoidea and a general trend in tooth row reduction in most derived lineages. Yet, this general scheme must be considered with caution as several events of tooth row gain and loss have occurred during evolutionary history of Cyprinoidea. Significance Dentition diversity in Cypriniformes constitutes an excellent model to study the evolution of complex morphological structures. This morphological survey clearly advocates for extending the use of X-ray microtomography to study tooth morphology in Cypriniformes. Yet, our survey also underlines that improved knowledge of Cypriniformes life traits, such as feeding habits, is required as current knowledge is not sufficient to conclude on the link between diet and dental morphology. PMID:20585584

  19. Parameters affecting pharyngeal response to genioglossus stimulation in sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Dotan, Y; Golibroda, T; Oliven, R; Netzer, A; Gaitini, L; Toubi, A; Oliven, A

    2011-08-01

    Chronic stimulation of the hypoglossus nerve may provide a new treatment modality for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). In previous studies we observed large differences in response to stimulation of the genioglossus (GG). We hypothesised that both individual patient characteristics and the area of the GG stimulated are responsible for these differences. In the present study, we compared the response to GG electrical stimulation at the anterior area (GGa-ES), which activates the whole GG and the posterior area (GGp-ES), which activates preferentially the longitudinal fibres. Studies were performed in 14 propofol-sedated OSA patients. The parameters evaluated included cephalometry, pressure-flow relationship and pharyngeal shape and compliance assessed by pharyngoscopy. Compared with GGa-ES, GGp-ES resulted in significantly larger decreases in the critical value of end-expiratory pressure (P(crit)) (from 3.8 ± 2.2 to 2.9 ± 3.3 and -2.0 ± 3.9 cmH(2)O, respectively (p<0.001)). Both tongue size and velopharyngeal shape (anteroposterior to lateral ratio) correlated significantly with the decrease in P(crit) during GGp-ES (R = 0.53 and -0.66, respectively; p<0.05). In the patients with the larger tongue size (n = 7), the decrease in P(crit) reached 8.0 ± 2.2 cmH(2)O during GGp-ES. We conclude that directing stimulation to longitudinal fibres of the GG improves the flow-mechanical effect. In addition, patients with large tongues and narrow pharynx tend to respond better to GGp-ES.

  20. Effects of nisin, EDTA and salts of organic acids on Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella and native microflora on fresh vacuum packaged shrimps stored at 4 °C.

    PubMed

    Wan Norhana, M N; Poole, Susan E; Deeth, Hilton C; Dykes, Gary A

    2012-08-01

    Nisin (500 IU ml⁻¹), EDTA (0.02 M), potassium sorbate (PS) (3%, w/v), sodium benzoate (SB) (3%, w/v) or sodium diacetate (SD) (3%, w/v); alone or in combination were used to dip uninoculated shrimps and shrimps inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes or Salmonella (∼4.0-5.0 log CFU g⁻¹). Shrimps were then drip-dried, vacuum packaged and stored at 4 °C for 7 days. Untreated shrimps were used as a control. Numbers of L. monocytogenes, Salmonella and native background microflora were determined on uninoculated and inoculated shrimps on days 0, 3 and 7. Nisin-EDTA-PS and nisin-EDTA-SD significantly reduced (p < 0.05) L. monocytogenes numbers by 1.07-1.27 and 1.32-1.36 log CFU g⁻¹, respectively, on day 0 and 3. However, all treatments failed to significantly reduce (p > 0.05) Salmonella counts on shrimps throughout storage. On day 7, numbers of aerobic bacteria, psychrotrophic bacteria and Pseudomonas on combined nisin-EDTA-salt of organic acids treated shrimps were significantly lower (p < 0.05) by 4.40-4.60, 3.50-4.01, and 3.84-3.99 log CFU g⁻¹ respectively, as compared to the control. Dipping in organic acids solutions followed by vacuum packaging and chilled storage can help reduce L. monocytogenes and native microflora, but not Salmonella, on fresh shrimps. PMID:22475941

  1. Lateralization of the Pharyngeal Flap for Treatment of Lateral Velopharyngeal Gap.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aziz, Mosaad; Rashed, Mohammed; Naguib, Nader; Shawky, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Pharyngeal flap is usually used for treatment of velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI); it is bridged between the posterior pharyngeal wall and the soft palate traversing the central part of the velopharyngeal port. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of lateralization of the pharyngeal flap for treatment of VPI in patients with lateral velopharyngeal gap. Fifteen patients with VPI due to lateral velopharyngeal gap were subjected to closure of the gap by pharyngeal flap that was lateralized to fill the gap. Preoperative and postoperative assessment of velopharyngeal functions including flexible nasopharyngoscopy, auditory perceptual assessment (APA), and nasometric assessment were performed. Postoperatively, flexible nasopharyngoscopy showed complete velopharyngeal closure in all the patients, with significant improvement of speech parameters as measured by APA. Also, nasalance score showed significant improvement for oral and nasal sentences that was measured by nasometry. Lateralization of the pharyngeal flap for treatment of VPI in patients with lateral velopharyngeal gap is an effective method; it improves the velopharyngeal closure and the speech of the patients. PMID:26745192

  2. Necrotic pharyngitis associated with Mycoplasma bovis infections in American bison (Bison bison).

    PubMed

    Dyer, Neil; Register, Karen B; Miskimins, Dale; Newell, Teresa

    2013-03-01

    Mycoplasma bovis has emerged as a significant and costly infectious disease problem in bison, generally presenting as severe, caseonecrotic pneumonia. Three diagnostic cases in which M. bovis is associated with necrotic pharyngitis in bison are described in the current study. The bacterium was isolated from lesions of the pharynx or lung of 3 American bison (Bison bison), at 2 different locations in the upper Midwestern United States, with severe, necrotic pharyngeal abscesses. Chronic caseonecrotic inflammation typical of M. bovis infection in bovines was observed microscopically in the pharynxes of affected bison. A mixed population of bacteria was recovered from the pharyngeal lesions, and Trueperella pyogenes, a frequent secondary pathogen in ruminant respiratory disease, was consistently isolated from the affected animals. Distinctive histopathological features of the pharyngeal lesions favor causation by M. bovis, although a role for T. pyogenes in the clinical presentation cannot be excluded. Veterinarians and producers working with bison should be aware that M. bovis may be associated with pharyngitis in bison.

  3. Coffee, tea, and fatal oral/pharyngeal cancer in a large prospective US cohort.

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, Janet S; Patel, Alpa V; McCullough, Marjorie L; Gaudet, Mia M; Chen, Amy Y; Hayes, Richard B; Gapstur, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that coffee intake is associated with reduced risk of oral/pharyngeal cancer. The authors examined associations of caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and tea intake with fatal oral/pharyngeal cancer in the Cancer Prevention Study II, a prospective US cohort study begun in 1982 by the American Cancer Society. Among 968,432 men and women who were cancer free at enrollment, 868 deaths due to oral/pharyngeal cancer occurred during 26 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted relative risk. Intake of >4 cups/day of caffeinated coffee was associated with a 49% lower risk of oral/pharyngeal cancer death relative to no/occasional coffee intake (relative risk = 0.51, 95% confidence interval: 0.40, 0.64) (1 cup/day = 237 ml). A dose-related decline in relative risk was observed with each single cup/day consumed (P(trend) < 0.001). The association was not modified by sex, smoking status, or alcohol use. An inverse association for >2 cups/day of decaffeinated coffee intake was suggested (relative risk = 0.61, 95% confidence interval: 0.37, 1.01). No association was found for tea drinking. In this large prospective study, caffeinated coffee intake was inversely associated with oral/pharyngeal cancer mortality. Research is needed to elucidate biologic mechanisms whereby coffee might help to protect against these often fatal cancers. PMID:23230042

  4. Tooth replacement and putative odontogenic stem cell niches in pharyngeal dentition of medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    Abduweli, Dawud; Baba, Otto; Tabata, Makoto J; Higuchi, Kazunori; Mitani, Hiroshi; Takano, Yoshiro

    2014-04-01

    The small-sized teleost fish medaka, Oryzias latipes, has as many as 1000 pharyngeal teeth undergoing continuous replacement. In this study, we sought to identify the tooth-forming units and determine its replacement cycles, and further localize odontogenic stem cell niches in the pharyngeal dentition of medaka to gain insights into the mechanisms whereby continuous tooth replacement is maintained. Three-dimensional reconstruction of pharyngeal epithelium and sequential fluorochrome labeling of pharyngeal bones and teeth indicated that the individual functional teeth and their successional teeth were organized in families, each comprising up to five generations of teeth and successional tooth germs, and that the replacement cycle of functional teeth was approximately 4 weeks. BrdU label/chase experiments confirmed the existence of clusters of label-retaining epithelial cells at the posterior end of each tooth family where the expression of pluripotency marker Sox2 was confirmed by in situ hybridization. Label-retaining cells were also identified in the mesoderm immediately adjacent to the posterior end of each tooth family. These data suggest the importance of existence of slow-cycling dental epithelial cells and Sox2 expressions at the posterior end of each tooth family to maintain continuous tooth formation and replacement in the pharyngeal dentition of medaka.

  5. Zebrafish gcm2 is required for gill filament budding from pharyngeal ectoderm.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Benjamin M; Hunter, Michael P; Oates, Andrew C; Crowhurst, Meredith O; Hall, Nathan E; Heath, Joan K; Prince, Victoria E; Lieschke, Graham J

    2004-12-15

    The pharyngeal arches give rise to multiple organs critical for diverse processes, including the thymus, thyroid and parathyroids. Several molecular regulators of thymus and thyroid organogenesis are strikingly conserved between mammals and zebrafish. However, land animals have parathyroids whereas fish have gills. The murine transcription factor Glial cells missing 2 (Gcm2) is expressed specifically in the parathyroid primordium in the endodermal epithelium of the third pharyngeal pouch, and in both mice and humans is required for normal development of parathyroid glands. The molecular regulation of fish gill organogenesis remains to be described. We report the expression of gcm2 in the zebrafish pharyngeal epithelium and a requirement for Hox group 3 paralogs for gcm2 expression. Strikingly, zebrafish gcm2 is expressed in the ectodermal portion of the pharyngeal epithelium and is required for the development of the gill filament buds, precursors of fish-specific gill filaments. This study identifies yet another role for a GCM gene in embryonic development and indicates a role for gcm2 during the evolution of divergent pharyngeal morphologies.

  6. Quantifying factors limiting aerobic degradation during aerobic bioreactor landfilling.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, Ramin; Mostafid, M Erfan; Han, Byunghyun; Imhoff, Paul T; Chiu, Pei; Augenstein, Don; Kayhanian, Masoud; Tchobanoglous, George

    2010-08-15

    A bioreactor landfill cell at Yolo County, California was operated aerobically for six months to quantify the extent of aerobic degradation and mechanisms limiting aerobic activity during air injection and liquid addition. The portion of the solid waste degraded anaerobically was estimated and tracked through time. From an analysis of in situ aerobic respiration and gas tracer data, it was found that a large fraction of the gas-filled pore space was in immobile zones where it was difficult to maintain aerobic conditions, even at relatively moderate landfill cell-average moisture contents of 33-36%. Even with the intentional injection of air, anaerobic activity was never less than 13%, and sometimes exceeded 65%. Analyses of gas tracer and respiration data were used to quantify rates of respiration and rates of mass transfer to immobile gas zones. The similarity of these rates indicated that waste degradation was influenced significantly by rates of oxygen transfer to immobile gas zones, which comprised 32-92% of the gas-filled pore space. Gas tracer tests might be useful for estimating the size of the mobile/immobile gas zones, rates of mass transfer between these regions, and the difficulty of degrading waste aerobically in particular waste bodies. PMID:20704218

  7. Lactic acid microflora of the gut of snail Cornu aspersum

    PubMed Central

    Koleva, Zdravka; Dedov, Ivaylo; Kizheva, Joana; Lipovanska, Roxana; Moncheva, Penka; Hristova, Petya

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal lactic acid microflora of the edible snail Cornu aspersum was studied by culture-based methods and was phenotypically and molecularly characterized. The antibacterial activity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates was investigated. Snails in different stages of development were collected from farms located in several regions of Bulgaria. One hundred twenty-two isolates, belonging to the group of LAB, were characterized morphologically and were divided into four groups. Representative isolates from each morphological type were subjected to phenotypic characterization and molecular identification. The snail gut lactic acid microflora was composed by Enterococcus (17 isolates), Lactococcus (12 isolates), Leuconostoc (7 isolates), Lactobacillus (18 isolates) and Weissella (1 isolate). The species affiliation of Lactococcus lactis (12), Leuconostoc mesenteroides (4) and Lactobacillus plantarum (2) was confirmed by species-specific primers. The Lactobacillus isolates were identified by sequence analysis of 16S rDNA as Lactobacillus brevis (12), L. plantarum (2), Lactobacillus graminis (1) and Lactobacillus curvatus (3). The species L. brevis, L. graminis and L. curvatus were found in snails in a phase of hibernation, whereas L. plantarum was identified both in active and hibernation phases. Antibacterial activity (bacteriocine-like) was shown only by one strain of L. mesentereoides P4/8 against Propionibacterium acnes. The present study showed that the LAB are a component of the microbial communities in the snail digestive system. This is the first report on Lactobacillus strains detected in the gut of C. aspersum. PMID:26019550

  8. Metabolic pathways of hydrogen production in fermentative acidogenic microflora.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liguo; Li, Jianzheng; Ban, Qiaoying; He, Junguo; Jha, Ajay Kumar

    2012-05-01

    Biohydrogen production from organic wastewater by anaerobically activated sludge fermentation has already been extensively investigated, and it is known that hydrogen can be produced by glucose fermentation through three metabolic pathways, including the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvic acid to acetyl-CoA, oxidation of NADH to NAD+, and acetogenesis by hydrogen-producing acetogens. However, the exact or dominant pathways of hydrogen production in the anaerobically activated sludge fermentation process have not yet been identified. Thus, a continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) was introduced and a specifically acclimated acidogenic fermentative microflora obtained under certain operation conditions. The hydrogen production activity and potential hydrogen-producing pathways in the acidogenic fermentative microflora were then investigated using batch cultures in Erlenmeyer flasks with a working volume of 500 ml. Based on an initial glucose concentration of 10 g/l, pH 6.0, and a biomass of 1.01 g/l of a mixed liquid volatile suspended solid (MLVSS), 247.7 ml of hydrogen was obtained after a 68 h cultivation period at 35 +/- 1 degrees C. Further tests indicated that 69% of the hydrogen was produced from the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvic acid, whereas the remaining 31% was from the oxidation of NADH to NAD+. There were no hydrogen-producing acetogens or they were unable to work effectively in the anaerobically activated sludge with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of less than 8 h.

  9. Profile of microflora of the posterior intestine of Chinook salmon before, during, and after administration of rations with and without erythromycin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moffitt, C.M.; Mobin, S.M.A.

    2006-01-01

    We describe the resident heterotrophic aerobic microflora of the salmonid posterior intestine before, during, and after the administration of rations with erythromycin in a hatchery raceway environment. We compare the profiles of medicated Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha with those of control fish that were not fed erythromycin. The combined counts of bacteria and yeasts per gram of fish intestine originating from four upstream raceways ranged from 3.0 ?? 102 to 9.6 ?? 105 colony-forming units (CFU) over the study period. Yeasts were commonly identified in the gut, and abundances ranged from 0% to more than 80% of the CFU. Erythromycin therapy decreased the total microbial population and altered the bacterial diversity in the gut during treatment. The intestinal microbial populations in fish medicated with erythromycin increased rapidly after treatment ceased, and by 25 d after treatment the CFU were similar in samples from both medicated and control fish populations. Of 325 isolates from fish selected for biochemical profiles, we identified a total of eight gram-positive and eight gram-negative genera. Bacillus spp. were common throughout sampling and were identified in samples of fish feed. Erythromycin-resistant, gram-positive bacteria were observed throughout the sampling in medicated and control fish. We identified seven gram-positive and two gram-negative genera in 74 selected isolates from control and erythromycin feeds. Our studies suggest that the aerobic microflora of the posterior intestine varies over time, and it is likely that few resistant genera of concern to human health are present.

  10. Effective observation of treatment of chronic pharyngitis with semiconductor laser irradiation at acupuncture points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Suxian; Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yanrong

    1993-03-01

    The treatment of this disease with laser such as He-Ne laser, Nd:YAG laser, and CO2 laser, etc., has been applied in our country, but application of the semiconductor laser therapy has received few reports. It has many advantages, such as ting volume, steady function, simple operation (the patient can operate it by himself), no side effects, remarkable results, and it is very convenient. So the semiconductor laser can be used to treat the chronic pharyngitis with irradiation on acupunctural points. One-hundred-twenty chronic pharyngitis patients were divided into 2 groups, a laser group and a medicine group, 60 cases for each. The effective rate is 91.6% and 66.6%, respectively. Obviously the treatment of chronic pharyngitis with semiconductor laser is valuable for widespread use. The principle of the laser therapy is discussed in the last part of this paper.

  11. Is screening for pharyngeal Chlamydia trachomatis warranted in high-risk groups?

    PubMed

    Tipple, C; Hill, S C; Smith, A

    2010-11-01

    A recent survey reported that 36% of UK genitourinary medicine clinics offer testing for pharyngeal Chlamydia trachomatis (CT). Screening at this site is targeted at high-risk groups attending our centre, including female sex workers (FSWs) and male sex workers (MSWs). A total of 2406 patients were screened between November 2006 and October 2007. A retrospective case-note review was performed for positive cases. The prevalence of pharyngeal CT was 1.9% in both men and women. The mean number of sexual partners reported in the preceding three months was 168 and 56 for FSWs and MSWs, respectively. Lack of consistent condom use and high numbers of sexual partners identify this population as potential core transmitters of infection. While the British Association of Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) guidelines do not recommend routine screening for pharyngeal CT, there may be a role in selected high-risk populations.

  12. Evidence-Based Evaluation And Management Of Patients With Pharyngitis In The Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Hildreth, Amy F; Takhar, Sukhjit; Clark, Mark Andrew; Hatten, Benjamin

    2015-09-01

    Pharyngitis is a common presentation, but it can also be associated with life-threatening processes, including sepsis and airway compromise. Other conditions, such as thyroid disease and cardiac disease, may mimic pharyngitis. The emergency clinician must sort through the broad differential for this complaint using a systematic approach that protects against early closure of the diagnosis. This issue reviews the various international guidelines for pharyngitis and notes controversies in diagnostic and treatment strategies, specifically for management of suspected bacterial, viral, and fungal etiology. A management algorithm is presented, with recommendations based on a review of the best available evidence, taking into account patient comfort and outcomes, the need to reduce bacterial resistance, and costs.

  13. Group A streptococcal pharyngitis and immune-mediated complications: from diagnosis to management.

    PubMed

    Shulman, Stanford T; Tanz, Robert R

    2010-02-01

    Group A streptococcal pharyngitis remains the most important bacterial pharyngitis because of its frequency and potential complications. Group A streptococcal pharyngitis is most common in children 5-11 years of age in winter-spring, and a rapid test or culture is necessary for accurate diagnosis. We propose a management strategy for those geographic areas with very low acute rheumatic fever rates, emphasizing selective testing that avoids testing those patients with viral-like features (e.g., rhinorrhea and cough). Acute rheumatic fever is the most important immune-mediated sequela and has become rare in most areas of the USA and Western Europe, most probably due to decreased circulation of highly rheumatogenic group A streptococcal strains.

  14. Is screening for pharyngeal Chlamydia trachomatis warranted in high-risk groups?

    PubMed

    Tipple, C; Hill, S C; Smith, A

    2010-11-01

    A recent survey reported that 36% of UK genitourinary medicine clinics offer testing for pharyngeal Chlamydia trachomatis (CT). Screening at this site is targeted at high-risk groups attending our centre, including female sex workers (FSWs) and male sex workers (MSWs). A total of 2406 patients were screened between November 2006 and October 2007. A retrospective case-note review was performed for positive cases. The prevalence of pharyngeal CT was 1.9% in both men and women. The mean number of sexual partners reported in the preceding three months was 168 and 56 for FSWs and MSWs, respectively. Lack of consistent condom use and high numbers of sexual partners identify this population as potential core transmitters of infection. While the British Association of Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) guidelines do not recommend routine screening for pharyngeal CT, there may be a role in selected high-risk populations. PMID:21187360

  15. Prevalence of Beta-Hemolytic Streptococci Groups A, C, and G in Patients with Acute Pharyngitis

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Trupti B; Nadagir, Shobha D; Biradar, Asmabegaum

    2016-01-01

    Context: Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci (GAS) is the most frequently isolated pathogen in acute pharyngitis. However, the role of Group C (GCS) and Group G (GGS) streptococci in disease burden is under recognized. The present study is carried out to find out the prevalence of acute pharyngitis caused by the different serogroups of streptococci and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of these streptococcal isolates. Study and Design: A cross sectional study. Materials and Methods: A total of 218 throat swabs from patients with acute pharyngitis and 82 from healthy controls were collected and processed as per standard protocol. Samples were inoculated on blood agar and Streptococcus selective agar. Isolates were identified by the conventional method and serogrouped by latex agglutination test using Remel Streptex kit. Results: Beta-hemolytic streptococci (BHS) were isolated from 34 (15.59%) of pharyngitis patients and 11 (13.41%) of the healthy carrier. Among pharyngitis, GAS was isolated from 20 (9.17%), GCS 7 (3.21%), and GGS 7 (3.21%) patients. Carriage rate of GAS was 6 (7.31%) and GCS, 5 (6.09%). Vancomycin (100%), amoxyclavulanic acid (90%), levofloxacin (85%), and cephotaxime (80%) were found to be most effective antibiotics. Comparatively, higher drug resistance was observed among GCS and GGS to all the drugs used in the study except for levofloxacin. Conclusions: Although rate of pharyngitis associated with GCS and GGS is marginally lower than GAS, their carriage rate among healthy and relative higher drug resistance emphasizes the need for periodic surveillance of infection by the different serogroups of BHS. PMID:27013813

  16. Pharyngeal chemosensitivity in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Heiser, Clemens; Zimmermann, Ingo; Sommer, J Ulrich; Hörmann, Karl; Herr, Raphael M; Stuck, Boris A

    2013-09-01

    Signs of pharyngeal neurodegeneration have been detected in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Along with this neurodegeneration, a decreased pharyngeal sensitivity to mechanical stimulation has been described. The decreased sensitivity may play a role in the pathophysiology of this disease. The aim of the study was to investigate the chemosensitivity of the pharyngeal mucosa in patients with OSA compared with controls. Healthy controls and patients with OSA (age: 30-60 years) were included. Testing of oropharyngeal chemosensitivity was performed with subjective intensity ratings of capsaicin (SIR, visual analogue scale 0-10), air puffs (presented with an olfactometer), and stimulation with CO2 at the posterior pharyngeal wall. A 2-point discrimination test at the soft palate, an intensity rating of capsaicin at the tongue, and a nasal lateralization test were performed. Twenty-six patients with OSA and 18 healthy controls were included. No differences were detected in the SIR of capsaicin at the tongue or in the nasal lateralization test. At the pharynx, a decreased sensitivity to capsaicin (OSA: 6.8 ± 2.3; healthy control: 8.6 ± 1.3), air puffs (OSA: 2.8 ± 1.9; healthy control: 4.2 ± 1.6), and stimulation with CO2 (OSA: 1.5 ± 1.7; healthy control: 2.8 ± 1.8) were demonstrated in patients with OSA (all P < 0.05). Two-point discrimination at the soft palate was reduced with statistical significance in the OSA group (OSA: 11.5 ± 5.4 mm; healthy control: 5.0 ± 2.4 mm). The results suggest reduced pharyngeal chemosensitivity in OSA patients in addition to the reduced mechanical pharyngeal sensitivity shown with 2-point discrimination. This demonstrates peripheral neurodegeneration in the context of this disease.

  17. Postoperative evaluation of the folded pharyngeal flap operation for cleft palate patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimasu, Hidemi; Sato, Yutaka; Mishimagi, Takashi; Negishi, Akihide

    2015-01-01

    Background: Velopharyngeal function is very important for patients with cleft palate to acquire good speech. For patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency, prosthetic speech appliances and speech therapy are applied first, and then pharyngeal flap surgery to improve velopharyngeal function is performed in our hospital. The folded pharyngeal flap operation was first reported by Isshiki and Morimoto in 1975. We usually use a modification of the original method. Purpose: The purpose of this research was to introduce our method of the folded pharyngeal flap operation and report the results. Materials and Methods: The folded pharyngeal flap operation was performed for 110 patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency from 1982 to 2010. Of these, the 97 whose postoperative speech function was evaluated are reported. The cases included 61 males and 36 females, ranging in age from 7 to 50 years. The time from surgery to speech assessment ranged from 5 months to 6 years. In order to evaluate preoperative velopharyngeal function, assessment of speech by a trained speech pathologist, nasopharyngoscopy, and cephalometric radiography with contrast media were performed before surgery, and then the appropriate surgery was selected and performed. Postoperative velopharyngeal function was assessed by a trained speech pathologist. Results: Of the 97 patients who underwent the folded pharyngeal flap operation, 85 (87.6%) showed velopharyngeal competence, 8 (8.2%) showed marginal velopharyngeal incompetence, and only 2 (2.1%) showed velopharyngeal incompetence; in 2 cases (2.1%), hyponasality was present. Approximately 95% of patients showed improved velopharyngeal function. Conclusions: The folded pharyngeal flap operation based on appropriate preoperative assessment has been shown to be an effective method for the treatment of cleft palate patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency. PMID:26389036

  18. [Antibiotics to treat streptococcal pharyngitis in Swiss children: is it still useful?].

    PubMed

    Verolet, Charlotte M; Posfay-Barbe, Klara M

    2016-02-17

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) pharyngitis is a common pediatric infectious disease in school-aged children. After the detection of the bacteria in the pharynx, treatment with 10 days of antibiotics is recommended in Switzerland. The rationale to treat is based on studies from the 1950s, when the epidemiology of GAS strain was very different and the incidence of acute rheumatic fever significantly higher than today in developed countries. This article explores the current national recommendations, as well as the benefits of antibiotic treatment in the management of this infection. A reevaluation, as in other countries, of the management and treatment of GAS pharyngitis in Switzerland is considered.

  19. [Antibiotics to treat streptococcal pharyngitis in Swiss children: is it still useful?].

    PubMed

    Verolet, Charlotte M; Posfay-Barbe, Klara M

    2016-02-17

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) pharyngitis is a common pediatric infectious disease in school-aged children. After the detection of the bacteria in the pharynx, treatment with 10 days of antibiotics is recommended in Switzerland. The rationale to treat is based on studies from the 1950s, when the epidemiology of GAS strain was very different and the incidence of acute rheumatic fever significantly higher than today in developed countries. This article explores the current national recommendations, as well as the benefits of antibiotic treatment in the management of this infection. A reevaluation, as in other countries, of the management and treatment of GAS pharyngitis in Switzerland is considered. PMID:27039456

  20. [The migrating pharyngeal foreign body resulted in cervical mass: one case report].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaodan; Li, Shenling; Zhang, Xiaotian

    2015-04-01

    Pharyngeal foreign body is a common disease. The diagnosis and treatment are easy. However, in a few cases, pharyngeal foreign bodies migrated to other part of body, which often causing missed diagnosis or misdiagnose to delaythe treatment, and even lead to fatal complications. Here we present a case report of a 52-year-old female patient.who was found to have cervical mass 20 days before. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showd a foreign body and foreign body granuloma on the left side of the neck. To look back on the history, the patient swallowed a fish bone in mistake one month ago. PMID:26201203

  1. The treatment of pharyngeal gonorrhoea with a single oral dose of cefixime.

    PubMed

    McMillan, A; Young, H

    2007-04-01

    An audit of the efficacy treatment of pharyngeal gonorrhoea with a single oral dose of 400 mg of cefixime was undertaken; 83% of patients also received a single oral dose of azithromycin to treat possible concurrent anogenital chlamydial infection. Of the 54 patients studied, only one of 45 patients who attended for at least one test of cure had a positive culture seven days after treatment; the possibility of reinfection could not have been excluded. Two tests of cure were obtained from 18 patients. Cefixime, therefore, seems to be effective in the treatment of pharyngeal gonorrhoea.

  2. Acquired Pharyngeal Diverticulum after Anterior Cervical Fusion Operation Misdiagnosed as Typical Zenker Diverticulum.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Myung; Kim, Chang Wan; Kim, Do Hyung

    2016-08-01

    A pharyngeal diverticulum is a rare complication of an anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). We present a case of a pharyngeal diverticulum after an ACDF, which was misdiagnosed as a typical Zenker diverticulum. A 54-year-old woman presented with dysphagia and a sense of irritation in the neck following C5 through C7 cervical fusion 3 years prior. The patient underwent open surgery to resect the diverticulum with concurrent cricopharyngeal myotomy. An ACDF-related diverticulum is difficult to distinguish from a typical Zenker diverticulum. PMID:27525244

  3. Acquired Pharyngeal Diverticulum after Anterior Cervical Fusion Operation Misdiagnosed as Typical Zenker Diverticulum

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong Myung; Kim, Chang Wan; Kim, Do Hyung

    2016-01-01

    A pharyngeal diverticulum is a rare complication of an anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). We present a case of a pharyngeal diverticulum after an ACDF, which was misdiagnosed as a typical Zenker diverticulum. A 54-year-old woman presented with dysphagia and a sense of irritation in the neck following C5 through C7 cervical fusion 3 years prior. The patient underwent open surgery to resect the diverticulum with concurrent cricopharyngeal myotomy. An ACDF-related diverticulum is difficult to distinguish from a typical Zenker diverticulum. PMID:27525244

  4. Orosensory contributions to dysphagia: a link between perception of sweet and sour taste and pharyngeal delay time.

    PubMed

    Pauloski, Barbara R; Nasir, Sazzad M

    2016-06-01

    Pharyngeal delay is a significant swallowing disorder often resulting in aspiration. It is suspected that pharyngeal delay originates from sensory impairment, but a direct demonstration of a link between oral sensation and pharyngeal delay is lacking. In this study involving six patients with complaints of dysphagia, taste sensation of the oral tongue was measured and subsequently related to swallowing kinematics. It was found that a response bias for sour taste was significantly correlated with pharyngeal delay time on paste, highlighting oral sensory contributions to swallow motor dysfunctions. Investigating the precise nature of such a link between oral sensation and dysphagia would constitute a basis for understanding the disorder. The results of this study highlight oral sensory contributions to pharyngeal swallow events and provide impetus to examine this link in larger samples of dysphagic patients. PMID:27302989

  5. Continuous negative pressure-flush through a dual tube for the treatment of a complicated pharyngeal fistula: A case report

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, XIANGMIN; LIU, FOLIN; LAN, XIAOLIN; LUO, KEQING; XIAO, FUFU; LI, SHAOJIN

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of pharyngeal fistulas is complicated. It is more difficult to deal with pharyngeal fistula following surgical treatment for hypopharynx carcinoma, particularly in cases of pectoralis major muscle flap repair. The present study describes the case of a 56-year-old man who presented with a highly-differentiated pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma located at the right side of the hypopharynx. The patient underwent a total laryngectomy and a right functional carotid dissection and tracheostomy; this was followed by post-operative radiotherapy. A pharyngeal fistula subsequently developed, but an attempt to repair this with a pectoralis major muscle flap failed. The complicated pharyngeal fistula was treated via continuous negative pressure-flush through a dual tube, without the requirement for incision, daily dressing or antibiotics. The favorable patient outcome represented a positive result, which was also able to reduce the psychological burden of the patient and improve their quality of life. PMID:26998082

  6. Orosensory contributions to dysphagia: a link between perception of sweet and sour taste and pharyngeal delay time.

    PubMed

    Pauloski, Barbara R; Nasir, Sazzad M

    2016-06-01

    Pharyngeal delay is a significant swallowing disorder often resulting in aspiration. It is suspected that pharyngeal delay originates from sensory impairment, but a direct demonstration of a link between oral sensation and pharyngeal delay is lacking. In this study involving six patients with complaints of dysphagia, taste sensation of the oral tongue was measured and subsequently related to swallowing kinematics. It was found that a response bias for sour taste was significantly correlated with pharyngeal delay time on paste, highlighting oral sensory contributions to swallow motor dysfunctions. Investigating the precise nature of such a link between oral sensation and dysphagia would constitute a basis for understanding the disorder. The results of this study highlight oral sensory contributions to pharyngeal swallow events and provide impetus to examine this link in larger samples of dysphagic patients.

  7. Anaerobic/aerobic treatment of selected azo dyes in wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Seshadri, S.; Bishop, P.L. . Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering); Agha, A.M. . Faculty of Civil Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    Azo dyes represent the largest class of dyes in use today. Current environmental concern with these dyes revolves around the potential carcinogenic health risk presented by these dyes or their intermediate biodegradation products when exposed to microflora in the human digestive tract. These dyes may build up in the environment, since many wastewater treatment plants allow these dyes to pass through the system virtually untreated. The initial step in the degradation of these dyes is the cleavage of the Azo bond. This cleavage is often impossible under aerobic conditions, but has been readily demonstrated under anaerobic conditions. The focus of the study was to determine the feasibility of using an anaerobic fluidized-bed reactor to accomplish this cleavage. The effects of typical process variables such as hydraulic retention time (HRT), influent dye concentration levels, and degree of bed fluidization on removal efficiencies were also studied. The four dyes selected for this study were Acid-Orange 7, Acid-Orange 8, Acid-Orange 10, and Acid-Red 14. The effectiveness of using a bench-scale-activated sludge reactor as a sequenced second stage was also examined. Results indicate that nearly complete cleavage of the Azo bond is easily accomplished for each of the four dyes under hydraulic retention times of either 12 or 24 h. Initial results indicate, though, that aromatic amine by-products remain. The sequenced second stage was able to remove the remaining Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) load to acceptable levels. Work is presently underway to determine the face of the anaerobic by-products in the aerobic second stage.

  8. [THE EVALUATION OF MICROBIOLOGICAL DISORDERS OF MICROFLORA OF OROPHARYNX AND INTESTINE USING MATHEMATICAL MODELING TECHNIQUE].

    PubMed

    Zatevalov, A V; Elkova, E P; Afanasiev, S S; Aleshkin, A V; Mironov, A Yu; Gusarova, M P; Gudova, N V

    2016-02-01

    The analysis was applied to microflora of feces and oropharinx and concentration of volatile fatty acids in saliva from patients of consultative diagnostic center of G.N. Gabrichevskii Moscow research institute of epidemiology and microbiology. The computer classification program is developed on the basis of determining degree of microbiological disorders on the basis of received data and using artificial neural networks and discriminant analysis. The analysis established decreasing of probability of false classification in case of increasing of degree of microbiological disorders of microflora of intestine and absence of such a correlation for microbiological and metabolic disorders of microflora of intestine. PMID:27455568

  9. [THE EVALUATION OF MICROBIOLOGICAL DISORDERS OF MICROFLORA OF OROPHARYNX AND INTESTINE USING MATHEMATICAL MODELING TECHNIQUE].

    PubMed

    Zatevalov, A V; Elkova, E P; Afanasiev, S S; Aleshkin, A V; Mironov, A Yu; Gusarova, M P; Gudova, N V

    2016-02-01

    The analysis was applied to microflora of feces and oropharinx and concentration of volatile fatty acids in saliva from patients of consultative diagnostic center of G.N. Gabrichevskii Moscow research institute of epidemiology and microbiology. The computer classification program is developed on the basis of determining degree of microbiological disorders on the basis of received data and using artificial neural networks and discriminant analysis. The analysis established decreasing of probability of false classification in case of increasing of degree of microbiological disorders of microflora of intestine and absence of such a correlation for microbiological and metabolic disorders of microflora of intestine.

  10. Aerobic biodegradation of selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in wastewater sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Stiborova, Hana; Vrkoslavova, Jana; Lovecka, Petra; Pulkrabova, Jana; Hradkova, Petra; Hajslova, Jana; Demnerova, Katerina

    2015-01-01

    Due to widespread accumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in our surroundings, it is important to clarify their fate in the environment and the options of their elimination. The aim of this study was to monitor the biodegradation of the most frequent congeners (BDE 28, 47, 49, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183 and 209) under aerobic condition by indigenous microflora in 2 industrially contaminated sewage sludge samples. BDE 209 was detected as the predominating congener in concentrations 685 ng/g and 1403 ng/g dry weight in sewage sludge from WWTPs (waste water treatment plants) Hradec Kralove and Brno, respectively. The total amount of 10 lower PBDEs was 605 and 205 ng/g dry weight, respectively. The aerobic degradation was significantly enhanced by the addition of yeast extract and 4-bromobiphenyl. The total concentrations of all 11 PBDE congeners were lowered and their elimination was detected reaching 62–78% of their initial amounts after 11 months of cultivation. The degradation of most abundant congener BDE 209 followed the first-order kinetics with constant detected between 2.77 × 10(−3) d(−1) and 3.79 × 10−(3)d(−1) and the half-lives of BDE 209 degradation ranged between 6.0 and 8.2 months. This work clearly demonstrates that both lower brominated PBDEs as well as the major representative BDE 209 could be successfully removed from municipally contaminated sludge under aerobic conditions. PMID:25463256

  11. Interaction of gut microflora with tannins in feeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, Gunjan; Puniya, A. K.; Aguilar, C. N.; Singh, Kishan

    2005-11-01

    Tannins (hydrolyzable and condensed) are water-soluble polyphenolic compounds that exert antinutritional effects on ruminants by forming complexes with dietary proteins. They limit nitrogen supply to animals, besides inhibiting the growth and activity of ruminal microflora. However, some gastrointestinal microbes are able to break tannin-protein complexes while preferentially degrading hydrolyzable tannins (HTs). Streptococcus gallolyticus, Lonepinella koalarum and Selenomonas ruminantium are the dominant bacterial species that have the ability to degrade HTs. These tanninolytic microorganisms possess tannin-degrading ability and have developed certain mechanisms to tolerate tannins in feeds. Hence, selection of efficient tanninolytic microbes and transinoculation among animals for long-term benefits become areas of intensive interest. Here, we review the effects of tannins on ruminants, the existence and significance of tannin-degrading microorganisms in diverse groups of animals and the mechanisms that tannin-degrading microorganisms have developed to counter the toxic effects of tannin.

  12. Interaction of gut microflora with tannins in feeds.

    PubMed

    Goel, Gunjan; Puniya, A K; Aguilar, C N; Singh, Kishan

    2005-11-01

    Tannins (hydrolyzable and condensed) are water-soluble polyphenolic compounds that exert antinutritional effects on ruminants by forming complexes with dietary proteins. They limit nitrogen supply to animals, besides inhibiting the growth and activity of ruminal microflora. However, some gastrointestinal microbes are able to break tannin-protein complexes while preferentially degrading hydrolyzable tannins (HTs). Streptococcus gallolyticus, Lonepinella koalarum and Selenomonas ruminantium are the dominant bacterial species that have the ability to degrade HTs. These tanninolytic microorganisms possess tannin-degrading ability and have developed certain mechanisms to tolerate tannins in feeds. Hence, selection of efficient tanninolytic microbes and transinoculation among animals for long-term benefits become areas of intensive interest. Here, we review the effects of tannins on ruminants, the existence and significance of tannin-degrading microorganisms in diverse groups of animals and the mechanisms that tannin-degrading microorganisms have developed to counter the toxic effects of tannin.

  13. Microflora analysis of a child with severe combined immune deficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. R.; Kropp, K. D.; Molina, T. C.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents a microflora analysis of a 5-year-old male child with severe combined immune deficiency who was delivered by Caesarean section and continuously maintained in an isolator. Despite precautions, it was found that the child had come in contact with at least 54 different microbial contaminants. While his skin autoflora was similar to that of a reference group of healthy male adults in numbers of different species and the number of viable cells present per square centimeter of surface area, the subject's autoflora differed from the reference group in that significantly fewer anaerobic species were recovered from the patient's mouth and feces. It is suggested that the child's remaining disease free shows that the reported bacteria are noninvasive or that the unaffected components of the child's immune defense mechanisms are important.

  14. Effects of a Skin Neuropeptide (Substance P) on Cutaneous Microflora

    PubMed Central

    Mijouin, Lily; Hillion, Mélanie; Ramdani, Yasmina; Jaouen, Thomas; Duclairoir-Poc, Cécile; Follet-Gueye, Marie-Laure; Lati, Elian; Yvergnaux, Florent; Driouich, Azzedine; Lefeuvre, Luc; Farmer, Christine; Misery, Laurent; Feuilloley, Marc G. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Skin is the largest human neuroendocrine organ and hosts the second most numerous microbial population but the interaction of skin neuropeptides with the microflora has never been investigated. We studied the effect of Substance P (SP), a peptide released by nerve endings in the skin on bacterial virulence. Methodology/Principal Findings Bacillus cereus, a member of the skin transient microflora, was used as a model. Exposure to SP strongly stimulated the cytotoxicity of B. cereus (+553±3% with SP 10−6 M) and this effect was rapid (<5 min). Infection of keratinocytes with SP treated B. cereus led to a rise in caspase1 and morphological alterations of the actin cytoskeleton. Secretome analysis revealed that SP stimulated the release of collagenase and superoxide dismutase. Moreover, we also noted a shift in the surface polarity of the bacteria linked to a peel-off of the S-layer and the release of S-layer proteins. Meanwhile, the biofilm formation activity of B. cereus was increased. The Thermo unstable ribosomal Elongation factor (Ef-Tu) was identified as the SP binding site in B. cereus. Other Gram positive skin bacteria, namely Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis also reacted to SP by an increase of virulence. Thermal water from Uriage-les-Bains and an artificial polysaccharide (Teflose®) were capable to antagonize the effect of SP on bacterial virulence. Conclusions/Significance SP is released in sweat during stress and is known to be involved in the pathogenesis of numerous skin diseases through neurogenic inflammation. Our study suggests that a direct effect of SP on the skin microbiote should be another mechanism. PMID:24250813

  15. Operative control of human microflora in confined habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viacheslav, Ilyin; Solovieva, Zoya; Panina, Jana

    The problem of operative control and transmission of information on microbial state of humans in artificial environment is much actual especially in conditions of long-term space missions and in perspective mission to Mars. There was revealed that in long-term missions there is a periodical accumulation of pathogenicity potential in the system "human-microbes" which lead to possible development of opportunistic infections of crew members in spaceflight. To investigate covering tissues microflora of volunteers participated in 14 and 105 days isolation in confined habitat the new non-culture method was elaborated, based on computer treatment of native swab, equally distributed on total surface of microscopy glass and Gram stained. It allows to obtain information on 3 basic indices -morphology, tinctorial and quantitative, thus it could detect increasing of total microbial amount, growth of staphylococci which is important for early diagnostics of microbial disbalance on covering tissues of volunteers. The analysis is performed with the aid of authomatized system of digital microscopy dedicated to recognition of microbial images on the preparate and for further transmission of these digital images via telecommunication network, thus making possibility of remote consultancies. The data of 14-day experiment reveals increasing of potential pathogens on 7th day of isolation with further decrease on 14th day, changes of microflora in 105-day isolation has the tendency of periodical accumulation. In general, the results were compatible with ones obtained by classical bacteriological studies. The results are significant under the microbial quantity of 104 CFU/swab and higher, which is important for analyzing of microbial groups if they grow in quantities, increasing normal values.

  16. Six intestinal microflora-associated characteristics in sport horses.

    PubMed

    Collinder, E; Lindholm, A; Midtvedt, T; Norin, E

    2000-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate 6 microflora-associated characteristics (MACs) in faecal samples from horses and to compare the results with baselines previously established in other mammals. A MAC is defined as any anatomical structure, physiological, biochemical or immunological characteristic in a host, which has been acted on by microorganisms. When the active microbes are absent, as in germ-free animals and healthy newborn organisms, the corresponding characteristic is defined as germ-free animal characteristic (GAC). The MACs studied were degradation of mucin, conversion of cholesterol to coprostanol and bilirubin to urobilinogens, inactivation of tryptic activity, degradation of beta-aspartylglycine and excretion of short-chain fatty acids. Five MACs were studied in 19 sport horses and the mucin pattern investigated in 25 other sport horses. Our results show that conversion of cholesterol to coprostanol was present in all horses, irrespective of diet. All horses also demonstrated excretion of urobilinogens; however, the values varied depending on diet. Mucin and beta-aspartylglycine were totally degraded, as occurs similarly in other animal species. Excretion of short-chain fatty acids was lower than values previously found in man, rats and pigs, and the level of faecal tryptic activity was low. Our results show that the MAC/GAC concept is as good in monogastric herbivores as in omnivores for investigations of endogenous and exogenous factors influencing the intestinal ecosystem(s). Therefore, use of the MAC/GAC concept has a potential significance for future studies on functions related to the microflora.

  17. Pharyngeal pumping in Caenorhabditis elegans depends on tonic and phasic signaling from the nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Trojanowski, Nicholas F.; Raizen, David M.; Fang-Yen, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Rhythmic movements are ubiquitous in animal locomotion, feeding, and circulatory systems. In some systems, the muscle itself generates rhythmic contractions. In others, rhythms are generated by the nervous system or by interactions between the nervous system and muscles. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, feeding occurs via rhythmic contractions (pumping) of the pharynx, a neuromuscular feeding organ. Here, we use pharmacology, optogenetics, genetics, and electrophysiology to investigate the roles of the nervous system and muscle in generating pharyngeal pumping. Hyperpolarization of the nervous system using a histamine-gated chloride channel abolishes pumping, and optogenetic stimulation of pharyngeal muscle in these animals causes abnormal contractions, demonstrating that normal pumping requires nervous system function. In mutants that pump slowly due to defective nervous system function, tonic muscle stimulation causes rapid pumping, suggesting tonic neurotransmitter release may regulate pumping. However, tonic cholinergic motor neuron stimulation, but not tonic muscle stimulation, triggers pumps that electrophysiologically resemble typical rapid pumps. This suggests that pharyngeal cholinergic motor neurons are normally rhythmically, and not tonically active. These results demonstrate that the pharynx generates a myogenic rhythm in the presence of tonically released acetylcholine, and suggest that the pharyngeal nervous system entrains contraction rate and timing through phasic neurotransmitter release. PMID:26976078

  18. Effect of nasal noninvasive respiratory support methods on pharyngeal provocation-induced aerodigestive reflexes in infants.

    PubMed

    Jadcherla, Sudarshan R; Hasenstab, Kathryn A; Sitaram, Swetha; Clouse, Brian J; Slaughter, Jonathan L; Shaker, Reza

    2016-06-01

    The pharynx is a locus of provocation among infants with aerodigestive morbidities manifesting as dysphagia, life-threatening events, aspiration-pneumonia, atelectasis, and reflux, and such infants often receive nasal respiratory support. We determined the impact of different oxygen delivery methods on pharyngeal stimulation-induced aerodigestive reflexes [room air (RA), nasal cannula (NC), and nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP)] while hypothesizing that the sensory motor characteristics of putative reflexes are distinct. Thirty eight infants (28.0 ± 0.7 wk gestation) underwent pharyngoesophageal manometry and respiratory inductance plethysmography to determine the effects of graded pharyngeal stimuli (n = 271) on upper and lower esophageal sphincters (UES, LES), swallowing, and deglutition-apnea. Comparisons were made between NC (n = 19), nCPAP (n = 9), and RA (n = 10) groups. Importantly, NC or nCPAP (vs. RA) had: 1) delayed feeding milestones (P < 0.05), 2) increased pharyngeal waveform recruitment and duration, greater UES nadir pressure, decreased esophageal contraction duration, decreased distal esophageal contraction amplitude, and decreased completely propagated esophageal peristalsis (all P < 0.05), and 3) similarly developed UES contractile and LES relaxation reflexes (P > 0.05). We conclude that aerodigestive reflexes were similarly developed in infants using noninvasive respiratory support with adequate upper and lower aerodigestive protection. Increased concern for GERD is unfounded in this population. These infants may benefit from targeted oromotor feeding therapies and safe pharyngeal bolus transit to accelerate feeding milestones. PMID:27012774

  19. Behavioural and neurophysiological disruption of corticobulbar motor systems and their effects on sequential pharyngeal swallowing.

    PubMed

    Al-Toubi, Aamir; Daniels, Stephanie K; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee; Corey, David M; Doeltgen, Sebastian H

    2016-10-15

    Primary motor networks are known to be involved in the control of voluntary oral movements as well as the modulation of pharyngeal movements during experimentally controlled single swallows performed on command. The role of these networks in the more typical task of sequential swallowing remains unexplored. This study evaluated the hypothesis that experimental disruption of motor cortical activation would reduce the rate and regularity of repeatedly performed volitional or volitionally initiated motor tasks controlled by corticospinal (finger tapping) and corticobulbar (eyebrow movement, jaw opening, volitional sequential swallowing) motor systems, but would not influence a more reflexive corticobulbar task (reflexive sequential swallowing to pharyngeal water infusion). This premise was investigated in 24 healthy participants using two techniques: a dual task paradigm and a transcranial magnetic stimulation paradigm. Disruption effects were quantified by changes in rate and regularity of performance for each tested motor task. In summary, volitional motor tasks controlled by corticospinal motor networks (finger tapping) are more susceptible to behavioural and neurophysiological disruption than tasks controlled by cortiobulbar motor networks containing a reflexive component (both volitional and experimentally initiated consecutive swallowing). Purely volitional motor tasks controlled by the corticobulbar motor system (eyebrow raising or jaw opening) were affected in similar ways as the volitional corticospinal motor tasks. In summary, tasks involving sequential pharyngeal swallowing - whether volitionally or experimentally initiated - are largely robust against disruption of primary cortical motor networks, supporting a key role of medullary CPGs in the motor control of sequential pharyngeal swallowing. PMID:27378508

  20. Behavioural and neurophysiological disruption of corticobulbar motor systems and their effects on sequential pharyngeal swallowing.

    PubMed

    Al-Toubi, Aamir; Daniels, Stephanie K; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee; Corey, David M; Doeltgen, Sebastian H

    2016-10-15

    Primary motor networks are known to be involved in the control of voluntary oral movements as well as the modulation of pharyngeal movements during experimentally controlled single swallows performed on command. The role of these networks in the more typical task of sequential swallowing remains unexplored. This study evaluated the hypothesis that experimental disruption of motor cortical activation would reduce the rate and regularity of repeatedly performed volitional or volitionally initiated motor tasks controlled by corticospinal (finger tapping) and corticobulbar (eyebrow movement, jaw opening, volitional sequential swallowing) motor systems, but would not influence a more reflexive corticobulbar task (reflexive sequential swallowing to pharyngeal water infusion). This premise was investigated in 24 healthy participants using two techniques: a dual task paradigm and a transcranial magnetic stimulation paradigm. Disruption effects were quantified by changes in rate and regularity of performance for each tested motor task. In summary, volitional motor tasks controlled by corticospinal motor networks (finger tapping) are more susceptible to behavioural and neurophysiological disruption than tasks controlled by cortiobulbar motor networks containing a reflexive component (both volitional and experimentally initiated consecutive swallowing). Purely volitional motor tasks controlled by the corticobulbar motor system (eyebrow raising or jaw opening) were affected in similar ways as the volitional corticospinal motor tasks. In summary, tasks involving sequential pharyngeal swallowing - whether volitionally or experimentally initiated - are largely robust against disruption of primary cortical motor networks, supporting a key role of medullary CPGs in the motor control of sequential pharyngeal swallowing.

  1. Streptococcal Pharyngitis in a Two-Month-Old Infant: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sharif, Mohammad Reza; Aalinezhad, Marzieh; Sajadian, Seyyed Mohammad Sajad; Haji Rezaei, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Group A β-hemolytic Streptococcus is the most common cause of bacterial pharyngitis among 5 - 15-year-old children, but it is uncommon in children less than three years old and rarely happens in infants less than one year old. Case Presentation The patient was a 62-day-old female infant who presented with fever and poor feeding since two days before admission. At the time of admission, the patient was febrile and ill. Upon examination, a rectal temperature of 38.5°C, multiple right-sided submandibular lymphadenopathies, pharyngeal erythema, and tonsillar exudates were detected. Twenty-four hours after the throat swab was collected and cultured, Streptococcus pyogenes grew on a sheep blood agar medium. The patient’s mother, who also experienced similar symptoms, had a positive throat swab culture for S. pyogenes. Conclusions Although Streptococcal pharyngitis is rare in children less than three years old and the necessity of treatment is not well clarified, in case of streptococcal infection in parents and the occurrence of similar signs and symptoms in their child, considering S. pharyngitis as a possible differential diagnosis seems rational. PMID:27540457

  2. Pharyngeal Pressure Generation during Tongue-Hold Swallows across Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doeltgen, Sebastian H.; Macrae, Phoebe; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the effects of the tongue-hold swallowing maneuver on pharyngeal pressure generation in healthy young and elderly research volunteers. Method: Sixty-eight healthy research volunteers (young, n = 34, mean age = 26.8 years, SD = 5.5; elderly, n = 34, mean age = 72.6 years, SD = 4.8; sex equally represented) performed 5…

  3. Developmental Sexual Dimorphism of the Oral and Pharyngeal Portions of the Vocal Tract: An Imaging Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorperian, Houri K.; Wang, Shubing; Schimek, E. Michael; Durtschi, Reid B.; Kent, Ray D.; Gentry, Lindell R.; Chung, Moo K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The anatomic origin for prepubertal vowel acoustic differences between male and female subjects remains unknown. The purpose of this study is to examine developmental sex differences in vocal tract (VT) length and its oral and pharyngeal portions. Method: Nine VT variables were measured from 605 imaging studies (magnetic resonance imaging…

  4. Necrotic pharyngitis associated with Mycoplasma bovis infections in American bison (Bison bison)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) has recently emerged as a significant and costly infectious disease problem in bison, generally presenting as severe, caseonecrotic pneumonia. Here we describe three diagnostic cases in which M. bovis is strongly implicated as a causative agent of necrotic pharyngitis. ...

  5. The Reliability of Oral and Pharyngeal Dimensions Captured with Acoustic Pharyngometry.

    PubMed

    Molfenter, Sonja M

    2016-08-01

    Acoustic Pharyngometry (APh) is a method for quantifying oropharyngeal tract configuration using sound wave reflection and is commonly used in diagnostics and research of sleep apnea. The standard preset output of APh (minimal cross-sectional area) has been established as reliable. However, by conducting post-processing measures on specific breathing tasks, APh data can also reveal oral length, oral volume, pharyngeal length, and pharyngeal volume. Given that these measures may have utility in dysphagia research, the reliability of these measures is unknown and is the focus of the current study. Ten young healthy female volunteers completed two sessions of APh data collection to obtain measures of oral length, oral volume, pharyngeal length, and pharyngeal volume 1 week apart. Two-way mixed intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated to establish intra-rater reliability, inter-rater reliability, and test-retest reliability. Results revealed excellent levels of agreement within and across raters for all oropharyngeal tract parameters. Levels of test-retest agreement for oral length and oral volume indicated these parameters are appropriate for monitoring change within an individual. All parameters were deemed to have acceptable test-retest values as outcome measures in group-level analysis. PMID:27262868

  6. Quantitative Lingual, Pharyngeal and Laryngeal Ultrasonography in Swallowing Research: A Technical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chi-Fishman, Gloria

    2005-01-01

    Because of its distinct advantage in radiation-free soft tissue imaging, ultrasonography has been widely used to study lingual, pharyngeal, hyoid, laryngeal, and even esophageal action during swallowing in individuals of all ages. Qualitative ultrasonographic observations have made considerable contributions to our understanding of deglutition.…

  7. Esophageal, pharyngeal and hemorrhagic complications occurring in anterior cervical surgery: Three illustrative cases

    PubMed Central

    Paradells, Víctor Rodrigo; Pérez, Juan Bosco Calatayud; Vicente, Francisco Javier Díar; Florez, Luciano Bances; de la Viuda, Marta Claramonte; Villagrasa, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    Background: The number of esophageal and pharyngeal perforations occurring in anterior cervical surgeries ranges from 0.25% to 1% and 0.2% to 1.2%, respectively. Symptoms usually appear postoperatively and are attributed to: Local infection, fistula, sepsis, or mediastinitis. Acute postoperative hematoma, although very rare (<1%), is the first complication to rule out due to its life-threatening complications (e.g. acute respiratory failure). Case Description: Over a 36-year period, the author(s) described three severe esophageal/pharyngeal complications attributed to anterior cervical surgery. As these complications were appropriately recognized/treated, patients had favorable outcomes. Conclusions: Anterior cervical spine surgery is a safe approach and is associated with few major esophageal/pharyngeal complications, which most commonly include transient dysphagia and dysphonia. If symptoms persist, patients should be assessed for esophageal/pharyngeal defects utilizing appropriate imaging studies. Notably, even if the major complications listed above are adequately treated, optimal results are in no way guaranteed. PMID:24843808

  8. Delayed Initiation of the Pharyngeal Swallow: Normal Variability in Adult Swallows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Harris, Bonnie; Brodsky, Martin B.; Michel, Yvonne; Lee, Fu-Shing; Walters, Bobby

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to determine bolus head timing and location relations with the onset of hyoid movement at the initiation of the pharyngeal swallow and at the onset of swallow-related apnea. Method: Bolus head timing and location and the timing of swallow-related apnea were recorded from frame-by-frame analyses of…

  9. Lateral congenital anomalies of the pharyngeal apparatus: part I. Normal developmental anatomy (embryogenesis) for the surgeon.

    PubMed

    Mirilas, Petros

    2011-09-01

    Knowledge of the embryogenesis of the pharyngeal apparatus is the only means of understanding the "architecture" of the neck. The embryonic pharynx (which includes future oral and nasal cavities) is a much more extensive area than the adult pharynx. The main feature of the developing pharynx is a series of arches, internal pouches, and external clefts, which together comprise the pharyngeal apparatus. This structure is associated with other developing splanchna of the neck, e.g., the thyroid and parathyroid glands, tonsils, and thymus. Within each of the pharyngeal arches are the developing aortic arches and, specific for each arch, cranial nerves. The complex relations of the mesenchymal derivatives of arches (muscles, cartilage, bones) with the neurovascular bundles within each arch are presented and explained. The pharyngeal apparatus undergoes dramatic transformations: pouches and clefts disappear without interruption (interruption would produce gills and support the misnomer "branchial apparatus"). In addition, in the lateroventral neck, somites migrate to produce other muscles such as sternocleidomastoid and trapezius innervated by spinal nerves. Lateral congenital anomalies largely rely on persistence of a cleft/and or pouch or communication between the two. Their tracts have a "crooked" course among other entities generated by alterations that take place during embryogenesis. PMID:21944634

  10. Lateral congenital anomalies of the pharyngeal apparatus: part I. Normal developmental anatomy (embryogenesis) for the surgeon.

    PubMed

    Mirilas, Petros

    2011-09-01

    Knowledge of the embryogenesis of the pharyngeal apparatus is the only means of understanding the "architecture" of the neck. The embryonic pharynx (which includes future oral and nasal cavities) is a much more extensive area than the adult pharynx. The main feature of the developing pharynx is a series of arches, internal pouches, and external clefts, which together comprise the pharyngeal apparatus. This structure is associated with other developing splanchna of the neck, e.g., the thyroid and parathyroid glands, tonsils, and thymus. Within each of the pharyngeal arches are the developing aortic arches and, specific for each arch, cranial nerves. The complex relations of the mesenchymal derivatives of arches (muscles, cartilage, bones) with the neurovascular bundles within each arch are presented and explained. The pharyngeal apparatus undergoes dramatic transformations: pouches and clefts disappear without interruption (interruption would produce gills and support the misnomer "branchial apparatus"). In addition, in the lateroventral neck, somites migrate to produce other muscles such as sternocleidomastoid and trapezius innervated by spinal nerves. Lateral congenital anomalies largely rely on persistence of a cleft/and or pouch or communication between the two. Their tracts have a "crooked" course among other entities generated by alterations that take place during embryogenesis.

  11. Pharyngeal neuromuscular dysfunction associated with bilateral guttural pouch tympany in a foal

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Chris

    2007-01-01

    A 2-month-old warmblood filly was presented for a 1-week history of a large, nonpainful, fluctuant swelling of the parotid and laryngeal area. Bilateral guttural pouch tympany was diagnosed. Surgical correction resolved the guttural pouch tympany; however, postoperative pharyngeal neuromuscular dysfunction developed. PMID:17334035

  12. Pharyngeal neuromuscular dysfunction associated with bilateral guttural pouch tympany in a foal.

    PubMed

    Bell, Chris

    2007-02-01

    A 2-month-old warmblood filly was presented for a 1-week history of a large, nonpainful, fluctuant swelling of the parotid and laryngeal area. Bilateral guttural pouch tympany was diagnosed. Surgical correction resolved the guttural pouch tympany; however, postoperative pharyngeal neuromuscular dysfunction developed. PMID:17334035

  13. Patterns of esophageal inhibition during swallowing, pharyngeal stimulation, and transient LES relaxation. Lower esophageal sphincter.

    PubMed

    Pouderoux, Philippe; Verdier, Eric; Kahrilas, Peter J

    2003-02-01

    Lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation and esophageal body inhibition co-occur during esophageal peristalsis but not necessarily during pharyngeal stimulation or transient LES relaxation (tLESR). This study examined these relationships and the impact on reflux. Nine young volunteers were studied. An artificial high-pressure zone (HPZ) was established, and pH was recorded 8 and 5 cm proximal to the LES. Pharyngeal stimulation was by water injection and gastric distension with liquid or gas. Peristalsis, pharyngeal stimulation, and spontaneous events were recorded. Swallowing relaxed the LES in 100% of trials (the HPZ in 80%) and caused no reflux. Pharyngeal stimulation relaxed the LES in two-thirds of trials, had no effect on the HPZ, and caused no reflux. Gastric distension was associated with 117 tLESRs, 48% with acid reflux, and 32% with gas reflux; there was no effect on the HPZ. We conclude that LES relaxation is a necessary but not sufficient condition for reflux. LES relaxation and esophageal body inhibition are independent events that may be concurrent (swallowing) or dissociated (tLESR).

  14. Transoral surgery for laryngo-pharyngeal cancer - The paradigm shift of the head and cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Tateya, Ichiro; Shiotani, Akihiro; Satou, Yasuo; Tomifuji, Masayuki; Morita, Shuko; Muto, Manabu; Ito, Juichi

    2016-02-01

    Transoral surgery is a less invasive treatment that is becoming a major strategy in the treatment of laryngo-pharyngeal cancer. It is a minimally invasive approach that has no skin incision and limits the extent of tissue dissection, disruption of speech and swallowing muscles, blood loss, damage to major neurovascular structures, and injury to normal tissue. Transoral approaches to the laryngo-pharynx, except for early glottis cancer, had been limited traditionally to tumors that can be observed directly and manipulated with standard instrumentation and lighting. Since the 1990s, transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) has been used as an organ preservation strategy with good oncological control and good functional results, although it has not been widely used because of its technical difficulty. Recently, transoral robotic surgery (TORS) is becoming popular as a new treatment modality for laryngo-pharyngeal cancer, and surgical robots are used widely in the world since United States FDA approval in 2009. In spite of the global spread of TORS, it has not been approved by the Japan FDA, which has led to the development of other low-cost transoral surgical techniques in Japan. Transoral videolaryngoscopic surgery (TOVS) was developed as a new transoral surgery system for laryngo-pharyngeal lesions to address the problems of TLM. In TOVS, a rigid endoscope is used to visualize the surgical field instead of a microscope and the advantages of TOVS include the wide operative field and working space achieved using the distending laryngoscope and videolaryngoscope. Also, with the spread of narrow band imaging (NBI), endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), which are widely used for superficial cancers in the gastrointestinal tract, have been applied for the superficial laryngo-pharyngeal cancer. Both EMR and ESD are performed mainly by gastroenterologists with a sharp dissector and magnifying endoscopy (ME)-NBI with minimal surgical margin

  15. Die aerobe Glykolyse der Tumorzelle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Friedhelm

    1981-01-01

    A high aerobic glycolysis (aerobic lactate production) is the most significant feature of the energy metabolism of rapidly growing tumor cells. Several mechanisms, which may be different in different cell lines, seem to be involved in this characteristic of energy metabolism of the tumor cell. Changes in the cell membrane leading to increased uptake and utilization of glucose, a high level of fetal types of isoenzymes, a decreased number of mitochondria and a reduced capacity to metabolize pyruvate are some factors which must be taken into consideration. It is not possible to favour one of them at the present time.

  16. Effects of treatment with antimicrobial agents on the human colonic microflora

    PubMed Central

    Rafii, Fatemeh; Sutherland, John B; Cerniglia, Carl E

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial agents are the most valuable means available for treating bacterial infections. However, the administration of therapeutic doses of antimicrobial agents to patients is a leading cause of disturbance of the normal gastrointestinal microflora. This disturbance results in diminishing the natural defense mechanisms provided by the colonic microbial ecosystem, making the host vulnerable to infection by commensal microorganisms or nosocomial pathogens. In this minireview, the impacts of antimicrobials, individually and in combinations, on the human colonic microflora are discussed. PMID:19337440

  17. Role of intestinal microflora in the degradation of DDT by rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedemeyer, G.

    1968-01-01

    Though liver homogenates show apparent microsomal enzyme DDT-dehydrochlorinase activity, in the intact fish the intestinal microflora play a major role in DDT detoxication. Since the presence of this microflora in fish depends on the recent intake of food (12), the rate of detoxication and hence the toxicity of ingested DDT to the rainbow trout will probably depend somewhat on the available food supply.

  18. Factors affecting adherence to evidence-based guidelines in the treatment of URI, sinusitis, and pharyngitis

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, Andrew; Alweis, Richard; Scheirer, Jorge; Schamel, Shannon; Wasser, Tom; Levingood, Kris

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Sinus infections, sore throats, and upper respiratory tract infections (URI) are common reasons patients seek medical care. Well-established treatment guidelines exist for prescribing antibiotics in these clinical scenarios, but are not often followed. Objective The objective of this study is to determine practice patterns related to prescribing antibiotics for sinusitis, URI, and pharyngitis. The main hypothesis is that attending physicians improve their adherence to antibiotic guidelines with a learner present. Methods A retrospective cohort study was performed on patients treated for URI, sinusitis, and pharyngitis at an ambulatory faculty practice. The use of relevant ICD-9 codes from January 1, 2008 to January 30, 2012 resulted in 1,548 patient encounters which were reviewed for guideline adherence. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression was performed for each outcome variable to determine if they influence antibiotic adherence. Variables studied were physician, presence of a learner, BMI, age, gender, day of the week, month, diabetes, immunosuppression, and COPD. Results Multivariate analysis showed the statistically significant variables were age (p=0.038) for pharyngitis and provider (p=0.013) for URI. There were no significant findings for sinusitis. Guideline adherence was 24% in patients with pharyngitis, 42% in acute sinusitis, 79% in URI, and 57% overall. Conclusion Guideline adherence varies depending on the treating physician and decreases when treating younger patients with pharyngitis. The presence of a learner did not improve prescribing habits. The reason for these findings remain unclear, but considerations for improvement could include following antibiotic adherence as a quality measure, giving patients handouts educating them about the impact of overprescribing antibiotics, and further education amongst faculty and residents about adhering to nationally recognized guidelines. PMID:23882403

  19. Effects of birth asphyxia on the modulation of pharyngeal provocation-induced adaptive reflexes.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Ish K; Shubert, Theresa R; Sitaram, Swetha; Wei, Lai; Jadcherla, Sudarshan R

    2015-10-15

    Perinatal asphyxia and aerodigestive symptoms are troublesome. We tested the hypothesis that pharyngeal provocation alters proximal and distal aerodigestive reflex coordination and kinetics in infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), compared with healthy controls. Specifically, we characterized the sensory-motor properties of pharyngeal provocation-induced effects on upper esophageal sphincter (UES) and lower esophageal sphincter (LES) reflexes. Ten orally fed controls (32.0 ± 1.5 wk gestation) and 25 infants with HIE (38.1 ± 0.4 wk gestation) were evaluated at 39.7 ± 0.9 and 41.9 ± 0.6 wk postmenstrual age respectively. Pharyngo-esophageal reflexes evoked upon graded water stimuli were tested using water-perfusion micromanometry methods. Analysis included sensory-motor characteristics of pharyngeal reflexive swallow (PRS), pharyngo-UES-contractile reflex (PUCR), esophageal body-waveform kinetics, and pharyngo-LES-relaxation reflex (PLESRR). For controls vs. infants with HIE, median appearance, pulse, grimace, activity, respiration (APGAR) scores were 6 vs. 1 at 1 min (P < 0.001) and 8 vs. 3 at 5 min (P < 0.001). Upon pharyngeal- stimulation, HIE infants (vs. controls) had frequent PUCR (P = 0.01); increased UES basal tone (P = 0.03); decreased LES basal tone (P = 0.002); increased pharyngeal-waveforms per stimulus (P = 0.03); decreased frequency of LES relaxation (P = 0.003); and decreased proximal esophageal contractile amplitude (P = 0.002), with prolonged proximal esophageal contractile duration (P = 0.008). Increased tonicity and reactivity of the UES and dysregulation of LES may provide the pathophysiological basis for pooling of secretions, improper bolus clearance, and aspiration risk. Deficits in function at the nuclear or supranuclear level involving glossopharyngeal and vagal neural networks and respiratory regulatory pathways involved with aerodigestive protection may be contributory. PMID:26272260

  20. Submental negative pressure application decreases collapsibility of the passive pharyngeal airway in nonobese women.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shinichiro; Isono, Shiroh; Amemiya, Megumi; Sato, Shin; Ikeda, Aya; Okazaki, Junko; Sato, Yumi; Ishikawa, Teruhiko

    2015-04-01

    The pharyngeal airway is surrounded by soft tissues that are also enclosed by bony structures such as the mandible, maxilla, and cervical spine. The passive pharyngeal airway is therefore structurally analogous to a collapsible tube within a rigid box. Cross-sectional area of the tube is determined by transmural pressure, the pressure difference between intraluminal and extraluminal pressures. Due to a lack of knowledge on the influence of extraluminal soft tissue pressure on the human pharyngeal airway patency, we hypothesized that application of negative external pressure to the submental region decreases collapsibility of the passive pharynx, and that obese individuals have less response to the intervention than nonobese individuals. Static mechanical properties of the passive pharynx were compared before and during application of submental negative pressure in 10 obese and 10 nonobese adult women under general anesthesia and paralysis. Negative pressure was applied through use of a silicone collar covering the entire submental region and a vacuum pump. In nonobese subjects, application of submental negative pressure (-25 and -50 cmH2O) significantly decreased closing pressures at the retropalatal airway by 2.3 ± 3.2 cmH2O and 2.0 ± 3.0 cmH2O, respectively, and at the retroglossal airway by 2.9 ± 2.7 cmH2O and 3.7 ± 2.6 cmH2O, respectively, and the intervention stiffened the retroglossal pharyngeal airway wall. No significant mechanical changes were observed during application of submental negative pressure in obese subjects. Conclusively, application of submental negative pressure was found to decreases collapsibility of the passive pharyngeal airway in nonobese Japanese women. PMID:25614595

  1. Notes from the Field: Group A Streptococcal Pharyngitis Misdiagnoses at a Rural Urgent-Care Clinic--Wyoming, March 2015.

    PubMed

    Harrist, Alexia; Van Houten, Clayton; Shulman, Stanford T; Van Beneden, Chris; Murphy, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is the most common bacterial cause of pharyngitis, implicated in 20%-30% of pediatric and 5%-15% of adult health care visits for sore throat (1). Along with the sudden onset of throat pain, GAS pharyngitis symptoms include fever, headache, and bilateral tender cervical lymphadenopathy (1,2). Accurate diagnosis and management of GAS pharyngitis is critical for limiting antibiotic overuse and preventing rheumatic fever (2), but distinguishing between GAS and viral pharyngitis clinically is challenging (1). Guidelines for diagnosis and management of GAS pharyngitis have been published by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA)* (1). IDSA recommends that patients with sore throat be tested for GAS to distinguish between GAS and viral pharyngitis; however, IDSA emphasizes the use of selective testing based on clinical symptoms and signs to avoid identifying GAS carriers rather than acute GAS infections (1). Therefore, testing for GAS usually is not recommended for the following: patients with sore throat and accompanying symptoms (e.g., cough, rhinorrhea) that strongly suggest a viral etiology; children aged <3 years, because acute rheumatic fever is extremely rare in this age group; and asymptomatic household contacts of patients with GAS pharyngitis (1). IDSA recommends penicillin or amoxicillin as the treatment of choice based on effectiveness and narrow spectrum of activity. To date, penicillin-resistant GAS has never been documented (1). PMID:26719990

  2. Endoderm-specific deletion of Tbx1 reveals an FGF-independent role for Tbx1 in pharyngeal apparatus morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Abigail; Kasah, Sahrunizam; Mansour, Suzanne L.; Morrow, Bernice; Basson, M. Albert

    2015-01-01

    Background The T-box transcription factor Tbx1, is essential for the normal development of multiple organ systems in the embryo. One of the most striking phenotypes in Tbx1−/− embryos is the failure of the caudal pharyngeal pouches to evaginate from the foregut endoderm. Despite considerable interest in the role of Tbx1 in development, the mechanisms whereby Tbx1 controls caudal pouch formation have remained elusive. In particular, the question as to how Tbx1 expression in the pharyngeal endoderm regulates pharyngeal pouch morphogenesis in the mouse embryo is not known. Results To address this question, we produced mouse embryos in which Tbx1 was specifically deleted from the pharyngeal endoderm and as expected, embryos failed to form caudal pharyngeal pouches. To determine the molecular mechanism, we examined expression of Fgf3 and Fgf8 ligands and downstream effectors. Although Fgf8 expression is greatly reduced in Tbx1-deficient endoderm, FGF signaling levels are unaffected. Furthermore, pouch morphogenesis is only partially perturbed by the loss of both Fgf3 and Fgf8 from the endoderm, indicating that neither are required for pouch formation. Conclusions Tbx1 deletion from the pharyngeal endoderm is sufficient to cause caudal pharyngeal arch segmentation defects by FGF-independent effectors that remain to be identified. PMID:24812002

  3. Nitroreduction and formation of hemoglobin adducts in rats with a human intestinal microflora

    SciTech Connect

    Scheepers, P.T.J.; Straetemans, M.M.E.; Koopman, J.P.; Bos, R.P.

    1994-10-01

    In the covalent binding of nitroarenes to macromolecules, nitroreduction is an important step. The intestinal microflora represents an enormous potential of bacterial nitroreductase activity. As a consequence, the in vivo nitroreduction of orally administerednitroarenes is primarily located in the intestine. In this study, we have investigated the nitroreduction of 2-nitrofluorene (2-NF) by a human microflora in female Wistar rats. Germ-free (FG) rats were equipped with a bacterial flora derived from human feces. Nontreated GF rats and GF animals equipped with a conventional rat flora were used as controls. The composition of the human and the conventional microflora isolated from the rats were consistent with the microflora of the administered feces. In the rats receiving only sunflower seed oil, no adducts were detected. The animals equipped with a human or rat microflora that received 2-aminofluorene (2-AF) formed 2-AF hemoglobin (Hb)-adducts at average levels mean {+-} 0.003 and 0.043 {+-} 0.010 {mu}mole/g Hb, respectively. In the FG rats, an adduct level of 0.57 {+-} 0.09 was determined after 2-AF administration and non adducts were detected after 2-NF administration. The results show that nitroreduction by an acquired human intestinal microflora and subsequent adduct formation can be studied in the rate in vivo. 21 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. Neisseria gonorrhoeae Bacterial DNA Load in the Pharynges and Saliva of Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    PubMed

    Chow, Eric P F; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Phillips, Samuel; Lee, David; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Chen, Marcus Y; Fairley, Christopher K

    2016-10-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae can be cultured in the saliva of individuals with pharyngeal gonorrhea. The aim of this study was to quantify the gonococcal bacterial DNA loads in the pharynges and saliva among men who have sex with men (MSM) with untreated pharyngeal gonorrhea. Untreated MSM who tested positive for pharyngeal gonorrhea by culture and returned for antibiotic treatment within 14 days at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between October 2014 and March 2015 were eligible for this study. The gonococcal bacterial DNA load was measured using real-time quantitative PCR. The median gonococcal bacterial DNA loads in the pharynges and saliva were calculated and compared to culture positivity using the Mann-Whitney U test. A total of 33 men were included in this study. The median gonococcal bacterial DNA load did not differ between the pharynges in men who were culture positive (2.5 × 10(5) copies/swab) and culture negative (2.9 × 10(4) copies/swab) (P = 0.166) and the saliva (culture positive, 2.2 × 10(5) copies/ml; culture negative, 2.7 × 10(5) copies/ml) (P = 0.499). The bacterial DNA load in the pharynges (P = 0.695) and saliva (P = 0.969) did not differ between who men returned for treatment within 7 days and those who returned 8 to 14 days later. Substantial gonococcal bacterial DNA loads were detected in both saliva and pharynges among MSM with pharyngeal gonorrhea. These findings suggest that gonorrhea can be transmitted via sexual practices involving exposure to saliva, such as oroanal practices (rimming) and saliva use as a lubricant for anal sex. PMID:27413195

  5. The Transition from Aerobic to Anaerobic Metabolism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, James S.; McLellan, Thomas H.

    1980-01-01

    The transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism is discussed. More research is needed on different kinds of athletes and athletic activities and how they may affect aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms. (CJ)

  6. Membrane thickening aerobic digestion processes.

    PubMed

    Woo, Bryen

    2014-01-01

    Sludge management accounts for approximately 60% of the total wastewater treatment plant expenditure and laws for sludge disposal are becoming increasingly stringent, therefore much consideration is required when designing a solids handling process. A membrane thickening aerobic digestion process integrates a controlled aerobic digestion process with pre-thickening waste activated sludge using membrane technology. This process typically features an anoxic tank, an aerated membrane thickener operating in loop with a first-stage digester followed by second-stage digestion. Membrane thickening aerobic digestion processes can handle sludge from any liquid treatment process and is best for facilities obligated to meet low total phosphorus and nitrogen discharge limits. Membrane thickening aerobic digestion processes offer many advantages including: producing a reusable quality permeate with minimal levels of total phosphorus and nitrogen that can be recycled to the head works of a plant, protecting the performance of a biological nutrient removal liquid treatment process without requiring chemical addition, providing reliable thickening up to 4% solids concentration without the use of polymers or attention to decanting, increasing sludge storage capacities in existing tanks, minimizing the footprint of new tanks, reducing disposal costs, and providing Class B stabilization.

  7. Arthritis and Aerobic Exercise: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ike, Robert W.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Arthritic patients who regularly do aerobic exercise make significant gains in aerobic and functional status, and in subjective areas like pain tolerance and mood. Still, they are often advised to curtail physical activity. Guidelines are presented for physicians prescribing aerobic exercise. An exercise tolerance test is recommended. (SM)

  8. Tube Law of the Pharyngeal Airway in Sleeping Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Genta, Pedro R.; Edwards, Bradley A.; Sands, Scott A.; Owens, Robert L.; Butler, James P.; Loring, Stephen H.; White, David P.; Wellman, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by repetitive pharyngeal collapse during sleep. However, the dynamics of pharyngeal narrowing and re-expansion during flow-limited breathing are not well described. The static pharyngeal tube law (end-expiratory area versus luminal pressure) has demonstrated increasing pharyngeal compliance as luminal pressure decreases, indicating that the airway would be sucked closed with sufficient inspiratory effort. On the contrary, the airway is rarely sucked closed during inspiratory flow limitation, suggesting that the airway is getting stiffer. Therefore, we hypothesized that during inspiratory flow limitation, as opposed to static conditions, the pharynx becomes stiffer as luminal pressure decreases. Methods: Upper airway endoscopy and simultaneous measurements of airflow and epiglottic pressure were performed during natural nonrapid eye movement sleep. Continuous positive (or negative) airway pressure was used to induce flow limitation. Flow-limited breaths were selected for airway cross-sectional area measurements. Relative airway area was quantified as a percentage of end-expiratory area. Inspiratory airway radial compliance was calculated at each quintile of epiglottic pressure versus airway area plot (tube law). Results: Eighteen subjects (14 males) with OSA (apnea-hypopnea index = 57 ± 27 events/h), aged 49 ± 8 y, with a body mass index of 35 ± 6 kg/m2 were studied. A total of 163 flow limited breaths were analyzed (9 ± 3 breaths per subject). Compliances at the fourth (2.0 ± 4.7 % area/cmH2O) and fifth (0.0 ± 1.7 % area/cmH2O) quintiles were significantly lower than the first (12.2 ± 5.5 % area/cmH2O) pressure quintile (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The pharyngeal tube law is concave (airway gets stiffer as luminal pressure decreases) during respiratory cycles under inspiratory flow limitation. Citation: Genta PR, Edwards BA, Sands SA, Owens RL, Butler JP, Loring SH, White DP, Wellman A. Tube law of

  9. Effect of leavening microflora on pizza dough properties.

    PubMed

    Coppola, S; Pepe, O; Mauriello, G

    1998-11-01

    Fourteen different starter cultures containing one strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with and without individual or combinations of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lact. sanfrancisco, Enterococcus faecium, Leuconostoc mesenteroides) were employed to investigate the role of leavening microflora on the properties of pizza doughs. Microbiological, chemical and physical characteristics of doughs prepared with the same flour and under the same processing conditions were determined. Leavening times and acidification properties depended on the microbial association used. The proportions of lactic and acetic acid produced by lactic acid bacteria were consistent with the metabolic properties of the strains employed. The bacteria/yeast ratios arising from microbial counts at the end of the leavening process were always lower in comparison to sour- or bread-doughs. The size of the yeast population did not change much, while bacteria showed from one to four duplications. Rheologically, the fermented doughs could only be significantly distinguished from the control dough with regard to the elastic modulus. Principal Component Analysis was applied to the acidimetric data. The scattergram of the two principal components effectively discriminated 13 of the 14 pizza dough types.

  10. Methanogenesis at low temperatures by microflora of tundra wetland soil.

    PubMed

    Kotsyurbenko, O R; Nozhevnikova, A N; Soloviova, T I; Zavarzin, G A

    1996-01-01

    Active methanogenesis from organic matter contained in soil samples from tundra wetland occurred even at 6 degrees C. Methane was the only end product in balanced microbial community with H2/CO2 as a substrate, besides acetate was produced as an intermediate at temperatures below 10 degrees C. The activity of different microbial groups of methanogenic community in the temperature range of 6-28 degrees C was investigated using 5% of tundra soil as inoculum. Anaerobic microflora of tundra wetland fermented different organic compounds with formation of hydrogen, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and alcohols. Methane was produced at the second step. Homoacetogenic and methanogenic bacteria competed for such substrates as hydrogen, formate, carbon monoxide and methanol. Acetogens out competed methanogens in an excess of substrate and low density of microbial population. Kinetic analysis of the results confirmed the prevalence of hydrogen acetogenesis on methanogenesis. Pure culture of acetogenic bacteria was isolated at 6 degrees C. Dilution of tundra soil and supply with the excess of substrate disbalanced the methanoigenic microbial community. It resulted in accumulation of acetate and other VFA. In balanced microbial community obviously autotrophic methanogens keep hydrogen concentration below a threshold for syntrophic degradation of VFA. Accumulation of acetate- and H2/CO2-utilising methanogens should be very important in methanogenic microbial community operating at low temperatures. PMID:8678482

  11. Microbiological toxicity of tilmicosin on human colonic microflora in chemostats.

    PubMed

    Hao, Haihong; Yao, Junping; Wu, Qinghua; Wei, Yajing; Dai, Menghong; Iqbal, Zahid; Wang, Xu; Wang, Yulian; Huang, Lingli; Chen, Dongmei; Tao, Yanfei; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the microbiological safety of tilmicosin on human intestinal microflora, four chemostat models of healthy human colonic ecosystems were exposed to tilmicosin (0, 0.436, 4.36, and 43.6 μg/mL) for 7 days. Prior to and during drug exposure, three microbiological endpoints were monitored daily including short-chain fatty acids, bacterial counts and macrolide susceptibility. Colonization resistance of each community was determined by 3 successive daily challenges of Salmonella typhimurium. Genes associated with virulence and macrolide resistance in Enterococcus faecalis were determined by PCR. Transcriptional expression of the virulence gene (gelE) in E. faecalis was determined by real-time RT-PCR. Our results showed that different concentrations of tilmicosin did not disrupt the colonization resistance in each chemostat. During exposure to 4.36 and 43.6 μg/mL tilmicosin, the Bacteroides fragilis population was significantly decreased while the proportion of resistant Enterococci increased. After long-term exposure to the highest concentration (43.6 μg/mL) of tilmicosin, the gelE gene was significantly up-regulated in the high-level macrolide resistant strains that also contained the ermB resistance gene. This study was the first of its kind to evaluate the microbiological toxicity of tilmicosin using a chemostat model. These findings also provide new insight into the co-occurrence of macrolide resistance and virulence in E. faecalis under tilmicosin selective pressure.

  12. An 11-year-old boy with pharyngitis and cough: Lemierre syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mação, Patricia; Cancelinha, Candida; Lopes, Paulo; Rodrigues, Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    The authors present the case of an 11-year-old boy with pharyngitis, treated with amoxicillin, that worsened on day 7, with cough, high fever and refusal to eat. Lethargy and respiratory distress were noted. Based on radiographic findings of bilateral infiltrates he was diagnosed with pneumonia and started on intravenous ampicillin and erythromycin. Two days later he complained of right-sided neck pain and a palpable mass was identified. An ultrasound showed partial thrombosis of the right internal jugular vein and a lung CT scan revealed multiple septic embolic lesions. Lemierre syndrome was diagnosed, antibiotic treatment adjusted and anticoagulation started. A neck CT-scan showed a large parapharyngeal abscess. His clinical condition improved gradually and after 3 weeks of intravenous antibiotics he was discharged home on oral treatment. This case illustrates the importance of diagnosing Lemierre syndrome in the presence of pharyngitis with localised neck pain and respiratory distress, to prevent potentially fatal complications. PMID:23616317

  13. Exudative pharyngitis possibly due to Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum, a new challenge in the differential diagnosis of diphtheria.

    PubMed Central

    Izurieta, H. S.; Strebel, P. M.; Youngblood, T.; Hollis, D. G.; Popovic, T.

    1997-01-01

    Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum has rarely been reported to cause disease in humans, despite its common presence in the flora of the upper respiratory tract. We report here a case of exudative pharyngitis with pseudomembrane possibly caused by C. pseudodiphtheriticum in a 4-year-old girl. The case initially triggered clinical and laboratory suspicion of diphtheria. Because C. pseudodiphtheriticum can be easily confused with Corynebacterium diphtheriae in Gram stain, clarification of its role in the pathogenesis of exudative pharyngitis in otherwise healthy persons is of public health importance. Simple and rapid screening tests to differentiate C. pseudodiphtheriticum from C. diphtheriae should be performed to prevent unnecessary concern in the community and unnecessary outbreak control measures. PMID:9126447

  14. Pharyngeal Neisseria gonorrhoeae detection in oral-throat wash specimens of male patients with urethritis.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Satoshi; Kurimura, Yuichiro; Hashimoto, Jiro; Takeyama, Koh; Koroku, Mikio; Tanda, Hitoshi; Nishimura, Masahiro; Tsukamoto, Taiji

    2008-12-01

    Detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis in the pharynx has been highlighted in the prevention of the unexpected spread of sexually transmitted diseases. We tried to clarify the detection rate of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the pharynx and the clinical relevance of oral-throat wash specimens to detect the organism in heterosexual men with gonococcal and nongonococcal urethritis. In our cohort of 79 male patients with urethritis, oral throat wash specimens were collected after they had gargled with normal saline for approximately 30 to 60 s. Positive pharyngeal N. gonorrhoeae was defined as a positive result on the strand displacement amplification test for the specimen from the oral-throat wash. N. gonorrhoeae was detected in the oral-throat wash specimens of 13 (31.7%) of the 41 male patients with gonococcal urethritis. Oral-throat wash with a nucleic acid amplification test can detect pharyngeal N. gonorrhoeae easily and efficiently.

  15. Pediatric Pharyngeal IgD-positive Monoclonal Plasmacytoid and Plasma Cell Neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shanxiang; Long, Catherine

    2015-11-01

    Pediatric neoplasm with monoclonal proliferation of lymphoplasmacytoid lymphocytes and plasma cells is exceedingly rare and has essentially never been reported in immunocompetent children. Here, we report a previously healthy 13-year-old girl with a pharyngeal mass and enlarged cervical lymph nodes. The pharyngeal mass was composed of CD138, CD79a, MUM-1, IgD, CD20, PAX-5, CD43, λ-restricted monoclonal plasmacytoid, and plasma cells. Scattered CD20, PAX-5 B cells were present in the background. The patient was treated as localized non-Hodgkin lymphoma (stage II) with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone and is in complete remission at 17 months from the last chemotherapy. PMID:25851555

  16. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Torsvik, T.; Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.

    1995-12-31

    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  17. In vivo polarization dependant Second and Third harmonic generation imaging of Caenorhabditis elegans pharyngeal muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippidis, G.; Troulinaki, K.; Fotakis, C.; Tavernarakis, N.

    2009-07-01

    In this study Second and Third harmonic generation (SHG-THG) imaging measurements were performed to the pharyngeal muscles of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, in vivo with linearly polarized laser beam. Complementary information about the anatomy of the pharynx and the morphology of the anterior part of the worm were extracted. THG signals proved to have no dependence on incident light polarization, while SHG images are highly sensitive to the changes of the incident linearly polarized light.

  18. THE INCIDENCE AND PATHOGENESIS OF MYOCARDITIS IN RABBITS AFTER GROUP A STREPTOCOCCAL PHARYNGEAL INFECTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Robert J.; Thomas, Wilbur A.; Morse, Stephen I.; Darnell, James E.

    1956-01-01

    Rabbits subjected to single pharyngeal infections with group A streptococci developed cardiac lesions characterized by myofiber necrosis and a non-granulocytic cellular reaction with histiocytes, lymphocytes, and Anitschkow myocytes. The histopathologic changes were demonstrable in some animals within 24 hours of inoculation, apparently were maximal 72 hours after induction of infection (at which time they were seen in the hearts of all nine rabbits studied), and thereafter healed in the course of the following 2 weeks. The extent of involvement was variable, and with healing the necrotic areas were replaced by fibrous tissue. When intradermal infections with the same organisms were produced in rabbits, cardiac lesions, indistinguishable from those observed in the pharyngeally infected group, appeared in a much smaller number of animals. The hearts of five of six rabbits sacrificed a month or more following the last of a series of streptococcal pharyngeal infections exhibited lesions characterized chiefly by fibrosis, although mononuclear cellular infiltrations were also noted. In these repetitively infected animals the presence of occasional multinucleated giant cells and a few small foci of calcification were features not encountered in the single infection group. In a second series of rabbits sacrificed 3 days after the last of three pharyngeal infections with different strains of streptococci, acute as well as more chronic changes were observed. In none of the lesions in rabbits subjected to single or multiple streptococcal infections were bacteria demonstrable, either in histologic sections or in cultures of myocardial tissue. A large number of control animals was studied concomitantly, and in only one instance was a lesion, considered comparable to those described in the streptococcal series, encountered. The implications of these findings, particularly in terms of the non-suppurative sequelae of streptococcal infections in man, are discussed. PMID:13278463

  19. Developmental genetics of the C. elegans pharyngeal neurons NSML and NSMR

    PubMed Central

    Axäng, Claes; Rauthan, Manish; Hall, David H; Pilon, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Background We are interested in understanding how the twenty neurons of the C. elegans pharynx develop in an intricate yet reproducible way within the narrow confines of the embryonic pharyngeal primordium. To complement an earlier study of the pharyngeal M2 motorneurons, we have now examined the effect of almost forty mutations on the morphology of a bilateral pair of pharyngeal neurosecretory-motor neurons, the NSMs. Results A careful description of the NSM morphology led to the discovery of a third, hitherto unreported process originating from the NSM cell body and that is likely to play a proprioceptive function. We found that the three NSM processes are differently sensitive to mutations. The major dorsal branch was most sensitive to mutations that affect growth cone guidance and function (e.g. unc-6, unc-34, unc-73), while the major sub-ventral branch was more sensitive to mutations that affect components of the extracellular matrix (e.g. sdn-1). Of the tested mutations, only unc-101, which affects an adaptin, caused the loss of the newly described thin minor process. The major processes developed synaptic branches post-embryonically, and these exhibited activity-dependent plasticity. Conclusion By studying the effects of nearly forty different mutations we have learned that the different NSM processes require different genes for their proper guidance and use both growth cone dependent and growth cone independent mechanisms for establishing their proper trajectories. The two major NSM processes develop in a growth cone dependent manner, although the sub-ventral process relies more on substrate adhesion. The minor process also uses growth cones but uniquely develops using a mechanism that depends on the clathrin adaptor molecule UNC-101. Together with the guidance of the M2 neuron, this is the second case of a pharyngeal neuron establishing one of its processes using an unexpected mechanism. PMID:18400083

  20. Does body mass index matter while selecting the flap type for pharyngeal reconstructions?

    PubMed

    Calli, Caglar; Teknos, Theodoros N; Agrawal, Amit; Schuller, David E; Ozer, Enver; Songu, Murat

    2014-05-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of patient-related factors, such as the body mass index (BMI) and tumor size, in selecting the flap type for the reconstruction of pharyngeal defects. This retrospective review included 182 patients with pharyngeal defect reconstructions with free and pedicled flaps at the Ohio State University from January 2005 to December 2008. We conducted a retrospective comparison of variety of different flap reconstruction techniques. We compared different flap reconstruction with BMI and tumor size without functional outcome such as swallowing and speech data. Although there was no statistically significant correlation (P > 0.05) when comparing the free flaps with pedicled flaps according to the BMI and tumor size, there was an obvious tendency to prefer radial forearm free flap over anterolateral thigh free flap in patients who are overweight and those with obesity with a ratio of 32:3. In the same group of patients, a similar tendency was observed to prefer fibular free flap over iliac crest free flap with a ratio of 14:5, whereas the ratio was becoming 3:5 in favor of iliac crest free flap over fibular free flap in patients with BMI of 24 or lower. Despite the fact that surgeons' experience with a certain flap type is one of the most important factors while determining which flap to reconstruct, BMI might have a significant impact while selecting the free flap types for the reconstruction of pharyngeal defects.

  1. The effect of mandibular setback or two-jaws surgery on pharyngeal airway among different genders.

    PubMed

    Degerliyurt, K; Ueki, K; Hashiba, Y; Marukawa, K; Simsek, B; Okabe, K; Nakagawa, K; Yamamoto, E

    2009-06-01

    Cephalometric studies show significant gender differences in the size of the pharyngeal airway space. This study aimed to investigate and compare morphologic changes after mandibular setback or two-jaws surgery on the pharyngeal airway in men and women using computed tomography (CT). The sample included 34 women and 13 men diagnosed with Class III skeletal deformities, who had been treated by mandibular setback or bimaxillary surgery (maxillary advancement and mandibular setback). Anteroposterior, lateral and cross-sectional area dimensions of the airway, at the level of soft palate and base of tongue, were measured pre- and postoperatively on CT images. In the mandibular setback group, the anteroposterior and cross-sectional area of the pharyngeal airway at the level of the soft palate and base of tongue were significantly reduced for men or women (P<.05). In the two-jaws surgery group, only midsagittal anteroposterior dimensions at the same levels were significantly decreased for men or women (P<.05). The difference between any values measured between men and women who received bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy setback surgery or two-jaws surgery for the treatment of class III anteroposterior discrepancy were not statistically significant (P>.05). This study suggests that oropharyngeal airway measurements, important for airway patency, do not demonstrate sex dimorphism.

  2. Hh signaling regulates patterning and morphogenesis of the pharyngeal arch-derived skeleton

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Mary E.; Nguyen, Van; McCarthy, Neil Q.

    2012-01-01

    The proper function of the craniofacial skeleton requires the proper shaping of many individual skeletal elements. Neural crest cells generate much of the craniofacial skeleton and morphogenesis of skeletal elements occurs in transient, reiterated structures termed pharyngeal arches. The shape of individual elements depends upon intrinsic patterning within the neural crest as well as extrinsic signals to the neural crest from adjacent tissues within the arches. Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is known to play roles in craniofacial development, yet its involvement in intrinsic and extrinsic patterning of the craniofacial skeleton is still not well understood. Here, we show that morphogenetic movements of the pharyngeal arches and patterning of the neural crest require Hh signaling. Loss of Hh signaling, in smoothened (smo) mutants, disrupts the expression of some Dlx genes as well as other markers of dorsal/ventral patterning of the neural crest. Transplantation of wild-type neural crest cells into smo mutants rescues this defect, demonstrating that the neural crest requires reception of Hh signals for proper patterning. Despite the rescue, morphogenesis of the facial skeleton is not fully recovered. Through transplant analyses, we find two additional requirements for Hh signaling. The endoderm requires the reception of Hh signals for proper morphogenetic movements of the pharyngeal arches and the neural crest require the reception of Hh signaling for the activity of a reverse signal that maintains sonic hedgehog expression in the endoderm. Collectively, these results demonstrate that Hh signaling is essential to establish intrinsic and extrinsic patterning information for the craniofacial skeleton. PMID:22709972

  3. Human Pharyngeal Microbiome May Play A Protective Role in Respiratory Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhancheng; Kang, Yu; Yu, Jun; Ren, Lufeng

    2014-01-01

    The human pharyngeal microbiome, which resides at the juncture of digestive and respiratory tracts, may have an active role in the prevention of respiratory tract infections, similar to the actions of the intestinal microbiome against enteric infections. Recent studies have demonstrated that the pharyngeal microbiome comprises an abundance of bacterial species that interacts with the local epithelial and immune cells, and together, they form a unique micro-ecological system. Most of the microbial species in microbiomes are obligate symbionts constantly adapting to their unique surroundings. Indigenous commensal species are capable of both maintaining dominance and evoking host immune responses to eliminate invading species. Temporary damage to the pharyngeal microbiome due to the impaired local epithelia is also considered an important predisposing risk factor for infections. Therefore, reinforcement of microbiome homeostasis to prevent invasion of infection-prone species would provide a novel treatment strategy in addition to antibiotic treatment and vaccination. Hence continued research efforts on evaluating probiotic treatment and developing appropriate procedures are necessary to both prevent and treat respiratory infections. PMID:24953866

  4. Usefulness of Leukocyte Esterase Test Versus Rapid Strep Test for Diagnosis of Acute Strep Pharyngitis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A study to compare the usage of throat swab testing for leukocyte esterase on a test strip(urine dip stick-multi stick) to rapid strep test for rapid diagnosis of Group A Beta hemolytic streptococci in cases of acute pharyngitis in children. Hypothesis: The testing of throat swab for leukocyte esterase on test strip currently used for urine testing may be used to detect throat infection and might be as useful as rapid strep. Methods: All patients who come with a complaint of sore throat and fever were examined clinically for erythema of pharynx, tonsils and also for any exudates. Informed consent was obtained from the parents and assent from the subjects. 3 swabs were taken from pharyngo-tonsillar region, testing for culture, rapid strep & Leukocyte Esterase. Results: Total number is 100. Cultures 9(+); for rapid strep== 84(-) and16 (+); For LE== 80(-) and 20(+) Statistics: From data configuration Rapid Strep versus LE test don’t seem to be a random (independent) assignment but extremely aligned. The Statistical results show rapid and LE show very agreeable results. Calculated Value of Chi Squared Exceeds Tabulated under 1 Degree Of Freedom (P<.0.0001) reject Null Hypothesis and Conclude Alternative Conclusions: Leukocyte esterase on throat swab is as useful as rapid strep test for rapid diagnosis of strep pharyngitis on test strip currently used for urine dip stick causing acute pharyngitis in children. PMID:27335975

  5. Hh signaling regulates patterning and morphogenesis of the pharyngeal arch-derived skeleton.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Mary E; Nguyen, Van; McCarthy, Neil Q; Eberhart, Johann K

    2012-09-01

    The proper function of the craniofacial skeleton requires the proper shaping of many individual skeletal elements. Neural crest cells generate much of the craniofacial skeleton and morphogenesis of skeletal elements occurs in transient, reiterated structures termed pharyngeal arches. The shape of individual elements depends upon intrinsic patterning within the neural crest as well as extrinsic signals to the neural crest from adjacent tissues within the arches. Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is known to play roles in craniofacial development, yet its involvement in intrinsic and extrinsic patterning of the craniofacial skeleton is still not well understood. Here, we show that morphogenetic movements of the pharyngeal arches and patterning of the neural crest require Hh signaling. Loss of Hh signaling, in smoothened (smo) mutants, disrupts the expression of some Dlx genes as well as other markers of dorsal/ventral patterning of the neural crest. Transplantation of wild-type neural crest cells into smo mutants rescues this defect, demonstrating that the neural crest requires reception of Hh signals for proper patterning. Despite the rescue, morphogenesis of the facial skeleton is not fully recovered. Through transplant analyses, we find two additional requirements for Hh signaling. The endoderm requires the reception of Hh signals for proper morphogenetic movements of the pharyngeal arches and the neural crest require the reception of Hh signaling for the activity of a reverse signal that maintains sonic hedgehog expression in the endoderm. Collectively, these results demonstrate that Hh signaling is essential to establish intrinsic and extrinsic patterning information for the craniofacial skeleton.

  6. Developmental sexual dimorphism of the oral and pharyngeal portions of the vocal tract: An imaging studya

    PubMed Central

    Vorperian, Houri K.; Wang, Shubing; Schimek, E. Michael; Durtschi, Reid B.; Kent, Ray D.; Gentry, Lindell R.; Chung, Moo K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The anatomic origin for prepubertal vowel acoustic differences between males and females remains unknown. The purpose of this study is to examine developmental sex differences in vocal tract (VT) length and its oral and pharyngeal portions. Method Nine VT variables were measured from 605 imaging studies (MRI and CT) between birth and 19 years. Given sex differences in growth rate (Vorperian et al., 2009), assessment of sex differences was done using a localized comparison window of 60 months. Analysis entailed applying this comparison window first to four discrete age cohorts, followed by a progressive assessment where this comparison window was moved in one month increments from birth across all ages. Results Findings document significant postpubertal sex differences in both the oral and pharyngeal portions of the VT. Also, periods of significant prepubertal sex differences in the oral region first, followed by segments in the pharyngeal region. Conclusions Assessment of developmental sex differences using localized age ranges is effective in unveiling sex differences that growth rate differences may conceal. Findings on the presence of prepubertal sex differences in the oral region of the VT may clarify in part the anatomic basis of documented prepubertal acoustic differences. PMID:21106698

  7. Throat pain and pharyngeal packing: a controlled randomized double-blind comparison between gauze and tampons.

    PubMed

    Marais, J; Prescott, R J

    1993-10-01

    In order to determine whether patients having pharyngeal packing experience more or less post-operative throat pain when tampons were used, 80 patients were randomized into two groups to receive either gauze or tampon pharyngeal packing. A third control group of 40 patients were intubated but did not have any throat packs. Post-operative throat pain was subjectively rated at both 6 hours and at 24 hours by an independent observer. Thirty-eight per cent of patients had moderate or severe throat pain in the gauze group, whilst in the tampon and control groups these amounted to only 15% and 1% respectively. A significantly higher proportion of patients also had a moderate or severe sore throat at 24 hours in the former group. Intubation alone resulted in a sore throat post-operatively in 50% of patients, but 85% of those had a mild sore throat only. No differences in pain ratings in any group could be shown between men or women or between age groupings. Endotracheal intubation often causes post-operative throat pain which is exacerbated by the use of pharyngeal packing. The results presented suggest that tampons are a safe, effective alternative to gauze and result in less severe post-operative throat pain.

  8. Outbreak of Group A beta hemolytic Streptococcus pharyngitis in a Peruvian military facility, April 2012.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Mariana; Valle, Ruben; Reaves, Eric J; Loayza, Luis; Gonzalez, Sofia; Bernal, Maria; Soto, Giselle; Hawksworth, Anthony W; Kasper, Matthew R; Tilley, Drake H; De Mattos, Carlos A; Brown, Jason R; Bausch, David G

    2013-06-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS), or Streptococcus pyogenes, is a common cause of acute pharyngitis as well as other diseases. Closed populations such as those living on military bases, nursing homes, and prisons are particularly vulnerable to GAS outbreaks due to crowding that facilitates person-to-person transmission. This report details a large outbreak of GAS pharyngitis at a Peruvian military training facility near Lima, Peru, in April 2012. Initial findings showed 145 cases. However, as the investigation continued it was revealed that some trainees may have concealed their illness to avoid real or perceived negative consequences of seeking medical care. A subsequent anonymous survey of all trainees revealed at least 383 cases of pharyngitis among the facility's 1,549 trainees and an attack rate of 34 percent among the 1,137 respondents. The epidemic curve revealed a pattern consistent with routine person-to-person transmission, although a point-source initiating event could not be excluded. Laboratory results showed GAS emm type 80.1 to be the culprit pathogen, an organism not commonly implicated in outbreaks of GAS in the Americas. Barious unique and illustrative features of outbreak investigation in military facilities and populations are discussed.

  9. Methods to determine aerobic endurance.

    PubMed

    Bosquet, Laurent; Léger, Luc; Legros, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Physiological testing of elite athletes requires the correct identification and assessment of sports-specific underlying factors. It is now recognised that performance in long-distance events is determined by maximal oxygen uptake (V(2 max)), energy cost of exercise and the maximal fractional utilisation of V(2 max) in any realised performance or as a corollary a set percentage of V(2 max) that could be endured as long as possible. This later ability is defined as endurance, and more precisely aerobic endurance, since V(2 max) sets the upper limit of aerobic pathway. It should be distinguished from endurance ability or endurance performance, which are synonymous with performance in long-distance events. The present review examines methods available in the literature to assess aerobic endurance. They are numerous and can be classified into two categories, namely direct and indirect methods. Direct methods bring together all indices that allow either a complete or a partial representation of the power-duration relationship, while indirect methods revolve around the determination of the so-called anaerobic threshold (AT). With regard to direct methods, performance in a series of tests provides a more complete and presumably more valid description of the power-duration relationship than performance in a single test, even if both approaches are well correlated with each other. However, the question remains open to determine which systems model should be employed among the several available in the literature, and how to use them in the prescription of training intensities. As for indirect methods, there is quantitative accumulation of data supporting the utilisation of the AT to assess aerobic endurance and to prescribe training intensities. However, it appears that: there is no unique intensity corresponding to the AT, since criteria available in the literature provide inconsistent results; and the non-invasive determination of the AT using ventilatory and heart rate

  10. The Yale Pharyngeal Residue Severity Rating Scale: An Anatomically Defined and Image-Based Tool.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Paul D; Rademaker, Alfred W; Leder, Steven B

    2015-10-01

    The Yale Pharyngeal Residue Severity Rating Scale was developed, standardized, and validated to provide reliable, anatomically defined, and image-based assessment of post-swallow pharyngeal residue severity as observed during fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES). It is a five-point ordinal rating scale based on residue location (vallecula and pyriform sinus) and amount (none, trace, mild, moderate, and severe). Two expert judges reviewed a total of 261 FEES evaluations and selected a no residue exemplar and three exemplars each of trace, mild, moderate, and severe vallecula and pyriform sinus residue. Hard-copy color images of the no residue, 12 vallecula, and 12 pyriform sinus exemplars were randomized by residue location for hierarchical categorization by 20 raters with a mean of 8.3 years of experience (range 2-27 years) performing and interpreting FEES. Severity ratings for all images were performed by the same 20 raters, 2 weeks apart, and with the order of image presentations randomized. Intra-rater test-retest reliability, inter-rater reliability, and construct validity were determined by pooled multi-category multi-rater kappa statistics. Residue ratings were excellent for intra-rater reliability for vallecula (kappa = 0.957 ± 0.014) and pyriform sinus (kappa = 0.854 ± 0.021); very good to excellent for inter-rater reliability for vallecula (kappa = 0.868 ± 0.011) and pyriform sinus (kappa = 0.751 ± 0.011); and excellent for validity for vallecula (kappa = 0.951 ± 0.014) and pyriform sinus (kappa = 0.908 ± 0.017). Clinical uses include accurate classification of vallecula and pyriform sinus residue severity patterns as none, trace, mild, moderate, or severe for diagnostic purposes, determination of functional therapeutic change, and precise dissemination of shared information. Scientific uses include tracking outcome measures, demonstrating efficacy of interventions to reduce pharyngeal residue, investigating morbidity and mortality

  11. [The symbiotic microflora associated with the tegument of proteocephalidean cestodes and the intestines of their fish hosts].

    PubMed

    Korneva, Zh V; Plotnikov, A O

    2006-01-01

    The indigenous symbiotic microflora associated with the tegument of proteocephalidean cestodes and the intestines of their fish hosts has been investigated in morphological and ecological aspects. The indigenous microflora associated with the cestode tegument consists of the nannobacteria population, which was present obligatorily on the surface of tegument, and the "deep microflora". The deep microflora associates with some few species of parasites only. Each individual host-parasite micro-biocenosis includes specific indigenous symbiotic microorganisms, with the differing microfloras of host intestine and parasite. Physiology, biochemistry and/or diet of hosts apparently influence on the symbiotic microflora's structure of parasites. The least bacteria abundance and diversity of their morphotypes were observed in the parasites from baby fishes. The diversity and abundance of bacteria were increased with the fish host ageing and the formation of the definitive structure of its intestine. It is an evidence of the gradual invading of the intestinal parasites (cestodes) tegument by bacterial cells. The invading is realized on the base of the microflora that was present in the food of fish host. The symbiotic microflora has specific morphological features, can regulate the homeostasis of the cestodes and fish hosts and also can maintain equilibrium of alimentary and immune interrelations in the host-parasite system. PMID:17042276

  12. Characterisation of biodegradation capacities of environmental microflorae for diesel oil by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Penet, Sophie; Vendeuvre, Colombe; Bertoncini, Fabrice; Marchal, Rémy; Monot, Frédéric

    2006-12-01

    In contaminated soils, efficiency of natural attenuation or engineered bioremediation largely depends on biodegradation capacities of the local microflorae. In the present study, the biodegradation capacities of various microflorae towards diesel oil were determined in laboratory conditions. Microflorae were collected from 9 contaminated and 10 uncontaminated soil samples and were compared to urban wastewater activated sludge. The recalcitrance of hydrocarbons in tests was characterised using both gas chromatography (GC) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC). The microflorae from contaminated soils were found to exhibit higher degradation capacities than those from uncontaminated soil and activated sludge. In cultures inoculated by contaminated-soil microflorae, 80% of diesel oil on an average was consumed over 4-week incubation compared to only 64% in uncontaminated soil and 60% in activated sludge cultures. As shown by GC, n-alkanes of diesel oil were totally utilised by each microflora but differentiated degradation extents were observed for cyclic and branched hydrocarbons. The enhanced degradation capacities of impacted-soil microflorae resulted probably from an adaptation to the hydrocarbon contaminants but a similar adaptation was noted in uncontaminated soils when conifer trees might have released natural hydrocarbons. GCxGC showed that a contaminated-soil microflora removed all aromatics and all branched alkanes containing less than C(15). The most recalcitrant compounds were the branched and cyclic alkanes with 15-23 atoms of carbon.

  13. Growth characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes as affected by a -native microflora in cooked ham under refrigerated and temperature abuse conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the growth characteristics of L. monocytogenes as affected by a native microflora in cooked ham at refrigerated and abuse temperatures. A five-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes and a native microflora isolated from cooked meat were inoculated alone (monocultured) or co-inoculate...

  14. Impact of the advances in age on the gastrointestinal microflora of beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Benno, Y; Nakao, H; Uchida, K; Mitsuoka, T

    1992-08-01

    The gastrointestinal microflora of male beagle dogs in two different age groups; I) less than month 12 of age, and II) more than year 11 of age, was compared. No detectable difference occurred on the microflora of stomach, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum in both dogs. Large bowel (cecum, colon and rectum) microflora in both dogs yielded the different microbial populations. In all regions of large bowel, the levels of bacteroides, eubacteria, peptostreptococci, bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, and staphylococci in the elderly dogs were lower than those in the younger animals, whereas the numbers of Clostridium perfringens and streptococci in the elderly animals were higher than those in the youngers. The high incidence of lecithinase-negative clostridia was observed with advances in age, but not that of spiral shaped rods. The result of this study shows that the advances in age of beagle dogs yield some changes in the microbial population of large bowel in the animals.

  15. Microflora distributions in paleosols: a method for calculating the validity of radiocarbon-dated surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Mahaney, W.C.; Boyer, M.G.

    1986-08-01

    Microflora (bacteria and fungi) distributions in several paleosols from Mount Kenya, East Africa, provide important information about contamination of buried soil horizons dated by radiocarbon. High counts of bacteria and fungi in buried soils provide evidence for contamination by plant root effects or ground water movement. Profiles with decreasing counts versus depth appear to produce internally consistent and accurate radiocarbon dates. Profiles with disjunct or bimodal distributions of microflora at various depths produce internally inconsistent chronological sequences of radiocarbon-dated buried surfaces. Preliminary results suggest that numbers up to 5 x 10/sup 2/ g/sup -1/ for bacteria in buried A horizons do not appear to affect the validity of /sup 14/C dates. Beyond this threshold value, contamination appears to produce younger dates, the difference between true age and /sup 14/C age increasing with the amount of microflora contamination.

  16. Recovery and differentiation of long ripened cheese microflora through a new cheese-based cultural medium.

    PubMed

    Neviani, Erasmo; De Dea Lindner, Juliano; Bernini, Valentina; Gatti, Monica

    2009-05-01

    A partial picture of the typical microflora of PDO Parmigiano Reggiano cheese was achieved by studying the cultivability of lactic acid bacteria associated with its manufacturing and ripening. A comprehensive sampling design allowed for the analysis of the cheese microflora during its production over 20 months of ripening. An innovative cheese agar medium (CAM) was prepared after testing 18 formulations all based on grated Parmigiano Reggiano ripened cheese. During cheese manufacturing and ripening, different samples were sampled and their microflora was recovered using CAM in comparison with other traditional media. Colonies which formed units from the different agar media tested were picked and isolated; the phylogenetic positions of 154 isolated strains were studied at level of species by 16S-rRNA gene sequencing. CAM seems to be able to recover the minority population coming from milk and whey starter, hardly estimable, during the first hours of production, on traditional media.

  17. Effect of dietary probiotic and high stocking density on the performance, carcass yield, gut microflora, and stress indicators of broilers.

    PubMed

    Cengiz, Özcan; Köksal, Bekir H; Tatlı, Onur; Sevim, Ömer; Ahsan, Umair; Üner, Aykut G; Ulutaş, Pınar A; Beyaz, Devrim; Büyükyörük, Sadık; Yakan, Akın; Önol, Ahmet G

    2015-10-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary probiotic supplementation and stocking density on the performance, relative carcass yield, gut microflora, and stress markers of broilers. One-day-old Ross 308 male broiler chickens (n = 480) were allocated to 4 experimental groups for 42 d. Each treatment had 8 replicates of 15 chicks each. Two groups were subjected to a high stocking density (HSD) of 20 birds/m² and the other 2 groups were kept at low stocking density (LSD) of 10 birds/m². A basal diet supplemented with probiotic 1 and 0.5 g/kg of diet (in starter and finisher diets, respectively) was fed to 2 treatments, one with HSD and the other with LSD, thereby making a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. There was no interaction between stocking density (LSD and HSD) and dietary probiotic (supplemented and unsupplemented) for all the variables. Feed intake and weight gain were significantly low and feed conversion ratio was poor in broilers at HSD. Dietary probiotic significantly enhanced the feed intake and weight gain in starter phase only. Dietary probiotic supplementation had no effect (P > 0.05) on total aerobs, Salmonella sp., and Lactobacilli populations in the intestines of broilers. However, HSD reduced the Lactobacilli population only (P < 0.05). Relative breast yields were significantly higher in broilers reared at LSD than HSD. Thigh meat yield was higher in broilers in HSD group compared to LSD. Dietary probiotic did not affect the relative carcass yield and weight of lymphoid organs. Serum malondialdehyde, corticosterone, nitric oxide, and plasma heterophil:lymphocyte ratio were not affected either by stocking density or dietary probiotic supplementation. In conclusion, HSD negatively affected the performance and intestinal Lactobacilli population of broilers only, whereas probiotic supplementation enhanced the performance of broilers during the starter phase only. Total aerobes, Salmonella, Lactobacilli carcass yield, and stress indicators

  18. Effect of benzoic acid on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance, gastrointestinal microflora and parameters of microbial metabolism in piglets.

    PubMed

    Kluge, H; Broz, J; Eder, K

    2006-08-01

    In order to investigate the effects of benzoic acid on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance and gastrointestinal microflora of piglets, we conducted a performance experiment and a separate balance study. The performance experiment involved four different dietary treatments: (1) basal diet (negative control); (2) basal diet supplemented with benzoic acid at 5 g/kg; (3) basal diet supplemented with benzoic acid at 10 g/kg; (4) basal diet supplemented with potassium diformate at 12 g/kg. Each dietary treatment was assigned to nine replicate groups, each consisting of two piglets. Live weight, daily weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were monitored as performance parameters over a 35-day period. Supplementation of the diet with benzoic acid resulted in a dose-dependent increase in feed intake and body weight gain and an improved feed conversion ratio. Piglets fed the diet supplemented with benzoic acid at 10 g/kg outperformed the control piglets in mean feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio by 9%, 15% and 6% respectively. Growth performance of the piglets fed the diet with benzoic acid at 10 g/kg was similar to that of piglets fed the diet supplemented with potassium diformate. In the balance experiment three groups of six piglets each were fed either a control diet or diets supplemented with benzoic acid at 5 or 10 g/kg respectively. Benzoic acid did not significantly affect nutrient digestibility but increased nitrogen retention. Piglets fed the diets supplemented with benzoic acid at 5 or 10 g/kg retained 5% and 6% more nitrogen, respectively, than control piglets. Supplementation of benzoic acid did not influence the pH value or the concentration of ammonia in the gastrointestinal tract but reduced the number of bacteria in the digesta. In the stomach the number of total aerobic, total anaerobic, lactic acid forming and gram-negative bacteria was reduced; in the duodenum the presence of benzoic acid reduced

  19. Selecting anti-microbial treatment of aerobic vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Donders, Gilbert G G; Ruban, Katerina; Bellen, Gert

    2015-05-01

    Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is a vaginal infectious condition which is often confused with bacterial vaginosis (BV) or with the intermediate microflora as diagnosed by Nugent's method to detect BV on Gram-stained specimens. However, although both conditions reflect a state of lactobacillary disruption in the vagina, leading to an increase in pH, BV and AV differ profoundly. While BV is a noninflammatory condition composed of a multiplex array of different anaerobic bacteria in high quantities, AV is rather sparely populated by one or two enteric commensal flora bacteria, like Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylocuccus aureus, or Escherichia coli. AV is typically marked by either an increased inflammatory response or by prominent signs of epithelial atrophy or both. The latter condition, if severe, is also called desquamative inflammatory vaginitis. As AV is per exclusionem diagnosed by wet mount microscopy, it is a mistake to treat just vaginal culture results. Vaginal cultures only serve as follow-up data in clinical research projects and are at most used in clinical practice to confirm the diagnosis or exclude Candida infection. AV requires treatment based on microscopy findings and a combined local treatment with any of the following which may yield the best results: antibiotic (infectious component), steroids (inflammatory component), and/or estrogen (atrophy component). In cases with Candida present on microscopy or culture, antifungals must be tried first in order to see if other treatment is still needed. Vaginal rinsing with povidone iodine can provide rapid relief of symptoms but does not provide long-term reduction of bacterial loads. Local antibiotics most suitable are preferably non-absorbed and broad spectrum, especially those covering enteric gram-positive and gram-negative aerobes, like kanamycin. To achieve rapid and short-term improvement of severe symptoms, oral therapy with amoxyclav or moxifloxacin can be used, especially in deep dermal vulvitis and

  20. Aerobic granular processes: Current research trends.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quanguo; Hu, Jianjun; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-06-01

    Aerobic granules are large biological aggregates with compact interiors that can be used in efficient wastewater treatment. This mini-review presents new researches on the development of aerobic granular processes, extended treatments for complicated pollutants, granulation mechanisms and enhancements of granule stability in long-term operation or storage, and the reuse of waste biomass as renewable resources. A discussion on the challenges of, and prospects for, the commercialization of aerobic granular process is provided. PMID:26873285

  1. The pharyngeal organ in the buccal cavity of the male Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, supplies mucus for building bubble nests.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chao-Kai; Lee, Tsung-Han

    2010-11-01

    The male Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, builds a bubble nest on the water surface to care for offspring during the reproductive period. To our knowledge, this study is the first to determine the composition of the bubble nest and to compare the pharyngeal organs of male and female Siamese fighting fish to determine the relationship between the pharyngeal organ and the ability to make bubble nests. Dot blots of the bubble nest probed with periodic acid-Schiff's (PAS) staining and Ponceau S solution revealed that the contents of the nest are glycoprotein rich. Dissection of the heads of Siamese fighting fish showed that the pharyngeal organ is located in the position through which inhaled air passes. The epithelial structure of the pharyngeal organ of the Siamese fighting fish, like that of other teleosts, has numerous wrinkles and papillae. Mucous goblet cells were observed on the epithelium of pharyngeal organs in male and female fish. The pharyngeal organ was found to be larger in male than in female fish. In addition, the epithelium of the pharyngeal organ in male fish has a greater number of mucous goblet cells than that in female fish. In Siamese fighting fish, this sexual dimorphism of the pharyngeal organ suggests that the male fish secretes more glycoprotein-rich mucus to build the bubble nest. Future work will focus on the type of mucous cells found in the epithelium of the pharyngeal organ that contributes to bubble formation and will determine the components of the mucus in the bubble nest.

  2. Comparison of digestive microflora between feedlot cattle with and without infection by Cryptosporidium andersoni.

    PubMed

    Holko, I; Pavlásek, I; Barton, L; Kmet, V

    2004-01-01

    The influence of cryptosporidial abomasitis on digestive anaerobic microflora in feedlot cattle with spontaneous Cryptosporidium andersoni colonization of abomasum was shown. Significant differences were found after the cultivation of abomasal content. Scopulariopsis brevicaulis was detected in damaged areas of infected abomasum. PCR analysis of ruminal fluid showed no differences between the two animal groups regarding qualitative composition of anaerobic and facultative anaerobic rumen microflora. The concentration of volatile fatty acids (acetate, propionate, butyrate) and ammonia in the rumen content showed that examined metabolic parameters were within normal limits except for ammonia content, which was higher in infected (291 mg/kg) than in healthy animals (203 mg/kg).

  3. Lower limb loading in step aerobic dance.

    PubMed

    Wu, H-W; Hsieh, H-M; Chang, Y-W; Wang, L-H

    2012-11-01

    Participation in aerobic dance is associated with a number of lower extremity injuries, and abnormal joint loading seems to be a factor in these. However, information on joint loading is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinetics of the lower extremity in step aerobic dance and to compare the differences of high-impact and low-impact step aerobic dance in 4 aerobic movements (mambo, kick, L step and leg curl). 18 subjects were recruited for this study. High-impact aerobic dance requires a significantly greater range of motion, joint force and joint moment than low-impact step aerobic dance. The peak joint forces and moments in high-impact step aerobic dance were found to be 1.4 times higher than in low-impact step aerobic dance. Understanding the nature of joint loading may help choreographers develop dance combinations that are less injury-prone. Furthermore, increased knowledge about joint loading may be helpful in lowering the risk of injuries in aerobic dance instructors and students.

  4. Microflora inside closed modules with plant growth facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyablova, Natalya V.; Berkovich, Yuliy A.; Shanturin, Nikolai; Deshevaya, Elena; Smolyanina, Svetlana O.

    Currently, plant growth facility (PGF) is included in the LSS in many scenarios of Martian expedition. A number of investigators assume growing of crops can accelerate microflora re-production in closed ecological system. To estimate experimentally the change of density of microbiological community in the isolated module, Chinese cabbage Brassica hinensis L., cv. Vesnyanka, has been grown in the closed climatic chambers in volume 0.07 m3, 3 m3 and 250 m3 under continuous illumination in the range of values of temperature and relative humidity of air 23 -270 and 30 -60%, respectively. There were no differences in growth and develop-ment of plants grown during 30 days on the test-beds in the laboratory room (control) and in the closed chamber by 0.07 m3 volume (test). The microbiological analysis of root zone has revealed the presence of exclusively saprophytic species -the typical representatives of the soil microbiota. Then the plants were growing during 45 days in the prototype of the conveyor space PGF "Phytocycle LED" placed inside the chamber of 3 m3 volume. Every 3 days 50 -60 cm3 of liquid imitator of air condensate (IAC) from inhabited module had been injected to the chamber to simulate air pollution. The content of colony-forming units of the micromycetes in the air of the chamber, on the inner surfaces of the climate chamber, internal and external surfaces of the PGF and the leaves did not exceed the permissible values. When the PGF has been installed during 14 days inside the inhabited module with volume of 250 m3, the representatives of saprophytic and conditioned-pathogenic species of micromycetes (Trichethe-cium rozeum, Trichoderma sp., Fuzarrium sp., Mucor sp., Penicillium sp.) have been found out exclusively on the open surfaces of artificial soil and water-saturated porous passage. The obtained data shows that PGF inside closed modules can assure microbiological safety when all wet surfaces are isolated from the gas environment.

  5. A description on pharyngeal jaw apparatus and diets of halfbeak fish Zenarchopterus buffonis (Valenciennes 1847) in Malaysian waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, Diana Atiqah Zainal; Hashim, Marina; Das, Simon K.; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.

    2015-09-01

    Information on the feeding mechanism and diet of halfbeak fish species in harsh estuarine environment ecosystem is still lacking. The present study investigates the fine structure of pharyngeal jaw apparatus and diets of halfbeak fish Zenarchopterus buffonis. A total of 84 halfbeak fish samples have been collected from the coastal water of Peninsular Malaysia using fishing rod. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the micrographs of fine microstructure of the pharyngeal teeth. The fundamental anatomy of pharyngeal jaw apparatus displayed that the upper pharyngeal jaw (third pharyngobranchials) displays larger size of hook-like or tricuspid teeth which was analogous to tricuspid morphology. The lower pharyngeal jaw (fifth ceratobranchial) bears mainly conical teeth and appears triangular shape with two, short projections. The estimated TROPH values (1 - 3.2±0.55) denoted that halfbeak fish were omnivores in nature. The findings of this study was found to be useful as a baseline information for a better representation of the trophic flows associated with large medium and small surface water fishes.

  6. A description on pharyngeal jaw apparatus and diets of halfbeak fish Zenarchopterus buffonis (Valenciennes 1847) in Malaysian waters

    SciTech Connect

    Abidin, Diana Atiqah Zainal Hashim, Marina; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon K.

    2015-09-25

    Information on the feeding mechanism and diet of halfbeak fish species in harsh estuarine environment ecosystem is still lacking. The present study investigates the fine structure of pharyngeal jaw apparatus and diets of halfbeak fish Zenarchopterus buffonis. A total of 84 halfbeak fish samples have been collected from the coastal water of Peninsular Malaysia using fishing rod. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the micrographs of fine microstructure of the pharyngeal teeth. The fundamental anatomy of pharyngeal jaw apparatus displayed that the upper pharyngeal jaw (third pharyngobranchials) displays larger size of hook-like or tricuspid teeth which was analogous to tricuspid morphology. The lower pharyngeal jaw (fifth ceratobranchial) bears mainly conical teeth and appears triangular shape with two, short projections. The estimated TROPH values (1 − 3.2±0.55) denoted that halfbeak fish were omnivores in nature. The findings of this study was found to be useful as a baseline information for a better representation of the trophic flows associated with large medium and small surface water fishes.

  7. Anatomical considerations of the longitudinal pharyngeal muscles in relation to their function on the internal surface of pharynx.

    PubMed

    Choi, Da-Yae; Bae, Jung-Hee; Youn, Kwan-Hyun; Kim, Hee-Jin; Hu, Kyung-Seok

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the topography of the longitudinal pharyngeal muscles and to relate the findings to pharyngeal muscular function. Forty-four specimens (22 right and 22 left sides) from embalmed Korean adult cadavers (13 males, 9 females; age range, 46-89 years; mean age, 69.2 years) were used in this study. The palatopharyngeus muscle originated from the palatine aponeurosis and the median part of the soft palate on oral aspect; it ran downward and lateralward, respectively. The palatopharyngeus muscle, which held the levator veli palatini, was divided into two bundles, medial and lateral, according to the positional relationship with the levator veli palatini. The lateral bundle of the palatopharyngeus muscle was divided into two parts: longitudinal and transverse. The pharyngeal longitudinal muscles were classified into the following four types (I-IV) depending on the area of insertion: they were inserted into the palatine tonsil, epiglottis, arytenoid cartilage, piriform recess, thyroid cartilage, and pharyngeal wall. The transverse part of the palatopharyngeus muscle plays a role as a sphincter. Palatopharyngeus and levator veli palatini muscles help each other to function effectively in the soft palate. The present findings suggest that the pharyngeal muscles are involved not only in swallowing but also in respiration and phonation via their attachment to the laryngeal cartilage.

  8. Comparison of pharyngeal airway dimension, tongue and hyoid bone position based on ANB angle

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Ashish; Autar, Ram; Pradhan, Kusum Lata; Yadav, Vijeta

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was undertaken to cephalometrically evaluate the pharyngeal airway dimension, tongue and hyoid position in subjects with normal nasorespiratory functions having different dentofacial patterns (A-point-nasion-B-point [ANB] >40 and ANB <40) and to find if a correlation existed. Materials and Methods: Class I and Class II Division I patients were selected randomly. Lateral head cephalograms were taken in normal head position within a lead foil attached to the tongue tip and a barium coating on the dorsal surface of tongue. The lateral cephalograms obtained were traced using lead acetate paper and measurements were taken. Different analyses were done for the pharyngeal airways, hyoid bone, and tongue. Results: The ANB angle is a significant predictor for Class I and Class II Division I malocclusion, and the mean ANB angle of Class II Division I was different and higher. The overall mean pharynx and hyoid parameters were different and lower in Class II Division I patients than in Class I patients. The mean tongue parameter almost remained the same except for the tongue position (TT-LOP), which was higher in Class II Division I. Conclusion: In general, there was no difference either in the pharyngeal airway anterioposterior dimension or in the position and relationship of the hyoid bone and tongue, between Class I and Class II Division I patients. These findings are consistent with the findings in studies. Anterioposterior dimension of the upper airway is usually maintained by adaptation of both the tongue and the hyoid bone. The result should be viewed in the light of the fact that only anterioposterior dimensions were taken into consideration; the vertical and transverse dimensions of these complex anatomical structures need to have newer three-dimensional (3-D) imaging technique to find if a correlation existed between them, making future studies more comprehensive. PMID:26668452

  9. Molecular characterization of macrolide resistant Streptococcus pyogenes isolates from pharyngitis patients in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Opavski, Natasa; Gajic, Ina; Borek, Anna L; Obszańska, Katarzyna; Stanojevic, Maja; Lazarevic, Ivana; Ranin, Lazar; Sitkiewicz, Izabela; Mijac, Vera

    2015-07-01

    A steady increase in macrolide resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes, group A streptococci (GAS) was reported in Serbia during 2004-2009 (9.9%). However, there are no data on the molecular epidemiology of pharyngeal macrolide resistance GAS (MRGAS) isolates. Therefore, the aims of this first nationwide study were to examine the prevalence of macrolide resistance in Serbian GAS and to determine their resistance phenotypes, genotypes and clonal relationships. Overall 3893 non-duplicate pharyngeal S. pyogenes isolates from outpatients with GAS infection were collected throughout country during 2008 and 2009. Among 486 macrolide resistant pharyngeal isolates collected, 103 were further characterized. Macrolide resistance phenotypes and genotypes were determined by double-disk diffusion test and PCR, respectively. Strain relatedness was determined by emm typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), multilocus variable tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), phage profiling (PP) and virulence factor profiling (VFP). Overall, macrolide resistance among GAS isolates in Serbia was 12.5%. M phenotype was the most common (71.8%), followed by iMLS (18.4%) and cMLS (9.7%). Three clonal complexes--emm75/mefA/ST49, emm12/mefA/ST36 and emm77/ermA/tetO/ST63 comprised over 90% of the tested strains. Although MLVA, PP and VFP distinguished 10, 20 and 12 different patterns, respectively, cluster analysis disclosed only small differences between strains which belonged to the same emm/ST type. Our data indicate dominance of three major internationally widely disseminated macrolide resistant clones and a high genetic homogeneity among the Serbian MRGAS population. Continued surveillance of macrolide resistance and clonal composition in MRGAS in Serbia in future is necessary to determine stability of MRGAS clones and to guide therapy strategies.

  10. Clinical signs suggestive of pharyngeal dysphagia in preschool children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Benfer, Katherine A; Weir, Kelly A; Bell, Kristie L; Ware, Robert S; Davies, Peter S W; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the discriminative validity, reproducibility, and prevalence of clinical signs suggestive of pharyngeal dysphagia according to gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy (CP). It was a cross-sectional population-based study of 130 children diagnosed with CP at 18-36 months (mean=27.4, 81 males) and 40 children with typical development (TD, mean=26.2, 18 males). Sixteen signs suggestive of pharyngeal phase impairment were directly observed in a videoed mealtime by a speech pathologist, and reported by parents on a questionnaire. Gross motor function was classified using the Gross Motor Function Classification System. The study found that 67.7% of children had clinical signs, and this increased with poorer gross motor function (OR=1.7, p<0.01). Parents reported clinical signs in 46.2% of children, with 60% agreement with direct clinical mealtime assessment (kappa=0.2, p<0.01). The most common signs on direct assessment were coughing (44.7%), multiple swallows (25.2%), gurgly voice (20.3%), wet breathing (18.7%) and gagging (11.4%). 37.5% of children with TD had clinical signs, mostly observed on fluids. Dysphagia cut-points were modified to exclude a single cough on fluids, with a modified prevalence estimate proposed as 50.8%. Clinical signs suggestive of pharyngeal dysphagia are common in children with CP, even those with ambulatory CP. Parent-report on 16 specific signs remains a feasible screening method. While coughing was consistently identified by clinicians, it may not reflect children's regular performance, and was not sufficiently discriminative in children aged 18-36 months. PMID:25562439

  11. Clinical signs suggestive of pharyngeal dysphagia in preschool children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Benfer, Katherine A; Weir, Kelly A; Bell, Kristie L; Ware, Robert S; Davies, Peter S W; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the discriminative validity, reproducibility, and prevalence of clinical signs suggestive of pharyngeal dysphagia according to gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy (CP). It was a cross-sectional population-based study of 130 children diagnosed with CP at 18-36 months (mean=27.4, 81 males) and 40 children with typical development (TD, mean=26.2, 18 males). Sixteen signs suggestive of pharyngeal phase impairment were directly observed in a videoed mealtime by a speech pathologist, and reported by parents on a questionnaire. Gross motor function was classified using the Gross Motor Function Classification System. The study found that 67.7% of children had clinical signs, and this increased with poorer gross motor function (OR=1.7, p<0.01). Parents reported clinical signs in 46.2% of children, with 60% agreement with direct clinical mealtime assessment (kappa=0.2, p<0.01). The most common signs on direct assessment were coughing (44.7%), multiple swallows (25.2%), gurgly voice (20.3%), wet breathing (18.7%) and gagging (11.4%). 37.5% of children with TD had clinical signs, mostly observed on fluids. Dysphagia cut-points were modified to exclude a single cough on fluids, with a modified prevalence estimate proposed as 50.8%. Clinical signs suggestive of pharyngeal dysphagia are common in children with CP, even those with ambulatory CP. Parent-report on 16 specific signs remains a feasible screening method. While coughing was consistently identified by clinicians, it may not reflect children's regular performance, and was not sufficiently discriminative in children aged 18-36 months.

  12. Pharyngeal Gonorrhoea in Women: An Important Reservoir for Increasing Neisseria gonorrhoea Prevalence in Urban Australian Heterosexuals?

    PubMed Central

    Lusk, M. Josephine; Uddin, Ruby N. N.; Lahra, Monica M.; Garden, Frances L.; Kundu, Ratan L.; Konecny, Pam

    2013-01-01

    We aim to characterize sexual behavioral aspects of heterosexual Neisseria gonorrhoea (NG) acquisition in two Sexually Transmitted Diseases clinics in Sydney, Australia, in 2008–2012. Of 167 NG cases, 102 were heterosexually acquired with a trend of increasing NG prevalence in heterosexuals from 1.1% (95% CI 0.6–2.1) in 2008 to 3.0% (95% CI 2.0–4.0) in 2012 (P = 0.027). Of heterosexual male cases, unprotected fellatio was the likely sexual activity for NG acquisition in 21/69 (30.4%) and commercial sex work (CSW) contact the likely source in 28/69 (40.6%). NG prevalence overall in CSW (2.2%) was not significantly higher than in non-CSW (1.2%) (P = 0.15), but in 2012 there was a significant increase in NG prevalence in CSW (8.6%) compared to non-CSW (1.6%) (P < 0.001). Pharyngeal NG was found in 9/33 (27.3%) female cases. Decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (MIC ≥ 0.03 mg/L) occurred in 2.5% NG isolates, none heterosexually acquired. All were azithromycin susceptible. A significant trend of increasing prevalence of heterosexual gonorrhoea in an urban Australian STD clinic setting is reported. We advocate maintenance of NG screening in women, including pharyngeal screening in all women with partner change who report fellatio, as pharyngeal NG may be an important reservoir for heterosexual transmission. Outreach to CSW should be enhanced. PMID:26316970

  13. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  14. Aerobic Dancing--A Rhythmic Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Jacki

    Fitness programs now and in the future must offer built-in cardiovascular conditioning, variety, novelty, and change to meet the physical, mental, and emotional needs of our society. Aerobic dancing (dancing designed to train and strengthen the heart, lungs, and vascular system) is one of the first indoor group Aerobic exercise programs designed…

  15. Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy after Aerobic Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Adam R.; Harber, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Current dogma suggests aerobic exercise training has minimal effect on skeletal muscle size. We and others have demonstrated that aerobic exercise acutely and chronically alters protein metabolism and induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy. These findings promote an antithesis to the status quo by providing novel perspective on skeletal muscle mass regulation and insight into exercise-countermeasures for populations prone to muscle loss. PMID:24508740

  16. Semi-automated measurement of motility of human subgingival microflora by image analysis.

    PubMed

    Ojima, M; Tamagawa, H; Hayashi, N; Hanioka, T; Shizukuishi, S

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to quantitatively estimate bacterial motility by image analysis, and to apply this method for the measurement of motility of human subgingival microflora. We developed a semi-automated method for the quantification of bacterial motility using video microscopy, digitization and image processing. Moving images of both authentic bacterial samples and clinical samples were recorded using a phase contrast microscope with a high speed (1/100 s) shutter camera. The motility was evaluated by measuring the total number of pixels remaining after the subtraction of 2 serial video images. The total number of pixels was significantly correlated with both the sum of the velocity of each bacterial cell and the number of motile bacteria on the same original images. Motility of subgingival microflora from 140 clinical samples tested was measured at 0 pixels to 3600 pixels, whereas the effect of Brownian movement was less than 150 pixels. The motility of subgingival microflora estimated with this image analysis system did not differ much from objective judgments by the naked eyes of experts. These results suggest that a semi-automated image analysis system may be useful in the evaluation of the motility of human subgingival microflora.

  17. The effect of higher plant microflora on the microbial landscape of a closed ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirranen, Lyalya; Gitelson, Josef; Borodina, Elena

    2012-07-01

    Having summarized certain data obtained earlier, we defined the aim of this work as an estimation of the effect of higher plant microflora on the microbial landscape of a closed ecosystem (CES). The microflora of such a component as higher plants can influence other system components not only by way of transfer with air and water flows, but also through the direct contact of the crew with the crops cultivated within CES when harvesting, thrashing, using them for food. Involving the higher plant component into the closed system the microorganism diversity and occurrence of microscopic fungi in other components of the closed ecosystem increased. The presence of microscopic fungi, especially on plants and in the air, is potentially dangerous for the health of the system residents. Since the contribution of the higher plant microflora (especially mycoflora) to the microbial landscape of a CES is significant, it is necessary to reduce the microbial flora of the higher plant component and limit its dispersion to other system components. One of the possible measures to limit the higher plant microflora colonization is air purification between components. Reducing the number of microscopic fungi by decreasing the humidity in the system's atmosphere should also be considered.

  18. Early life events influence whole-of-life metabolic health via gut microflora and gut permeability.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Caroline A; Grice, Desma M; Tran, Cuong D; Bauer, Denis C; Li, Dongmei; Hendry, Phil; Hannan, Garry N

    2015-01-01

    The capacity of our gut microbial communities to maintain a stable and balanced state, termed 'resilience', in spite of perturbations is vital to our achieving and maintaining optimal health. A loss of microbial resilience is observed in a number of diseases including obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. There are large gaps in our understanding of why an individual's co-evolved microflora consortium fail to develop resilience thereby establishing a trajectory towards poor metabolic health. This review examines the connections between the developing gut microbiota and intestinal barrier function in the neonate, infant and during the first years of life. We propose that the effects of early life events on the gut microflora and permeability, whilst it is in a dynamic and vulnerable state, are fundamental in shaping the microbial consortia's resilience and that it is the maintenance of resilience that is pivotal for metabolic health throughout life. We review the literature supporting this concept suggesting new potential research directions aimed at developing a greater understanding of the longitudinal effects of the gut microflora on metabolic health and potential interventions to recalibrate the 'at risk' infant gut microflora in the direction of enhanced metabolic health.

  19. Associations of GI microflora with campylobacter status in commercial broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Nextgeneration DNA sequencing is a powerful tool for food safety. One potential use for this technology is to compare the microflora of food animals hosting foodborne pathogens to pathogen-free animals to better understand the ecology of foodborne pathogens to design possible intervent...

  20. Intestinal microflora molecular markers of spleen-deficient rats and evaluation of traditional Chinese drugs

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Ying; Wang, Zhuo; Lu, Yuan; Wu, Chun-Fu; Yang, Jing-Yu; Li, Xiao-Bo

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To find a rapid and efficient analysis method of gastrointestinal microflora in Pi-deficient (spleen-deficient) rats and to evaluate traditional Chinese drugs. METHODS: Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR) based assay was performed to examine changes of intestinal microflora in two Pi-deficienct animal models and to evaluate the efficacy of four traditional Chinese drugs as well as a probiotic recipe and another therapy in Pi-deficient rats. RESULTS: A molecular marker was identified for Pi-deficiency in rats. The pharmacodynamic evaluation system, including identified molecular markers (net integral area and abundance of DNA bands), Shannon’s index for diversity of intestinal microflora, and Sorenson’s pairwise similarity coefficient, was established. The four major clinical recipes of traditional Chinese drugs for Pi-deficiency in rats, especially at their medium dose (equivalence to the clinical dose), produced more pronounced recovery activities in Pi-deficient rats, while higher doses of these recipes did not show a better therapeutic effect but some toxic effects such as perturbation deterioration of intestinal microflora. CONCLUSION: Both fingerprint analysis and identified marker can show Pi-deficiency in rats and its difference after treatment. The identified molecular marker may be applied in screening for the active compounds both in relative traditional Chinese drugs and in pharmacodynamic study of Pi-deficiency in rats. PMID:19437561

  1. Respiratory failure after superior-based pharyngeal flap for velopharyngeal insufficiency: A rare complication.

    PubMed

    Lawlor, Claire M; Riley, Charles A; Hildrew, Douglas M; Guarisco, J Lindhe

    2015-07-01

    Velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) is an uncommon pediatric disorder often associated with congenital syndromes. After speech therapy, surgery is the standard management. Many surgical approaches to VPI repair have been reported and the complications of these procedures are well documented. To date, there have been no published cases of respiratory failure secondary to pneumomediastinum, pneumopericardium, and bilateral pneumothoraces with associated subcutaneous emphysema after superior-based pharyngeal flap. We present the first case in the literature. Our proposed etiology for the respiratory failure is air tracking from the flap donor site to the pleural spaces of the thoracic cavity via the visceral or prevertebral fascia following positive pressure ventilation.

  2. Morphogenesis of the second pharyngeal arch cartilage (Reichert's cartilage) in human embryos

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Vázquez, J F; Mérida-Velasco, J R; Verdugo-López, S; Sánchez-Montesinos, I; Mérida-Velasco, J A

    2006-01-01

    This study was performed on 50 human embryos and fetuses between 7 and 17 weeks of development. Reichert's cartilage is formed in the second pharyngeal arch in two segments. The longer cranial or styloid segment is continuous with the otic capsule; its inferior end is angulated and is situated very close to the oropharynx. The smaller caudal segment is in contact with the body and greater horn of the hyoid cartilaginous structure. No cartilage forms between these segments. The persistent angulation of the inferior end of the cranial or styloid segment of Reichert's cartilage and its important neurovascular relationships may help explain the symptomatology of Eagle's syndrome. PMID:16441562

  3. [Loco-regional complications of pharyngitis: the example of Lemierre's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Tschopp, J; Chuard, C

    2015-10-01

    Pharyngitis is a common cause of consultation in ambulatory medicine. Although it is benign in most cases, serious complications may happen and must be recognized quickly. Lemierre's syndrome is one of them. It consists in the association of thrombosis of the internal jugular vein and septic emboli that generally involve the lungs and is classically associated with Fusobacterium necrophorum. It is usually found in young and healthy adults and has an estimated mortality of 5%. Diagnosis relies essentially on the characteristic presentation of the disease. Therapy consists of surgical drainage of purulent collections and necrotic tissues associated with a prolonged course of antibiotics. Some authors also recommend a anticoagulation. PMID:26638515

  4. Morphogenesis of the second pharyngeal arch cartilage (Reichert's cartilage) in human embryos.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Vázquez, J F; Mérida-Velasco, J R; Verdugo-López, S; Sánchez-Montesinos, I; Mérida-Velasco, J A

    2006-02-01

    This study was performed on 50 human embryos and fetuses between 7 and 17 weeks of development. Reichert's cartilage is formed in the second pharyngeal arch in two segments. The longer cranial or styloid segment is continuous with the otic capsule; its inferior end is angulated and is situated very close to the oropharynx. The smaller caudal segment is in contact with the body and greater horn of the hyoid cartilaginous structure. No cartilage forms between these segments. The persistent angulation of the inferior end of the cranial or styloid segment of Reichert's cartilage and its important neurovascular relationships may help explain the symptomatology of Eagle's syndrome.

  5. [The internal carotid artery as a pulsating protrusion into the pharyngeal wall].

    PubMed

    Wærsted, Stian; Dethloff, Thomas

    2016-07-11

    This case report describes an aberrant course of the internal carotid artery (ICA) in a patient presenting with symptoms of globus sensation, mild chronic cough and occasional aspiration. Clinically, a pulsating oro-hypopharyngeal tumour could only be visualized by fiberlaryngoscopy. A CT-scan showed a tortuous ICA protruding into the lateral and posterior pharyngeal wall. This condition may need treatment in itself, and it can lead to co-morbidity and serious surgical complications in undiagnosed patients. Referral to an oto-rhino-laryngologist is highly recommended for diagnostics. PMID:27406287

  6. [Influence of development pace on pharyngeal teeth formula in Abramis brama (L.) bream: experimental data].

    PubMed

    Bolotovskii, A A; Levin, B A

    2011-01-01

    An experiment on acceleration and retardation of ontogenesis with thyroid manipulation has revealed direct changes in definitive dentition of pharyngeal bones in Abramis brama bream. As development pace accelerates, the number of teeth reduces to the formula 5-4. When development pace slows down, this number increases to the formula 6-5. Moreover, an additional minor row of teeth (1.6-5.1, 2.6-5.2) is formed. The observed changes transcend typical changes happening in nature. It is assumed that heterochronies provoke changes in the number of teeth.

  7. Microbial DNA fingerprinting of human fingerprints: dynamic colonization of fingertip microflora challenges human host inferences for forensic purposes.

    PubMed

    Tims, Sebastian; van Wamel, Willem; Endtz, Hubert P; van Belkum, Alex; Kayser, Manfred

    2010-09-01

    Human fingertip microflora is transferred to touched objects and may provide forensically relevant information on individual hosts, such as on geographic origins, if endogenous microbial skin species/strains would be retrievable from physical fingerprints and would carry geographically restricted DNA diversity. We tested the suitability of physical fingerprints for revealing human host information, with geographic inference as example, via microbial DNA fingerprinting. We showed that the transient exogenous fingertip microflora is frequently different from the resident endogenous bacteria of the same individuals. In only 54% of the experiments, the DNA analysis of the transient fingertip microflora allowed the detection of defined, but often not the major, elements of the resident microflora. Although we found microbial persistency in certain individuals, time-wise variation of transient and resident microflora within individuals was also observed when resampling fingerprints after 3 weeks. While microbial species differed considerably in their frequency spectrum between fingerprint samples from volunteers in Europe and southern Asia, there was no clear geographic distinction between Staphylococcus strains in a cluster analysis, although bacterial genotypes did not overlap between both continental regions. Our results, though limited in quantity, clearly demonstrate that the dynamic fingerprint microflora challenges human host inferences for forensic purposes including geographic ones. Overall, our results suggest that human fingerprint microflora is too dynamic to allow for forensic marker developments for retrieving human information.

  8. Filamentous bacteria existence in aerobic granular reactors.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, M; Val del Río, A; Campos, J L; Méndez, R; Mosquera-Corral, A

    2015-05-01

    Filamentous bacteria are associated to biomass settling problems in wastewater treatment plants. In systems based on aerobic granular biomass they have been proposed to contribute to the initial biomass aggregation process. However, their development on mature aerobic granular systems has not been sufficiently studied. In the present research work, filamentous bacteria were studied for the first time after long-term operation (up to 300 days) of aerobic granular systems. Chloroflexi and Sphaerotilus natans have been observed in a reactor fed with synthetic wastewater. These filamentous bacteria could only come from the inoculated sludge. Thiothrix and Chloroflexi bacteria were observed in aerobic granular biomass treating wastewater from a fish canning industry. Meganema perideroedes was detected in a reactor treating wastewater from a plant processing marine products. As a conclusion, the source of filamentous bacteria in these mature aerobic granular systems fed with industrial effluents was the incoming wastewater.

  9. A timeline of pharyngeal endoskeletal condensation and differentiation in the shark, Scyliorhinus canicula, and the paddlefish, Polyodon spathula

    PubMed Central

    Baker, C. V. H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The lesser-spotted dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula) and the North American paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) are two emerging model systems for the study of vertebrate craniofacial development. Notably, both of these taxa have retained plesiomorphic aspects of pharyngeal endoskeletal organization, relative to more commonly used models of vertebrate craniofacial development (e.g. zebrafish, chick and mouse), and are therefore well suited to inform the pharyngeal endoskeletal patterning mechanisms that functioned in the last common ancestor of jawed vertebrates. Here, we present a histological overview of the condensation and chondrogenesis of the most prominent endoskeletal elements of the jaw, hyoid and gill arches – the palatoquadrate/Meckel’s cartilage, the hyomandibula/ceratohyal, and the epi-/ceratobranchial cartilages, respectively – in embryonic series of S. canicula and P. spathula. Our observations provide a provisional timeline and anatomical framework for further molecular developmental and functional investigations of pharyngeal endoskeletal differentiation and patterning in these phylogenetically informative taxa. PMID:26566297

  10. Microbial community in anaerobic hydrogen-producing microflora enriched from sludge compost.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Y; Haruta, S; Ishii, M; Igarashi, Y

    2001-11-01

    Hydrogen production by thermophilic anaerobic microflora enriched from sludge compost was studied by using an artificial medium containing cellulose powder. Hydrogen gas was evolved with the formation of acetate, ethanol, and butyrate by decomposition of the cellulose powder. The hydrogen production yield was 2.0 mol/mol-hexose by either batch or chemostat cultivation. A medium that did not contain peptone demonstrated a lower hydrogen production yield of 1.0 mol/mol-hexose with less formation of butyrate. The microbial community in the microflora was investigated through isolation of the microorganisms by both plating and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the' PCR-amplified V3 region of 16S rDNA. Sixty-eight microorganisms were isolated from the microflora and classified into nine distinct groups by genetic fingerprinting of the PCR-DGGE or by a random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis and determination of the partial sequence of 16S rDNA. Most of the isolates belonged to the cluster of the thermophilic Clostridium/Bacillus subphylum of low G+C gram-positive bacteria. Product formation by most of the isolated strains corresponded to that produced by the microflora. Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticium was isolated in the enrichment culture with or without added peptone. and was detected with strong intensity by PCR-DGGE. Two other thermophilic cellulolytic microorganisms, Clostridium thermocellum and Clostridium cellulosi, were also detected by PCR-DGGE, although they could not be isolated. These findings imply that hydrogen production from cellulose by microflora is performed by a consortium of several species of microorganisms.

  11. Comparison of bacterial communities in the throat swabs from healthy subjects and pharyngitis patients by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Kannan; Thenmozhi, Ramalingam; Sundaravadivel, Marimuthu; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2012-07-01

    Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis was applied to characterize bacterial flora present in the throats of healthy subjects and pharyngitis patients. The 16S rRNA genes of bacteria present in throat metagenome were amplified by PCR with 6-carboxy-fluorescein (6-FAM)-labeled universal forward primer (27 F) and a universal reverse primer (1513R). The 16S rDNAs were digested with restriction enzymes with 4-bp recognition sites (MspI or RsaI) and analyzed by using an automated DNA sequencer. T-RFLP patterns were numerically analyzed using computer programs. From analysis of the throat bacterial community, patterns derived from MspI and RsaI digested samples of healthy subjects and pharyngitis patients were grouped into different clusters, though RsaI digested samples showed some uncertainty. Pharyngitis throats generated an average species richness of 9 [±2.1 (SD)] and 10 (±2.9) for MspI and RsaI digests, respectively, whereas healthy throats generated 6.3 (±1.2) and 6.1 (±1.5) in MspI and RsaI digests, respectively. These results suggest that samples from pharyngitis patients contain an unexpected diversity of causative bacteria. The pharyngitis throats were colonized with a rich diversity of bacterial species than that of healthy throats. Using T-RFLP, we are able to detect a model bacterium, Streptococcus pyogenes SF370, and T-RF patterns were consistent with the Streptococcal T-RFLP patterns. Our study indicates that T-RFLP analysis is useful for the assessment of diversity of throat bacterial flora and rapid comparison of the community structure between subjects with and without pharyngitis.

  12. The Effect of Rapid Antigen Detection Test on Antibiotic Prescription Decision of Clinicians and Reducing Antibiotic Costs in Children with Acute Pharyngitis.

    PubMed

    Kose, Engin; Sirin Kose, Seda; Akca, Deniz; Yildiz, Kerem; Elmas, Cengizhan; Baris, Mustafa; Anil, Murat

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of rapid antigen detection test (RADT) in the diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis, its impact on antibiotic prescription decision of pediatricians and influence on reduction of antibiotic treatment costs in children with pharyngitis. The study group consisted of 223 patients who were diagnosed with pharyngitis by pediatricians. The sensitivity and specificity of RADT were 92.1% (95% Cl: 78.6-98.3%) and 97.3% (95% Cl: 93.8-99.1%), respectively. In the first assessment, before performing RADT, pediatricians decided to prescribe antibiotics for 178 (79.8%) patients with pharyngitis. After learning RADT results, pediatricians finally decided to prescribe antibiotics for 83 (37.2%) patients with pharyngitis, and antibiotic prescription decreased by 42.6%. Antibiotic costs in non-Group A streptococcus pharyngitis, Group A streptococcus pharyngitis and all subjects groups decreased by 80.8%, 48%, and 76.4%, respectively. Performing RADT in children with pharyngitis has an important impact on treatment decision of clinicians, reduction of unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions and antibiotic costs. PMID:26999012

  13. Dry heat effects on survival of indigenous soil particle microflora and particle viability studies of Kennedy Space Center soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruschmeyer, O. R.; Pflug, I. J.; Gove, R.; Heisserer, Y.

    1975-01-01

    Research efforts were concentrated on attempts to obtain data concerning the dry heat resistance of particle microflora in Kennedy Space Center soil samples. The in situ dry heat resistance profiles at selected temperatures for the aggregate microflora on soil particles of certain size ranges were determined. Viability profiles of older soil samples were compared with more recently stored soil samples. The effect of increased particle numbers on viability profiles after dry heat treatment was investigated. These soil particle viability data for various temperatures and times provide information on the soil microflora response to heat treatment and are useful in making selections for spacecraft sterilization cycles.

  14. Influence of Phytase Transgenic Corn on the Intestinal Microflora and the Fate of Transgenic DNA and Protein in Digesta and Tissues of Broilers.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lin; Guo, Jiang; Li, Sufen; Li, Ang; Zhang, Liyang; Liu, Zhenhua; Luo, Xugang

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of phytase transgenic corn (PTC) on intestinal microflora, and the fate of transgenic DNA and protein in the digesta and tissues of broilers. A total of 160 1-day-old Arbor Acres commercial male broilers were randomly assigned to 20 cages (8 chicks per cage) with 10 cages (replicates) for each treatment. Birds were fed with a diet containing either PTC (54.0% during 1-21 days and 61.0% during 22-42 days) or non-transgenic isogenic control corn (CC) for a duration of 42 days. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between birds fed with the PTC diets and those fed with the CC diets in the quantities of aerobic bacteria, anaerobic bacteria, colibacillus and lactobacilli, or microbial diversities in the contents of ileum and cecum. Transgenic phyA2 DNA was not detected, but phyA2 protein was detected in the digesta of duodenum and jejunum of broilers fed with the PTC diets. Both transgenic phyA2 DNA and protein fragments were not found in the digesta of the ileum and rectum, heart, liver, kidney, and breast or thigh muscles of broilers fed with the PTC diets. It was concluded that PTC had no adverse effect on the quantity and diversity of gut microorganisms; Transgenic phyA2 DNA or protein was rapidly degraded in the intestinal tract and was not transferred to the tissues of broilers.

  15. Effect of low-dose (1 kGy) gamma radiation and selected phosphates on the microflora of vacuum-packaged ground pork

    SciTech Connect

    Ehioba, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of low-dose (1 kGy) gamma radiation and selected phosphates on the microbiology of refrigerated, vacuum-packaged ground pork were studied. Low-dose gamma radiation reduced the numbers of naturally occurring mesophiles, psychrotrophs, and anaerobes. The effect of low-dose radiation on the populations of lactic acid bacteria was minimal. On storage of the irradiated vacuum-packaged ground pork at 5/sup 0/C, there was a partial bacterial recovery, suggesting sublethal bacterial injury due to irradiation. When 10/sup 7/ CFU/g of meat is taken to be the level beyond which the meat would be considered spoiled, uninoculated, vacuum-packaged ground pork treated with 1 kGy (100 krad) of gamma radiation had 3.5 more days of shelf-life in terms of psychrotrophic total counts. In relation to anaerobic bacterial numbers, meat shelf-life was extended 2.5 days, while the shelf-life of meat was extended 1 day in terms of aerobic mesophilic bacteria. Irradiation prolonged shelf-life in inoculated (10/sup 5/CFU/g) meat for 1.0-1.5 days. Addition of 0.4% sodium acid pyrophosphate (SAPP) contributed 2 additional days to inoculated, irradiated vacuum-packaged ground pork shelf-life. However, SAPP had no added effect on naturally occurring microflora. Irradiation greatly decreased the numbers of gram-negative microorganisms, resulting in predominance of the gram-positive, nonsporeforming Lactobacillus and coryneform bacteria.

  16. Effect of organic acids in drinking water for young broilers on Campylobacter infection, volatile fatty acid production, gut microflora and histological cell changes.

    PubMed

    Chaveerach, P; Keuzenkamp, D A; Lipman, L J A; Van Knapen, F

    2004-03-01

    Water is a prominent vehicle for Campylobacter spread throughout a chicken flock. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of organic acids administered through the drinking water, as a decontamination method, on gut microflora and the development of lesions in the gastrointestinal tracts of young broilers inoculated with 2 different doses of Campylobacter. The results revealed that most of the chickens were infected with Campylobacter at the end of the experiment. The drinking water was free of Campylobacter throughout the study. No difference of volatile fatty acid levels between treatment and control groups was observed in the crop and cecal contents. In the cecal contents, the total aerobic bacteria numbers were significantly higher in the treatment groups compared with the control groups (P < 0.01 and P < 0.04, respectively). Moreover, no damaged epithelial cells were observed in the chicken gut due to consumption of acidified drinking water. Acidified drinking water could therefore play a crucial role in a biosecurity strategy of preventing Campylobacter spread via drinking water in broiler flocks.

  17. Influence of Phytase Transgenic Corn on the Intestinal Microflora and the Fate of Transgenic DNA and Protein in Digesta and Tissues of Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sufen; Li, Ang; Zhang, Liyang; Liu, Zhenhua; Luo, Xugang

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of phytase transgenic corn (PTC) on intestinal microflora, and the fate of transgenic DNA and protein in the digesta and tissues of broilers. A total of 160 1-day-old Arbor Acres commercial male broilers were randomly assigned to 20 cages (8 chicks per cage) with 10 cages (replicates) for each treatment. Birds were fed with a diet containing either PTC (54.0% during 1–21 days and 61.0% during 22–42 days) or non-transgenic isogenic control corn (CC) for a duration of 42 days. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between birds fed with the PTC diets and those fed with the CC diets in the quantities of aerobic bacteria, anaerobic bacteria, colibacillus and lactobacilli, or microbial diversities in the contents of ileum and cecum. Transgenic phyA2 DNA was not detected, but phyA2 protein was detected in the digesta of duodenum and jejunum of broilers fed with the PTC diets. Both transgenic phyA2 DNA and protein fragments were not found in the digesta of the ileum and rectum, heart, liver, kidney, and breast or thigh muscles of broilers fed with the PTC diets. It was concluded that PTC had no adverse effect on the quantity and diversity of gut microorganisms; Transgenic phyA2 DNA or protein was rapidly degraded in the intestinal tract and was not transferred to the tissues of broilers. PMID:26599444

  18. Independent evolution of the specialized pharyngeal jaw apparatus in cichlid and labrid fishes

    PubMed Central

    Mabuchi, Kohji; Miya, Masaki; Azuma, Yoichiro; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2007-01-01

    Background Fishes in the families Cichlidae and Labridae provide good probable examples of vertebrate adaptive radiations. Their spectacular trophic radiations have been widely assumed to be due to structural key innovation in pharyngeal jaw apparatus (PJA), but this idea has never been tested based on a reliable phylogeny. For the first step of evaluating the hypothesis, we investigated the phylogenetic positions of the components of the suborder Labroidei (including Pomacentridae and Embiotocidae in addition to Cichlidae and Labridae) within the Percomorpha, the most diversified (> 15,000 spp) crown clade of teleosts. We examined those based on 78 whole mitochondrial genome sequences (including 12 newly determined sequences) through partitioned Bayesian analyses with concatenated sequences (13,933 bp). Results The resultant phylogenies indicated that the Labridae and the remaining three labroid families have diverged basally within the Percomorpha, and monophyly of the suborder was confidently rejected by statistical tests using Bayes factors. Conclusion The resultant phylogenies indicated that the specified PJA evolved independently at least twice, once in Labridae and once in the common ancestor of the remaining three labroid families (including the Cichlidae). Because the independent evolution of pharyngeal jaws appears to have been followed by trophic radiations, we consider that our result supports, from the aspect of historical repeatability, the idea that the evolution of the specialized PJA provided these lineages with the morphological potential for their spectacular trophic radiations. The present result will provide a new framework for the study of functional morphology and genetic basis of their PJA. PMID:17263894

  19. Correlation between the Pharyngeal Airway Space and Head Posture after Surgery for Mandibular Prognathism

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun-Ming; Lai, Steven; Chen, Ker-Kong; Lee, Huey-Er

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between the pharyngeal airway space and head posture after mandibular setback surgery for mandibular prognathism. Materials and Methods. Serial lateral cephalograms of 37 patients with mandibular prognathism who underwent intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy (IVRO) were evaluated before (T1) and immediately (T2), between 6 weeks and 3 months (T3), and more than 1 year (T4) after surgery. Paired t-tests and Pearson's correlation analysis were used to evaluate the postoperative changes in all cephalometric parameters, including the mandible, hyoid, head posture (craniocervical angle), and pharyngeal airway space. Results. The mandible and hyoid were set back by 12.8 mm and 4.9 mm, respectively, at T2. Furthermore, the hyoid showed significant inferior movement of 10.7 mm, with an 8 mm increase in the tongue depth. The upper oropharyngeal airway (UOP) shortened by 4.1 mm, the lower oropharyngeal airway (LOP) by 1.7 mm, and the laryngopharyngeal airway by 2 mm. The craniocervical angle showed a significant increase of 2.8°. UOP and LOP showed a significant correlation with the craniocervical angle at T2 and T4. Conclusions. Our findings conclude that the oropharyngeal airway space is significantly decreased and correlated with a change in the head posture after mandibular setback surgery. PMID:25977919

  20. Pharyngeal Polysaccharide Deacetylases Affect Development in the Nematode C. elegans and Deacetylate Chitin In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Heustis, Ronald J.; Ng, Hong K.; Brand, Kenneth J.; Rogers, Meredith C.; Le, Linda T.; Specht, Charles A.; Fuhrman, Juliet A.

    2012-01-01

    Chitin (β-1,4-linked-N-acetylglucosamine) provides structural integrity to the nematode eggshell and pharyngeal lining. Chitin is synthesized in nematodes, but not in plants and vertebrates, which are often hosts to parasitic roundworms; hence, the chitin metabolism pathway is considered a potential target for selective interventions. Polysaccharide deacetylases (PDAs), including those that convert chitin to chitosan, have been previously demonstrated in protists, fungi and insects. We show that genes encoding PDAs are distributed throughout the phylum Nematoda, with the two paralogs F48E3.8 and C54G7.3 found in C. elegans. We confirm that the genes are somatically expressed and show that RNAi knockdown of these genes retards C. elegans development. Additionally, we show that proteins from the nematode deacetylate chitin in vitro, we quantify the substrate available in vivo as targets of these enzymes, and we show that Eosin Y (which specifically stains chitosan in fungal cells walls) stains the C. elegans pharynx. Our results suggest that one function of PDAs in nematodes may be deacetylation of the chitinous pharyngeal lining. PMID:22808160

  1. Peak morphology and scalp topography of the pharyngeal sensory evoked potential

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler-Hegland, Karen; Pitts, Teresa; Davenport, Paul W

    2016-01-01

    The initiation of the pharyngeal stage of swallowing is dependent upon sensory input to the brainstem and cortex. The event-related evoked potential provides a measure of neuronal electrical activity as it relates to a specific stimulus. Air-puff stimulation to the posterior pharyngeal wall produces a sensory evoked potential (PSEP) waveform. The goal of this study was to characterize the scalp topography and morphology for the component peaks of the PSEP waveform. Twenty-five healthy men and women served as research participants. PSEPs were measured via 32 electrode cap (10-20 system) connected to SynAmps2 Neuroscan EEG System. Air puffs were delivered directly to the oropharynx using a thin polyethylene tube connected to a flexible laryngoscope. The PSEP waveform is characterized by 4 early and mid-latency components peaks: an early positivity (P1), and negativity (N1), followed by a mid-latency positivity (P2), and negativity (N2). The early positive peak P1 is localized bilaterally to the lateral parietal scalp, the N1 medially in the fronto-parietal region, and the P2 and N2 with diffuse scalp locations. Somatosensory and premotor regions are possible anatomical correlates of peak locations. Based on the latencies of the peaks, they are likely analogous to somatosensory and respiratory related evoked potential peaks. PMID:20890713

  2. The Lateral Port Control Pharyngeal Flap: A Thirty-Year Evolution and Followup

    PubMed Central

    Boutros, Sean; Cutting, Court

    2013-01-01

    In 1971, Micheal Hogan introduced the Lateral Port Control Pharyngeal Flap (LPCPF) which obtained good results with elimination of VPI. However, there was a high incidence of hyponasality and OSA. We hypothesized that preoperative assessment with videofluoroscopy and nasal endoscopy would enable modification and customization of the LPCPF and result in improvement in the result in both hyponasality and obstructive apnea while still maintaining results in VPI. Thirty consecutive patients underwent customized LPCPF. All patients had preoperative diagnosis of VPI resulting from cleft palate. Patient underwent either videofluoroscopy or nasal endoscopy prior to the planning of surgery. Based on preoperative velar and pharyngeal movement, patients were assigned to wide, medium, or narrow port designs. Patients with significant lateral motion were given wide ports while patients with minimal movement were given narrow ports. There was a 96.66% success rate in the treatment of VPI with one patient with persistent VPI (3.33%). Six patients had mild hyponasality (20 %). Two patients had initial OSA (6.67%), one of which had OSA which lasted longer than six months (3.33%). The modifications of the original flap description have allowed for success in treatment of VPI along with an acceptably low rate of hyponasality and OSA. PMID:23365734

  3. Oral and pharyngeal cancer and occupation: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Huebner, W W; Schoenberg, J B; Kelsey, J L; Wilcox, H B; McLaughlin, J K; Greenberg, R S; Preston-Martin, S; Austin, D F; Stemhagen, A; Blot, W J

    1992-07-01

    We studied the relation between occupation and oral and pharyngeal cancer with a population-based case-control study conducted in four areas of the United States. The study group included 1,114 incident male and female cases and 1,268 frequency-matched controls. After adjustment for age, race, smoking, alcohol, and study location, an analysis of lifetime occupational histories revealed a small number of noteworthy associations. Risk was increased among male carpet installers (23 cases, 4 controls), with an adjusted odds ratio of 7.7 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.4-24.9], and tended to rise with longer duration of employment. A decreased risk was found among male and female textile mill workers (odds ratio 0.48, 95% CI = 0.27-0.88). Previously reported increases in oral cancer risks among printing workers, electrical and electronics workers, and workers other than carpet installers who were possibly exposed to formaldehyde were not found in this study. For several employment groups, including male machinists, primary metal industry workers, petroleum industry workers, painters, furniture and fixture industry workers, woodworking machine operators, and workers with inferred exposure to fossil fuel combustion, odds ratios were approximately 2.0 for cancers of pharyngeal sites.

  4. Pharyngeal polysaccharide deacetylases affect development in the nematode C. elegans and deacetylate chitin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Heustis, Ronald J; Ng, Hong K; Brand, Kenneth J; Rogers, Meredith C; Le, Linda T; Specht, Charles A; Fuhrman, Juliet A

    2012-01-01

    Chitin (β-1,4-linked-N-acetylglucosamine) provides structural integrity to the nematode eggshell and pharyngeal lining. Chitin is synthesized in nematodes, but not in plants and vertebrates, which are often hosts to parasitic roundworms; hence, the chitin metabolism pathway is considered a potential target for selective interventions. Polysaccharide deacetylases (PDAs), including those that convert chitin to chitosan, have been previously demonstrated in protists, fungi and insects. We show that genes encoding PDAs are distributed throughout the phylum Nematoda, with the two paralogs F48E3.8 and C54G7.3 found in C. elegans. We confirm that the genes are somatically expressed and show that RNAi knockdown of these genes retards C. elegans development. Additionally, we show that proteins from the nematode deacetylate chitin in vitro, we quantify the substrate available in vivo as targets of these enzymes, and we show that Eosin Y (which specifically stains chitosan in fungal cells walls) stains the C. elegans pharynx. Our results suggest that one function of PDAs in nematodes may be deacetylation of the chitinous pharyngeal lining.

  5. Peak morphology and scalp topography of the pharyngeal sensory-evoked potential.

    PubMed

    Wheeler-Hegland, Karen; Pitts, Teresa; Davenport, Paul W

    2011-09-01

    The initiation of the pharyngeal stage of swallowing is dependent upon sensory input to the brainstem and cortex. The event-related evoked potential provides a measure of neuronal electrical activity as it relates to a specific stimulus. Air-puff stimulation to the posterior pharyngeal wall produces a sensory-evoked potential (PSEP) waveform. The goal of this study was to characterize the scalp topography and morphology for the component peaks of the PSEP waveform. Twenty-five healthy men and women served as research participants. PSEPs were measured via a 32-electrode cap (10-20 system) connected to SynAmps2 Neuroscan EEG System. Air puffs were delivered directly to the oropharynx using a thin polyethylene tube connected to a flexible laryngoscope. The PSEP waveform is characterized by four early- and mid-latency component peaks: an early positivity (P1) and negativity (N1), followed by a mid-latency positivity (P2) and negativity (N2). The early positive peak P1 is localized bilaterally to the lateral parietal scalp, the N1 medially in the frontoparietal region, and the P2 and N2 with diffuse scalp locations. Somatosensory and premotor regions are possible anatomical correlates of peak locations. Based on the latencies of the peaks, they are likely analogous to somatosensory- and respiratory-related evoked potential peaks. PMID:20890713

  6. Clinical outcomes comparing parenteral and nasogastric tube nutrition after laryngeal and pharyngeal cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Junsun; Nam, Byung-Ho; Jung, Yuh-Seog

    2009-12-01

    Nasogastric tube-assisted enteral feeding and parenteral feeding are utilized for nutritional support after major surgery. Although these nutritional supports have been compared before, there have been no comparative trials following surgery for laryngeal and pharyngeal cancer. In this study, 81 patients were randomized to total parenteral nutrition (TPN) or nasogastric tube nutrition (NGTN) after laryngopharyngeal cancer surgery. The two groups were well-matched demographically and clinically. Clinical outcomes such as time of commencement of oral feeding and hospital stay and complications such as fistula were similar in both groups. One case in the TPN group had catheter-related sepsis, whereas aspiration pneumonia occurred in four cases (9.8%) in the NGTN group. The daily cost of NGTN was $11.81 cheaper than that of TPN. Subjective symptoms of nasal and pharyngeal discomfort and scores on subjective swallowing were more severe in the NGTN group within the first postoperative week but became similar thereafter. Although there was no difference in objective postoperative outcomes between both groups, these results imply that each method had particular advantages and disadvantages. Nutritional support after laryngopharyngeal cancer surgery should be determined after full consideration of each patient's conditions and surgical details along with economics.

  7. Origin and evolution of gnathostome dentitions: a question of teeth and pharyngeal denticles in placoderms.

    PubMed

    Zerina, Johanson; Smith, Moya M

    2005-05-01

    within a dental lamina, is a synapomorphy characterising the clade of crown-group gnathostomes. Recent comparisons between sets of denticle whorls in the pharyngeal region of the jawless fish Loganellia scotica (Thelodonti) and those in sharks suggest homology of these denticle sets on gill arches. Although the placoderm pharyngeal region appears to lack denticles (placoderm gill arches are poorly known), the posterior wall of the pharyngeal cavity, formed by a bony flange termed the postbranchial lamina, is covered in rows of patterned denticle arrays. These arrays differ significantly, both in morphology and arrangement, from those of the denticles located externally on the head and trunkshield plates. Denticles in these arrays are homologous to denticles associated with the gill arches in other crown-gnathostomes, with pattern similarities for order and position of pharyngeal denticles. From their location in the pharynx these are inferred to be under the influence of a cell lineage from endoderm, rather than ectoderm. Tooth sets and tooth whorls in crown-group gnathostomes are suggested to derive from the pharyngeal denticle whorls, at least in sharks, with the patterning mechanisms co-opted to the oral cavity. A comparable co-option is suggested for the Placodermi.

  8. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance.

    PubMed

    Edvardsen, Elisabeth; Ingjer, Frank; Bø, Kari

    2011-12-01

    Edvardsen, E, Ingjer, F, and Bø, K. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3479-3485, 2011-This study compared the aerobic capacity during maximal aerobic dance and treadmill running in fit women. Thirteen well-trained female aerobic dance instructors aged 30 ± 8.17 years (mean ± SD) exercised to exhaustion by running on a treadmill for measurement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max) and peak heart rate (HRpeak). Additionally, all subjects performed aerobic dancing until exhaustion after a choreographed videotaped routine trying to reach the same HRpeak as during maximal running. The p value for statistical significance between running and aerobic dance was set to ≤0.05. The results (mean ± SD) showed a lower VO(2)max in aerobic dance (52.2 ± 4.02 ml·kg·min) compared with treadmill running (55.9 ± 5.03 ml·kg·min) (p = 0.0003). Further, the mean ± SD HRpeak was 182 ± 9.15 b·min in aerobic dance and 192 ± 9.62 b·min in treadmill running, giving no difference in oxygen pulse between the 2 exercise forms (p = 0.32). There was no difference in peak ventilation (aerobic dance: 108 ± 10.81 L·min vs. running: 113 ± 11.49 L·min). In conclusion, aerobic dance does not seem to be able to use the whole aerobic capacity as in running. For well endurance-trained women, this may result in a lower total workload at maximal intensities. Aerobic dance may therefore not be as suitable as running during maximal intensities in well-trained females.

  9. Pharyngitis - viral

    MedlinePlus

    ... You can relieve symptoms by gargling with warm salt water several times a day (use one half teaspoon of salt in a glass of warm water). Taking anti-inflammatory medicine, such as acetaminophen, can ...

  10. Comparison of a Ligase Chain Reaction-Based Assay and Cell Culture for Detection of Pharyngeal Carriage of Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Andrew J.; Gilleran, Gerry; Eastick, Kirstine; Ross, Jonathan D. C.

    2000-01-01

    In 264 genitourinary medicine clinic attenders reporting recent fellatio, the prevalence of pharyngeal Chlamydia trachomatis determined by an expanded standard including cell culture and two in-house PCR tests was 1.5% in 194 women and zero in 70 men. The ligase chain reaction (Abbott LCx) had a specificity of 99.2% and a positive predictive value of 60%. PMID:10970416

  11. Late-onset Rash in Patients with Group A Beta-hemolytic Streptococcal Pharyngitis Treated with Amoxicillin.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Masahiko

    2015-12-01

    We observed late-onset rashes in patients with group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis. Of 1028 patients with GAS pharyngitis, which was principally treated with amoxicillin, we evaluated those who developed a late-onset rash and excluded those with scarlet fever alone. Twenty-one patients developed a rash (2.0%, 95% confidence interval, 1.3-3.1%), 7 to 20 days (median, 8 days) after GAS pharyngitis onset. The rashes were characterized by maculopapules, which increased in size with coalescence and some developing into plaques, with a symmetrical distribution with a propensity for the extremities, including the palms and soles. The clinical courses of the patients were good, and the rashes subsided within 14 days. A non-immediate reaction to β-lactams, which usually manifests as a maculopapular rash, is a possible cause in our patients, however, repeated courses of amoxicillin in 3 patients did not induce the rash. The underlying mechanism of the late-onset rash after GAS pharyngitis with amoxicillin treatment remains unclear. PMID:26734124

  12. Disruption of CXCR4 signaling in pharyngeal neural crest cells causes DiGeorge syndrome-like malformations.

    PubMed

    Escot, Sophie; Blavet, Cédrine; Faure, Emilie; Zaffran, Stéphane; Duband, Jean-Loup; Fournier-Thibault, Claire

    2016-02-15

    DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is a congenital disease causing cardiac outflow tract anomalies, craniofacial dysmorphogenesis, thymus hypoplasia, and mental disorders. It results from defective development of neural crest cells (NCs) that colonize the pharyngeal arches and contribute to lower jaw, neck and heart tissues. Although TBX1 has been identified as the main gene accounting for the defects observed in human patients and mouse models, the molecular mechanisms underlying DGS etiology are poorly identified. The recent demonstrations that the SDF1/CXCR4 axis is implicated in NC chemotactic guidance and impaired in cortical interneurons of mouse DGS models prompted us to search for genetic interactions between Tbx1, Sdf1 (Cxcl12) and Cxcr4 in pharyngeal NCs and to investigate the effect of altering CXCR4 signaling on the ontogeny of their derivatives, which are affected in DGS. Here, we provide evidence that Cxcr4 and Sdf1 are genetically downstream of Tbx1 during pharyngeal NC development and that reduction of CXCR4 signaling causes misrouting of pharyngeal NCs in chick and dramatic morphological alterations in the mandibular skeleton, thymus and cranial sensory ganglia. Our results therefore support the possibility of a pivotal role for the SDF1/CXCR4 axis in DGS etiology. PMID:26755698

  13. Late-onset Rash in Patients with Group A Beta-hemolytic Streptococcal Pharyngitis Treated with Amoxicillin

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We observed late-onset rashes in patients with group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis. Of 1028 patients with GAS pharyngitis, which was principally treated with amoxicillin, we evaluated those who developed a late-onset rash and excluded those with scarlet fever alone. Twenty-one patients developed a rash (2.0%, 95% confidence interval, 1.3-3.1%), 7 to 20 days (median, 8 days) after GAS pharyngitis onset. The rashes were characterized by maculopapules, which increased in size with coalescence and some developing into plaques, with a symmetrical distribution with a propensity for the extremities, including the palms and soles. The clinical courses of the patients were good, and the rashes subsided within 14 days. A non-immediate reaction to β-lactams, which usually manifests as a maculopapular rash, is a possible cause in our patients, however, repeated courses of amoxicillin in 3 patients did not induce the rash. The underlying mechanism of the late-onset rash after GAS pharyngitis with amoxicillin treatment remains unclear. PMID:26734124

  14. The Energetics of Aerobic versus Anaerobic Respiration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, Timothy D.; Schwenz, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    Background information, laboratory procedures, and a discussion of the results of an experiment designed to investigate the difference in energy gained from the aerobic and anaerobic oxidation of glucose are presented. Sample experimental and calculated data are included. (CW)

  15. Neuromodulation of Aerobic Exercise—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Heijnen, Saskia; Hommel, Bernhard; Kibele, Armin; Colzato, Lorenza S.

    2016-01-01

    Running, and aerobic exercise in general, is a physical activity that increasingly many people engage in but that also has become popular as a topic for scientific research. Here we review the available studies investigating whether and to which degree aerobic exercise modulates hormones, amino acids, and neurotransmitters levels. In general, it seems that factors such as genes, gender, training status, and hormonal status need to be taken into account to gain a better understanding of the neuromodular underpinnings of aerobic exercise. More research using longitudinal studies and considering individual differences is necessary to determine actual benefits. We suggest that, in order to succeed, aerobic exercise programs should include optimal periodization, prevent overtraining and be tailored to interindividual differences, including neuro-developmental and genetically-based factors. PMID:26779053

  16. Neuromodulation of Aerobic Exercise-A Review.

    PubMed

    Heijnen, Saskia; Hommel, Bernhard; Kibele, Armin; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2015-01-01

    Running, and aerobic exercise in general, is a physical activity that increasingly many people engage in but that also has become popular as a topic for scientific research. Here we review the available studies investigating whether and to which degree aerobic exercise modulates hormones, amino acids, and neurotransmitters levels. In general, it seems that factors such as genes, gender, training status, and hormonal status need to be taken into account to gain a better understanding of the neuromodular underpinnings of aerobic exercise. More research using longitudinal studies and considering individual differences is necessary to determine actual benefits. We suggest that, in order to succeed, aerobic exercise programs should include optimal periodization, prevent overtraining and be tailored to interindividual differences, including neuro-developmental and genetically-based factors. PMID:26779053

  17. Conditioning and Aerobics for Older Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Joyce

    1980-01-01

    A class designed for the maintenance and gradual improvement of senior citizens' physical fitness includes relaxation training, flexibility and stretching exercises, interval training activities (designed as a link between less strenuous exercise and more strenuous activities), and aerobic exercises. (CJ)

  18. Upper Airway Collapsibility (Pcrit) and Pharyngeal Dilator Muscle Activity are Sleep Stage Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Carberry, Jayne C.; Jordan, Amy S.; White, David P.; Wellman, Andrew; Eckert, Danny J.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: An anatomically narrow/highly collapsible upper airway is the main cause of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Upper airway muscle activity contributes to airway patency and, like apnea severity, can be sleep stage dependent. Conversely, existing data derived from a small number of participants suggest that upper airway collapsibility, measured by the passive pharyngeal critical closing pressure (Pcrit) technique, is not sleep stage dependent. This study aimed to determine the effect of sleep stage on Pcrit and upper airway muscle activity in a larger cohort than previously tested. Methods: Pcrit and/or muscle data were obtained from 72 adults aged 20–64 y with and without OSA.Pcrit was determined via transient reductions in continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) during N2, slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Genioglossus and tensor palatini muscle activities were measured: (1) awake with and without CPAP, (2) during stable sleep on CPAP, and (3) in response to the CPAP reductions used to quantify Pcrit. Results: Pcrit was 4.9 ± 1.4 cmH2O higher (more collapsible) during REM versus SWS (P = 0.012), 2.3 ± 0.6 cmH2O higher during REM versus N2 (P < 0.001), and 1.6 ± 0.7 cmH2O higher in N2 versus SWS (P = 0.048). Muscle activity decreased from wakefulness to sleep and from SWS to N2 to REM sleep for genioglossus but not for tensor palatini. Pharyngeal muscle activity increased by ∼50% by breath 5 following CPAP reductions. Conclusions: Upper airway collapsibility measured via the Pcrit technique and genioglossus muscle activity vary with sleep stage. These findings should be taken into account when performing and interpreting “passive” Pcrit measurements. Citation: Carberry JC, Jordan AS, White DP, Wellman A, Eckert DJ. Upper airway collapsibility (Pcrit) and pharyngeal dilator muscle activity are sleep stage dependent. SLEEP 2016;39(3):511–521. PMID:26612386

  19. Water soluble nanocurcumin extracted from turmeric challenging the microflora from human oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Gopal, Judy; Muthu, Manikandan; Chun, Se-Chul

    2016-11-15

    Water soluble nanocurcumin prepared from commercial turmeric powders was compared against ethanol extracted curcumin particles. The oral microflora from five different human volunteers was collected and the efficacy of solvent extracted curcumin versus water extracted nanocurcumin was demonstrated. Nanocurcumin activity against oral microflora confirms its antimicrobial potency. Confocal laser scanning microscopic results revealed the enhanced entry of nanocurcumin particles into microbial cells. The nanosized nature of nanocurcumin appears to have led to increased cellular interaction and thereby efficient destruction of microbial cells in the mouth. In addition, solubility of nanocurcumin is also believed to be a crucial factor behind its successful antimicrobial activity. This study proves that the bioactivity of a compound is greatly influenced by its solubility in water. This work recommends the use of water soluble nanocurcumin (extracted from turmeric) as potent substitute for curcumin in dental formulations. PMID:27283711

  20. Effect of a triazole fungicide on the cellulose decomposition by the soil microflora.

    PubMed

    Munier-Lamy, C; Borde, O

    2000-10-01

    The effect of flutriafol on the cellulose decomposition was studied in the laboratory as a dose-response experiment using a trade marked formulation. Cellulose degradation rates were determined by the weight loss from cellulose filter disks buried in soil samples and by the CO2 evolved during batch incubation experiments. To amounts recommended for field applications and ten-fold these dosages, flutriafol did not affect the cellulose decomposition ability of the soil-microflora. Highest dosages provoked an initial inhibitory effect, followed by a stimulation in cellulolytic activity. Possible reasons for the dose-response relationship were changes in the soil microflora in favour of bacteria, indicating the importance of the persistence and repeated applications of flutriafol.

  1. [Microflora of the mucous membrane of human tonsils in the normal state and in pathology].

    PubMed

    Khusnutdinova, L M

    2006-01-01

    A total of 50 healthy persons and 50 chronic tonsillitis patients were examined with the use of the bacteriological method. The microflora of tonsillar mucous membrane was represented by 8 genera of facultative anaerobic microorganisms. In the biocenosis of the tonsillar mucosa of the healthy subjects the occurrence of Streptococcus was 1.5-fold greater than in that of the patients; microorganisms of the genus Staphylococcus prevailed on the tonsillar mucosa of chronic tonsillitis patients 1.3-fold prevailed more often and Klebsiella and Neisseria prevailed 4-fold more often. Among the microorganisms isolated from the patients, cultures simultaneously having two or more pathogenicity markers occurred twice as often as among the representatives of the microbiocenosis obtained from the healthy subjects. The microflora of the tonsillar mucosa of the chronic tonsillitis patients was characterized by resistance to penicillins, macrolides and aminoglygosides, but was simultaneously sensitive to lincosamides and glycopeptides. PMID:16532644

  2. Effect of a triazole fungicide on the cellulose decomposition by the soil microflora.

    PubMed

    Munier-Lamy, C; Borde, O

    2000-10-01

    The effect of flutriafol on the cellulose decomposition was studied in the laboratory as a dose-response experiment using a trade marked formulation. Cellulose degradation rates were determined by the weight loss from cellulose filter disks buried in soil samples and by the CO2 evolved during batch incubation experiments. To amounts recommended for field applications and ten-fold these dosages, flutriafol did not affect the cellulose decomposition ability of the soil-microflora. Highest dosages provoked an initial inhibitory effect, followed by a stimulation in cellulolytic activity. Possible reasons for the dose-response relationship were changes in the soil microflora in favour of bacteria, indicating the importance of the persistence and repeated applications of flutriafol. PMID:10879820

  3. Screening for Intestinal Microflora Influencing Superoxide Dismutase Activity in Mouse Cecal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    DOBASHI, Yuu; ITOH, Kikuji; TOHEI, Atsushi; AMAO, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT We have suggested that intestinal microflora reduces the activity of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the mouse cecal mucosa. In this study, gnotobiotic mice were used to examine the species of intestinal microflora influencing SOD activity in the cecal mucosa. The total SOD activity in the cecal mucosa of each germ-free (GF), gnotobiotic mouse with Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus and Bacteroides was significantly higher than that in the cecal mucosa of gnotobiotic mice with chloroform-treated feces (CHF), conventionalized (CVz) mice and conventional (CV) mice (P<0.05). In addition, CuZnSOD mRNA expression showed similar tendencies. Our results suggest that the antioxidant defense status in the cecal mucosa is influenced by CHF inoculation. PMID:24225363

  4. Comparison of Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Pharyngeal, Rectal, and Urethral Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates among Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Akbar; Asbel, Lenore; Baldwin, Tamara; Gratzer, Beau; Guerry, Sarah; Kerani, Roxanne P.; Pathela, Preeti; Pettus, Kevin; Soge, Olusegun O.; Stirland, Ali; Weinstock, Hillard S.

    2015-01-01

    U.S. surveillance for Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial susceptibilities is based exclusively on male urethral isolates. These data inform gonorrhea treatment guidelines, including recommendations for the treatment of extragenital infections, but data on the susceptibilities of extragenital isolates are limited. We compared the antimicrobial susceptibilities of pharyngeal, rectal, and urethral gonococcal isolates collected from men who have sex with men (MSM), at five sentinel sites throughout the United States. MICs were determined by the agar dilution method. Generalized linear models were used to compare (i) the proportions of isolates with elevated MICs and (ii) geometric mean MICs according to anatomic site, adjusted for city. In December 2011 to September 2013, totals of 205 pharyngeal, 261 rectal, and 976 urethral isolates were obtained. The proportions of isolates with elevated ceftriaxone MICs (≥0.125 μg/ml) did not differ according to anatomic site (0.5% of pharyngeal isolates, 1.5% of rectal isolates, and 1.7% of urethral isolates, with a city-adjusted odds ratio [aOR] of 0.4 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.0 to 3.9] for pharyngeal versus urethral isolates and an aOR of 0.9 [95% CI, 0.2 to 4.2] for rectal versus urethral isolates). The city-adjusted geometric mean ceftriaxone MICs of pharyngeal (0.0153 μg/ml) and rectal (0.0157 μg/ml) isolates did not differ from that of urethral isolates (0.0150 μg/ml) (ratios of geometric mean MICs of 1.02 [95% CI, 0.90 to 1.17] and 1.05 [95% CI, 0.93 to 1.19], respectively). Similar results were observed for other antimicrobials, including cefixime and azithromycin. These findings suggest that, at the population level, gonococcal antimicrobial susceptibility surveillance based on urethral isolates from MSM adequately reflects the susceptibilities of N. gonorrhoeae strains circulating among MSM. PMID:25691638

  5. Pharyngeal airway protective reflexes are triggered before the maximum volume of fluid that the hypopharynx can safely hold is exceeded

    PubMed Central

    Dua, Kulwinder; Surapaneni, Sri Naveen; Kuribayashi, Shiko; Hafeezullah, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    Aerodigestive reflexes triggered by pharyngeal stimulation can protect the airways by clearing fluid from the pharynx. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the maximum capacity of fluid that can safely dwell in the hypopharynx [hypopharyngeal safe volume (HPSV)] before spilling into the larynx and the threshold volumes required to trigger pharyngoglottal closure reflex (PGCR), pharyngo-upper esophageal sphincter contractile reflex (PUCR), and reflexive pharyngeal swallow (RPS). Twenty-five healthy volunteers (mean age 24 yr, 8 males) were studied in the semi-inclined supine position. PGCR, PUCR, and RPS were elicited using techniques of concurrent upper esophageal sphincter manometry and pharyngo-laryngoscopy. The hypopharynx was then anesthetized to abolish RPS. HPSV was determined by infusing water in the pharynx, and perfusion was stopped when the infusate reached the superior margin of the interarytenoid fold. The threshold volumes for triggering PGCR, PUCR, and RPS by slow and rapid injections before pharyngeal anesthesia were 0.18 ± 0.02 and 0.09 ± 0.02 ml; 0.20 ± 0.020 and 0.13 ± 0.04 ml; and 0.61 ± 0.04 and 0.4 ± 0.06 ml, respectively. All of the above volumes were significantly smaller than the HPSV (0.70 ± 0.06 ml, P < 0.01) except for the threshold volume to elicit RPS during slow perfusion, which was not significantly different (P = 0.23). We conclude that pharyngeal aerodigestive reflexes are triggered by both slow and rapid pharyngeal perfusion of water at significantly smaller volumes than the maximum capacity of the hypopharynx to safely hold contents without spilling into the airway. These reflexes thereby aid in prevention of aspiration. PMID:21566013

  6. Investigation of the causes facilitating formation of microflora in atomic reactor pool water.

    PubMed

    el-Gawi, O; Saadawi, A; Abudaia, J; Maltsev, B N

    1992-01-01

    In the course of investigations realized by us earlier it was found that there was no difference between radioresistance of microbes taken from various water sources. As a matter of fact quality of the microflora clearly reflects a unique phenomenon called selection which causes disappearance of all radiosensitive and survival of radioresistant types of microbes. There is indeed an increased number of radioresistant types of microbes with intensified activity of catalase and nuclease in pool water of atomic reactors.

  7. Changes in the Microflora of Haddock Fillets and Shucked Soft-Shelled Clams After Irradiation with Co60 Gamma Rays and Storage at 0 C and 6 C

    PubMed Central

    Masurovsky, E. B.; Voss, J. S.; Goldblith, S. A.

    1963-01-01

    Frequency distribution patterns of aerobic-facultative microflora, obtained by random selection of macrocolonies from samples of haddock fillets and shucked soft-shelled clams before and after treatment with doses of from 50,000 to 800,000 rad of Co60 gamma rays, are presented, with analyses and interpretation. The data showed that a decided change occurred in the constitution of the microbial populations of both products: from a mixed gram-negative—gram-positive flora to a predominantly gram-positive flora immediately after irradiation. The great majority of these surviving microorganisms were micrococci, sporeforming bacilli, and certain yeasts, molds, and actinomyces. During storage at refrigeration temperatures above freezing, the microflora changed from the descendants of the more radioresistant gram-positive species to the more prolific gram-negative psychrophilic species that flourish at these low temperatures. Micrococci and gram-positive rods declined somewhat during the rise of the actively proteolytic-lipolytic pseudomonads and related species, but still remained at high enough levels to contribute significantly to the spoilage observed at different times in storage. The eventual spoilage of haddock fillets was characterized by discoloration of the cream-white tissue with water-soluble yellow, green, and red bacterial pigments; degradation of the tissue, by proteolytic and other microbial enzymes, to a watery, flaccid mass; and formation of volatile compounds that smelled putrid, rancid, and generally foul and pungent. Shucked soft-shelled clams displayed a different spoilage pattern, changing to a variegated brown-gray and forming a matted or loose gelatinous mass from which arose stale, acrid, putrid, sulfurous odors. These differences are believed to be attributable to the varied biochemical nature of the tissues involved, the Eh potential within the tissues, the time sequence of microfloral change, and the species and types of microorganisms

  8. Diagnosis and treatment of a pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in a Madagascar ground boa (Boa madagascariensis).

    PubMed

    Steeil, James C; Schumacher, Juergen; Hecht, Silke; Baine, Katherine; Ramsay, Edward C; Ferguson, Sylvia; Miller, Debra; Lee, Nathan D

    2013-03-01

    A 15-yr-old female Madagascar ground boa (Boa madagascariensis) presented with a history of anorexia, wheezing, and occasional open-mouth breathing. On oral examination, a firm, caseous mass was noted in the right caudoventral pharyngeal region, which was confirmed as a carcinoma on incisional biopsy. Advanced imaging (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) was performed to evaluate local tumor invasion and to plan for palliative radiation therapy. However, following the second treatment (10 Gy), the mass had increased in size, and the snake was euthanatized. Radiation-associated vasculitis was noted within the soft tissues surrounding the mass and within muscles and the lung, which was verified on histopathology. The squamous cell carcinoma of the snake in this report was resistant to palliative radiation therapy.

  9. The lethal effects of the cibarial and pharyngeal armatures of mosquitoes on microfilariae.

    PubMed

    McGreevy, P B; Bryan, J H; Oothuman, P; Kolstrup, N

    1978-01-01

    Microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia pahangi were killed by the chewing action of the cibarial and pharyngeal armatures and other papillae and spines in the fore-gut of mosquitoes. The proportion of ingested microfilariae that were killed was largely dependent on the presence and shape of the cibarial armature. Anopheles farauti No. 1 and Anopheles gambiae species A and B have well developed cibarial armatures and killed 36 to 96% of the ingested microfilariae. Culex pipiens fatigans has a poorly developed cibarial armature and killed only 6% of the microfilariae. Aedes aegypti and Aedes togoi lack cibarial armatures but have the remaining fore-gut structures. They killed only 2 to 22% of the microfilariae. The significance of these observations in relation to the control of filariasis with diethylcarbamazine is discussed.

  10. Severe viral oesophagitis, pharyngitis, and stomatitis as antecedents of ileocecal Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Waluga, Marek; Budzyńska, Agnieszka; Kajor, Maciej; Hartleb, Marek

    2015-01-01

    We present a 22-year-old male who developed a severe erosive oesophagitis extending to the pharynx and oral cavity without obvious risk factors. Endoscopic image suggested viral aetiology that could not be confirmed by routine serological diagnostics of infections with cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and Herpes simplex virus. The histopathological evaluation also gave no definite clues to the aetiology of the inflammation. Treatment with acyclovir was ineffective, but gancyclovir therapy caused spectacular clinical improvement and healing of erosions. Two months later the patient presented febrile diarrhoea that was a symptom of ileocecal Crohn's disease proven by endoscopy, enterography, and histopathology. It is the first report of severe viral oesophagitis preceding clinical manifestation of Crohn's disease. This observation warrants further study towards the viral aetiology of oral, pharyngeal, and oesophageal erosions, frequently associated with Crohn's disease. PMID:25960815

  11. SIADH Induced by Pharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Aleida; Suhail, Faten

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone (SIADH) is considered to be the most common cause of euvolemic hyponatremia. The most common malignancy associated with SIADH is small cell lung cancer. We present a rare case of a patient with SIADH secondary to well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the naso-oropharynx. Case. A 46-year-old Caucasian woman presented to emergency department with four-week history of progressive dysphagia. On examination, she was found to have a pharyngeal mass. CT scan and MRI of neck confirmed a mass highly suspicious of carcinoma. Patient's serum sodium level decreased to 118 mEq/L and other labs including serum and urine osmolality confirmed SIADH. She was started on fluid restriction and oral sodium tablets which gradually improved her serum sodium levels. Biopsy confirmed diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of pharynx. Conclusion. SIADH can be caused by squamous cell carcinoma. Appropriate management includes fluid restriction.

  12. An audit of pharyngeal gonorrhoea treatment in a public sexual health clinic in Adelaide, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Hustig, A; Bell, C; Waddell, R

    2013-05-01

    In recent times there have been changes to guidelines regarding the management of gonorrhoea, from both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2010 and the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) in 2011. Coinciding with their release we conducted a clinical audit of our treatment protocol for gonorrhoea. In 2010, local data on the minimum inhibitory concentrations for Neisseria gonorrhoeae indicated an increase in local isolates that were less sensitive to ceftriaxone (11.6% c.f. 5.3% in 2009). We have a long history of using 250 mg of ceftriaxone to treat all standard sites of gonorrhoea infection followed with tests of cure in all cases. In a retrospective clinical audit of an 11-year period from 2000 up to and including 2010 we identified six test-of-cure failures over 11 years after treating a total of 215 patients with pharyngeal gonorrhoea.

  13. SIADH Induced by Pharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Aleida; Suhail, Faten

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone (SIADH) is considered to be the most common cause of euvolemic hyponatremia. The most common malignancy associated with SIADH is small cell lung cancer. We present a rare case of a patient with SIADH secondary to well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the naso-oropharynx. Case. A 46-year-old Caucasian woman presented to emergency department with four-week history of progressive dysphagia. On examination, she was found to have a pharyngeal mass. CT scan and MRI of neck confirmed a mass highly suspicious of carcinoma. Patient's serum sodium level decreased to 118 mEq/L and other labs including serum and urine osmolality confirmed SIADH. She was started on fluid restriction and oral sodium tablets which gradually improved her serum sodium levels. Biopsy confirmed diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of pharynx. Conclusion. SIADH can be caused by squamous cell carcinoma. Appropriate management includes fluid restriction. PMID:27635269

  14. In-vitro evaluation of three lasers for the potential treatment of equine pharyngeal lymphoid hyperplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Lloyd P.; Weddle, Diann L.; Correa, Maria T.

    1993-07-01

    Three medical lasers, Argon, CO2, and Nd:YAG, were studied at power outputs of 5 watts, 5 watts, and 40 watts respectively. Laser irradiation was directed at the pharyngeal mucosa of sagittally split horses heads in a randomized fashion. Areas irradiated were measured immediately using hand held calipers, and after being prepared for microscopic examination to determine width and depth of penetration into the mucosa. The results indicated that tissue destruction produced by the CO2 laser was predictable compared to the Nd:YAG laser. The Argon laser, between 1 and 6 seconds of exposure, produced only superficial photoablation of mucosal tissue which did not extend into the muscular layer. The conclusion of this in vitro investigation was that the Argon laser irradiation applied transendoscopically may be a reasonable substitute for surgery and electrocautery commonly used to treat follicular lymphoid hyperplasia, a respiratory disease of young horses.

  15. SIADH Induced by Pharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Arshad, Hafiz Muhammad Sharjeel; Rodriguez, Aleida; Suhail, Faten

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone (SIADH) is considered to be the most common cause of euvolemic hyponatremia. The most common malignancy associated with SIADH is small cell lung cancer. We present a rare case of a patient with SIADH secondary to well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the naso-oropharynx. Case. A 46-year-old Caucasian woman presented to emergency department with four-week history of progressive dysphagia. On examination, she was found to have a pharyngeal mass. CT scan and MRI of neck confirmed a mass highly suspicious of carcinoma. Patient's serum sodium level decreased to 118 mEq/L and other labs including serum and urine osmolality confirmed SIADH. She was started on fluid restriction and oral sodium tablets which gradually improved her serum sodium levels. Biopsy confirmed diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of pharynx. Conclusion. SIADH can be caused by squamous cell carcinoma. Appropriate management includes fluid restriction. PMID:27635269

  16. Facial diplegia, pharyngeal paralysis, and ophthalmoplegia after a timber rattlesnake envenomation.

    PubMed

    Madey, Jason J; Price, Amanda B; Dobson, Joseph V; Stickler, David E; McSwain, S David

    2013-11-01

    The timber rattlesnake, also known as Crotalus horridus, is well known to cause significant injury from toxins stored within its venom. During envenomation, toxic systemic effects immediately begin to cause damage to many organ systems including cardiovascular, hematologic, musculoskeletal, respiratory, and neurologic. One defining characteristic of the timber rattlesnake is a specific neurotoxin called crotoxin, or the "canebrake toxin," which is a potent β-neurotoxin affecting presynaptic nerves that can cause paralysis by inhibiting appropriate neuromuscular transmission. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old boy bitten twice on his calf by a timber rattlesnake, who presented with a life-threatening envenomation and suffered multisystem organ failure as well as a prominent presynaptic neurotoxicity resulting in facial diplegia, pharyngeal paralysis, and ophthalmoplegia.

  17. A pharyngeal jaw evolutionary innovation facilitated extinction in Lake Victoria cichlids.

    PubMed

    McGee, Matthew D; Borstein, Samuel R; Neches, Russell Y; Buescher, Heinz H; Seehausen, Ole; Wainwright, Peter C

    2015-11-27

    Evolutionary innovations, traits that give species access to previously unoccupied niches, may promote speciation and adaptive radiation. Here, we show that such innovations can also result in competitive inferiority and extinction. We present evidence that the modified pharyngeal jaws of cichlid fishes and several marine fish lineages, a classic example of evolutionary innovation, are not universally beneficial. A large-scale analysis of dietary evolution across marine fish lineages reveals that the innovation compromises access to energy-rich predator niches. We show that this competitive inferiority shaped the adaptive radiation of cichlids in Lake Tanganyika and played a pivotal and previously unrecognized role in the mass extinction of cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria after Nile perch invasion.

  18. Three-dimensional relationship between pharyngeal airway and maxillo-facial morphology.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Yu

    2008-05-01

    In this study, to clarify the influence of the maxillo-mandibular bones and cranium on airway morphology, maxillo-facial morphology in patients with jaw deformation was measured using cephalograms and X-ray CT imaging data. Subjects consisted of 25 adult women in whom cephalograms and X-ray CT were taken to diagnose jaw deformation. The data obtained were classified based on skeletal and facial patterns according to Ricketts analysis, and changes in internal diameter, height and volume of the middle pharyngeal airway were observed. The results showed that the internal diameter of the inferior airway expanded anteriorly when the mandibular bone was in the anterior position, and was slightly constricted and elongated vertically when the mandibular bone was posteriorly rotated. This suggests that airway volume is influenced by the anteroposterior position of the mandibular bone, in that it compensates for decreases in its volume by extending its height inferiorly to cope with posterior deviation of the mandibular bone.

  19. A pharyngeal jaw evolutionary innovation facilitated extinction in Lake Victoria cichlids.

    PubMed

    McGee, Matthew D; Borstein, Samuel R; Neches, Russell Y; Buescher, Heinz H; Seehausen, Ole; Wainwright, Peter C

    2015-11-27

    Evolutionary innovations, traits that give species access to previously unoccupied niches, may promote speciation and adaptive radiation. Here, we show that such innovations can also result in competitive inferiority and extinction. We present evidence that the modified pharyngeal jaws of cichlid fishes and several marine fish lineages, a classic example of evolutionary innovation, are not universally beneficial. A large-scale analysis of dietary evolution across marine fish lineages reveals that the innovation compromises access to energy-rich predator niches. We show that this competitive inferiority shaped the adaptive radiation of cichlids in Lake Tanganyika and played a pivotal and previously unrecognized role in the mass extinction of cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria after Nile perch invasion. PMID:26612951

  20. The pharyngeal organ in the buccal cavity of the male Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, supplies mucus for building bubble nests.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chao-Kai; Lee, Tsung-Han

    2010-11-01

    The male Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, builds a bubble nest on the water surface to care for offspring during the reproductive period. To our knowledge, this study is the first to determine the composition of the bubble nest and to compare the pharyngeal organs of male and female Siamese fighting fish to determine the relationship between the pharyngeal organ and the ability to make bubble nests. Dot blots of the bubble nest probed with periodic acid-Schiff's (PAS) staining and Ponceau S solution revealed that the contents of the nest are glycoprotein rich. Dissection of the heads of Siamese fighting fish showed that the pharyngeal organ is located in the position through which inhaled air passes. The epithelial structure of the pharyngeal organ of the Siamese fighting fish, like that of other teleosts, has numerous wrinkles and papillae. Mucous goblet cells were observed on the epithelium of pharyngeal organs in male and female fish. The pharyngeal organ was found to be larger in male than in female fish. In addition, the epithelium of the pharyngeal organ in male fish has a greater number of mucous goblet cells than that in female fish. In Siamese fighting fish, this sexual dimorphism of the pharyngeal organ suggests that the male fish secretes more glycoprotein-rich mucus to build the bubble nest. Future work will focus on the type of mucous cells found in the epithelium of the pharyngeal organ that contributes to bubble formation and will determine the components of the mucus in the bubble nest. PMID:21039125

  1. Influence of the destabilisation of the maternal digestive microflora on that of the newborn rat.

    PubMed

    Brunel, A; Gouet, P

    1993-01-01

    By destabilising the digestive flora of pregnant rats by antibiotic treatment, it was shown that part of the digestive microflora of the neonate originated from the maternal faeces. A mixture of ampicillin, bacitracin neomycin and streptomycin associated with nystatin were administered ad libitum at three different times, 1-3, 3-5, and more than 5 days before the estimated date of littering. For each treatment, samples were taken from the faeces, teats, and vagina of dams and from the digestive tracts of neonates aged between 6 and 120 h, and analysed for the presence of staphylococci, enterococci, lactobacilli and coliform bacteria. Antibiotic treatment reduced digestive flora populations to levels lower than 10(2) g-1 but had less effect on the vaginal and cutaneous mammary flora. In the digestive microflora of the neonate, the enterococci were unevenly affected, whereas the staphylococci were considerably decreased and the lactobacilli almost completely eliminated; coliform bacteria were found sporadically and in small numbers. The traces of antibiotics found in milk are not sufficient to explain these modifications. Counts made in control animals on media fed the same antibiotic concentrations were not modified. This work underlined the awful consequences for the newborn of a serious perturbation of the mother flora and the necessity of its presence for a normal installation of the digestive microflora of the newborn.

  2. Plant--rhizosphere-microflora association during phytoremediation of PAH-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Muratova, A; Hūbner, Th; Tischer, S; Turkovskaya, O; Möder, M; Kuschk, P

    2003-01-01

    The capability of plants to promote the microbial degradation of pollutants in rhizosphere soil is a principal mechanism of phytoremediation of PAH-contaminated soil. The formation of a specific rhizosphere microbocenosis with a high degradative potential toward contaminants is largely determined by plant species. The comparative PAH-degradation in unplanted soil and in soil planted with reed (Phragmites australis) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) was studied in pot experiments during 2 years. Both alfalfa and reed successfully remediated contaminated soil by degrading 74.5 and 68.7% of PAHs, respectively. The study of the rhizosphere, rhizoplane, and unplanted-soil microflora in experimental pots showed that alfalfa stimulated the rhizosphere microflora of PAH-contaminated soil more effectively than did reed. Alfalfa clearly enhanced both the total number of microorganisms (1.3 times, according to fluorescence microscopy data) and the rate of the PAH-degrading population (almost seven times, according to plate counting). The degradative potential of its rhizosphere microflora toward PAHs was higher than the degradative activity of the reed rhizosphere. This study provides relevant information for the successful application of alfalfa to phytoremediate PAH-contaminated soil.

  3. [Effects of actinomycetes agent on ginseng growth and rhizosphere soil microflora].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-yan; Xue, Quan-hong; Shen, Guang-hui; Wang, Dong-sheng

    2013-08-01

    Taking the ginseng in Xiao Xing' an Mountains of Northeast China as test object, this paper studied the effects of applying Streptomyces pactum (Act12) on ginseng growth and on the soil microflora in root zone and root surface. After treated with Act12, the yield and quality of ginseng' s medicinal part improved, the induced enzyme activities in leaves and the root activity increased, and the numbers and proportions of soil bacteria and actinomycetes increased significantly while those of soil fungi decreased. Compared with the control, the soil microflora in treatment Act12 changed. The numbers of the dominant bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas koreensis, and Microbacterium oxydans were much higher in root zone soil and root surface soil, and the pathogen Plectosphaerella cucumerina decreased in root zone soil and disappeared in root surface soil. These results suggested that the addition of Act12 could improve the soil microflora, enhance the resistance and root activity of ginseng plant, and increase the ginseng yield and its quality.

  4. [Microflora of active ooze participating in the decomposition of sulfanilic acid].

    PubMed

    Orshanskaia, F B; Arkad'eva, A Z; Kozlova, E I

    1975-01-01

    Microflora of domestic water can be a source of active ooze adapted to sulphanilic acid. Adaptation of the microflora to sulphanilic acid at a concentration of 170-200 mg/l takes 6 to 8 days. The microflora of active ooze, immediately after adaptation, consists mainly of Pseudomonas species, Ps. denitrificans, Ps. fluorescens, Ps. striata, Ps. putida, etc., and also of Achromobacter stutzeri, Achromobacter flavum, Mycobacterium phlei, Mycobacterium mucosum, Bacillus mesentericus, Bac. cereus, saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and Rhodotorula glutinus. The number of the species decreased as a result of long cultivation of active ooze on a minimal medium with sulphanilic acid as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen; the following strains prevailed: Ps. putida, Ps. eisenbergii, strains of Mycobacterium phlei and Flavobacterium solare. The isolated strains of Ps. putida and Ps. eisenbergii decomposed sulphanilic acid by 60.0--79.5 percent, and together with Mycobacterium phlei by 100 percent during 4 to 7 days. The ability to oxidize sulphanilic acid decreased after storage. Addition to the medium of other sources of carbon, nitrogen and vitamins did not restore the lost ability of the microorganisms to decompose sulphanilic acid.

  5. Qualitative assessment of vaginal microflora during use of tampons of various compositions.

    PubMed

    Onderdonk, A B; Zamarchi, G R; Rodriguez, M L; Hirsch, M L; Muñoz, A; Kass, E H

    1987-12-01

    The effect of vaginal tampons on the microbial flora during menstruation has recently been studied by several investigators. However, little information regarding the qualitative effects attributable to particular tampon fibers is available. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of polyacrylate rayon tampons and cotton-viscose rayon blend tampons on the qualitative bacterial counts obtained from tampons and concomitant vaginal swabs and to determine whether either of these tampon types alters the qualitative makeup of the vaginal microflora when compared with the microflora in the same women using all-cotton tampons or external catamenial pads. Tampon and swab samples were obtained as described previously (A. B. Onderdonk, G. R. Zamarchi, M. L. Rodriguez, M. L. Hirsch, A. Muñoz, and E. H. Kass, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53:2774-2778). The genus and species of the six dominant bacterial species in each sample were identified, if possible. A statistical evaluation of the qualitative makeup of the microflora revealed that the same numerically dominant phenotypes were present regardless of sample type, sample time, or catamenial product. Predictable changes in total numbers among the dominant species were also noted when the data were evaluated by day of menstrual cycle. The correlation between the total numbers of each dominant species present was evaluated by day of cycle, and the findings are discussed.

  6. The function of the intestinal microflora in patients with ulcerative colitis before and after colectomy.

    PubMed

    Leijonmarck, C E; Benno, P; Carlstedt-Duke, B; Monsen, U; Norin, E; Poppen, B; Saxerholt, H; Midtvedt, T

    1990-06-01

    The function of the intestinal microflora was studied in patients with ulcerative colitis before and after colectomy. The following six microflora-associated characteristics (MACs) were investigated: formation of coprostanol and urobilinogen; degradation of mucin, water-soluble protein, and beta-aspartylglycine; and presence of faecal tryptic activity. In 12 unoperated patients without sulphasalazine as maintenance therapy the six MACs were similar to those in normal subjects. In 12 unoperated patients receiving sulphasalazine the formation of coprostanol and urobilinogen was significantly lower (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively) and the level of faecal tryptic activity was significantly higher (p less than 0.01) than in normal subjects. The functional capacity of the microflora in operated patients treated by colectomy combined with one of four surgical procedures (ileorectal anastomosis, ileoanal anastomosis with pelvic pouch, Kock's continent ileostomy, or conventional ileostomy) was disturbed with regard to all six MACs. The disturbance was most pronounced in patients with conventional ileostomy. PMID:1972811

  7. Pharyngeal aspiration of metal oxide nanoparticles showed potential of allergy aggravation effect to inhaled ovalbumin.

    PubMed

    Horie, Masanori; Stowe, Mayumi; Tabei, Miki; Kuroda, Etsushi

    2015-02-01

    The inhalation of manufactured metal oxide nanoparticles may lead to pulmonary toxicity. For instance, ZnO nanoparticles are known to induce pulmonary oxidative stress and inflammation. On the other hand, the pulmonary toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles is less than that of ZnO nanoparticles. Although, there have been some investigations concerning the induction of pulmonary oxidative stress and inflammation caused by manufactured metal oxide nanoparticles. And, although, it has reported that some nanoparticles cause aggravation of allergic reactions, there have so far been no reports regarding allergy aggravation effects of manufactured metal oxide nanoparticles. In this study, three types of nanoparticles, TiO2, ZnO and SiO2, were administered to mouse lungs by pharyngeal aspiration. Subsequently, the mice inhaled ovalbumin (OVA) a total of eight times over 3 weeks. After inhalation of OVA, the concentrations of total IgE, OVA-specific IgE and OVA-specific IgG1 in serum increased in the mice treated with ZnO. TiO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles did not affect the OVA-specific IgE and IgG1 levels. These results suggest that ZnO nanoparticles have the potential to aggravate allergic reactions. The results also suggest that Zn(2+) release from ZnO nanoparticles is involved in the aggravation potential of allergies. However, pharyngeal aspiration of ZnCl2 solution was not able to aggravate allergic reactions. Continuous Zn(2+) release from ZnO nanoparticles to the lung is necessary for the aggravation of allergic reactions.

  8. Pharyngeal Colonization Dynamics of Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus in Healthy Adult Carriers▿

    PubMed Central

    Mukundan, Deepa; Ecevit, Zafer; Patel, Mayuri; Marrs, Carl F.; Gilsdorf, Janet R.

    2007-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is an important cause of respiratory infections, including acute otitis media, sinusitis, and chronic bronchitis, which are preceded by asymptomatic H. influenzae colonization of the human pharynx. The aim of this study was to describe the dynamics of pharyngeal colonization by H. influenzae and an intimately related species, Haemophilus haemolyticus, in healthy adults. Throat specimens from four healthy adult carriers were screened for Haemophilus species; 860 isolates were identified as H. influenzae or H. haemolyticus based on the porphyrin test and on dependence on hemin and NAD for growth. Based on tests for hemolysis, for the presence of the 7F3 epitope of the P6 protein, and for the presence of iga in 412 of the isolates, 346 (84%) were H. influenzae, 47 (11%) were H. haemolyticus, 18 (4%) were nonhemolytic H. haemolyticus, and 1 was a variant strain. Carriers A and B were predominantly colonized with nontypeable H. influenzae, carrier C predominantly with b− H. influenzae mutants, and carrier D with H. haemolyticus. A total of 358 H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus isolates were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) following SmaI or EagI digestion of their DNA, and the carriers displayed the following: carrier A had 11 unique PFGE genotypes, carrier B had 15, carrier C had 7, and carrier D had 10. Thus, adult H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus carriers are colonized with multiple unique genotypes, the colonizing strains exhibit genetic diversity, and we observed day-to-day and week-to-week variability of the genotypes. These results appear to reflect both evolutionary processes that occur among H. influenzae isolates during asymptomatic pharyngeal carriage and sample-to-sample collection bias from a large, variable population of colonizing bacteria. PMID:17687018

  9. Aerobic Excercise and Research Opportunities to Benefit Impaired Children. (Project AEROBIC). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho Univ., Moscow.

    The final report summarizes accomplishments of Project AEROBIC (Aerobic Exercise and Research Opportunities to Benefit Impaired Children), which provided a physical education exercise program for severely, profoundly, and multiply handicapped children aged 10-21. Activities are outlined for the 3 year period and include modification of exercise…

  10. Bacterial diversity and spoilage-related microbiota associated with freshly prepared chicken products under aerobic conditions at 4°C.

    PubMed

    Liang, Rongrong; Yu, Xiaoqiao; Wang, Renhuan; Luo, Xin; Mao, Yanwei; Zhu, Lixian; Zhang, Yimin

    2012-06-01

    This study analyzed the bacterial diversity and spoilage-related microbiota associated with freshly prepared chicken products stored aerobically at 4°C, using "bone and chicken string," a product popular in the People's Republic of China, as the study subject. Samples collected from three different factories were tray packaged with cling film and stored at 4°C. Bacterial diversity and dominant bacteria were analyzed using PCR amplification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Combined with selective cultivation of the dominant bacteria and correlation analysis, the dominant spoilage microbiota was determined. The results showed that bacterial diversity varied with different manufacturers. Such bacteria as Acinetobacter sp., Carnobacterium sp., Rahnella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Brochothrix sp., and Weissella sp. were detected in freshly prepared chicken products during storage. And Carnobacterium sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Brochothrix sp. bacteria were the common dominant spoilage bacteria groups in most freshly prepared chicken products from different factories. Carnobacterium was, for the first time, shown to be an important contributor to the spoilage-related microflora of freshly prepared chicken products stored aerobically under refrigeration. Our work shows the bacterial diversity and dominant spoilage microbiota of freshly prepared chicken products stored aerobically under refrigeration.

  11. Growth characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes as affected by a native microflora in cooked ham under refrigerated and temperature abuse conditions.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Cheng-An; Sheen, Shiowshuh

    2011-05-01

    This study examined the growth characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes as affected by a native microflora in cooked ham at refrigerated and abuse temperatures. A five-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes and a native microflora, consisting of Brochothrix spp., isolated from cooked meat were inoculated alone (monocultured) or co-inoculated (co-cultured) onto cooked ham slices. The growth characteristics, lag phase duration (LPD, h), growth rate (GR, log(10) cfu/h), and maximum population density (MPD, log(10) cfu/g), of L. monocytogenes and the native microflora in vacuum-packed ham slices stored at 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 °C for up to 5 weeks were determined. At 4-12 °C, the LPDs of co-cultured L. monocytogenes were not significantly different from those of monocultured L. monocytogenes in ham, indicating the LPDs of L. monocytogenes at 4-12 °C were not influenced by the presence of the native microflora. At 4-8 °C, the GRs of co-cultured L. monocytogenes (0.0114-0.0130 log(10) cfu/h) were statistically but marginally lower than those of monocultured L. monocytogenes (0.0132-0.0145 log(10) cfu/h), indicating the GRs of L. monocytogenes at 4-8 °C were reduced by the presence of the native microflora. The GRs of L. monocytogenes were reduced by 8-7% with the presence of the native microflora at 4-8 °C, whereas there was less influence of the native microflora on the GRs of L. monocytogenes at 10 and 12 °C. The MPDs of L. monocytogenes at 4-8 °C were also reduced by the presence of the native microflora. Data from this study provide additional information regarding the growth suppression of L. monocytogenes by the native microflora for assessing the survival and growth of L. monocytogenes in ready-to-eat meat products.

  12. Controlling the catalytic aerobic oxidation of phenols.

    PubMed

    Esguerra, Kenneth Virgel N; Fall, Yacoub; Petitjean, Laurène; Lumb, Jean-Philip

    2014-05-28

    The oxidation of phenols is the subject of extensive investigation, but there are few catalytic aerobic examples that are chemo- and regioselective. Here we describe conditions for the ortho-oxygenation or oxidative coupling of phenols under copper (Cu)-catalyzed aerobic conditions that give rise to ortho-quinones, biphenols or benzoxepines. We demonstrate that each product class can be accessed selectively by the appropriate choice of Cu(I) salt, amine ligand, desiccant and reaction temperature. In addition, we evaluate the effects of substituents on the phenol and demonstrate their influence on selectivity between ortho-oxygenation and oxidative coupling pathways. These results create an important precedent of catalyst control in the catalytic aerobic oxidation of phenols and set the stage for future development of catalytic systems and mechanistic investigations. PMID:24784319

  13. Drying and recovery of aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianjun; Zhang, Quanguo; Chen, Yu-You; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-10-01

    To dehydrate aerobic granules to bone-dry form was proposed as a promising option for long-term storage of aerobic granules. This study cultivated aerobic granules with high proteins/polysaccharide ratio and then dried these granules using seven protocols: drying at 37°C, 60°C, 4°C, under sunlight, in dark, in a flowing air stream or in concentrated acetone solutions. All dried granules experienced volume shrinkage of over 80% without major structural breakdown. After three recovery batches, although with loss of part of the volatile suspended solids, all dried granules were restored most of their original size and organic matter degradation capabilities. The strains that can survive over the drying and storage periods were also identified. Once the granules were dried, they can be stored over long period of time, with minimal impact yielded by the applied drying protocols. PMID:27392096

  14. High temperature effect on microflora of radish root-inhabited zone and nutrient solutions for radish growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodina, E. V.; Tirranen, L. S.

    The effect of high temperatures (35 and 45 °C) on microflora of the root zone of radish plants grown in phytotron was evaluated by the response of microorganisms from 9 indicator groups. Phytotron air temperature elevated to 35 °C for 20 hours caused no significant changes in qualitative and quantitative composition of the root microflora in experimental plants. By the end of the experiment, the species diversity of microflora had changed. The amount of phytopathogenic microorganisms decreased which can be interpreted as more stable co-existence of microflora with plants. The numbers of microbes from other indicator groups was in dynamic equilibrium. The plants' condition did not deteriorate either. Exposure to the temperature of 45 °C for 7 hours have been found to change the numbers and species diversity in the radish root zone microflora. The microorganisms were observed to increase their total numbers at the expense of certain indicator groups. Bacteria increased spore forms at the stage of spores. Colon bacillus bacteria of increased their numbers by the end of experiment by an order. By the end of experiment the roots of experiment plants had microscopic fungi from Mucor, Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Cladosporium genera. The observed changes in the microbial complex seem to be associated with the changes of root emissions and general deterioration of the plants' condition. It is suggested that the response of the microorganisms can be indicative of the condition of plants under investigation.

  15. Composite growth model applied to human oral and pharyngeal structures and identifying the contribution of growth types.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Chung, Moo K; Vorperian, Houri K

    2013-11-13

    The growth patterns of different anatomic structures in the human body vary in terms of growth amount over time, growth rate and growth periods. The oral and pharyngeal structures, also known as vocal tract structures, are housed in the craniofacial complex where the cranium/brain follows a distinct neural growth pattern, and the face follows a distinct somatic or skeletal growth pattern. Thus, it is reasonable to expect the oral and pharyngeal structures to follow a combined or mixed growth pattern. Existing parametric growth models are limited in that they are mainly focused on modeling one particular type of growth pattern. In this paper, we propose a novel composite growth model using neural and somatic baseline curves to fit the combined growth pattern of select vocal tract structures. The method can also determine the overall percent contribution of each of the growth types.

  16. Scale and tooth phenotypes in medaka with a mutated ectodysplasin-A receptor: implications for the evolutionary origin of oral and pharyngeal teeth.

    PubMed

    Atukorala, A D S; Inohaya, Keiji; Baba, Otto; Tabata, Makoto J; Ratnayake, R A R K; Abduweli, Dawud; Kasugai, Shohei; Mitani, Hiroshi; Takano, Yoshiro

    2010-01-01

    Ectodermal contribution to the induction of pharyngeal teeth that form in the endodermal territory of the oropharyngeal cavity in some teleost fishes has been a matter of considerable debate. To determine the role of ectodermal cell signaling in scale and tooth formation and thereby to gain insights in evolutionary origin of teeth, we analyzed scales and teeth in rs-3 medaka mutants characterized by reduced scale numbers due to aberrant splicing of the ectodysplasin-A receptor (edar). Current data show that, in addition to a loss of scales (83% reduction), a drastic loss of teeth occurred in both oral (43.5% reduction) and pharyngeal (73.5% reduction) dentitions in rs-3. The remaining scales of rs-3 were irregular in shape and nearly 3 times larger in size relative to those of the wild-type. In contrast, there was no abnormality in size and shape in the remaining teeth of rs-3. In wild-type medaka embryos, there was a direct contact between the surface ectoderm and rostral endoderm in pharyngeal regions before the onset of pharyngeal tooth formation. However, there was no sign of ectodermal cell migration in the pharyngeal endoderm and hence no direct evidence of any ectodermal contribution to pharyngeal odontogenesis. These data suggest differential roles for Eda-Edar signaling in the induction and growth of scales and teeth and support the intrinsic odontogenic competence of the rostral endoderm in medaka.

  17. A human model of restricted upper esophageal sphincter opening and its pharyngeal and UES deglutitive pressure phenomena.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Hongmei; Mei, Ling; Sharma, Tarun; Kern, Mark; Sanvanson, Patrick; Shaker, Reza

    2016-07-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia due to upper esophageal sphincter (UES) dysfunction is commonly encountered in the clinical setting. Selective experimental perturbation of various components of the deglutitive apparatus can provide an opportunity to improve our understanding of the swallowing physiology and pathophysiology. The aim is to characterize the pharyngeal and UES deglutitive pressure phenomena in an experimentally induced restriction of UES opening in humans. We studied 14 volunteers without any dysphagic symptoms (7 men, 66 ± 11 yr) but with various supraesophageal reflux symptoms. To induce UES restriction, we used a handmade device that with adjustment could selectively apply 0, 20, 30, or 40 mmHg pressure perpendicularly to the cricoid cartilage. Deglutitive pharyngeal and UES pressure phenomena were determined during dry and 5- and 10-ml water swallows × 3 for each of the UES perturbations. External cricoid pressure against the UES resulted in a significant increase in hypopharyngeal intrabolus pressure and UES nadir deglutitive relaxation pressure for all tested swallowed volumes (P < 0.05). Application of external cricoid pressure increased the length of the UES high pressure zone from 2.5 ± 0.2 to 3.1 ± 0.2, 3.5 ± 0.1, and 3.7 ± 0.1 cm for 20, 30, and 40 mmHg cricoid pressure, respectively (P < 0.05). External cricoid pressure had no significant effect on pharyngeal peristalsis. On the other hand, irrespective of external cricoid pressure deglutitive velopharyngeal contractile integral progressively increased with increased swallowed volumes (P < 0.05). In conclusion, acute experimental restriction of UES opening by external cricoid pressure manifests the pressure characteristics of increased resistance to UES transsphincteric flow observed clinically without affecting the pharyngeal peristaltic contractile function. PMID:27198193

  18. ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC TREATMENT OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological degradation of 12 chlorinated aliphatic compounds (CACs) was assessed in bench-top reactors and in serum bottle tests. Three continuously mixed daily batch-fed reactor systems were evaluated: anaerobic, aerobic, and sequential-anaerobic-aerobic (sequential). Glucose,...

  19. Operator Influence on Blinded Diagnostic Accuracy of Point-of-Care Antigen Testing for Group A Streptococcal Pharyngitis.

    PubMed

    Penney, Carla; Porter, Robert; O'Brien, Mary; Daley, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background. Acute pharyngitis caused by Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a common presentation to pediatric emergency departments (ED). Diagnosis with conventional throat culture requires 18-24 hours, which prevents point-of-care treatment decisions. Rapid antigen detection tests (RADT) are faster, but previous reports demonstrate significant operator influence on performance. Objective. To measure operator influence on the diagnostic accuracy of a RADT when performed by pediatric ED nurses and clinical microbiology laboratory technologists, using conventional culture as the reference standard. Methods. Children presenting to a pediatric ED with suspected acute pharyngitis were recruited. Three pharyngeal swabs were collected at once. One swab was used to perform the RADT in the ED, and two were sent to the clinical microbiology laboratory for RADT and conventional culture testing. Results. The RADT when performed by technologists compared to nurses had a 5.1% increased sensitivity (81.4% versus 76.3%) (p = 0.791) (95% CI for difference between technologists and nurses = -11% to +21%) but similar specificity (97.7% versus 96.6%). Conclusion. The performance of the RADT was similar between technologists and ED nurses, although adequate power was not achieved. RADT may be employed in the ED without clinically significant loss of sensitivity. PMID:27579047

  20. Low-power CO2 laser in the treatment of chronic pharyngitis: a five-year experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicola, Ester M. D.; Nicola, Jorge H.

    1994-09-01

    Spatial and temporal coherence are properties of laser light we studied for some time as responsible for biophysical phenomena, capable of significant contributions in the treatment of chronic inflammatory lesions. In this paper we present the results of five years experience in the application of CO2 low power laser (LPL) therapy as a new means of treating chronic pharyngitis. Based on our previous studies, we selected 85 patients with nonspecific chronic pharyngitis to be treated at our laser unit. The patients were grouped as follows: Group I, 40 patients, predominance of hyperemic aspect; and Group II, 45 patients, predominance of hypertrophied aspect. Both groups were submitted to low power irradiation of CO2 laser in eight to ten sessions, one week interval according to the evolution of symptoms. The good results obtained lead us to conclude that this new application for LPL is very suitable for systematic treatment of chronic pharyngitis: a very common and disturbing symptom for a great number of ear, nose, and throat patients, still lacking an effective form of therapy.

  1. Operator Influence on Blinded Diagnostic Accuracy of Point-of-Care Antigen Testing for Group A Streptococcal Pharyngitis

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background. Acute pharyngitis caused by Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a common presentation to pediatric emergency departments (ED). Diagnosis with conventional throat culture requires 18–24 hours, which prevents point-of-care treatment decisions. Rapid antigen detection tests (RADT) are faster, but previous reports demonstrate significant operator influence on performance. Objective. To measure operator influence on the diagnostic accuracy of a RADT when performed by pediatric ED nurses and clinical microbiology laboratory technologists, using conventional culture as the reference standard. Methods. Children presenting to a pediatric ED with suspected acute pharyngitis were recruited. Three pharyngeal swabs were collected at once. One swab was used to perform the RADT in the ED, and two were sent to the clinical microbiology laboratory for RADT and conventional culture testing. Results. The RADT when performed by technologists compared to nurses had a 5.1% increased sensitivity (81.4% versus 76.3%) (p = 0.791) (95% CI for difference between technologists and nurses = −11% to +21%) but similar specificity (97.7% versus 96.6%). Conclusion. The performance of the RADT was similar between technologists and ED nurses, although adequate power was not achieved. RADT may be employed in the ED without clinically significant loss of sensitivity. PMID:27579047

  2. Analogue simulation of pharyngeal airflow response to Twin Block treatment in growing patients with Class II1 and mandibular retrognathia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liang; Wu, Wei; Yan, Guijun; Liu, Li; Liu, Hong; Li, Guojv; Li, Jing; Liu, Dongxu

    2016-01-01

    The flow dynamics of respiratory airflow is the basic factor that influences the ventilation function of the upper airway. This research aimed to investigate the pharyngeal flow field characteristics after Twin Block (TB) treatment in growing patients with Class II1 and mandibular retrognathia by computation fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans of patients who have completed TB treatment (n = 30) and about to accept TB treatment (n = 30) were reconstructed. After CFD simulation, correlations between the pharyngeal pressure drop and morphological parameters were further analyzed. During inspiration, we found that the pressure minimum occurred in the hypopharynx, while the maximum pressure drop and velocity was located in the oropharynx. After TB treatment, the oropharynx and hypopharynx showed significant differences in airflow features, and the most obvious change was observed in the oropharynx. A significant correlation was discovered between the change amount of oropharyngeal pressure drop and volume (r = 0.694, p = 0.001), mean cross-sectional area (r = 0.859, p = 0.000), and ratio of the minimum and mean cross-sectional area (r = 0.898, p = 0.000) of the oropharynx. Our research suggested that the pharyngeal airflow characteristics response positively to mandibular advancement with the enlargement in volume, cross-sectional area and more uniform oropharyngeal area distribution. PMID:27188799

  3. Roles for FGF in lamprey pharyngeal pouch formation and skeletogenesis highlight ancestral functions in the vertebrate head.

    PubMed

    Jandzik, David; Hawkins, M Brent; Cattell, Maria V; Cerny, Robert; Square, Tyler A; Medeiros, Daniel M

    2014-02-01

    A defining feature of vertebrates (craniates) is a pronounced head supported and protected by a cellularized endoskeleton. In jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes), the head skeleton is made of rigid three-dimensional elements connected by joints. By contrast, the head skeleton of modern jawless vertebrates (agnathans) consists of thin rods of flexible cellular cartilage, a condition thought to reflect the ancestral vertebrate state. To better understand the origin and evolution of the gnathostome head skeleton, we have been analyzing head skeleton development in the agnathan, lamprey. The fibroblast growth factors FGF3 and FGF8 have various roles during head development in jawed vertebrates, including pharyngeal pouch morphogenesis, patterning of the oral skeleton and chondrogenesis. We isolated lamprey homologs of FGF3, FGF8 and FGF receptors and asked whether these functions are ancestral features of vertebrate development or gnathostome novelties. Using gene expression and pharmacological agents, we found that proper formation of the lamprey head skeleton requires two phases of FGF signaling: an early phase during which FGFs drive pharyngeal pouch formation, and a later phase when they directly regulate skeletal differentiation and patterning. In the context of gene expression and functional studies in gnathostomes, our results suggest that these roles for FGFs arose in the first vertebrates and that the evolution of the jaw and gnathostome cellular cartilage was driven by changes developmentally downstream from pharyngeal FGF signaling.

  4. Comparison of fecal microflora of elderly persons in rural and urban areas of Japan.

    PubMed Central

    Benno, Y; Endo, K; Mizutani, T; Namba, Y; Komori, T; Mitsuoka, T

    1989-01-01

    The Fecal microflora of 15 healthy elderly persons with a median age of 84 years in a rural area whose inhabitants tend to be long-lived (Yuzurihara-area, Uenohara, Yamanashi Prefecture) was compared with the microflora of individuals with a median age of 68 years in an urban area (Tokyo). The diet of the elderly persons in the Yuzurihara area is characterized by a high intake of dietary fiber. Total numbers of anaerobic bacteria were significantly smaller in the elderly persons in the Yuzurihara area than those in the Tokyo area. A significantly large number of bifidobacteria, but not of lecithinase-negative clostridia, was observed in the elderly persons in the Yuzurihara area. Large numbers and high incidences of bacilli and lecithinase-positive clostridia (mainly Clostridium perfringens) were found in the elderly persons in the Tokyo area. Twenty-five genera and over 81 species were isolated from the elderly persons in the Yuzurihara area, and 25 genera and over 92 species were isolated from the elderly persons in the Tokyo area. Furthermore, significantly larger numbers of Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Fusobacterium mortiferum strains were found in the Yuzurihara group, but significant reductions in the Bacteroides buccae-oris group, B. thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides spp., C. coccoides, C. paraputrificum, and Clostridium spp. were observed in the same group. A significantly higher isolation rate of Bacillus subtilis was observed in the elderly persons in the Tokyo area. The difference in the fecal microflora between elderly persons in Yuzurihara and those in the Tokyo area might be due to a difference in the intake of dietary fiber. PMID:2547333

  5. Anaerobic Microflora of Everglades Sediments: Effects of Nutrients on Population Profiles and Activities

    PubMed Central

    Drake, H. L.; Aumen, N. G.; Kuhner, C.; Wagner, C.; Griesshammer, A.; Schmittroth, M.

    1996-01-01

    Everglades sediments (wetland soils) near sources of agricultural runoff had low redox potentials, were blackened with sulfide, and displayed high porewater phosphorus (total) concentrations and high water column conductivities. These sediments yielded 10(sup3)- to 10(sup4)-fold-higher numbers of culturable anaerobes, including methanogens, sulfate reducers, and acetate producers, than did sediments from Everglades and Lake Okeechobee comparative control sites not as directly associated with agricultural runoff. These observations demonstrated that there was a general, rather than specific, enhancement of the anaerobic microflora in the sediments most likely influenced by agricultural runoff. Despite these differences in microfloral patterns, methylmercury and total mercury levels were similar among these contrasting sediments. Although available sulfate and phosphorus appeared to stimulate the productivity of sulfate reducers in Everglades sediments, the number of culturable sulfate reducers did not directly correspond to the concentration of sulfate and phosphorus in porewaters. Microcosms supplemented with sulfate, nitrate, and phosphate altered the initial capacities of the sediment microflora to produce acetate and methane from endogenous matter. For sediments nearest sources of agricultural runoff, phosphorus temporarily enhanced acetate formation and initially suppressed methane production, sulfate enhanced acetate formation but did not significantly alter the production of methane, and nitrate totally suppressed the initial production of both methane and acetate. In regards to the latter, microbes capable of dissimilating nitrate to ammonium were present in greater culturable numbers than denitrifiers. In microcosms, acetate was a major source of methane, and supplemental hydrogen was directed towards the synthesis of acetate via CO(inf2)-dependent acetogenesis. These findings demonstrate that Everglades sediments nearest agricultural runoff have enhanced

  6. Urolithins, ellagic acid-derived metabolites produced by human colonic microflora, exhibit estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities.

    PubMed

    Larrosa, Mar; González-Sarrías, Antonio; García-Conesa, María Teresa; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Espín, Juan Carlos

    2006-03-01

    Urolithins A and B (hydroxy-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran-6-one derivatives) are colonic microflora metabolites recently proposed as biomarkers of human exposure to dietary ellagic acid derivatives. Molecular models suggest that urolithins could display estrogenic and/or antiestrogenic activity. To this purpose, both urolithins and other known phytoestrogens (genistein, daidzein, resveratrol, and enterolactone) were assayed to evaluate the capacity to induce cell proliferation on the estrogen-sensitive human breast cancer MCF-7 cells as well as the ability to bind to alpha- and beta-estrogen receptors. Both urolithins A and B showed estrogenic activity in a dose-dependent manner even at high concentrations (40 microM), without antiproliferative or toxic effects, whereas the other phytoestrogens inhibited cell proliferation at high concentrations. Overall, urolithins showed weaker estrogenic activity than the other phytoestrogens. However, both urolithins displayed slightly higher antiestrogenic activity (antagonized the growth promotion effect of 17-beta-estradiol in a dose-dependent manner) than the other phytoestrogens. The IC(50) values for the ERalpha and ERbeta binding assays were 0.4 and 0.75 microM for urolithin A; 20 and 11 microM for urolithin B; 3 and 0.02 for genistein; and 2.3 and 1 for daidzein, respectively; no binding was detected for resveratrol and enterolactone. Urolithins A and B entered into MCF-7 cells and were metabolized to yield mainly urolithin-sulfate derivatives. These results, together with previous studies regarding absorption and metabolism of dietary ellagitannins and ellagic acid in humans, suggest that the gut microflora metabolites urolithins are potential endocrine-disrupting molecules, which could resemble other described "enterophytoestrogens" (microflora-derived metabolites with estrogenic/antiestrogenic activity). Further research is warranted to evaluate the possible role of ellagitannins and ellagic acid as dietary "pro-phytoestrogens".

  7. The Effect of Chlortetracycline Meditation on the Coliform Microflora of Newly Hatched Chicks.

    PubMed

    Chopra, S L; Blackwood, A C; Dale, D G

    1963-03-01

    Newly hatched chicks were medicated with chlortetracycline at levels of 0, 400, 800 and 1200 mg. per imperial gallon of drinking water, for the first 5 days in the brooders. Coliform microflora of the ceca were counted when the chicks were first removed from the incubator and at 2 and 5 days of age. The numbers of coliforms decreased with increasing levels of the antibiotic and with increasing age. Sixtyfour per cent of the coliforms were E. coli and of these a large proportion were resistant to chlortetracycline and oxytetracycline in vitro. There was a trend towards increasing incidence of isolation of other resistant gram negative rods with increasing levels of chlortetracycline medication.

  8. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on microflora and some quality attributes of grape juice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mert, Mecnun; Buzrul, Sencer; Alpas, Hami

    2013-03-01

    Red and white grape juices were treated with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) at three different pressures, temperature and time values to investigate the effects of HHP on natural microflora and some quality attributes of the juices. Increased pressure, temperature and time showed significant effect on the microbial reduction and no microbial growth were observed in HHP-treated grape juices up to 90 days. HHP had little or no effect on pH and color of the juices. Although 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) formation was observed in heat pasteurized samples, no HMF was detected in HHP-treated juices. This study demonstrated that HHP could be used as an alternative to heat treatment.

  9. Impact of probiotic drugs, based on Enterobacter faecium autostrains, on human intestinal microflora in confined habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viacheslav, Ilyin; Batov, Alexey; Usanova, Nonna

    The aim of research: Investigation of influence of probiotic drugs based on autostrains of Enter-obacter faecium, selected from the crew in long term isolation experiment in confined habitat. It is known that during long-term presence in confined habitat the risk of infectious diseases increases. One of the main infectious risk occurs during first 20 days of isolation as a result of exchange of strains and stress-mediated disbacterioses. Therefore it is necessary to evaluate activities of probiotics to avoid this risk. Furthermore, in case of super long term autonomous flight there should be possibilities of application of autochthonous microflora strains as pro-biotics to strengthen colonial resistance of crews. Materials and methods: In the experiment there were used probiotic drugs based on autostrains of E. faecium, selected from the crew before the experiment. Probiotic drugs were consumed during 30 days since the beginning of the experiment with the break of consumption between 10th to 19th day. Results: Comparing the state of intestinal microflora of the crew on the baseline and 14th day of experiment re-vealed remarkable changes of microflora: the increasing of concentration of bifidobacteria and E. faecium (approximately 10 times), elimination of hemolytic streptococcus, yeasts, reduction of the rate of S.aureus, hemolytic gramnegative non-fermenting rods, lactobacilli and normal E.coli. On the 45th day of isolation, 15 days after finishing of auto-strains administration, there fere signs of restoration of disbacteriosis: the quantitative decreasing lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and normal E.coli, increasing of the rate of S.aureus, hemolytic gramnegative nonfermentive rods. Conclusion: Thus we managed to avoid risk of pathogenicity potential growth in first 2 decades of isolation. Application of probiotic, based on the autostrains of E. faecium leads to insignificant changes of concentration of lactobacteries, bifidobacteries, normal E. coli and to

  10. Aerobic Exercise Prescription for Rheumatoid Arthritics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Blanche W.; Williams, Hilda L.

    The use of exercise as a general treatment for rheumatoid arthritics (RA) has included range of motion, muscular strength, water exercise and rest therapy while virtually ignoring possible benefits of aerobic exercise. The purposes of this project were to examine the guidelines for exercise prescription in relation to this special population and…

  11. Response of aerobic rice to Piriformospora indica.

    PubMed

    Das, Joy; Ramesh, K V; Maithri, U; Mutangana, D; Suresh, C K

    2014-03-01

    Rice cultivation under aerobic condition not only saves water but also opens up a splendid scope for effective application of beneficial root symbionts in rice crop unlike conventional puddled rice cultivation where water logged condition acts as constraint for easy proliferation of various beneficial soil microorganisms like arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Keeping these in view, an in silico investigation were carried out to explore the interaction of hydrogen phosphate with phosphate transporter protein (PTP) from P. indica. This was followed by greenhouse investigation to study the response of aerobic rice to Glomusfasciculatum, a conventional P biofertilizer and P. indica, an alternative to AM fungi. Computational studies using ClustalW tool revealed several conserved motifs between the phosphate transporters from Piriformospora indica and 8 other Glomus species. The 3D model of PTP from P. indica resembling "Mayan temple" was successfully docked onto hydrogen phosphate, indicating the affinity of this protein for inorganic phosphorus. Greenhouse studies revealed inoculation of aerobic rice either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both significantly enhanced the plant growth, biomass and yield with higher NPK, chlorophyll and sugar compared to uninoculated ones, P. indica inoculated plants being superior. A significantly enhanced activity of acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase were noticed in the rhizosphere soil of rice plants inoculated either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both, contributing to higher P uptake. Further, inoculation of aerobic rice plants with P. indica proved to be a better choice as a potential biofertilizer over mycorrhiza. PMID:24669667

  12. AEROBIC DENITRIFICATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR NITROGEN FATE MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Mississippi, as well as most nitrogen-degraded rivers and streams, NO3- is the dominant N species and therefore understanding its biogeochemical behavior is critical for accurate nitrogen fate modeling. To our knowledge this is the first work to report aerobic denitrificat...

  13. Media for the aerobic growth of campylobacter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of agar and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) concentration on aerobic growth of Campylobacter in a fumarate-pyruvate medium was examined. The broth medium was supplemented with 0.0 to 0.2% agar and inoculated with 106 CFU/ml of Campylobacter coli 33559, Campylobacter fetus 27349, Campylobacter...

  14. Reflections on Psychotherapy and Aerobic Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Wade

    This document provides a series of reflections by a practicing psychologist on the uses of aerobic workouts in psychotherapy. Two case histories are cited to illustrate the contention that the mode of exercise, rather than simply its presence or absence, is the significant indicator of a patient's emotional well-being or psychopathology. The first…

  15. Pglyrp-Regulated Gut Microflora Prevotella falsenii, Parabacteroides distasonis and Bacteroides eggerthii Enhance and Alistipes finegoldii Attenuates Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dziarski, Roman; Dowd, Scot E.; Gupta, Dipika

    2016-01-01

    Dysbiosis is a hallmark of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but it is unclear which specific intestinal bacteria predispose to and which protect from IBD and how they are regulated. Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (Pglyrps) are antibacterial, participate in maintaining intestinal microflora, and modulate inflammatory responses. Mice deficient in any one of the four Pglyrp genes are more sensitive to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, and stools from Pglyrp-deficient mice transferred to wild type (WT) germ-free mice predispose them to much more severe colitis than stools from WT mice. However, the identities of these Pglyrp-regulated bacteria that predispose Pglyrp-deficient mice to colitis or protect WT mice from colitis are not known. Here we identified significant changes in β-diversity of stool bacteria in Pglyrp-deficient mice compared with WT mice. The most consistent changes in microbiome in all Pglyrp-deficient mice were in Bacteroidales, from which we selected four species, two with increased abundance (Prevotella falsenii and Parabacteroides distasonis) and two with decreased abundance (Bacteroides eggerthii and Alistipes finegoldii). We then gavaged WT mice with stock type strains of these species to test the hypothesis that they predispose to or protect from DSS-induced colitis. P. falsenii, P. distasonis, and B. eggerthii all enhanced DSS-induced colitis in both WT mice with otherwise undisturbed intestinal microflora and in WT mice with antibiotic-depleted intestinal microflora. By contrast, A. finegoldii (which is the most abundant species in WT mice) attenuated DSS-induced colitis both in WT mice with otherwise undisturbed intestinal microflora and in WT mice with antibiotic-depleted intestinal microflora, similar to the colitis protective effect of the entire normal microflora. These results identify P. falsenii, P. distasonis, and B. eggerthii as colitis-promoting species and A. finegoldii as colitis-protective species. PMID

  16. Pglyrp-Regulated Gut Microflora Prevotella falsenii, Parabacteroides distasonis and Bacteroides eggerthii Enhance and Alistipes finegoldii Attenuates Colitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Dziarski, Roman; Park, Shin Yong; Kashyap, Des Raj; Dowd, Scot E; Gupta, Dipika

    2016-01-01

    Dysbiosis is a hallmark of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but it is unclear which specific intestinal bacteria predispose to and which protect from IBD and how they are regulated. Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (Pglyrps) are antibacterial, participate in maintaining intestinal microflora, and modulate inflammatory responses. Mice deficient in any one of the four Pglyrp genes are more sensitive to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, and stools from Pglyrp-deficient mice transferred to wild type (WT) germ-free mice predispose them to much more severe colitis than stools from WT mice. However, the identities of these Pglyrp-regulated bacteria that predispose Pglyrp-deficient mice to colitis or protect WT mice from colitis are not known. Here we identified significant changes in β-diversity of stool bacteria in Pglyrp-deficient mice compared with WT mice. The most consistent changes in microbiome in all Pglyrp-deficient mice were in Bacteroidales, from which we selected four species, two with increased abundance (Prevotella falsenii and Parabacteroides distasonis) and two with decreased abundance (Bacteroides eggerthii and Alistipes finegoldii). We then gavaged WT mice with stock type strains of these species to test the hypothesis that they predispose to or protect from DSS-induced colitis. P. falsenii, P. distasonis, and B. eggerthii all enhanced DSS-induced colitis in both WT mice with otherwise undisturbed intestinal microflora and in WT mice with antibiotic-depleted intestinal microflora. By contrast, A. finegoldii (which is the most abundant species in WT mice) attenuated DSS-induced colitis both in WT mice with otherwise undisturbed intestinal microflora and in WT mice with antibiotic-depleted intestinal microflora, similar to the colitis protective effect of the entire normal microflora. These results identify P. falsenii, P. distasonis, and B. eggerthii as colitis-promoting species and A. finegoldii as colitis-protective species.

  17. A proposed aerobic granules size development scheme for aerobic granulation process.

    PubMed

    Dahalan, Farrah Aini; Abdullah, Norhayati; Yuzir, Ali; Olsson, Gustaf; Salmiati; Hamdzah, Myzairah; Din, Mohd Fadhil Mohd; Ahmad, Siti Aqlima; Khalil, Khalilah Abdul; Anuar, Aznah Nor; Noor, Zainura Zainon; Ujang, Zaini

    2015-04-01

    Aerobic granulation is increasingly used in wastewater treatment due to its unique physical properties and microbial functionalities. Granule size defines the physical properties of granules based on biomass accumulation. This study aims to determine the profile of size development under two physicochemical conditions. Two identical bioreactors namely Rnp and Rp were operated under non-phototrophic and phototrophic conditions, respectively. An illustrative scheme was developed to comprehend the mechanism of size development that delineates the granular size throughout the granulation. Observations on granules' size variation have shown that activated sludge revolutionised into the form of aerobic granules through the increase of biomass concentration in bioreactors which also determined the changes of granule size. Both reactors demonstrated that size transformed in a similar trend when tested with and without illumination. Thus, different types of aerobic granules may increase in size in the same way as recommended in the aerobic granule size development scheme.

  18. Ventilation and Speech Characteristics during Submaximal Aerobic Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Susan E.; Hipp, Jenny; Alessio, Helaine

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined alterations in ventilation and speech characteristics as well as perceived dyspnea during submaximal aerobic exercise tasks. Method: Twelve healthy participants completed aerobic exercise-only and simultaneous speaking and aerobic exercise tasks at 50% and 75% of their maximum oxygen consumption (VO[subscript 2] max).…

  19. Adolescents' Interest and Performances in Aerobic Fitness Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Xihe; Chen, Senlin; Parrott, James

    2014-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' interest in aerobic fitness testing and its relation to the test performances. Adolescents (N = 356) from three middle schools participated in the study. The participants took two aerobic fitness tests: the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) and One-Mile Run (1MR) with a two-day interval,…

  20. An analysis of the cost-effectiveness of pharyngitis management and acute rheumatic fever prevention.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, R K; Burnes, D C; Cable, W E

    1977-04-01

    The cost-effectivness of preventing primary acute rheumatic fever attacks by oral or benzathine penicillin treatment was analyzed for both epidemic and endemic streptococcal pharyngitis situations. Decision analysis was used: the probabilities and the outcome values were calculated from published data. Three penicillin strategies were compared: (A) treating only patients with group A streptococci-positive throat cultures; (B) treating all patients; (C) treating none of the patients. In the epidemic situation it is medically most effective and least costly to treat all patients with penicillin (Strategy B). In the endemic situation, Strategy B is also most cost-effective when oral penicillin is used in patient populations where the positive throat culture yield is at least 20%. Strategy A is optimal when the yield is between 5% and 20%; below a 5% yield, Strategy C is appropriate. For any individual patient, it is possible that choice of the most cost-effective treatment strategy could be based on the patient's clinical findings.

  1. Mechanisms of airway protection after pharyngeal fluid infusion in healthy sleeping piglets.

    PubMed

    Page, M; Jeffery, H E; Marks, V; Post, E J; Wood, A K

    1995-05-01

    The airway protective mechanisms evoked after infusion of fluids into the pharynx were examined in the intact and healthy newborn piglet during sleep. Thirteen healthy normothermic piglets (3-6 days of age) were examined on 4 consecutive days during sleep. The fluids infused (0.05-1.5 ml) were 0.9% saline, distilled water, and HCl (pH 3 and pH 2). Respiratory rate, heart rate, oxygen saturation (SaO2), swallowing, and arousal were compared pre- and postinfusion during active (AS) and quiet sleep (QS) for each test fluid. The most common response in AS and QS was swallowing (90%) and then arousal (24%); however, no apnea occurred, and respiratory rate and SaO2 were always maintained. A significant difference occurred between HCl infusions of pH 2 and pH 3; at pH 2, the frequency of swallows and latency to the first swallow were reduced (P < 0.05) and the frequency of arousal was reduced in AS compared with that in QS (P < 0.01). Airway protection after pharyngeal fluid stimulation is achieved primarily by swallowing and arousal, without any effect on respiratory rate and SaO2. Attenuation of protective mechanisms occurred, however, when the infusate was at pH 2. PMID:7649933

  2. Palato-pharyngeal cine photography: a technique for developing continuing education films.

    PubMed

    Smith, H W

    1977-04-01

    A method of Cine photography has been developed to record a variety of plastic and reconstructive surgical procedures in the oral cavity and pharynx. Effective classroom teaching of surgical closure of the cleft palate and the various palatal lengthening procedures including pharyngeal flaps, has been hampered by the lack of quality teaching films demonstrating surgical techniques in color. The small size of the structures involved and the delicate nature of the surgery requires that the surgeon work at close range and directly in front of the mouth. To avoid the shadows cast by the sides of the oral cavity, the surgeon's hands and frequent change of position by the professional photographic team, a head-mounted Cine camera was employed. A "through the surgeon's eye" view for the camera was accomplished by using a parallelogram of beam-splitting mirrors. The resulting photographic film provides the classroom audience with a sense of being in the surgeon's operating position thus having a view superior to that obtained by the surgeon's first assistant. An elaborate system of counter-balancing provides the surgeon with a weightless camera, mirror, and light complex mounted on a football helmet. The football helmet merely served as an interlocking unit enabling the surgeon to compose his own movie while operating.

  3. Tonsillar microbiota in children with PFAPA (periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tejesvi, M V; Uhari, M; Tapiainen, T; Pirttilä, A M; Suokas, M; Lantto, U; Koivunen, P; Renko, M

    2016-06-01

    Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis (PFAPA) is a childhood febrile syndrome of unknown origin that is often cured with tonsillectomy. We aimed to compare the bacterial microbiota of the tonsils removed from PFAPA patients with those of controls. We used next-generation sequencing technology to investigate the bacterial microbiota of the tonsils of 30 PFAPA patients and 24 controls. We found significant differences in the presence and relative abundance of many bacteria between PFAPA cases and controls. For example, cyanobacteria, potential producers of microcystins and other toxins, were more common in the case samples (14/30, 47 %) than in the controls (4/24, 17 %, p = 0.02), and the mean relative abundance of cyanobacteria was higher in the case samples (0.2 %) than in the controls (0.01 %, p = 0.01). Streptococci were present in all samples in both groups, but their mean relative abundance was lower in the case samples (3.7 %) than in the controls (9.6 %, p = 0.01). Typical nasopharyngeal microbes such as fusobacteria, Prevotella, Tannerella, Porphyromonas, and Parvimonas dominated the microbiota of the tonsils in both groups. The microbiota of the tonsils removed from PFAPA patients differed significantly from those of the controls. Tonsillar microbiota may play a role in triggering the inflammatory processes that lead to symptoms of PFAPA. PMID:27025724

  4. Periodic Fever, Aphthous Stomatitis, Pharyngitis, and Cervical Adenitis (PFAPA) Syndrome: a Review of the Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Theodoropoulou, Katerina; Vanoni, Federica; Hofer, Michaël

    2016-04-01

    PFAPA syndrome represents the most common cause of recurrent fever in children in European populations, and it is characterized by recurrent episodes of high fever, pharyngitis, cervical adenitis, and aphthous stomatitis. Many possible causative factors have been explored so far, including infectious agents, immunologic mechanisms and genetic predisposition, but the exact etiology remains unclear. Recent findings demonstrate a dysregulation of different components of innate immunity during PFAPA flares, such as monocytes, neutrophils, complement, and pro-inflammatory cytokines, especially IL-1β, suggesting an inflammasome-mediated innate immune system activation and supporting the hypothesis of an autoinflammatory disease. Moreover, in contrast with previous considerations, the strong familial clustering suggests a potential genetic origin rather than a sporadic disease. In addition, the presence of variants in inflammasome-related genes, mostly in NLRP3 and MEFV, suggests a possible role of inflammasome-composing genes in PFAPA pathogenesis. However, none of these variants seem to be relevant, alone, to its etiology, indicating a high genetic heterogeneity as well as an oligogenic or polygenic genetic background. PMID:26984802

  5. Brain and behavioral effects of swallowing carbonated water on the human pharyngeal motor system.

    PubMed

    Elshukri, Omsaad; Michou, Emilia; Mentz, Hannah; Hamdy, Shaheen

    2016-02-15

    Chemical stimulation of the swallowing network with carbonation and citric acid has been investigated, showing potential benefits on swallowing of dysphagic patients. Despite this, the underlying mechanisms for these effects are not fully understood. Here we investigated the effects of 5 ml liquid bolus swallows of carbonated, citric acid, and still water on a swallowing reaction-time tasks paradigm in 16 healthy adults (8 male, mean age 33 ± 3.7 yr, protocol 1). We then investigated the net effects of "sensory bolus interventions" (40 repeated swallows every 15 s) of the three different liquid boluses on corticobulbar excitability, as examined with single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in 16 participants (8 female, mean age 33 ± 3.7 yr, protocol 2). The findings showed that a larger number of correctly timed swallows (within a predetermined time window) was accomplished mainly with carbonated liquids (z = -2.04, P = 0.04 vs. still water, protocol 1). Both carbonated and citric acid liquid interventions with 40 swallows increased corticobulbar excitability of the stronger pharyngeal projection, suggesting a similar modulatory pathway for the effects on swallowing. However, carbonation showed superiority (P = 0.04, F = 4.75, 2-way ANOVA), with the changes lasting up to 60 min following the intervention. These results hold significance for future further and in-depth physiological investigations of the differences between different stimuli on swallowing neural network.

  6. Light and hydrogen peroxide inhibit C. elegans Feeding through gustatory receptor orthologs and pharyngeal neurons.

    PubMed

    Bhatla, Nikhil; Horvitz, H Robert

    2015-02-18

    While gustatory sensing of the five primary flavors (sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and savory) has been extensively studied, pathways that detect non-canonical taste stimuli remain relatively unexplored. In particular, while reactive oxygen species cause generalized damage to biological systems, no gustatory mechanism to prevent ingestion of such material has been identified in any organism. We observed that light inhibits C. elegans feeding and used light as a tool to uncover molecular and neural mechanisms for gustation. Light can generate hydrogen peroxide, and we discovered that hydrogen peroxide similarly inhibits feeding. The gustatory receptor family members LITE-1 and GUR-3 are required for the inhibition of feeding by light and hydrogen peroxide. The I2 pharyngeal neurons increase calcium in response to light and hydrogen peroxide, and these responses require GUR-3 and a conserved antioxidant enzyme peroxiredoxin PRDX-2. Our results demonstrate a gustatory mechanism that mediates the detection and blocks ingestion of a non-canonical taste stimulus, hydrogen peroxide.

  7. Embryonic fate map of first pharyngeal arch structures in the sox10: kaede zebrafish transgenic model.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Max; Kamel, George; Shubinets, Valeriy; Hickey, Graham; Grimaldi, Michael; Liao, Eric C

    2012-09-01

    Cranial neural crest cells follow stereotypic patterns of migration to form craniofacial structures. The zebrafish is a powerful vertebrate genetic model where transgenics with reporter proteins under the transcriptional regulation of lineage-specific promoters can be generated. Numerous studies demonstrate that the zebrafish ethmoid plate is embryologically analogous to the mammalian palate. A fate map correlating embryonic cranial neural crest to defined jaw structures would provide a useful context for the morphogenetic analysis of craniofacial development. To that end, the sox10:kaede transgenic was generated, where sox10 provides lineage restriction to the neural crest. Specific regions of neural crest were labeled at the 10-somite stage by photoconversion of the kaede reporter protein. Lineage analysis was carried out during pharyngeal development in wild-type animals, after miR140 injection, and after estradiol treatment. At the 10-somite stage, cranial neural crest cells anterior of the eye contributed to the median ethmoid plate, whereas cells medial to the eye formed the lateral ethmoid plate and trabeculae and a posterior population formed the mandible. miR-140 overexpression and estradiol inhibition of Hedgehog signaling resulted in cleft development, with failed migration of the anterior cell population to form the median ethmoid plate. The sox10:kaede transgenic line provides a useful tool for neural crest lineage analysis. These studies illustrate the advantages of the zebrafish model for application in morphogenetic studies of vertebrate craniofacial development.

  8. Sequential Coordination between Lingual and Pharyngeal Pressures Produced during Dry Swallowing

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Jitsuro; Aoyagi, Yoichiro; Ono, Takahiro; Hori, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Wakami; Fujiwara, Shigehiro; Kumakura, Isami; Minagi, Shogo; Tsubahara, Akio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate oropharyngeal pressure flow dynamics during dry swallowing in ten healthy subjects. Tongue pressure (TP) was measured using a sensor sheet system with five measuring points on the hard palate, and pharyngeal pressure (PP) was measured using a manometric catheter with four measuring points. The order and correlations of sequential events, such as onset, peak, and offset times of pressure production, at each pressure measuring point were analyzed on the synchronized waveforms. Onset of TP was earlier than that of PP. The peak of TP did not show significant differences with the onset of PP, and it was earlier than that of PP. There was no significant difference between the offset of TP and PP. The onset of PP was temporally time-locked to the peak of TP, and there was an especially strong correlation between the onset of PP and TP at the posterior-median part on the hard palate. The offset of PP was temporally time-locked to that of TP. These results could be interpreted as providing an explanation for the generation of oropharyngeal pressure flow to ensure efficient bolus transport and safe swallowing. PMID:25580436

  9. Adsorption of surfactant lipids by single-walled carbon nanotubes in mouse lung upon pharyngeal aspiration.

    PubMed

    Kapralov, Alexander A; Feng, Wei Hong; Amoscato, Andrew A; Yanamala, Naveena; Balasubramanian, Krishnakumar; Winnica, Daniel E; Kisin, Elena R; Kotchey, Gregg P; Gou, Pingping; Sparvero, Louis J; Ray, Prabir; Mallampalli, Rama K; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith; Fadeel, Bengt; Star, Alexander; Shvedova, Anna A; Kagan, Valerian E

    2012-05-22

    The pulmonary route represents one of the most important portals of entry for nanoparticles into the body. However, the in vivo interactions of nanoparticles with biomolecules of the lung have not been sufficiently studied. Here, using an established mouse model of pharyngeal aspiration of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), we recovered SWCNTs from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf), purified them from possible contamination with lung cells, and examined the composition of phospholipids adsorbed on SWCNTs by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. We found that SWCNTs selectively adsorbed two types of the most abundant surfactant phospholipids: phosphatidylcholines (PC) and phosphatidylglycerols (PG). Molecular speciation of these phospholipids was also consistent with pulmonary surfactant. Quantitation of adsorbed lipids by LC-MS along with the structural assessments of phospholipid binding by atomic force microscopy and molecular modeling indicated that the phospholipids (∼108 molecules per SWCNT) formed an uninterrupted "coating" whereby the hydrophobic alkyl chains of the phospholipids were adsorbed onto the SWCNT with the polar head groups pointed away from the SWCNT into the aqueous phase. In addition, the presence of surfactant proteins A, B, and D on SWCNTs was determined by LC-MS. Finally, we demonstrated that the presence of this surfactant coating markedly enhanced the in vitro uptake of SWCNTs by macrophages. Taken together, this is the first demonstration of the in vivo adsorption of the surfactant lipids and proteins on SWCNTs in a physiologically relevant animal model.

  10. Double-blind comparison of two types of benzocaine lozenges for the treatment of acute pharyngitis.

    PubMed

    Busch, Regina; Graubaum, Hans-Joachim; Grünwald, Jörg; Schmidt, Mathias

    2010-01-01

    In a reference-controlled double-blind trial in patients with acute pharyngitis the effects of a newly developed lozenge containing 8 mg of benzocaine (p-aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester, CAS 94-09-7) were compared with those of an identically dosed commercial pastille. 246 patients were randomized to receive either the lozenges (group A, n = 123) or the pastilles (group B, n = 123). Each patient took a total of six doses within 12 h according to the double-dummy principle, with each single dose spaced by 2 h. The primary parameter was the assessment of the responder rate with = 50 % pain relief within 15 min post application. Further parameters included the relative relief of pain in the course of the study and the tolerability of the formulation. After application of the first unit the comparison of groups yielded very similar and statistically not differing results for efficacy in both groups, with responder rates of 25.2 % and 22.0 % in groups A and B, respectively. One adverse drug reaction was observed in group B (burning and tingling feeling on the tongue), which, however, did not lead to discontinuation of study participation. In all other cases tolerability was stated to be "good to very good". The application of the benzocaine lozenges was statistically non-inferior to the use of the pastilles. PMID:20533760

  11. Atrophy, fibrosis, and increased PAX7-positive cells in pharyngeal muscles of oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy patients.

    PubMed

    Gidaro, Teresa; Negroni, Elisa; Perié, Sophie; Mirabella, Massimiliano; Lainé, Jeanne; Lacau St Guily, Jean; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Mouly, Vincent; Trollet, Capucine

    2013-03-01

    Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is a late-onset autosomal dominant inherited dystrophy caused by an abnormal trinucleotide repeat expansion in the poly(A)-binding-protein-nuclear 1 (PABPN1) gene. Primary muscular targets of OPMD are the eyelid elevator and pharyngeal muscles, including the cricopharyngeal muscle (CPM), the progressive involution of which leads to ptosis and dysphagia, respectively. To understand the consequences of PABPN1 polyalanine expansion in OPMD, we studied muscle biopsies from 14 OPMD patients, 3 inclusion body myositis patients, and 9 healthy controls. In OPMD patient CPM (n = 6), there were typical dystrophic features with extensive endomysial fibrosis and marked atrophy of myosin heavy-chain IIa fibers. There were more PAX7-positive cells in all CPM versus other muscles (n = 5, control; n = 3, inclusion body myositis), and they were more numerous in OPMD CPM versus control normal CPM without any sign of muscle regeneration. Intranuclear inclusions were present in all OPMD muscles but unaffected OPMD patient muscles (i.e. sternocleidomastoid, quadriceps, or deltoid; n = 14) did not show evidence of fibrosis, atrophy, or increased PAX7-positive cell numbers. These results suggest that the specific involvement of CPM in OPMD might be caused by failure of the regenerative response with dysfunction of PAX7-positive cells and exacerbated fibrosis that does not correlate with the presence of PABPN1 inclusions.

  12. Fine needle aspiration cytology of oral and pharyngeal lesions. A study of 45 cases.

    PubMed

    Das, D K; Gulati, A; Bhatt, N C; Mandal, A K; Khan, V A; Bhambhani, S

    1993-01-01

    Forty-five patients with oral or pharyngeal swellings were subjected to fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the mucosal surface over eight years. The age of the patients ranged from 2 to 85 years. The male:female ratio was 25:20. The common sites of involvement were palate (16 cases), cheek (9), pharynx (7) and tonsillar/peritonsillar area (6). Tongue, maxilla, alveolus and lips were less frequently involved. FNAC played an important role in differentiating inflammatory from neoplastic lesions and also benign from malignant neoplasms. Fifteen cases were cytologically diagnosed as benign neoplasms and included pleomorphic adenoma (11 cases), schwannoma (2), odontogenic tumor (1) and benign neoplasm not otherwise specified (1). Sixteen cases were diagnosed as malignancies. There were seven cases of malignant salivary gland tumors and 6 of squamous cell carcinoma. Two cases were high grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, and one was malignant odontogenic tumor. Of the 11 inflammatory or reactive lesions, 4 were found to be harboring Actinomyces. The rate of inadequate sampling was 6.7%. Histopathology reports on excised tissue were available for 10 cases only. Seven of nine cases with adequate cytology (77.88%) showed complete agreement with histology.

  13. Halzoun, an allergic pharyngitis syndrome in Lebanon: the trematode Dicrocoelium dendriticum as an additional cause.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Georges; Haddad, Charles; Otrock, Zaher K; Jaber, Fadel; Farra, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Halzoun syndrome typically manifests in the form of an allergic pharyngitis following the consumption of raw or undercooked ovine liver. First described in Lebanon in 1905, it was initially attributed to Fasciola hepatica, while later publications have attributed it to other pathogens. There has been no definitive documentation of the pathogen causing the Lebanese Halzoun syndrome. The aim of our study was to identify the parasite responsible for the pathogenesis of the Lebanese Halzoun syndrome. 32 patients with typical clinical symptoms of Halzoun syndrome were recruited in the emergency room at our hospital from 2005 to 2007. One parasite was isolated from a patient's expectorations, and two others were isolated from pieces of a raw sheep liver retrieved from the patients' dishes. A piece of infected goat liver intended for consumption was also collected from a local butcher. All parasites were examined microscopically for identification. All patients presented with immune allergic-like symptoms of the eyes, ears, nose, or throat. All collected parasites were identified as Dicrocoelium dendriticum. Our study has identified D. dendriticum, rather than Linguatula serrata or F. hepatica, as the prime suspect in the pathogenesis of the Lebanese Halzoun syndrome. PMID:23022355

  14. [Effect of radio wave-induced hyperthermia on microflora of the prostate in the treatment of prostatitis associated with infertility].

    PubMed

    Kuz'min, M D; Bukharin, O V; Ivanov, Iu B; Mikhaĭlova, E A

    2001-01-01

    The influence of hyperthermia induced by radiowaves on the microflora of the prostate in cases of male sterility was studied. The use of hyperthermia was shown to produce a stable decrease in bacteriospermia and the persistence potential of bacteria isolated from sperm. Hyperthermia produced a bactericidal effect not only on microorganisms contained in sperm but also on the microflora of prostatic tissues 1 cm deep. The study gave grounds for treating male sterility with the use of hyperthermia induced by radiowaves and a subsequent course of antibiotics to achieve the stable decrease of bacteriospermia and the restoration of the reproductive function.

  15. [Comparative study of the effects of different sour milk products on the intestinal microflora of healthy infants].

    PubMed

    Safronova, A I; Sorvacheva, T N; Kurkova, V I; Toboleva, M A; Kuznetsova, G G; Efimov, B A; Pikina, A P; Kon', I Ia

    2001-01-01

    Our study was aimed to investigate in comparable conditions the composition of intestinal microflora of healthy infants who were given 9 types of fermented milk products. There were observed 103 practically healthy infants aged from 4 month to 1,5 years old. The obtained data have shown that studied products improve intestinal microflora in infants. Significant increase of bifidobacteria in infants intestines was promoted by fermented milk products containing alive bifidobacteria with rather high acidity. The most of products which contain bifidobacteria decreased the level of hemolisinproducing Escherichia coli and coagulase-positive staphylococcus. The products which not contain bifidobacteria decreased the level of Candida albicans and protei.

  16. ELF communications system ecological monitoring program: Litter decomposition and microflora studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruhn, Johann N.; Bagley, Susan T.; Pickens, James B.

    1994-10-01

    The U.S. Navy has completed a program monitoring flora, fauna, and ecological relationships for possible effects from electromagnetic fields produced by its Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Communications System. This report documents studies of litter decomposition and soil microflora conducted near its transmitting antenna in Michigan. From 1982 through 1993 researchers from the Michigan Technological University (MTU) monitored overall litter decomposition, as well as microflora (bacteria and fungi) important both as processors of organic material and causative agents of tree disease. Studies were performed in areas near (treatment) and far (control) from the ELF antenna Study parameters included total number of streptomycete individuals and species; mass loss of maple, oak, and pine leaf litter; and frequency of red pine mortality from Armillaria root disease. The MTU research team used several statistical models; however, nested analysis of covariance was the most frequently used test. Based on the results of their study, MTU investigators conclude that the EM fields produced by the Naval Radio Transmitting Facility-Republic, Michigan did not affect soil bacteria populations or the spread of the root disease. Loss of foliar mass suggests a statistically significant, but modest, increase in the rate of litter decomposition, possibly associated with electromagnetic exposure.

  17. In vitro antimicrobial effects of grape seed extract on peri-implantitis microflora in craniofacial implants

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Binit; Theerathavaj, M.L. Srithavaj; Thaweboon, Sroisiri; Thaweboon, Boonyanit

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the antimicrobial effects of grape seed on peri-implantitis microflora. Methods The grape seed extract was tested against peri-implantitis microflora most commonly found in craniofacial implants including reference strains of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli), Candida albicans (C. albicans) and clinical strains of S. aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia (K. pneumonia) and Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis) by disk diffusion test. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum cidal concentrations (MCC) were determined using modified agar dilution millpore method. The extract was further combined with polyethylene glycol and propylene glycol, and was tested for antimicrobial effects. Results Grape seed extract showed positive inhibitory effects with S. aureus at MIC of 0.625 mg/mL and MCC of 1.25 mg/mL respectively. However the extracts showed minimal or no reactivity against strains of E. coli, K. pneumonia, C. parapsilosis and C. albicans. The use of grape seed extract in combination with polyethylene glycol and propylene glycol also showed dose dependent inhibitory effect on S. aureus. Conclusions The results of the study showed that grape seed has potential antimicrobial effects which can be further studied and developed to be used in the treatment of infected skin-abutment interface of craniofacial implants. PMID:23569854

  18. Oatmeal porridge: impact on microflora-associated characteristics in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Valeur, Jørgen; Puaschitz, Nathalie G; Midtvedt, Tore; Berstad, Arnold

    2016-01-14

    Oatmeal porridge has been consumed for centuries and has several health benefits. We aimed to investigate the effect of oatmeal porridge on gut microflora functions. A total of ten healthy subjects ingested 60 g oatmeal porridge daily for 1 week. The following microflora-associated characteristics were assessed before and after the intervention: intestinal gas production following lactulose ingestion, faecal excretion of SCFA and faecal levels of urease and β-galactosidase. In addition, rectal levels of PGE2 were measured. Microbial fermentation as evaluated by intestinal gas production and excretion of SCFA did not change significantly following the dietary intervention. However, faecal levels of β-galactosidase and urease decreased after eating oatmeal porridge (P=0·049 and 0·031, respectively). Host inflammatory state, as measured by rectal levels of PGE2, also decreased, but the change was not significant (P=0·168). The results suggest that oatmeal porridge has an effect on gut microbial functions and may possess potential prebiotic properties that deserve to be investigated further. PMID:26511097

  19. Metabolomics analysis reveals large effects of gut microflora on mammalian blood metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Wikoff, William R.; Anfora, Andrew T.; Liu, Jun; Schultz, Peter G.; Lesley, Scott A.; Peters, Eric C.; Siuzdak, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Although it has long been recognized that the enteric community of bacteria that inhabit the human distal intestinal track broadly impacts human health, the biochemical details that underlie these effects remain largely undefined. Here, we report a broad MS-based metabolomics study that demonstrates a surprisingly large effect of the gut “microbiome” on mammalian blood metabolites. Plasma extracts from germ-free mice were compared with samples from conventional (conv) animals by using various MS-based methods. Hundreds of features were detected in only 1 sample set, with the majority of these being unique to the conv animals, whereas ≈10% of all features observed in both sample sets showed significant changes in their relative signal intensity. Amino acid metabolites were particularly affected. For example, the bacterial-mediated production of bioactive indole-containing metabolites derived from tryptophan such as indoxyl sulfate and the antioxidant indole-3-propionic acid (IPA) was impacted. Production of IPA was shown to be completely dependent on the presence of gut microflora and could be established by colonization with the bacterium Clostridium sporogenes. Multiple organic acids containing phenyl groups were also greatly increased in the presence of gut microbes. A broad, drug-like phase II metabolic response of the host to metabolites generated by the microbiome was observed, suggesting that the gut microflora has a direct impact on the drug metabolism capacity of the host. Together, these results suggest a significant interplay between bacterial and mammalian metabolism. PMID:19234110

  20. Physiological and chemotaxonomical studies on microflora within a composter operated at high temperature.

    PubMed

    Pedro, M S; Hayashi, N R; Mukai, T; Ishii, M; Yokota, A; Igarashi, Y

    1999-01-01

    Physiological and chemotaxonomical studies were carried out on microorganisms isolated from a composter operated at around 50 to 60 degrees C. Only gram-positive rods were isolated and the microbial counts on agar plates were relatively low (10(3) to 10(5) cfu/g-sample). The chemotaxonomic properties of the ten isolates revealed that they were typical of the genus Bacillus. Identification by the Biolog system concurred with the chemotaxonomy; all the strains were determined to be Bacillus. 16S rDNA analysis closely identified five of the isolates as B. licheniformis, one as B. subtilis, and two as B. thermoamylovorans, while the remaining two strains seemed to belong to a new species. However, in several cases 16S rDNA analysis and the Biolog system gave different results at the species level. The stability of microflora within the composter was also investigated using the Biolog system. Analysis of colonies obtained during three sampling periods--December 1997, April 1998, and June 1998--showed that the microflora in the composter remained fairly stable.

  1. Autophagy Protects against Colitis by the Maintenance of Normal Gut Microflora and Secretion of Mucus*

    PubMed Central

    Tsuboi, Koichiro; Nishitani, Mayo; Takakura, Atsushi; Imai, Yasuyuki; Komatsu, Masaaki; Kawashima, Hiroto

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies of inflammatory bowel diseases identified susceptible loci containing an autophagy-related gene. However, the role of autophagy in the colon, a major affected area in inflammatory bowel diseases, is not clear. Here, we show that colonic epithelial cell-specific autophagy-related gene 7 (Atg7) conditional knock-out (cKO) mice showed exacerbation of experimental colitis with more abundant bacterial invasion into the colonic epithelium. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that cKO mice had abnormal microflora with an increase of some genera. Consistently, expression of antimicrobial or antiparasitic peptides such as angiogenin-4, Relmβ, intelectin-1, and intelectin-2 as well as that of their inducer cytokines was significantly reduced in the cKO mice. Furthermore, secretion of colonic mucins that function as a mucosal barrier against bacterial invasion was also significantly diminished in cKO mice. Taken together, our results indicate that autophagy in colonic epithelial cells protects against colitis by the maintenance of normal gut microflora and secretion of mucus. PMID:26149685

  2. Oatmeal porridge: impact on microflora-associated characteristics in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Valeur, Jørgen; Puaschitz, Nathalie G; Midtvedt, Tore; Berstad, Arnold

    2016-01-14

    Oatmeal porridge has been consumed for centuries and has several health benefits. We aimed to investigate the effect of oatmeal porridge on gut microflora functions. A total of ten healthy subjects ingested 60 g oatmeal porridge daily for 1 week. The following microflora-associated characteristics were assessed before and after the intervention: intestinal gas production following lactulose ingestion, faecal excretion of SCFA and faecal levels of urease and β-galactosidase. In addition, rectal levels of PGE2 were measured. Microbial fermentation as evaluated by intestinal gas production and excretion of SCFA did not change significantly following the dietary intervention. However, faecal levels of β-galactosidase and urease decreased after eating oatmeal porridge (P=0·049 and 0·031, respectively). Host inflammatory state, as measured by rectal levels of PGE2, also decreased, but the change was not significant (P=0·168). The results suggest that oatmeal porridge has an effect on gut microbial functions and may possess potential prebiotic properties that deserve to be investigated further.

  3. Pyrosequencing of Plaque Microflora In Twin Children with Discordant Caries Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meng; Chen, Yongxing; Xie, Lingzhi; Li, Yuhong; Jiang, Han; Du, Minquan

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent successes in the control of dental caries, the mechanism of caries development remains unclear. To investigate the causes of dental decay, especially in early childhood caries, the supragingival microflora composition of 20 twins with discordant caries phenotypes were analyzed using high-throughput pyrosequencing. In addition, the parents completed a lifestyle questionnaire. A total of 228,789 sequencing reads revealed 10 phyla, 84 genera, and 155 species of microflora, the relative abundances of these strains varied dramatically among the children, Comparative analysis between groups revealed that Veillonella, Corynebacterium and Actinomyces were presumed to be caries-related genera, Fusobacterium, Kingella and Leptotrichia were presumed to be healthy-related genus, yet this six genera were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Moreover, a cluster analysis revealed that the microbial composition of samples in the same group was often dissimilar but that the microbial composition observed in twins was usually similar. Although the genetic and environmental factors that strongly influence the microbial composition of dental caries remains unknown, we speculate that genetic factors primarily influence the individual's susceptibility to dental caries and that environmental factors primarily regulate the microbial composition of the dental plaque and the progression to caries. By using improved twins models and increased sample sizes, our study can be extended to analyze the specific genetic and environmental factors that affect the development of caries. PMID:26524687

  4. Gastrin, gastric acid secretion, and gastric microflora in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Henriksson, K; Uvnäs-Moberg, K; Nord, C E; Johansson, C; Gullberg, R

    1986-01-01

    The relation between the basal and stimulated gastric acid secretion, plasma gastrin, and the gastric microflora was examined in 45 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Sixteen patients (36%) had basal achlorhydria, and of these, 10 (22%) had achlorhydria or hypochlorhydria after stimulation with pentagastrin. The peak acid output and acidity showed inverse correlation with the disease duration but were not associated with age or with the degree of physical disability. Hypergastrinaemia was found in nine patients (20%), of whom 6 (13%) had significant titres of parietal cell antibody. The acidity of the peak acid output showed negative correlation with plasma gastrin. It was confirmed that the gastric secretory state is a determinant of plasma gastrin levels and in addition influences the growth of micro-organisms in the gastric lumen. The type of microflora in the non-acid stomach was similar to that found in the saliva. A subgroup of eight females was identified who showed low gastric acid secretion rates, positive bacterial cultures, and atlantoaxial subluxation. Gastrin- and insulin-like immunoreactivities were found in joint fluid. The concentrations reflected their plasma levels, suggesting that the peptides are not released at the inflammatory site, but rather that they reach synovial fluid from circulating blood. PMID:3524480

  5. Ecological role of algobacterial cenosis links (chlorella - associated microflora or associated bacteria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechurkin, N. S.

    The problems of interrelation of microalgae and bacteria in the "autotroph - heterotroph" aquatic biotic cycle are discussed. The cause and mechanisms of algobacterial cenosis formation still have been explained contradictorily. This work views the results of experimental and theoretical study of algobacterial cenosis functioning by the example of microalga Chlorella vulgaris and associated microflora. The representatives of Pseudomonas mainly predominate in the Chlorella microbial complex. The experiment at non-sterile batch cultivation of Chlorella on Tamya medium showed that the biomass of microorganisms increases simultaneously with the increase of microalgal biomass. Microflora of Chlorella can use organic materials evolved by Chlorella after photosynthesis for reproduction. Moreover, microorganisms can use dying cells of Chlorella, i.e. form the "producer - reducer" biocycle. To understand the cenosis-forming role of microalgae the mathematical model of the "autotroph - heterotroph" aquatic biotic cycle was constructed taking into consideration the opportunities for microorganisms of using Chlorella photosynthates, dying cells and contribution of links to the nitrogen cycle. The theoretical investigation showed that the biomass of associated bacteria growing on glucose and detritus exceeds the biomass of bacteria using only microalgal photosynthates, which is comparable with experimental data.

  6. Conversion of (Meth)acrylic acids to methane granular sludge: Initiation by specific anerobic microflora

    SciTech Connect

    Shtarkman, N.B.; Obraztova, A.Y.; Laurinavichyus, K.S.; Galushko, A.S.; Akimenko, V.K.

    1995-03-01

    The role of a specific anaerobic microflora in the initiation of degradation of (meth)acrylic acids to methane by granular sludge from a UASB reactor was investigated. Associations of anaerobic bacteria isolated from the anaerobic sludge, which was used for a long time for treatment of wastewater from (meth)acrylate production, were able to realize the initial stage of (meth)acrylic acid decomposition, i.e., a conversion of acrylic and methacrylic acids to propionic and isobutyric acids, respectively. When added to granules, these association played a role of an {open_quotes}initiator{close_quotes} of the degradation process, which was then continued by the granular sludge microflora utilizing propionate and isobutyrate. Some characteristics of the granules adapted to propionate or isobutyrate are presented. The rates of propionate and isobutyrate consumption by adapted granules is, respectively, 21 and 53 times higher than the values obtained for nonadapted granules. A combined use of {open_quotes}initiating{close_quotes} bacteria and adapted granules provided degradation of (meth)acrylic acids with a maximum methane yield. The possibility is discussed of employing the granules, which are adapted to short-chain fatty acids, and the {open_quotes}initiating{close_quotes} bacteria, which accomplish the initial steps of the organic material decomposition to lower fatty acids, for the conversion of various chemical compounds to methane. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Prebiotic inulin: Useful dietary adjuncts to manipulate the livestock gut microflora.

    PubMed

    Samanta, A K; Jayapal, Natasha; Senani, S; Kolte, A P; Sridhar, Manpal

    2013-05-07

    In recent years, there has been a growing appreciation on the relevance of gastrointestinal microflora in both ruminants and non-ruminants owing to revelation of their role in several physiological functions including digestion, nutrient utilization, pathogen exclusion, gastrointestinal development, immunity system, gut gene expression and quality of animal products. The ban imposed on the use of antibiotics and hormones in feed has compelled animal researchers in finding an alternative which could overcome the issues of conventional feed additives. Though the concept of prebiotic was evolved keeping in mind the gastrointestinal flora of human beings, presently animal researchers are exploring the efficiency of prebiotic (inulin) for modulating the gut ecosystem of both ruminants and non-ruminants. It was revealed that prebiotic inulin is found to exhibit desirable changes in the gut of non-ruminants like poultry, swine, rabbit etc for augmenting gut health and improvement of product quality. Similarly, in ruminants the prebiotic reduces rumen ammonia nitrogen, methane production, increase microbial protein synthesis and live weight gains in calves. Unlike other feed additives, prebiotic exhibits its effect in multipronged ways for overall increase in the performances of the animals. In coming days, it is expected that prebiotics could be the part of diets in both ruminants and non-ruminants for enabling modulation of gut microflora vis a vis animals productivity in ecological ways.

  8. Autophagy Protects against Colitis by the Maintenance of Normal Gut Microflora and Secretion of Mucus.

    PubMed

    Tsuboi, Koichiro; Nishitani, Mayo; Takakura, Atsushi; Imai, Yasuyuki; Komatsu, Masaaki; Kawashima, Hiroto

    2015-08-14

    Genome-wide association studies of inflammatory bowel diseases identified susceptible loci containing an autophagy-related gene. However, the role of autophagy in the colon, a major affected area in inflammatory bowel diseases, is not clear. Here, we show that colonic epithelial cell-specific autophagy-related gene 7 (Atg7) conditional knock-out (cKO) mice showed exacerbation of experimental colitis with more abundant bacterial invasion into the colonic epithelium. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that cKO mice had abnormal microflora with an increase of some genera. Consistently, expression of antimicrobial or antiparasitic peptides such as angiogenin-4, Relmβ, intelectin-1, and intelectin-2 as well as that of their inducer cytokines was significantly reduced in the cKO mice. Furthermore, secretion of colonic mucins that function as a mucosal barrier against bacterial invasion was also significantly diminished in cKO mice. Taken together, our results indicate that autophagy in colonic epithelial cells protects against colitis by the maintenance of normal gut microflora and secretion of mucus.

  9. A study of relations between physicochemical properties of crude oils and microbiological characteristics of reservoir microflora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashchenko, I. G.; Polishchuk, Yu. M.; Peremitina, T. O.

    2015-10-01

    The dependence of the population and activity of reservoir microflora upon the chemical composition and viscosity of crude oils has been investigated, since it allows the problem of improvement in the technologies and enhancement of oil recovery as applied to production of difficult types of oils with anomalous properties (viscous, heavy, waxy, high resin) to be solved. The effect of the chemical composition of the oil on the number, distribution, and activity of reservoir microflora has been studied using data on the microbiological properties of reservoir water of 16 different fields in oil and gas basins of Russia, Mongolia, China, and Vietnam. Information on the physicochemical properties of crude oils of these fields has been obtained from the database created at the Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Siberian Branch on the physicochemical properties of oils throughout the world. It has been found that formation water in viscous oil reservoirs is char acterized by a large population of heterotrophic and sulfate reducing bacteria and the water of oil fields with a high paraffin content, by population of denitrifying bacteria.

  10. Rhizosphere microflora of plants used for the phytoremediation of bitumen-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Muratova, Anna; Hübner, Thorsten; Narula, Neeru; Wand, Helmut; Turkovskaya, Olga; Kuschk, Peter; Jahn, Richard; Merbach, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    The microbial communities and their degradative potential in rhizospheres of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and reed (Phragmites australis) and in unplanted soil in response to bitumen contamination of soil were studied in pot experiments. According to the results of fluorescence microscopy, over a period of 27 months, bitumen contamination of soil reduced the total number of microorganisms more significantly (by 75%) in unplanted than in rhizosphere soil (by 42% and 7% for reed and alfalfa, respectively) and had various effects on some important physiological groups of microorganisms such as actinomycetes as well as nitrogen-fixing, nitrifying, denitrifying, ammonifying, phosphate-solubilizing, sulphur-oxidizing, cellulolytic and hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms. The changes in the physiological structure of the microbial community under bitumen contamination were found to hinge on not merely the presence of plants but also their type. It was noted that the rhizosphere microflora of alfalfa was less inhibited by hydrocarbon pollution and had a higher degradative potential than the rhizosphere microflora of reed. PMID:12906388

  11. Metabolism of 1-, 3-, and 6-nitrobenzo(a)pyrene by intestinal microflora

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, K.E.; Fu, P.P.; Cerniglia, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    The compounds 1-, 3-, and 6-nitrobenzo(a)pyrene (nitro-BaP) are environmental pollutants and have been shown to be potent bacterial mutagens. The anaerobic metabolism of these isomeric nitro-BaPs was investigated by the incubation of rat intestinal microflora with each isomer for 48 h. Aliquots were removed at several time intervals, extracted, fractionated by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the radioactivity determined. Metabolites were identified by comparison of their chromatographic, ultraviolet-visible absorption, and mass spectral properties with those of authentic standards. The order of the extent of nitroreduction for these isomers was 3-nitro-BaP greater than 6-nitro-BaP greater than 1-nitro-BaP. After 48 h of exposure, 84% of the added 3-nitro-BaP was present as 3-amino-BaP, 51% of the 6-nitro-BaP was metabolized to 6-amino-BaP, and 1-nitro-BaP was reduced to 1-amino-BaP (13%) and 1-nitro-BaP (4%). The order of the extent of microbial nitroreduction for these nitro-BaP isomers is different from the predictions based on electronic and steric hindrance effects. These results suggest that intestinal microflora nitroreductases exhibit a markedly high degree of substrate specificity toward nitro-BaPs that affects the extent of nitroreduction.

  12. Prebiotic inulin: Useful dietary adjuncts to manipulate the livestock gut microflora

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, A.K.; Jayapal, Natasha; Senani, S.; Kolte, A.P.; Sridhar, Manpal

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing appreciation on the relevance of gastrointestinal microflora in both ruminants and non-ruminants owing to revelation of their role in several physiological functions including digestion, nutrient utilization, pathogen exclusion, gastrointestinal development, immunity system, gut gene expression and quality of animal products. The ban imposed on the use of antibiotics and hormones in feed has compelled animal researchers in finding an alternative which could overcome the issues of conventional feed additives. Though the concept of prebiotic was evolved keeping in mind the gastrointestinal flora of human beings, presently animal researchers are exploring the efficiency of prebiotic (inulin) for modulating the gut ecosystem of both ruminants and non-ruminants. It was revealed that prebiotic inulin is found to exhibit desirable changes in the gut of non-ruminants like poultry, swine, rabbit etc for augmenting gut health and improvement of product quality. Similarly, in ruminants the prebiotic reduces rumen ammonia nitrogen, methane production, increase microbial protein synthesis and live weight gains in calves. Unlike other feed additives, prebiotic exhibits its effect in multipronged ways for overall increase in the performances of the animals. In coming days, it is expected that prebiotics could be the part of diets in both ruminants and non-ruminants for enabling modulation of gut microflora vis a vis animals productivity in ecological ways. PMID:24159277

  13. Fatiguing upper body aerobic exercise impairs balance.

    PubMed

    Douris, Peter C; Handrakis, John P; Gendy, Joseph; Salama, Mina; Kwon, Dae; Brooks, Richard; Salama, Nardine; Southard, Veronica

    2011-12-01

    Douris, PC, Handrakis, JP, Gendy, J, Salama, M, Kwon, D, Brooks, R, Salama, N, and Southard, V. Fatiguing upper body aerobic exercise impairs balance. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3299-3305, 2011-There are many studies that have examined the effects of selectively fatiguing lower extremity muscle groups with various protocols, and they have all shown to impair balance. There is limited research regarding the effect of fatiguing upper extremity exercise on balance. Muscle fiber-type recruitment patterns may be responsible for the difference between balance impairments because of fatiguing aerobic and anaerobic exercise. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effect that aerobic vs. anaerobic fatigue, upper vs. lower body fatigue will have on balance, and if so, which combination will affect balance to a greater degree. Fourteen healthy subjects, 7 men and 7 women (mean age 23.5 ± 1.7 years) took part in this study. Their mean body mass index was 23.6 ± 3.2. The study used a repeated-measures design. The effect on balance was documented after the 4 fatiguing conditions: aerobic lower body (ALB), aerobic upper body (AUB), anaerobic lower body, anaerobic upper body (WUB). The aerobic conditions used an incremental protocol performed to fatigue, and the anaerobic used the Wingate protocol. Balance was measured as a single-leg stance stability score using the Biodex Balance System. A stability score for each subject was recorded immediately after each of the 4 conditions. A repeated-measures analysis of variance with the pretest score as a covariate was used to analyze the effects of the 4 fatiguing conditions on balance. There were significant differences between the 4 conditions (p = 0.001). Post hoc analysis revealed that there were significant differences between the AUB, mean score 4.98 ± 1.83, and the WUB, mean score 4.09 ± 1.42 (p = 0.014) and between AUB and ALB mean scores 4.33 ± 1.40 (p = 0.029). Normative data for single-leg stability testing for

  14. Some mice feature 5th pharyngeal arch arteries and double-lumen aortic arch malformations.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Stefan H; Weninger, Wolfgang J

    2012-01-01

    A 5th pair of pharyngeal arch arteries (PAAs) has never been identified with certainty in mice. Murines in general are considered to not develop a 5th pair. If true, the significance of the mouse as a model for researching the genesis of malformations of the great intrathoracic arteries is limited. We aimed to investigate whether mouse embryos develop a 5th pair of PAAs and to identify malformations known to be caused by defective remodelling of the 5th PAAs. We employed the high-resolution episcopic microscopy method for creating digital volume data and three-dimensional (3D) computer models of the great intrathoracic arteries of 30 mouse embryos from days 12-12.5 post conception and 180 mouse fetuses from days 14.5 and 15.5 post conception. The 3D models of the fetuses were screened for the presence of a double-lumen aortic arch malformation. We identified such a malformation in 1 fetus. The 3D models of the embryos were analysed for the presence of 5th PAAs. Six of the 30 embryos (20%) showed a 5th PAA bilaterally, and an additional 9 (30%) showed a 5th PAA unilaterally. Our results prove that some mice do develop a 5th pair of PAAs. They also show that malformations which occur rarely in humans and result from defective remodelling of the left 5th PAA can be identified in mice as well. Thus, the mouse does represent an excellent model for researching the mechanisms driving PAA remodelling and the genesis of malformations of the great intrathoracic arteries.

  15. Antibiotic Susceptibility Evaluation of Group A Streptococcus Isolated from Children with Pharyngitis: A Study from Iran

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibiotic susceptibility of Group A streptococcus (GAS) to antibiotics usually used in Iran for treatment of GAS pharyngitis in children. Materials and Methods From 2011 to 2013, children 3-15 years of age with acute tonsillopharyngitis who attended Mofid Children's Hospital clinics and emergency ward and did not meet the exclusion criteria were enrolled in a prospective study in a sequential manner. The isolates strains from throat culture were identified as GAS by colony morphology, gram staining, beta hemolysis on blood agar, sensitivity to bacitracin, a positive pyrrolidonyl aminopeptidase (PYR) test result, and the presence of Lancefield A antigen determined by agglutination test. Antimicrobial susceptibility was identified by both disk diffusion and broth dilution methods. Results From 200 children enrolled in this study, 59 (30%) cases were culture positive for GAS. All isolates were sensitive to penicillin G. The prevalence of erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin resistance by broth dilution method was 33.9%, 57.6%, and 33.9%, respectively. Surprisingly, 8.4% of GAS strains were resistant to rifampin. In this study, 13.5% and 32.2% of the strains were resistant to clindamycin and ofloxacin, respectively. Conclusion The high rate of resistance of GAS to some antibiotics in this study should warn physicians, especially in Iran, to use antibiotics restrictedly and logically to prevent the rising of resistance rates in future. It also seems that continuous local surveillance is necessary to achieve the best therapeutic option for GAS treatment. PMID:26788405

  16. Effects of different types of pharyngeal packing in patients undergoing nasal surgery: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Rizvi, Mohd Meesam; Singh, Raj Bahadur; Rasheed, Mohd Asim; Sarkar, Arindam

    2015-01-01

    Context: Postoperative throat complaints such as postoperative sore throat (POST), dysphagia, and hoarseness frequently arises after tracheal intubation and throat packing for patient undergoing general anesthesia. This condition is very disturbing to patient. Avoiding POST is a major priority for these patients because preventing postoperative complications contributes to patient satisfaction. Aims: To describe and analyze the postoperative throat effects of nasopharyngeal packing and oropharyngeal packing in patients undergoing nasal surgery. Settings and Design: A randomized comparative study. Subjects and Methods: After obtaining approval of Ethical Committee 40 patients were included in study. After this patient were randomly allocated into two groups of 20 each. Group A - in which the oropharynx was packed and Group B - inwhich the nasopharynx was packed. General anesthesia were given and throat packing was done and patients were interviewed postoperatively for any throat complications such as sore throat, difficulty in swallowing (dysphagia), hoarseness of voice, throat irritation, and any other symptom pertaining to the study were noted and data were analyzed. Statistical Analysis Used: T-test to compare the age, while Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were used to compare sex distribution, sore throat, dysphagia, hoarseness, and throat irritation. Results: Results showed statistically significant difference in incidence and severity of POST in Group A patients when compared to Group B patients to be more. Patients in Group A had a higher incidence of dysphagia when compared to their Group B counterparts. With respect to the incidence of hoarseness and throat irritation, there was no statistical significance between the groups. Conclusion: We concluded that the site of pharyngeal packing influences the incidence and severity of POST and as well as the incidence of dysphagia after general anesthesia. The use of nasopharyngeal packing in the patients

  17. Effect of fermentation temperature on hydrogen production from cow waste slurry by using anaerobic microflora within the slurry.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Waki, Miyoko; Moriya, Naoko; Yasuda, Tomoko; Tanaka, Yasuo; Haga, Kiyonori

    2007-02-01

    We examined hydrogen production from a dairy cow waste slurry (13.4 g of volatile solids per liter) by batch cultures in a temperature range from 37 to 85 degrees C, using microflora naturally present within the slurry. Without the addition of seed bacteria, hydrogen was produced by simply incubating the slurry, using the microflora within the slurry. Interestingly, two peaks of fermentation temperatures for hydrogen production from the slurry were observed at 60 and 75 degrees C (392 and 248 ml H2 per liter of slurry, respectively). After the termination of the hydrogen evolution, the microflora cultured at 60 degrees C displayed hydrogen-consuming activity, but hydrogen-consuming activity of the microflora cultured at 75 degrees C was not detected, at least for 24 days. At both 60 and 75 degrees C, the main by-product was acetate, and the optimum pH of the slurry for hydrogen production was around neutral. Bacteria related to hydrogen-producing moderate and extreme thermophiles, Clostridium thermocellum and Caldanaerobacter subterraneus, were detected in the slurries cultured at 60 and 75 degrees C, respectively, by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses, using the V3 region of 16S rDNA.

  18. Oral administration of Bifidobacterim bifidum for modulating microflora, acid and bile resistance, and physiological indices in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bao-Gui; Xu, Hai-Bo; Wei, Hua; Zeng, Zhe-Ling; Xu, Feng

    2015-02-01

    Bifidobacteria are generally acknowledged as major gut microflora used as probiotics, which promote human health. In this study, the effects of the administration of Bifidobacterim bifidum on modulating gastrointestinal (GI) tract microflora, acid and bile resistance, and physiological indices in BALB/c mice were investigated. Results showed that B. bifidum can significantly improve the ecosystem of the GI tract by increasing the amount of probiotics and reducing the populations of pathogenic bacteria, as measured by plate count and real-time PCR. After exposure to simulated GI tract conditions, the growth of gut microflora in the B. bifidum group was higher than that in the control group when incubated for 12 h in MRS or nutrient broth adjusted to pH 2.0 or 3.0 or in the presence of a concentration of bile salt (0.45% m/v). The blood biochemical index was examined, and the physiological effect of the cell-free extract of gut microflora was evaluated by measuring the activity of various enzymes, including α-glucosidases, esterase, and lactate dehydrogenase. This study suggested that a B. bifidum strain can stabilize blood sugar, lower cholesterol levels in serum, and improve metabolic activity. Moreover, B. bifidum was a promising enhancer of microbial diversity in mouse intestine and played a vital role in human physiological processes, which can benefit the health of a host. PMID:25630400

  19. [Indigenous microflora associated with the tegument of Triaenophorus nodulosus (Cestoda) and the intestine of its pike host].

    PubMed

    Korneva, Zh V; Plotnikov, A O

    2006-01-01

    Investigations of the indigenous microflora associated with the mucous intestines of fish and its cestode parasites have been for the first time carried out using the methods of transmission and scanning electron microscopy. New data on the bacterial biodiversity in the cestode and its fish host are obtained. Nanobacteria and spirochaetes are for the first time revealed in a fish host together with the previously known bacteria forming the intestinal microflora of fish. Spirochaetes were shown to be associated with the intestines of a pike host only, while nanobacteria cover abundantly the surface of the apical parts of the intestinal microvilli and the apical parts of the microtriches in the cestode tegument. The similarity of the bacterial floras associated with the apical surface of the parasite tegument and the intestine of the host should be noted. At the same time, deeper bacterial communities represented by obligate symbionts are specific. Thus, there is a normal indigenous microflora in cestodes, associated with the tegumental surface. This symbiotic microflora has specific morphological features and provides the balance of relations in the parasite-host system. PMID:17285757

  20. Oral administration of Bifidobacterim bifidum for modulating microflora, acid and bile resistance, and physiological indices in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bao-Gui; Xu, Hai-Bo; Wei, Hua; Zeng, Zhe-Ling; Xu, Feng

    2015-02-01

    Bifidobacteria are generally acknowledged as major gut microflora used as probiotics, which promote human health. In this study, the effects of the administration of Bifidobacterim bifidum on modulating gastrointestinal (GI) tract microflora, acid and bile resistance, and physiological indices in BALB/c mice were investigated. Results showed that B. bifidum can significantly improve the ecosystem of the GI tract by increasing the amount of probiotics and reducing the populations of pathogenic bacteria, as measured by plate count and real-time PCR. After exposure to simulated GI tract conditions, the growth of gut microflora in the B. bifidum group was higher than that in the control group when incubated for 12 h in MRS or nutrient broth adjusted to pH 2.0 or 3.0 or in the presence of a concentration of bile salt (0.45% m/v). The blood biochemical index was examined, and the physiological effect of the cell-free extract of gut microflora was evaluated by measuring the activity of various enzymes, including α-glucosidases, esterase, and lactate dehydrogenase. This study suggested that a B. bifidum strain can stabilize blood sugar, lower cholesterol levels in serum, and improve metabolic activity. Moreover, B. bifidum was a promising enhancer of microbial diversity in mouse intestine and played a vital role in human physiological processes, which can benefit the health of a host.

  1. Antimicrobial Active Clothes Display No Adverse Effects on the Ecological Balance of the Healthy Human Skin Microflora

    PubMed Central

    Hoefer, Dirk; Hammer, Timo R.

    2011-01-01

    The progressive public use of antimicrobial clothes has raised issues concerning skin health. A placebo-controlled side-to-side study was run with antimicrobial clothes versus fabrics of similar structure but minus the antimicrobial activity, to evaluate possible adverse effects on the healthy skin microflora. Sixty volunteers were enrolled. Each participant received a set of form-fitting T-shirts constructed in 2 halves: an antibacterial half, displaying activities of 3–5 log-step reductions due to silver-finishes or silver-loaded fibres and a nonantibacterial control side. The microflora of the scapular skin was analyzed weekly for opportunistic and pathogenic microorganisms over six weeks. The antibacterial halves did not disturb the microflora in number or composition, whereas a silver-containing deodorant displayed a short-term disturbance. Furthermore, parameters of skin morphology and function (TEWL, pH, moisture) did not show any significant shifts. In summary, antimicrobial clothes did not show adverse effects on the ecological balance of the healthy skin microflora. PMID:22363849

  2. Cloacal aerobic bacterial flora and absence of viruses in free-living slow worms (Anguis fragilis), grass snakes (Natrix natrix) and European Adders (Vipera berus) from Germany.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Volker; Mock, Ronja; Burgkhardt, Eileen; Junghanns, Anja; Ortlieb, Falk; Szabo, Istvan; Marschang, Rachel; Blindow, Irmgard; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth

    2014-12-01

    Disease problems caused by viral or bacterial pathogens are common in reptiles kept in captivity. There is no information available on the incidence of viral pathogens or the physiological cloacal bacterial flora of common free-living reptiles in Germany. Therefore, 56 free-living reptiles including 23 European adders (Vipera berus), 12 grass snakes (Natrix natrix) and 21 slow worms (Anguis fragilis) were investigated on the island Hiddensee in northeastern Germany. Pharyngeal and cloacal swabs were taken immediately after capture. Bacteriological examination was performed from the cloacal swabs to study the aerobic cloacal flora. Molecular biological examination included amplification of DNA or RNA from adeno-, rana- and ferlaviruses as well as culturing on Russell's viper heart cells for virus isolation. Salmonella spp. were isolated from European adders but not from the other reptiles examined. The minimal inhibitory concentration was determined from the isolated Salmonella spp. However, some potentially human pathogenic bacteria, such as Proteus vulgaris, Aeromonas hydrophila, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli were isolated. Viruses were not detected in any of the examined reptiles. To the authors' best knowledge, the present study is the first survey of viral pathogens in free-living snakes and slow worms in Germany and the first survey of cloacal aerobic bacterial flora of slow worms.

  3. The role of the Pax1/9 gene in the early development of amphioxus pharyngeal gill slits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Li, Guang; Liu, Xian; Wang, Yi-Quan

    2015-01-01

    The pharynx is a major characteristic of chordates. Compared with vertebrates, amphioxus has an advantage for the study of pharynx development, as embryos lack neural crest, and the pharynx is mainly derived from endoderm cells. The Pax1/9 subfamily genes have essential roles in vertebrate pharyngeal patterning, but it is not known if the Pax1/9 gene has similar functions in amphioxus pharynx development. To answer this question, we examined the Pax1/9 gene expression pattern in amphioxus embryos at different developmental stages, and observed morphological changes following Pax1/9 knockdown. RT-qPCR analysis indicated that Pax1/9 expression was initiated during early neurula stage and rapidly peaked during mid-neurula stage. Furthermore, in situ hybridization analysis showed that Pax1/9 transcripts were localized exclusively in the most endodermal region of the developing pharynx in early neurula stage embryos; however, Pax1/9 expression was strikingly down-regulated in the region where gill slits would form from the fusion of endoderm and ectoderm in subsequent developmental stages and was maintained in the border regions between adjacent gill slits. Knockdown of Pax1/9 function using both morpholino and siRNA approaches led to embryonic defects in the first three gill slits, and fusion of the first two gill slits. Moreover, the expression levels of the pharyngeal marker genes Six1/2 and Tbx1/10 were reduced in Pax1/9 knockdown embryos. From these observations, we concluded that the Pax1/9 gene has an important role in the initial differentiation of amphioxus pharyngeal endoderm and in the formation of gill slits, most likely via modulation of Six1/2 and Tbx1/10 expression.

  4. Occupational asbestos exposure is associated with pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in men from the greater Boston area

    PubMed Central

    Langevin, Scott M.; O’Sullivan, Mattie H.; Valerio, Jennifer L.; Pawlita, Michael; Applebaum, Katie M.; Eliot, Melissa; McClean, Michael D.; Kelsey, Karl T.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Asbestos describes a group of naturally occurring silicate mineral fibers that were widely used in industry during the 20th century due to their desirable physical properties. Although use in the United States has fallen over the last three decades, significant exposure in the developing world continues and the burden of disease is considerable. Asbestos is a known risk factor for several malignant diseases, including lung cancer and mesothelioma, and has more recently been implicated in pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer. However, studies of asbestos and cancers of the larynx or pharynx with adequate sample-size that control for major head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) risk factors remain relatively sparse. Methods We report findings from a case-control study of 674 incident male HNSCC cases from the greater Boston region and 857 population-based male controls, matched on age (+/− 3 years), sex, and town or neighborhood of residence. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between occupational asbestos exposure and HNSCC by primary tumor site. Results A total of 190 cases (28.2%) and 203 controls (23.7%) reported an occupational exposure to asbestos. Occupational asbestos exposure was associated with an elevated risk of pharyngeal carcinoma in men (OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.01–1.97), adjusted for age, race, smoking, alcohol consumption, education, income, and HPV16 serology, with borderline increasing risk for each decade at the exposed occupation (OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 0.99–1.23). Conclusion These observations are consistent with the mounting evidence that asbestos is a risk factor for pharyngeal cancer. PMID:24142981

  5. The role of the Pax1/9 gene in the early development of amphioxus pharyngeal gill slits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Li, Guang; Liu, Xian; Wang, Yi-Quan

    2015-01-01

    The pharynx is a major characteristic of chordates. Compared with vertebrates, amphioxus has an advantage for the study of pharynx development, as embryos lack neural crest, and the pharynx is mainly derived from endoderm cells. The Pax1/9 subfamily genes have essential roles in vertebrate pharyngeal patterning, but it is not known if the Pax1/9 gene has similar functions in amphioxus pharynx development. To answer this question, we examined the Pax1/9 gene expression pattern in amphioxus embryos at different developmental stages, and observed morphological changes following Pax1/9 knockdown. RT-qPCR analysis indicated that Pax1/9 expression was initiated during early neurula stage and rapidly peaked during mid-neurula stage. Furthermore, in situ hybridization analysis showed that Pax1/9 transcripts were localized exclusively in the most endodermal region of the developing pharynx in early neurula stage embryos; however, Pax1/9 expression was strikingly down-regulated in the region where gill slits would form from the fusion of endoderm and ectoderm in subsequent developmental stages and was maintained in the border regions between adjacent gill slits. Knockdown of Pax1/9 function using both morpholino and siRNA approaches led to embryonic defects in the first three gill slits, and fusion of the first two gill slits. Moreover, the expression levels of the pharyngeal marker genes Six1/2 and Tbx1/10 were reduced in Pax1/9 knockdown embryos. From these observations, we concluded that the Pax1/9 gene has an important role in the initial differentiation of amphioxus pharyngeal endoderm and in the formation of gill slits, most likely via modulation of Six1/2 and Tbx1/10 expression. PMID:25504927

  6. Effect of gluconic acid on piglet growth performance, intestinal microflora, and intestinal wall morphology.

    PubMed

    Biagi, G; Piva, A; Moschini, M; Vezzali, E; Roth, F X

    2006-02-01

    Gluconic acid (GA) derives from the incomplete oxidation of glucose by some Gluconobacter strains. When fed to nonruminant animals, GA is only poorly absorbed in the small intestine and is primarly fermented to butyric acid in the lower gut. This study investigated the effect of GA on in vitro growth response and metabolism of swine cecal microflora and on animal growth performance, intestinal wall morphology, and intestinal microflora. During a 24-h in vitro cecal fermentation, total gas production and maximum rate of gas production were increased by GA (linear, P < 0.001). Ammonia in cecal liquor was reduced by GA after 4, 8, and 24 h of fermentation (quadratic, P < 0.01). After 24 h of fermentation, total short-chain fatty acids, acetic acid, propionic acid, n-butyric acid, acetic to propionic acid ratio, and acetic + butyric to propionic acid ratio were linearly increased by GA (P < 0.001). In the in vivo study, 48 piglets were divided into 4 groups and housed in individual cages for 6 wk. Piglets received a basal diet with a) no addition (control) or with GA addition at b) 3,000 ppm, c) 6,000 ppm, or d) 12,000 ppm. After 6 wk, 4 animals per treatment were killed, and samples of intestinal content and mucosa were collected. Compared with control, GA tended to increase average daily gain (+13 and +14% for GA at 3,000 and 6,000 ppm, respectively; P of the model = 0.11; quadratic, P < 0.05). Daily feed consumption and gain to feed ratio were not influenced by GA. Intestinal counts of clostridia, enterobacteriaceae, and lactic acid bacteria were not affected by GA. Gluconic acid tended to increase total short-chain fatty acids in the jejunum (+174, +87, and +74% for GA at 3,000, 6,000, and 12,000 ppm, respectively; P of the model = 0.07; quadratic, P = 0.07). Morphological evaluation of intestinal mucosa from jejunum, ileum, and cecum did not show any significant differences among treatments. This study showed that feeding GA influences the composition and activity

  7. Characterization of microflora in Latin-style cheeses by next-generation sequencing technology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cheese contamination can occur at numerous stages in the manufacturing process including the use of improperly pasteurized or raw milk. Of concern is the potential contamination by Listeria monocytogenes and other pathogenic bacteria that find the high moisture levels and moderate pH of popular Latin-style cheeses like queso fresco a hospitable environment. In the investigation of a foodborne outbreak, samples typically undergo enrichment in broth for 24 hours followed by selective agar plating to isolate bacterial colonies for confirmatory testing. The broth enrichment step may also enable background microflora to proliferate, which can confound subsequent analysis if not inhibited by effective broth or agar additives. We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to provide a preliminary survey of bacterial species associated with three brands of Latin-style cheeses after 24-hour broth enrichment. Results Brand A showed a greater diversity than the other two cheese brands (Brands B and C) at nearly every taxonomic level except phylum. Brand B showed the least diversity and was dominated by a single bacterial taxon, Exiguobacterium, not previously reported in cheese. This genus was also found in Brand C, although Lactococcus was prominent, an expected finding since this bacteria belongs to the group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) commonly found in fermented foods. Conclusions The contrasting diversity observed in Latin-style cheese was surprising, demonstrating that despite similarity of cheese type, raw materials and cheese making conditions appear to play a critical role in the microflora composition of the final product. The high bacterial diversity associated with Brand A suggests it may have been prepared with raw materials of high bacterial diversity or influenced by the ecology of the processing environment. Additionally, the presence of Exiguobacterium in high proportions (96%) in Brand B and, to a lesser extent, Brand C (46%), may have been influenced by the

  8. Four treatment failures of pharyngeal gonorrhoea with ceftriaxone (500 mg) or cefotaxime (500 mg), Sweden, 2013 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Golparian, D; Ohlsson, Ak; Janson, H; Lidbrink, P; Richtner, T; Ekelund, O; Fredlund, H; Unemo, M

    2014-07-31

    We describe four cases in Sweden of verified treatment failures of pharyngeal gonorrhoea with ceftriaxone (500 mg; n=3) or cefotaxime (500 mg; n=1) monotherapy. All the ceftriaxone treatment failures were caused by the internationally spreading multidrug-resistant gonococcal NG-MAST genogroup 1407 clone. Increased awareness of treatment failures is crucial particularly when antimicrobial monotherapy is used. Frequent test of cure and appropriate verification/falsification of suspected treatment failures, as well as implementation of recommended dual antimicrobial therapy are imperative.

  9. Treatment failure of pharyngeal gonorrhoea with internationally recommended first-line ceftriaxone verified in Slovenia, September 2011.

    PubMed

    Unemo, M; Golparian, D; Potočnik, M; Jeverica, S

    2012-06-21

    We describe the second case in Europe of verified treatment failure of pharyngeal gonorrhoea, caused by an internationally occurring multidrug-resistant gonococcal clone, with recommended first-line ceftriaxone 250 mg in Slovenia. This is of grave concern since ceftriaxone is last remaining option for empirical treatment. Increased awareness of ceftriaxone failures, more frequent test-of-cure, strict adherence to regularly updated treatment guidelines, and thorough verification/falsification of suspected treatment failures are essential globally. New effective treatment options are imperative.

  10. Evaluating the therapeutic efficacy, tolerability, and safety of an aqueous extract of Costus speciosus rhizome in acute pharyngitis and acute tonsillitis

    PubMed Central

    Bakhsh, Zainab A.; Al-Khatib, Talal A.; Al-Muhayawi, Saad M.; ElAssouli, Sufian M.; Elfiky, Iman A.; Mourad, Samiha A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of an aqueous extract of Costus speciosus (C. speciosus) rhizome in pediatric and adult patients suffering from acute pharyngitis and tonsillitis as an alternative to antibiotics use. Methods: This pilot cohort trial was conducted at King Abdulaziz University in Saudi Arabia between May and December 2014, among 15 patients with acute pharyngitis and tonsillitis who were administered nasal drops of aqueous extract of C. speciosus rhizome at a dose of 15-30 drops every 8 hours for 3 days. The primary outcome measure was the clinical improvement and remission rate within the first 5 days. Results: The administration of C. speciosus resulted in an improvement in acute symptoms in 60% of the patients treated within the first 24 hours, and remission rate of 93% by day 5, without any recorded adverse effects. Conclusion: This study revealed a significant efficacy of the aqueous extract of C. speciosus rhizome in acute pharyngitis and tonsillitis. PMID:26219454

  11. [Condition of microflora of the nasopharynx in immunization with live influenza vaccine for oral administration].

    PubMed

    Kolotilova, L V; Shablovskaia, E A; Urin, A I; Lomnitskaia, V B; Vygovskaia, T V

    1975-07-01

    The authors present data concerning the state of the microflora of the nasopharynx in the immunization of adults and schoolchildren with the living influenza vaccine for oral administration. During the vaccinal process there occurred qualitative changes in the microbial pattern of the nasopharynx and a reduction in the level of the salivary lysozyme. The most pronounced changes were seen after the first vaccination, when the seeding efficiency of the pathogenic staphylococcus the E. coli and the Pr. mirabilis increased considerably. At the same time the incidence of isolation of the pathogenic staphylococcus, neisseria, and hemolytic streptococcus was decreased. The mentioned changes in the microbial flora directly depended on the dynamics of the survival of the vaccine influenza virus.

  12. Concomitant Antibiotic and Mercury Resistance Among Gastrointestinal Microflora of Feral Brook Trout, Salvelinus fontinalis

    PubMed Central

    Meredith, Matthew M.; Parry, Erin M.; Guay, Justin A.; Markham, Nicholas O.; Danner, G. Russell; Johnson, Keith A.; Barkay, Tamar; Fekete, Frank A.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-nine bacterial isolates representing eight genera from the gastrointestinal tracts of feral brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchell) demonstrated multiple maximal antibiotic resistances and concomitant broad-spectrum mercury (Hg) resistance. Equivalent viable plate counts on tryptic soy agar supplemented with either 0 or 25 μM HgCl2 verified the ubiquity of mercury resistance in this microbial environment. Mercury levels in lake water samples measured 1.5 ng L−1; mercury concentrations in fish filets ranged from 81.8 to 1,080 ng g−1 and correlated with fish length. The presence of similar antibiotic and Hg resistance patterns in multiple genera of gastrointestinal microflora supports a growing body of research that multiple selective genes can be transferred horizontally in the presence of an unrelated individual selective pressure. We present data that bioaccumulation of non-point source Hg pollution could be a selective pressure to accumulate both antibiotic and Hg resistant bacteria. PMID:22850694

  13. [Study of petroleum-degrading activity of microflora from the shoreline region of the Caspian Sea].

    PubMed

    Shkidchenko, A N; Arinbasarov, M U

    2002-01-01

    Soil samples from the shore of Baku Bay (Caspian Sea), were studied. The content of oil products in the samples amounted to 2.7-8.0 wt%. The total counts of microorganisms were 1.8 x 10(6) cells per g soil, which is by two orders of magnitude lower compared to soils free from oil pollution. In addition, the diversity of microflora is considerably narrower. The samples were used to isolate pure cultures of microbial degraders capable of assimilating 24 to 32% of the oil introduced into liquid nutrient medium in six days. It was demonstrated that the fraction composition of residual oil changed and both light and heavy oil fractions were degraded.

  14. Effect of Exposure to Hyperoxic, Hypobaric, and Hyperbaric Environments on Concentrations of Selected Aerobic and Anaerobic Fecal Flora of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gillmore, James D.; Gordon, Francis B.

    1975-01-01

    Alterations in selected aerobic and anaerobic fecal microflora of the mouse were determined during exposure to hyperoxic and normoxic hypo- and hyperbaric environments. Examination of fecal cultures obtained during exposure for 6 weeks to either 60 or 77% oxygen concentration at 1 atmosphere absolute revealed little alteration in the aerobic or anaerobic flora. There appeared to be only a retardation in the reduction of the Klebsiella-Enterobacter flora which normally occurs after weaning. During exposure to hypobaric environments (100% O2, 0.2 atmosphere absolute), significant alterations in concentrations of Escherichia coli, slow lactose fermenters, Klebsiella-Enterobacter, and enterococci were found in some instances. All alterations were toward increased concentrations. Variations in concentrations of different colony types of obligately anaerobic gram-positive (anGPR) and gram-negative (anGNR) rods cultured during the same experiments also occurred. One colony type of anGPR appeared to decrease while a second type increased in numbers. Concentrations of three colony types of anGNR were generally, but not always, increased. During hyperbaric exposure (2.8% O2, 7.5 atmospheres absolute), increased concentrations of Klebsiella-Enterobacter, E. coli, slow lactose fermenters and enterococci were also noted. Changes in numbers of both colony types of anGPR, when occurring, were in the direction of lower numbers. Alteration in numbers of anGNR were in both directions but were more frequent in the direction of higher numbers. After return to normal air for 4 weeks of either hypo- or hyperbaric exposure, fecal concentrations of all organisms tended to revert toward control values with the exception of the anGPR which remained in lower concentrations after termination of the hyperbaric exposure. These observations indicate that, despite the great variation in the fecal flora among individual mice, it is possible to discover the effects induced by altered gaseous

  15. Characterization of the fungal microflora in raw milk and specialty cheeses of the province of Quebec.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Karine; Touchette, Marilyne; St-Gelais, Daniel; Labrie, Steve

    2012-09-01

    The cheese microbial ecosystem is complex, and the presence of non-starter adventitious microorganisms in milk may have an influence on the organoleptic characteristics of cheese. The aim of this study was to analyze the composition and diversity of the fungal flora of raw milk destined for cheesemaking from 19 dairy farms in Quebec and to monitor their evolution throughout ripening. Six hundred ten yeast and mold isolates were collected from raw milk and raw milk cheeses over a 9-month period. Based on the sequences of the rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region, 67% of the raw milk isolates were yeasts, which were assigned to 37 species across 11 genera, while 33% were molds, which were assigned to 33 species across 25 genera. A semi-quantitative analysis of the yeasts and molds in the raw milk from four farms was performed over a 5-month period. The composition and diversity of the fungal microflora were totally different for each farm, each of which had a unique species profile. To determine whether adventitious yeast strains from the milk could develop in raw milk cheese, a multilocus-sequence-typing (MLST) analysis was performed on 13 Issatchenkia orientalis (syn. Pichia kudriavzevii, anamorph: Candida krusei) isolates. The same MLST genotypes were identified for strains independently isolated from raw milk and raw milk cheese from a farm processing its own milk. This study contributes to the understanding of the natural fungal microflora of raw milk and suggests that non-starter yeasts and molds can transfer from raw milk to raw milk cheese and may influence cheese ripening. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13594-011-0051-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:23125908

  16. Effects of isobutyrate supplementation on ruminal microflora, rumen enzyme activities and methane emissions in Simmental steers.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Liu, Q; Zhang, Y L; Pei, C X; Zhang, S L; Wang, Y X; Yang, W Z; Bai, Y S; Shi, Z G; Liu, X N

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of isobutyrate supplementation on rumen microflora, enzyme activities and methane emissions in Simmental steers consuming a corn stover-based diet. Eight ruminally cannulated Simmental steers were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiment. The treatments were control (without isobutyrate), low isobutyrate (LIB), moderate isobutyrate (MIB) and high isobutyrate (HIB) with 8.4, 16.8 and 25.2 g isobutyrate per steer per day respectively. Isobutyrate was hand-mixed into the concentrate portion. Diet consisted of 60% corn stover and 40% concentrate [dry matter (DM) basis]. Dry matter intake (averaged 9 kg/day) was restricted to a maximum of 90% of ad libitum intake. Population of total bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria and anaerobic fungi were linearly increased, whereas that of protozoa and total methanogens was linearly reduced with increasing isobutyrate supplementation. Real-time PCR quantification of population of Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Fibrobacter succinogenes was linearly increased with increasing isobutyrate supplementation. Activities of carboxymethyl cellulase, xylanase and β-glucosidase were linearly increased, whereas that of protease was linearly reduced. Methane production was linearly decreased with increasing isobutyrate supplementation. Effective degradabilities of cellulose and hemicellulose of corn stover were linearly increased, whereas that of crude protein in diet was linearly decreased with increasing isobutyrate supplementation. The present results indicate that isobutyrate supplemented improved microflora, rumen enzyme activities and methane emissions in steers. It was suggested that the isobutyrate stimulated the digestive micro-organisms or enzymes in a dose-dependent manner. In the experimental conditions of this trial, the optimum isobutyrate dose was approximately 16.8 g isobutyrate per steer per day.

  17. Performance, intestinal microflora, and wall morphology of weanling pigs fed sodium butyrate.

    PubMed

    Biagi, G; Piva, A; Moschini, M; Vezzali, E; Roth, F X

    2007-05-01

    Adding organic acids to piglet diets is known to be helpful in overcoming postweaning syndrome, and butyric acid is known to be the main energy source for the epithelial cells of the large intestine and the terminal ileum. This study investigated the effect of sodium butyrate (SB) on in vitro and in vivo swine microflora, piglet growth performance, and intestinal wall morphology. During a 24-h in vitro cecal fermentation, total gas production and maximal rate of gas production were reduced linearly by SB (P < 0.001). Ammonia in cecal liquor was increased linearly by SB after 4, 8, and 24 h of fermentation (P < 0.001). In the in vivo study, 48 piglets housed in individual crates were allotted to 4 treatment groups (12 animals per treatment) for 6 wk. Piglets received a basal diet with a) no addition (control), or with SB at b) 1,000 ppm, c) 2,000 ppm, or d) 4,000 ppm. After 6 wk, 6 animals per treatment were killed, and samples of intestinal content and mucosa were collected. Sodium butyrate did not improve the animal growth performance. In the cecum, SB increased pH and isobutyric acid concentration (linear, P < 0.05) and tended to increase ammonia concentration (P = 0.056). Intestinal counts of clostridia, enterobacteriaceae, and lactic acid bacteria as well as intestinal mucosal morphology were not affected by feeding SB. This study showed that SB influenced the cecal microflora in an in vitro system, reducing the total gas production but increasing ammonia concentrations. When fed to piglets, SB did not improve the animal growth performance, increased cecal pH, and tended to increase cecal ammonia concentrations. Further studies will be needed to better understand the mechanisms underlying the effects observed when SB is fed to piglets.

  18. The Microfloras and Sensory Profiles of Selected Protected Designation of Origin Italian Cheeses.

    PubMed

    Licitra, Giuseppe; Carpino, Stefania

    2014-02-01

    Approximately 39 Italian cheeses carry protected designation of origin (PDO) status. These cheeses differ in their manufacturing technology and the microbial flora which comprise the finished products. The evolution of lactic microflora in cheeses with PDO status is of particular interest because the biochemical activities of these organisms participate in cheesemaking and may play an acknowledged role in the development of organoleptic characteristics during ripening. Nonstarter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) constitute complex microbial associations that are characterized by the occurrence of various species and many biotypes as a result of a number of selective conditions persisting during the manufacturing process and different ecological niches. The evolution of different species during ripening of Fiore Sardo showed that, when present, Lactobacillus paracasei persists and dominates the microflora of the cheese in the last period of ripening, suggesting that this species, more resistant to the constraints of the mature cheese, could be involved in proteolysis and in other enzymatic processes occurring during cheese ripening. In contrast, the stretching step typical of pasta filata cheese, such as Ragusano, induced a simplification of the raw milk profiles, allowing the persistence only of some predominant species, such as Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis, and Streptococcus macedonicus, after the stretching step. Lactobacillus plantarum and L. paracasei were isolated from ripened Castelmagno PDO cheese samples with the highest frequencies. These species, generally absent in the milk, occur in dairy ecosystems and dominate the bacterial flora of many ripened semihard cheeses. In PDO long-ripened Italian cheese such as Parmigiano Reggiano, the NSLAB population is mainly formed by L. paracasei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Pediococcus acidilactici. Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis, and L

  19. Survival prognostic factors for lateral bucco-pharyngeal junction squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mallet, Yann; Robin, Yves-Marie; Bedoui, Sophie El; Fournier, Charles; Penel, Nicolas; Lefebvre, Jean-Louis

    2008-07-01

    Squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) localized at the lateral buccopharyngeal junction are frequent occurrences in our experience. This anatomical site gives the tumor ample space to spread in different directions, making tumor management all the more difficult. We focused our study on this localization to underline their specificities and evaluate our practices. In the Department of Head and Neck Oncology at the Centre Oscar Lambret, 57 patients with lateral bucco-pharyngeal junction SCC were treated from 1995 to 2000. Epidemiological data were extracted from the medical chart. Description of the tumor was based on clinical and imaging data. Treatment modalities frequently combined surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Protocol was adapted with the health status and the aggressiveness of the disease. Follow-up and survival rates are outlined below. Fifty men and seven women with a mean age of 57 years constitute the patient population. Forty-nine out of 57 presented a history of smoking, and 44 out of 46 presented a history of alcoholism. Patient overall clinical status, social and family background were also discussed. Thirty-one of fifty-seven tumors were categorized as T1 or T2. Forty-five out of fifty-seven presented limited lymph-node involvement. Tumor extension, growth pathology and degree of differentiation were described. Twenty-eight out of fifty-seven had undergone primary surgery. Primary radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy was delivered to the others. The modality of the different treatments and their results were specified. The 3-year disease-free survival rate was 52.7% and the 3-year overall survival rate was 48.2%. The mean survival rate was 3 years. Univariate analysis was performed on all occasions. Gender (P=0.008), surgery first versus non-surgical treatment first (P=0.03), spread beyond the midline (P=0.03), and small tumors T1 T2 versus T3 T4 (P=0.003) were predictive factors of overall survival. A Multivariate analysis showed that the

  20. Short-Term Potentiation in the Control of Pharyngeal Muscles in Obstructive Apnea Patients

    PubMed Central

    Younes, Magdy; Loewen, Andrea; Ostrowski, Michele; Hanly, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    explaining arousals' destabilizing effect. Citation: Younes M, Loewen A, Ostrowski M, Hanly P. Short-term potentiation in the control of pharyngeal muscles in obstructive apnea patients. SLEEP 2014;37(11):1833-1849. PMID:25364079

  1. [Sulfa-drug wastewater treatment with anaerobic/aerobic process].

    PubMed

    Wu, L; Zhang, H; Zhu, H; Zhang, Z; Zhuang, Y; Dai, S

    2001-09-01

    Sulfa drug wastewater was treated with anaerobic/aerobic process. The removal ratios of TOC reached about 50% in anaerobic phase and about 70% in aerobic phase respectively, while volume loading rate of TOC was about 1.2 kg/(m3.d) in anaerobic phase and about 0.6 kg/(m3.d) in aerobic phase. Removal of TOC in anaerobic phase was attributed to the reduction of sulfate.

  2. Real-time PCR assays compared to culture-based approaches for identification of aerobic bacteria in chronic wounds.

    PubMed

    Melendez, J H; Frankel, Y M; An, A T; Williams, L; Price, L B; Wang, N-Y; Lazarus, G S; Zenilman, J M

    2010-12-01

    Chronic wounds cause substantial morbidity and disability. Infection in chronic wounds is clinically defined by routine culture methods that can take several days to obtain a final result, and may not fully describe the community of organisms or biome within these wounds. Molecular diagnostic approaches offer promise for a more rapid and complete assessment. We report the development of a suite of real-time PCR assays for rapid identification of bacteria directly from tissue samples. The panel of assays targets 14 common, clinically relevant, aerobic pathogens and demonstrates a high degree of sensitivity and specificity using a panel of organisms commonly associated with chronic wound infection. Thirty-nine tissue samples from 29 chronic wounds were evaluated and the results compared with those obtained by culture. As revealed by culture and PCR, the most common organisms were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) followed by Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The sensitivities of the PCR assays were 100% and 90% when quantitative and qualitative culture results were used as the reference standard, respectively. The assays allowed the identification of bacterial DNA from ten additional organisms that were not revealed by quantitative or qualitative cultures. Under optimal conditions, the turnaround time for PCR results is as short as 4-6 h. Real-time PCR is a rapid and inexpensive approach that can be easily introduced into clinical practice for detection of organisms directly from tissue samples. Characterization of the anaerobic microflora by real-time PCR of chronic wounds is warranted.

  3. Polymeric implant materials for the reconstruction of tracheal and pharyngeal mucosal defects in head and neck surgery

    PubMed Central

    Rickert, Dorothee

    2011-01-01

    The existing therapeutical options for the tracheal and pharyngeal reconstruction by use of implant materials are described. Inspite of a multitude of options and the availability of very different materials none of these methods applied for tracheal reconstruction were successfully introduced into the clinical routine. Essential problems are insufficiencies of anastomoses, stenoses, lack of mucociliary clearance and vascularisation. The advances in Tissue Engineering (TE) offer new therapeutical options also in the field of the reconstructive surgery of the trachea. In pharyngeal reconstruction far reaching developments cannot be recognized at the moment which would allow to give a prognosis of their success in clinical application. A new polymeric implant material consisting of multiblock copolymers was applied in our own work which was regarded as a promising material for the reconstruction of the upper aerodigestive tract (ADT) due to its physicochemical characteristics. In order to test this material for applications in the ADT under extreme chemical, enzymatical, bacterial and mechanical conditions we applied it for the reconstruction of a complete defect of the gastric wall in an animal model. In none of the animals tested either gastrointestinal complications or negative systemic events occurred, however, there was a multilayered regeneration of the gastric wall implying a regular structured mucosa. In future the advanced stem cell technology will allow further progress in the reconstruction of different kind of tissues also in the field of head and neck surgery following the principles of Tissue Engineering. PMID:22073099

  4. The duration of stage transition during pharyngeal swallowing among young-elderly, and mid-elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Byeon, Haewon; Koh, Hyeung Woo

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] Understanding the normal movements of the pharyngeal stage is important in the assessment of dysphagia. This study classified an elderly population into young-elderly and mid-elderly individuals and investigated the difference in stage transition duration between the two groups to provide basic material for assessment of dysphagia in old age. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of the study were 12 middle-aged individuals (40-49 years), young-elderly individuals (65-74 years), and 9 mid-elderly individuals (75-84 years). Stage transition duration was defined as the time from the moment food boluses passed the ramus of the mandible until the start of upward movement of the hyoid. All image data were measured using a videofluoroscopic study. Difference in measured values for stage transition duration between the groups were confirmed with one-way analysis of variance. [Results] Although analysis of variance was significantly longer in the young-elderly and mid-elderly individuals than in the middle-aged individuals, there was no significant difference in stage transition duration between the young-elderly and mid-elderly individuals. [Conclusion] In this study, there was no significant difference between the young-elderly and mid-elderly individuals in the movement speed of muscles related to pharyngeal swallowing. PMID:27313360

  5. Great vessel development requires biallelic expression of Chd7 and Tbx1 in pharyngeal ectoderm in mice

    PubMed Central

    Randall, Victoria; McCue, Karen; Roberts, Catherine; Kyriakopoulou, Vanessa; Beddow, Sarah; Barrett, Angela N.; Vitelli, Francesca; Prescott, Katrina; Shaw-Smith, Charles; Devriendt, Koen; Bosman, Erika; Steffes, Georg; Steel, Karen P.; Simrick, Subreena; Basson, M. Albert; Illingworth, Elizabeth; Scambler, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Aortic arch artery patterning defects account for approximately 20% of congenital cardiovascular malformations and are observed frequently in velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS). In the current study, we screened for chromosome rearrangements in patients suspected of VCFS, but who lacked a 22q11 deletion or TBX1 mutation. One individual displayed hemizygous CHD7, which encodes a chromodomain protein. CHD7 haploinsufficiency is the major cause of coloboma, heart defect, atresia choanae, retarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, and ear anomalies/deafness (CHARGE) syndrome, but this patient lacked the major diagnostic features of coloboma and choanal atresia. Because a subset of CHARGE cases also display 22q11 deletions, we explored the embryological relationship between CHARGE and VCSF using mouse models. The hallmark of Tbx1 haploinsufficiency is hypo/aplasia of the fourth pharyngeal arch artery (PAA) at E10.5. Identical malformations were observed in Chd7 heterozygotes, with resulting aortic arch interruption at later stages. Other than Tbx1, Chd7 is the only gene reported to affect fourth PAA development by haploinsufficiency. Moreover, Tbx1+/–;Chd7+/– double heterozygotes demonstrated a synergistic interaction during fourth PAA, thymus, and ear morphogenesis. We could not rescue PAA morphogenesis by restoring neural crest Chd7 expression. Rather, biallelic expression of Chd7 and Tbx1 in the pharyngeal ectoderm was required for normal PAA development. PMID:19855134

  6. Fgf receptors Fgfr1a and Fgfr2 control the function of pharyngeal endoderm in late cranial cartilage development.

    PubMed

    Larbuisson, Arnaud; Dalcq, Julia; Martial, Joseph A; Muller, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Cranial cartilage derives mainly from cranial neural crest cells and its formation requires fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) signaling for early differentiation and survival of developing chondrocytes as well as patterning of the endodermal pouches. Here, we investigate the role of Fgf receptors in chondrocyte maturation at later stages, beyond 24 hpf. Using inducible expression of a dominant-negative Fgf receptor, we show that Fgf signaling is required around 30 hpf for correct cartilage formation. The receptor genes fgfr1a and fgr2 are expressed in pharyngeal endodermal pouches after 24 hpf or 26 hpf, respectively. Depletion of any of these two receptors by microinjection of antisense morpholinos results in severe defects in cartilage formation at 4 dpf and a decrease in expression of the late chondrocyte markers barx1 and runx2b. Although endodermal pouches are correctly formed and patterned, receptor knock down leads to decreased expression of runx3, egr1 and sox9b in this tissue, while expression of fsta, coding for a secreted BMP/Tgfß inhibitor, is clearly increased. Rescue experiments revealed that each Fgfr1a or Fgfr2 receptor is able to compensate for the loss of the other. Thus, we show that minimal amounts of Fgfr1a or Fgfr2 are required to initiate a regulatory cascade in pharyngeal endoderm reducing expression of fsta, thereby allowing correct BMP signaling to the maturing chondrocytes of the head cartilage. PMID:24176552

  7. Bupivacaine Lozenge Compared with Lidocaine Spray as Topical Pharyngeal Anesthetic before Unsedated Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy: A Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Salale, Nesrin; Treldal, Charlotte; Mogensen, Stine; Rasmussen, Mette; Petersen, Janne; Andersen, Ove; Jacobsen, Jette

    2014-01-01

    Unsedated upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE) can induce patient discomfort, mainly due to a strong gag reflex. The aim was to assess the effect of a bupivacaine lozenge as topical pharyngeal anesthetic compared with standard treatment with a lidocaine spray before UGE. Ninety-nine adult outpatients undergoing unsedated diagnostic UGE were randomized to receive either a bupivacaine lozenge (L-group, n = 51) or lidocaine spray (S-group, n = 42). Primary objective was assessment of patient discomfort including acceptance of the gag reflex during UGE. The L-group assessed the discomfort significantly lower on a visual analog scale compared with the S-group (P = 0.02). There was also a significant difference in the four-point scale assessment of the gag reflex (P = 0.03). It was evaluated as acceptable by 49% in the L-group compared with 31% in the S-group. A bupivacaine lozenge compared with a lidocaine spray proved to be a superior option as topical pharyngeal anesthetic before an UGE. PMID:25374463

  8. Numerical simulation of pharyngeal airflow applied to obstructive sleep apnea: effect of the nasal cavity in anatomically accurate airway models.

    PubMed

    Cisonni, Julien; Lucey, Anthony D; King, Andrew J C; Islam, Syed Mohammed Shamsul; Lewis, Richard; Goonewardene, Mithran S

    2015-11-01

    Repetitive brief episodes of soft-tissue collapse within the upper airway during sleep characterize obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), an extremely common and disabling disorder. Failure to maintain the patency of the upper airway is caused by the combination of sleep-related loss of compensatory dilator muscle activity and aerodynamic forces promoting closure. The prediction of soft-tissue movement in patient-specific airway 3D mechanical models is emerging as a useful contribution to clinical understanding and decision making. Such modeling requires reliable estimations of the pharyngeal wall pressure forces. While nasal obstruction has been recognized as a risk factor for OSA, the need to include the nasal cavity in upper-airway models for OSA studies requires consideration, as it is most often omitted because of its complex shape. A quantitative analysis of the flow conditions generated by the nasal cavity and the sinuses during inspiration upstream of the pharynx is presented. Results show that adequate velocity boundary conditions and simple artificial extensions of the flow domain can reproduce the essential effects of the nasal cavity on the pharyngeal flow field. Therefore, the overall complexity and computational cost of accurate flow predictions can be reduced.

  9. Skeletal myopathy in heart failure: effects of aerobic exercise training.

    PubMed

    Brum, P C; Bacurau, A V; Cunha, T F; Bechara, L R G; Moreira, J B N

    2014-04-01

    Reduced aerobic capacity, as measured by maximal oxygen uptake, is a hallmark in cardiovascular diseases and strongly predicts poor prognosis and higher mortality rates in heart failure patients. While exercise capacity is poorly correlated with cardiac function in this population, skeletal muscle abnormalities present a striking association with maximal oxygen uptake. This fact draws substantial attention to the clinical relevance of targeting skeletal myopathy in heart failure. Considering that skeletal muscle is highly responsive to aerobic exercise training, we addressed the benefits of aerobic exercise training to combat skeletal myopathy in heart failure, focusing on the mechanisms by which aerobic exercise training counteracts skeletal muscle atrophy.

  10. Effect of aerobic exercises on stuttering

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Illays; Nawaz, Irum; Amjad, Imran

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Stuttering is one of the most common speech disorders in adolescents than adults. Stuttering results in depression, anxiety, behavioral problem, social isolation and communication problems in daily life. Our objective was to determine the effect of Aerobic Exercises (AE) on stuttering. Methods: A quasi trail was conducted at National Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (NIRM) from January to June 2015. Thirty patients were selected and placed in three different groups Experimental Group A, (EG = 10 patients, age between 7-14 years), Experimental Group B (EG =10 patients age between 15-28 years) and control group –group C, (CG = 10 patients, age between 7-28 years). Patient who stutter were included in this study and those with any other pathology or comorbidity of speech disorders were excluded. The assessment tool used was Real-Time analysis of speech fluency scale. Participants in all the groups received speech therapy while only the EG – A and B received aerobic exercises (AE) using treadmill and stationary bicycle along with the speech therapy. Pre-interventional and post interventional assessments were analyzed using the SPSS 21 in order to determine the significance of new treatment approach and the effectiveness of physical therapy on speech disorders. Results: All the groups showed significant treatment effects but both the EG groups (Group A, Group B) showed high improvement in the severity level of stuttering as compared to control group C. The results also showed that AE treated group B had significant difference in p-value (p=0.027) as compared to control group (p<0.05) while experimental group A had no significant difference (p > 0.05) between these groups. Conclusion: The eclectic approach of aerobic exercises with the traditional speech therapy provides proximal rehabilitation of stuttering. PMID:27648057

  11. Effect of aerobic exercises on stuttering

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Illays; Nawaz, Irum; Amjad, Imran

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Stuttering is one of the most common speech disorders in adolescents than adults. Stuttering results in depression, anxiety, behavioral problem, social isolation and communication problems in daily life. Our objective was to determine the effect of Aerobic Exercises (AE) on stuttering. Methods: A quasi trail was conducted at National Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (NIRM) from January to June 2015. Thirty patients were selected and placed in three different groups Experimental Group A, (EG = 10 patients, age between 7-14 years), Experimental Group B (EG =10 patients age between 15-28 years) and control group –group C, (CG = 10 patients, age between 7-28 years). Patient who stutter were included in this study and those with any other pathology or comorbidity of speech disorders were excluded. The assessment tool used was Real-Time analysis of speech fluency scale. Participants in all the groups received speech therapy while only the EG – A and B received aerobic exercises (AE) using treadmill and stationary bicycle along with the speech therapy. Pre-interventional and post interventional assessments were analyzed using the SPSS 21 in order to determine the significance of new treatment approach and the effectiveness of physical therapy on speech disorders. Results: All the groups showed significant treatment effects but both the EG groups (Group A, Group B) showed high improvement in the severity level of stuttering as compared to control group C. The results also showed that AE treated group B had significant difference in p-value (p=0.027) as compared to control group (p<0.05) while experimental group A had no significant difference (p > 0.05) between these groups. Conclusion: The eclectic approach of aerobic exercises with the traditional speech therapy provides proximal rehabilitation of stuttering.

  12. Screening and identification of aerobic denitrifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, K.; Deng, H. M.; Chen, Y. T.; Zhou, H. J.; Yan, G. X.

    2016-08-01

    With the standards of the effluent quality more stringent, it becomes a quite serious problem for municipalities and industries to remove nitrogen from wastewater. Bioremediation is a potential method for the removal of nitrogen and other pollutants because of its high efficiency and low cost. Seven predominant aerobic denitrifiers were screened and characterized from the activated sludge in the CAST unit. Some of these strains removed 87% nitrate nitrogen at least. Based on their phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, the isolates were identified as the genera of Ralstonia, Achromobacter, Aeromonas and Enterobacter.

  13. Toxic and inhibitory effects of trichloroethylene aerobic co-metabolism on phenol-grown aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Tay, JooHwa

    2015-04-01

    Aerobic granule, a form of microbial aggregate, exhibits good potential in degrading toxic and recalcitrant substances. In this study, the inhibitory and toxic effects of trichloroethylene (TCE), a model compound for aerobic co-metabolism, on phenol-grown aerobic granules were systematically studied, using respiratory activities after exposure to TCE as indicators. High TCE concentration did not exert positive or negative effects on the subsequent endogenous respiration rate or phenol dependent specific oxygen utilization rate (SOUR), indicating the absence of solvent stress and induction effect on phenol-hydroxylase. Phenol-grown aerobic granules exhibited a unique response to TCE transformation product toxicity, that small amount of TCE transformation enhanced the subsequent phenol SOUR. Granules that had transformed between 1.3 and 3.7 mg TCE gSS(-1) showed at most 53% increase in the subsequent phenol SOUR, and only when the transformation exceeded 6.6 mg TCE gSS(-1) did the SOUR dropped below that of the control. This enhancing effect was found to sustain throughout several phenol dosages, and TCE transformation below the toxicity threshold also lessened the granules' sensitivity to higher phenol concentration. The unique toxic effect was possibly caused by the granule's compact structure as a protection barrier against the diffusive transformation product(s) of TCE co-metabolism.

  14. [Heterotrophic Nitrification and Aerobic Denitrification of the Hypothermia Aerobic Denitrification Bacterium: Arthrobacter arilaitensis].

    PubMed

    He, Teng-xia; Ni, Jiu-pai; Li, Zhen-lun; Sun, Quan; Ye Qing; Xu, Yi

    2016-03-15

    High concentrations of ammonium, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen were employed to clarify the abilities of heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification of Arthrobacter arilaitensis strain Y-10. Meanwhile, by means of inoculating the strain suspension into the mixed ammonium and nitrate, ammonium and nitrite nitrogen simulated wastewater, we studied the simultaneous nitrification and denitrification ability of Arthrobacter arilaitensis strain Y-10. In addition, cell optical density was assayed in each nitrogen removal process to analyze the relationship of cell growth and nitrogen removal efficiency. The results showed that the hypothermia denitrification strain Arthrobacter arilaitensis Y-10 exhibited high nitrogen removal efficiency during heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification. The ammonium, nitrate and nitrite removal rates were 65.0%, 100% and 61.2% respectively when strain Y-10 was cultivated for 4 d at 15°C with initial ammonium, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen concentrations of 208.43 mg · L⁻¹, 201.16 mg · L⁻¹ and 194.33 mg · L⁻¹ and initial pH of 7.2. Nitrite nitrogen could only be accumulated in the medium containing nitrate nitrogen during heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification process. Additionally, the ammonium nitrogen was mainly removed in the inorganic nitrogen mixed synthetic wastewater. In short, Arthrobacter arilaitensis Y-10 could conduct nitrification and denitrification effectively under aerobic condition and the ammonium nitrogen removal rate was more than 80.0% in the inorganic nitrogen mixed synthetic wastewater. PMID:27337904

  15. Settling behaviour of aerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Nor Anuar, A; Ujang, Z; van Loosdrecht, M C M; de Kreuk, M K

    2007-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) technology has been extensively studied recently to improve sludge settling and behaviour in activated sludge systems. The main advantage is that aerobic granular sludge (AGS) can settle very fast in a reactor or clarifier because AGS is compact and has strong structure. It also has good settleability and a high capacity for biomass retention. Several experimental works have been conducted in this study to observe the settling behaviours of AGS. The study thus has two aims: (1) to compare the settling profile of AGS with other sludge flocs and (2) to observe the influence of mechanical mixing and design of the reactor to the settleability of AGS. The first experimental outcome shows that AGS settles after less than 5 min in a depth of 0.4 m compared to other sludge flocs (from sequencing batch reactor, conventional activated sludge and extended aeration) which takes more than 30 min. This study also shows that the turbulence from the mixing mechanism and shear in the reactor provides an insignificant effect on the AGS settling velocity.

  16. Characterization and aerobic biodegradation of selected monoterpenes

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, G.; Pavlostathis, S.G.; Li, J.; Purdue, E.M.

    1996-12-31

    Monoterpenes are biogenic chemicals and occur in abundance in nature. Large-scale industrial use of these chemicals has recently been initiated in an attempt to replace halogenated solvents and chlorofluorocarbons which have been implicated in the stratospheric depletion of ozone. This study examined four hydrocarbon monoterpenes (d-limonene, {alpha}-pinene, {gamma}-terpinene, and terpinolene) and four alcohols (arbanol, linalool, plinol, and {alpha}-terpineol). Water solubility, vapor pressure, and octanol/water partition coefficients were estimated. Aerobic biodegradability tests were conducted in batch reactors by utilizing forest soil extract and enriched cultures as inoculum. The hydrophobic nature and high volatility of the hydrocarbons restricted the investigation to relatively low aqueous concentrations. Each monoterpene was analyzed with a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector after extraction from the aqueous phase with isooctane. Terpene mineralization was tested by monitoring liquid-phase carbon, CO{sub 2} production and biomass growth. All four hydrocarbons and two alcohols readily degraded under aerobic conditions. Plinol resisted degradation in assays using inocula from diverse sources, while arbanol degraded very slowly. The intrinsic biokinetics coefficients for the degradation of d-limonene and {alpha}-terpineol were estimated by using cultures enriched with the respective monoterpenes. Monoterpene biodegradation followed Monod kinetics.

  17. Aerobic growth at nanomolar oxygen concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Stolper, Daniel A.; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Canfield, Donald E.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular oxygen (O2) is the second most abundant gas in the Earth’s atmosphere, but in many natural environments, its concentration is reduced to low or even undetectable levels. Although low-oxygen-adapted organisms define the ecology of low-oxygen environments, their capabilities are not fully known. These capabilities also provide a framework for reconstructing a critical period in the history of life, because low, but not negligible, atmospheric oxygen levels could have persisted before the “Great Oxidation” of the Earth’s surface about 2.3 to 2.4 billion years ago. Here, we show that Escherichia coli K-12, chosen for its well-understood biochemistry, rapid growth rate, and low-oxygen-affinity terminal oxidase, grows at oxygen levels of ≤ 3 nM, two to three orders of magnitude lower than previously observed for aerobes. Our study expands both the environmental range and temporal history of aerobic organisms. PMID:20974919

  18. Acute effects of aerobic exercise promote learning

    PubMed Central

    Perini, Renza; Bortoletto, Marta; Capogrosso, Michela; Fertonani, Anna; Miniussi, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The benefits that physical exercise confers on cardiovascular health are well known, whereas the notion that physical exercise can also improve cognitive performance has only recently begun to be explored and has thus far yielded only controversial results. In the present study, we used a sample of young male subjects to test the effects that a single bout of aerobic exercise has on learning. Two tasks were run: the first was an orientation discrimination task involving the primary visual cortex, and the second was a simple thumb abduction motor task that relies on the primary motor cortex. Forty-four and forty volunteers participated in the first and second experiments, respectively. We found that a single bout of aerobic exercise can significantly facilitate learning mechanisms within visual and motor domains and that these positive effects can persist for at least 30 minutes following exercise. This finding suggests that physical activity, at least of moderate intensity, might promote brain plasticity. By combining physical activity–induced plasticity with specific cognitive training–induced plasticity, we favour a gradual up-regulation of a functional network due to a steady increase in synaptic strength, promoting associative Hebbian-like plasticity. PMID:27146330

  19. The Termite Gut Microflora as an Oxygen Sink: Microelectrode Determination of Oxygen and pH Gradients in Guts of Lower and Higher Termites.

    PubMed

    Brune, A; Emerson, D; Breznak, J A

    1995-07-01

    circumneutral. The oxic status of the peripheral hindgut lumen and its substantial oxygen consumption, together with previous reports of large numbers of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the hindgut microflora, challenge the notion that termite hindguts are a purely anoxic environment and, together with the steep axial pH gradients in higher termites, refine our concept of this tiny microbial habitat.

  20. The Termite Gut Microflora as an Oxygen Sink: Microelectrode Determination of Oxygen and pH Gradients in Guts of Lower and Higher Termites

    PubMed Central

    Brune, A.; Emerson, D.; Breznak, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    circumneutral. The oxic status of the peripheral hindgut lumen and its substantial oxygen consumption, together with previous reports of large numbers of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the hindgut microflora, challenge the notion that termite hindguts are a purely anoxic environment and, together with the steep axial pH gradients in higher termites, refine our concept of this tiny microbial habitat. PMID:16535076

  1. Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) Fruit Extracts Improve Colon Microflora and Exert Anti-Inflammatory Activities in Caco-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsin-Lun; Liu, Cheng-Tzu; Chou, Ming-Chih; Ko, Chien-Hui; Wang, Chin-Kun

    2015-06-01

    Intestinal microflora and inflammation are associated with the risk of inflammatory bowel diseases. Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) has various bioactivities, but its effect on colon health remains unknown. This study focused on the effects of fermented noni fruit extracts on colon microflora and inflammation of colon epithelial cells. The anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts on Caco-2 cells were evaluated including interleukin-8 (IL-8) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). The growth of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species was promoted by ethanol extract. Ethyl acetate extract decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species and significantly suppressed COX-2, IL-8, and prostaglandin E2 production and neutrophil chemotaxis by suppressing the translocation of the p65 subunit. Quercetin was the main contributor to the anti-inflammatory activity. The fermented noni fruit promoted probiotic growths and downregulated the intracellular oxidation and inflammation in Caco-2 cells. These results suggest that fermented noni fruit might protect against inflammatory diseases of the colon.

  2. Effect of Laser trilobum spice on natural microflora of köfte, a Turkish ground meat product.

    PubMed

    Kivanç, M; Akgül, A

    1991-01-01

    The effect of Laser trilobum spice on natural microflora of "köfte", a Turkish ground meat product, prepared using three beef samples and stored at 7 degrees C and 20 degrees C was evaluated. Little or no inhibition was seen in all products and temperatures with 1.0% spice. Growth of natural microflora, namely total viables, coliforms, psychrotrophs and yeasts-moulds, was significantly inhibited by 2.0% of the spice, especially at 7 degrees C. The inhibitory effect of the spice increased with decreased fat content and increased water and protein contents of beef samples. It was concluded that the usual addition of the spice improved the hygienic quality of the product containing low fat and stored at 7 degrees C. PMID:2052071

  3. Effect of dietary oxidized konjac glucomannan on Schizothorax prenanti growth performance, body composition, intestinal morphology and intestinal microflora.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qiaoran; Wu, Yinglong; Xu, Huailiang

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of oxidized konjac glucomannan (OKGM) on Schizothorax prenanti growth performance, body composition, intestinal morphology and intestinal microflora. Fish were fed a basal diet or basal diet plus 4.0, 8.0, 16.0 and 32.0 g kg(-1) OKGM for 60 days. The results indicated that WGR and SGR were significantly higher in fish fed 8.0 and 16.0 g kg(-1) OKGM diets (P < 0.05) than those in fish fed basal diet, and PER was significantly higher and FCR was significantly lower in fish fed 16.0 g kg(-1) OKGM diet (P < 0.05). The content of body protein, lipid and moisture was affected by the OKGM diets. The light and electron microscopy demonstrated that intestinal morphology of fish fed 8.0 and 16.0 g kg(-1) OKGM diet was better (P < 0.05) than the control group, including mucosa fold height, mucosal epithelial height, submucosa height, longitudinal muscularis thickness and circular muscularis thickness. Compared with the control group, fish fed 32.0 g kg(-1) OKGM diet showed significantly lower goblet cell number in anterior intestine (P < 0.05). Furthermore, intestinal microflora was analyzed by PCR-DGGE, and the results showed that OKGM diets also significantly modulated the intestinal microflora of fish (P < 0.05). The study clearly demonstrates that OKGM could enhance the growth performance, improve intestinal morphology and modulate intestinal microflora of S. prenanti, and the optimal dietary OKGM levels was suggested to be 16.0 g kg(-1).

  4. Grainyhead-like 3 regulation of endothelin-1 in the pharyngeal endoderm is critical for growth and development of the craniofacial skeleton.

    PubMed

    Dworkin, Sebastian; Simkin, Johanna; Darido, Charbel; Partridge, Darren D; Georgy, Smitha R; Caddy, Jacinta; Wilanowski, Tomasz; Lieschke, Graham J; Doggett, Karen; Heath, Joan K; Jane, Stephen M

    2014-08-01

    Craniofacial development is a highly conserved process that requires complex interactions between neural crest cells (NCCs) and pharyngeal tissues derived from all three germ layers. Signals emanating from the pharyngeal endoderm drive differentiation of NCCs into craniofacial cartilage, and disruption of this process underpins several human craniofacial defects (CFD). Here, we demonstrate that morpholino (MO)-mediated knockdown in zebrafish of the highly conserved transcription factor grainyhead-like 3 (grhl3), which is selectively expressed in the pharyngeal endoderm, leads to severe hypoplasia of the lower jaw cartilages. Phylogenetic analysis of conserved grhl-binding sites in gene regulatory regions identified endothelin-1 (edn1) as a putative direct grhl3 target gene, and this was confirmed by chromatin precipitation (ChIP) assays in zebrafish embryos. Injection of sub-phenotypic concentrations of MOs targeting both grhl3 and edn1 induced jaw abnormalities, and injection of edn1 mRNA into grhl3-morphants rescued both pharyngeal expression of the downstream effectors of edn1, and jaw cartilage formation. This study sheds new light on the role of endodermal endothelin-1 in vertebrate jaw development, and highlights potential new genetic defects that could underpin human CFD.

  5. Aerobic Dance Exercise Programs: Maintaining Quality and Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Pamela J.

    1983-01-01

    A study of the effectiveness of Washington State University's aerobic dance program showed that participation in the program did not improve students' cardiovascular fitness. Aerobics instructors should be trained to use pulse rate and other principles of exercise physiology to make their work more effective. (PP)

  6. The Effectiveness of Aerobic Exercise Instruction for Totally Blind Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponchillia, S. V.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A multifaceted method (involving verbal and hands-on training) was used to teach aerobic exercises to 3 totally blind women (ages 24-37). All three women demonstrated positive gains in their performance, physical fitness, and attitudes toward participating in future mainstream aerobic exercise classes. (DB)

  7. [Value of aerobic rehabilitation in the management of fibromyalgia].

    PubMed

    Maquet, D; Croisier, J L; Demoulin, C; Faymonville, M; Crielaard, J M

    2006-02-01

    This study assesses the influence of a muscular aerobic revalidation program on the management of the fibromyalgia syndrome. After 3 months, benefits consisting of increased muscle performances associated with a reduction of pain and an improvement of quality of life were documented. This study confirms the value of aerobic muscle exercise in fibromyalgia patients. PMID:16566119

  8. Aerobic Fitness Thresholds Associated with Fifth Grade Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittberg, Richard; Cottrell, Lesley A.; Davis, Catherine L.; Northrup, Karen L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Whereas effects of physical fitness and physical activity on cognitive function have been documented, little is known about how they are related. Purpose: This study assessed student aerobic fitness measured by FITNESSGRAM Mile times and/or Pacer circuits and whether the nature of the association between aerobic fitness and…

  9. Factors associated with low levels of aerobic fitness among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Eliane Cristina de Andrade; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of low aerobic fitness levels and to analyze the association with sociodemographic factors, lifestyle and excess body fatness among adolescents of southern Brazil. Methods: The study included 879 adolescents aged 14-19 years the city of São José/SC, Brazil. The aerobic fitness was assessed by Canadian modified test of aerobic fitness. Sociodemographic variables (skin color, age, sex, study turn, economic level), sexual maturation and lifestyle (eating habits, screen time, physical activity, consumption of alcohol and tobacco) were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Excess body fatness was evaluated by sum of skinfolds triceps and subscapular. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results: Prevalence of low aerobic fitness level was 87.5%. The girls who spent two hours or more in front screen, consumed less than one glass of milk by day, did not smoke and had an excess of body fatness had a higher chance of having lower levels of aerobic fitness. White boys with low physical activity had had a higher chance of having lower levels of aerobic fitness. Conclusions: Eight out of ten adolescents were with low fitness levels aerobic. Modifiable lifestyle factors were associated with low levels of aerobic fitness. Interventions that emphasize behavior change are needed. PMID:26743851

  10. Aerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This manual contains the textual material for a single-lesson unit on aerobic sludge digestion. Topic areas addressed include: (1) theory of aerobic digestion; (2) system components; (3) performance factors; (4) indicators of stable operation; and (5) operational problems and their solutions. A list of objectives, glossary of key terms, and…

  11. The Acute Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Measures of Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fort, Inza L.; And Others

    The immediate response of stress to aerobic exercise was measured by utilizing the Palmar Sweat Index (PSI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Forty subjects (20 male and 20 female) from the ages of 18-30 sustained a single bout of aerobic activity for 30 minutes at 60 percent of their maximum heart rate. Pre-treatment procedures…

  12. An initiative to improve adherence to evidence-based guidelines in the treatment of URIs, sinusitis, and pharyngitis

    PubMed Central

    Alweis, Richard; Greco, Michael; Wasser, Thomas; Wenderoth, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Background Upper respiratory infections, acute sinus infections, and sore throats are common symptoms that cause patients to seek medical care. Despite well-established treatment guidelines, studies indicate that antibiotics are prescribed far more frequently than appropriate, raising a multitude of clinical issues. Methods The primary goal of this study was to increase guideline adherence rates for acute sinusitis, pharyngitis, and upper respiratory tract infections (URIs). This study was the first Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycle in a quality improvement program at an internal medicine resident faculty practice at a university-affiliated community hospital internal medicine residency program. To improve guideline adherence for respiratory infections, a package of small-scale interventions was implemented aimed at improving patient and provider education regarding viral and bacterial infections and the necessity for antibiotics. The data from this study was compared with a previously published study in this practice, which evaluated the adherence rates for the treatment guidelines before the changes, to determine effectiveness of the modifications. After the first PDSA cycle, providers were surveyed to determine barriers to adherence to antibiotic prescribing guidelines. Results After the interventions, antibiotic guideline adherence for URI improved from a rate of 79.28 to 88.58% with a p-value of 0.004. The increase of adherence rates for sinusitis and pharyngitis were 41.7–57.58% (p=0.086) and 24.0–25.0% (p=0.918), respectively. The overall change in guideline adherence for the three conditions increased from 57.2 to 78.6% with the implementations (p<0.001). In planning for future PDSA cycles, a fishbone diagram was constructed in order to identify all perceived facets of the problem of non-adherence to the treatment guidelines for URIs, sinusitis, and pharyngitis. From the fishbone diagram and the provider survey, several potential directions for future work

  13. Analysis and comparison of the microflora isolated from fresco surface and from surrounding air environment through molecular and biodegradative assays.

    PubMed

    Pangallo, Domenico; Kraková, Lucia; Chovanová, Katarína; Simonovičová, Alexandra; De Leo, Filomena; Urzì, Clara

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to find a correlation among the environmental isolated microflora and the fresco colonizators through the investigation of their biodegradative abilities and DNA characteristics. A molecular technique named RAMP (Random Amplified Microsatellite Polymorphisms) was utilized in order to analyze the DNA diversity of bacterial and fungal species isolated from fresco as well as from air samples. The RAMP-PCR results were combined with the screening of some biodegradative properties obtained through the use of specific agar plate assays detecting the proteolytic, solubilization and biomineralization abilities of the isolated microflora. This comparative analysis showed that only in few cases a direct link among the fresco and airborne isolates of specific microbial group existed. The investigation clearly evidenced that colonization of surface of Ladislav's fresco occurred in different time and by different strains than those observed at the moment of sampling campaign. Furthermore, the microflora investigation permitted the identification of taxonomically interesting bacteria with particular biodegradative properties, which had been less studied until now.

  14. Characterisation and response of intestinal microflora and mucins to manno-oligosaccharide and antibiotic supplementation in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Chee, S H; Iji, P A; Choct, M; Mikkelsen, L L; Kocher, A

    2010-06-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to characterise and evaluate, in comparison to zinc bacitracin (ZnB), the response of intestinal microflora and mucins to manno-oligosacchares (MOS, Bio-MOS(R), Alltech Biotechnology, Nicholasville, Kentucky, USA). 2. Supplementation of MOS and ZnB selectively increased the intensity of sulphomucins. As revealed by the plate culture method, MOS accelerated the maturation of gut microflora by promoting the growth of lactobacilli in the ileal mucosa and vice versa on ileal and caecal clostridia. Unlike MOS, ZnB suppressed the growth of intestinal bacteria, especially those of lactobacilli and clostridia. Use of T-RFLP further revealed that MOS increased the diversity of lactobacilli in the ileum and ileal mucosa but the opposite was observed for ZnB. It also appears that MOS and ZnB possessed a common property in differentially favouring the growth of certain Lactobacillus species. There was also evidence to show that both MOS and ZnB also increased the homogeneity of the gut microflora, possibly through the regulation of the overall gut bacterial communities. 3. Improvement in intestinal microbial homogeneity and mucin synthesis, coupled with the differential selections for certain specific beneficial bacterial species, may ultimately be proven to be the target mechanisms in the search for more effective alternatives to antibiotics. PMID:20680872

  15. Non-cultural methods of human microflora evaluation for the benefit of crew medical control in confined habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viacheslav, Ilyin; Lana, Moukhamedieva; Georgy, Osipov; Aleksey, Batov; Zoya, Soloviova; Robert, Mardanov; Yana, Panina; Anna, Gegenava

    2011-05-01

    Current control of human microflora is a great problem not only for the space medicine but also for practical health care. Due to many reasons its realization by classical bacteriological method is difficult in practical application or cannot be done. To evaluate non-cultural methods of microbial control of crews in a confined habitat we evaluated two different methods. The first method is based on digital treatment of microbial visual images, appearing after gram staining of microbial material from natural sample. This way the rate between gram-positive and gram-negative microbe could be gained as well as differentiation of rods and cocci could be attained, which is necessary for primary evaluation of human microbial cenosis in remote confined habitats. The other non-culture method of human microflora evaluation is gas chromatomass spectrometry (gcms) analysis of swabs gathered from different body sites. Gc-ms testing of swabs allows one to validate quantitative and special microflora based on specific lipid markers analysis.

  16. Contemporary Pharyngeal and Invasive emm1 and Invasive emm12 Group A Streptococcus Isolates Exhibit Similar In Vivo Selection for CovRS Mutants in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Wenchao; Liu, Mengyao; Chen, Daniel G.; Yiu, Rossana; Fang, Ferric C.; Lei, Benfang

    2016-01-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) causes diverse infections ranging from common pharyngitis to rare severe invasive infections. Invasive GAS isolates can have natural mutations in the virulence regulator CovRS, which result in enhanced expression of multiple virulence genes, suppressed the expression of the protease SpeB, and increased virulence. It is believed that CovRS mutations arise during human infections with GAS carrying wild-type CovRS and are not transmissible. CovRS mutants of invasive GAS of the emm1 genotype arise readily during experimental infection in mice. It is possible that invasive GAS arises from pharyngeal GAS through rare genetic mutations that confer the capacity of mutated GAS to acquire covRS mutations during infection. The objective of this study was to determine whether contemporary pharyngeal emm1 GAS isolates have a reduced propensity to acquire CovRS mutations in vivo compared with invasive emm1 GAS and whether emm3, emm12, and emm28 GAS acquire CovRS mutants in mouse infection. The propensity of invasive and pharyngeal emm1 and invasive emm3, emm12, and emm28 SpeBA+ isolates to acquire variants with the SpeBA- phenotype was determined during subcutaneous infection of mice. The majority of both invasive and pharyngeal emm1 SpeBA+ isolates and two of three emm12 isolates, but not emm3 and emm28 isolates, were found to acquire SpeBA- variants during skin infection in mice. All analyzed SpeBA- variants of emm1 and emm12 GAS from the mouse infection acquired covRS mutations and produced more platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase SsE. Thus, contemporary invasive and pharyngeal emm1 GAS isolates and emm12 GAS have a similar capacity to acquire covRS mutations in vivo. The rarity of severe invasive infections caused by GAS does not appear to be attributable to a reduced ability of pharyngeal isolates to acquire CovRS mutations. PMID:27611332

  17. Contemporary Pharyngeal and Invasive emm1 and Invasive emm12 Group A Streptococcus Isolates Exhibit Similar In Vivo Selection for CovRS Mutants in Mice.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wenchao; Liu, Mengyao; Chen, Daniel G; Yiu, Rossana; Fang, Ferric C; Lei, Benfang

    2016-01-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) causes diverse infections ranging from common pharyngitis to rare severe invasive infections. Invasive GAS isolates can have natural mutations in the virulence regulator CovRS, which result in enhanced expression of multiple virulence genes, suppressed the expression of the protease SpeB, and increased virulence. It is believed that CovRS mutations arise during human infections with GAS carrying wild-type CovRS and are not transmissible. CovRS mutants of invasive GAS of the emm1 genotype arise readily during experimental infection in mice. It is possible that invasive GAS arises from pharyngeal GAS through rare genetic mutations that confer the capacity of mutated GAS to acquire covRS mutations during infection. The objective of this study was to determine whether contemporary pharyngeal emm1 GAS isolates have a reduced propensity to acquire CovRS mutations in vivo compared with invasive emm1 GAS and whether emm3, emm12, and emm28 GAS acquire CovRS mutants in mouse infection. The propensity of invasive and pharyngeal emm1 and invasive emm3, emm12, and emm28 SpeBA+ isolates to acquire variants with the SpeBA- phenotype was determined during subcutaneous infection of mice. The majority of both invasive and pharyngeal emm1 SpeBA+ isolates and two of three emm12 isolates, but not emm3 and emm28 isolates, were found to acquire SpeBA- variants during skin infection in mice. All analyzed SpeBA- variants of emm1 and emm12 GAS from the mouse infection acquired covRS mutations and produced more platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase SsE. Thus, contemporary invasive and pharyngeal emm1 GAS isolates and emm12 GAS have a similar capacity to acquire covRS mutations in vivo. The rarity of severe invasive infections caused by GAS does not appear to be attributable to a reduced ability of pharyngeal isolates to acquire CovRS mutations. PMID:27611332

  18. Heart rate during aerobics classes in women with different previous experience of aerobics.

    PubMed

    Laukkanen, R M; Kalaja, M K; Kalaja, S P; Holmala, E B; Paavolainen, L M; Tummavuori, M; Virtanen, P; Rusko, H K

    2001-01-01

    This study measured heart rate during floor and step aerobic classes at three intensity levels. A group of 20 female occasional exercisers [mean age 33 (SD 8) years, mean body mass index 21 (SD 2) kg.m-2 volunteered to participate in six aerobic classes (three floor classes, three step classes) and in a laboratory test as members of one of two groups according to their prestudy regular participation in aerobics classes. Subjects in group A had participated four or more times a week and those of group B less than twice a week. The characteristics of the groups were as follows: group A, n = 10, mean maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) 38.7 (SD 3.6) ml.kg-1.min-1, mean maximal heart rate (HRmax) 183 (SD 8) beats.min-1; group B, n = 10, VO2max 36.1 (SD 3.6) ml.kg-1.min-1, HRmax 178 (SD 7) beats.min-1. Each class consisted of a warm-up, a 20 min period of structured aerobic exercise (cardiophase) and a cool-down. The cardiophase was planned and guided as light, (rate of perceived exertion, RPE 11-12), moderate (RPE 13-14) or heavy (RPE 15-17) by an experienced instructor. The mean heart rates during the light classes were 72 (step) and 74 (floor) %HRmax in group A and 75 (step) and 79 (floor) %HRmax in group B; during the moderate classes, 84 (step) and 80 (floor) %HRmax in group A and 82 (step) and 83 (floor) %HRmax in group B, and during the heavy classes 89 (step and floor) %HRmax in group A and 88 (step) and 92 (floor) %HRmax in group B. Differences in heart rate and %HRmax were not statistically significant between the groups. However, differences in heart rate and %HRmax between the intensities (light vs moderate, moderate vs heavy and light vs heavy) were significant within both groups (all, P < 0.01). Based on the results, we conclude that intensity management during the aerobics classes was generally successful regardless of the participants' prior participation in aerobics. However, some individuals who were older and/or had less prior participation tended to

  19. Volumetric changes in pharyngeal airway in Class II division 1 patients treated with Forsus-fixed functional appliance: A three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography study

    PubMed Central

    Temani, Parul; Jain, Pradeep; Rathee, Pooja; Temani, Ruchira

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Recent years have witnessed a renewed interest to determine a quantifiable relationship between mandibular advancement performed with an orthodontic appliance and the resulting airway volume. The study was conducted to evaluate the volumetric changes in pharyngeal airway space using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in Class II division 1 patients with retrognathic mandible treated by Forsus-fixed functional appliance and to compare them with their pretreatment findings. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion of age group 10–17 years were selected randomly and evaluated for changes in pharyngeal airway volume with and without Forsus-fixed functional appliance. Patients in each group underwent CBCT scan of head and neck region at pretreatment stage and 6 months after the initial scan. Institutional approval for the project was obtained from the Ethical Committee. Volumetric changes of upper (oropharynx) and lower (hypopharynx) pharyngeal airways were measured on scanogram using computer software and intragroup comparisons were done. Results: There was a statistically significant increase in the volume of both hypopharynx and oropharynx and also total airway volume in patients treated with Forsus-fixed functional appliance. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the airway also demonstrates a considerable increase in pharyngeal airway space. Conclusion: Forsus-fixed functional appliance can be a promising appliance for improving pharyngeal airway volume in Class II division 1 patients with retrognathic mandible thus preventing obstructive sleep apnea and other respiratory problems in future. However, the long-term implications of this treatment modality need further consideration and a longer period of follow-up. PMID:27041897

  20. Convergence in morphology and masticatory function between the pharyngeal jaws of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella, and oral jaws of amniote herbivores.

    PubMed

    Gidmark, Nicholas J; Tarrant, James C; Brainerd, Elizabeth L

    2014-06-01

    The cellulose-rich walls that protect plant cells are difficult to digest, and therefore mechanical food processing is a key aspect of herbivory across vertebrates. Cell walls are typically broken down by translation of flattened teeth in the occlusal plane (i.e. grinding) as part of a complex, rhythmic chewing stroke. The grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella, is a voracious, invasive herbivorous fish that relies solely on its pharyngeal teeth, located in the back of the throat, for mechanical processing of plant material. Here, we describe the musculoskeletal anatomy of the pharyngeal jaws of grass carp and use XROMM to quantify chewing kinematics and muscle strain. The pharyngeal jaws are suspended in a sling of 11 muscles and maintain no bony articulation with any other skeletal elements in the head. The jaws bear long, serrated teeth that are worn during use into flattened tooth cusps. Our kinematic data show that this wear is the result of the teeth being elevated into occlusion against the basioccipital process and keratinous chewing pad, not tooth-on-tooth occlusion. Pharyngeal jaw elevation results from large strains in the jaw elevator muscle, the levator arcus branchialis V, to drive a pulley-like mechanism that rotates the jaws about a pivot point at the symphysis between the left and right pharyngeal jaws. These complex, rhythmic jaw rotations translate the teeth laterally across the chewing surface throughout the occlusion phase. The grass carp chewing system is strikingly similar in gross morphology and masticatory function to herbivorous chewing strategies in other vertebrates.

  1. Effectiveness of the modified progressive aerobic capacity endurance run test for assessing aerobic fitness in Hispanic children who are obese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the progressive aerobic capacity endurance run (PACER) and a newly designed modified PACER (MPACER) for assessing aerobic fitness in Hispanic children who are obese. Thirty-nine (aged 7-12 years) children who were considered obese (= 95 ...

  2. [Head and neck intensity-modulated radiation therapy: Normal tissues dose constraints. Pharyngeal constrictor muscles and larynx].

    PubMed

    Graff, P; Woisard, V; Racadot, S; Thariat, J; Pointreau, Y

    2016-10-01

    Radio-induced pharyngolaryngeal chronic disorders may challenge the quality of life of head and neck cancer long survivors. Many anatomic structures have been identified as potentially impaired by irradiation and responsible for laryngeal edema, dysphonia and dysphagia. Some dose constraints might be plausible such as keeping the mean dose to the pharyngeal constrictor muscles under 50 to 55Gy, the mean dose to the supra-glottic larynx under 40 to 45Gy and, if feasible, the mean dose to the glottic larynx under 20Gy. A reduction of the dose delivered to the muscles of the floor of the mouth and the cervical esophagus would be beneficial as well. Nevertheless, the publications available do not provide an extensive enough level of proof. One should consider limiting as low as possible the dose delivered to these structures without compromising the quality of irradiation of the target tumor volumes. PMID:27599684

  3. The evolution of pharyngognathy: a phylogenetic and functional appraisal of the pharyngeal jaw key innovation in labroid fishes and beyond.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, Peter C; Smith, W Leo; Price, Samantha A; Tang, Kevin L; Sparks, John S; Ferry, Lara A; Kuhn, Kristen L; Eytan, Ron I; Near, Thomas J

    2012-12-01

    The perciform group Labroidei includes approximately 2600 species and comprises some of the most diverse and successful lineages of teleost fishes. Composed of four major clades, Cichlidae, Labridae (wrasses, parrotfishes, and weed whitings), Pomacentridae (damselfishes), and Embiotocidae (surfperches); labroids have been an icon for studies of biodiversity, adaptive radiation, and sexual selection. The success and diversification of labroids have been largely attributed to the presence of a major innovation in the pharyngeal jaw apparatus, pharyngognathy, which is hypothesized to increase feeding capacity and versatility. We present results of large-scale phylogenetic analyses and a survey of pharyngeal jaw functional morphology that allow us to examine the evolution of pharyngognathy in a historical context. Phylogenetic analyses were based on a sample of 188 acanthomorph (spiny-rayed fish) species, primarily percomorphs (perch-like fishes), and DNA sequence data collected from 10 nuclear loci that have been previously used to resolve higher level ray-finned fish relationships. Phylogenies inferred from this dataset using maximum likelihood, Bayesian, and species tree analyses indicate polyphyly of the traditional Labroidei and clearly separate Labridae from the remainder of the traditional labroid lineages (Cichlidae, Embiotocidae, and Pomacentridae). These three "chromide" families grouped within a newly discovered clade of 40 families and more than 4800 species (>27% of percomorphs and >16% of all ray-finned fishes), which we name Ovalentaria for its characteristic demersal, adhesive eggs with chorionic filaments. This fantastically diverse clade includes some of the most species-rich lineages of marine and freshwater fishes, including all representatives of the Cichlidae, Embiotocidae, Pomacentridae, Ambassidae, Gobiesocidae, Grammatidae, Mugilidae, Opistognathidae, Pholidichthyidae, Plesiopidae (including Notograptus), Polycentridae, Pseudochromidae

  4. Non-linear associations between laryngo-pharyngeal symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: clues from artificial intelligence analysis

    PubMed Central

    Grossi, E

    2006-01-01

    Summary The relationship between the different symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease remain markedly obscure due to the high underlying non-linearity and the lack of studies focusing on the problem. Aim of this study was to evaluate the hidden relationships between the triad of symptoms related to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease using advanced mathematical techniques, borrowed from the artificial intelligence field, in a cohort of patients with oesophagitis. A total of 388 patients (from 60 centres) with endoscopic evidence of oesophagitis were recruited. The severity of oesophagitis was scored by means of the Savary-Miller classification. PST algorithm was employed. This study shows that laryngo-pharyngeal symptoms related to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease are correlated even if in a non-linear way. PMID:17345935

  5. Changes in the masticatory muscles, periodontal tissues, and the pharyngeal ring in Wistar rats in chronic psychophysical stress.

    PubMed

    Antonova, I N

    2008-11-01

    Experimental studies performed on 120 male Wistar rats using morphometric and histological methods demonstrated changes in oral cavity tissues on exposure to chronic psychophysical stress (dosed swimming). The masticatory muscles showed foci of non-infective inflammation, dystrophic changes in muscle fibers, and contractures. The periodontal ligament showed impairments to the microcirculation with congestion of the venous bed, local bleeding into the tissue, changes in the directions of bundles of collagen fibers, and deformation of bundles. The tissues of the pharyngeal ring showed decreases in lymphocyte content, progressive loosening of connective tissue, and decreases in non-degranulated mast cell numbers, as compared with controls. The intensity of these changes depended on the level of physical loading and the individual adaptive capacity of the animals. These structural changes in the tissues may be the etiopathogenetic basis of the development of chronic inflammatory periodontal diseases. PMID:18975112

  6. Biology of Moderately Halophilic Aerobic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ventosa, Antonio; Nieto, Joaquín J.; Oren, Aharon

    1998-01-01

    The moderately halophilic heterotrophic aerobic bacteria form a diverse group of microorganisms. The property of halophilism is widespread within the bacterial domain. Bacterial halophiles are abundant in environments such as salt lakes, saline soils, and salted food products. Most species keep their intracellular ionic concentrations at low levels while synthesizing or accumulating organic solutes to provide osmotic equilibrium of the cytoplasm with the surrounding medium. Complex mechanisms of adjustment of the intracellular environments and the properties of the cytoplasmic membrane enable rapid adaptation to changes in the salt concentration of the environment. Approaches to the study of genetic processes have recently been developed for several moderate halophiles, opening the way toward an understanding of haloadaptation at the molecular level. The new information obtained is also expected to contribute to the development of novel biotechnological uses for these organisms. PMID:9618450

  7. Brain aerobic glycolysis and motor adaptation learning

    PubMed Central

    Shannon, Benjamin J.; Vaishnavi, Sanjeev Neil; Vlassenko, Andrei G.; Shimony, Joshua S.; Rutlin, Jerrel; Raichle, Marcus E.

    2016-01-01

    Ten percent to 15% of glucose used by the brain is metabolized nonoxidatively despite adequate tissue oxygenation, a process termed aerobic glycolysis (AG). Because of the known role of glycolysis in biosynthesis, we tested whether learning-induced synaptic plasticity would lead to regionally appropriate, learning-dependent changes in AG. Functional MRI (fMRI) before, during, and after performance of a visual–motor adaptation task demonstrated that left Brodmann area 44 (BA44) played a key role in adaptation, with learning-related changes to activity during the task and altered resting-state, functional connectivity after the task. PET scans before and after task performance indicated a sustained increase in AG in left BA 44 accompanied by decreased oxygen consumption. Intersubject variability in behavioral adaptation rate correlated strongly with changes in AG in this region, as well as functional connectivity, which is consistent with a role for AG in synaptic plasticity. PMID:27217563

  8. Surface Structure of Aerobically Oxidized Diamond Nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the aerobic oxidation of high-pressure, high-temperature nanodiamonds (5–50 nm dimensions) using a combination of carbon and oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption, wavelength-dependent X-ray photoelectron, and vibrational spectroscopies. Oxidation at 575 °C for 2 h eliminates graphitic carbon contamination (>98%) and produces nanocrystals with hydroxyl functionalized surfaces as well as a minor component (<5%) of carboxylic anhydrides. The low graphitic carbon content and the high crystallinity of HPHT are evident from Raman spectra acquired using visible wavelength excitation (λexcit = 633 nm) as well as carbon K-edge X-ray absorption spectra where the signature of a core–hole exciton is observed. Both spectroscopic features are similar to those of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond but differ significantly from the spectra of detonation nanodiamond. The importance of these findings to the functionalization of nanodiamond surfaces for biological labeling applications is discussed. PMID:25436035

  9. Metagenomic analysis of the peri-implant and periodontal microflora in patients with clinical signs of gingivitis or mucositis.

    PubMed

    Heuer, Wieland; Kettenring, Andreas; Stumpp, Sascha Nico; Eberhard, Jörg; Gellermann, Eva; Winkel, Andreas; Stiesch, Meike

    2012-06-01

    The long-term success of osseointegrated oral implants is endangered by inflammation of peri-implant hard and soft tissues caused by bacterial biofilms that may have been initiated by bacterial transmission from the adjacent dentition. The present study aimed to compare the bacterial communities at inflamed implant and tooth sites by broad-range PCR techniques to evaluate the etiological processes of peri-implant and periodontal diseases and potential future therapeutic strategies. Eighteen samples of peri-implant and periodontal microflora were collected from nine partially edentulous patients with implant-retained crowns or bridges revealing clinical signs of gingivitis or mucositis. The clinical parameters plaque index (PI), probing depth (PD), and bleeding on probing were recorded. Amplified fragments of bacterial 16S rRNA genes were separated by use of single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis, and sequences were determined to identify the predominant bacterial genera. The clinical parameters PI and PD were significantly different at implants (PI = 0.4 ± 0.7, PD = 3.1 ± 0.6 mm) compared with teeth (PI = 1.8 ± 0.8, PD = 2.5 ± 0.2 mm). A total of 20 different genera were found at the inflamed tooth and implant sites. The microbial diversity of the microflora surrounding the remaining dentition (12.0 ± 3.8) was significantly higher (p = 0.01) than the diversity of the peri-implant microflora at implant-retained crowns or bridges (6.3 ± 2.3). Within the limitations of the present study, the microbial diversity of the investigated implants and teeth with clinical signs of mucositis or gingivitis exhibits substantial differences, demonstrating that transmission of the complete bacterial microflora from teeth to implants could be excluded. Furthermore, broad-range molecular biological detection methods specify bacterial genera and species in the peri-implant and periodontal microflora which were not in the focus of research interests so far. PMID

  10. Feeding Cyprinus carpio with infectious materials mediates cyprinid herpesvirus 3 entry through infection of pharyngeal periodontal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), also known as Koi herpesvirus, is the etiological agent of a mortal disease in common and koi carp. Recently, we investigated the entry of CyHV-3 in carp using bioluminescence imaging and a CyHV-3 recombinant strain expressing luciferase (LUC). We demonstrated that the skin is the major portal of entry after inoculation of carp by immersion in water containing CyHV-3. While this model of infection mimics some natural conditions in which infection takes place, other epidemiological conditions could favour entry of virus through the digestive tract. Here, we investigated whether ingestion of infectious materials mediates CyHV-3 entry through the digestive tract. Carp were fed with materials contaminated with the CyHV-3 LUC recombinant (oral contamination) or immersed in water containing the virus (contamination by immersion). Bioluminescence imaging analyses performed at different times post-infection led to the following observations: (i) the pharyngeal periodontal mucosa is the major portal of entry after oral contamination, while the skin is the major portal of entry after contamination by immersion. (ii) Both modes of inoculation led to the spreading of the infection to the various organs tested. However, the timing and the sequence in which some of the organs turned positive were different between the two modes of inoculation. Finally, we compared the disease induced by the two inoculation modes. They led to comparable clinical signs and mortality rate. The results of the present study suggest that, based on epidemiological conditions, CyHV-3 can enter carp either by skin or periodontal pharyngeal mucosal infection. PMID:22276598

  11. Anatomical and physiological studies of bigheaded carps demonstrate that the epibranchial organ functions as a pharyngeal taste organ

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Anne; Ghosal, Ratna; Caprio, John; Claus, Aaron W.; Sorensen, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    The epibranchial organ (EO) is an enigmatic tubular organ found in the pharyngeal cavity of many filter-feeding fishes. We investigated whether it might function as a taste organ that mediates aggregation and ingestion of planktonic food within the buccal cavity. The EO and associated structures of bighead and silver carps, two successful and invasive planktivorous fishes, were examined using histological and electrophysiological techniques. Both species possess finely structured gill rakers that extend directly via a series of protrusions into each of the four blind canals which are organized as the muscular EO, suggesting that the gill rakers and EO probably function in an integrated manner. Both the interior and exterior surfaces of the EOs of both species are covered with high densities of taste buds and solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs) as well as mucous cells. Conversely, taste buds are scarce in both the buccal cavities and external portions of the head and mouth of both species. Electrophysiological recordings from a caudal branch of the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) found to innervate the EO showed it to be sensitive to chemicals found in a planktonic diet. l-Amino acids accounted for some, but not all of the neural activity. We conclude that taste buds and SCCs located on the EO and gill rakers probably serve to chemically detect food particles, which the EO then aggregates by mucus secretion before eventually expelling them onto the floor of the pharynx for ingestion. This specialized, pharyngeal chemosensory structure may explain the feeding success of these, and perhaps other planktivorous, filter-feeding fishes. PMID:25214490

  12. Anatomical and physiological studies of bigheaded carps demonstrate that the epibranchial organ functions as a pharyngeal taste organ.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Anne; Ghosal, Ratna; Caprio, John; Claus, Aaron W; Sorensen, Peter W

    2014-11-01

    The epibranchial organ (EO) is an enigmatic tubular organ found in the pharyngeal cavity of many filter-feeding fishes. We investigated whether it might function as a taste organ that mediates aggregation and ingestion of planktonic food within the buccal cavity. The EO and associated structures of bighead and silver carps, two successful and invasive planktivorous fishes, were examined using histological and electrophysiological techniques. Both species possess finely structured gill rakers that extend directly via a series of protrusions into each of the four blind canals which are organized as the muscular EO, suggesting that the gill rakers and EO probably function in an integrated manner. Both the interior and exterior surfaces of the EOs of both species are covered with high densities of taste buds and solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs) as well as mucous cells. Conversely, taste buds are scarce in both the buccal cavities and external portions of the head and mouth of both species. Electrophysiological recordings from a caudal branch of the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) found to innervate the EO showed it to be sensitive to chemicals found in a planktonic diet. l-Amino acids accounted for some, but not all of the neural activity. We conclude that taste buds and SCCs located on the EO and gill rakers probably serve to chemically detect food particles, which the EO then aggregates by mucus secretion before eventually expelling them onto the floor of the pharynx for ingestion. This specialized, pharyngeal chemosensory structure may explain the feeding success of these, and perhaps other planktivorous, filter-feeding fishes. PMID:25214490

  13. Anatomical and physiological studies of bigheaded carps demonstrate that the epibranchial organ functions as a pharyngeal taste organ.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Anne; Ghosal, Ratna; Caprio, John; Claus, Aaron W; Sorensen, Peter W

    2014-11-01

    The epibranchial organ (EO) is an enigmatic tubular organ found in the pharyngeal cavity of many filter-feeding fishes. We investigated whether it might function as a taste organ that mediates aggregation and ingestion of planktonic food within the buccal cavity. The EO and associated structures of bighead and silver carps, two successful and invasive planktivorous fishes, were examined using histological and electrophysiological techniques. Both species possess finely structured gill rakers that extend directly via a series of protrusions into each of the four blind canals which are organized as the muscular EO, suggesting that the gill rakers and EO probably function in an integrated manner. Both the interior and exterior surfaces of the EOs of both species are covered with high densities of taste buds and solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs) as well as mucous cells. Conversely, taste buds are scarce in both the buccal cavities and external portions of the head and mouth of both species. Electrophysiological recordings from a caudal branch of the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) found to innervate the EO showed it to be sensitive to chemicals found in a planktonic diet. l-Amino acids accounted for some, but not all of the neural activity. We conclude that taste buds and SCCs located on the EO and gill rakers probably serve to chemically detect food particles, which the EO then aggregates by mucus secretion before eventually expelling them onto the floor of the pharynx for ingestion. This specialized, pharyngeal chemosensory structure may explain the feeding success of these, and perhaps other planktivorous, filter-feeding fishes.

  14. Maximal strength training improves aerobic endurance performance.

    PubMed

    Hoff, J; Gran, A; Helgerud, J

    2002-10-01

    The aim of this experiment was to examine the effects of maximal strength training with emphasis on neural adaptations on strength- and endurance-performance for endurance trained athletes. Nineteen male cross-country skiers about 19.7 +/- 4.0 years of age and a maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2 max)) of 69.4 +/- 2.2 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1) were randomly assigned to a training group (n = 9) or a control group (n = 10). Strength training was performed, three times a week for 8 weeks, using a cable pulley simulating the movements in double poling in cross-country skiing, and consisted of three sets of six repetitions at a workload of 85% of one repetition maximum emphasizing maximal mobilization of force in the concentric movement. One repetition maximum improved significantly from 40.3 +/- 4.5 to 44.3 +/- 4.9 kg. Time to peak force (TPF) was reduced by 50 and 60% on two different submaximal workloads. Endurance performance measured as time to exhaustion (TTE) on a double poling ski ergometer at maximum aerobic velocity, improved from 6.49 to 10.18 min; 20.5% over the control group. Work economy changed significantly from 1.02 +/- 0.14 to 0.74 +/- 0.10 mL x kg(-0.67) x min(-1). Maximal strength training with emphasis on neural adaptations improves strength, particularly rate of force development, and improves aerobic endurance performance by improved work economy.

  15. Influence of cabbage processing methods and prebiotic manipulation of colonic microflora on glucosinolate breakdown in man.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Zoë; Louis, Petra; Mihajlovski, Agnès; Rungapamestry, Vanessa; Ratcliffe, Brian; Duncan, Alan J

    2007-08-01

    Glucosinolate consumption from brassica vegetables has been implicated in reduction of cancer risk. The isothiocyanate breakdown products of glucosinolates appear to be particularly important as chemoprotective agents. Before consumption, brassica vegetables are generally cooked, causing the plant enzyme, myrosinase, to be denatured, influencing the profile of glucosinolate breakdown products produced. Some human intestinal microflora species show myrosinase-like activity (e.g. bifidobacteria). We aimed to increase bifidobacteria by offering a prebiotic (inulin) in a randomised crossover study. Six volunteers consumed inulin (10 g/d) for 21 d followed by a 21 d control period (no inulin). Treatment periods were reversed for the remaining six volunteers. During the last 5 d of each period two cabbage-containing meals were consumed. Total urine output was collected for 24 h following each meal. Cabbage was microwaved for 2 min (lightly cooked) or 5.5 min (fully cooked). Faecal samples were collected at the start and after the inulin and control treatments. Bifidobacteria were enumerated by real-time PCR. Allyl isothiocyanate production was quantified by measuring urinary excretion of allyl mercapturic acid (AMA). Bifidobacteria increased following prebiotic supplementation (P < 0.001) but there was no impact of this increase on AMA excretion. AMA excretion was greater following consumption of lightly cooked cabbage irrespective of prebiotic treatment (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the most effective way to increase isothiocyanate production may be to limit the length of time that brassica vegetables are cooked prior to consumption.

  16. Identification and antimicrobial resistance of microflora colonizing feral pig (Sus scrofa) of Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed Central

    Lessa, SS; Paes, RCS; Santoro, PN; Mauro, RA; Vieira-da-Motta, O

    2011-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance of bacteria is a worldwide problem affecting wild life by living with resistant bacteria in the environment. This study presents a discussion of outside factors environment on microflora of feral pigs (Sus scrofa) from Brazilian Pantanal. Animals had samples collected from six different body sites coming from two separated geographic areas, Nhecolandia and Rio Negro regions. With routine biochemical tests and commercial kits 516 bacteria were identified, with 240 Gram-positive, predominantly staphylococci (36) and enterococci (186) strains. Among Gram-negative (GN) bacteria the predominant specimens of Enterobacteriaceae (247) mainly represented by Serratia spp. (105), Escherichia coli (50), and Enterobacter spp. (40) and specimens not identified (7). Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested against 17 drugs by agar diffusion method. Staphylococci were negative to production of enterotoxins and TSST-1, with all strains sensitive towards four drugs and highest resistance toward ampicillin (17%). Enterococci presented the highest sensitivity against vancomycin (98%), ampicillin (94%) and tetracycline (90%), and highest resistance pattern toward oxacillin (99%), clindamycin (83%), and cotrimoxazole (54%). In GN the highest resistance was observed with Serratia marcescens against CFL (98%), AMC (66%) and AMP (60%) and all drugs was most effective against E. coli SUT, TET (100%), AMP, TOB (98%), GEN, CLO (95%), CFO, CIP (93%). The results show a new profile of oxacillin-resistant enterococci from Brazilian feral pigs and suggest a limited residue and spreading of antimicrobials in the environment, possibly because of low anthropogenic impact reflected by the drug susceptibility profile of bacteria isolated. PMID:24031689

  17. [The role of intestinal microflora and probiotic bacteria in prophylactic and development of colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Wasilewska, Ewa; Złotkowska, Dagmara; Pijagin, Mariola E

    2013-08-09

    The gut microbiota comprises a large and diverse range of microorganisms whose activities have a significant impact on health. It interacts with its host at both the local and systemic level, resulting in a broad range of beneficial or detrimental outcomes for nutrition, infections, xenobiotic metabolism, and cancer. The current paper reviews research on the role of intestinal microflora in colorectal cancer development. Especially a protective effect of beneficial bacteria and probiotics on the risk of cancer development is highly discussed. There is substantial experimental evidence that the beneficial gut bacteria and their metabolism have the potential to inhibit the development and progression of neoplasia in the large intestine. Most of the data derive, however, from experimental and animal trials. Over a dozen well-documented animal studies have been published, wherein it has been clearly revealed that some lactic acid bacteria, especially lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, inhibit initiation and progression of colorectal cancer. Studies on cancer suppression in humans as a result of the consumption of probiotics are still sparse. Nevertheless, some epidemiological and interventional studies seem to confirm the bacterial anticancerogenic activity also in human gut. The mechanism by which probiotics may inhibit cancer development is unknown. Probiotics increase the amount of beneficial bacteria and decrease the pathogen level in the gut, consequently altering metabolic, enzymatic and carcinogenic activity in the intestine, decreasing inflammation and enhancing immune function, which may contribute to cancer defense.

  18. Castration influences intestinal microflora and induces abdominal obesity in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Harada, Naoki; Hanaoka, Ryo; Horiuchi, Hiroko; Kitakaze, Tomoya; Mitani, Takakazu; Inui, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Ryoichi

    2016-03-10

    Late-onset hypogonadism (i.e. androgen deficiency) raises the risk for abdominal obesity in men. The mechanism for this obesity is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that hypogonadism after castration caused abdominal obesity in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed, but not in standard diet (SD)-fed, C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, the phenotype was not induced in mice treated with antibiotics that disrupt the intestinal microflora. In HFD-fed mice, castration increased feed efficiency and decreased fecal weight per food intake. Castration also induced in an increase of visceral fat mass only in the absence of antibiotics in HFD-fed mice, whereas subcutaneous fat mass was increased by castration irrespective of antibiotics. Castration reduced the expression in the mesenteric fat of both adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase in HFD-fed mice, which was not observed in the presence of antibiotics. Castration decreased thigh muscle (i.e. quadriceps and hamstrings) mass, elevated fasting blood glucose levels, and increased liver triglyceride levels in a HFD-dependent manner, whereas these changes were not observed in castrated mice treated with antibiotics. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and Lactobacillus species increased in the feces of HFD-fed castrated mice. These results show that androgen (e.g. testosterone) deficiency can alter the intestinal microbiome and induce abdominal obesity in a diet-dependent manner.

  19. The Role of Gut Microflora and the Cholinergic Anti-inflammatory Neuroendocrine System in Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Parekh, Parth J; Nayi, Vipul R; Johnson, David A; Vinik, Aaron I

    2016-01-01

    The obesity epidemic has drastically impacted the state of health care in the United States. Paralleling this epidemic is the incidence of diabetes mellitus, with a notable shift toward a much younger age of onset. While central to the pathogenesis of diabetes associated with obesity is the role of inflammation attributed to "adiposopathy." Emerging data suggest that changes in sympathetic/parasympathetic balance regulated by the brain precede changes in the inflammatory cascade. It has now been established that the gut microflora contributes significantly to the activation and inhibition of autonomic control and impact the set of the neuroinflammatory inhibitory reflex mediated by the cholinergic nervous system. There has been a paradigm shift toward further investigating commensal bacteria in the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes mellitus and its complications, as dysbiosis is thought to play a pivotal role in diabetic-associated disorders. This paper is intended to evaluate the role of intestinal dysbiosis in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and examine the potential for restoration of balance via use of probiotics. PMID:27375553

  20. The Role of Gut Microflora and the Cholinergic Anti-inflammatory Neuroendocrine System in Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Parekh, Parth J; Nayi, Vipul R; Johnson, David A; Vinik, Aaron I

    2016-01-01

    The obesity epidemic has drastically impacted the state of health care in the United States. Paralleling this epidemic is the incidence of diabetes mellitus, with a notable shift toward a much younger age of onset. While central to the pathogenesis of diabetes associated with obesity is the role of inflammation attributed to "adiposopathy." Emerging data suggest that changes in sympathetic/parasympathetic balance regulated by the brain precede changes in the inflammatory cascade. It has now been established that the gut microflora contributes significantly to the activation and inhibition of autonomic control and impact the set of the neuroinflammatory inhibitory reflex mediated by the cholinergic nervous system. There has been a paradigm shift toward further investigating commensal bacteria in the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes mellitus and its complications, as dysbiosis is thought to play a pivotal role in diabetic-associated disorders. This paper is intended to evaluate the role of intestinal dysbiosis in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and examine the potential for restoration of balance via use of probiotics.

  1. Changes in intestinal microflora of Caenorhabditis elegans following Bacillus nematocida B16 infection.

    PubMed

    Niu, Qiuhong; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Keqin; Huang, Xiaowei; Hui, Fengli; Kan, Yunchao; Yao, Lunguang

    2016-01-01

    The effect of pathogenic bacteria on a host and its symbiotic microbiota is vital and widespread in the biotic world. The soil-dwelling opportunistic bacterium Bacillus nematocida B16 uses a "Trojan horse" mechanism to kill Caenorhabditis elegans. The alterations in the intestinal microflora that occur after B16 infection remain unknown. Here, we analyzed the intestinal bacteria presented in normal and infected worms. The gut microbial community experienced a complex change after B16 inoculation, as determined through marked differences in species diversity, structure, distribution and composition between uninfected and infected worms. Regardless of the worm's origin (i.e., from soil or rotten fruits), the diversity of the intestinal microbiome decreased after infection. Firmicutes increased sharply, whereas Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Acidobacteria decreased to different degrees. Fusobacteria was only present 12 h post-infection. After 24 h of infection, 1228 and 1109 bacterial species were identified in the uninfected and infected groups, respectively. The shared species reached 21.97%. The infected group had a greater number of Bacillus species but a smaller number of Pediococcus, Halomonas, Escherichia and Shewanella species (P < 0.01). Therefore, this study provides the first evaluation of the alterations caused by pathogenic bacteria on symbiotic microbiota using C. elegans as the model species. PMID:26830015

  2. Effects of packaging systems on the natural microflora and acceptability of chicken breast meat.

    PubMed

    Charles, N; Williams, S K; Rodrick, G E

    2006-10-01

    The effect of 3 packaging systems on the spoilage microflora, objective color, and sensory characteristics of fresh commercial broiler chicken breast meat was investigated. Fresh skinless and boneless chicken broiler breasts were purchased from a local poultry processing plant and packaged in either (1) a conventional Styrofoam tray with polyvinyl chloride overwrap and absorbent pad, (2) a Styrofoam tray with polyvinyl chloride overwrap minus absorbent pad, or (3) a Fresh-R-Pax (FRP) container equipped with an absorbent liner-gel system. All packages were heat sealed and stored at 1.2 +/- 1 degrees C for 8 d. At each sampling period (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 d), packages from each treatment were analyzed for Pseudomonas spp., psychrotrophic organisms, objective color, and sensory characteristics. In general, Pseudomonas spp. and psychrotrophic counts increased as storage time increased for all packaging systems. Color and overall appearance were similar (P >0.05) for all packaging systems. Although not significant, the off-odor scores for breast meat packaged in FRP were higher (P >0.05) after 6 and 8 d when compared with the breast meat packaged in a Styrofoam tray with polyvinyl chloride overwrap with or without an absorbent pad. Although the absorbent pad did not control microbial growth, it maintained aesthetic appeal by absorbing all visible moisture released from the meat during storage.

  3. Seasonal changes in the ruminal microflora of the high-arctic Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus).

    PubMed

    Orpin, C G; Mathiesen, S D; Greenwood, Y; Blix, A S

    1985-07-01

    The dominant rumen bacteria in high-arctic Svalbard reindeer were characterized, their population densities were estimated, and ruminal pH was determined in summer, when food quality and availability are good, and in winter, when they are poor. In summer the total cultured viable population density was (2.09 +/- 1.26) X 10(10) cells ml-1, whereas in winter it was (0.36 +/- 0.29) X 10(10) cells ml-1, representing a decrease to 17% of the summer population density. On culture, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens represented 22% of the bacterial population in summer and 30% in winter. Streptococcus bovis represented 17% of the bacterial population in summer but only 4% in winter. Methanogenic bacteria were present at 10(4) cells ml-1 in summer and 10(7) cells ml-1 in winter. In summer and winter, respectively, the proportions of the viable population showing the following activities were as follows: starch utilization, 68 and 63%; fiber digestion, 31 and 74%; cellulolysis, 15 and 35%; xylanolysis, 30 and 58%; proteolysis, 51 and 28%; ureolysis, 40 and 54%; and lactate utilization, 13 and 4%. The principal cellulolytic bacterium was B. fibrisolvens, which represented 66 and 52% of the cellulolytic population in summer and winter, respectively. The results indicate that the microflora of the rumen of Svalbard reindeer is highly effective in fiber digestion and nitrogen metabolism, allowing the animals to survive under the austere nutritional conditions typical of their high-arctic habitat.

  4. Characterization of alginate lyase gene using a metagenomic library constructed from the gut microflora of abalone.

    PubMed

    Sim, Su-Jung; Baik, Keun Sik; Park, Seong Chan; Choe, Han Na; Seong, Chi Nam; Shin, Tai-Sun; Woo, Hee Chul; Cho, Jeong-Yong; Kim, Duwoon

    2012-04-01

    A metagenomic fosmid library was constructed using a genomic DNA mixture extracted from the gut microflora of abalone. The library gave an alginate lyase positive clone (AlyDW) harboring a 31.7-kbp insert. The AlyDW insert consisted of 22 open reading frames (ORFs). The deduced amino acid sequences of ORFs 11-13 were similar to those of known alginate lyase genes, which are found adjacent in the genome of Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. aerogenes, Vibrio splendidus, and Vibrio sp. belonging to the phylum Gammaproteobacteria. Among the three recombinant proteins expressed from the three ORFs, alginate lyase activity was only observed in the recombinant protein (AlyDW11) coded by ORF 11. The expressed protein (AlyDW11) had the highest alginate lyase activity at pH 7.0 and 45°C in the presence of 1 mM AgNO(3). The alginate lyase activity of ORF 11 was confirmed to be endolytic by thin-layer chromatography. AlyDW11 preferred poly(β-D: -mannuronate) as a substrate over poly(α-L: -guluronate). AlyDW11 contained three highly conserved regions, RSEL, QIH, and YFKAGVYNQ, which may act to stabilize the three-dimensional conformation and function of the alginate lyase.

  5. Changes in intestinal microflora of Caenorhabditis elegans following Bacillus nematocida B16 infection

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Qiuhong; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Keqin; Huang, Xiaowei; Hui, Fengli; Kan, Yunchao; Yao, Lunguang

    2016-01-01

    The effect of pathogenic bacteria on a host and its symbiotic microbiota is vital and widespread in the biotic world. The soil-dwelling opportunistic bacterium Bacillus nematocida B16 uses a “Trojan horse” mechanism to kill Caenorhabditis elegans. The alterations in the intestinal microflora that occur after B16 infection remain unknown. Here, we analyzed the intestinal bacteria presented in normal and infected worms. The gut microbial community experienced a complex change after B16 inoculation, as determined through marked differences in species diversity, structure, distribution and composition between uninfected and infected worms. Regardless of the worm’s origin (i.e., from soil or rotten fruits), the diversity of the intestinal microbiome decreased after infection. Firmicutes increased sharply, whereas Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Acidobacteria decreased to different degrees. Fusobacteria was only present 12 h post-infection. After 24 h of infection, 1228 and 1109 bacterial species were identified in the uninfected and infected groups, respectively. The shared species reached 21.97%. The infected group had a greater number of Bacillus species but a smaller number of Pediococcus, Halomonas, Escherichia and Shewanella species (P < 0.01). Therefore, this study provides the first evaluation of the alterations caused by pathogenic bacteria on symbiotic microbiota using C. elegans as the model species. PMID:26830015

  6. Castration influences intestinal microflora and induces abdominal obesity in high-fat diet-fed mice

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Naoki; Hanaoka, Ryo; Horiuchi, Hiroko; Kitakaze, Tomoya; Mitani, Takakazu; Inui, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Ryoichi

    2016-01-01

    Late-onset hypogonadism (i.e. androgen deficiency) raises the risk for abdominal obesity in men. The mechanism for this obesity is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that hypogonadism after castration caused abdominal obesity in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed, but not in standard diet (SD)-fed, C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, the phenotype was not induced in mice treated with antibiotics that disrupt the intestinal microflora. In HFD-fed mice, castration increased feed efficiency and decreased fecal weight per food intake. Castration also induced in an increase of visceral fat mass only in the absence of antibiotics in HFD-fed mice, whereas subcutaneous fat mass was increased by castration irrespective of antibiotics. Castration reduced the expression in the mesenteric fat of both adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase in HFD-fed mice, which was not observed in the presence of antibiotics. Castration decreased thigh muscle (i.e. quadriceps and hamstrings) mass, elevated fasting blood glucose levels, and increased liver triglyceride levels in a HFD-dependent manner, whereas these changes were not observed in castrated mice treated with antibiotics. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and Lactobacillus species increased in the feces of HFD-fed castrated mice. These results show that androgen (e.g. testosterone) deficiency can alter the intestinal microbiome and induce abdominal obesity in a diet-dependent manner. PMID:26961573

  7. Characterisation of the Microflora Contaminating the Wooden Vats Used for Traditional Sicilian Cheese Production

    PubMed Central

    Cardamone, Cinzia; Miraglia, Viviana; Lazzara, Fabrizio; Fiorenza, Gerlando; Macaluso, Giusi; Arcuri, Luigi; Settanni, Luca; Mancuso, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Sicilian cheese productions are carried out employing traditional wooden vats, called tina. Many studies have highlighted the beneficial role of wooden dairy equipment by contributing to enriching the milk microflora and improving the acidification processes. The present work was undertaken to evaluate the safety of the wooden vats used to coagulate milk. To this purpose, the different microbial populations hosted onto the internal surfaces of the vats used to produce two different stretched cheeses, namely Caciocavallo Palermitano and Vastedda della valle del Belìce DOP, were investigated for the presence of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms as well as for bacteria with inhibitory effect in vitro against pathogenic microorganisms. A wide biodiversity of protechnological lactic acid bacteria (LAB), in terms of species, was revealed. Several LAB inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644. The wooden vats analysed resulted safe for three main findings: absence of the main pathogenic species, presence of high levels of LAB, anti-Listeria activity of many LAB. PMID:27800376

  8. Isolation of a bile salt sulfatase-producing Clostridium strain from rat intestinal microflora.

    PubMed Central

    Huijghebaert, S M; Mertens, J A; Eyssen, H J

    1982-01-01

    Bile acid sulfates, formed in human and rat livers, are desulfated by the intestinal microflora. In our study we first isolated from conventional rat feces an unnamed bacterium, termed strain S1, which desulfated the 5 beta-bile salt 3 alpha-sulfates in vitro and in vivo after association with gnotobiotic rats. Strain S1 also possessed 12 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and bile salt-deconjugating activities. The strain was a strict anaerobic, CO2-requiring, gram-negative, sporeforming rod and was designated as belonging to the genus Clostridium. Growth was scarce in culture media, unless in the presence of 0.1% taurine, a sulfur-containing amino acid. Addition of this substance raised the number of bacteria in thioglycolate and peptone yeast media from 10(4) per ml to 10(6) to 10(7) per ml and increased the colony diameter on agar medium from 0.2 mm to 0.5 to 0.9 mm. Sulfatase activity was specific for the 5 beta-bile salt sulfates, leaving the 5 alpha-bile salt sulfates unchanged. In addition, the sulfatase activity was cell bound, and its production was dependent on the composition of the culture medium, although no minimal sulfur medium was required for sulfatase activity. Images PMID:7055372

  9. The Role of Gut Microflora and the Cholinergic Anti-inflammatory Neuroendocrine System in Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Parekh, Parth J.; Nayi, Vipul R.; Johnson, David A.; Vinik, Aaron I.

    2016-01-01

    The obesity epidemic has drastically impacted the state of health care in the United States. Paralleling this epidemic is the incidence of diabetes mellitus, with a notable shift toward a much younger age of onset. While central to the pathogenesis of diabetes associated with obesity is the role of inflammation attributed to “adiposopathy.” Emerging data suggest that changes in sympathetic/parasympathetic balance regulated by the brain precede changes in the inflammatory cascade. It has now been established that the gut microflora contributes significantly to the activation and inhibition of autonomic control and impact the set of the neuroinflammatory inhibitory reflex mediated by the cholinergic nervous system. There has been a paradigm shift toward further investigating commensal bacteria in the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes mellitus and its complications, as dysbiosis is thought to play a pivotal role in diabetic-associated disorders. This paper is intended to evaluate the role of intestinal dysbiosis in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and examine the potential for restoration of balance via use of probiotics. PMID:27375553

  10. Assessment of Fecal Microflora Changes in Pigs Supplemented with Herbal Residue and Prebiotic

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, Ashis Kumar; Jayaram, C.; Jayapal, N.; Sondhi, N.; Kolte, A. P.; Senani, S.; Sridhar, M.; Dhali, A.

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic usage in animals as a growth promoter is considered as public health issue due to its negative impact on consumer health and environment. The present study aimed to evaluate effectiveness of herbal residue (ginger, Zingiber officinale, dried rhizome powder) and prebiotic (inulin) as an alternative to antibiotics by comparing fecal microflora composition using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. The grower pigs were offered feed containing antibiotic (tetracycline), ginger and inulin separately and un-supplemented group served as control. The study revealed significant changes in the microbial abundance based on operational taxonomic units (OTUs) among the groups. Presumptive identification of organisms was established based on the fragment length of OTUs generated with three restriction enzymes (MspI, Sau3AI and BsuRI). The abundance of OTUs representing Bacteroides intestinalis, Eubacterium oxidoreducens, Selonomonas sp., Methylobacterium sp. and Denitrobacter sp. was found significantly greater in inulin supplemented pigs. Similarly, the abundance of OTUs representing Bacteroides intestinalis, Selonomonas sp., and Phascolarcobacterium faecium was found significantly greater in ginger supplemented pigs. In contrast, the abundance of OTUs representing pathogenic microorganisms Atopostipes suicloacalis and Bartonella quintana str. Toulouse was significantly reduced in ginger and inulin supplemented pigs. The OTUs were found to be clustered under two major phylotypes; ginger-inulin and control-tetracycline. Additionally, the abundance of OTUs was similar in ginger and inulin supplemented pigs. The results suggest the potential of ginger and prebioticsto replace antibiotics in the diet of grower pig. PMID:26176779

  11. [Influence of metal nanoparticles on some microorganisms and microflora of unpasteurized beer].

    PubMed

    Pyrog, T P; Konon, A D; Antoniuk, S I; Olishevs'kyĭ, V V; Marynin, A I

    2011-01-01

    The influence of nanoparticles of gold, silver, dioxide of cerium and zirconium in low concentration (0.5-7.5 mg/l) on pure cultures of Escherichia coli IEM-1, Bacillus subtilis BT-2, Candida scottii KB-2, Saccharomyces cerevisiae OB-3, Aspergillus niger R-3, Fusarium culmorum T-7 and Penicillium chrysogenum F-7 has been investigated. Silver nanoparticles, which caused a decrease of the amount of S. cerevisiae OB-3 cells by 90% after one hour of exposition, and led to almost complete death of vegetative and spore cells of B. subtilis BT-2 after 1 and 24 h of exposition, respectively, proved to be the most effective antimicrobial preparation. The decrease by one-two orders of the amount of B. subtilis BT-2 and of S cerevisiae OB-3 cells under the influence of preparations of silver nanoparicles in the presence of gold has been established. After adding silver preparations to the unpasteurized beer one could observe a decrease by 10-20% of bacterial and by about 40% of fungi which contaminated microflora on the 20th day of shelf-life. The paper is presented in Ukrainian. PMID:22308746

  12. Comparison of the microflora on organically and conventionally grown spring mix from a California processor.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Christie A; Harrison, Mark A

    2005-06-01

    Considerable speculation has occurred concerning the potential for higher numbers of foodborne pathogens on organically grown produce compared with produce not grown organically. The microflora composition of spring mix or mesclun, a mixture of multiple salad ingredients, grown either by organic or conventional means was determined. Unwashed or washed spring mix was obtained from a commercial California fresh-cut produce processor who does not use manure in their cultivation practices. Fifty-four samples of each type of product were supplied over a 4-month period. Analysis included enumeration of total mesophiles, psychrotrophs, coliforms, generic Escherichia coli, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, and molds. In addition, spring mix was analyzed for the presence of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes. The mean populations of mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria, yeasts, molds, lactic acid bacteria, and coliforms on conventionally grown spring mix were not statistically different (P > 0.05) from respective mean populations on organically grown spring mix. The mean population of each microbial group was significantly higher on unwashed spring mix compared with the washed product. Of the 14 samples found to contain E. coli, eight were from nonwashed conventional spring mix, one was from washed conventional spring mix, and four were from nonwashed organic spring mix. Salmonella and L. monocytogenes were not detected in any of the samples analyzed.

  13. Cardioprotective Properties of Aerobic and Resistance Training Against Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Barboza, C A; Souza, G I H; Oliveira, J C M F; Silva, L M; Mostarda, C T; Dourado, P M M; Oyama, L M; Lira, F S; Irigoyen, M C; Rodrigues, B

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the effects of aerobic and resistance exercise training on ventricular morphometry and function, physical capacity, autonomic function, as well as on ventricular inflammatory status in trained rats prior to myocardial infarction. Male Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: sedentary+Sham, sedentary+myocardial infarction, aerobic trained+myocardial infarction, and resistance trained+myocardial infarction. Sham and myocardial infarction were performed after training periods. In the days following the surgeries, evaluations were performed. Aerobic training prevents aerobic (to a greater extent) and resistance capacity impairments, ventricular dysfunction, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic disorders (vagal tonus decrease and sympathetic tonus increase) triggered by myocardial infarction. Resistance training was able to prevent negative changes to aerobic and resistance capacity (to a greater extent) but not to ventricular dysfunction, and it prevented cardiovascular sympathetic increments. Additionally, both types of training reduced left ventricle inflammatory cytokine concentration. Our results suggest that aerobic and, for the first time, dynamic resistance training were able to reduce sympathetic tonus to the heart and vessels, as well as preventing the increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations in the left ventricle of trained groups. These data emphasizes the positive effects of aerobic and dynamic resistance training on the prevention of the negative changes triggered by myocardial infarction.

  14. Mutagenicity of anaerobic fenitrothion metabolites after aerobic biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Taku; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Saeki, Ryo; Inoue, Takanobu

    2005-12-01

    Previous studies have revealed that the mutagenicity of fenitrothion increases during anaerobic biodegradation, suggesting that this insecticide's mutagenicity could effectively increase after it pollutes anaerobic environments such as lake sediments. To investigate possible changes to the mutagenicity of fenitrothion under aerobic conditions after it had already been increased by anaerobic biodegradation, batch incubation cultures were maintained under aerobic conditions. The mutagenicity, which had increased during anaerobic biodegradation, decreased under aerobic conditions with aerobic or facultative bacteria, but did not disappear completely in 22 days. In contrast, it did not change under aerobic conditions without bacteria or under continued anaerobic conditions. These observations suggest that the mutagenicity of anaerobically metabolized fenitrothion would not necessarily decrease after it arrives in an aerobic environment: this would depend on the presence of suitable bacteria. Therefore, fenitrothion-derived mutagenic compounds may pollute the water environment, including our drinking water sources, after accidental pollution of aerobic waters. Although amino-fenitrothion generated during anaerobic biodegradation of fenitrothion was the principal mutagen, non-trivial contributions of other, unidentified metabolites to the mutagenicity were also observed. PMID:16263383

  15. Comparison of aerobic and anaerobic biotreatment of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Borglin, Sharon E; Hazen, Terry C; Oldenburg, Curtis M; Zawislanski, Peter T

    2004-07-01

    To increase the operating lifetime of landfills and to lower leachate treatment costs, an increasing number of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills are being managed as either aerobic or anaerobic bioreactors. Landfill gas composition, respiration rates, and subsidence were measured for 400 days in 200-L tanks filled with fresh waste materials to compare the relative effectiveness of the two treatments. Tanks were prepared to provide the following conditions: (1) air injection and leachate recirculation (aerobic), (2) leachate recirculation (anaerobic), and (3) no treatment (anaerobic). Respiration tests on the aerobic wet tank showed a steady decrease in oxygen consumption rates from 1.3 mol/day at 20 days to 0.1 mol/day at 400 days. Aerobic wet tanks produced, on average, 6 mol of carbon dioxide (CO2)/kg of MSW as compared with anaerobic wet tanks, which produced 2.2 mol methane/kg of MSW and 2.0 mol CO2/kg methane. Over the test period, the aerobic tanks settled on average 35%, anaerobic tanks settled 21.7%, and the no-treatment tank settled 7.5%, equivalent to overall mass loss in the corresponding reactors. Aerobic tanks reduced stabilization time and produced negligible odor compared with anaerobic tanks, possibly because of the 2 orders of magnitude lower leachate ammonia levels in the aerobic tank. Both treatment regimes provide the opportunity for disposal and remediation of liquid waste.

  16. Upper limb aerobic training improves aerobic fitness and all-out performance of America's Cup grinders.

    PubMed

    Adami, Paolo Emilio; Delussu, Anna Sofia; Rodio, Angelo; Squeo, Maria Rosaria; Corsi, Loretta; Quattrini, Filippo Maria; Fattorini, Luigi; Bernardi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This research on "America's Cup" grinders investigated the effects of a specific eight-week long-arm cranking ergometer (ACE) training on upper body (UB) aerobic fitness (ventilatory threshold - Tvent, respiratory compensation point- RCP, -oxygen uptake peak - VO₂peak) and high intensity working capacity. The training consisted of sessions carried out for 20-30 mins, three times per week, at an intensity between the UB-Tvent and UB-RCP, and replaced part of a typical lower limb aerobic training whilst maintaining the usual weekly schedule of callisthenics, resistance training and sailing. Seven sailors, including four grinders and three mastmen (age 30 ± 5.5 years, height 1.9 ± 0.04 m, body mass 102 ± 3.6 kg), were evaluated through both an ACE cardiopulmonary maximal exercise test (CPET) and an ACE all-out up to exhaustion exercise test, before and after the ACE training. UB aerobic fitness improved significantly: UB-VO₂peak increased from 4.29 ± 0.442 to 4.52 ± 0.522 l·min(-1) (6.4 ± 3.66%), VO₂ at UB-Tvent from 2.42 ± 0.282 to 2.97 ± 0.328 l·min(-1) (22.8 ± 5.09%) and VO₂ at UB-RCP from 3.25 ± 0.402 to 3.75 ± 0.352 l·min(-1) (16.1 ± 10.83%). Peak power at the ACE CPET increased from 351 ± 27.5 to 387 ± 33.5 W (10.5 ± 6.93%). The all-out test total mechanical work increased from 28.9 ± 2.35 to 40.1 ± 3.76 kJ (72.1 ± 4.67%). In conclusion, a high intensity aerobic ACE training can be effective in improving grinding performance by increasing UB aerobic fitness and all-out working capacity. PMID:25357134

  17. Anaerobic digestion of dairy cattle manure autoheated by aerobic pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Achkari-Begdouri, A.

    1989-01-01

    A novel way to heat anaerobic digesters was investigated. Dairy cattle manure was autoheated by an aerobic pretreatment process and then fed to the anaerobic digester. Important physical properties of the dairy cattle manure were determined. These included bulk density, specific heat, thermal conductivity and the rheological properties; consistency coefficient, behavior index and apparent viscosity. These parameters were used to calculate the overall heat transfer coefficients, and to estimate the heat losses from the aerobic reactor to the outside environment. The total energy balance of the aerobic treatment system was then established. An optimization study of the main parameters influencing the autoheating process showed that the total solids, the air flow rate and the stirring speed for operation of the aerobic pretreatment should be approximately 7%, 70 L/H and 1,400 rpm respectively. Temperatures as high as 65C were reached in 40 hours of aerobic treatment. At the above recommended levels of total solids, the air flow rate and the stirring speed, there was little difference in the energy requirements for heating the influent by aeration and heating the influent by a conventional heating system. In addition to the temperature increase, the aerobic pretreatment assisted in balancing the anaerobic digestion process and increased the methanogenesis of the dairy cattle manure. Despite the 8% decomposition of organic matter that occurred during the aerobic pretreatment process, methane production of the digester started with the aerobically heated manure was significantly higher (at least 20% higher) than of the digester started with conventionally heated manure. The aerobic system successfully autoheated the dairy cattle manure with an energy cost equal to that of conventionally heated influent.

  18. Evaluation of Biodegradability of Waste Before and After Aerobic Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchowska-Kisielewicz, Monika; Jędrczak, Andrzej; Sadecka, Zofia

    2014-12-01

    An important advantage of use of an aerobic biostabilization of waste prior to its disposal is that it intensifies the decomposition of the organic fraction of waste into the form which is easily assimilable for methanogenic microorganisms involved in anaerobic decomposition of waste in the landfill. In this article it is presented the influence of aerobic pre-treatment of waste as well as leachate recirculation on susceptibility to biodegradation of waste in anaerobic laboratory reactors. The research has shown that in the reactor with aerobically treated waste stabilized with recilculation conversion of the organic carbon into the methane is about 45% higher than in the reactor with untreated waste stabilized without recirculation.

  19. Considerations in prescribing preflight aerobic exercise for astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Mary Anne Bassett

    1987-01-01

    The physiological effects of prolonged exposure to weightlessness are discussed together with the effects of aerobic exercise on human characteristics affected by weightlessness. It is noted that, although early data on orthostatic intolerance after spaceflight led to a belief that a high level of aerobic fitness for astronauts was detrimental to orthostatic tolerance on return to earth, most of the data available today do not suport this contention. Aerobic fitness was found to be beneficial to cardiovascular function and to mental performance; therefore, it may be important in performing extravehicular activities during flight.

  20. Heritability of aerobic power of individuals in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alonso, L; Souza, Ec; Oliveira, Mv; do Nascimento, Lfe; Dantas, Pms

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic and environmental contribution to variation in aerobic power in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins. The sample consisted of 20 MZ individuals (12 females and 8 males) and 16 DZ individuals (12 females and 4 males), aged from 8 to 26 years, residents in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte. The twins were assessed by a multistage fitness test. The rate of heritability found for aerobic power was 77%. Based on the results, the estimated heritability was largely responsible for the differences in aerobic power. This implies that such measures are under strong genetic influence.