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Sample records for phase function morphology

  1. Quantitative phase imaging of platelet: assessment of cell morphology and function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilenko, Irina; Vlasova, Elizaveta; Metelin, Vladislav; Agadzhanjan, B.; Lyfenko, R.

    2017-02-01

    It is well known that platelets play a central role in hemostasis and thrombosis, they also mediate tumor cell growth, dissemination and angiogenesis. The purpose of the present experiment was to evaluate living platelet size, function and morphology simultaneously in unactivated and activated states using Phase-Interference Microscope "Cytoscan" (Moscow, Russia). We enrolled 30 healthy volunteers, who had no past history of aeteriosclerosis-related disorders, such as coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, hypertention, diabetes or hyperlipidemia and 30 patients with oropharynx cancer. We observed the optic-geometrical parameters of each isolated living cell and the distribution of platelets by sizes have been analysed to detect the dynamics of cell population heterogeneity. Simultaneously we identified 4 platelet forms that have different morphological features and different parameters of size distribution. We noticed that morphological platelet types correlate with morphometric platelet parameters. The data of polymorphisms of platelet reactivity in tumor progression can be used to improve patient outcomes in the cancer prevention and treatment. Moreover morphometric and functional platelet parameters can serve criteria of the efficiency of the radio- and chemotherapy carried out. In conclusion the computer phase-interference microscope provides rapid and effective analysis of living platelet morphology and function at the same time. The use of the computer phase-interference microscope could be an easy and fast method to check the state of platelets in patients with changed platelet activation and to follow a possible pharmacological therapy to reduce this phenomenon.

  2. Decomposition of Atmospheric Aerosol Phase Function by Particle Size and Morphology via Single Particle Scattering Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aptowicz, K. B.; Pan, Y.; Martin, S.; Fernandez, E.; Chang, R.; Pinnick, R. G.

    2013-12-01

    We report upon an experimental approach that provides insight into how particle size and shape affect the scattering phase function of atmospheric aerosol particles. Central to our approach is the design of an apparatus that measures the forward and backward scattering hemispheres (scattering patterns) of individual atmospheric aerosol particles in the coarse mode range. The size and shape of each particle is discerned from the corresponding scattering pattern. In particular, autocorrelation analysis is used to differentiate between spherical and non-spherical particles, the calculated asphericity factor is used to characterize the morphology of non-spherical particles, and the integrated irradiance is used for particle sizing. We found the fraction of spherical particles decays exponentially with particle size, decreasing from 11% for particles on the order of 1 micrometer to less than 1% for particles over 5 micrometer. The average phase functions of subpopulations of particles, grouped by size and morphology, are determined by averaging their corresponding scattering patterns. The phase functions of spherical and non-spherical atmospheric particles are shown to diverge with increasing size. In addition, the phase function of non-spherical particles is found to vary little as a function of the asphericity factor.

  3. [Morphological and functional cartilage imaging].

    PubMed

    Rehnitz, C; Weber, M-A

    2014-06-01

    Excellent morphological imaging of cartilage is now possible and allows the detection of subtle cartilage pathologies. Besides the standard 2D sequences, a multitude of 3D sequences are available for high-resolution cartilage imaging. The first part therefore deals with modern possibilities of morphological imaging. The second part deals with functional cartilage imaging with which it is possible to detect changes in cartilage composition and thus early osteoarthritis as well as to monitor biochemical changes after therapeutic interventions. Validated techniques such as delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage (dGEMRIC) and T2 mapping as well the latest techniques, such as the glycosaminoglycan chemical exchange-dependent saturation transfer (gagCEST) technique will be discussed.

  4. [Morphological and functional cartilage imaging].

    PubMed

    Rehnitz, C; Weber, M-A

    2015-04-01

    Excellent morphological imaging of cartilage is now possible and allows the detection of subtle cartilage pathologies. Besides the standard 2D sequences, a multitude of 3D sequences are available for high-resolution cartilage imaging. The first part therefore deals with modern possibilities of morphological imaging. The second part deals with functional cartilage imaging with which it is possible to detect changes in cartilage composition and thus early osteoarthritis as well as to monitor biochemical changes after therapeutic interventions. Validated techniques such as delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage (dGEMRIC) and T2 mapping as well the latest techniques, such as the glycosaminoglycan chemical exchange-dependent saturation transfer (gagCEST) technique will be discussed.

  5. Functional morphology and evolutionary biology.

    PubMed

    Dullemeijer, P

    1980-01-01

    In this study the relationship between functional morpholoy and evolutionary biology is analysed by confronting the main concepts in both disciplines. Rather than only discussing this connection theoretically, the analysis is carried out by introducing important practical and experimental studies, which use aspects from both disciplines. The mentioned investigations are methodologically analysed and the consequences for extensions of the relationship are worked out. It can be shown that both disciplines have a large domain of their own and also share a large common ground. Many disagreements among evolutionary biologists can be reduced to differences in general philosophy (idealism vs. realism), selection of phenomenona (structure vs. function), definition of concepts (natural selection) and the position of the concept theory as an explaining factor (neutralists vs selectionist, random variation, determinate selection, etc.). The significance of functional morphology for evolutionary biology, and vice versa depends on these differences. For a neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory, contributions from functional and ecological morphology are indispensable. Of ultimate importance are the notions of internal selection and constraints in the constructions determining further development. In this context the concepts of random variation and natural selection need more detailed definition. The study ends with a recommendation for future research founded in a system-theoretical or structuralistic conception.

  6. Fabrication of phase and morphology controlled pure rutile and rutile/anatase TiO2 nanostructures in functional ionic liquid/water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahi, Satwant Kaur; Kaur, Navneet; Singh, Vasundhara

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, pure rutile and anatase-rutile TiO2 nanoparticles have been successfully synthesised via a green route by hydrolysis of titanium tetrachloride with room temperature acidic ionic liquid 3-methyl-1-(3-sulfonylpropyl) imidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate [HO3S(CH2)3MIM][CF3SO3] in aqueous medium. The influence of pH of the solution by varying molar ratio of substrate and ionic liquid has been investigated in both sol⿿gel and hydrothermal synthesis of TiO2 with significant variation in phase, phase composition (ratio of rutile to anatase) and morphology as indicated by various structural analysis such as XRD, TEM, BET, Raman and UV⿿vis absorption spectroscopy. The results indicate formation of a bunch of aligned thin flaky nano-rods of TiO2 which look like nano-flowers with a crystal size of 3⿿5 nm by sol⿿gel method, while in case of hydrothermal method well-defined rutile solid nanorods of TiO2 were formed with variable length in the range of 120⿿170 nm and 20⿿24 nm in width. The photocatalytic activity of the prepared TiO2 samples has been determined by the photodegradation of methyl orange dye (20 ppm) under UV light. Best photocatalytic activity was exhibited by sample S-2 prepared via sol⿿gel method.

  7. Accurate sperm morphology assessment predicts sperm function.

    PubMed

    Abu Hassan Abu, D; Franken, D R; Hoffman, B; Henkel, R

    2012-05-01

    Sperm morphology has been associated with in vitro as well as in vivo fertilisation. The study aimed to evaluate the possible relation between the percentage of spermatozoa with normal morphology and the following sperm functional assays: (i) zona-induced acrosome reaction (ZIAR); (ii) DNA integrity; (iii) chromatin condensation; (iv) sperm apoptosis; and (v) fertilisation rates. Regression analysis was employed to calculate the association between morphology and different functional tests. Normal sperm morphology correlated significantly with the percentages of live acrosome-reacted spermatozoa in the ZIAR (r = 0.518; P < 0.0001; n = 92), DNA integrity (r = -0.515; P = 0.0018; n = 34), CMA(3) -positive spermatozoa (r = -0.745; P < 0.0001; n = 92), sperm apoptosis (r = -0.395; P = 0.0206; n = 34) and necrosis (r = -0.545; P = 0.0009; n = 34). Negative correlations existed between for the acrosome reaction, and DNA integrity, while negative associations were recorded with the percentages of CMA(3) -positive spermatozoa, apoptotic and necrotic spermatozoa. Sperm morphology is related to sperm dysfunction such as poor chromatin condensation, acrosome reaction and DNA integrity. Negative and significant correlations existed between normal sperm morphology and chromatin condensation, the percentage of spermatozoa with abnormal DNA and spermatozoa with apoptotic activity. The authors do not regard sperm morphology as the only test for the diagnosis of male fertility, but sperm morphology can serve as a valuable indicator of underlying dysfunction.

  8. Morphological and functional state of the heart during magnetic storm.

    PubMed

    Chibisov, S M; Breus, T K; Illarionova, T S

    2001-12-01

    Magnetic storm modulates morphological and functional state of the heart and the related systems. Changes in cardiomyocyte ultrastructure induced by changes in geomagnetic activity were studied in experiments on rabbits. We describe a possible mechanism underlying changes in cardiac activity in intact animals induced by geomagnetic perturbations. The most pronounced alterations of cardiomyocyte ultrastructure were observed during the major phase of magnetic storm.

  9. Functional innovations and morphological diversification in parrotfish.

    PubMed

    Price, Samantha A; Wainwright, Peter C; Bellwood, David R; Kazancioglu, Erem; Collar, David C; Near, Thomas J

    2010-10-01

    The association between diversification and evolutionary innovations has been well documented and tested in studies of taxonomic richness but the impact that such innovations have on the diversity of form and function is less well understood. Using phylogenetically rigorous techniques, we investigated the association between morphological diversity and two design breakthroughs within the jaws of parrotfish. Similar intramandibular joints and other modifications of the pharyngeal jaws have evolved repeatedly in teleost fish and are frequently hypothesized to promote diversity. We quantified morphological diversity within six functionally important oral jaw traits using the Brownian motion rate of evolution to correct for phylogenetic and time-related biases and compared these rates across clades that did and did not possess the intramandibular joint and the parrotfish pharyngeal jaw. No change in morphological diversity was associated with the pharyngeal jaw modification alone but rates of oral jaw diversification were up to 8× faster in parrotfish species that possessed both innovations. Interestingly, this morphological diversity may not have led to differential resource uses as available data suggest that members of this clade show remarkable homogeneity of diet.

  10. Acute pulmonary embolism: from morphology to function.

    PubMed

    Mayo, John; Thakur, Yogesh

    2014-02-01

    This article reviews the current diagnostic strategies for patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE) focusing on the current first choice imaging modality, computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA). Diagnostic strengths and weaknesses and associated cost-effectiveness of the diagnostic pathways will be discussed. The radiation dose risk of these pathways will be described and techniques to minimize dose will be reviewed. Finally the impact of new dual energy applications which have the potential to provide additional functional information will be briefly reviewed. Imaging plays a vital role in the diagnostic pathway for clinically suspected PE. CT has been established as the most robust morphologic imaging tool for the evaluation of patients with suspected PE. This conclusion is based on the high diagnostic utility of CT for the detection of PE and its unique capacity for accurate diagnosis of conditions that can mimic the clinical presentation of PE. Although current cost-effectiveness evaluations have established CT as integral in the PE diagnostic pathway, failure to acknowledge the impact of alternate diagnosis represents a current knowledge gap. The emerging dual energy capacity of current CT scanners offers the potential to evaluate both pulmonary vascular morphology and ventilation perfusion relationships within the lung parenchyma at high spatial resolution. This dual assessment of lung morphology and lung function at low (< 5 millisievert) radiation dose represents a substantial advance in PE imaging.

  11. Functional Morphology of Eunicidan (Polychaeta) Jaws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemo, W. C.; Dorgan, K. M.

    2016-02-01

    Polychaetes exhibit diverse feeding strategies and diets, with some species possessing hardened teeth or jaws of varying complexity. Species in the order Eunicida have complex, rigidly articulated jaws consisting of multiple pairs of maxillae and a pair of mandibles. While all Eunicida possess this general jaw structure, a number of characteristics of the jaw parts vary considerably among families. These differences, described for fossilized and extant species' jaws, were used to infer evolutionary relationships, but current phylogeny shows that jaw structures that are similar among several families are convergent. Little has been done, however, to relate jaw functional morphology and feeding behavior to diet. To explore these relationships, we compared the jaw kinematics of two taxa with similar but evolutionarily convergent jaw structures: Diopatra (Onuphidae) and Lumbrineris (Lumbrineridae). Diopatra species are tube-dwelling and predominantly herbivorous, whereas Lumbrineris species are burrowing carnivores. Jaw kinematics were observed and analyzed by filming individuals biting or feeding and tracking tooth movements in videos. Differences in jaw structure and kinematics between Diopatra and Lumbrineris can be interpreted to be consistent with their differences in diet. Relating jaw morphology to diet would provide insight into early annelid communities by linking fossil teeth (scolecodonts) to the ecological roles of extant species with similar morphologies.

  12. Functional morphology of the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Ibata, Y; Okamura, H; Tanaka, M; Tamada, Y; Hayashi, S; Iijima, N; Matsuda, T; Munekawa, K; Takamatsu, T; Hisa, Y; Shigeyoshi, Y; Amaya, F

    1999-07-01

    In mammals, the biological clock (circadian oscillator) is situated in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a small bilaterally paired structure just above the optic chiasm. Circadian rhythms of sleep-wakefulness and hormone release disappear when the SCN is destroyed, and transplantation of fetal or neonatal SCN into an arrhythmic host restores rhythmicity. There are several kinds of peptide-synthesizing neurons in the SCN, with vasoactive intestinal peptide, arginine vasopressin, and somatostatine neurons being most prominent. Those peptides and their mRNA show diurnal rhythmicity and may or may not be affected by light stimuli. Major neuronal inputs from retinal ganglion cells as well as other inputs such as those from the lateral geniculate nucleus and raphe nucleus are very important for entrainment and shift of circadian rhythms. In this review, we describe morphological and functional interactions between neurons and glial elements and their development. We also consider the expression of immediate-early genes in the SCN after light stimulation during subjective night and their role in the mechanism of signal transduction. The reciprocal interaction between the SCN and melatonin, which is synthesized in the pineal body under the influence of polysynaptic inputs from the SCN, is also considered. Finally, morphological and functional characteristics of clock genes, particularly mPers, which are considered to promote circadian rhythm, are reviewed. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  13. Studies on phase and morphological evolution of silver vanadium oxides as a function of pH: evaluation of electrochemical behavior towards quantification of Pb2+ and Cd2+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangaiah, Vijayakumar; Shivappa Adarakatti, Prashanth; Siddaramanna, Ashoka; Malingappa, Pandurangappa; Thimmanna Chandrappa, Gujjarahalli

    2017-08-01

    The effect of pH on morphological and phase evolution of silver vanadium oxide nanostructures are investigated under hydrothermal process. The results of powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) disclosed that the morphological evolution of nanobelts into nanoring structures occurs at pH in between 4 and 5 with Ag2V4O11 phase and nanobelt morphologies at pH from 6 to 7 with β-AgVO3 phase. The prepared Ag2V4O11 and β-AgVO3 have been evaluated for the simultaneous quantification of Pb2+ and Cd2+ ions in aqueous solution using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. The results reveal that Ag2V4O11 shows better quantification result compared to β-AgVO3.

  14. Morphology of Liquid-Liquid Phase Separated Aerosols.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yuqing; Molinero, Valeria

    2015-08-26

    The morphology of liquid-liquid phase separated aerosols has a strong impact on their rate of gas and water uptake, and the type and rate of heterogeneous reactions in the atmosphere. However, it is extremely challenging to experimentally distinguish different morphologies (core-shell or partial wetting) of aerosols and to quantify the extent of wetting between the two phases. The aim of this work is to quantitatively predict the morphology of liquid-liquid aerosols from fundamental physical properties of the aerosol phases. We determine the equilibrium structure of liquid-liquid phase separated aerosols through free energy minimization and predict that the contact angle between the two liquids in the aerosol depends on the composition but not the amount of each phase. We demonstrate that for aerosols of diameter larger than ∼100 nm, the equilibrium contact angle can be accurately predicted from the surface tensions of each liquid with the vapor and between the two liquids through an expression that is identical to Young's equation. The internal structure of smaller, ultrafine aerosols depends also on the value of the line tension between the two liquids and the vapor. The thermodynamic model accurately predicts the experimental morphology, core-shell or partial wetting, of all aerosols for which surface tensions are provided in the literature, and provides contact angles that cannot be accurately determined with state of the art experimental methods. We find that the contact angle of model atmospheric aerosols is rarely higher than 30°. We validate the thermodynamic predictions through molecular simulations of nonane-water droplets, and use the simulation data to compute line tension values that are in good agreement with theory and the analysis from experimental data in water-nonane droplets. Our finding of a simple analytical equation to compute the contact angle of liquid-liquid droplets should have broad application for the prediction of the morphology of

  15. Pituitary function and morphology in Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Maione, Luigi; Tortora, Fabio; Modica, Roberta; Ramundo, Valeria; Riccio, Eleonora; Daniele, Aurora; Belfiore, Maria Paola; Colao, Annamaria; Pisani, Antonio; Faggiano, Antongiulio

    2015-11-01

    Endocrine abnormalities are known to affect patients with Fabry disease (FD). Pituitary gland theoretically represents an ideal target for FD because of high vascularization and low proliferation rate. We explored pituitary morphology and function in a cohort of FD patients through a prospectic, monocentric study at an Academic Tertiary Center. The study population included 28 FD patients and 42 sex and age-matched normal subjects. The protocol included a contrast enhancement pituitary MRI, the assessment of pituitary hormones, anti-pituitary, and anti-hypothalamus antibodies. At pituitary MRI, an empty sella was found in 11 (39%) FD patients, and in 2 (5%) controls (p < 0.001). Pituitary volume was significantly smaller in FD than in controls (p < 0.001). Determinants of pituitary volume were age and alpha-galactosidase enzyme activity. Both parameters resulted independently correlated at multivariate analysis. Pituitary function was substantially preserved in FD patients. Empty sella is a common finding in patients with FD. The major prevalence in the elderly supports the hypothesis of a progressive pituitary shrinkage overtime. Pituitary function seems not to be impaired in FD. An endocrine workup with pituitary hormone assessment should be periodically performed in FD patients, who are already at risk of cardiovascular complications.

  16. Morphology and phase control of iron oxide polymorph nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Hongtao; Wang, Li; Shi, Min; Li, Yanhong

    2017-04-01

    In this work, lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH) nanobundles were prepared by a facile NH4F assisted epoxide precipitation route. The reactions between epoxide and [Fe(H2O)6]2+ promoted the hydrolysis and condensation of [Fe(H2O)6]2+, resulting in the formation of iron oxyhydroxide. After calcination of γ-FeOOH nanobundles at 400 °C, the produced α-Fe2O3 still kept the bundle morphology. Due to the unique chemistry of epoxide, the morphology and phase of iron oxide polymorph nanoparticles (goethite, akaganeite, lepidocrocite, magnetite) were well-controlled through controlling reaction conditions such as Fe2+ concentration, NH4F additive and reaction temperature. It is particularly interesting that NH4F working as phase controlling agent is able to control the phase development of iron oxyhydroxides. This phase control effect of NH4F is attributed to the promoted reaction rate of epoxide originating from the higher electronegativity of fluoride ions than chloride ions. Based on the results in this work and our other preliminary works, it is considered that this route can be used as a general strategy for controlling the morphology and phase of transition element compounds.

  17. The functional morphology of hooding in cobras.

    PubMed

    Young, Bruce A; Kardong, Kenneth V

    2010-05-01

    Many snakes, particularly cobras, form as part of a defensive display, a hood, an active lateral expansion of their neck skin and underlying musculature and ribs. We identified muscle groups possibly involved in hooding based on their attachments on the specialized ribs of the neck. We then used a combination of morphology, kinematic analysis, morphometrics, electromyography and muscle stimulation to test hypotheses about the functional basis of hooding. We confirmed that hood protraction and erection is an active process that begins cranially and extends caudally, often in stages, through the combined action of several sets of muscles. One set of axial muscles (levator costae and supracostalis lateralis superior) coursing along a line of action to rib displacement are the prime erectors acting to lift the hood. However, a second set of muscles connecting ribs to skin primarily keep the skin taut, rather than to displace the ribs relative to the vertebrae. A third set of muscles coursing between ribs function primarily to transmit forces between adjacent ribs rather than to move ribs. The maintenance of the erect hood requires continued muscle activity. Hood relaxation is due to both active muscle contraction of a fourth set of axial muscles and to passive recoil events in the costovertebral ligaments. The shape of the fully erect hood is reflective of the morphometrics of the underlying ribs, while the duration and kinematics of hood erection and relaxation are related to the behavioral context of the display.

  18. Effect of phase morphology on bulk strength for power-law materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerbi, Christopher; Johnson, Scott E.; Cook, Alden; Vel, Senthil S.

    2015-01-01

    The strength of a polyphase aggregate comprising power-law materials is a function of the constitutive laws of the phases present, the arrangement of those phases and environmental conditions such as temperature. Primarily for geological applications, we consider the degree to which the arrangement of the phases has a significant influence on bulk strength. Calculations based on current single-mineral experimental data indicate that the absolute and relative strength differences between the upper and lower theoretical bounds vary widely with mineral pair, environmental conditions and strain rate. For example, at 850 °C, some pairs, such as plagioclase-clinopyroxene, are highly sensitive to phase morphology, whereas others, such as quartz-plagioclase, are not. Using a finite-element implementation of asymptotic expansion homogenization, we have calculated the bulk strength of natural and synthetic microstructures across macroscale strain gradients. We find that phase morphology does not change sufficiently in most cases to be the dominant factor in bulk strength variation. Thus on its own, phase morphology in an aggregate of power-law materials does not appear to be a major control on bulk strength under typical viscous geological conditions. However, phase morphology does affect microscale stress and strain rate patterns, which in turn can induce microscale variations in constitutive laws and diffusional pathways. These factors, including reactions and changing deformation mechanisms, are strongly influenced by phase morphology and do cause strength variation in rocks. As a result, any parametrization of rock strength needs to account for evolving modal mineralogy and deformation mechanisms in addition to morphological changes alone.

  19. Growth and Morphology of Phase Separating Supercritical Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hegseth, John; Beysens, Daniel; Perrot, Francoise; Nikolayev, Vadim; Garrabos, Yves

    1996-01-01

    The scientific objective is to study the relation between the morphology and the growth kinetics of domains during phase separation. We know from previous experiments performed near the critical point of pure fluids and binary liquids that there are two simple growth laws at late times. The 'fast' growth appears when the volumes of the phases are nearly equal and the droplet pattern is interconnected. In this case the size of the droplets grows linearly in time. The 'slow' growth appears when the pattern of droplets embedded in the majority phase is disconnected. In this case the size of the droplets increases in proportion to time to the power 1/3. The volume fraction of the minority phase is a good candidate to determine this change of behavior. All previous attempts to vary the volume fraction in a single experimental cell have failed because of the extreme experimental difficulties.

  20. How does morphology relate to function in sensory arbors?

    PubMed Central

    Hall, David H.; Treinin, Millet

    2011-01-01

    Sensory dendrites fall into many different morphological and functional classes. Polymodal nociceptors are one subclass of sensory neurons, which are of particular note due to their elaborate dendritic arbors. Complex developmental programs are required to form these arbors, and there is striking conservation of morphology, function, and molecular determinants between vertebrate and invertebrate polymodal nociceptors. Based on these studies, we argue that arbor morphology plays an important role in the function of polymodal nociceptors. Similar associations between form and function may explain the plethora of dendrite morphologies seen among all sensory neurons. PMID:21840610

  1. Functional nasal morphology of chimaerid fishes.

    PubMed

    Howard, Lauren E; Holmes, William M; Ferrando, Sara; Maclaine, James S; Kelsh, Robert N; Ramsey, Andrew; Abel, Richard L; Cox, Jonathan P L

    2013-09-01

    Holocephalans (chimaeras) are a group of marine fishes comprising three families: the Callorhinchidae (callorhinchid fishes), the Rhinochimaeridae (rhinochimaerid fishes) and the Chimaeridae (chimaerid fishes). We have used X-ray microcomputed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to characterise in detail the nasal anatomy of three species of chimaerid fishes: Chimaera monstrosa, C. phantasma and Hydrolagus colliei. We have shown that the nasal chamber of these three species is linked to the external environment by an incurrent channel and to the oral cavity by an excurrent channel via an oral groove. A protrusion of variable morphology is present on the medial wall of the incurrent channel in all three species, but is absent in members of the two other holocephalan families that we inspected. A third nasal channel, the lateral channel, functionally connects the incurrent nostril to the oral cavity, by-passing the nasal chamber. From anatomical reconstructions, we have proposed a model for the circulation of water, and therefore the transport of odorant, in the chimaerid nasal region. In this model, water could flow through the nasal region via the nasal chamber or the lateral channel. In either case, the direction of flow could be reversed. Circulation through the entire nasal region is likely to be driven primarily by the respiratory pump. We have identified several anatomical features that may segregate, distribute, facilitate and regulate flow in the nasal region and have considered the consequences of flow reversal. The non-sensory cilia lining the olfactory sensory channels appear to be mucus-propelling, suggesting that these cilia have a common protective role in cartilaginous fishes (sharks, rays and chimaeras). The nasal region of chimaerid fishes shows at least two adaptations to a benthic lifestyle, and suggests good olfactory sensitivity, with secondary folding enhancing the hypothetical flat sensory surface area by up to 70%.

  2. Banded ion morphology - Main and recovery storm phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frahm, R. A.; Reiff, P. H.; Winningham, J. D.; Burch, J. L.

    The occurrence of bands in ion spectra obtained with the high-altitude and low-altitude plasma instruments on DE-1 and DE-2, respectively, during main and recovery storm phases from the period September 1981 - January 1982 is analyzed statistically. Typical spectra are shown; diagrams and graphs of storm morphology are provided; and two theoretical models (one based on time-of-flight effects and another based on convective dispersion) are discussed. It is found that bands occur more often in the main phase than in the recovery phase, and more often and at higher latitudes in the evening than before noon. From the stability of the bands and the dependence of energy on latitude it is inferred that convective dispersion plays a more important role than time-of-flight effects in the motion of heavy ions in the magnetosphere.

  3. Morphological modelling of three-phase microstructures of anode layers using SEM images.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Bassam; Willot, François; Jeulin, Dominique

    2016-07-01

    A general method is proposed to model 3D microstructures representative of three-phases anode layers used in fuel cells. The models are based on SEM images of cells with varying morphologies. The materials are first characterized using three morphological measurements: (cross-)covariances, granulometry and linear erosion. They are measured on segmented SEM images, for each of the three phases. Second, a generic model for three-phases materials is proposed. The model is based on two independent underlying random sets which are otherwise arbitrary. The validity of this model is verified using the cross-covariance functions of the various phases. In a third step, several types of Boolean random sets and plurigaussian models are considered for the unknown underlying random sets. Overall, good agreement is found between the SEM images and three-phases models based on plurigaussian random sets, for all morphological measurements considered in the present work: covariances, granulometry and linear erosion. The spatial distribution and shapes of the phases produced by the plurigaussian model are visually very close to the real material. Furthermore, the proposed models require no numerical optimization and are straightforward to generate using the covariance functions measured on the SEM images. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2016 Royal Microscopical Society.

  4. Structure and morphology of S-phase precipitates in aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Radmilovic, V.; Kilaas, R.; Dahmen, U.; Shiflet, G.J.

    1999-11-12

    This work presents a crystallographic and morphological analysis of S-phase precipitation in Al alloys. Using quantitative high resolution electron microscopy, four models for the crystal structure of the S-phase (Al{sub 2}CuMg) in Al-based alloys are critically evaluated, and a new model is proposed. This model is identical to that of Perlitz and Westgren, but with an exchange of Cu and Mg. Two distinct precipitate morphologies are observed. Both are laths elongated along {l{underscore}angle}100{r{underscore}angle} directions common to the matrix and the precipitate and lie on {l{underscore}brace}021{r{underscore}brace} planes of the matrix. Type 1 precipitates have interfaces of the type (021){sub Al}{parallel}(001){sub S} while type 2 precipitates have interfaces of the type (021){sub Al}{parallel}(0.43){sub S}, i.e., the two types differ in the S-phase lattice plane that is conjugate to the {l{underscore}brace}021{r{underscore}brace}{sub Al} habit plane. The interface plane of type 1 precipitates tends to be atomically flat containing only growth ledges while that of type 2 precipitates is stepped. The orientation relationship of the two types of precipitate differs by a rotation of about 5{degree} around the lath axis. The difference between the two types of precipitate is discussed in terms of their lattice correspondence, and type 2 precipitates are shown to follow an invariant line strain. Moire analysis of lattice distortions revealed that {l{underscore}brace}020{r{underscore}brace}{sub Al} planes remain undistorted while {l{underscore}brace}002{r{underscore}brace}{sub Al} planes suffer significant shear during S-phase nucleation.

  5. Nucleation, kinetics and morphology of displacive phase transformations in iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suiker, A. S. J.; Thijsse, B. J.

    2013-11-01

    An extensive, systematic molecular dynamics (MD) study is performed for analysing the nucleation, kinetics and morphology characteristics of thermally-induced, displacive phase transformations from face-centred cubic (fcc) to body-centred cubic (bcc) iron. At the atomic level these transformation characteristics are influenced by a number of factors, including (i) the appearance of free surfaces, (ii) the initial presence of fcc-bcc grain boundaries, (iii) the existence of point defects (i.e., atomic vacancies) near a grain boundary, (iv) the initial thermal velocities of the atoms, and (v) the specific interatomic potential used. Other MD studies that capture the overall transformation behaviour of iron well have often underestimated or ignored the influence by these factors on the transformation response, with the risk of putting the accuracy, generality and physical explanation of the MD results on loose grounds. The present research illustrates the relative contribution of each of the above factors by means of a detailed comparison study for three different interatomic potentials. The accuracy of the interatomic potentials is established by validating for the fcc and bcc phases the calculated elastic moduli, cohesive energy, vacancy formation energy and interfacial energy against experimental and ab initio data reported in the literature. The importance of calibrating material data of both the stable bcc phase and the metastable fcc phase - instead of the stable bcc phase only - is demonstrated. The numerical results call for general caution when interpreting phenomena that start close to instability points and therefore are sensitive to small disturbances; a large spread in the overall transformation time is found under different initial thermal velocities, interfacial lattice incoherence, boundary conditions (free vs. periodic), and interatomic potentials, where for completely transformed atomic systems the discrepancy between the maximum and minimum

  6. Prdm8 regulates the morphological transition at multipolar phase during neocortical development.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Mayuko; Kuroda, Takao; Honda, Aya; Komabayashi-Suzuki, Mariko; Komai, Tae; Shinkai, Yoichi; Mizutani, Ken-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Here, we found that the PR domain protein Prdm8 serves as a key regulator of the length of the multipolar phase by controlling the timing of morphological transition. We used a mouse line with expression of Prdm8-mVenus reporter and found that Prdm8 is predominantly expressed in the middle and upper intermediate zone during both the late and terminal multipolar phases. Prdm8 expression was almost coincident with Unc5D expression, a marker for the late multipolar phase, although the expression of Unc5D was found to be gradually down-regulated to the point at which mVenus expression was gradually up-regulated. This expression pattern suggests the possible involvement of Prdm8 in the control of the late and terminal multipolar phases, which controls the timing for morphological transition. To test this hypothesis, we performed gain- and loss-of-function analysis of neocortical development by using in utero electroporation. We found that the knockdown of Prdm8 results in premature change from multipolar to bipolar morphology, whereas the overexpression of Prdm8 maintained the multipolar morphology. Additionally, the postnatal analysis showed that the Prdm8 knockdown stimulated the number of early born neurons, and differentiated neurons located more deeply in the neocortex, however, majority of those cells could not acquire molecular features consistent with laminar location. Furthermore, we found the candidate genes that were predominantly utilized in both the late and terminal multipolar phases, and these candidate genes included those encoding for guidance molecules. In addition, we also found that the expression level of these guidance molecules was inhibited by the introduction of the Prdm8 expression vector. These results indicate that the Prdm8-mediated regulation of morphological changes that normally occur during the late and terminal multipolar phases plays an important role in neocortical development.

  7. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation of binary charged lipid membranes: Phase separation and morphological dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Hiroaki; Higuchi, Yuji; Shimokawa, Naofumi

    2016-10-01

    Biomembranes, which are mainly composed of neutral and charged lipids, exhibit a large variety of functional structures and dynamics. Here, we report a coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of the phase separation and morphological dynamics in charged lipid bilayer vesicles. The screened long-range electrostatic repulsion among charged head groups delays or inhibits the lateral phase separation in charged vesicles compared with neutral vesicles, suggesting the transition of the phase-separation mechanism from spinodal decomposition to nucleation or homogeneous dispersion. Moreover, the electrostatic repulsion causes morphological changes, such as pore formation, and further transformations into disk, string, and bicelle structures, which are spatiotemporally coupled to the lateral segregation of charged lipids. Based on our coarse-grained MD simulation, we propose a plausible mechanism of pore formation at the molecular level. The pore formation in a charged-lipid-rich domain is initiated by the prior disturbance of the local molecular orientation in the domain.

  8. Role of copper on Laves phase morphology in 9-12%Cr steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielsen, Hilmar K.; Liu, Fang

    2017-07-01

    In this work the Laves phase was found to appear in two different morphologies, namely granular shapes and in an elongated shape. No difference in crystallography could be detected between these morphologies. The Laves phase was only observed in its elongated form in Cu-containing steels, where it was the primary morphology present after short term ageing. After long term ageing, the elongated Laves phase was replaced by the granular morphology. It is speculated that Cu precipitates act as nucleation sites for the elongated Laves phase, resulting in an unstable orientation relationship with the matrix, an in the meta-stable elongated morphology of Laves phase precipitates.

  9. Phase behavior, morphology, and polymorphism of surfactant systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jingmei

    Surfactants are amphiphilic molecules. They spontaneously form various microstructures in water to accommodate the hydrophilic-hydrophobic interactions. Soaps are the oldest kind of man-made surfactants that are commonly used as washing and cleaning agents. In spite of the long history of soap research, many aspects of soaps in nonaqueous solvents remain unclear. Unlike the aqueous soap systems, which have been studied extensively, investigations of nonaqueous, polar soap systems are rather limited. Motivated by the applications of nonaqueous, polar solvents in soap products, we investigated sodium stearate (NaSt)/water/propylene glycol (PG) systems. The effects of gradual substitution of PG for H 2O on the phase behavior, morphology and crystalline structure of NaSt systems were studied by a combination of characterization techniques. The techniques include direct visual observation, differential scanning calorimetry, wide-angle and small angle x-ray scattering, light and cryo-electron microscopy, and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. Anhydrous NaSt forms layered crystalline structures at 25°C. With increasing temperature, a distorted hexagonal phase and a hexagonal liquid crystalline phase form. Compared with aqueous soap systems, the regions of liquid crystalline phases in the phase diagrams are reduced as PG replaces or gradually substitutes for H2O. Fibrous and plate-like NaSt crystallites were investigated in the NaSt/PG/H 2O system containing 1-5 wt% NaSt. Despite of the morphological difference, NaSt fibers and platelets share the same layered crystalline structure at the molecular level. NaSt fibers consist of stacked thin ribbons of NaSt bilayers. NaSt platelets exhibit large basal planes {001} surrounded by other faster-growing lateral planes. Two lamellar crystalline structures, alpha-NaSt and beta-NaSt, which formed in the NaSt/PG/H2O system with 10 wt% NaSt, were characterized on the atomic, molecular and microscopic levels. In a PG

  10. Functional morphology of the Neandertal scapular glenoid fossa.

    PubMed

    Macias, Marisa E; Churchill, Steven E

    2015-01-01

    Neandertals and Homo sapiens are known to differ in scapular glenoid fossa morphology. Functional explanations may be appropriate for certain aspects of glenoid fossa morphology; however, other factors--e.g., allometry, evolutionary development--must be addressed before functional morphology is considered. Using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics, shape of the scapular glenoid fossa was compared among Neandertals, early and recent modern humans, chimpanzees, orangutans, Australopithecus afarensis, and Au. sediba. Permutation analysis revealed that side, sex, and lifestyle did not correlate with shape. Of the features we found to differ between groups, anterior glenoid rim morphology and fossa curvature did not correlate with the aforementioned shape variables; thus, a functional explanation is appropriate for these components of glenoid fossa shape. Shared morphology among recent humans and chimpanzees (to the exclusion of Neandertals and orangutans) suggests independent forces contributing to these morphological configurations. Potential explanations include adaptations to habitual behavior and locomotor adaptations in the scapulae of recent humans and chimpanzees; these explanations are supported by clinical and experimental literature. The absence of these morphological features in Neandertals may support the lack of these selective forces on their scapular glenoid fossa morphology.

  11. Morphology and crystal phase evolution of GeO 2 in liquid phase deposition process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Chengbin; Sun, Wei; Wang, Wei; Li, Yi; Chu, Junhao

    2012-01-01

    Morphology and crystal phase evolution of GeO 2 in liquid phase deposition (LPD) process is investigated. Rod-like solid phases precipitate out of solution ahead of truncated cube-like phases. SEM, XRD and TEM analyses reveal that the two sorts of solid phases are tetragonal GeO 2 and hexagonal GeO 2, respectively. The tetragonal GeO 2 phases start to experience a re-dissolving process as soon as the hexagonal phases come into being. The prior precipitation of the rod-like phase arises from a relatively low solute saturation of tetragonal GeO 2. Fast growth of a tetragonal GeO 2 phase along [111] direction leads to development of a rod-like shape. The re-dissolving phenomenon does not agree with the classic growth kinetics of crystals but is strongly favored by our calculations based on thermodynamics. The GeO 2 solutes are released in a fluctuant way by germanate ions, which promotes the occurrence of the re-dissolution phenomenon. The current researches open a door for room-temperature LPD growth of not only the hexagonal GeO 2 particles and film but also the one-dimensional tetragonal GeO 2 product.

  12. cAMP initiates early phase neuron-like morphology changes and late phase neural differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Linxia; Seitz, Linsey C.; Abramczyk, Amy M.; Liu, Li

    2010-01-01

    The intracellular second messenger cAMP is frequently used in induction media to induce mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into neural lineage cells. To date, an understanding of the role cAMP exerts on MSCs and whether cAMP can induce MSCs into functional neurons is still lacking. We found cAMP initiated neuron-like morphology changes early and neural differentiation much later. The early phase changes in morphology were due to cell shrinkage, which subsequently rendered some cells apoptotic. While the morphology changes occurred prior to the expression of neural markers, it is not required for neural marker expression and the two processes are differentially regulated downstream of cAMP-activated protein kinase A. cAMP enabled MSCs to gain neural marker expressions with neuronal function, such as, calcium rise in response to neuronal activators, dopamine, glutamate, and potassium chloride. However, only some of the cells induced by cAMP responded to the three neuronal activators and further lack the neuronal morphology, suggesting that although cAMP is able to direct MSCs towards neural differentiation, they do not achieve terminal differentiation. PMID:20725762

  13. Banded ion morphology: Main and recovery storm phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frahm, R. A.; Reiff, P. H.; Winningham, J. D.; Burch, J. L.

    Ion bands appear in a spectrogram display as a continuous line of enhanced ion energy flux, whose median energy increases as the satellite travels poleward in the low and mid-altitude magnetosphere. These ion bands occur with highest energy flux at zero degrees pitch angle. Ion bands similar to those described previously have been investigated using data from the Low Altitude Plasma Instrument (LAPI) and High Altitude Plasma Instrument (HAPI) flown on the Dynamics Explorer (DE) satellites. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a statistical study of band occurrence and to present and describe the current models for band formation. The morphology of ion bands has been examined for main and recovery storm phases covering the period from September 1981 to December 1981. Bands are more likely to be seen during the main phase of magnetic storms than during recovery phase. Bands are more prevalent in the evening sector and occur at higher invariant latitudes (˜5°) than those in the pre-noon sector. Two current models have been proposed to describe bands or band-like signatures in ion spectrograms. The first is a time-of-flight effect as in the bouncing ion clusters (seen at geosynchronous orbit). The second is convective dispersion, where ions from the opposite hemisphere's ionosphere experience significant motion perpendicular to magnetic field lines and become dispersed in latitude as they travel parallel to a magnetic field line. The data tend to favor convective dispersion, although time-of-flight effects can also be seen.

  14. Morphologically and Functionally Distinct Lipid Droplet Subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuyan; Wang, Yang; Cui, Liujuan; Deng, Yaqin; Xu, Shimeng; Yu, Jinhai; Cichello, Simon; Serrero, Ginette; Ying, Yunshu; Liu, Pingsheng

    2016-01-01

    Lipid droplet (LD), a multi-functional organelle, is often found to associate with other cellular membranous structures and vary in size in a given cell, which may be related to their functional diversity. Here we established a method to separate LD subpopulations from isolated CHO K2 LDs into three different size categories. The subpopulation with smallest LDs was nearly free of ER and other membranous structures while those with larger LDs contained intact ER. These distinct subpopulations of LDs differed in their protein composition and ability to recruit proteins. This method was also applicable to LDs obtained from other sources, such as Huh7 cells, mouse liver and brown adipose tissue, et al. We developed an in vitro assay requiring only isolated LDs, Coenzyme A, and ATP to drive lipid synthesis. The LD subpopulation nearly depleted of ER was able to incorporate fatty acids into triacylglycerol and phospholipids. Together, our data demonstrate that LDs in a given cell are heterogeneous in size and function, and suggest that LDs are one of cellular lipid synthetic organelles. PMID:27386790

  15. Function of lateral line canal morphology.

    PubMed

    Klein, Adrian; Bleckmann, Horst

    2015-01-01

    Fish perceive water motions and pressure gradients with their lateral line. Lateral line information is used for prey detection, spatial orientation, predator avoidance, schooling behavior, intraspecific communication and station holding. The lateral line of most fishes consists of superficial neuromasts (SNs) and canal neuromasts (CNs). The distribution of SNs and CNs shows a high degree of variation among fishes. Researchers have speculated for decades about the functional significance of this diversity, often without any conclusive answers. Klein et al. (2013) examined how tubules, pore number and pore patterns affect the filter properties of lateral line canals in a marine teleost, the black prickleback (Xiphister atropurpureus). A preliminary mathematical model was formulated and biomimetic sensors were built. For the present study the mathematical model was extended to understand the major underlying principle of how canal dimensions influence the filter properties of the lateral line. Both the extended mathematical model and the sensor experiments show that the number and distribution of pores determine the spatial filter properties of the lateral line. In an environment with little hydrodynamic noise, simple and complex lateral line canals have comparable response properties. However, if exposed to highly turbulent conditions, canals with numerous widely spaced pores increase the signal to noise ratio significantly. © 2014 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Diabetic rat testes: morphological and functional alterations.

    PubMed

    Ricci, G; Catizone, A; Esposito, R; Pisanti, F A; Vietri, M T; Galdieri, M

    2009-12-01

    Reproductive dysfunction is a consequence of diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. This study investigated the histological and molecular alterations in the testes of rats injected with streptozotocin at prepuperal (SPI rats) and adult age (SAI rats) to understand whether diabetes affects testicular tissue with different severity depending on the age in which this pathological condition starts. The testes of diabetic animals showed frequent abnormal histology, and seminiferous epithelium cytoarchitecture appeared altered as well as the occludin distribution pattern. The early occurrence of diabetes increased the percentage of animals with high number of damaged tubules. The interstitial compartment of the testes was clearly hypertrophic in several portions of the organs both in SPI and SAI rats. Interestingly, fully developed Leydig cells were present in all the treated animals although abnormally distributed. Besides the above-described damages, we found a similar decrease in plasma testosterone levels both in SPI and SAI rats. Oxidative stress (OS) is involved in the pathogenesis of various diabetic complications, and in our experimental models we found that manganese superoxide dismutase was reduced in diabetic animals. We conclude that in STZ-induced diabetes, the altered spermatogenesis, more severe in SPI animals, is possibly due to the effect of OS on Leydig cell function which could cause the testosterone decrease responsible for the alterations found in the seminiferous epithelium of diabetic animals.

  17. [Functional morphology of blowfly Calliphora vicina hemocytes].

    PubMed

    Kind, T V

    2012-01-01

    In the hemolymph of Calliphora seven types of hemocytes were revealed. These are prohemocytes, which are the stem cells, stable and unstable hyaline cells, thrombocytoids, spindle cells, juvenile plasmatocytes and plasmatocytes I-IV, which represent sequential stages of one cell line differentiation were registered. The margin between them is completion of the crop emptying and beginning of wandering stage. In the feeding and crop emptying larvae take place rising of hyaline cells, thrombocytoids and hyaline cells amount with parallel growth of their defense function. The second wave of hemogenesis occur in the end of crop emptying period. It is accompanied by burst of plasmatocyte I production with their subsequent differentiation to plasmatocytes II-IV. Production of stable hyaline cells and respectively prothrombocytoids may be regulated not only by hormonal background but also by inorganic or organic particles invaded into the hemocel. Three types of hemocytes are involved in loosing of hemolymph from alien particles, notably thrombocytoids, juvenile plasmatocytes and plasmatocytes I and II. Thrombocytoids are responsible for parasitic eggs encapsulation. In addition they can phagocytize tiny organic and inorganic particles. Juvenile plasmatocytes respond to alien invasion almost as quickly as thrombocytoids at the onset of invasion. Plasmatocytes I and II start phagocytosis more slowly, hours post invasion, frequently accumulating the particles previously catched by thrombocytoids. Plasmatocytes I can absorb foreign particles and group in morules and can also surround filled thrombocytoids forming distinctive capsules. Both morules and capsules are temporary structures and disintegrate some hours lately. It is supposed the existence of three levels of immune defence: the fast response reaction of thrombocytoids and juvenile plasmatocytes and slow cellular reactions of plasmatocytes I. They are prerequisites for more extensive humoral response.

  18. Phase-field modeling on morphological landscape of isotactic polystyrene single crystals.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haijun; Matkar, Rushikesh; Kyu, Thein

    2005-07-01

    Spatio-temporal growth of isotactic polystyrene single crystals during isothermal crystallization has been investigated theoretically based on the phase field model by solving temporal evolution of a nonconserved phase order parameter coupled with a heat conduction equation. In the description of the total free energy, an asymmetric double-well local free energy density has been adopted to represent the metastable melt and the stable solid crystal. Unlike the small molecule systems, polymer crystallization rarely reaches thermodynamic equilibrium; most polymer crystals are kinetically stabilized in some metastable states. To capture various metastable polymer crystals, the phase field crystal order parameter at the solidification potential has been treated to be supercooling dependent such that it can assume an intermediate value between zero (melt) and unity (perfect crystal), reflecting imperfect polycrystalline nature of polymer crystals. Two-dimensional simulations exhibit various single crystal morphologies of isotactic polystyrene crystals such as faceted hexagonal patterns transforming to nonfaceted snowflakes with increasing supercooling. Of particular interest is that heat liberation from the crystallizing front influences the curvature of the crystal-melt interface, leading to directional growth of lamellar tips and side branches. The landscape of these morphological textures has been established as a function of anisotropy of surface energy and supercooling. With increasing supercooling and decreasing anisotropy, the hexagonal single crystal transforms to the dense lamellar branching morphology in conformity with the experimental findings.

  19. Morphological filters for functional assessment of roundness profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Shan; Jiang, Xiangqian; Scott, Paul J.

    2014-06-01

    Filtration techniques are useful tools for analysing roundness profiles. The 2RC filter and Gaussian filter are commonly used to assess peripheral undulations of the roundness data. However they cannot do every aspect of functional prediction. Morphological filters are employed to characterize roundness profiles for functional assessment. Traditional computation methods for morphological filters are limited to planar surfaces and unable to be extended to roundness measurement. A novel method based on alpha shape theory is developed to break up the confinement. The morphological closing and opening envelopes are obtained by rolling a disk upon the roundness profile from the air and material side of the component respectively. They can be used to identify significant peaks and valleys on the profile respectively, which is vital to the functional performance of components, especially contact phenomenon. A case study is presented where various options of morphological filters and reference circles are applied to a roundness profile, delivering different functional meanings. An in-depth comparison of morphological filters and the Gaussian filter is followed to derive their pros and cons.

  20. Effects of Morphology and Geometry of Inclusions on Two-Point Correlation Statistics in Two Phase Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Tabei, Ali; Ahzi, Said; Li, Dongsheng; Lavender, Curt A.; Garmestani, Hamid

    2014-01-06

    A spectral form of the two-point correlation functions for two-phase composites is presented and the effects of secondary phase morphology, geometry and volume fraction on the coefficients of the corresponding series are studied. Initially, a principal component analysis is performed on the coefficients of the series and then, the effects of different morphological and geometrical parameters of the second phase inclusions on two-point correlation functions are examined. A direct linkage between the principal components of the coefficients with the morphological features (inclusion shape, aspect ratio and size) is established and the influence of preferred orientation of the anisotropic inclusions is also investigated. Finally a composite hull is constructed using the principal components of the coefficients in a three-dimensional space, which helps in determining the interrelation of properties and microstructures of any composite containing these types of inclusions.

  1. Functional morphology of the lemuriform wrist joints and the relationship between wrist morphology and positional behavior in arboreal primates.

    PubMed

    Hamrick, M W

    1996-02-01

    A comparative study of carpal joint structure and function in six Malagasy lemuriforms was undertaken to test predicted morphoclines in carpal joint morphology between pronograde and orthograde arboreal primates. Patterns of movement at the wrist during locomotion were observed and described for the lemuriform species Lemur fulvus and Propithecus verreauxi. Lemur fulvus, which assumes a pronograde posture during locomotion, extends and pronates the wrist during the support phase of quadrupedal walking and running stride cycles. Furthermore, the forearm of this species exhibits some transverse movement across the proximal wrist joint during the support phase. In contrast, the indriid Propithecus maintains the hand and wrist in a flexed and partially supinated position during vertical clinging and suspensory postures. Habitual quadrupedal and vertical postures in Malagasy primates are in turn related to very different patterns of carpal joint morphology and articular mechanics. Those lemurs which are predominantly pronograde share a series of structural features related to stabilizing the antebrachiocarpal joint during extension and mediolateral deviation and the midcarpal joint during pronation: an intraarticular labrum is present on the inner portion of the radiocarpal ligament, the radiocarpal articular surface is quite flat dorsoventrally, the capitate-trapezoid embrasure is expanded dorsally, and development of the radial and ulnar styloids is more pronounced. The wrists of Propithecus, Avahi, and Lepi-lemur (vertical clingers) differ from those of quadrupedal lemuriforms in possessing a suite of morphological features related to stabilizing the wrist during antebrachiocarpal flexion and midcarpal supination: the radiocarpal articular surface is deeply curved and tilted anteriorly, the dorsal radiocarpal ligament is very broad, thick, and fibrous, the hamate's triquetral facet is directed proximodistally, and the capitate-trapezoid embrasure is dorsally

  2. Biomimetic robotics should be based on functional morphology

    PubMed Central

    Witte, Hartmut; Hoffmann, Helge; Hackert, Rémi; Schilling, Cornelius; Fischer, Martin S; Preuschoft, Holger

    2004-01-01

    Due to technological improvements made during the last decade, bipedal robots today present a surprisingly high level of humanoid skill. Autonomy, with respect to the processing of information, is realized to a relatively high degree. What is mainly lacking in robotics, moving from purely anthropomorphic robots to ‘anthropofunctional’ machines, is energetic autonomy. In a previously published analysis, we showed that closer attention to the functional morphology of human walking could give robotic engineers the experiences of an at least 6 Myr beta test period on minimization of power requirements for biped locomotion. From our point of view, there are two main features that facilitate sustained walking in modern humans. The first main feature is the existence of ‘energetically optimal velocities’ provided by the systematic use of various resonance mechanisms: (a) suspended pendula (involving arms as well as legs in the swing phase of the gait cycle) and matching of the pendular length of the upper and lower limbs; (b) inverted pendula (involving the legs in the stance phase), driven by torsional springs around the ankle joints; and (c) torsional springs in the trunk. The second main feature is compensation for undesirable torques induced by the inertial properties of the swinging extremities: (a) mass distribution in the trunk characterized by maximized mass moments of inertia; (b) lever arms of joint forces at the hip and shoulder, which are inversely proportional to their amplitude; and (c) twisting of the trunk, especially torsion. Our qualitative conclusions are three-fold. (1) Human walking is an interplay between masses, gravity and elasticity, which is modulated by musculature. Rigid body mechanics is insufficient to describe human walking. Thus anthropomorphic robots completely following the rules of rigid body mechanics cannot be functionally humanoid. (2) Humans are vertebrates. Thus, anthropomorphic robots that do not use the trunk for purposes

  3. Uncoupled Leftward Asymmetries for Planum Morphology and Functional Language Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Mark A.; Leonard, Christiana M.; Possing, Edward T.; Binder, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    Explanations for left hemisphere language laterality have often focused on hemispheric structural asymmetry of the planum temporale. We examined the association between an index of language laterality and brain morphology in 99 normal adults whose degree of laterality was established using a functional MRI single-word comprehension task. The index…

  4. Uncoupled Leftward Asymmetries for Planum Morphology and Functional Language Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Mark A.; Leonard, Christiana M.; Possing, Edward T.; Binder, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    Explanations for left hemisphere language laterality have often focused on hemispheric structural asymmetry of the planum temporale. We examined the association between an index of language laterality and brain morphology in 99 normal adults whose degree of laterality was established using a functional MRI single-word comprehension task. The index…

  5. Atypical neoglottis after supracricoid laryngectomy: a morphological and functional analysis.

    PubMed

    Alicandri-Ciufelli, Matteo; Piccinini, Alessia; Bergamini, Giuseppe; Ruberto, Marco; Ghidini, Angelo; Marchioni, Daniele; Presutti, Livio

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze atypical neoglottis after supracricoid subtotal laryngectomy (SSL) from a morphological and functional point-of-view using retrospective case series reviewin a Tertiary university referral center setting. From May 2003 until January 2010, 106 patients underwent SSL (CHEP, CHP, THEP, THP) for laryngeal cancer, in the Otolaryngology Department of the University Hospital of Modena. We performed a retrospective analysis of recorded videos in our database of patients who underwent SSL. Patients with atypical neoglottis were included in the study. Six patients with atypical neoglottis were identified and morphologically evaluated. The functional outcomes were collected and analyzed. Atypical neoglottis may form after SSL, in particular in the case of CHEP. In most cases, these atypical conformations are due to anomalous positioning of the epiglottis, or involvement of the lateral pharyngeal wall in the sphincteric and vibratory function of the neoglottis. Atypical neoglottis formation seems to guarantee adequate functional outcomes in terms of vocal and swallowing performance.

  6. Breathing and locomotion: comparative anatomy, morphology and function.

    PubMed

    Klein, Wilfried; Codd, Jonathan R

    2010-08-31

    Using specialized respiratory structures such as gills, lungs and or a tracheal system, animals take up oxygen and release carbon dioxide. The efficiency of gas exchange, however, may be constrained by the morphology of the respiratory organ itself as well as by other aspects of an animal's physiology such as feeding, circulation or locomotion. Herein we discuss some aspects of the functional link between the respiratory and locomotor systems, such as gill morphology of sharks as a factor limiting maximum aerobic scope, respiratory constraints among legless lizards, lung morphology of testudines, trade-offs between locomotion and respiration among birds, reconstruction of the respiratory system of sauropods, respiration of mice during locomotion as well as some aspects of gas exchange among insects. Data covering such a broad spectrum of interactions between the locomotor and respiratory systems shall allow us to place breathing and locomotion into a wider context of evolution of oxygen.

  7. Biodiversity of Andean potatoes: Morphological, nutritional and functional characterization.

    PubMed

    Calliope, Sonia Rosario; Lobo, Manuel Oscar; Sammán, Norma Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Andean potatoes (Solanum tuberosum andigenum) are a staple food for Andean population; there is great biodiversity but only few varieties are cultivated nowadays. In order to contribute to biodiversity conservation of Andean potatoes, information about their morphological, nutritional and functional characteristics was generated. In gene bank (INTA-Balcarce), varieties collected from regional producers were preserved. Forty-four genotypes were multiplied and characterized. Morphological characteristics; proximate composition and functional compounds were analyzed. Cluster analysis separated them into 3 groups according to distinguishing characteristics, which define industrial or nutritional applications. Group 2 was characterized by higher content of macronutrients and Group 3 with the highest antioxidant activity, both would be advisable for direct consumption. Genotype CS 1418 had big size and oval form so it could be destined to potato chips industry. Knowledge on nutritional and functional properties of genotypes contributes to promoting the cultivation depending on properties and also to preserve biodiversity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Interconnected Network Motifs Control Podocyte Morphology and Kidney Function

    PubMed Central

    Azeloglu, Evren U.; Hardy, Simon V.; Eungdamrong, Narat John; Chen, Yibang; Jayaraman, Gomathi; Chuang, Peter Y.; Fang, Wei; Xiong, Huabao; Neves, Susana R.; Jain, Mohit R.; Li, Hong; Ma’ayan, Avi; Gordon, Ronald E.; He, John Cijiang; Iyengar, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Podocytes are kidney cells with specialized morphology that is required for glomerular filtration. Diseases, such as diabetes, or drug exposure that causes disruption of the podocyte foot process morphology results in kidney pathophysiology. Proteomic analysis of glomeruli isolated from rats with puromycin-induced kidney disease and control rats indicated that protein kinase A (PKA), which is activated by adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cAMP), is a key regulator of podocyte morphology and function. In podocytes, cAMP signaling activates cAMP response element–binding protein (CREB) to enhance expression of the gene encoding a differentiation marker, synaptopodin, a protein that associates with actin and promotes its bundling. We constructed and experimentally verified a β-adrenergic receptor–driven network with multiple feedback and feedforward motifs that controls CREB activity. To determine how the motifs interacted to regulate gene expression, we mapped multicompartment dynamical models, including information about protein subcellular localization, onto the network topology using Petri net formalisms. These computational analyses indicated that the juxtaposition of multiple feedback and feedforward motifs enabled the prolonged CREB activation necessary for synaptopodin expression and actin bundling. Drug-induced modulation of these motifs in diseased rats led to recovery of normal morphology and physiological function in vivo. Thus, analysis of regulatory motifs using network dynamics can provide insights into pathophysiology that enable predictions for drug intervention strategies to treat kidney disease. PMID:24497609

  9. Functional constraints on tooth morphology in carnivorous mammals.

    PubMed

    Smits, Peter D; Evans, Alistair R

    2012-08-16

    The range of potential morphologies resulting from evolution is limited by complex interacting processes, ranging from development to function. Quantifying these interactions is important for understanding adaptation and convergent evolution. Using three-dimensional reconstructions of carnivoran and dasyuromorph tooth rows, we compared statistical models of the relationship between tooth row shape and the opposing tooth row, a static feature, as well as measures of mandibular motion during chewing (occlusion), which are kinetic features. This is a new approach to quantifying functional integration because we use measures of movement and displacement, such as the amount the mandible translates laterally during occlusion, as opposed to conventional morphological measures, such as mandible length and geometric landmarks. By sampling two distantly related groups of ecologically similar mammals, we study carnivorous mammals in general rather than a specific group of mammals. Statistical model comparisons demonstrate that the best performing models always include some measure of mandibular motion, indicating that functional and statistical models of tooth shape as purely a function of the opposing tooth row are too simple and that increased model complexity provides a better understanding of tooth form. The predictors of the best performing models always included the opposing tooth row shape and a relative linear measure of mandibular motion. Our results provide quantitative support of long-standing hypotheses of tooth row shape as being influenced by mandibular motion in addition to the opposing tooth row. Additionally, this study illustrates the utility and necessity of including kinetic features in analyses of morphological integration.

  10. Morphology and behaviour: functional links in development and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Bertossa, Rinaldo C.

    2011-01-01

    Development and evolution of animal behaviour and morphology are frequently addressed independently, as reflected in the dichotomy of disciplines dedicated to their study distinguishing object of study (morphology versus behaviour) and perspective (ultimate versus proximate). Although traits are known to develop and evolve semi-independently, they are matched together in development and evolution to produce a unique functional phenotype. Here I highlight similarities shared by both traits, such as the decisive role played by the environment for their ontogeny. Considering the widespread developmental and functional entanglement between both traits, many cases of adaptive evolution are better understood when proximate and ultimate explanations are integrated. A field integrating these perspectives is evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo), which studies the developmental basis of phenotypic diversity. Ultimate aspects in evo-devo studies—which have mostly focused on morphological traits—could become more apparent when behaviour, ‘the integrator of form and function’, is integrated into the same framework of analysis. Integrating a trait such as behaviour at a different level in the biological hierarchy will help to better understand not only how behavioural diversity is produced, but also how levels are connected to produce functional phenotypes and how these evolve. A possible framework to accommodate and compare form and function at different levels of the biological hierarchy is outlined. At the end, some methodological issues are discussed. PMID:21690124

  11. THE SKIN | Functional morphology of the integumentary system in fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, D.G.; Farrell, Anthony P.

    2011-01-01

    The integument that covers the outer surface of a fish’s body and fins is a multifunctional organ, with morphological features highly adapted to carry out these functions. The integument consists of two layers. The outer layer, the epidermis, is essentially cellular in structure, comprised of a multilayered epithelium that usually includes specialized cells. The inner layer, the dermis, is primarily a fibrous structure with relatively few cells, although it may contain scales, nerves, blood vessels, adipose tissue, and pigment cells.

  12. Multiscale Morphology of Nanoporous Copper Made from Intermetallic Phases

    DOE PAGES

    Egle, Tobias; Barroo, Cédric; Janvelyan, Nare; ...

    2017-07-11

    Many application-relevant properties of nanoporous metals critically depend on their multiscale architecture. For example, the intrinsically high step-edge density of curved surfaces at the nanoscale provides highly reactive sites for catalysis, whereas the macroscale pore and grain morphology determines the macroscopic properties, such as mass transport, electrical conductivity, or mechanical properties. Here, in this work, we systematically study the effects of alloy composition and dealloying conditions on the multiscale morphology of nanoporous copper (np-Cu) made from various commercial Zn–Cu precursor alloys. Using a combination of X-ray diffraction, electron backscatter diffraction, and focused ion beam cross-sectional analysis, our results reveal thatmore » the macroscopic grain structure of the starting alloy surprisingly survives the dealloying process, despite a change in crystal structure from body-centered cubic (Zn–Cu starting alloy) to face-centered cubic (Cu). The nanoscale structure can be controlled by the acid used for dealloying with HCl leading to a larger and more faceted ligament morphology compared to that of H3PO4. Finally, anhydrous ethanol dehydrogenation was used as a probe reaction to test the effect of the nanoscale ligament morphology on the apparent activation energy of the reaction.« less

  13. Ultrasensitive Phase-Resolved Imaging of Cellular Morphology and Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choma, Michael A.; Ellerbee, Audrey; Izatt, Joseph A.

    Microscopy is an important imaging tool in modern clinical medicine and basic biomedical research. The retrieval of phase information from microscopic samples has a long history initiated by the development of the phase contrast microscope. This technique exploits the fact that optically thin samples such as cells diffract light secondary to local variations in optical index. Phase contrast microscopy has had an immeasurable impact by allowing the user to qualitatively visualize small, subcellular variations in optical index. Quantitative phase microscopy seeks to build upon the principles of phase contrast microscopy to extract quantitative measures relating to optical index, birefringence, motion, and flow. In addition to highlighting subcellular detail in unstained cells, quantitative phase techniques can measure picometer-scale cell motions, small changes in cell index, and even cytoplasmic flow. Because of its sensitivity to phase and its ability to reliably quantify and track changes in coherent wavefronts, interferometry has recently gained momentum as a technique for the implementation of quantitative phase microscopy. This chapter reviews interferometric phase contrast microscopy techniques, with an emphasis on broadband interferometric techniques which exploit the principles of OCT. Both the underlying theory as well biological applications are discussed. Although this chapter gives particular focus to biologically relevant applications, the methods are readily extendable for other, nonbiological applications.

  14. The effect of morphology and confinement on the high-pressure phase transition in ZnO nanostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Kotmool, Komsilp; Bovornratanaraks, Thiti; Chakraborty, Sudip; Ahuja, Rajeev

    2015-03-21

    The transition pressure (P{sub t}) of the B4-to-B1 phase transformation of zinc oxide nanoparticle (n-ZnO) structures was investigated in terms of their size and morphology. Nanorods, nanopencils, nanopyramids, nanowires, and nanotubes of the B4 phase in various sizes were directly built up by accounting for the atomic basis of the core and surface regions. The previously proposed transformation path was performed for constructing shapes and sizes compatible with B1 phases. Using systematic density functional theory, the surfaces were cleaved from the optimized crystal structures at different pressures in both the B4 and B1 phases. A method for calculating the surface energy at different pressures is proposed using an asymmetric slab model. Using the proposed model, the transition pressure of n-ZnO structures was found to significantly depend on their morphology and size, which is in good agreement with the available experimental reports.

  15. Construction of Representative Pore Morphologies in Disordered Nanoporous Two-Phase Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Toney, Michael F

    2003-04-01

    Materials with nanometer size heterogeneities are commonplace in the physical and biological sciences and often exhibit complex morphologies. Although this morphology has a dramatic effect on the materials' properties (e.g., transport and reaction processes), it is often difficult to accurately characterize. We describe a method, using a novel analysis of small angle x-ray scattering data, of generating representative three-dimensional morphologies of isotropic two-phase materials (one class of heterogeneous materials) where the morphology is disordered. This is applied to thin films containing nanometer sized pores with a range of porosities (4-44%). These representations provide a visualization of the pore morphology, give the pore size scale and extent of interconnection, and permit the determination of the transitions from closed pore to interconnected pores to bicontinuous morphology. This methodology will be valuable for characterizing two-phase systems, such as polymer blends, microemulsions, porous geological materials, bones, cements and ceramics.

  16. [Morphological changes in the thyroid gland of rats during various phases of the estral cycle].

    PubMed

    Pliner, L I; Ledovskaia, S M

    1975-08-01

    The functional state of the thyroid gland and the concentration of thyroid hormones in the peripheral blood were studied in 20 mature female albino rats during their estral cycle. Evaluation of the thyroid functional state was made according to data of histological, morphological (the diameter of folliculi, the height of the thyroid epithelium) and histochemical analysis (determination of NAD and NADP-dehydrogenase, succinatedehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, peroxydase, acid and alkaline phosphatase) as well as biochemical determination of iodine bound with protein (IBP) in the blood plasma and investigation of the ratio of the parameters in question under conditions of the sex cycle. The cyclic changes of the morphological state of the thyroid gland attended by the phases of the estral cycle were revealed. The activation of the organ was observed in proestrus and estrus which was evidenced by high levels of activity of the enzymes under study, high concentration of IBP in the blood and increased height of thyreocytes. A decreased function of the thyroid parenchyma was observed at the period of metaestrus-diestrus.

  17. Morphology and function of membrane-bound organelles.

    PubMed

    Heald, Rebecca; Cohen-Fix, Orna

    2014-02-01

    The cell interior is a busy and crowded place. A large fraction of the cell volume is taken up by organelles that come in a variety of shapes and sizes. These organelles are surrounded by membrane that not only acts as a diffusion barrier, but also provides each organelle with its unique morphology that contributes to its function, often in ways that are poorly understood. Here we discuss recent discoveries on the relationship between organelle structure and function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Kif5 regulates mitochondrial movement, morphology, function and neuronal survival.

    PubMed

    Iworima, Diepiriye G; Pasqualotto, Bryce A; Rintoul, Gordon L

    2016-04-01

    Due to the unique architecture of neurons, trafficking of mitochondria throughout processes to regions of high energetic demand is critical to sustain neuronal health. It has been suggested that compromised mitochondrial trafficking may play a role in neurodegenerative diseases. We evaluated the consequences of disrupted kif5c-mediated mitochondrial trafficking on mitochondrial form and function in primary rat cortical neurons. Morphological changes in mitochondria appeared to be due to remodelling, a phenomenon distinct from mitochondrial fission, which resulted in punctate-shaped mitochondria. We also demonstrated that neurons displaying punctate mitochondria exhibited relatively decreased ROS and increased cellular ATP levels using ROS-sensitive GFP and ATP FRET probes, respectively. Somewhat unexpectedly, neurons overexpressing the dominant negative form of kif5c exhibited enhanced survival following excitotoxicity, suggesting that the impairment of mitochondrial trafficking conferred some form of neuroprotection. However, when neurons were exposed to H2O2, disruption of kif5c exacerbated cell death indicating that the effect on cell viability was dependent on the mode of toxicity. Our results suggest a novel role of kif5c. In addition to mediating mitochondrial transport, kif5c plays a role in the mechanism of regulating mitochondrial morphology. Our results also suggest that kif5c mediated mitochondrial dynamics may play an important role in regulating mitochondrial function and in turn cellular health. Moreover, our studies demonstrate an interesting interplay between the regulation of mitochondrial motility and morphology.

  19. Location, morphology and function of nephrocytes in termites.

    PubMed

    Costa-Leonardo, Ana Maria; Janei, Vanelize; Laranjo, Lara Teixeira; Haifig, Ives

    2015-07-01

    Insect nephrocytes are cells bathed in hemolymph and considered to have an excretory function. These cells have ambiguous nomenclature and are understudied in termites. This study is the first report on the occurrence, morphology and function of nephrocytes in different termite castes. Cytological characteristics in specific developmental stages and castes enable physiological functions to be inferred. Perforate diaphragms indicate a role in filtration, while the extensive peripheral invaginations of the cell membrane suggest active endocytosis. A sequence of morphologies in putative digestive vacuoles infers a lysosomal system and the occurrence of phosphatases suggests a function involving detoxification of substances sequestered from hemolymph. Pericardical nephrocytes took up the dye trypan blue injected in live termites, suggesting their activity connected to the filtration of the hemolymph. Additionally, histochemical tests showed the existence of stored proteins in their cytoplasm. These cells present a well-developed Golgi apparatus and abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum, consistent with protein synthesis. This study highlights the importance of nephrocytes in Isoptera and opens perspectives for further research of these cells.

  20. Functional constraints on tooth morphology in carnivorous mammals

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The range of potential morphologies resulting from evolution is limited by complex interacting processes, ranging from development to function. Quantifying these interactions is important for understanding adaptation and convergent evolution. Using three-dimensional reconstructions of carnivoran and dasyuromorph tooth rows, we compared statistical models of the relationship between tooth row shape and the opposing tooth row, a static feature, as well as measures of mandibular motion during chewing (occlusion), which are kinetic features. This is a new approach to quantifying functional integration because we use measures of movement and displacement, such as the amount the mandible translates laterally during occlusion, as opposed to conventional morphological measures, such as mandible length and geometric landmarks. By sampling two distantly related groups of ecologically similar mammals, we study carnivorous mammals in general rather than a specific group of mammals. Results Statistical model comparisons demonstrate that the best performing models always include some measure of mandibular motion, indicating that functional and statistical models of tooth shape as purely a function of the opposing tooth row are too simple and that increased model complexity provides a better understanding of tooth form. The predictors of the best performing models always included the opposing tooth row shape and a relative linear measure of mandibular motion. Conclusions Our results provide quantitative support of long-standing hypotheses of tooth row shape as being influenced by mandibular motion in addition to the opposing tooth row. Additionally, this study illustrates the utility and necessity of including kinetic features in analyses of morphological integration. PMID:22899809

  1. Morphology of self assembled monolayers using liquid phase reaction on silica and their effect on the morphology of adsorbed insulin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Indu; Pattanayek, Sudip K.; Aggarwal, Varsha; Ghosh, Subhasis

    2017-05-01

    The effect of roughness of two different categories of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with propyl amine and propyl groups respectively on the morphology of adsorbed insulin is observed. SAMs are obtained by liquid phase reaction of silica with organo silane coupling agents (SCA). The influence of the morphology and physical characteristics of the SAMs on the reaction time and concentration of the modifiers are explored. We have tested three SCA containing propyl amine with varying groups linked to Si present on it. In addition, we have used a silane coupling agent to prepare SAM of methyl head group. The approach of these molecules towards the surface depends on the head group and the groups linked to Si of the SCA. The morphology of the surfaces is analysed using power spectral density distribution (PSD), skewness, ellipsometry thickness and surface energy. Both chemical nature and physical morphology of the adsorbent influence the morphology of the adsorbed insulin. In general, a low number of aggregates of big size are formed on the surfaces obtained from low concentration of SAMs, while a higher number but of smaller size of aggregates are formed over surfaces obtained from 1% concentration of SAMs modifiers. The peak to valley ratio of the aggregates of insulin is strongly influenced by the size of grains of SCA over the adsorbent.

  2. Effect of Phase Contiguity and Morphology on the Evolution of Deformation Texture in Two-Phase Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurao, N. P.; Suwas, Satyam

    2017-02-01

    Deformation texture evolution in two-phase xFe- yNi-(100- x- y)Cr model alloys and Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy was studied during rolling to develop an understanding of micro-mechanisms of deformation in industrially relevant two-phase FCC-BCC steels and HCP-BCC titanium alloys, respectively. It was found that volume fraction and contiguity of phases lead to systematic changes in texture, while morphology affects the strength of texture. There was a characteristic change in texture from typical Brass-type to a weaker Copper-type texture in the austenite phase accompanied with a change from alpha fiber to gamma fiber in ferrite phase for Fe-Ni-Cr alloys with increase in fraction of harder ferrite phase. However, similar characteristic texture evolution was noted in both α and β phase irrespective of the different initial morphologies in Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy. Viscoplastic self-consistent simulations with two-phase scheme were able to qualitatively predict texture evolution in individual phases. It is proposed that the transition from iso-strain-type behavior for equiaxed microstructure at low strain to iso-stress-type behavior at higher strain is aided by the presence of higher volume fraction of the second phase and increasing aspect ratio of individual phases in two-phase alloys.

  3. Structure, morphology and functionality of acetylated and oxidised barley starches.

    PubMed

    El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Colussi, Rosana; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Bartz, Josiane; Radunz, Marjana; Carreño, Neftali Lenin Villarreal; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

    2015-02-01

    Acetylation and oxidation are chemical modifications which alter the properties of starch. The degree of modification of acetylated and oxidized starches is dependent on the catalyst and active chlorine concentrations, respectively. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acetylation and oxidation on the structural, morphological, physical-chemical, thermal and pasting properties of barley starch. Barley starches were acetylated at different catalyst levels (11%, 17%, and 23% of NaOH solution) and oxidized at different sodium hypochlorite concentrations (1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% of active chlorine). Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffractograms, thermal, morphological, and pasting properties, swelling power and solubility of starches were evaluated. The degree of substitution (DS) of the acetylated starches increased with the rise in catalyst concentration. The percentage of carbonyl (CO) and carboxyl (COOH) groups in oxidized starches also increased with the rise of active chlorine level. The presence of hydrophobic acetyl groups, carbonyl and carboxyl groups caused a partial disorganization and depolymerization of starch granules. The structural, morphological and functional changes in acetylated and oxidized starches varied according to reaction conditions. Acetylation makes barley starch more hydrophobic by the insertion of acetyl groups. Also the oxidation promotes low retrogradation and viscosity. All these characteristics are important for biodegradable film production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Morphology and function of isolated hepatocytes transplanted into rat spleen.

    PubMed

    Mito, M; Ebata, H; Kusano, M; Onishi, T; Saito, T; Sakamoto, S

    1979-12-01

    Hepatocytes isolated by the collagenase digestive method were transplanted into the spleens of syngeneic rats. Morphology and function of the hepatocytes in the spleen were investigated for 12 to 17 months after transplantation. The transplanted hepatocytes proliferated and reconfigured in the spleen without direct perfusion of portal venous blood and with the presence of an intact host liver. Fourteen to 17 months after transplantation, the hepatocytes which had formed a demarcated nodule occupied approximately 40% of the area of the splenic parenchyma without undifferentiation on microscopic examination. However, the weight of the hepatized spleen did not increase beyond the weight of a normal spleen and the weight of the host liver that had normal morphology also did not differ from a normal liver. Light and electron microscopic studies demonstrated differentiated cord structure and normal architecture for each heptocyte. Furthermore, the hepatized spleen synthesized albumin and glycogen as demonstrated by immunofluorescence and histochemical studies. Ammonia tolerance and indocyanine green clearance tests revealed functioning hepatocytes in the spleen proper. These results indicate that our experimental model lends itself well to investigations in cell growth mechanism and that hepatocellular transplantation has potential clinical application to compensate for impaired hepatic function.

  5. Morphology and function of Neandertal and modern human ear ossicles

    PubMed Central

    David, Romain; Gunz, Philipp; Schmidt, Tobias; Spoor, Fred; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2016-01-01

    The diminutive middle ear ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes) housed in the tympanic cavity of the temporal bone play an important role in audition. The few known ossicles of Neandertals are distinctly different from those of anatomically modern humans (AMHs), despite the close relationship between both human species. Although not mutually exclusive, these differences may affect hearing capacity or could reflect covariation with the surrounding temporal bone. Until now, detailed comparisons were hampered by the small sample of Neandertal ossicles and the unavailability of methods combining analyses of ossicles with surrounding structures. Here, we present an analysis of the largest sample of Neandertal ossicles to date, including many previously unknown specimens, covering a wide geographic and temporal range. Microcomputed tomography scans and 3D geometric morphometrics were used to quantify shape and functional properties of the ossicles and the tympanic cavity and make comparisons with recent and extinct AMHs as well as African apes. We find striking morphological differences between ossicles of AMHs and Neandertals. Ossicles of both Neandertals and AMHs appear derived compared with the inferred ancestral morphology, albeit in different ways. Brain size increase evolved separately in AMHs and Neandertals, leading to differences in the tympanic cavity and, consequently, the shape and spatial configuration of the ossicles. Despite these different evolutionary trajectories, functional properties of the middle ear of AMHs and Neandertals are largely similar. The relevance of these functionally equivalent solutions is likely to conserve a similar auditory sensitivity level inherited from their last common ancestor. PMID:27671643

  6. Proposed Functional Description for Phased Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Deborah

    1996-01-01

    Generally speaking, many photonic engineers, while working in a systems development mode, still focus on presenting the unique physical details of the optical elements, instead of using functional representation to describe the system. The purpose of this presentation is to introduce symbols that can be used to represent the functional intent of most of the phased array architecture.

  7. Four reversible and reconfigurable structures for three-phase emulsions: extended morphologies and applications

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xue-hui; Geng, Yu-hao; Zhang, Qiao-chu; Shao, Meng; Chen, Jian; Luo, Guang-sheng; Xu, Jian-hong

    2017-01-01

    Here in this article, we classify and conclude the four morphologies of three-phase emulsions. Remarkably, we achieve the reversible transformations between every shape. Through theoretical analysis, we choose four liquid systems to form these four morphologies. Then monodispersed droplets with these four morphologies are formed through a microfluidic device and captured in a petri-dish. By replacing their ambient solution of the captured emulsions, in-situ morphology transformations between each shape are achieved. The process is well recorded through photographs and videos and they are systematical and reversible. Finally, we use the droplets structure to form an on-off switch to start and shut off the evaporation of one volatile phase to achieve the process monitoring. This could be used to initiate and quench a reaction, which offers a novel idea to achieve the switchable and reversible reaction control in multiple-phase reactions. PMID:28198444

  8. Four reversible and reconfigurable structures for three-phase emulsions: extended morphologies and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Xue-Hui; Geng, Yu-Hao; Zhang, Qiao-Chu; Shao, Meng; Chen, Jian; Luo, Guang-Sheng; Xu, Jian-Hong

    2017-02-01

    Here in this article, we classify and conclude the four morphologies of three-phase emulsions. Remarkably, we achieve the reversible transformations between every shape. Through theoretical analysis, we choose four liquid systems to form these four morphologies. Then monodispersed droplets with these four morphologies are formed through a microfluidic device and captured in a petri-dish. By replacing their ambient solution of the captured emulsions, in-situ morphology transformations between each shape are achieved. The process is well recorded through photographs and videos and they are systematical and reversible. Finally, we use the droplets structure to form an on-off switch to start and shut off the evaporation of one volatile phase to achieve the process monitoring. This could be used to initiate and quench a reaction, which offers a novel idea to achieve the switchable and reversible reaction control in multiple-phase reactions.

  9. [Morphology: a critical phase in the diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes].

    PubMed

    Zini, Gina

    2014-03-01

    Diagnosis and classification of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are based on the integration of morphology, immunophenotype, histology, genetics and molecular analysis. The role of cytomorphology in this context, however, remains fundamental and preliminary to the application of the other methods. The first modern classification of MDS, originally published by the FAB (French-American-British) Group in 1985, was based on the recognition of five different diagnostic categories. The more recent 2008 WHO classification of hematopoietic neoplasms has widened and modified the FAB approach, by including seven different cytomorphological entities and decreasing the threshold of the blast cell percentage to 19% for the discrimination of MDS from acute myeloid leukemias. In addition, chronic myelomonocytic leukemia is now included in the new group or MDS/myeloproliferative neoplasms. Finally, precise quantitative and qualitative criteria are provided, with the aim to improve microscope method standardization.

  10. Tailorable Surface Morphology of 3D Scaffolds by Combining Additive Manufacturing with Thermally Induced Phase Separation.

    PubMed

    Di Luca, Andrea; de Wijn, Joost R; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Camarero-Espinosa, Sandra; Moroni, Lorenzo

    2017-08-01

    The functionalization of biomaterials substrates used for cell culture is gearing towards an increasing control over cell activity. Although a number of biomaterials have been successfully modified by different strategies to display tailored physical and chemical surface properties, it is still challenging to step from 2D substrates to 3D scaffolds with instructive surface properties for cell culture and tissue regeneration. In this study, additive manufacturing and thermally induced phase separation are combined to create 3D scaffolds with tunable surface morphology from polymer gels. Surface features vary depending on the gel concentration, the exchanging temperature, and the nonsolvent used. When preosteoblasts (MC-3T3 cells) are cultured on these scaffolds, a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity is measured for submicron surface topography, suggesting a potential role on early cell differentiation. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Functional traits and root morphology of alpine plants

    PubMed Central

    Pohl, Mandy; Stroude, Raphaël; Buttler, Alexandre; Rixen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Vegetation has long been recognized to protect the soil from erosion. Understanding species differences in root morphology and functional traits is an important step to assess which species and species mixtures may provide erosion control. Furthermore, extending classification of plant functional types towards root traits may be a useful procedure in understanding important root functions. Methods In this study, pioneer data on traits of alpine plant species, i.e. plant height and shoot biomass, root depth, horizontal root spreading, root length, diameter, tensile strength, plant age and root biomass, from a disturbed site in the Swiss Alps are presented. The applicability of three classifications of plant functional types (PFTs), i.e. life form, growth form and root type, was examined for above- and below-ground plant traits. Key Results Plant traits differed considerably among species even of the same life form, e.g. in the case of total root length by more than two orders of magnitude. Within the same root diameter, species differed significantly in tensile strength: some species (Geum reptans and Luzula spicata) had roots more than twice as strong as those of other species. Species of different life forms provided different root functions (e.g. root depth and horizontal root spreading) that may be important for soil physical processes. All classifications of PFTs were helpful to categorize plant traits; however, the PFTs according to root type explained total root length far better than the other PFTs. Conclusions The results of the study illustrate the remarkable differences between root traits of alpine plants, some of which cannot be assessed from simple morphological inspection, e.g. tensile strength. PFT classification based on root traits seems useful to categorize plant traits, even though some patterns are better explained at the individual species level. PMID:21795278

  12. Functional traits and root morphology of alpine plants.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Mandy; Stroude, Raphaël; Buttler, Alexandre; Rixen, Christian

    2011-09-01

    Vegetation has long been recognized to protect the soil from erosion. Understanding species differences in root morphology and functional traits is an important step to assess which species and species mixtures may provide erosion control. Furthermore, extending classification of plant functional types towards root traits may be a useful procedure in understanding important root functions. In this study, pioneer data on traits of alpine plant species, i.e. plant height and shoot biomass, root depth, horizontal root spreading, root length, diameter, tensile strength, plant age and root biomass, from a disturbed site in the Swiss Alps are presented. The applicability of three classifications of plant functional types (PFTs), i.e. life form, growth form and root type, was examined for above- and below-ground plant traits. Plant traits differed considerably among species even of the same life form, e.g. in the case of total root length by more than two orders of magnitude. Within the same root diameter, species differed significantly in tensile strength: some species (Geum reptans and Luzula spicata) had roots more than twice as strong as those of other species. Species of different life forms provided different root functions (e.g. root depth and horizontal root spreading) that may be important for soil physical processes. All classifications of PFTs were helpful to categorize plant traits; however, the PFTs according to root type explained total root length far better than the other PFTs. The results of the study illustrate the remarkable differences between root traits of alpine plants, some of which cannot be assessed from simple morphological inspection, e.g. tensile strength. PFT classification based on root traits seems useful to categorize plant traits, even though some patterns are better explained at the individual species level.

  13. Functional and morphological plasticity of crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) salt glands.

    PubMed

    Cramp, Rebecca L; Meyer, Edward A; Sparks, Nicole; Franklin, Craig E

    2008-05-01

    The estuarine crocodile, Crocodylus porosus, inhabits both freshwater and hypersaline waterways and maintains ionic homeostasis by excreting excess sodium and chloride ions via lingual salt glands. In the present study, we sought to investigate the phenotypic plasticity, both morphological and functional, in the lingual salt glands of the estuarine crocodile associated with chronic exposure to freshwater (FW) and saltwater (SW) environments. Examination of haematological parameters indicated that there were no long-term disruptions to ionic homeostasis with prolonged exposure to SW. Maximal secretory rates from the salt glands of SW-acclimated animals (100.8+/-14.7 micromol 100 g(-0.7) body mass h(-1)) were almost three times greater than those of FW-acclimated animals (31.6+/-6.2 micromol 100 g(-0.7) body mass h(-1)). There were no differences in the mass-specific metabolic rate of salt gland tissue slices from FW- and SW-acclimated animals (558.9+/-49.6 and 527.3+/-142.8 microl O(2) g(-1) h(-1), respectively). Stimulation of the tissue slices from SW-acclimated animals by methacholine resulted in a 33% increase in oxygen consumption rate. There was no significant increase in the metabolic rate of tissues from FW-acclimated animals in response to methacholine. Morphologically, the secretory cells from the salt glands of SW-acclimated animals were larger than those of FW-acclimated animals. In addition, there were significantly more mitochondria per unit volume in secretory tissue from SW-acclimated animals. The results from this study demonstrate that the salt glands of C. porosus are phenotypically plastic, both morphologically and functionally and acclimate to changes in environmental salinity.

  14. Reevaluating the functional implications of Australopithecus afarensis navicular morphology.

    PubMed

    Prang, Thomas C

    2016-08-01

    The longitudinal arch is a unique characteristic of the human foot, yet the timing and pattern of its evolution remain controversial, in part due to the disagreement among researchers over which skeletal traits are the best indicators of its presence or absence. The small size of the human navicular tuberosity has previously been linked to the presence of a longitudinal arch, implying that the large tuberosity of early hominins such as Australopithecus afarensis reflects a flat foot. However, this hypothesis is at odds with other evidence of pedal form and function, such as metatarsal, tarsal, and footprint morphology, which show that a longitudinal arch was probably present in A. afarensis. This study reevaluates the morphometric affinities of the A. afarensis naviculars among other Plio-Pleistocene fossil hominins and anthropoid primates (N = 170). Multivariate cluster analyses show that all fossil hominin naviculars, including those attributed to A. afarensis, are most similar to modern humans. A measure of navicular tuberosity size quantified as the ratio of the tuberosity volume to the surface area of the talar facet shows that Ateles has the largest navicular tuberosity among the anthropoid sample and that there is no difference between highly arboreal and terrestrial taxa in this metric (e.g., Hylobates and Gorilla beringei). Instead, a relatively large navicular tuberosity may reflect the development of leg musculature associated with ankle plantarflexion. The functional inferences derived from the morphology of the A. afarensis naviculars are consistent with the morphology of the Laetoli footprints. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Monitoring cell morphology during necrosis and apoptosis by quantitative phase imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugnano, Martina; Calabuig, Alejandro; Grilli, Simonetta; Miccio, Lisa; Ferraro, Pietro

    2015-05-01

    Cellular morphology changes and volume alterations play significant roles in many biological processes and they are mirrors of cell functions. In this paper, we propose the Digital Holographic microscope (DH) as a non-invasive imaging technique for a rapid and accurate extraction of morphological information related to cell death. In particular, we investigate the morphological variations that occur during necrosis and apoptosis. The study of necrosis is extremely important because it is often associated with unwarranted loss of cells in human pathologies such as ischemia, trauma, and some forms of neurodegeneration; therefore, a better elucidation in terms of cell morphological changes could pave the way for new treatments. Also, apoptosis is extremely important because it's involved in cancer, both in its formation and in medical treatments. Because the inability to initiate apoptosis enhances tumour formation, current cancer treatments target this pathway. Within this framework, we have developed a transmission off-axis DH apparatus integrated with a micro incubator for investigation of living cells in a temperature and CO2 controlled environment. We employ DH to analyse the necrosis cell death induced by laser light (wavelength 473 nm, light power 4 mW). We have chosen as cellular model NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts because their adhesive features such as morphological changes, and the time needed to adhere and spread have been well characterized in the literature. We have monitored cell volume changes and morphological alterations in real time in order to study the necrosis process accurately and quantitatively. Cell volume changes were evaluated from the measured phase changes of light transmitted through cells. Our digital holographic experiments showed that after exposure of cells to laser light for 90-120 min., they swell and then take on a balloon-like shape until the plasma membrane ruptures and finally the cell volume decreases. Furthermore, we

  16. Morphology and polymorphic phase changes of calcium carbonate micro/nanocrystals using fruit extracts.

    PubMed

    Ankamwar, Balaprasad

    2011-05-01

    This study reveals the morphology and polymorphic phase changes of calcium carbonate crystals into a mixture of calcite and aragonite micro/nanocrystals of interesting morphology at room temperature by a simple reaction with fruit extracts of Tamarindus indica and Emblica officinalis respectively by mixing CaCO3 solutions with their corresponding extracts. The control experiments were carried out to establish the plausible role of tartaric acid from Tamarindus indica and ascorbic acid from Emblica officinalis in this regard. The quantitative determination of CaCO3 phases was done based on the use of intensities obtained from corresponding XRD spectrum. The molar % of aragonite was found to be more in case of TA and AA rather than TI and EO respectively, however the calcite was observed to be the predominant phase in all four reactions. Interestingly, the TI changes the rhombohedral morphology of calcite to elongated rods, whereas EO induces a great polymorphic phase change.

  17. Evolution and Functional Morphology of the Proboscis in Kalyptorhynchia (Platyhelminthes)

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Julian P. S.; Litvaitis, Marian K.; Gobert, Stefan; Uyeno, Theodore; Artois, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Predatory flatworms belonging to the taxon Kalyptorhynchia are characterized by an anterior muscular proboscis that they use to seize prey. In many cases, the proboscis is armed with hooks, derived either from the extracellular matrix that surrounds the muscles or from intracellular deposits in the epithelium covering the proboscis. Glands associated with the proboscis reportedly are venomous; however, there are few direct tests of this hypothesis. This article reviews the structure and current knowledge of the function of the proboscis in the Kalyptorhynchia, points to areas in which the current understanding of phylogenetic relationships within this taxon is incongruent with our hypothesis of how the proboscis evolved, and addresses areas in need of further research, especially as regards functional morphology and biomechanics. PMID:26002347

  18. Evolution and Functional Morphology of the Proboscis in Kalyptorhynchia (Platyhelminthes).

    PubMed

    Smith, Julian P S; Litvaitis, Marian K; Gobert, Stefan; Uyeno, Theodore; Artois, Tom

    2015-08-01

    Predatory flatworms belonging to the taxon Kalyptorhynchia are characterized by an anterior muscular proboscis that they use to seize prey. In many cases, the proboscis is armed with hooks, derived either from the extracellular matrix that surrounds the muscles or from intracellular deposits in the epithelium covering the proboscis. Glands associated with the proboscis reportedly are venomous; however, there are few direct tests of this hypothesis. This article reviews the structure and current knowledge of the function of the proboscis in the Kalyptorhynchia, points to areas in which the current understanding of phylogenetic relationships within this taxon is incongruent with our hypothesis of how the proboscis evolved, and addresses areas in need of further research, especially as regards functional morphology and biomechanics.

  19. The palmaris longus muscle: its anatomic variations and functional morphology.

    PubMed

    Pai, Mangala M; Prabhu, Latha V; Nayak, S R; Madhyastha, S; Vadgaonkar, Rajanigandha; Krishnamurthy, A; Kumar, A

    2008-01-01

    The functional morphology and evolution of the superficial forearm flexor, the palmaris longus, have long fascinated kinesiologists, physical anthropologists and anatomists alike. The anomalies, agenesis, variations and polymorphic presentation of the muscle, coupled with its biomechanical role in the performance of flexion and supination through distal articulations in the upper limb, have formed the base for many studies found in medical literature. We present data from published sources, along with our observations on the kinetics of palmaris longus, drawn from a series of dissections done on 30 cadavers. Complete agenesis was seen in four limbs. Reversal in the muscle-tendon orientation was seen in two limbs and duplication in one limb. The functional dynamics of the muscle and the clinical implication of its modifications in humans are discussed. We believe that every surgeon must be aware of the variations, since this, otherwise unimportant muscle, provides a very useful graft in tendon surgery.

  20. Morphological and textural characterization of functionalized particulate silica xerogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Miranda, Lazaro A.; Mohallem, Nelcy D. S.; de Magalhães, Welington F.

    2006-03-01

    The functionalization of xerogels for use in chromatography and catalysis was carried out by solubilization of amorphous silica using a soxhlet extractor. Xerogels were prepared by sol-gel method using tetraethoxysilane, TEOS, ethanol, and water in a 1/3/10 molar ratio with HCl and HF as catalysts. The samples were prepared in monolithic form and dried at 70 °C and 550 °C for 1 h each. After functionalization, changes in textural and morphological characteristics of xerogels were investigated by means of nitrogen gas adsorption, positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). As the analysis methods are based on different physical principles, the results are complementary, leading to a good knowledge of the texture of the samples studied.

  1. Functional Morphology in Paleobiology: Origins of the Method of 'Paradigms'.

    PubMed

    Rudwick, Martin J S

    2017-05-08

    From the early nineteenth century, the successful use of fossils in stratigraphy oriented paleontology (and particularly the study of fossil invertebrates) towards geology. The consequent marginalising of biological objectives was countered in the twentieth century by the rise of 'Paläobiologie', first in the German cultural area and only later, as 'paleobiology', in the anglophone world. Several kinds of paleobiological research flourished internationally after the Second World War, among them the novel field of 'paleoecology'. Within this field there were attempts to apply functional morphology to the problematical cases of fossil organisms, for which functions cannot be observed directly. This article describes the origins of the kind of functional inference for fossils that I proposed in 1961 as the method of 'paradigms' (a year before Thomas Kuhn made that word more widely familiar with a quite different meaning). Here I summarize some of my 'worked exemplars', which were intended to show the paradigm method in action. These case-studies were all taken from the paleontologically important phylum of the Brachiopoda, but the method was claimed to have much wider implications for the interpretation of the fossil record in terms of adaptive evolution. This article takes the history of the paradigm method as far as the late 1960s. I hope to trace, in a sequel, its ambivalent fate during the 1970s and beyond, when for example Gould's critique of 'the adaptationist programme' and the rise of computer-based quantitative methods for the evolutionary interpretation of the fossil record led to the relative eclipse of functional morphology in paleontology.

  2. Pulmonary surfactant: phase behavior and function.

    PubMed

    Piknova, Barbora; Schram, Vincent; Hall, Stephen B

    2002-08-01

    Pulmonary surfactant functions by first flowing rapidly into the alveolar air/water interface, but then resisting collapse from the surface when the adsorbed interfacial film is compressed during exhalation. Widely accepted models emphasize the importance of phase behavior in both processes. Recent studies show, however, that fluidity is a relatively minor determinant of adsorption and that solid films, which resist collapse, can form by kinetic processes unrelated to equilibrium phase behavior.

  3. Exploring phase dependent functional gait variability.

    PubMed

    Hamacher, Daniel; Hamacher, Dennis; Müller, Roy; Schega, Lutz; Zech, Astrid

    2017-04-01

    Gait variability is frequently used to evaluate the sensorimotor system and elderly fallers compared to non-fallers exhibit an altered variability in gait parameters during unchanged conditions. While gait variability is often interpreted as movement error, it is also necessary to change the gait pattern in order to react to internal and external perturbations. This phenomenon has been described as functional variability and ensures the stability of gait motor control. The aim of the current study is to explore the functional variability in relation to the different phases of the gait cycle (phase-dependent gait variability). Kinematics of the foot, shank and thigh were registered with inertial sensors (MTw2, Xsens Technologies B.V) in 25 older participants (70±6years) during normal overground walking. Phase-dependent variability was defined as the standard deviation of the Euclidean norm of the angular velocity data. To assess differences with respect to the variability of different body segments (foot, shank, and thigh), the statistical parametric mapping method was applied. In normal walking, the variability of the time-continuous foot kinematics during parts of the swing phase was higher compared to the shank (9-14% of swing phase, p<0.000) and to the thigh (3-43%, p<0.000 and 92%, p=0.024 of swing phase). Compared to the thigh, the shank kinematics was less variable at 62-64% (p=0.013) of the swing phase. The magnitudes of the variability were comparable regarding all three body segments during mid swing. Furthermore, those magnitudes of variability were smallest during mid swing where the minimum toe clearance was identified. In conclusion, we found signs of phase-dependent functional variability particularly in the swing phase of gait. In fact, we found reduced variability in the time-continuous foot kinematics in mid swing during normal walking where also the minimum toe clearance event occurs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Morphological and functional investigations of neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Philippe L; Wiskirchen, Jakub

    2003-09-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas are rare neoplasms arising predominantly from the pancreatic islets of Langerhans and are thus known as islet cell tumors. More than the half of all neuroendocrine tumors are called functioning islet cell tumors because they secrete one or more biologically active peptides that may produce clinical symptoms. Clinical diagnosis of non-functioning, i.e., biologically inactive, tumors is often delayed and patients tend to present with advanced tumors (size greater than 5 cm) that are easily localized by using conventional imaging modalities. On the other hand, symptoms of functioning islet cell tumors usually appear early in the clinical course, rendering the preoperative localization of these small hormone-producing tumors (size less than 2 cm) difficult with non-invasive methods. Since functioning islet cell tumors can often be cured by surgical resection, invasive procedures are warranted when necessary for localization diagnosis. Failure to search for, detect, and resect these small tumors will invariably result in persistent symptoms. Regarding the unsatisfactory results of morphological imaging methods, functional studies, especially arterial stimulation with hepatic venous samplings, may provide a preoperative regionalization of the pancreatic adenoma, regardless of its size.

  5. Morphology conserving aminopropyl functionalization of hollow silica nanospheres in toluene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobó, Dorina G.; Berkesi, Dániel; Kukovecz, Ákos

    2017-07-01

    Inorganic nanostructures containing cavities of monodisperse diameter distribution find applications in e.g. catalysis, adsorption and drug delivery. One of their possible synthesis routes is the template assisted core-shell synthesis. We synthesized hollow silica spheres around polystyrene cores by the sol-gel method. The polystyrene template was removed by heat treatment leaving behind a hollow spherical shell structure. The surface of the spheres was then modified by adding aminopropyl groups. Here we present the first experimental evidence that toluene is a suitable alternative functionalization medium for the resulting thin shells, and report the comprehensive characterization of the amino-functionalized hollow silica spheres based on scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, N2 adsorption, FT-IR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and electrokinetic potential measurement. Both the presence of the amino groups and the preservation of the hollow spherical morphology were unambiguously proven. The introduction of the amine functionality adds amphoteric character to the shell as shown by the zeta potential vs. pH function. Unlike pristine silica particles, amino-functionalized nanosphere aqueous sols can be stable at both acidic and basic conditions.

  6. Comparative Evolution of Morphological Regulatory Functions in Candida Species

    PubMed Central

    Lackey, Erika; Vipulanandan, Geethanjali; Childers, Delma S.

    2013-01-01

    Morphological transitions play an important role in virulence and virulence-related processes in a wide variety of pathogenic fungi, including the most commonly isolated human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. While environmental signals, transcriptional regulators, and target genes associated with C. albicans morphogenesis are well-characterized, considerably little is known about morphological regulatory mechanisms and the extent to which they are evolutionarily conserved in less pathogenic and less filamentous non-albicans Candida species (NACS). We have identified specific optimal filament-inducing conditions for three NACS (C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. guilliermondii), which are very limited, suggesting that these species may be adapted for niche-specific filamentation in the host. Only a subset of evolutionarily conserved C. albicans filament-specific target genes were induced upon filamentation in C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. guilliermondii. One of the genes showing conserved expression was UME6, a key filament-specific regulator of C. albicans hyphal development. Constitutive high-level expression of UME6 was sufficient to drive increased filamentation as well as biofilm formation and partly restore conserved filament-specific gene expression in both C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis, suggesting that evolutionary differences in filamentation ability among pathogenic Candida species may be partially attributed to alterations in the expression level of a conserved filamentous growth machinery. In contrast to UME6, NRG1, an important repressor of C. albicans filamentation, showed only a partly conserved role in controlling NACS filamentation. Overall, our results suggest that C. albicans morphological regulatory functions are partially conserved in NACS and have evolved to respond to more specific sets of host environmental cues. PMID:23913541

  7. A Reappraisal of Azhdarchid Pterosaur Functional Morphology and Paleoecology

    PubMed Central

    Witton, Mark P.; Naish, Darren

    2008-01-01

    Azhdarchid pterosaurs were among the most widespread and successful of pterosaur clades, but their paleoecology remains controversial. Morphological features common to all azhdarchids include a long, shallow rostrum; elongate, cylindrical cervical vertebrae that formed a long and unusually inflexible neck; and proportionally short wings with an abbreviated fourth phalanx. While azhdarchids have been imagined as vulture-like scavengers, sediment probers, swimmers, waders, aerial predators, or stork-like generalists, most recent authors have regarded them as skim-feeders, trawling their lower jaws through water during flight and seizing aquatic prey from the water's surface. Although apparently widely accepted, the skim-feeding model lacks critical support from anatomy and functional morphology. Azhdarchids lack the many cranial specialisations exhibited by extant skim-feeding birds, most notably the laterally compressed lower jaw and shock absorbing apparatus required for this feeding style. Well-preserved azhdarchid skulls are rare, but their rostra and lower jaws appear to have been sub-triangular in cross-section, and thus dissimilar to those of skim-feeders and sediment probers. Taphonomic data indicates that azhdarchids predominately inhabited inland settings, and azhdarchid morphology indicates that they were poorly suited for all proposed lifestyles bar wading and terrestrial foraging. However, azhdarchid footprints show that their feet were relatively small, padded and slender, and thus not well suited for wading. We argue that azhdarchids were stork- or ground hornbill-like generalists, foraging in diverse environments for small animals and carrion. Proficient terrestrial abilities and a relatively inflexible neck are in agreement with this interpretation. PMID:18509539

  8. A reappraisal of azhdarchid pterosaur functional morphology and paleoecology.

    PubMed

    Witton, Mark P; Naish, Darren

    2008-05-28

    Azhdarchid pterosaurs were among the most widespread and successful of pterosaur clades, but their paleoecology remains controversial. Morphological features common to all azhdarchids include a long, shallow rostrum; elongate, cylindrical cervical vertebrae that formed a long and unusually inflexible neck; and proportionally short wings with an abbreviated fourth phalanx. While azhdarchids have been imagined as vulture-like scavengers, sediment probers, swimmers, waders, aerial predators, or stork-like generalists, most recent authors have regarded them as skim-feeders, trawling their lower jaws through water during flight and seizing aquatic prey from the water's surface. Although apparently widely accepted, the skim-feeding model lacks critical support from anatomy and functional morphology. Azhdarchids lack the many cranial specialisations exhibited by extant skim-feeding birds, most notably the laterally compressed lower jaw and shock absorbing apparatus required for this feeding style. Well-preserved azhdarchid skulls are rare, but their rostra and lower jaws appear to have been sub-triangular in cross-section, and thus dissimilar to those of skim-feeders and sediment probers. Taphonomic data indicates that azhdarchids predominately inhabited inland settings, and azhdarchid morphology indicates that they were poorly suited for all proposed lifestyles bar wading and terrestrial foraging. However, azhdarchid footprints show that their feet were relatively small, padded and slender, and thus not well suited for wading. We argue that azhdarchids were stork- or ground hornbill-like generalists, foraging in diverse environments for small animals and carrion. Proficient terrestrial abilities and a relatively inflexible neck are in agreement with this interpretation.

  9. Thymus and aging: morphological, radiological, and functional overview.

    PubMed

    Rezzani, Rita; Nardo, Lorenzo; Favero, Gaia; Peroni, Michele; Rodella, Luigi Fabrizio

    2014-02-01

    Aging is a continuous process that induces many alterations in the cytoarchitecture of different organs and systems both in humans and animals. Moreover, it is associated with increased susceptibility to infectious, autoimmune, and neoplastic processes. The thymus is a primary lymphoid organ responsible for the production of immunocompetent T cells and, with aging, it atrophies and declines in functions. Universality of thymic involution in all species possessing thymus, including human, indicates it as a long-standing evolutionary event. Although it is accepted that many factors contribute to age-associated thymic involution, little is known about the mechanisms involved in the process. The exact time point of the initiation is not well defined. To address the issue, we report the exact age of thymus throughout the review so that readers can have a nicely pictured synoptic view of the process. Focusing our attention on the different stages of the development of the thymus gland (natal, postnatal, adult, and old), we describe chronologically the morphological changes of the gland. We report that the thymic morphology and cell types are evolutionarily preserved in several vertebrate species. This finding is important in understanding the similar problems caused by senescence and other diseases. Another point that we considered very important is to indicate the assessment of the thymus through radiological images to highlight its variability in shape, size, and anatomical conformation.

  10. Morphological and functional aspects of progenitors perturbed in cortical malformations

    PubMed Central

    Bizzotto, Sara; Francis, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we discuss molecular and cellular mechanisms important for the function of neuronal progenitors during development, revealed by their perturbation in different cortical malformations. We focus on a class of neuronal progenitors, radial glial cells (RGCs), which are renowned for their unique morphological and behavioral characteristics, constituting a key element during the development of the mammalian cerebral cortex. We describe how the particular morphology of these cells is related to their roles in the orchestration of cortical development and their influence on other progenitor types and post-mitotic neurons. Important for disease mechanisms, we overview what is currently known about RGC cellular components, cytoskeletal mechanisms, signaling pathways and cell cycle characteristics, focusing on how defects lead to abnormal development and cortical malformation phenotypes. The multiple recent entry points from human genetics and animal models are contributing to our understanding of this important cell type. Combining data from phenotypes in the mouse reveals molecules which potentially act in common pathways. Going beyond this, we discuss future directions that may provide new data in this expanding area. PMID:25729350

  11. Functional and morphological differences between human alveolar and interstitial macrophages.

    PubMed

    Fathi, M; Johansson, A; Lundborg, M; Orre, L; Sköld, C M; Camner, P

    2001-04-01

    Macrophages play an essential role in pulmonary host defense. They are, however, a heterogeneous cell population located in different lung compartments. This study was designed to elucidate differences between two macrophage populations obtained from the human lung, i.e., alveolar macrophages (AM) and interstitial macrophages (IM). Macroscopically tumor-free lung segments from nine patients undergoing lobectomy or pulmectomy were studied. All patients had a diagnosis of primary lung cancer. AM were recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage and IM were isolated by mechanical fragmentation of the lavaged lung segments followed by enzymatic treatment. The cell fractions were analyzed with respect to morphology (transmission electron microscopy) and function (phagocytosis). The cells in the IM fraction were smaller (7.6 +/- 1.8 microm (mean +/- SD) compared with 16.0 +/- 4.1 microm) and morphologically more heterogeneous than those in the AM fraction. Interestingly, a considerable portion of the cells in the IM fraction had a typical AM-like appearance. Despite this, the AM fraction had a higher phagocytic activity compared to IM, with faster attachment and ingestion processes (P <0.001 for both). We conclude that the heterogeneity of human lung macrophages must be taken into consideration when their role in the inflammatory response is studied.

  12. Uncinate processes in birds: morphology, physiology and function.

    PubMed

    Codd, Jonathan R

    2010-07-01

    The avian respiratory system is remarkable in terms of its complexity and efficiency. The evolution of this system with its unique lung morphology and physiology has contributed to birds being one of the most successful vertebrate lineages. Despite holding the attention of the scientific community for a long time, much remains to be discovered about the complexities of this system. Recent advances have highlighted the important role that accessory breathing structures, the uncinate processes, play in understanding not only how this system functions but how it evolved. Almost all species of extant bird have uncinate processes extending from the midpoint of the vertebral ribs. These processes are integral to the mechanics of ventilation in birds, being active in both inspiration and expiration but also playing some role during locomotion. The morphological variation in the uncinate processes suggests that the constraints placed on the body by adaptations to different forms of locomotion are key to understanding differences in how birds breathe. These processes also occur in the theropod dinosaurs, providing further evidence that they are the ancestors of modern birds but also highlighting the intrinsic flexibility in the ventilatory systems of these animals. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Phase separation in thermal systems: a lattice Boltzmann study and morphological characterization.

    PubMed

    Gan, Yanbiao; Xu, Aiguo; Zhang, Guangcai; Li, Yingjun; Li, Hua

    2011-10-01

    We investigate thermal and isothermal symmetric liquid-vapor separations via a fast Fourier transform thermal lattice Boltzmann (FFT-TLB) model. Structure factor, domain size, and Minkowski functionals are employed to characterize the density and velocity fields, as well as to understand the configurations and the kinetic processes. Compared with the isothermal phase separation, the freedom in temperature prolongs the spinodal decomposition (SD) stage and induces different rheological and morphological behaviors in the thermal system. After the transient procedure, both the thermal and isothermal separations show power-law scalings in domain growth, while the exponent for thermal system is lower than that for isothermal system. With respect to the density field, the isothermal system presents more likely bicontinuous configurations with narrower interfaces, while the thermal system presents more likely configurations with scattered bubbles. Heat creation, conduction, and lower interfacial stresses are the main reasons for the differences in thermal system. Different from the isothermal case, the release of latent heat causes the changing of local temperature, which results in new local mechanical balance. When the Prandtl number becomes smaller, the system approaches thermodynamical equilibrium much more quickly. The increasing of mean temperature makes the interfacial stress lower in the following way: σ=σ(0)[(T(c)-T)/(T(c)-T(0))](3/2), where T(c) is the critical temperature and σ(0) is the interfacial stress at a reference temperature T(0), which is the main reason for the prolonged SD stage and the lower growth exponent in the thermal case. Besides thermodynamics, we probe how the local viscosities influence the morphology of the phase separating system. We find that, for both the isothermal and thermal cases, the growth exponents and local flow velocities are inversely proportional to the corresponding viscosities. Compared with the isothermal case, the

  14. Morphologic and functional features of the canine cruciate ligaments.

    PubMed

    de Rooster, Hilde; de Bruin, Tanya; van Bree, Henri

    2006-12-01

    To review the gross, microscopic, and functional anatomy of the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) in dogs. Literature review. Reports of the anatomy and function of the cruciate ligaments in dogs were retrieved by search of the 1975-2005 PubMed database. The CCL has an important biomechanical function resisting cranial drawer, hyperextension, and internal rotation and acts to fine tune and guide the stifle through its rolling and sliding motion. It has a complex architecture, and distinct geographic regions within the ligament have different functional roles depending on the angle and loading conditions. Collagen type I is the main component of the extracellular matrix; the fibrils have a crimped structure. The cruciate ligaments are almost completely covered by synovium, protecting them from synovial fluid. Cruciate blood supply is mainly of soft tissue origin. The intraligamentous network is relatively limited whereas the core of the middle third of the CCL is even less well vascularized. Neurohistologic studies are very limited in the dog. Various mechanoreceptors and proprioceptive receptors have been identified within the substance of the cruciate ligaments. CCL structural characteristics play an important part in its complex behaviour with the crimped pattern of the collagen fibrils being an important determinant of its biomechanical properties. In contrast to reports of managing CCL rupture, there are few reports describing the microanatomy and neurovascular morphology of the cruciate ligaments. Cruciate disease is likely multi-factorial. Improved understanding of CCL degradation leading to CCL rupture is critical to development of new diagnostic tests for cruciate disease in dogs. Appropriate intervention during the early stages of disease process might preserve CCL structural properties by preventing further collagen degradation. Accurate knowledge of functional and fiber bundle anatomy is imperative for reconstruction and restoration of normal stifle joint

  15. Functional morphology of the muscular sling at the pectoral girdle in tree sloths: convergent morphological solutions to new functional demands?

    PubMed

    Nyakatura, John A; Fischer, Martin S

    2011-09-01

    Recent phylogenetic analyses imply a diphyly of tree sloths and a convergent evolution of their obligatory suspensory locomotion. In mammals the extrinsic shoulder musculature forms a 'muscular sling' to support the trunk in quadrupedal postures. In addition, the extrinsic pectoral muscles are responsible for moving the proximal forelimb elements during locomotion. Due to the inverse orientation of the body in regard to the gravitational force, the muscular sling as configured as in pronograde mammals is unsuited to suspend the weight of the thorax in sloths. We here review the muscular topography of the shoulder in Choloepus didactylus and Bradypus variegatus in the light of presumably convergent evolution to adapt to the altered functional demands of the inverse orientation of the body. In addition, we venture to deduce the effect of the shoulder musculature of C. didactylus during locomotion based on previously published 3D kinematic data. Finally, we assess likely convergences in the muscular topography of both extant sloth lineages to test the hypothesis that convergent evolution is reflected by differing morphological solutions to the same functional demands posed by the suspensory posture. Muscular topography of the shoulder in C. didactylus is altered from the plesiomorphic condition of pronograde mammals, whereas the shoulder in B. variegatus more closely resembles the general pattern. Overall kinematics as well as the muscles suitable for pro- and retraction of the forelimb were found to be largely comparable to pronograde mammals in C. didactylus. We conclude that most of the peculiar topography of extrinsic forelimb musculature can be attributed to the inverse orientation of the body. These characteristics are often similar in both genera, but we also identified different morphological solutions that evolved to satisfy the new functional demands and are indicative of convergent evolution. We suggest that the shared phylogenetic heritage canalized

  16. Functional morphology of the muscular sling at the pectoral girdle in tree sloths: convergent morphological solutions to new functional demands?

    PubMed Central

    Nyakatura, John A; Fischer, Martin S

    2011-01-01

    Recent phylogenetic analyses imply a diphyly of tree sloths and a convergent evolution of their obligatory suspensory locomotion. In mammals the extrinsic shoulder musculature forms a ‘muscular sling’ to support the trunk in quadrupedal postures. In addition, the extrinsic pectoral muscles are responsible for moving the proximal forelimb elements during locomotion. Due to the inverse orientation of the body in regard to the gravitational force, the muscular sling as configured as in pronograde mammals is unsuited to suspend the weight of the thorax in sloths. We here review the muscular topography of the shoulder in Choloepus didactylus and Bradypus variegatus in the light of presumably convergent evolution to adapt to the altered functional demands of the inverse orientation of the body. In addition, we venture to deduce the effect of the shoulder musculature of C. didactylus during locomotion based on previously published 3D kinematic data. Finally, we assess likely convergences in the muscular topography of both extant sloth lineages to test the hypothesis that convergent evolution is reflected by differing morphological solutions to the same functional demands posed by the suspensory posture. Muscular topography of the shoulder in C. didactylus is altered from the plesiomorphic condition of pronograde mammals, whereas the shoulder in B. variegatus more closely resembles the general pattern. Overall kinematics as well as the muscles suitable for pro- and retraction of the forelimb were found to be largely comparable to pronograde mammals in C. didactylus. We conclude that most of the peculiar topography of extrinsic forelimb musculature can be attributed to the inverse orientation of the body. These characteristics are often similar in both genera, but we also identified different morphological solutions that evolved to satisfy the new functional demands and are indicative of convergent evolution. We suggest that the shared phylogenetic heritage canalized

  17. Functional morphological characteristics of the interdigital sinus in the sheep.

    PubMed

    Pourlis, A F

    2010-05-01

    The present paper describes two distinct morphological features of ovine interdigital sinus, which were examined by means of scanning electron microscopy. In the sweat glandular component, acini with epithelial cells exhibiting a paved appearance and apocrine secretion were observed. In the same gland, other acini with cells exhibiting different luminal surfaces and simultaneous apocrine and merocrine secretion were recorded. The numerous hairs embedded within the waxy material of the sinus exhibited two types. The first type, with a round profile, had a special leaflet structure on the tip, whereas the second type had a convex profile. The comparative differences and probable functional relations of these integumentary structures are discussed. The mixed picture of the epithelial cells of the sweat glands suggests the release of different products. The hair microstructure correlated with the mechanism of hold and release of the secretory material of the interdigital sinus.

  18. Interfacial thiol-isocyanate reactions for functional nanocarriers: a facile route towards tunable morphologies and hydrophilic payload encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Kuypers, Sören; Pramanik, Sumit Kumar; D'Olieslaeger, Lien; Reekmans, Gunter; Peters, Martijn; D'Haen, Jan; Vanderzande, Dirk; Junkers, Thomas; Adriaensens, Peter; Ethirajan, Anitha

    2015-11-11

    Functional nanocarriers were synthesized using an in situ inverse miniemulsion polymerization employing thiol-isocyanate reactions at the droplet interface to encapsulate hydrophilic payloads. The morphology of the nanocarriers is conveniently tunable by varying the reaction conditions and the dispersions are easily transferable to the aqueous phase.

  19. Echocardiographic assessment of cardiac morphology and function in Xenopus.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Heather L; Escalera, Robert B; Patel, Sonali S; Wedemeyer, Elesa W; Volk, Kenneth A; Lohr, Jamie L; Reinking, Benjamin E

    2010-04-01

    Advances using Xenopus as a model permit valuable inquiries into cardiac development from embryo to adult. Noninvasive methods are needed to study cardiac function longitudinally. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of echocardiographic studies in Xenopus and establish normative data of adult cardiac structure and function. Doppler and 2D echocardiograms and electrocardiograms were acquired from adult Xenopus laevis and X. tropicalis. Frogs were exposed to either isoflurane or tricaine to discern the effect of sedating agents on cardiac function. Cardiac dimensions, morphology, flow velocities, and electrophysiologic intervals were measured and evaluated by using bivariate and regression analyses. Normal cardiac dimensions relative to body weight and species were established by echocardiography. Normal conduction intervals were determined by electrocardiography and did not vary by body weight or species. Anesthetic agent did not affect ejection fraction or flow velocity but did alter the QRS duration and QT interval. Echocardiographic and electrocardiographic studies in Xenopus provide information about cardiac anatomy and physiology and can readily be used for longitudinal analyses of developmental inquiries. Body weight, species, and anesthetic agent are factors that should be considered in experimental design and analyses.

  20. Echocardiographic Assessment of Cardiac Morphology and Function in Xenopus

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Heather L; Escalera, Robert B; Patel, Sonali S; Wedemeyer, Elesa W; Volk, Kenneth A; Lohr, Jamie L; Reinking, Benjamin E

    2010-01-01

    Advances using Xenopus as a model permit valuable inquiries into cardiac development from embryo to adult. Noninvasive methods are needed to study cardiac function longitudinally. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of echocardiographic studies in Xenopus and establish normative data of adult cardiac structure and function. Doppler and 2D echocardiograms and electrocardiograms were acquired from adult Xenopus laevis and X. tropicalis. Frogs were exposed to either isoflurane or tricaine to discern the effect of sedating agents on cardiac function. Cardiac dimensions, morphology, flow velocities, and electrophysiologic intervals were measured and evaluated by using bivariate and regression analyses. Normal cardiac dimensions relative to body weight and species were established by echocardiography. Normal conduction intervals were determined by electrocardiography and did not vary by body weight or species. Anesthetic agent did not affect ejection fraction or flow velocity but did alter the QRS duration and QT interval. Echocardiographic and electrocardiographic studies in Xenopus provide information about cardiac anatomy and physiology and can readily be used for longitudinal analyses of developmental inquiries. Body weight, species, and anesthetic agent are factors that should be considered in experimental design and analyses. PMID:20412684

  1. [Functional morphology of the submandibular salivary glands of white rats during aging involution].

    PubMed

    Rybakova, M G

    1979-12-01

    Functional morphology of different zones of submandibular glands of albino rats was studied quantitatively with due regard for the stages of neuroendocrine system involution. It is shown that function of salivary glands during ageing is not altered; cyclic fluctuations with estral cycle phases are maintained similarly to those in young animals. But the basal level of proteins and mucopolysaccharides is reduced, their mean levels being equal to the minimal level in young animals. On the other hand, activation of enzymes responsible for energy and transport processes takes place and their relationships change. The data obtained prove the relationship between salivary and endocrine glands and confirm the viewpoint that in early age involution disintegration occurs between different parameters of the functional activity of salivary glands rather than there take place changes in their function.

  2. Morphology effect on the light scattering and dynamic response of polymer network liquid crystal phase modulator.

    PubMed

    Xiangjie, Zhao; Cangli, Liu; Jiazhu, Duan; Jiancheng, Zeng; Dayong, Zhang; Yongquan, Luo

    2014-06-16

    Polymer network liquid crystal (PNLC) was one of the most potential liquid crystal for submillisecond response phase modulation, which was possible to be applied in submillisecond response phase only spatial light modulator. But until now the light scattering when liquid crystal director was reoriented by external electric field limited its phase modulation application. Dynamic response of phase change when high voltage was applied was also not elucidated. The mechanism that determines the light scattering was studied by analyzing the polymer network morphology by SEM method. Samples were prepared by varying the polymerization temperature, UV curing intensity and polymerization time. The morphology effect on the dynamic response of phase change was studied, in which high voltage was usually applied and electro-striction effect was often induced. The experimental results indicate that the polymer network morphology was mainly characterized by cross linked single fibrils, cross linked fibril bundles or even both. Although the formation of fibril bundle usually induced large light scattering, such a polymer network could endure higher voltage. In contrast, although the formation of cross linked single fibrils induced small light scattering, such a polymer network cannot endure higher voltage. There is a tradeoff between the light scattering and high voltage endurance. The electro-optical properties such as threshold voltage and response time were taken to verify our conclusion. For future application, the monomer molecular structure, the liquid crystal solvent and the polymerization conditions should be optimized to generate optimal polymer network morphology.

  3. Morphology and growth speed of hcp domains during shock-induced phase transition in iron.

    PubMed

    Pang, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Guang-Cai; Xu, Ai-Guo; Zhao, Xian-Geng

    2014-01-10

    Emergence and time evolution of micro-structured new-phase domains play a crucial role in determining the macroscopic physical and mechanical behaviors of iron under shock compression. Here, we investigate, through molecular dynamics simulations and theoretical modelings, shock-induced phase transition process of iron from body-centered-cubic (bcc) to hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) structure. We present a central-moment method and a rolling-ball algorithm to calculate and analyze the morphology and growth speed of the hcp phase domains, and then propose a phase transition model to clarify our derived growth law of the phase domains. We also demonstrate that the new-phase evolution process undergoes three distinguished stages with different time scales of the hcp phase fraction in the system.

  4. Atomic level characterization of the morphology of phases in Chromindur magnetic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.K. ); Camus, P.P . Applied Superconductivity Center); Hetherington, M.G. . Dept. of Materials)

    1991-01-01

    The atom probe field ion microscope has been used to characterize the morphology and determine the compositions of the iron-rich {alpha} and chromium-enriched {alpha}{prime} phases produced during isothermal and step cooled heat treatments in a Chromindur 2 ductile permanent magnet alloy. The good magnetic properties of this material are due to a combination of the composition of the two phases and the isolated nature and size of the ferromagnetic {alpha} phase. The morphology of the {alpha} phase is produced as a result of the shape of the miscibility gap and the step-cooled heat treatment and is distinctly different from that formed during isothermal heat treatments. 6 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Exercise Induced Alterations in Rat Monocyte Number, Morphology, and Function

    PubMed Central

    GUERESCHI, MARCIA G.; PRESTES, JONATO; DONATTO, FELIPE F.; DIAS, RODRIGO; FROLLINI, ANELENA B.; FERREIRA, CLÍLTON KO.; CAVAGLIERI, CLAUDIA R.; PALANCH, ADRIANNE C.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the histophysiological alterations in monocytes and macrophages induced by short periods of exercise. Male Wistar rats (age = 2 months, body weight = 200g) were divided into seven groups (N = 6 each): sedentary control (C), groups exercised (swimming) at low intensity for 5 (5L), 10 (10L), and 15 minutes (15L), and groups exercised at moderate intensity for 5 (5M), 10 (10M) or 15 minutes (15M). At moderate intensity the animals carried a load of 5% of body weight on their backs. Blood monocytes were evaluated for quantity and morphology, and peritoneal macrophages were analyzed for quantity and phagocytic activity. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc test (p ≤ 0.05). Low intensity groups and 5M exhibited an increase in monocyte levels when compared with the control. There was an increase in monocyte cellular area for the 5L, 10L, 5M and 10M groups; monocyte nuclear area increased for the 10L, 5M and 10M groups in comparison with the control. There was an increase in peritoneal macrophages for the 15L, 10M, 15M and decrease for the 5M group. Macrophage phagocytic capacity increased for low intensity groups and for 10M group. The exercise performed for short periods modulated macrophage levels and function, and monocyte levels and morphology, in an intensity-dependent manner. The sum of acute responses observed in this study may exert a protective effect against sickness and may be used to improve health and lifespan. PMID:27182297

  6. The small GTPase Arf1 modulates mitochondrial morphology and function.

    PubMed

    Ackema, Karin B; Hench, Jürgen; Böckler, Stefan; Wang, Shyi Chyi; Sauder, Ursula; Mergentaler, Heidi; Westermann, Benedikt; Bard, Frédéric; Frank, Stephan; Spang, Anne

    2014-11-18

    The small GTPase Arf1 plays critical roles in membrane traffic by initiating the recruitment of coat proteins and by modulating the activity of lipid-modifying enzymes. Here, we report an unexpected but evolutionarily conserved role for Arf1 and the ArfGEF GBF1 at mitochondria. Loss of function of ARF-1 or GBF-1 impaired mitochondrial morphology and activity in Caenorhabditis elegans. Similarly, mitochondrial defects were observed in mammalian and yeast cells. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, aberrant clusters of the mitofusin Fzo1 accumulated in arf1-11 mutants and were resolved by overexpression of Cdc48, an AAA-ATPase involved in ER and mitochondria-associated degradation processes. Yeast Arf1 co-fractionated with ER and mitochondrial membranes and interacted genetically with the contact site component Gem1. Furthermore, similar mitochondrial abnormalities resulted from knockdown of either GBF-1 or contact site components in worms, suggesting that the role of Arf1 in mitochondrial functioning is linked to ER-mitochondrial contacts. Thus, Arf1 is involved in mitochondrial homeostasis and dynamics, independent of its role in vesicular traffic.

  7. Mapping morphological shape as a high-dimensional functional curve.

    PubMed

    Fu, Guifang; Huang, Mian; Bo, Wenhao; Hao, Han; Wu, Rongling

    2017-01-06

    Detecting how genes regulate biological shape has become a multidisciplinary research interest because of its wide application in many disciplines. Despite its fundamental importance, the challenges of accurately extracting information from an image, statistically modeling the high-dimensional shape and meticulously locating shape quantitative trait loci (QTL) affect the progress of this research. In this article, we propose a novel integrated framework that incorporates shape analysis, statistical curve modeling and genetic mapping to detect significant QTLs regulating variation of biological shape traits. After quantifying morphological shape via a radius centroid contour approach, each shape, as a phenotype, was characterized as a high-dimensional curve, varying as angle θ runs clockwise with the first point starting from angle zero. We then modeled the dynamic trajectories of three mean curves and variation patterns as functions of θ Our framework led to the detection of a few significant QTLs regulating the variation of leaf shape collected from a natural population of poplar, Populus szechuanica var tibetica This population, distributed at altitudes 2000-4500 m above sea level, is an evolutionarily important plant species. This is the first work in the quantitative genetic shape mapping area that emphasizes a sense of 'function' instead of decomposing the shape into a few discrete principal components, as the majority of shape studies do. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Morphology and Performance of PLLA Based Porous Membranes by Phase Separation Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Qian; Dong, Xia; Li, Rongbo; Han, Charles C.; Wang, Dujin

    2013-03-01

    Poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) porous membranes with different morphologies and properties were prepared through immersion precipitation method. It has been proved that the rate and level of phase separation between PLLA/dioxane solution and coagulation baths were the original drive force for the ultimate structure and corresponding performance of PLLA membranes. The equilibrium thermodynamic phase diagram of PLLA/solvent/nonsolvent and the kinetic diffusion rate between solvent and nonsolvent were systematically investigated. NSFC 50925313 and 51173195

  9. Phenomena affecting morphology of microporous poly(acrylonitrile) prepared via phase separation from solution

    SciTech Connect

    Legasse, R.R.; Weagley, R.J.; Leslie, P.K.; Schneider, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is concerned with controlling the morphology of microporous polymers prepared via thermal demixing of solutions. 2 wt % solutions of poly(acrylonitrile) in maleic anhydride, a poor solvent, are first cooled to produce separated polymer-rich and solvent-rich phases. Removing the solvent by freeze drying then produces a microporous material having a density of 33 mg/cm{sup 3}, a void fraction of 97%, and a pore size of about 10 {mu}m. We find that the morphology cannot be explained by existing models, which focus on phase diagrams and kinetics of phase transformations during cooling of the solution. In conflict with those models, we find that two radically different morphologies can be produced even when the polymer concentration and cooling path are held strictly constant. A hypothesis that polymer degradation causes the different morphologies is not supported by GPC, {sup 13}C NMR, and FTIR experiments. Instead, we offer evidence that the different microporous morphologies are caused by different polymer conformations in solutions having the same concentration and temperature. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Computational analysis of nonlinear creep of polyphase aggregates: Influence of phase morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, A. C.; Vel, S. S.; Gerbi, C.; Johnson, S. E.

    2014-09-01

    The constitutive laws of polyphase aggregates dominantly depend on the operative deformation mechanisms, phase morphology and modes, and environmental conditions. Each of these factors has the potential to dramatically affect bulk mechanical properties as well as the local stress and strain rate distributions. To focus on the effects of phase morphology, we have developed a rigorous multiscale approach based on asymptotic expansion homogenization. The proposed methodology has two fundamental goals: (1) accurately predict bulk behavior in aggregates by explicitly taking into account phase morphology and (2) calculate detailed distributions of strain rates, stresses, and viscosities in heterogeneous materials. The methodology is able to consider general nonlinear phase constitutive laws that relate strain rates to stresses, temperature, and other factors such as water fugacity and grain size. We demonstrate the approach by analyzing power law creep of computer-generated and natural polyphase systems and benchmarking the results against analytical solutions. As an outcome of this analysis, we find that the approximation of an aggregate as a power law material is reasonable for isotropic, homogeneous phase distributions but breaks down significantly with high degrees of phase organization. We also present distributions in strain rate, stress, and viscosity for different applied loading conditions. Results exhibit areas of high internal stresses and substantial localization. We describe and provide a freely available software package supporting these calculations.

  11. Effect of diffusional creep on particle morphology of polycrystalline alloys strengthened by second phase particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wittenberger, J. D.; Behrendt, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    Diffusional creep in a polycrystalline alloy containing second-phase particles can disrupt the particle morphology. For alloys which depend on the particle distribution for strength, changes in the particle morphology can affect the mechanical properties. Recent observations of diffusional creep in alloys containing soluble particles (gamma-prime strengthened Ni base alloys) and inert particles have been reexamined in light of the basic mechanisms of diffusional creep, and a generalized model of this effect is proposed. The model indicates that diffusional creep will generally result in particle-free regions in the vicinity of grain boundaries serving as net vacancy sources. The factors which control the changes in second-phase morphology have been identified, and methods of reducing the effects of diffusional creep are suggested.

  12. Effect of porous morphology on phase transition in vanadium dioxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Hui Yan; Ma, Fei; Huang, Yu Hong; Li, Jin Ping; Xu, Ke Wei

    2015-11-15

    Vanadium oxide (VO{sub 2}) thin films were prepared on Si (100) substrates by direct current magnetron sputtering at room temperature, and then, postannealing was conducted at 450 °C for 2 h in vacuum. Structural characterizations demonstrated that the thin films exhibited porous morphology upon thermal annealing and the porosity and pore size depended on the oxygen flow rate in the process of film fabrication. Raman spectra were measured in the temperature range of 303–343 K, and resistance measurement was conducted in the temperature range of 293–363 K, to study the influence of porous morphology on the phase transition in VO{sub 2} thin films. It was illustrated that the porous morphology could provide a free space to release the stress induced in the monoclinic-to-tetragonal phase transition of VO{sub 2}, and lower the transition temperature to a certain degree.

  13. Ionic-liquid-assisted synthesis of YF{sub 3} with different crystalline phases and morphologies

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong Haoxiang; Hong Jianming; Cao Xiaofeng; Chen Xuetai Xue Ziling

    2009-03-05

    YF{sub 3} with different crystalline phases and morphologies have been prepared via a facile hydrothermal route assisted by imidazolium ionic liquids 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (C{sub 4}mimBF{sub 4}) or 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (C{sub 4}mimPF{sub 6}). The microstructures and morphologies of YF{sub 3} particles were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Cubic and orthorhombic YF{sub 3} were selectively synthesized by adjusting the molar ratio of the reagents and using C{sub 4}mimBF{sub 4} as the fluoride source, while only orthorhombic YF{sub 3} was obtained using C{sub 4}mimPF{sub 6}, indicating that the crystalline phases and morphologies of the products were significantly influenced by fluoride source and reaction media.

  14. Morphology and functional roles of synoviocytes in the joint.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga, T; Shikichi, M; Kitamura, H; Yanase, H; Nozawa-Inoue, K

    2000-03-01

    The joint capsule exhibits a unique cellular lining in the luminal surface of the synovial membrane. The synovial intimal cells, termed synoviocytes, are believed to be responsible for the production of synovial fluid components, for absorption from the joint cavity, and for blood/synovial fluid exchanges, but their detailed structure and function as well as pathological changes remain unclear. Two types of synoviocytes, macrophagic cells (type A cells) and fibroblast-like cells (type B cells) have been identified. Type A synoviocytes are non-fixed cells that can phagocytose actively cell debris and wastes in the joint cavity, and possess an antigen-presenting ability. These type A cells, derived from blood-borne mononuclear cells, can be considered resident macrophages (tissue macrophages) like hepatic Kupffer cells. Type B synoviocytes are characterized by the rich existence of rough endoplasmic reticulum, and dendritic processes which form a regular network in the luminal surface of the synovial membrane. Their complex three-dimensional architecture was first revealed by our recent scanning electron microscopy of macerated samples. The type B cells, which are proper synoviocytes, are involved in production of specialized matrix constituents including hyaluronan, collagens and fibronectin for the intimal interstitium and synovial fluid. The proliferative potentials of type B cells in loco are much higher than type A cells, although the transformation of subintimal fibroblasts into type B cells can not be excluded. In some mammals, type B cells show features suggesting endocrine and sensory functions, but these are not recognized in other species. The synoviocytes, which form a discontinuous cell layer, develop both fragmented basement membranes around the cells and junctional apparatus such as desmosomes and gap junctions. For an exact understanding of the mechanism of arthritis, we need to establish the morphological background of synoviocytes as well as their

  15. Morphology Evolution of High Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells via Vapor Induced Intermediate Phases.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Lijian; Dong, Shiqi; De Marco, Nicholas; Hsieh, Yao-Tsung; Bae, Sang-Hoon; Sun, Pengyu; Yang, Yang

    2016-12-07

    Morphology is critical component to achieve high device performance hybrid perovskite solar cells. Here, we develop a vapor induced intermediate phase (VIP) strategy to manipulate the morphology of perovskite films. By exposing the perovskite precursor films to different saturated solvent vapor atmospheres, e.g., dimethylformamide and dimethylsufoxide, dramatic film morphological evolution occurs, associated with the formation of different intermediate phases. We observe that the crystallization kinetics is significantly altered due to the formation of these intermediate phases, yielding highly crystalline perovskite films with less defect states and high carrier lifetimes. The perovskite solar cells with the reconstructed films exhibits the highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 19.2% under 1 sun AM 1.5G irradiance, which is among the highest planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. Also, the perovskite solar cells with VIP processing shows less hysteresis behavior and a stabilized power output over 18%. Our work opens up a new direction for morphology control through intermediate phase formation, and paves the way toward further enhancing the device performances of perovskite solar cells.

  16. Evolution and control of the phase competition morphology in a manganite film.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haibiao; Wang, Lingfei; Hou, Yubin; Huang, Zhen; Lu, Qingyou; Wu, Wenbin

    2015-11-25

    The competition among different phases in perovskite manganites is pronounced since their energies are very close under the interplay of charge, spin, orbital and lattice degrees of freedom. To reveal the roles of underlying interactions, many efforts have been devoted towards directly imaging phase transitions at microscopic scales. Here we show images of the charge-ordered insulator (COI) phase transition from a pure ferromagnetic metal with reducing field or increasing temperature in a strained phase-separated manganite film, using a home-built magnetic force microscope. Compared with the COI melting transition, this reverse transition is sharp, cooperative and martensitic-like with astonishingly unique yet diverse morphologies. The COI domains show variable-dimensional growth at different temperatures and their distribution can illustrate the delicate balance of the underlying interactions in manganites. Our findings also display how phase domain engineering is possible and how the phase competition can be tuned in a controllable manner.

  17. Experimental investigations of the functional morphology of dragonfly wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajabi, H.; Darvizeh, A.

    2013-08-01

    Nowadays, the importance of identifying the flight mechanisms of the dragonfly, as an inspiration for designing flapping wing vehicles, is well known. An experimental approach to understanding the complexities of insect wings as organs of flight could provide significant outcomes for design purposes. In this paper, a comprehensive investigation is carried out on the morphological and microstructural features of dragonfly wings. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and tensile testing are used to experimentally verify the functional roles of different parts of the wings. A number of SEM images of the elements of the wings, such as the nodus, leading edge, trailing edge, and vein sections, which play dominant roles in strengthening the whole structure, are presented. The results from the tensile tests indicate that the nodus might be the critical region of the wing that is subjected to high tensile stresses. Considering the patterns of the longitudinal corrugations of the wings obtained in this paper, it can be supposed that they increase the load-bearing capacity, giving the wings an ability to tolerate dynamic loading conditions. In addition, it is suggested that the longitudinal veins, along with the leading and trailing edges, are structural mechanisms that further improve fatigue resistance by providing higher fracture toughness, preventing crack propagation, and allowing the wings to sustain a significant amount of damage without loss of strength.

  18. Scaling and functional morphology in strigiform hind limbs

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Meena A.; Rayfield, Emily J.; Bright, Jen A.

    2017-01-01

    Strigiformes are an order of raptorial birds consisting exclusively of owls: the Tytonidae (barn owls) and the Strigidae (true owls), united by a suite of adaptations aiding a keen predatory lifestyle, including robust hind limb elements modified for grip strength. To assess variation in hind limb morphology, we analysed how the dimensions of the major hind limb elements in subfossil and modern species scaled with body mass. Comparing hind limb element length, midshaft width, and robusticity index (RI: ratio of midshaft width to maximum length) to body mass revealed that femoral and tibiotarsal width scale with isometry, whilst length scales with negative allometry, and close to elastic similarity in the tibiotarsus. In contrast, tarsometatarsus width shows strong positive allometry with body mass, whilst length shows strong negative allometry. Furthermore, the tarsometatarsi RI scales allometrically to mass0.028, whilst a weak relationship exists in femora (mass0.004) and tibiotarsi (mass0.004). Our results suggest that tarsometatarsi play a more substantial functional role than tibiotarsi and femora. Given the scaling relationship between tarsometatarsal width and robusticity to body mass, it may be possible to infer the body mass of prehistoric owls by analysing tarsometatarsi, an element that is frequently preserved in the fossil record of owls. PMID:28327549

  19. Morphological and functional aspects of reptilian ultimobranchial gland.

    PubMed

    Srivastav, A K; Das, V K; Srivastav, S K; Sasayama, Y; Suzuki, N

    1998-12-01

    The intention of this review is to compare studies on the morphology and histology (light and electron microscopic) of ultimobranchial glands of various groups of reptiles. Moreover, experiments (including our investigations) on suppression or stimulation of the ultimobranchial gland are included. Adult reptiles possess one (on the left side) or two ultimobranchial glands (UBG). The UBG lie just anterior to the heart. Light as well as electron microscopically, the gland has been shown to contain follicles and cell cords (cell aggregates). The follicular epithelium is lined by simple cuboidal or pseudostratified columnar cells. Ciliated and goblet cells may be present in the follicular epithelia in some groups. The lumen may contain a colloid-like substance with desquamated cells or debris. The UBG of reptiles seem to be an active secretory organ with influence on calcium regulation. Other functions of calcitonin have also been suggested in reptiles for example in neurotransmission, in volume regulation, phosphate balance and promotion of bone calcification (at least in juveniles).

  20. Morphological and functional alterations in glycerol preserved rat aortic allografts.

    PubMed

    Fahner, P J; Idu, M M; Legemate, D A; Vanbavel, E; Borstlap, J; Pfaffendorf, M; van Marle, J; van Gulik, T M

    2004-11-01

    Glycerol preservation is an effective method for long-term preservation of skin allografts and has a potential use in preserving arterial allografts. We evaluated the effect of glycerol concentration and incubation period on vessel-wall integrity of rat aortic allografts. No significant differences were measured in breaking strength (2.3 +/- 0.3 N) and bursting pressure (223 +/- 32 kPa) between standard glycerolized and control segments (1.7 +/- 0.3 N, 226 +/- 17 kPa). Isometric tension measurements showed complete lack of functional contraction and relaxation capacity in allograft segments prepared according to all preservation protocols. Morphologically, thickness of the vessel-wall media diminished after preservation using low (30/50/75%) or high (70/85/98%) concentrations of glycerol, as compared to control segments (i.e. 81 +/- 2.4 microm, 95 +/- 5.6 microm and 125 +/- 3.5 microm, respectively). Confocal microscopy and Fourier analysis demonstrated that vascular collagen and elastin bundle orientation had remained unaltered. Electron microscopy showed defragmentation of luminal endothelial cells. In conclusion, glycerol preservation of rat aorta resulted in an acellular tissue matrix, which maintained biomechanical integrity and extracellular matrix characteristics. The next step in the investigation will be to test the concept of glycerol preservation of arterial allografts in a vascular transplantation model.

  1. Amelogenin Affects Brushite Crystal Morphology and Promotes Its Phase Transformation to Monetite

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Dongni; Ruan, Qichao; Tao, Jinhui; Lo, Jonathan; Nutt, Steven; Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2016-09-07

    Amelogenin protein is involved in organized apatite crystallization during enamel formation. Brushite (CaHPO4·2H2O), which is one of the precursors for hydroxyapatite in in vitro mineralization, has been used for fabrication of biomaterials for hard tissue repair. In order to explore its potential application in biomimetic material synthesis, we studied the influence of amelogenin on brushite morphology and phase transformation to monetite. Our results show that amelogenin can adsorb onto surface of brushite, leading to the formation of layered structures on the (010) face. Amelogenin promoted the phase transformation of brushite into monetite (CaHPO4) in the dry state, presumably by interacting with crystalline water layers in brushite unit cell. Changes to the crystal morphology by amelogenin continued even after the phase transformation to monetite forming an organized nanotextured structure of nano-sticks resembling the bundle structure in enamel.

  2. Morphology and phase diagram of comb block copolymer Am+1(BC)m.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhibin; Wang, Rong; Xue, Gi

    2009-05-28

    The morphologies and the phase diagram of comb copolymer Am+1(BC)m are investigated by the self-consistent field theory. By changing the volume fractions of the blocks, the interaction parameters between the different blocks, and the side chain number, nine phases are found, including the two-colored lamellar phase, three-colored lamellar phase, hexagonal lattice phase, core shell hexagonal lattice phase, two interpenetrating tetragonal lattice, core shell tetragonal lattice, lamellar phase with beads inside, lamellar phase with alternating beads, and disordered phase. The phase diagrams are constructed for Am+1(BC)m with different side chain numbers of m=1, 2, 3, and 5. Due to the asymmetric topology of comb copolymer Am+1(BC)m, the phases and the diagrams are very different from linear ABC triblock copolymer or star ABC triblock copolymer. When the volume fraction of one of the blocks is the domination, the (core shell) hexagonal phase or two interpenetrating tetragonal lattice can form, depending on which block dominates and the interaction between the blocks. The (core shell) hexagonal phase easily forms at the corner of the block A (fA>or=0.5). The side chain number m affects the phase diagram largely due to the fact that the architecture of a comb copolymer is not invariant under the interchange between the three different monomers. Due to the connectivity of the blocks B and the inner blocks A, Am+1(BC)m comb copolymers with the longer main chain A or longer side chain with short block C, i.e., longer block B, are difficult to phase separate. The results are helpful to design nano- or biomaterials with complex architecture or tailor the phase behavior of comb copolymers.

  3. Morphological phase diagrams of C60 and C70 films on graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Kazuma; Tanaka, Tomoyasu; Akaike, Kouki; Kanai, Kaname

    2017-10-01

    The morphologies of C60 and C70 fullerene films vacuum-deposited onto graphite at various deposition rates and grown at several temperatures were investigated using atomic force microscopy. These fullerene films on graphite are model systems of physisorption of organic molecules that likely exhibit little chemical interaction with the graphite's surface. The morphologies of C60 and C70 films grown on graphite can be understood well from growth models previously reported. Comparison of the morphological phase diagrams obtained for C60 and C70 indicate that the diffusion properties of the adsorbed molecule are key in determining the morphology of the obtained film. The low diffusion rate of C70 resulted in various film morphologies for all deposition conditions tested. Also, the obtained phase diagrams can be understood by the results of fractal dimension analysis on the C60 and C70 islands. The fundamental understanding of film growth obtained using these ideal physisorption systems will aid in understanding film growth by other molecular adsorption systems.

  4. Effect of confinement and kinetics on the morphology of phase separating gelatin-maltodextrin droplets.

    PubMed

    Fransson, Sophia; Lorén, Niklas; Altskär, Annika; Hermansson, Anne-Marie

    2009-06-08

    The effect of confinement on the structure evolution and final morphology during phase separation and gelation of gelatin and maltodextrin was investigated and compared to the structures seen in bulk phase. Emulsion droplets with diameters from 4 to 300 mum were analyzed using confocal laser scanning microscopy and image analysis. With the confocal laser scanning microscope it was possible to follow the entire phase separating process inside the droplets in real-time. The samples were either quenched directly from 70 degrees C down to 20 degrees C or exposed to holding times at 40 degrees C. Different cooling procedures were studied to examine the structure evolution both before and after gelation in the restricted geometries. The concentration of the biopolymer mixture was kept constant at 4 w/w% gelatin and 6 w/w% maltodextrin. The results revealed that the size of the confinement had a great effect on both the initiation of phase separation and the final morphology of the microstructure inside the emulsion droplets. The phase separation in small droplets was observed to occur at a temperature above the phase separating temperature for bulk. Small droplets had either a microstructure with a shell of maltodextrin and core of gelatin or a microstructure where the two biopolymers had formed two separate bicontinuous halves. The initiation of phase separation in large droplets was similar to what was seen in bulk. The microstructure in large droplets was discontinuous, resembling the morphology in bulk phase. The kinetics had an effect on the character of the maltodextrin inclusions, as the cooling procedure of a direct quench gave spherical inclusions with an even size distribution, while a holding time at 40 degrees C resulted in asymmetrical and elongated inclusions.

  5. Phases of Polonium via Density Functional Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstraete, Matthieu J.

    2010-01-01

    The thermodynamical properties of the main phases of metallic polonium are examined using density functional theory. The exceptional nature of the solid-solid phase transition of α to β Po is underlined: it induces a lowering in symmetry, from cubic to rhombohedral, with increasing temperature. This is explained as the result of a delicate balance between bonding and entropic effects. Overall agreement with existing experimental data is good by state-of-the-art standards. The phonons of Po present Kohn anomalies, and it is shown that the effect of spin-orbit interactions is the inverse of that in normal metals: due to the nonspherical nature of the Fermi Surface, spin-orbit effects reduce nesting and harden most phonon frequencies.

  6. Morphology and motion: hindlimb proportions and swing phase kinematics in terrestrially locomoting charadriiform birds.

    PubMed

    Kilbourne, Brandon M; Andrada, Emanuel; Fischer, Martin S; Nyakatura, John A

    2016-05-01

    Differing limb proportions in terms of length and mass, as well as differences in mass being concentrated proximally or distally, influence the limb's moment of inertia (MOI), which represents its resistance to being swung. Limb morphology - including limb segment proportions - thus probably has direct relevance for the metabolic cost of swinging the limb during locomotion. However, it remains largely unexplored how differences in limb proportions influence limb kinematics during swing phase. To test whether differences in limb proportions are associated with differences in swing phase kinematics, we collected hindlimb kinematic data from three species of charadriiform birds differing widely in their hindlimb proportions: lapwings, oystercatchers and avocets. Using these three species, we tested for differences in maximum joint flexion, maximum joint extension and range of motion (RoM), in addition to differences in maximum segment angular velocity and excursion. We found that the taxa with greater limb MOI - oystercatchers and avocets - flex their limbs more than lapwings. However, we found no consistent differences in joint extension and RoM among species. Likewise, we found no consistent differences in limb segment angular velocity and excursion, indicating that differences in limb inertia in these three avian species do not necessarily underlie the rate or extent of limb segment movements. The observed increased limb flexion among these taxa with distally heavy limbs resulted in reduced MOI of the limb when compared with a neutral pose. A trade-off between exerting force to actively flex the limb and potential savings by a reduction of MOI is skewed towards reducing the limb's MOI as a result of MOI being in part a function of the radius of gyration squared. Increased limb flexion is a likely means to lower the cost of swinging the limbs. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Description and Reconstruction of Soil Structure Using Correlation Functions: Morphological and Pore-Scale Modeling Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karsanina, M.; Gerke, K.; Vasilyev, R.; Skvortsova, E. B.; Korost, D. V.; Mallants, D.

    2013-12-01

    It is now well-established that structure of porous or composite media (i.e., distribution of different materials or phases) defines all physical properties, including multi-phase flow and solute transport. To characterize soil structure conventional soil science uses such metrics as grain size distribution, morphology or numerous classifications. However, all these descriptors provide only limited and often qualitative information about structural properties, cannot be used to reconstruct real structure or predict physical properties. With the progress of modern non-destructive analysis tools we can obtain detailed 3D structure information and use it for calculation of any physical property. Such 3D data is a valuable verification dataset to check the usefulness of soil structure description using stochastic measures such as correlation functions. Any potential soil structure descriptor should possess two main features: 1) represent structure in some mathematical way, 2) reconstruction based on this mathematical function alone should be statistically equal to the original structure (e.g., have similar pore size distributions, physical properties, etc.). To check the applicability to soil science, we choose different 2D and 3D segmented soil images and calculated their correlation function. The modified Yeong-Torquato procedure was then used to reconstruct images based on calculated correlation functions. This method was applied to three different soil datasets: 1) a set of 2D thin-sections, 2) 3D images of soils with known hydraulic properties (Ksat and WRC), 3) 3D images of soils and aggregates from the same soil profile, but different genetic horizons. In the first case, we use conventional morphological descriptors in 2D original and reconstructed images (pore size, shapes and orientations) to quantify reconstructions quality. In the second case, we use pore-network models extracted from original and reconstructed 3D images to calculate Ksat, WRC and relative

  8. Morphological and functional platelet abnormalities in Berkeley sickle cell mice.

    PubMed

    Shet, Arun S; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Jirouskova, Marketa; Janczak, Christin A; Stevens, Jacqueline R M; Adamson, Adewole; Mohandas, Narla; Manci, Elizabeth A; Cynober, Therese; Coller, Barry S

    2008-01-01

    Berkeley sickle cell mice are used as animal models of human sickle cell disease but there are no reports of platelet studies in this model. Since humans with sickle cell disease have platelet abnormalities, we studied platelet morphology and function in Berkeley mice (SS). We observed elevated mean platelet forward angle light scatter (FSC) values (an indirect measure of platelet volume) in SS compared to wild type (WT) (37+/-3.2 vs. 27+/-1.4, mean+/-SD; p<0.001), in association with moderate thrombocytopenia (505+/-49 x 10(3)/microl vs. 1151+/-162 x 10(3)/microl; p<0.001). Despite having marked splenomegaly, SS mice had elevated levels of Howell-Jolly bodies and "pocked" erythrocytes (p<0.001 for both) suggesting splenic dysfunction. SS mice also had elevated numbers of thiazole orange positive platelets (5+/-1% vs. 1+/-1%; p<0.001), normal to low plasma thrombopoietin levels, normal plasma glycocalicin levels, normal levels of platelet recovery, and near normal platelet life spans. Platelets from SS mice bound more fibrinogen and antibody to P-selectin following activation with a threshold concentration of a protease activated receptor (PAR)-4 peptide compared to WT mice. Enlarged platelets are associated with a predisposition to arterial thrombosis in humans and some humans with SCD have been reported to have large platelets. Thus, additional studies are needed to assess whether large platelets contribute either to pulmonary hypertension or the large vessel arterial occlusion that produces stroke in some children with sickle cell disease.

  9. Morphology from the maximum entropy principle: domains in a phase ordering system and a crack pattern in broken glass.

    PubMed

    Fiałkowski, Marcin; Hołyst, Robert

    2002-05-01

    The maximum entropy principle is applied to study the morphology of a phase ordering two-dimensional system below the critical point. The distribution of domain area A is a function of ratio of the area to contour length L, R=A/L(A), and is given by exp(-lambda R(mu)) with exponent mu=2, which follows from the Lifshitz-Cahn-Allen theory. A and L are linked through the relation L approximately A(nu). We find two types of domain in the system: large of elongated shape (nu=0.88) and small of circular shape (nu=0.5). A crack pattern in broken glass belongs to the same morphology class with mu=1 and nu=0.72.

  10. Functional morphology of giant mole crab larvae: a possible case of defensive enrollment.

    PubMed

    Rudolf, Nicole R; Haug, Carolin; Haug, Joachim T

    2016-01-01

    Mole crabs (Hippidae) are morphologically distinct animals within Meiura, the "short-tailed" crustaceans. More precisely, Hippidae is an ingroup of Anomala, the group which includes squat lobsters, hermit crabs, and numerous "false" crabs. Within Meiura, Anomala is the sister group to Brachyura, which includes all true crabs. Most meiuran crustaceans develop through two specific larval phases. The first, pelagic one is the zoea phase, which is followed by the transitory megalopa phase (only one stage). Zoea larvae are rather small, usually having a total size of only a few millimeters. Zoea larvae of some hippidan species grow significantly larger, up to 15 mm in size, making them the largest known zoea larvae of all anomalan, and probably all meiuran, crustaceans. It has been suggested that such giant larvae may be adapted to a specific defensive strategy; i.e., enrollment. However, to date such giant larvae represent a rarity. Eight specimens of large-sized hippidan larvae from museum collections were photographed with a Canon Rebel T3i digital camera under cross-polarized light. Additionally, one of the specimens was documented with a Keyence BZ-9000 fluorescence microscope. The specimen was subsequently dissected to document all appendages in detail. UV light (377 nm) was used for illumination, consistent with the specimen's autofluorescence capacities. For high-resolution images, composite imaging was applied. All specimens differ in important aspects from all other known hippidan zoea larvae, and thus probably represent either previously unreported larvae or stages of known species, or larvae of unknown species. The sixth pleon segment articulates off the telson, a condition not previously reported in hippidan zoea larvae, but only for the next larva phase (megalopa). The larvae described here thus most likely represent the ultimate pelagic larval stages, or rare cases of 'early megalopae'. The morphological features indicate that giant hippidan larvae

  11. Morphology and phase controlled cobalt nanostructures in magnetic polypropylene nanocomposites: the role of alkyl chain-length in maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene.

    PubMed

    He, Qingliang; Yuan, Tingting; Luo, Zhiping; Haldolaarachchige, Neel; Young, David P; Wei, Suying; Guo, Zhanhu

    2013-04-04

    A novel function of maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (PP) with different backbone chain-lengths was demonstrated, i.e., in controlling the cobalt morphologies (dispersed polyhedral vs. assembled chain nanostructure), crystalline structures (ε- vs. β-phase), and magnetic property (242 vs. 808 Oe) in the synthesized magnetic PP nanocomposites.

  12. Morphological abnormalities in baseline ECGs in healthy normal volunteers participating in phase I studies

    PubMed Central

    Hingorani, Pooja; Natekar, Mili; Deshmukh, Sheetal; Karnad, Dilip R.; Kothari, Snehal; Narula, Dhiraj; Lokhandwala, Yash

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Morphological abnormalities in 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) are seen in subgroups of healthy individuals like athletes and air-force personnel. As these populations may not truly represent healthy individuals, we assessed morphological abnormalities in ECG in healthy volunteers participating in phase I studies, who are screened to exclude associated conditions. Methods: ECGs from 62 phase I studies analyzed in a central ECG laboratory were pooled. A single drug-free baseline ECG from each subject was reviewed by experienced cardiologists. ECG intervals were measured on five consecutive beats and morphological abnormalities identified using standard guidelines. Results: Morphological abnormalities were detected in 25.5 per cent of 3978 healthy volunteers (2495 males, 1483 females; aged 18-76 yr); the presence was higher in males (29.3% vs. 19.2% in females; P<0.001). Rhythm abnormalities were the commonest (11.5%) followed by conduction abnormalities (5.9%), axis deviation (4%), ST-T wave changes (3.1%) and chamber enlargement (1.4%). Incomplete right bundle branch block (RBBB), short PR interval and right ventricular hypertrophy were common in young subjects (<20 yr) while atrial fibrillation, first degree atrioventricular block, complete RBBB and left anterior fascicular block were more prevalent in elderly subjects (>65 yr). Prolonged PR interval, RBBB and intraventricular conduction defects were more common in males while sinus tachycardia, short PR interval and non-specific T wave changes were more frequent in females. Interpretation & Conclusions: Morphological abnormalities in ECG are commonly seen in healthy volunteers participating in phase I studies; and vary with age and gender. Further studies are required to determine whether these abnormalities persist or if some of these disappear on follow up. PMID:22561618

  13. Relationships between phase morphology and deformation mechanisms in polymer nanocomposite nanofibres prepared by an electrospinning process.

    PubMed

    Kim, G M; Lach, R; Michler, G H; Pötschke, P; Albrecht, K

    2006-02-28

    Relationships between phase morphology and mechanical deformation processes in various electrospun polymer nanocomposite nanofibres (PNCNFs) containing different types of one-, two- and three-dimensional nanofiller have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy using in situ tensile techniques. From the study of the phase structure of electrospun PNCNFs, two morphological standard types are classified for the analysis of deformation mechanisms: the binary system (polymer matrix and nanofillers), and the ternary system (polymer matrix, nanofillers and nanopores on the fibres surface). According to these categories, deformation processes have been characterized, and different schematic models for these processes are proposed. The finding of importance in the present work is a brittle-to-ductile transition in polymer nanocomposite fibres during in situ tensile deformation processes. This unique feature in the deformation behaviour of electrospun PNCNFs provides an optimal balance of stiffness, strength and toughness for use as reinforcing elements in a polymer based composite of a new kind.

  14. Supertoughened renewable PLA reactive multiphase blends system: phase morphology and performance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kunyu; Nagarajan, Vidhya; Misra, Manjusri; Mohanty, Amar K

    2014-08-13

    Multiphase blends of poly(lactic acid) (PLA), ethylene-methyl acrylate-glycidyl methacrylate (EMA-GMA) terpolymer, and a series of renewable poly(ether-b-amide) elastomeric copolymer (PEBA) were fabricated through reactive melt blending in an effort to improve the toughness of the PLA. Supertoughened PLA blend showing impact strength of ∼500 J/m with partial break impact behavior was achieved at an optimized blending ratio of 70 wt % PLA, 20 wt % EMA-GMA, and 10 wt % PEBA. Miscibility and thermal behavior of the binary blends PLA/PEBA and PLA/EMA-GMA, and the multiphase blends were also investigated through differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Phase morphology and fracture surface morphology of the blends were studied through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to understand the strong corelation between the morphology and its significant effect on imparting tremendous improvement in toughness. A unique "multiple stacked structure" with partial encapsulation of EMA-GMA and PEBA minor phases was observed for the PLA/EMA-GMA/PEBA (70/20/10) revealing the importance of particular blend composition in enhancing the toughness. Toughening mechanism behind the supertoughened PLA blends have been established by studying the impact fractured surface morphology at different zones of fracture. Synergistic effect of good interfacial adhesion and interfacial cavitations followed by massive shear yielding of the matrix was believed to contribute to the enormous toughening effect observed in these multiphase blends.

  15. Change dynamics of RBC morphology after injection glucose for diabetes by diffraction phase microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talaykova, N. A.; Kalyanov, A. L.; Lychagov, V. V.; Ryabukho, V. P.; Malinova, L. I.

    2013-11-01

    Experimental setup of diffraction phase microscope (DPM) with double low-coherence lighting system is presented in the paper. Algorithm of interference picture processing and optical thickness, height, volume and mean cells volume (MCV) of RBC calculating is shown. We demonstrate results of experiments with blood smears and ability of the method to calculate 3D model of the biological cells shape. Investigation change dynamics of RBC morphology after injection glucose for diabetes by DPM is shown in the paper.

  16. Surface Morphology and Structure of Double-Phase Magnetic Alkali Borosilicate Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, N. V.; Naberezhnov, A. A.; Tomkovich, M. V.; Nacke, B.; Kichigin, V.; Rudskoy, A. I.; Filimonov, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    The surface morphology of double-phase magnetic alkali borosilicate glasses of four types obtained by induction melting is studied by the methods of atomic-force and scanning electron microscopy. The distribution of elements over the surface and the elemental composition of the glasses are determined. It is shown that a dendritic system of interrelated channels required for formation of porous matrixes with controlled mean pore diameter may be obtained in these objects depending on the heat treatment mode.

  17. Simple solution routes for targeted carbonate phases and intricate carbonate and silicate morphologies.

    PubMed

    Kosma, Vassiliki A; Beltsios, Konstantinos G

    2013-01-01

    This work deals with the preparation of ceramic phases similar to those encountered in natural biocomposites through relatively fast and low-cost aqueous routes and various simple reactants and additives such as urea, commercial gelatin and hexamethyldiamine. In addition to the crystallographic (or amorphous) character of targeted phases (calcite, vaterite, aragonite, silica and silicates) particle morphology is also of interest and among others, we have obtained fractions of particles in the form of nanofibrilar calcite networks, calcium silicate doughnuts and Gordian knots, and diatom-like perforated silica cylinders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Nanomechanical morphology of amorphous, transition, and crystalline domains in phase change memory thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosse, J. L.; Grishin, I.; Huey, B. D.; Kolosov, O. V.

    2014-09-01

    In the search for phase change materials (PCM) that may rival traditional random access memory, a complete understanding of the amorphous to crystalline phase transition is required. For the well-known Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) and GeTe (GT) chalcogenides, which display nucleation and growth dominated crystallization kinetics, respectively, this work explores the nanomechanical morphology of amorphous and crystalline phases in 50 nm thin films. Subjecting these PCM specimens to a lateral thermal gradient spanning the crystallization temperature allows for a detailed morphological investigation. Surface and depth-dependent analyses of the resulting amorphous, transition and crystalline regions are achieved with shallow angle cross-sections, uniquely implemented with beam exit Ar ion polishing. To resolve the distinct phases, ultrasonic force microscopy (UFM) with simultaneous topography is implemented revealing a relative stiffness contrast between the amorphous and crystalline phases of 14% for the free film surface and 20% for the cross-sectioned surface. Nucleation is observed to occur preferentially at the PCM-substrate and free film interface for both GST and GT, while fine subsurface structures are found to be sputtering direction dependent. Combining surface and cross-section nanomechanical mapping in this manner allows 3D analysis of microstructure and defects with nanoscale lateral and depth resolution, applicable to a wide range of materials characterization studies where the detection of subtle variations in elastic modulus or stiffness are required.

  19. Two Different Types of Single Crystal Morphologies of the γ-Phase and Their Conversion in Isotactic Polypropylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yan; van Horn, Ryan; Tsai, Chi-Chun; Graham, Matthew; Jeong, Kwuang-Un; de Rosa, Claudio; Lotz, Bernard; Cheng, Stephen Z. D.

    2009-03-01

    In the past, the crystallographic relationship between the γ-phase and the α-phase in isotactic polypropylene was extensively studied via oligomers of iPP. We attempt to investigate how the crystal morphological changes take place in the γ-phase using high molecular weight iPP-co-polyethylene samples. Due to the specific epitaxial growth of the γ-phase on the elongated α-phase single crystals, two different morphologies were identified via transmission electron and atomic force microscopies. The first γ-phase crystal morphology is needle-like. Selective area electron diffraction results showed that their [1 10] or [110] zone axis was parallel to the thin film normal. The growth of this type of epitaxial γ-phase crystal was due to the stem direction in the initial α-phase single crystal being parallel to the thin film normal. The second γ-phase crystal morphology was flat lamellae. This requires that the initial α-phase single crystal had to have a stem orientation tilted away from the thin film normal. Therefore, the sufficient and necessary condition for the γ-phase morphological conversion from the needle-like crystal to the flat crystal is the change of the stem orientation direction of the initial α-phase single crystals.

  20. Morphological and phase changes in calcium oxalate crystals grown in the presence of sodium diisooctyl sulfosuccinate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunik, L.; Addadi, L.; Garti, N.; Füredi-Milhofer, H.

    1996-10-01

    Calcium oxalate was crystallized in the presence of the anionic surfactant dioctyl sulphosuccinate, AOT, and the phase composition of the precipitates (by X-ray diffraction powder patterns and thermal analysis) and their crystal growth morphology (by scanning electron microscopy and electron diffraction) were determined. In the control systems and in the presence of low concentrations of AOT (below the critical micellar concentration, CMC) calcium oxalate monohydrate (CaC 2O 4 · H 2O, COM) was the dominant crystal phase. Crystals grown in the presence of C(AOT) > 0.75 CMC were thinner and more elongated than in the controls, indicating preferential adsorption of the surfactant at the 101 and [lcub]010[rcub] crystal faces. When the AOT concentration exceeded the critical micellar concentration, the morphological changes in COM crystals became more intense and the composition of the precipitates abruptly changed to mixtures of COM and calcium oxalate dihydrate (CaC 2O 4 · (2 + x)H 2O, x < 0.5; COD) with a {COM}/{COD} ratio up to 50 wt%. The morphology of the COD crystals was mostly unaffected. The phase change was attributed to preferential adsorption of AOT — in the form of surface aggregates — at the crystal faces of COM with the consequence of strong inhibition of nucleation and crystal growth of this crystal type and growth of the kinetically less favored COD crystals.

  1. Nanofiber Composite Membranes for Alkaline Fuel Cells: Generation of Compositional, Morphological, and Functional Property Relationships

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Nanofiber Composite Membranes for Alkaline Fuel Cells: Generation of Compositional...Nanofiber Composite Membranes for Alkaline Fuel Cells: Generation of Compositional, Morphological, and Functional Property Relationships...and carefully measured compositions and nanofiber morphologies. From these membranes, fundamental structure/function relationships will be generated

  2. [The Different Phase, Morphology Controllable Synthesis and Luminescent Properties Investigation of NaYF⁴: Yb, Er].

    PubMed

    Han, Yu-ting; Xu, Jing; Qiao, Shu-liang; Yang, Bo; Li, Li; Liu, Cai-hong; Yao, Shuang; Yan, Jing-hui; Zou, Ming-qiang

    2015-12-01

    Using sodium fluoride and rare earth nitrate as raw materials and sodium citrate as surfactant, micron grade NaYF4 upconversion luminescent materials were prepared by hydrothermal method. By X-ray diffraction(XRD), scanning electron microscope(SEM) and fluorescence spectrometer, the crystal phase, morphology and luminescent characteristics of the prepared samples were investigated. The results showed that the phase of the samples could generate a transition from cubic phase to hexagonal phase by adjusting the proportion (5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11) of NaF/RE , and the X ray diffraction peaks for the cubic and hexagonal phase of samples exactly matched with those of the standard card of PDF# 77-2042 and PDF# 16-0334, respectively. The SEM photographs showed that the crystallinity of samples was high and the dispersibility was favourable, the morphology were translated from microrods to hexagonal microplates. The samples upconversion luminescent spectra showed the intensity enhancement of red and green light emission peaks with increasement of the ratio of NaF/RE3+. The green emission peaks of samples at 520 and 539 nm corresponded to the ²H¹¹/²-⁴-->I₁₅/₂ and ⁴S₃/₂-->⁴I₁₅/₂ level transition of Er³⁺ ion, and the red light emission peaks of samples at 653 nm corresponded to the ⁴F₉/₂-->⁴I₁₅/₂ levelt ransition of Er+ ion. The chromaticity coordinate diagram exhibited that the change of the luminescent color of samples could be achieved by adjusting the ratio of NaF/RE³⁺. With the increasing of NaF/RE³⁺ ratio, for the whole light-emitting colors of samples, the shift from yellow region to near red region could be realized. It can be concluded that through the relatively simple experimental procedure and lower cost materials, the change of phase and morphology, the moving of light-emitting color for sample NaYF4:Yb³⁺, Er³⁺ could be well controlled only by changing the single component (NaF) molar ratio in the raw materials

  3. Chronological transition of mitochondrial morphology in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlorophyceae) poststationary phase growth(1).

    PubMed

    Aoyama, Hiroaki; Kuroiwa, Tsuneyoshi; Nakamura, Soichi

    2013-04-01

    In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii P. A. Dangeard, mitochondrial morphology has been observed during asexual cell division cycle, gamete and zygote formation, zygote maturation, and meiotic stages. However, the chronological transition of mitochondrial morphology after the stationary phase of vegetative growth, defined as the poststationary phase, remains unknown. Here, we examined the mitochondrial morphology in cells cultured for 4 months on agar plates to study mitochondrial dynamics in the poststationary phase. Fluorescence microscopy showed that the intricate thread-like structure of mitochondria gradually changed into a granular structure via fragmentation after the stationary phase in cultures of about 1 week of age. The number of mitochondrial nucleoids decreased from about 30 per cell at 1 week to about five per cell after 4 months of culture. The mitochondrial oxygen consumption decreased exponentially, but the mitochondria retained their membrane potential. The total quantity of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of cells at 4 months decreased to 20% of that at 1 week. However, the mitochondrial genomic DNA length was unchanged, as intermediate lengths were not detected. In cells in which the total mtDNA amount was reduced artificially to 16% after treatment with 5-fluoro-2-deoxyuridine (FdUrd) for 1 week, the mitochondria remained as thread-like structures. The oxygen consumption rate of these cells corresponded to that of untreated cells at 1 week of culture. This suggests that a decrease in mtDNA does not directly induce the fragmentation of mitochondria. The results suggest that during the late poststationary phase, mitochondria converge to a minimum unit of a granular structure with a mitochondrial nucleoid. © 2013 Phycological Society of America.

  4. Lung Metabolism, Function, and Morphology during Hyperoxic and Hyperbaric Exposure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    followed by a 30 min wash period resulted in total loss of phase I of the 5-HT dose - response curve . Partial loss of phase II was also observed and was... response curve to 5-HT in guinea-pig isolated pulmonary arteries exhibits two contractile phases (Fed. Proc. 41: 1649, 1982). The first phase (I) is blocked...deviation in post-capillary transit times was about 1.8 seconds. A. 2) ENHANCEMENT BY PHENTOLAMINE OF RESPONSES TO 5-HT AFTER TACHYPHYLAXIS. The dose

  5. Sigma phase morphologies in cast and aged super duplex stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Martins, Marcelo; Casteletti, Luiz Carlos

    2009-08-15

    Solution annealed and water quenched duplex and super duplex stainless steels are thermodynamically metastable systems at room temperature. These systems do not migrate spontaneously to a thermodynamically stable condition because an energy barrier separates the metastable and stable states. However, any heat input they receive, for example through isothermal treatment or through prolonged exposure to a voltaic arc in the welding process, cause them to reach a condition of stable equilibrium which, for super duplex stainless steels, means precipitation of intermetallic and carbide phases. These phases include the sigma phase, which is easily identified from its morphology, and its influence on the material's impact strength. The purpose of this work was to ascertain how 2-hour isothermal heat treatments at 920 deg. C and 980 deg. C affect the microstructure of ASTM A890/A890M GR 6A super duplex stainless steel. The sigma phase morphologies were found to be influenced by these two aging temperatures, with the material showing a predominantly lacy microstructure when heat treated at 920 deg. C and block-shaped when heat treated at 980 deg. C.

  6. Effects of monomer functionality on performances of scaffolding morphologic transmission gratings recorded in polymer dispersed liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wenbin; Pu, Donglin; Shen, Su; Wei, Guojun; Xuan, Li; Chen, Linsen

    2015-09-01

    The effects of monomer functionality on performances of holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) transmission gratings are systematically investigated. Acrylate monomers with an average functionality ranging from 2.0 to 5.0 are used to prepare these samples. We find scaffolding morphologic transmission gratings (characterized by a high phase separation degree, a well alignment of LCs and low scattering loss) can be obtained irrespective of the monomer functionality, although the exact optimal curing intensity varies. The temporal evolution of the grating formation is studied and the onset time of the LC phase separation decreases significantly with the increase in average monomer functionality. It is also shown that the gratings prepared from low average functionality monomers require a comparatively low switch-off electric field (~8 V μm-1) whilst suffering from mechanical fragility and long-term instability. Our results not only provide a complete understanding of scaffolding morphologic gratings in terms of the material composition effect, but also provide insight into the formation mechanisms of non-droplet morphologic HPDLC gratings.

  7. Functional Imaging of Tissue Morphology with Polarized Light Scattering Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backman, Vadim

    2001-03-01

    We report a new imaging technique to study the morphology of living epithelial cells in vivo. The method is based on light scattering spectroscopy with polarized light (PLSS) and makes it possible to distinguish between single backscattering from epithelial cell nuclei and multiply scattered light. The spectrum of the single backscattering component is further analyzed to provide quantitative histological information about the epithelial cells such as the size distribution, refractive index, and chromatin content of the cell nuclei. The measurement of cell nuclear morphology is crucial for detection and diagnosis of cancerous and precancerous conditions in many human tissues. The method was successfully applied to image precancerous regions of several tissues. Clinical studies in five organs (esophagus, colon, bladder, oral cavity, and uterine cervix) showed the generality and efficacy of the technique.

  8. Morphological-evolution pathway during phase separation in polymer solutions with highly asymmetrical miscibility gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Gang; Yang, Tao; Yang, Sen; Wang, Yunzhi

    2017-09-01

    Microstructural evolution during thermally induced phase separation in a polymer solution with a highly asymmetrical miscibility gap is analyzed using Flory-Huggins thermodynamics and nonlinear Cahn-Hilliard kinetics. Computer simulation results demonstrate that, in contrast to systems with symmetric miscibility gaps, interesting morphological-evolution pathways (MEPs) including cluster-to-percolation and percolation-to-cluster transitions are identified. These MEPs are rationalized according to asynchronous evolution of the two product phases. For a highly asymmetric polymer system, the initial solution composition is also found to play a critical role in determining the MEPs. According to the simulation results a map of MEPs in terms of initial solution composition and aging time of phase separation is established to guide future microstructural design in asymmetrical polymer solutions.

  9. Morphology and crystalline-phase-dependent electrical insulating properties in tailored polypropylene for HVDC cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, Jun-Wei; Yan, Hong-Da; Li, Wei-Kang; Dang, Zhi-Min

    2016-11-01

    Polypropylene (PP) has become one promising material to potentially replace the cross-link polyethylene used for high voltage direct current cables. Besides the isotactic polypropylene, the block polypropylene (b-PP) and random polypropylene (r-PP) can be synthesized through the copolymerization of ethylene and propylene molecules. In this letter, the effect of morphology and crystalline phases on the insulating electrical properties of PP was investigated. It was found that the introduction of polyethylene monomer resulted in the formation of β and γ phases in b-PP and r-PP. The results from the characteristic trap energy levels indicated that the β and γ phases could induce deep electron traps which enable to capture the carriers. And the space charge accumulation was obviously suppressed. Besides, the decreased electrical conductivity was observed in b-PP and r-PP. It is attributed to the existence of deep traps which can effectively reduce the carrier mobility and density in materials.

  10. Mammal hip morphology and function: coxa recta and coxa rotunda.

    PubMed

    Bouma, Heinse W; De Boer, Stefan F; De Vos, John; Van Kampen, Paulien M; Hogervorst, Tom

    2013-02-01

    Using 15 parameters, we provide a systematic description of mammal proximal femoral morphology. We established two types of proximal femoral morphology, termed coxa recta and coxa rotunda, characterized by low versus high concavity of the head-neck junction. Concavity is a measure of the sphericity of the femoral head as it meets the femoral neck that can be quantified by angular measurements. We asked whether the parameter of concavity corresponds with the classification of mammal proximal femoral morphology based on coalesced versus separate ossification patterns and locomotor patterns. Statistical analysis demonstrated a distinction between coxa recta and coxa rotunda with significant differences between the two groups in all but 3 of the 15 parameters examined. We found the most discriminating measurement between mammal hips to be the concavity of the posterior head-neck junction (beta angle). Coxa recta (small concavity) and coxa rotunda (large concavity) relate to the ossification pattern seen in proximal femoral development, and species-specific patterns of locomotion. We interpret the two hip types to reflect optimization for strength (recta) versus mobility (rotunda). Conceptually, both hip types can be recognized in humans, where coxa recta can be related to the development of osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Morphological instability of Ag films caused by phase transition in the underlying Ta barrier layer

    SciTech Connect

    Mardani, Shabnam Vallin, Örjan; Wätjen, Jörn Timo; Norström, Hans; Olsson, Jörgen; Zhang, Shi-Li

    2014-08-18

    Wide-bandgap (WBG) semiconductor technologies are maturing and may provide increased device performance in many fields of applications, such as high-temperature electronics. However, there are still issues regarding the stability and reliability of WBG devices. Of particular importance is the high-temperature stability of interconnects for electronic systems based on WBG-semiconductors. For metallization without proper encapsulation, morphological degradation can occur at elevated temperatures. Sandwiching Ag films between Ta and/or TaN layers in this study is found to be electrically and morphologically stabilize the Ag metallization up to 800 °C, compared to 600 °C for uncapped films. However, the barrier layer plays a key role and TaN is found to be superior to Ta, resulting in the best achieved stability, whereas the difference between Ta and TaN caps is negligible. The β-to-α phase transition in the underlying Ta barrier layer is identified as the major cause responsible for the morphological instability observed above 600 °C. It is shown that this phase transition can be avoided using a stacked Ta/TaN barrier.

  12. Morphological and functional diversity in therizinosaur claws and the implications for theropod claw evolution

    PubMed Central

    Lautenschlager, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Therizinosaurs are a group of herbivorous theropod dinosaurs from the Cretaceous of North America and Asia, best known for their iconically large and elongate manual claws. However, among Therizinosauria, ungual morphology is highly variable, reflecting a general trend found in derived theropod dinosaurs (Maniraptoriformes). A combined approach of shape analysis to characterize changes in manual ungual morphology across theropods and finite-element analysis to assess the biomechanical properties of different ungual shapes in therizinosaurs reveals a functional diversity related to ungual morphology. While some therizinosaur taxa used their claws in a generalist fashion, other taxa were functionally adapted to use the claws as grasping hooks during foraging. Results further indicate that maniraptoriform dinosaurs deviated from the plesiomorphic theropod ungual morphology resulting in increased functional diversity. This trend parallels modifications of the cranial skeleton in derived theropods in response to dietary adaptation, suggesting that dietary diversification was a major driver for morphological and functional disparity in theropod evolution. PMID:24807260

  13. Morphological and functional diversity in therizinosaur claws and the implications for theropod claw evolution.

    PubMed

    Lautenschlager, Stephan

    2014-06-22

    Therizinosaurs are a group of herbivorous theropod dinosaurs from the Cretaceous of North America and Asia, best known for their iconically large and elongate manual claws. However, among Therizinosauria, ungual morphology is highly variable, reflecting a general trend found in derived theropod dinosaurs (Maniraptoriformes). A combined approach of shape analysis to characterize changes in manual ungual morphology across theropods and finite-element analysis to assess the biomechanical properties of different ungual shapes in therizinosaurs reveals a functional diversity related to ungual morphology. While some therizinosaur taxa used their claws in a generalist fashion, other taxa were functionally adapted to use the claws as grasping hooks during foraging. Results further indicate that maniraptoriform dinosaurs deviated from the plesiomorphic theropod ungual morphology resulting in increased functional diversity. This trend parallels modifications of the cranial skeleton in derived theropods in response to dietary adaptation, suggesting that dietary diversification was a major driver for morphological and functional disparity in theropod evolution.

  14. Systematic morphological profiling of human gene and allele function via Cell Painting.

    PubMed

    Rohban, Mohammad Hossein; Singh, Shantanu; Wu, Xiaoyun; Berthet, Julia B; Bray, Mark-Anthony; Shrestha, Yashaswi; Varelas, Xaralabos; Boehm, Jesse S; Carpenter, Anne E

    2017-03-18

    We hypothesized that human genes and disease-associated alleles might be systematically functionally annotated using morphological profiling of cDNA constructs, via a microscopy-based Cell Painting assay. Indeed, 50% of the 220 tested genes yielded detectable morphological profiles, which grouped into biologically meaningful gene clusters consistent with known functional annotation (e.g., the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK cascade). We used novel subpopulation-based visualization methods to interpret the morphological changes for specific clusters. This unbiased morphologic map of gene function revealed TRAF2/c-REL negative regulation of YAP1/WWTR1-responsive pathways. We confirmed this discovery of functional connectivity between the NF-κB pathway and Hippo pathway effectors at the transcriptional level, thereby expanding knowledge of these two signaling pathways that critically regulate tumor initiation and progression. We make the images and raw data publicly available, providing an initial morphological map of major biological pathways for future study.

  15. Crystal and morphological phase transformation of Pb(II) to Pb(IV) in chlorinated water.

    PubMed

    Lytle, Darren A; White, Colin; Nadagouda, Mallikarjuna N; Worrall, Adam

    2009-06-15

    Herein, we show an important transformation of Pb(II) to Pb(IV) in chlorinated water under laboratory conditions. The study results will give an insight toward understanding how corrosion by-products on lead materials found in drinking water distribution systems develop and breakdown with time. The experiments were conducted to elucidate the morphology of lead (IV) oxide mineral transformation from hydrocerussite and its relationship to color change over a period of time. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to describe the surface morphology, shape and size of lead solids. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was performed to determine the mineral structure of lead solids. Solids analysis results were compared over a 14-day period of time to define changes in the crystal structure and morphology of lead solids. XRD analysis results of freshly synthesized lead solids showed that hydrocerussite, [Pb(3)(CO(3))(2)(OH)(2)], was the only lead mineral present. After 14 days, a mixture of cerussite (PbCO(3)) and alpha-PbO(2) and beta-PbO(2) was present. Lead precipitates, i.e. hydrocerussite changed color from white to reddish brown confirming a transformation of the lead phase with time. This was correlated to a change in morphology from flower shaped crystals to hexagonal bars and submicron particles.

  16. Phase-field simulations of coherent precipitate morphologies and coarsening kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaithyanathan, Venugopalan

    2002-09-01

    The primary aim of this research is to enhance the fundamental understanding of coherent precipitation reactions in advanced metallic alloys. The emphasis is on a particular class of precipitation reactions which result in ordered intermetallic precipitates embedded in a disordered matrix. These precipitation reactions underlie the development of high-temperature Ni-base superalloys and ultra-light aluminum alloys. Phase-field approach, which has emerged as the method of choice for modeling microstructure evolution, is employed for this research with the focus on factors that control the precipitate morphologies and coarsening kinetics, such as precipitate volume fractions and lattice mismatch between precipitates and matrix. Two types of alloy systems are considered. The first involves L1 2 ordered precipitates in a disordered cubic matrix, in an attempt to model the gamma' precipitates in Ni-base superalloys and delta' precipitates in Al-Li alloys. The effect of volume fraction on coarsening kinetics of gamma' precipitates was investigated using two-dimensional (2D) computer simulations. With increase in volume fraction, larger fractions of precipitates were found to have smaller aspect ratios in the late stages of coarsening, and the precipitate size distributions became wider and more positively skewed. The most interesting result was associated with the effect of volume fraction on the coarsening rate constant. Coarsening rate constant as a function of volume fraction extracted from the cubic growth law of average half-edge length was found to exhibit three distinct regimes: anomalous behavior or decreasing rate constant with volume fraction at small volume fractions ( ≲ 20%), volume fraction independent or constant behavior for intermediate volume fractions (˜20--50%), and the normal behavior or increasing rate constant with volume fraction for large volume fractions ( ≳ 50%). The second alloy system considered was Al-Cu with the focus on understanding

  17. Morphology predicts species' functional roles and their degree of specialization in plant-frugivore interactions.

    PubMed

    Dehling, D Matthias; Jordano, Pedro; Schaefer, H Martin; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Schleuning, Matthias

    2016-01-27

    Species' functional roles in key ecosystem processes such as predation, pollination or seed dispersal are determined by the resource use of consumer species. An interaction between resource and consumer species usually requires trait matching (e.g. a congruence in the morphologies of interaction partners). Species' morphology should therefore determine species' functional roles in ecological processes mediated by mutualistic or antagonistic interactions. We tested this assumption for Neotropical plant-bird mutualisms. We used a new analytical framework that assesses a species's functional role based on the analysis of the traits of its interaction partners in a multidimensional trait space. We employed this framework to test (i) whether there is correspondence between the morphology of bird species and their functional roles and (ii) whether morphologically specialized birds fulfil specialized functional roles. We found that morphological differences between bird species reflected their functional differences: (i) bird species with different morphologies foraged on distinct sets of plant species and (ii) morphologically distinct bird species fulfilled specialized functional roles. These findings encourage further assessments of species' functional roles through the analysis of their interaction partners, and the proposed analytical framework facilitates a wide range of novel analyses for network and community ecology. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. Morphology predicts species' functional roles and their degree of specialization in plant–frugivore interactions

    PubMed Central

    Dehling, D. Matthias; Schaefer, H. Martin; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Schleuning, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Species' functional roles in key ecosystem processes such as predation, pollination or seed dispersal are determined by the resource use of consumer species. An interaction between resource and consumer species usually requires trait matching (e.g. a congruence in the morphologies of interaction partners). Species' morphology should therefore determine species' functional roles in ecological processes mediated by mutualistic or antagonistic interactions. We tested this assumption for Neotropical plant–bird mutualisms. We used a new analytical framework that assesses a species's functional role based on the analysis of the traits of its interaction partners in a multidimensional trait space. We employed this framework to test (i) whether there is correspondence between the morphology of bird species and their functional roles and (ii) whether morphologically specialized birds fulfil specialized functional roles. We found that morphological differences between bird species reflected their functional differences: (i) bird species with different morphologies foraged on distinct sets of plant species and (ii) morphologically distinct bird species fulfilled specialized functional roles. These findings encourage further assessments of species' functional roles through the analysis of their interaction partners, and the proposed analytical framework facilitates a wide range of novel analyses for network and community ecology. PMID:26817779

  19. Morphology of uranium electrodeposits on cathode in electrorefining process: A phase-field simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibuta, Yasushi; Sato, Takumi; Suzuki, Toshio; Ohta, Hirokazu; Kurata, Masaki

    2013-05-01

    Morphology of uranium electrodeposits on cathode with respect to applied voltage, zirconium concentration in the molten salt and the size of primary deposit during pyroprocessing is systematically investigated by the phase-field simulation. It is found that there is a threshold zirconium concentration in the molten salt demarcating planar and cellular/needle-like electrodeposits, which agrees with experimental results. In addition, the effect of size of primary deposits on the morphology of electrodeposits is examined. It is then confirmed that cellular/needle-like electrodeposits are formed from large primary deposits at all applied voltages considered, whereas both the planar and cellular/needle-like electrodeposits are formed from the primary deposits of 10 μm and less.

  20. Characterization of pore scale NAPL morphology in homogeneous sands as a function of grain size and NAPL dissolution.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jaehyun; Annable, Michael D

    2005-11-01

    In this study, we investigate pore scale morphology of nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) trapped in different pore sizes using tracer techniques. Specific interfacial area and saturation of NAPL trapped in homogeneous sands were measured using the interfacial and partitioning tracer techniques. The observed NAPL-water interfacial areas increased in a log-linear fashion with decreasing sand grain size, but showed no clear trend with residual NAPL saturation formed in the various grain sizes. The measured values were used to calculate the NAPL morphology index, which characterizes the spatial NAPL distribution within the pore space. The NAPL morphology indices, increased exponentially with decreasing grain size, indicating that the NAPL becomes smaller, but more blobs. For a fixed grain size, the specific interfacial area and saturation of the NAPL were measured following changes caused by dissolution using alcohol. The observed interfacial areas showed a decrease linearly as a function of the NAPL saturation.

  1. Surface morphology changes of acrylic resins during finishing and polishing phases.

    PubMed

    Serra, Glaucio; de Morais, Liliane Siqueira; Elias, Carlos Nelson

    2013-01-01

    The finishing and polishing phases are essential to improve smoothness and shining on the surface of acrylic resins used to make removable orthodontic appliances. A good surface finishing reduces roughness, which facilitates hygiene, prevents staining and provides greater comfort to the patients. The aim of this paper was to analyze the changes on surface morphology of acrylic resins during finishing and polishing phases. Thirty discs (10 mm in diameter and 5 mm in length) were made with acrylic resin and randomly divided into ten groups. The control group did not receive any treatment while the other groups received gradual finishing and polishing. The last group received the entire finishing and polishing procedures. Surface morphology was qualitatively analyzed through scanning electron microscopy and quantitatively analyzed through a laser profilometer test. The acrylic resin surfaces without treatment showed bubbles which were not observed in the subsequent phases. Wearing out with multilaminated burs, finishing with wood sandpaper and finishing with water sandpaper resulted in surfaces with decreasing irregularities. The surfaces that were polished with pumice and with low abrasive liquids showed high superficial smoothness. Highly smooth acrylic resin surfaces can be obtained after mechanical finishing and polishing performed with multilaminated burs, wood sandpaper, water sandpaper, pumice and low abrasive liquids.

  2. Effect of chain extender on the phase behavior and morphology of high hard block content polyurethanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiotas, Achilleas; Lindsay, Chris; Saiani, Alberto

    2010-03-01

    Thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPUs) are linear block copolymers typically constructed of statistically alternating soft and hard segments, the hard segment itself being composed of an isocyanate and a short chain extender. In this project we focused on the effect that varying the chain extender used has on the phase behavior and morphology of high hard block content TPUs. Four different chain extenders were used. DSC, SAXS / WAXS, TEM / AFM, mechanical testing and FTIR were mainly used to characterize the morphology and properties of our materials. Through this work we were able to show that small changes in the chain extender chemical structure had dramatic effects on the properties of the TPUs. The use of 3-methyl-1,5-pentanediol resulted in a fully phase-mixed system with poor mechanical properties, while the use of 1,3-propanediol resulted in stiff materials with relatively high crystallinity and melting temperature. The use of 2-methyl-1,3-propanediol and 1,5-pentanediol resulted in similar materials, although 1,5-pentanediol was found to phase separate / crystallize on cooling while 2-methyl-1,3-propanediol was found to separate / crystallize on heating, suggesting a higher chain mobility in the latter materials.

  3. Fluorescence-Magnetism Functional EuS Nanocrystals with Controllable Morphologies for Dual Bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuanqing; Wang, Dandan; Zhao, Tianxin; Jiang, Yingnan; Zhao, Yueqi; Wang, Chuanxi; Sun, Hongchen; Yang, Bai; Lin, Quan

    2016-12-14

    Multiple functions incorporated in one single component material offer important applications in biosystems. Here we prepared a divalent state of rare earth EuS nanocrystals (NCs), which provides luminescent and magnetic properties, using both 1-Dodecanethiol (DT) and oleylamine (OLA) as reducing agents. The resultant EuS NCs exhibit controllable shapes, uniform size, and bright luminescence with a quantum yield as high as 3.5%. OLA as a surface ligand plays an important role in tunable morphologies, such as nanowires, nanorods, nanospheres et al. Another attractive nature of the EuS NCs is their paramagnetism at room temperature. In order to expand the biological applications, the resultant EuS NCs were modified with amphiphilic block copolymer F127 and transferred from oil to water phase. The excellent biocompatibility of EuS NCs is demonstrated as well as preservation of their luminescence and paramagnetic properties. The EuS NCs offer multifunction and great advantages of bright luminescence, paramagnetic, controllable morphologies, and good biocompatibility promising applications in the field of simultaneous magnetic resonance and fluorescence bioimaging.

  4. Cells with dendritic cell morphology and immunophenotype, binuclear morphology, and immunosuppressive function in dendritic cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Dong, Rong; Moulding, Dale; Himoudi, Nourredine; Adams, Stuart; Bouma, Gerben; Eddaoudi, Ayad; Basu, B Piku; Derniame, Sophie; Chana, Prabhjoat; Duncan, Andrew; Anderson, John

    2011-01-01

    Culturing of human peripheral blood CD14 positive monocytes is a method for generation of dendritic cells (DCs) for experimental purposes or for use in clinical grade vaccines. When culturing human DCs in this manner for clinical vaccine production, we noticed that 5-10% of cells within the bulk culture were binuclear or multiple nuclear, but had typical dendritic cell morphology and immunophenotype. We refer to the cells as binuclear cells in dendritic cell cultures (BNiDCs). By using single cell PCR analysis of mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms we demonstrated that approximately 20-25% of cells in DC culture undergo a fusion event. Flow sorted BNiDC express low HLA-DR and IL-12p70, but high levels of IL-10. In mixed lymphocyte reactions, purified BNiDC suppressed lymphocyte proliferation. Blockade of dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) decreased the number of binuclear cells in DC cultures. BNiDC represent a potentially tolerogenic population within DC preparations for clinical use.

  5. Simultaneous phase and morphology controllable synthesis of copper selenide films by microwave-assisted nonaqueous approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Fa, Wenjun; Li, Yasi; Zhao, Hongxiao; Gao, Yuanhao; Zheng, Zhi

    2013-02-01

    Copper selenide films with different phase and morphology were synthesized on copper substrate through controlling reaction solvent by microwave-assisted nonaqueous approach. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The result showed that the pure films could be obtained using cyclohexyl alcohol or benzyl alcohol as solvent. The cubic Cu2-xSe dendrites were synthesized in cyclohexyl alcohol reaction system and hexagonal CuSe flaky crystals were obtained with benzyl alcohol as solvent.

  6. Morphology and Magnetic Properties of Ferriferous Two-Phase Sodium Borosilicate Glasses

    PubMed Central

    Naberezhnov, Alexander; Porechnaya, Nadezda; Nizhankovskii, Viktor; Filimonov, Alexey; Nacke, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    This contribution is devoted to the study of morphology and magnetic properties of sodium borosilicate glasses with different concentrations (15, 20, and 25 wt.%) of α-Fe2O3 in an initial furnace charge. These glasses were prepared by a melt-quenching method. For all glasses a coexistence of drop-like and two-phase interpenetrative structures is observed. The most part of a drop structure is formed by self-assembling iron oxides particles. All types of glasses demonstrate the magnetic properties and can be used for preparation of porous magnetic matrices with nanometer through dendrite channel structure. PMID:25162045

  7. Morphology and phase diagram of complex block copolymers: ABC linear triblock copolymers.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ping; Qiu, Feng; Zhang, Hongdong; Yang, Yuliang

    2004-03-01

    Using a real space implementation of the self-consistent field theory for the polymeric system, we explore microphases of ABC linear triblock copolymers. For the sake of numerical tractability, the calculation is carried out in a two-dimensional (2D) space. Seven microphases are found to be stable for the ABC triblock copolymer in 2D, which include lamellae, hexagonal lattice, core-shell hexagonal lattice, tetragonal lattice, lamellae with beads inside, lamellae with beads at the interface, and hexagonal phase with beads at the interface. By systematically varying the composition, triangle phase diagrams are constructed for four classes of typical triblock polymers in terms of the relative strengths of the interaction energies between different species. In general, when both volume fractions and interaction energies of the three species are comparable, lamellar phases are found to be the most stable. While one of the volume fractions is large, core-shell hexagonal or tetragonal phases can be formed, depending on which of the blocks dominates. Furthermore, more complex morphologies, such as lamellae with beads inside, lamellae with beads at the interface, and hexagonal phases with beads at the interface compete for stability with lamellae structures, as the interaction energies between distinct blocks become asymmetric. Our study provides guidance for the design of microstructures in complex block copolymers.

  8. Phase morphology and orientation development of polymer blends in melt processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jinhai

    In this dissertation, we studied phase morphology development of various polymer blends in both extrusion and melt spinning using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) assisted with appropriate etching techniques. Various processing conditions, for example shear or elongation rate, shear or elongation stress, and extrusion die length/diameter ratio were considered. The effects of material characteristics, such as viscosity ratio, miscibility and interfacial tension, were studied. To do this, polymer blends were carefully selected. One isotactic polypropylene was blended with two ethylene butene copolymers (EBM), which had different butene contents. One of the blends was miscible and the other was immiscible. The polypropylene was also blended two ethylene octene copolymers (EOM). The above blends had low interfacial tension and different viscosity ratios. One EBM was blended with two polyamide 12 (PA12) materials. These blends had high interfacial tension and different viscosity ratios. One maleic anhydride grafted ethylene octene copolymer was added into the EBM/PA12 blends to decrease their interfacial tension. Studies were focused on a phenomenon that the dispersed phases in these blends could coalesce into a surface layer in both extrusion and melt spinning. This process was controlled by viscosity ratio, interfacial tension and processing conditions. The orientation development of melt spun fibers of these blends was studied by both wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and birefringence techniques. The orientation was affected by both blend morphologies and solidification order of the blend individual phases. The phase, which solidifies later in the spinline, did not affect the orientation of the first solidified phase. However, the first solidified phase, if it was continuous phase, could largely suppress the orientation of the second solidified phase. Composite stress analysis explained the different orientation behaviors. Extrusion of a PA12 material through a

  9. Malagasy cichlids differentially limit impacts of body shape evolution on oral jaw functional morphology.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Christopher M; Sparks, John S

    2017-09-01

    Patterns of trait covariation, such as integration and modularity, are vital factors that influence the evolution of vertebrate body plans. In functional systems, decoupling of morphological modules buffers functional change in one trait by reducing correlated variation with another. However, for complex morphologies with many-to-one mapping of form to function (MTOM), resistance to functional change may also be achieved by constraining morphological variation within a functionally stable region of morphospace. For this research, we used geometric morphometrics to evaluate the evolution of body shape and its relationship with jaw functional morphology in two independent radiations of endemic Malagasy cichlid (Teleostei: Cichlidae). Our results suggested that the two subfamilies used different strategies to mitigate impacts of body shape variation on a metric of jaw function, maxillary kinematic transmission (MKT): (1) modularity between cranial and postcranial morphologies, and (2) integration of body and jaw evolution, with jaw morphologies varying in a manner that limits change in MKT. This research shows that, unlike modularity, MTOM allows traits to retain strong evolutionary covariation while still reducing impacts on functionality. These results suggest that MTOM, and its influence on the evolution of correlated traits, is likely much more widespread than is currently understood. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. Morphology control through hierarchical phase separation in Langmuir monolayers of poly(methyl methacrylate)-b-poly(n-butyl acrylate).

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Atsushi; Kumaki, Jiro

    2017-01-15

    Precise morphology control of ultrathin films is one of the important issues in nanotechnology. To this end, we describe that various controlled morphologies of hierarchical phase separation can be attained using poly(methyl methacrylate)-b-poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PMMA-b-PBA) monolayers spread on a water surface. At a low surface pressure, they were miscible, but upon compression, phase separated with a monolayer of the major component block spreading on the water surface, on top of which the minor component block separated out (hierarchical phase separation). The morphology of the minor component block separated out on top of the monolayer varied from a sphere/short string mixture, to long strings, and a mesh-like structure having a regular domain-domain spacing with the increasing content of the minor block, and the hierarchical phase separation was reversible depending on the surface pressure. However, these well-ordered hierarchical phase separations were observed only in the PBA-rich polymers, and a clear morphology was not observed in the PMMA-rich polymers, because of insufficient domain growth after the hierarchical phase separation for the PMMA-rich block copolymers which are more rigid than the PBA-rich polymers. Although the clear hierarchical phase separation was limited in flexible composition, we noted that the hierarchical phase separation provided a unique well-controlled morphology in the Langmuir monolayers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fabrication of MoSe2 nanoribbons via an unusual morphological phase transition

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuxuan; Cui, Ping; Ren, Xibiao; Zhang, Chendong; Jin, Chuanhong; Zhang, Zhenyu; Shih, Chih-Kang

    2017-01-01

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are a family of van der Waals layered materials exhibiting unique electronic, optical, magnetic and transport properties. Their technological potentials hinge critically on the ability to achieve controlled fabrication of desirable nanostructures, such as nanoribbons and nanodots. To date, nanodots/nanoislands have been regularly observed, while controlled fabrication of TMD nanoribbons remains challenging. Here we report a bottom-up fabrication of MoSe2 nanoribbons using molecular beam epitaxy, via an unexpected temperature-induced morphological phase transition from the nanodot to nanoribbon regime. Such nanoribbons are of zigzag nature, characterized by distinct chemical and electronic properties along the edges. The phase space for nanoribbon growth is narrowly defined by proper Se:Mo ratios, as corroborated experimentally using different Se fluxes, and supported theoretically using first-principles calculations that establish the crucial role of the morphological reconstruction of the bare Mo-terminated edge. The growth mechanism revealed should be applicable to other TMD systems. PMID:28469134

  12. Morphology, structure and electrochemical properties of single phase electrospun vanadium pentoxide nanofibers for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheah, Yan L.; Gupta, Nutan; Pramana, Stevin S.; Aravindan, Vanchiappan; Wee, Grace; Srinivasan, Madhavi

    2011-08-01

    One-dimensional (1D) vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) nanofibers (VNF) are synthesized by electrospinning vanadium sol-gel precursors containing vanadyl acetylacetonate and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) followed by sintering. Crystal structure, molecular structure and morphology of electrospun VNF are analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area diffraction (SAED), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Single-phase electrospun VNF ∼300-800 nm in diameter, 20-50 μm long (aspect ratio > 50) with porous interconnected fibrous morphology are revealed by FESEM and TEM analysis. Electrochemical properties of the sintered VNF, as a cathode in lithium-ion batteries, explored using cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) give rise to new understandings of the electrochemical processes occurring in these nanofibrous cathodes. Electrospun VNF exhibits initial discharge capacity ∼316 mAh g-1 (∼2.2 Li per V2O5) in the voltage range of 1.75 and 4.0 V vs. Li/Li+ at 0.1 C rate. When cycled at a reduced voltage range of 2.0-4.0 V vs. Li/Li+, less phase transitions occur, giving rise to the initial specific capacity of 308 mAh g-1 and improved cyclic retention of 74% after 50 cycles.

  13. Fabrication of MoSe2 nanoribbons via an unusual morphological phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuxuan; Cui, Ping; Ren, Xibiao; Zhang, Chendong; Jin, Chuanhong; Zhang, Zhenyu; Shih, Chih-Kang

    2017-05-01

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are a family of van der Waals layered materials exhibiting unique electronic, optical, magnetic and transport properties. Their technological potentials hinge critically on the ability to achieve controlled fabrication of desirable nanostructures, such as nanoribbons and nanodots. To date, nanodots/nanoislands have been regularly observed, while controlled fabrication of TMD nanoribbons remains challenging. Here we report a bottom-up fabrication of MoSe2 nanoribbons using molecular beam epitaxy, via an unexpected temperature-induced morphological phase transition from the nanodot to nanoribbon regime. Such nanoribbons are of zigzag nature, characterized by distinct chemical and electronic properties along the edges. The phase space for nanoribbon growth is narrowly defined by proper Se:Mo ratios, as corroborated experimentally using different Se fluxes, and supported theoretically using first-principles calculations that establish the crucial role of the morphological reconstruction of the bare Mo-terminated edge. The growth mechanism revealed should be applicable to other TMD systems.

  14. The relationship between oxygen permeability and phase separation morphology of the multicomponent silicone hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhengbai; Xie, Haijiao; An, Shuangshuang; Jiang, Yong

    2014-12-18

    In this article, the multicomponent copolymers were prepared by the copolymerization of two hydrophobic silicon-containing monomers bis(trimethylsilyloxy) methylsilylpropyl glycerol methacrylate (SiMA) and tris(trimethylsiloxy)-3-methacryloxypropylsilane (TRIS) with three hydrophilic monomers 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, N-vinylpyrrolidone, and N,N-dimethyl acrylamide. The copolymers were hydrated to form transparent silicone hydrogels. The oxygen permeability coefficients (Dk) of hydrogels were measured, and their relationships with the equilibrium water contents (EWC) and the types and contents of silicon containing monomers as well as the phase separation structures of silicone hydrogels were analyzed in detail. The results showed that the EWC decreased as the increase of SiMA content. The relationship between Dk and SiMA content, as well as that between Dk and EWC, showed inverted bell curve distributions, which meant two main factors, i.e., silicon-oxygen bond in silicone and water in hydrogel, contributed to oxygen permeation and followed a mutual inhibition competition mechanism. The internal morphologies of the hydrogels were observed by transmission electron microscope, and the results showed that the hydrogels presented two different phase separation structures depending on the types of the silicon-containing monomers. The silicone phase in SiMA containing hydrogel presented to be a granular texture, while the silicone phase in TRIS containing hydrogel formed a fibrous texture which resulted in a higher Dk value. These results could help to design a silicone hydrogel with better properties and wider application.

  15. Quantification of texture match of the skin graft: function and morphology of the stratum corneum.

    PubMed

    Inoue, K; Matsumoto, K

    1986-01-01

    In an attempt to analyze the "texture match" of grafted skin, functional and morphological aspects of the stratum corneum were studied using the Skin Surface Hydrometer (IBS Inc.) and the scanning electron microscope. The results showed that hygroscopicity and water holding capacity of the stratum corneum played a crucial role in making the skin surface soft and smooth. Morphologically there were regional differences in the surface pattern and the mean area of corneocytes, suggesting that these differences affect skin texture. It is suggested that the present functional and morphological studies of the stratum corneum can provide a quantitative measure of the "texture match".

  16. Functional morphology of the tongue in the nutcracker (Nucifraga caryocatactes).

    PubMed

    Jackowiak, Hanna; Skieresz-Szewczyk, Kinga; Kwieciński, Zbigniew; Trzcielińska-Lorych, Joanna; Godynicki, Szymon

    2010-07-01

    The nutcracker Nucifraga caryocatactes belongs to a group of bird species that use their beak and tongue as tools for obtaining food, such as seeds from hard-to-reach cones or nuts from shells. The aim of the present study, carried out with a scanning electron microscope, was to define the morphological features of the tongue of the nutcracker, which seems to be adapted to its environment through specific methods of obtaining food. One of the characteristic features of the nutcracker's tongue is the unique structure of the anterior part of the tongue, which has two long and highly keratinized processes - a product of the renewable keratinized layer of the epithelium covering the ventral surface of the tongue. These dagger-like processes, which are a modified "lingual nail," take a major role in levering up and shelling seeds, which are transported over the short sulcus-shaped body of the tongue. A unique feature of the nutcracker's tongue is the groove separating the body from the root. Two rows of highly keratinized, mechanical, conical papillae are located at the junction of the body and the root. These papillae are mechanically protective elements for passing food particles in the form of seeds. Among lingual glands, only the posterior lingual glands on the root of the tongue have been observed. Their secretion agglutinates dry food before it is swallowed. Results of the present study indicate that the nutcracker's tongue is an efficient tool resembling a lever that is helpful in shelling seeds.

  17. Functional morphology of the nasal region of a hammerhead shark.

    PubMed

    Abel, Richard L; Maclaine, James S; Cotton, Ross; Xuan, Viet Bui; Nickels, Timothy B; Clark, Thomas H; Wang, Zhijin; Cox, Jonathan P L

    2010-04-01

    We describe several novel morphological features in the nasal region of the hammerhead shark Sphyrna tudes. Unlike the open, rounded incurrent nostril of non-hammerhead shark species, the incurrent nostril of S. tudes is a thin keyhole-like aperture. We discovered a groove running anterior and parallel to the incurrent nostril. This groove, dubbed the minor nasal groove to distinguish it from the larger, previously described, (major) nasal groove, is common to all eight hammerhead species. Using life-sized plastic models generated at 200 microm resolution from an X-ray scan, we also investigated flow in the nasal region. Even modest oncoming flow speeds stimulate extensive, but not complete, circulation within the model olfactory chamber, with flow passing through the two main olfactory channels. Flow crossed from one channel to another via a gap in the olfactory array, sometimes guided by the interlamellar channels. Major and minor nasal grooves, as well as directing flow into the olfactory chamber, can, in conjunction with the nasal bridge separating incurrent and excurrent nostrils, limit flow passing into the olfactory chamber, possibly to protect the delicate nasal structures. This is the first simulation of internal flow within the olfactory chamber of a shark.

  18. Influence of thermal effects on the morphological patterns developed through phase separation in binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borzacchiello, D.; Leygue, A.; Chinesta, F.

    2014-07-01

    This paper is concerned with the modelling and numerical simulation of temperature-induced phase separation (TIPS) coupled with non-uniform temperature fields. The spontaneous phase separation of an initially homogeneous blend can be used, in principle, as a reliable and scalable process to reproduce specific morphologies at the microscopic scale in two-phase composite materials, such as rubber-reinforced resins, or in microstructured porous media. The size of the microstructures that are formed and the degree of anisotropy can be controlled through the imposition of an adequate temperature field. In order to understand the potential use of a temperature gradient to control phase separation, we developed a qualitative model for TIPS based on the Cahn-Hilliard approach and we proposed a computational strategy to obtain numerical solutions for phase separation in confined domains taking into account the thermal interaction with the walls. While the method is based on a volume penalization technique, the novelty of the proposed approach relies on the fact that the penalization term of the equation is constructed on the same theoretical basis from which the Cahn-Hilliard equation is derived. The advantage offered by this technique is that the same pseudo-spectral Fourier discretization schemes that are classically used to solve the Cahn-Hilliard equation in periodic domains can be straightforwardly applied to the case of bounded domains. The application examples shown in this paper emphasize the key role of the dimensionless number given by the ratio of the characteristic heat propagation time and the characteristic time of the phase separation, and demonstrate how control of the microstructure anisotropy could be achieved through TIPS.

  19. Efficient reconstruction of multiphase morphologies from correlation functions

    SciTech Connect

    Rozman, M. G.; Utz, Marcel

    2001-06-01

    A highly efficient algorithm for the reconstruction of microstructures of heterogeneous media from spatial correlation functions is presented. Since many experimental techniques yield two-point correlation functions, the restoration of heterogeneous structures, such as composites, porous materials, microemulsions, ceramics, or polymer blends, is an inverse problem of fundamental importance. Similar to previously proposed algorithms, the new method relies on Monte Carlo optimization, representing the microstructure on a discrete grid. An efficient way to update the correlation functions after local changes to the structure is introduced. In addition, the rate of convergence is substantially enhanced by selective Monte Carlo moves at interfaces. Speedups over prior methods of more than two orders of magnitude are thus achieved. Moreover, an improved minimization protocol leads to additional gains. The algorithm is ideally suited for implementation on parallel computers. The increase in efficiency brings new classes of problems within the realm of the tractable, notably those involving several different structural length scales and/or components.

  20. Matching ecological functioning with polychaete morphology: Consistency patterns along sedimentary habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otegui, Mariana B. P.; Brauko, Kalina M.; Pagliosa, Paulo R.

    2016-08-01

    The relationship between form and function is usually evident and reflect causal relationships in ecological interactions. However, the consistency of the taxonomical and functional approaches versus a morphological approach is yet to be assessed and applied to benthic-sediment relationships. Here, we propose a new functional classification based on morphological characteristics using polychaetes. To test the validity of the framework we assess the consistency between polychaete responses to distinct sedimentary environments using morphological, taxonomical and biological traits approaches, and comparing the patterns of polychaete responses at local and regional scales. The selected morphological characteristics were pharynx complexity, jaws presence, feeding palps, head appendages, body appendages, body support structures, branchiae and body regionalization, as well as number of segments, which were categorized according to presence, size, number or type of structure. The novel morphological method was successfully applied and all analyses showed consistent faunal patterns of variation along muddy and sandy habitats at the distinct spatial scales. Nevertheless, in the three case studies the morphological method explained more over the general variability and was more concise than the other two methods, emphasizing the reliability of a functional approach. The distinct set of morphological characteristics found in muddy and sandy habitats reflected two different ecological roles of polychaetes. Discretely motile, small sized and of low sensibility polychaetes prevailed in muddy habitats, while sandy sediments were dominated by organisms with richer and more heterogeneous characteristics. The responses of the morphological analysis were very similar to the taxonomical and biological traits analysis, but with a much higher explanatory power, meaning that morphology provides a robust approach for studying the ecological functionality of marine benthic systems.

  1. Modeling particle growth and morphology of impact polypropylene produced in the gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debling, Jon A.

    A gas phase reactor system using on-line FTIR for controlled composition olefin polymerization experiments with gaseous or liquid monomers has been designed and constructed in this work. Using this equipment, a comprehensive study of the kinetics, particle growth and morphological development of impact polypropylene produced in-situ with a TiClsb4/MgClsb2 catalyst has been conducted. The catalyst was found exhibiting a decay type behavior for ethylene and propylene homopolymerization but an activation effect was observed when both monomers were present together. Hydrogen was also seen to boost the rate of propylene polymerization but not ethylene, and increased the rate of catalyst deactivation during propylene polymerization. Microscopy analysis of the particles over a range of copolymer content (up to 70 wt. %), copolymer composition, reaction temperature and hydrogen levels reveal how the copolymer phase segregates from the homopolymer and grows within the homopolymer matrix. A model for particle growth is proposed. A computer model for the study of the effects of changing morphology for polyolefins produced in multistage processes has been developed and used to investigate the role of monomer diffusion limitations during polymerization using the experimental data found in this work. To study the effects of residence time distribution in multistage continuous processes for impact polypropylene, population balance models have been developed for multistage processes consisting of gas and liquid phase reactors. The effects of catalyst size distribution and monomer diffusion limitations can be incorporated into the models. It is shown that commercial impact polypropylene consists of a broad distribution of polymer properties as a consequence of reactor residence time distribution issues. Implications for product homogeneity, particle sticking and process productivity are discussed.

  2. Comparative and functional morphology of wing coupling structures in Trichoptera: Annulipalpia.

    PubMed

    Stocks, Ian C

    2010-02-01

    Several orders of morphologically four-winged insects have evolved mechanisms that enforce a union between the mesothoracic and metathoracic wings (forewings and hindwings) during the wing beat cycle. Such mechanisms result in a morphologically tetrapterous insect flying as if it were functionally dipterous, and these mechanisms have been described for several insect orders. The caddisfly suborders Annulipalpia and Integripalpia (Trichoptera) each have evolved a wing coupling apparatus, with at least three systems having evolved within the suborder Annulipalpia. The comparative and inferred functional morphology of the putative wing coupling mechanisms is described for the annulipalpian families Hydropsychidae (subfamilies Macronematinae and Hydropsychinae), Polycentropodidae and Ecnomidae, and a novel form-functional complex putatively involved with at-rest forewing-forewing coupling is described for Hydropsychidae: Smicrideinae. It is proposed that the morphology of the wing coupling apparatuses of Hydropsychinae and Macronematinae are apomorphies for those clades.

  3. Modeling scattering in turbid media using the Gegenbauer phase function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calabro, Katherine W.; Cassarly, William

    2015-03-01

    The choice of scattering phase function is critically important in the modeling of photon propagation in turbid media, particularly when the scattering path within the material is on the order of several mean free path lengths. For tissue applications, the single parameter Henyey-Greenstein (HG) phase function is known to underestimate the contribution of backscattering, while phase functions based on Mie theory can be more complex than necessary due to the multitude of parameter inputs. In this work, the two term Gegenbauer phase function is highlighted as an effective compromise between HG and Mie, as demonstrated when fitting the various phase function to measured data from phantom materials. Further comparison against the Modified Henyey-Greenstein (MHG) phase function, another two term function, demonstrates that the Gegenbauer function provides better control of the higher order phase function moments, and hence allows for a wider range of values for the similarity parameter, γ. Wavelength dependence of the Gegenbauer parameters is also investigated using a range of theoretical particle distributions. Finally, extraction of the scattering properties of solid turbid samples from angularly resolved transmission measurements is performed using an iterative Monte Carlo optimization technique. Fitting results using Gegenbauer, HG, MHG, and Mie phase functions are compared.

  4. Oil and air dispersion in a simulated fermentation broth as a function of mycelial morphology.

    PubMed

    Lucatero, Savidra; Larralde-Corona, Claudia Patricia; Corkidi, Gabriel; Galindo, Enrique

    2003-01-01

    The culture conditions of a multiphase fermentation involving morphologically complex mycelia were simulated in order to investigate the influence of mycelial morphology (Trichoderma harzianum) on castor oil and air dispersion. Measurements of oil drops and air bubbles were obtained using an image analysis system coupled to a mixing tank. Complex interactions of the phases involved could be clearly observed. The Sauter diameter and the size distributions of drops and bubbles were affected by the morphological type of biomass (pellets or dispersed mycelia) added to the system. Larger oil drop sizes were obtained with dispersed mycelia than with pellets, as a result of the high apparent viscosity of the broth, which caused a drop in the power drawn, reducing oil drop break-up. Unexpectedly, bubble sizes observed with dispersed mycelia were smaller than with pellets, a phenomenon which can be explained by the segregation occurring at high biomass concentrations with the dispersed mycelia. Very complex oil drops were produced, containing air bubbles and a high number of structures likely consisting of small water droplets. Bubble location was influenced by biomass morphology. The percentage (in volume) of oil-trapped bubbles increased (from 32 to 80%) as dispersed mycelia concentration increased. A practically constant (32%) percentage of oil-trapped bubbles was observed with pelleted morphology at all biomass concentrations. The results evidenced the high complexity of phases interactions and the importance of mycelial morphology in such processes.

  5. Ontogenetic shifts in functional morphology of dragonfly legs (Odonata: Anisoptera).

    PubMed

    Leipelt, Klaus Guido; Suhling, Frank; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2010-12-01

    Anisopteran leg functions change dramatically from the final larval stadium to the adult. Larvae use legs mainly for locomotion, walking, climbing, clinging, or burrowing. Adults use them for foraging and grasping mates, for perching, clinging to the vegetation, and for repelling rivals. In order to estimate the ontogenetic shift in the leg construction from the larva to the adult, this study quantitatively compared lengths of fore, mid, and hind legs and the relationships between three leg segments, femur, tibia, and tarsus, in larval and adult Anisoptera of the families Gomphidae, Aeshnidae, Cordulegastridae, Corduliidae, and Libellulidae, represented by two species each. We found that leg segment length ratio as well as ontogenetic shift in length ratios was different between families, but rather similar within the families. While little ontogenetic shift occurred in Aeshnidae, there were some modifications in Corduliidae and Libellulidae. The severest shift occurred in Gomphidae and Cordulegastridae, both having burrowing larvae. These two families form a cluster, which is in contrast to their taxonomic relationship within the Anisoptera. Cluster analysis implies that the function of larval legs is primarily responsible for grouping, whereas adult behavior or the taxonomic relationships do not explain the grouping. This result supports the previous hypothesis about the convergent functional shift of leg characters in the dragonfly ontogenesis.

  6. Hydrodynamic effects on phase separation morphologies in evaporating thin films of polymer solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoumpouli, Garyfalia A.; Yiantsios, Stergios G.

    2016-08-01

    We examine effects of hydrodynamics on phase separation morphologies developed during drying of thin films containing a volatile solvent and two dissolved polymers. Cahn-Hilliard and Flory-Huggins theories are used to describe the free energy of the phase separating systems. The thin films, considered as Newtonian fluids, flow in response to Korteweg stresses arising due to concentration non-uniformities that develop during solvent evaporation. Numerical simulations are employed to investigate the effects of a Peclet number, defined in terms of system physical properties, as well as the effects of parameters characterizing the speed of evaporation and preferential wetting of the solutes at the gas interface. For systems exhibiting preferential wetting, diffusion alone is known to favor lamellar configurations for the separated phases in the dried film. However, a mechanism of hydrodynamic instability of a short length scale is revealed, which beyond a threshold Peclet number may deform and break the lamellae. The critical Peclet number tends to decrease as the evaporation rate increases and to increase with the tendency of the polymers to selectively wet the gas interface. As the Peclet number increases, the instability moves closer to the gas interface and induces the formation of a lateral segregation template that guides the subsequent evolution of the phase separation process. On the other hand, for systems with no preferential wetting or any other property asymmetries between the two polymers, diffusion alone favors the formation of laterally separated configurations. In this case, concentration perturbation modes that lead to enhanced Korteweg stresses may be favored for sufficiently large Peclet numbers. For such modes, a second mechanism is revealed, which is similar to the solutocapillary Marangoni instability observed in evaporating solutions when interfacial tension increases with the concentration of the non-volatile component. This mechanism may lead

  7. Study of liquid-phase molecular packing interactions and morphology of fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel).

    PubMed

    Berman, Paula; Meiri, Nitzan; Colnago, Luiz Alberto; Moraes, Tiago Bueno; Linder, Charles; Levi, Ofer; Parmet, Yisrael; Saunders, Michael; Wiesman, Zeev

    2015-01-01

    (1)H low field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) relaxometry has been suggested as a tool to distinguish between different molecular ensembles in complex systems with differential segmental or whole molecular motion and/or different morphologies. In biodiesel applications the molecular structure versus liquid-phase packing morphologies of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) influences physico-chemical characteristics of the fuel, including flow properties, operability during cold weather, blending, and more. Still, their liquid morphological structures have scarcely been studied. It was therefore the objective of this work to explore the potential of this technology for characterizing the molecular organization of FAMEs in the liquid phase. This was accomplished by using a combination of supporting advanced technologies. We show that pure oleic acid (OA) and methyl oleate (MO) standards exhibited both similarities and differences in the (1)H LF-NMR relaxation times (T2s) and peak areas, for a range of temperatures. Based on X-ray measurements, both molecules were found to possess a liquid crystal-like order, although a larger fluidity was found for MO, because as the temperature is increased, MO molecules separate both longitudinally and transversely from one another. In addition, both molecules exhibited a preferred direction of diffusion based on the apparent hydrodynamic radius. The close molecular packing arrangement and interactions were found to affect the translational and segmental motions of the molecules, as a result of dimerization of the head group in OA as opposed to weaker polar interactions in MO. A comprehensive model for the liquid crystal-like arrangement of FAMEs in the liquid phase is suggested. The differences in translational and segmental motions of the molecules were rationalized by the differences in the (1)H LF-NMR T2 distributions of OA and MO, which was further supported by (13)C high field (HF)-NMR spectra and (1)H HF-NMR relaxation. The

  8. TiO2 synthesis inspired by biomineralization: control of morphology, crystal phase, and light-use efficiency in a single process.

    PubMed

    Nonoyama, Takayuki; Kinoshita, Takatoshi; Higuchi, Masahiro; Nagata, Kenji; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Sato, Kimiyasu; Kato, Katsuya

    2012-05-30

    Hydroxyapatite is mineralized along the long axis of collagen fiber during osteogenesis. Mimicking such biomineralization has great potential to control inorganic structures and is fast becoming an important next-generation inorganic synthesis method. Inorganic matter synthesized by biomineralization can have beautiful and functional structures that cannot be created artificially. In this study, we applied biomineralization to the synthesis of the only photocatalyst in practical use today, titanium dioxide (TiO(2)). The photocatalytic activity of TiO(2) mainly relates to three properties: morphology, crystal phase, and light-use efficiency. To optimize TiO(2) morphology, we used a simple sequential peptide as an organic template. TiO(2) mineralized by a β-sheet peptide nanofiber template forms fiber-like shapes that are not observed for mineralization by peptides in the shape of random coils. To optimize TiO(2) crystal phase, we mineralized TiO(2) with the template at 400 °C to transform it into the rutile phase and at 700 °C to transform it into a mixed phase of anatase and rutile. To optimize light-use efficiency, we introduced nitrogen atoms of the peptide into the TiO(2) structure as doped elemental material during sintering. Thus, this biomineralization method enables control of inorganic morphology, crystal phase, and light-use efficiency in a single process.

  9. Morphogenesis and morphology of HIV. Structure-function relations.

    PubMed

    Gelderblom, H R; Ozel, M; Pauli, G

    1989-01-01

    Fine structure and antigenic make-up analysis of HIV were combined in a 2D model, from which functional aspects can be deduced. On the envelope 72 probably trimeric surface knobs (gp120) are connected to the virion via the transmembrane protein gp41. Gp120 is shed during ageing of the virion, but host cell antigens stay firmly anchored to the envelope. Underneath the envelope, p17 forms the matrix protein layer, while the capsid of the double cone shaped core is built up of p24. The relation between biochemical findings and morphogenesis and maturation of HIV as well as aspects of pathogenesis and vaccination are discussed.

  10. Glucose Tightly Controls Morphological and Functional Properties of Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chun-Yao; Dallérac, Glenn; Ezan, Pascal; Anderova, Miroslava; Rouach, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    The main energy source powering the brain is glucose. Strong energy needs of our nervous system are fulfilled by conveying this essential metabolite through blood via an extensive vascular network. Glucose then reaches brain tissues by cell uptake, diffusion and metabolization, processes primarily undertaken by astrocytes. Deprivation of glucose can however occur in various circumstances. In particular, ageing is associated with cognitive disturbances that are partly attributable to metabolic deficiency leading to brain glycopenia. Despite the crucial role of glucose and its metabolites in sustaining neuronal activity, little is known about its moment-to-moment contribution to astroglial physiology. We thus here investigated the early structural and functional alterations induced in astrocytes by a transient metabolic challenge consisting in glucose deprivation. Electrophysiological recordings of hippocampal astroglial cells of the stratum radiatum in situ revealed that shortage of glucose specifically increases astrocyte membrane capacitance, whilst it has no impact on other passive membrane properties. Consistent with this change, morphometric analysis unraveled a prompt increase in astrocyte volume upon glucose deprivation. Furthermore, characteristic functional properties of astrocytes are also affected by transient glucose deficiency. We indeed found that glucoprivation decreases their gap junction-mediated coupling, while it progressively and reversibly increases their intracellular calcium levels during the slow depression of synaptic transmission occurring simultaneously, as assessed by dual electrophysiological and calcium imaging recordings. Together, these data indicate that astrocytes rapidly respond to metabolic dysfunctions, and are therefore central to the neuroglial dialog at play in brain adaptation to glycopenia. PMID:27148048

  11. Morphological and functional diversity of first-order somatosensory neurons.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, Eder Ricardo; Kushmerick, Christopher; Naves, Lígia Araujo

    2017-09-09

    First-order somatosensory neurons transduce and convey information about the external or internal environment of the body to the central nervous system. They are pseudo unipolar neurons with cell bodies residing in one of several ganglia located near the central nervous system, with the short branch of the axon connecting to the spinal cord or the brain stem and the long branch extending towards the peripheral organ they innervate. Besides their sensory transducer and conductive role, somatosensory neurons also have trophic functions in the tissue they innervate and participate in local reflexes in the periphery. The cell bodies of these neurons are remarkably diverse in terms of size, molecular constitution, and electrophysiological properties. These parameters have provided criteria for classification that have proved useful to establish and study their functions. In this review, we discuss ways to measure and classify populations of neurons based on their size and action potential firing pattern. We also discuss attempts to relate the different populations to specific sensory modalities.

  12. Functional and morphologic damage in the neonatally irradiated canine kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Peneyra, R.S.; Jaenke, R.S.

    1985-11-01

    Perinatal irradiation of the developing kidney results in progressive glomerulosclerosis (PGS) and renal failure. This syndrome may result from direct radiation damage to mature deep cortical nephrons and/or nephron functional adaptations resulting from outer cortical nephron ablation. Beagle dogs received single, whole-body exposures (330 R) to /sup 60/Co gamma radiation at 4 days of age (IR4) to study the combined effects of direct radiation damage and nephron loss, or at 30 days of age (IR30) to study the effects of renal irradiation alone. To study the effects of nephron loss alone, dogs underwent unilateral nephrectomy (UN4) or superficial hyperthermic renal ablation (HY4) at 4 days of age. Nephron loss due to irradiation (IR4) and partial renal ablation (UN4 and HY4) was associated with compensatory nephron hypertrophy and increased single nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR), while irradiation at 30 days resulted in transitory decreased SNGFR. Similar degrees of PGS occurred in IR4 dogs which experienced both irradiation and loss of nephrons and UN4 and HY4 dogs which experienced only loss of nephrons. PGS of lesser severity also occurred in IR30 dogs. These findings indicate that PGS associated with perinatal renal irradiation results from direct radiation damage to deep cortical nephrons and compensatory functional changes occurring in response to loss of renal mass.

  13. Energetic electron precipitation and auroral morphology at the substorm recovery phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, S.; Kero, A.; Rodger, C. J.; Clilverd, M. A.; Miyoshi, Y.; Partamies, N.; Turunen, E.; Raita, T.; Verronen, P. T.; Saito, S.

    2017-06-01

    It is well known that auroral patterns at the substorm recovery phase are characterized by diffuse or patch structures with intensity pulsation. According to satellite measurements and simulation studies, the precipitating electrons associated with these aurorae can reach or exceed energies of a few hundreds of keV through resonant wave-particle interactions in the magnetosphere. However, because of difficulty of simultaneous measurements, the dependency of energetic electron precipitation (EEP) on auroral morphological changes in the mesoscale has not been investigated to date. In order to study this dependency, we have analyzed data from the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) radar, the Kilpisjärvi Atmospheric Imaging Receiver Array (KAIRA) riometer, collocated cameras, ground-based magnetometers, the Van Allen Probe satellites, Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES), and the Antarctic-Arctic Radiation-belt (Dynamic) Deposition-VLF Atmospheric Research Konsortium (AARDDVARK). Here we undertake a detailed examination of two case studies. The selected two events suggest that the highest energy of EEP on those days occurred with auroral patch formation from postmidnight to dawn, coinciding with the substorm onset at local midnight. Measurements of the EISCAT radar showed ionization as low as 65 km altitude, corresponding to EEP with energies of about 500 keV.Plain Language SummaryAurora is emission of the atmospheric particles excited by electrons coming from the magnetosphere. The electrons have energies of 1-10 keV or higher. In particular, it is known that the energy can increase more than 100 keV in association with the pulsating aurora and that <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the pulsating aurora changes with time. However, relationships between the energy increase and the <span class="hlt">morphological</span> change have not been studied well. This study analyzed the ionospheric density and auroral images and found that significant increases</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.2374P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.2374P"><span>Scattering <span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>: the step-child of ocean optics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Piskozub, Jacek; Freda, Wlodzimierz</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>What are inherent optical properties? The answer seems simple: absorption and scattering. Actually, this is the correct answer but only if one means by them the underlying optical processes. If the intended meaning is "absorption and scattering coefficients" the answer is wrong. Wrong because unlike absorption, scattering cannot be described by a single scalar. Scattering has angular distribution which normalized version is called the <span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. <span class="hlt">Phase</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> were never ignored but for several decades they were treated as the step-child of ocean optics: an average of three single wavelenght measurements of the San Diego harbor were used in radiative transfer calculations and when more variability was needed analytical <span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> created for diffuse galactic light were utilized. Only since about 2000, real progress started. Realistic analytical <span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> were created by Haltrin as well as by Fournier and Forand. New instruments were starting to be built. Two years later Mobley and colleges proposed a parametrization of Fournier-Forand <span class="hlt">functions</span> using backscattering coefficients. We show using Monte Carlo radiative transfer code that backscattering coefficient is not the only factor ruling the <span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> shape. Reflectivity values calculated using "realistic" <span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> with identical backscattering ratios can differ by up to 10%. This is the motivation for proposing a new <span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> parametrization, an improved version of one we have published in 2007. This spectral parametrization is based on Baltic <span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> measurements in four wavelengths. The parameter used to choose the correct Fournier-Forand <span class="hlt">function</span> is absorption. At this moment this is only a regional parametrization but with more data it can be improved to become a universal one. We challenge ocean optics researchers to use their measured <span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> data to verify and improve our method. It is high time <span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> stopped to be treated as the step-child of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15659056','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15659056"><span>Quantitative <span class="hlt">phase</span> microscopy: a new tool for investigating the structure and <span class="hlt">function</span> of unstained live cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Curl, Claire L; Bellair, Catherine J; Harris, Peter J; Allman, Brendan E; Roberts, Ann; Nugent, Keith A; Delbridge, Lea M D</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>1. The optical transparency of unstained live cell specimens limits the extent to which information can be recovered from bright-field microscopic images because these specimens generally lack visible amplitude-modulating components. However, visualization of the <span class="hlt">phase</span> modulation that occurs when light traverses these specimens can provide additional information. 2. Optical <span class="hlt">phase</span> microscopy and derivatives of this technique, such as differential interference contrast (DIC) and Hoffman modulation contrast (HMC), have been used widely in the study of cellular materials. With these techniques, enhanced contrast is achieved, which is useful in viewing specimens, but does not allow quantitative information to be extracted from the <span class="hlt">phase</span> content available in the images. 3. An innovative computational approach to <span class="hlt">phase</span> microscopy, which provides mathematically derived information about specimen <span class="hlt">phase</span>-modulating characteristics, has been described recently. Known as quantitative <span class="hlt">phase</span> microscopy (QPM), this method derives quantitative <span class="hlt">phase</span> measurements from images captured using a bright-field microscope without <span class="hlt">phase</span>- or interference-contrast optics. 4. The <span class="hlt">phase</span> map generated from the bright-field images by the QPM method can be used to emulate other contrast image modes (including DIC and HMC) for qualitative viewing. Quantitative <span class="hlt">phase</span> microscopy achieves improved discrimination of cellular detail, which permits more rigorous image analysis procedures to be undertaken compared with conventional optical methods. 5. The <span class="hlt">phase</span> map contains information about cell thickness and refractive index and can allow quantification of cellular <span class="hlt">morphology</span> under experimental conditions. As an example, the proliferative properties of smooth muscle cells have been evaluated using QPM to track growth and confluency of cell cultures. Quantitative <span class="hlt">phase</span> microscopy has also been used to investigate erythrocyte cell volume and <span class="hlt">morphology</span> in different osmotic environments. 6. Quantitative</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MS%26E..202a2029D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MS%26E..202a2029D"><span><span class="hlt">Phase</span> Analysis and Crystal <span class="hlt">Morphology</span> of Barium Sulphate Precipitated from The Laminar Flowing Water</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dera, N. S.; Fatra, F.; Ivanto, G.; Muryanto, S.; Bayuseno, A. P.</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Barium sulphate (BaSO4) is common scale deposits precipitated in pipes which can hinder the flow rate and lower heat transfer efficiency. Therefore, there is a need to address the understanding of scale formation in pipes. In this paper, the formation of BaSO4 scale in the laminar flowing water was investigated in the laboratory rig of scale formation. The scale forming solution was prepared by BaCl2 and Na2SO4 with Ba2+ concentrations in equimolar ppm of 2500, 3000, and 3500. The pH solution was set up in the values of 6, 8, and 10. The crystals were deposited on the four coupons pipes made of copper inside the pipes. The scale deposited from the flowing water was then characterized by using SEM equipped by EDX for crystal <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and elemental analysis. XRD method was used for the crystalline <span class="hlt">phase</span> analysis. The results showed that BaSO4 crystals with star-like <span class="hlt">morphology</span> can be observed from SEM imaging. The pure crystal barite can be obtained from the experiments as can be confirmed by XRD analysis. It is obvious that the barite crystals can be easily formed in the basic solution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7447728','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7447728"><span>[Microtubules in the nerve cells: <span class="hlt">morphological</span> and <span class="hlt">functional</span> aspects].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vorob'ev, V S; Portuganov, V V</p> <p>1980-10-01</p> <p>The modern literature concerning ultrastructure and cytochemistry of microtubules in the nervous tissue is reviewed. Common features of cytological and biochemical organization of microtubules in different parts of the nervous system of the vertebrates and invertebrates are analysed: the similarity of ultrastructure of microtubules and their molecular organization (tubulin and its alpha- and beta-monomeres), the ability of microtubules to assemble and disassemble, to bind specifically with poisons--colchicine and vinblastine, participation of microtubules in the neuroplastic transport. The authors' data on space arrangement of microtubules within cytoplasm of the neuronal processes (dendrites and unmyelinated axons in the central and peripheral nevous system) are presented. Some literature and personal results concerning ultrastructure of neurofilaments and microtubules in the myelinated nerve fibres are also considered. The <span class="hlt">functional</span> significance of microtubules in the nervous system is discussed with special reference to facts and hypotheses on a possible role of microtubules in the propagation of nerve impulse.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994SPIE.2079...30Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994SPIE.2079...30Z"><span><span class="hlt">Morphological</span> and <span class="hlt">functional</span> effects of induced laser retinal fibrosis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zwick, Harry; Schuschereba, Steven T.; Gagliano, Donald A.; Silverman, M.; Lund, David J.; Reynolds, Scottie B.; Stuck, Bruce E.</p> <p>1994-02-01</p> <p>Human laser accident exposure cases may involve severe macula retinal injury resulting in long term visual acuity and spatial vision deficit. In order to investigate this problem, we have chosen to model the effects of such long term exposure in the monkey retina for parafoveal Q- switched exposure produced at two parafoveal exposure sites. Our results suggest significant loss of retinal <span class="hlt">function</span> in and adjacent to the scar region. Recovery occurs in regions with less scar formation, the foveal region, although long term changes in foveal receptor mechanisms are apparent even after 1 year post-exposure, they do not correlate completely with recent human investigations of severe accidental exposure nor with brain enzyme analysis in our monkey model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27086052','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27086052"><span>Chewing efficiency and occlusal <span class="hlt">functional</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> in modern humans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Laird, Myra F; Vogel, Erin R; Pontzer, Herman</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The reduction of occlusal dimensions in early Homo is often proposed to be a <span class="hlt">functional</span> adaptation to diet. With their smaller occlusal surfaces, species of early Homo are suggested to have reduced food-processing abilities, particularly for foods with high material properties (e.g., increased toughness). Here, we employ chewing efficiency as a measure of masticatory performance to test the relationships between masticatory <span class="hlt">function</span> and food properties. We predicted that humans are more efficient when processing foods of lower toughness and Young's modulus values, and that subjects with larger occlusal surfaces will be less efficient when processing foods with higher toughness and Young's modulus, as the greater area spreads out the overall bite force applied to food particles. Chewing efficiency was measured in 26 adults using high-speed motion capture and surface electromyography. The dentition of each subject was cast and the occlusal surface was quantified using dental topographic analysis. Toughness and displacement-limited index were negatively correlated with chewing efficiency, but Young's modulus was not. Increased occlusal two-dimensional area and surface area were positively correlated with chewing efficiency for all foods. Thus, larger occlusal surface areas were more efficient when processing foods of greater toughness. These results suggest that the reduction in occlusal area in early Homo was associated with a reduction in chewing efficiency, particularly for foods with greater toughness. Further, the larger occlusal surfaces of earlier hominins such as Australopithecus would have likely increased chewing efficiency and increased the probability of fracture when processing tough foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28379173','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28379173"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">Phase</span> Separation Behavior on <span class="hlt">Morphology</span> and Performance of Polycarbonate Membranes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Idris, Alamin; Man, Zakaria; Maulud, Abdulhalim S; Khan, Muhammad Saad</p> <p>2017-04-05</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">phase</span> separation behavior of bisphenol-A-polycarbonate (PC), dissolved in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone and dichloromethane solvents in coagulant water, was studied by the cloud point method. The respective cloud point data were determined by titration against water at room temperature and the characteristic binodal curves for the ternary systems were plotted. Further, the physical properties such as viscosity, refractive index, and density of the solution were measured. The critical polymer concentrations were determined from the viscosity measurements. PC/NMP and PC/DCM membranes were fabricated by the dry-wet <span class="hlt">phase</span> inversion technique and characterized for their <span class="hlt">morphology</span>, structure, and thermal stability using field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. The membranes' performances were tested for their permeance to CO₂, CH₄, and N₂ gases at 24 ± 0.5 °C with varying feed pressures from 2 to 10 bar. The PC/DCM membranes appeared to be asymmetric dense membrane types with appreciable thermal stability, whereas the PC/NMP membranes were observed to be asymmetric with porous structures exhibiting 4.18% and 9.17% decrease in the initial and maximum degradation temperatures, respectively. The ideal CO₂/N₂ and CO₂/CH₄ selectivities of the PC/NMP membrane decreased with the increase in feed pressures, while for the PC/DCM membrane, the average ideal CO₂/N₂ and CO₂/CH₄ selectivities were found to be 25.1 ± 0.8 and 21.1 ± 0.6, respectively. Therefore, the PC/DCM membranes with dense <span class="hlt">morphologies</span> are appropriate for gas separation applications.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4992698','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4992698"><span>Neuronal Oscillations with Non-sinusoidal <span class="hlt">Morphology</span> Produce Spurious <span class="hlt">Phase</span>-to-Amplitude Coupling and Directionality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lozano-Soldevilla, Diego; ter Huurne, Niels; Oostenveld, Robert</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Neuronal oscillations support cognitive processing. Modern views suggest that neuronal oscillations do not only reflect coordinated activity in spatially distributed networks, but also that there is interaction between the oscillations at different frequencies. For example, invasive recordings in animals and humans have found that the amplitude of fast oscillations (>40 Hz) occur non-uniformly within the <span class="hlt">phase</span> of slower oscillations, forming the so-called cross-frequency coupling (CFC). However, the CFC patterns might be influenced by features in the signal that do not relate to underlying physiological interactions. For example, CFC estimates may be sensitive to spectral correlations due to non-sinusoidal properties of the alpha band wave <span class="hlt">morphology</span>. To investigate this issue, we performed CFC analysis using experimental and synthetic data. The former consisted in a double-blind magnetoencephalography pharmacological study in which participants received either placebo, 0.5 or 1.5 mg of lorazepam (LZP; GABAergic enhancer) in different experimental sessions. By recording oscillatory brain activity with during rest and working memory (WM), we were able to demonstrate that posterior alpha (8–12 Hz) <span class="hlt">phase</span> was coupled to beta-low gamma band (20–45 Hz) amplitude envelope during all sessions. Importantly, bicoherence values around the harmonics of the alpha frequency were similar both in magnitude and topographic distribution to the cross-frequency coherence (CFCoh) values observed in the alpha-<span class="hlt">phase</span> to beta-low gamma coupling. In addition, despite the large CFCoh we found no significant cross-frequency directionality (CFD). Critically, simulations demonstrated that a sizable part of our empirical CFCoh between alpha and beta-low gamma coupling and the lack of CFD could be explained by two-three harmonics aligned in zero <span class="hlt">phase</span>-lag produced by the physiologically characteristic alpha asymmetry in the amplitude of the peaks relative to the troughs. Furthermore, we</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000SPIE.3919...92P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000SPIE.3919...92P"><span>Laser <span class="hlt">phase</span> microscopy and <span class="hlt">functional</span> imaging of living human cancer cells during the cell cycle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Perevedentseva, Elena V.; Graschew, Georgi; Balanos, Evangelos; Dressler, Cathrin; Beuthan, Juergen; Schlag, Peter M.</p> <p>2000-05-01</p> <p>The purpose of the investigation was to elaborate a new method of <span class="hlt">functional</span> imaging of living tumor cells. Human colon carcinoma cells HCT116 were investigated with a conventional light microscope, confocal laser scanning microscope and with a laser <span class="hlt">phase</span> microscope (LPM). The LPM is a <span class="hlt">functional</span> imaging technique providing information about cell <span class="hlt">morphology</span> which is imposed by the physiological inhomogeneity of the refractive index. The <span class="hlt">phase</span> of the light wave passing through an object contains quantitative information about the object thickness, the shape, and the spatial distribution of the refractive index varying with <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and chemical composition inhomogeneity inside the object. The new method of investigation of the cells in different stages of the cell cycle is developed. Every <span class="hlt">phase</span> image of the investigated cells has been compared with conventional light microscopic and confocal microscopic images of the same cell. the relation between the cell state, their <span class="hlt">morphological</span> peculiarities and the <span class="hlt">phase</span> characteristics of the measured cell is determined. Data thus acquired, quantitatively characterizing intra- and intercellular processes during the cell cycle, and the method of measurements can be used to investigate with high optic resolution the mechanisms of different physical, chemical and biomolecular interactions with the tumor cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3491919','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3491919"><span>Taxonomy, <span class="hlt">morphology</span>, masticatory <span class="hlt">function</span> and phylogeny of heterodontosaurid dinosaurs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sereno, Paul C.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Abstract Heterodontosaurids comprise an important early radiation of small-bodied herbivores that persisted for approximately 100 My from Late Triassic to Early Cretaceous time. Review of available fossils unequivocally establishes Echinodon as a very small-bodied, late-surviving northern heterodontosaurid similar to the other northern genera Fruitadens and Tianyulong. Tianyulong from northern China has unusual skeletal proportions, including a relatively large skull, short forelimb, and long manual digit II. The southern African heterodontosaurid genus Lycorhinus is established as valid, and a new taxon from the same formation is named Pegomastax africanus gen. n., sp. n. Tooth replacement and tooth-to-tooth wear is more common than previously thought among heterodontosaurids, and in Heterodontosaurus the angle of tooth-to-tooth shear is shown to increase markedly during maturation. Long-axis rotation of the lower jaw during occlusion is identified here as the most likely <span class="hlt">functional</span> mechanism underlying marked tooth wear in mature specimens of Heterodontosaurus. Extensive tooth wear and other evidence suggests that all heterodontosaurids were predominantly or exclusively herbivores. Basal genera such as Echinodon, Fruitadens and Tianyulong with primitive, subtriangular crowns currently are known only from northern landmasses. All other genera except the enigmatic Pisanosaurus have deeper crown proportions and currently are known only from southern landmasses. PMID:23166462</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21510167','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21510167"><span>Physical rehabilitation of paralysed facial muscles: <span class="hlt">functional</span> and <span class="hlt">morphological</span> correlates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Angelov, Doychin N</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Using a combined morphofunctional approach, we recently found that polyinnervation of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is the critical factor for recovery of <span class="hlt">function</span> after transection and suture of the facial nerve. Since polyinnervation is activity-dependent and can be manipulated, we tried to design a clinically feasible therapy by electrical stimulation or by soft tissue massage. First, electrical stimulation was applied to the transected facial nerve or to paralyzed facial muscles. Both procedures did not improve vibrissal motor performance (video-based motion analysis of whisking), failed to diminish polyinnervation, and even reduced the number of innervated NMJ to one-fifth of normal values. In contrast, gentle stroking of the paralyzed vibrissal muscles by hand resulted in full recovery of whisking. Manual stimulation depended on the intact sensory supply of the denervated muscle targets and was also effective after hypoglossal-facial anastomosis, after interpositional nerve grafting, when applied to the orbicularis oculi muscle and after transection and suture of the hypoglossal nerve. From these results, we conclude that manual stimulation is a noninvasive procedure with immediate potential for clinical rehabilitation following facial nerve reconstruction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22719033','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22719033"><span>Does <span class="hlt">morphological</span> convergence imply <span class="hlt">functional</span> similarity? A test using the evolution of quadrupedalism in ornithischian dinosaurs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maidment, Susannah C R; Barrett, Paul M</p> <p>2012-09-22</p> <p>Convergent <span class="hlt">morphologies</span> are thought to indicate <span class="hlt">functional</span> similarity, arising because of a limited number of evolutionary or developmental pathways. Extant taxa displaying convergent <span class="hlt">morphologies</span> are used as analogues to assess <span class="hlt">function</span> in extinct taxa with similar characteristics. However, <span class="hlt">functional</span> studies of extant taxa have shown that <span class="hlt">functional</span> similarity can arise from differing <span class="hlt">morphologies</span>, calling into question the paradigm that form and <span class="hlt">function</span> are closely related. We test the hypothesis that convergent skeletal <span class="hlt">morphology</span> indicates <span class="hlt">functional</span> similarity in the fossil record using ornithischian dinosaurs. The rare transition from bipedality to quadrupedality occurred at least three times independently in this clade, resulting in a suite of convergent osteological characteristics. We use homology rather than analogy to provide an independent line of evidence about <span class="hlt">function</span>, reconstructing soft tissues using the extant phylogenetic bracket and applying biomechanical concepts to produce qualitative assessments of muscle leverage. We also optimize character changes to investigate the sequence of character acquisition. Different lineages of quadrupedal ornithischian dinosaur stood and walked differently from each other, falsifying the hypothesis that osteological convergence indicates <span class="hlt">functional</span> similarity. The acquisition of features correlated with quadrupedalism generally occurs in the same order in each clade, suggesting underlying developmental mechanisms that act as evolutionary constraints.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3415913','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3415913"><span>Does <span class="hlt">morphological</span> convergence imply <span class="hlt">functional</span> similarity? A test using the evolution of quadrupedalism in ornithischian dinosaurs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Maidment, Susannah C. R.; Barrett, Paul M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Convergent <span class="hlt">morphologies</span> are thought to indicate <span class="hlt">functional</span> similarity, arising because of a limited number of evolutionary or developmental pathways. Extant taxa displaying convergent <span class="hlt">morphologies</span> are used as analogues to assess <span class="hlt">function</span> in extinct taxa with similar characteristics. However, <span class="hlt">functional</span> studies of extant taxa have shown that <span class="hlt">functional</span> similarity can arise from differing <span class="hlt">morphologies</span>, calling into question the paradigm that form and <span class="hlt">function</span> are closely related. We test the hypothesis that convergent skeletal <span class="hlt">morphology</span> indicates <span class="hlt">functional</span> similarity in the fossil record using ornithischian dinosaurs. The rare transition from bipedality to quadrupedality occurred at least three times independently in this clade, resulting in a suite of convergent osteological characteristics. We use homology rather than analogy to provide an independent line of evidence about <span class="hlt">function</span>, reconstructing soft tissues using the extant phylogenetic bracket and applying biomechanical concepts to produce qualitative assessments of muscle leverage. We also optimize character changes to investigate the sequence of character acquisition. Different lineages of quadrupedal ornithischian dinosaur stood and walked differently from each other, falsifying the hypothesis that osteological convergence indicates <span class="hlt">functional</span> similarity. The acquisition of features correlated with quadrupedalism generally occurs in the same order in each clade, suggesting underlying developmental mechanisms that act as evolutionary constraints. PMID:22719033</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4455305','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4455305"><span>Programming cancer through <span class="hlt">phase-functionalized</span> silicon based biomaterials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Premnath, Priyatha; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan; Tan, Bo</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Applications of biomaterials in cancer therapy has been limited to drug delivery systems and markers in radiation therapy. In this article, we introduce the concept of <span class="hlt">phase-functionalization</span> of silicon to preferentially select cancer cell populations for survival in a catalyst and additive free approach. Silicon is <span class="hlt">phase-functionalized</span> by the interaction of ultrafast laser pulses, resulting in the formation of rare <span class="hlt">phases</span> of SiO2 in conjunction with differing silicon crystal lattices. The degree of <span class="hlt">phase-functionalization</span> is programmed to dictate the degree of repulsion of cancer cells. Unstable <span class="hlt">phases</span> of silicon oxides are synthesized during <span class="hlt">phase-functionalization</span> and remain stable at ambient conditions. This change in <span class="hlt">phase</span> of silicon as well as formation of oxides contributes to changes in surface chemistry as well as surface energy. These material properties elicit in precise control of migration, cytoskeleton shape, direction and population. To the best of our knowledge, <span class="hlt">phase-functionalized</span> silicon without any changes in topology or additive layers and its applications in cancer therapy has not been reported before. This unique programmable <span class="hlt">phase-functionalized</span> silicon has the potential to change current trends in cancer research and generate focus on biomaterials as cancer repelling or potentially cancer killing surfaces. PMID:26043430</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26043430','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26043430"><span>Programming cancer through <span class="hlt">phase-functionalized</span> silicon based biomaterials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Premnath, Priyatha; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan; Tan, Bo</p> <p>2015-06-04</p> <p>Applications of biomaterials in cancer therapy has been limited to drug delivery systems and markers in radiation therapy. In this article, we introduce the concept of <span class="hlt">phase-functionalization</span> of silicon to preferentially select cancer cell populations for survival in a catalyst and additive free approach. Silicon is <span class="hlt">phase-functionalized</span> by the interaction of ultrafast laser pulses, resulting in the formation of rare <span class="hlt">phases</span> of SiO2 in conjunction with differing silicon crystal lattices. The degree of <span class="hlt">phase-functionalization</span> is programmed to dictate the degree of repulsion of cancer cells. Unstable <span class="hlt">phases</span> of silicon oxides are synthesized during <span class="hlt">phase-functionalization</span> and remain stable at ambient conditions. This change in <span class="hlt">phase</span> of silicon as well as formation of oxides contributes to changes in surface chemistry as well as surface energy. These material properties elicit in precise control of migration, cytoskeleton shape, direction and population. To the best of our knowledge, <span class="hlt">phase-functionalized</span> silicon without any changes in topology or additive layers and its applications in cancer therapy has not been reported before. This unique programmable <span class="hlt">phase-functionalized</span> silicon has the potential to change current trends in cancer research and generate focus on biomaterials as cancer repelling or potentially cancer killing surfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24874830','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24874830"><span>[New views on the <span class="hlt">functional</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of human clitoris].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Miko, M; Urban, L; Kajanová, M; Polák, S; Varga, I</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>The clitoris is the female external sexual organ and is composed of erectile bodies. The distal portion of the vagina, clitoris and urethra form an integrated entity sui generis. All these components share a common vasculature and nerve supply and during sexual stimulation they respond as one <span class="hlt">functional</span> unit. The clitoris is closely linked to the mechanism of sexual arousal in women. Glans has a dense network of receptors, innervated often with a several nerves at the same time - taking care of tactile sensitivity, thus, standing on the beginning of the journey, which culminates in orgasm. Nervus dorsalis clitoridis, which is a branch of n. pudendus, takes care of sensitive innervation. For blood supply is responsible a. clitoridis, which is a branch of a. pudenda interna. The most common congenital developmental anomalies of the clitoris include: clitoromegaly, penis-like clitoris and bifid clitoris. All, however, are among the relatively rare birth defects. Mechanism of orgasm gets attention between both laic and scientific community, although to this date there are speculations about its exact mechanism. There is relevant opinion, influenced by Freuds doctrine, which strictly recognizes two kinds of female orgasms - vaginal and clitoral, and, according to proponents of this theory, only the second mentioned is caused by stimulation of the clitoris. The second school unifies the term orgasm and claims that only clitoral stimulation (digital, penile, cunnilingus) and contraction of striated perineal muscle are responsible for orgasm, whether the glans (external part) or the body of the clitoris from the vaginal approach is stimulated. Therewithal, special term for mythical and still undocumented (despite many attempts and bold claims about its finding) G spot (named after Ernst Gräfenberg, a German doctor who predicted the existence of this place) is redundant. Important role in the regulation of female sexuality and responsiveness play a hormonal influences and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.687a2027M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.687a2027M"><span>Gas-<span class="hlt">phase</span> supersaturation effects on <span class="hlt">morphology</span> properties of ZnO nano and microstructures grown by PVT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Montenegro, D. N.; Martínez Tomas, M. C.; Muñoz Sanjosé, V.; Sallet, V.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>A systematic study of the <span class="hlt">morphology</span> evolution of ZnO nanostructures grown by physical vapour transport was carried out. The evolution of the shape with the growth time is shown to depend on the different gas-<span class="hlt">phase</span> supersaturation and temperature conditions encountered in the crystallization zone of the tube furnace. The observed <span class="hlt">morphology</span> transitions are discussed, and a growth model for ZnO nanostructures is given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28760683','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28760683"><span><span class="hlt">Functional</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of hummingbird bill tips: their <span class="hlt">function</span> as tongue wringers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rico-Guevara, Alejandro; Rubega, Margaret A</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Nectarivores are animals that have evolved adaptations to efficiently exploit floral nectar as the main source of energy in their diet. It is well known that hummingbirds can extract nectar with impressive speed from flowers. However, despite decades of study on nectar intake rates, the mechanism by which feeding is ultimately achieved - the release of nectar from the tongue so that it can pass into the throat and be ingested - has not been elucidated. By using microCT scanning and macro high-speed videography we scrutinized the <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and <span class="hlt">function</span> of hummingbird bill tips, looking for answers about the nectar offloading process. We found near the bill tip, in an area of strong lateral compression of internal mandibular width, that the tomia (cutting edges of the bill) are thinner, partially inrolled, and hold forward-directed serrations. Aligned with these structures, a prominent pronglike structure projects upward and forward from the internal mandibular keel. Distal to this mandibular prong, another smaller maxillary prong protrudes downwards from the keel of the palate. Four shallow basins occur at the base of the mandibular prong on the mandibular floor. Of these, two are small basins located proximally and at the sides of the mandibular prong. A third, slightly larger basin is positioned distally to the first two and directly under the maxillary prong. And the fourth basin, the largest, is found more proximally where the bill becomes thicker, as seen from the side. We documented that this group of structures is integrated into the area of the bill where tongue extrusion occurs, and we hypothesize that they <span class="hlt">function</span> to enhance the nectar release at each lick. We suggest that this "wringer", operated by bill and tongue movements, helps to move nectar towards the throat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5341062','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5341062"><span>Frequency-<span class="hlt">phase</span> analysis of resting-state <span class="hlt">functional</span> MRI</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Goelman, Gadi; Dan, Rotem; Růžička, Filip; Bezdicek, Ondrej; Růžička, Evžen; Roth, Jan; Vymazal, Josef; Jech, Robert</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>We describe an analysis method that characterizes the correlation between coupled time-series <span class="hlt">functions</span> by their frequencies and <span class="hlt">phases</span>. It provides a unified framework for simultaneous assessment of frequency and latency of a coupled time-series. The analysis is demonstrated on resting-state <span class="hlt">functional</span> MRI data of 34 healthy subjects. Interactions between fMRI time-series are represented by cross-correlation (with time-lag) <span class="hlt">functions</span>. A general linear model is used on the cross-correlation <span class="hlt">functions</span> to obtain the frequencies and <span class="hlt">phase</span>-differences of the original time-series. We define symmetric, antisymmetric and asymmetric cross-correlation <span class="hlt">functions</span> that correspond respectively to in-<span class="hlt">phase</span>, 90° out-of-<span class="hlt">phase</span> and any <span class="hlt">phase</span> difference between a pair of time-series, where the last two were never introduced before. Seed maps of the motor system were calculated to demonstrate the strength and capabilities of the analysis. Unique types of <span class="hlt">functional</span> connections, their dominant frequencies and <span class="hlt">phase</span>-differences have been identified. The relation between <span class="hlt">phase</span>-differences and time-delays is shown. The <span class="hlt">phase</span>-differences are speculated to inform transfer-time and/or to reflect a difference in the hemodynamic response between regions that are modulated by neurotransmitters concentration. The analysis can be used with any coupled <span class="hlt">functions</span> in many disciplines including electrophysiology, EEG or MEG in neuroscience. PMID:28272522</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28272522','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28272522"><span>Frequency-<span class="hlt">phase</span> analysis of resting-state <span class="hlt">functional</span> MRI.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Goelman, Gadi; Dan, Rotem; Růžička, Filip; Bezdicek, Ondrej; Růžička, Evžen; Roth, Jan; Vymazal, Josef; Jech, Robert</p> <p>2017-03-08</p> <p>We describe an analysis method that characterizes the correlation between coupled time-series <span class="hlt">functions</span> by their frequencies and <span class="hlt">phases</span>. It provides a unified framework for simultaneous assessment of frequency and latency of a coupled time-series. The analysis is demonstrated on resting-state <span class="hlt">functional</span> MRI data of 34 healthy subjects. Interactions between fMRI time-series are represented by cross-correlation (with time-lag) <span class="hlt">functions</span>. A general linear model is used on the cross-correlation <span class="hlt">functions</span> to obtain the frequencies and <span class="hlt">phase</span>-differences of the original time-series. We define symmetric, antisymmetric and asymmetric cross-correlation <span class="hlt">functions</span> that correspond respectively to in-<span class="hlt">phase</span>, 90° out-of-<span class="hlt">phase</span> and any <span class="hlt">phase</span> difference between a pair of time-series, where the last two were never introduced before. Seed maps of the motor system were calculated to demonstrate the strength and capabilities of the analysis. Unique types of <span class="hlt">functional</span> connections, their dominant frequencies and <span class="hlt">phase</span>-differences have been identified. The relation between <span class="hlt">phase</span>-differences and time-delays is shown. The <span class="hlt">phase</span>-differences are speculated to inform transfer-time and/or to reflect a difference in the hemodynamic response between regions that are modulated by neurotransmitters concentration. The analysis can be used with any coupled <span class="hlt">functions</span> in many disciplines including electrophysiology, EEG or MEG in neuroscience.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19081676','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19081676"><span>Origin of <span class="hlt">phase</span> shift in atomic force microscopic investigation of the surface <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of NR/NBR blend film.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thanawan, S; Radabutra, S; Thamasirianunt, P; Amornsakchai, T; Suchiva, K</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to study the <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and surface properties of NR/NBR blend. Blends at 1/3, 1/1 and 3/1 weight ratios were prepared in benzene and formed film by casting. AFM <span class="hlt">phase</span> images of these blends in tapping mode displayed islands in the sea <span class="hlt">morphology</span> or matrix-dispersed structures. For blend 1/3, NR formed dispersed <span class="hlt">phase</span> while in blends 1/1 and 3/1 <span class="hlt">phase</span> inversion was observed. NR showed higher <span class="hlt">phase</span> shift angle in AFM <span class="hlt">phase</span> imaging for all blends. This circumstance was governed by adhesion energy hysteresis between the device tip and the rubber surface rather than surface stiffness of the materials, as proved by force distance measurements in the AFM contact mode.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1211193','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1211193"><span><span class="hlt">Morphological</span> <span class="hlt">Phase</span> Behavior of Poly(RTIL)-Containing Diblock Copolymer Melts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Scalfani, VF; Wiesenauer, EF; Ekblad, JR; Edwards, JP; Gin, DL; Bailey, TS</p> <p>2012-05-22</p> <p>The development of nanostructured polymeric systems containing directionally continuous poly(ionic liquid) (poly(IL)) domains has considerable implications toward a range of transport-dependent, energy-based technology applications. The controlled, synthetic integration of poly(IL)s into block copolymer (BCP) architectures provides a promising means to this end, based on their inherent ability to self-assemble into a range of defined, periodic <span class="hlt">morphologies</span>. In this work, we report the melt-state <span class="hlt">phase</span> behavior of an imidazolium-containing alkyl ionic BCP system, derived from the sequential ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of imidazolium- and alkyl-substituted norbornene monomer derivatives. A series of 16 BCP samples were synthesized, varying both the relative volume fraction of the poly(norbornene dodecyl ester) block (f(DOD) = 0.42-0.96) and the overall molecular weights of the block copolymers (M-n values from 5000-20 100 g mol(-1)). Through a combination of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and dynamic rheology, we were able to delineate clear compositional <span class="hlt">phase</span> boundaries for each of the classic BCP <span class="hlt">phases</span>, including lamellae (Lam), hexagonally packed cylinders (Hex), and spheres on a body-centered-cubic lattice (S-BCC). Additionally, a liquid-like packing (LLP) of spheres was found for samples located in the extreme asymmetric region of the <span class="hlt">phase</span> diagram, and a persistent coexistence of Lam and Hex domains was found in lieu of the bicontinuous cubic gyroid <span class="hlt">phase</span> for samples located at the intersection of Hex and Lam regions. Thermal disordering was opposed even in very low molecular weight samples, detected only when the composition was highly asymmetric (f(DOD) = 0.96). Annealing experiments on samples exhibiting Lam and Hex coexistence revealed the presence of extremely slow transition kinetics, ultimately selective for one or the other but not the more complex gyroid <span class="hlt">phase</span>. In fact, no evidence of the bicontinuous network was detected over</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1048553','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1048553"><span><span class="hlt">Morphological</span> <span class="hlt">Phase</span> Behavior of Poly(RTIL)-Containing Diblock Copolymer Melts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Scalfani, Vincent F.; Wiesenauer, Erin F.; Ekblad, John R.; Edwards, Julian P.; Gin, Douglas L.; Bailey, Travis S.</p> <p>2012-10-23</p> <p>The development of nanostructured polymeric systems containing directionally continuous poly(ionic liquid) (poly(IL)) domains has considerable implications toward a range of transport-dependent, energy-based technology applications. The controlled, synthetic integration of poly(IL)s into block copolymer (BCP) architectures provides a promising means to this end, based on their inherent ability to self-assemble into a range of defined, periodic <span class="hlt">morphologies</span>. In this work, we report the melt-state <span class="hlt">phase</span> behavior of an imidazolium-containing alkyl-ionic BCP system, derived from the sequential ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of imidazolium- and alkyl-substituted norbornene monomer derivatives. A series of 16 BCP samples were synthesized, varying both the relative volume fraction of the poly(norbornene dodecyl ester) block (f{sub DOD} = 0.42-0.96) and the overall molecular weights of the block copolymers (M{sub n} values from 5000-20,100 g mol{sup -1}). Through a combination of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and dynamic rheology, we were able to delineate clear compositional <span class="hlt">phase</span> boundaries for each of the classic BCP <span class="hlt">phases</span>, including lamellae (Lam), hexagonally packed cylinders (Hex), and spheres on a body-centered-cubic lattice (S{sub BCC}). Additionally, a liquid-like packing (LLP) of spheres was found for samples located in the extreme asymmetric region of the <span class="hlt">phase</span> diagram, and a persistent coexistence of Lam and Hex domains was found in lieu of the bicontinuous cubic gyroid <span class="hlt">phase</span> for samples located at the intersection of Hex and Lam regions. Thermal disordering was opposed even in very low molecular weight samples, detected only when the composition was highly asymmetric (f{sub DOD} = 0.96). Annealing experiments on samples exhibiting Lam and Hex coexistence revealed the presence of extremely slow transition kinetics, ultimately selective for one or the other but not the more complex gyroid <span class="hlt">phase</span>. In fact, no evidence of the bicontinuous</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1164314','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1164314"><span><span class="hlt">Morphological</span> and <span class="hlt">functional</span> interrelationships of articular cartilage matrices.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Poole, C A; Flint, M H; Beaumont, B W</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The pericellular, territorial and interterritorial matrices of canine tibial cartilage have been identified ultrastructurally on the basis of their collagen fibre density and organisation, proteoglycan distribution and their structural response to experimentally applied compressive loads. In addition, a discrete pericellular capsule composed of fine, faintly banded fibrils is described which surrounds and encloses the pericellular matrix and chondrocytes of the middle and deep layers but not of the superficial layer. It is suggested that the fine fibrils which comprise this pericellular capsule represent some of the new minor collagen species recently localised in a similar position in hyaline cartilages. The densely compacted cupola which forms the articular pole of the capsule is frequently penetrated by a clearly defined pericellular channel, consistently orientated in the direction of the articular surface. Membrane-bound vesicles are observed in the pericellular matrix, within the lumen of the pericellular channel and accumulated in the territorial matrix immediately beyond the pericellular channel. The constancy of this distribution pattern strongly suggests a flow of material through the pericellular channel from the pericellular matrix to the territorial matrix and beyond, possibly in response to minute pressure gradients generated during compressive deformation of the non-distensible capsule. Furthermore, it is suggested that the random dispersal and subsequent rupture of matrix vesicles may represent a mechanism whereby chondrocytes, with limited mobility, could exercise homeostatic control over the cartilage matrix at some distance from the cell. Chondrocytes in the deeper layers of canine tibial cartilage are each surrounded by three distinct compartments, a pericellular matrix and capsule, a territorial matrix and an interterritorial matrix. The response of each of these concentric compartments to experimental load suggests that they <span class="hlt">function</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19097161','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19097161"><span><span class="hlt">Functional</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and patterns of blood flow in the heart of Python regius.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Starck, J Matthias</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>Brightness-modulated ultrasonography, continuous-wave Doppler, and pulsed-wave Doppler-echocardiography were used to analyze the <span class="hlt">functional</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the undisturbed heart of ball pythons. In particular, the action of the muscular ridge and the atrio-ventricular valves are key features to understand how patterns of blood flow emerge from structures directing blood into the various chambers of the heart. A step-by-step image analysis of echocardiographs shows that during ventricular diastole, the atrio-ventricular valves block the interventricular canals so that blood from the right atrium first fills the cavum venosum, and blood from the left atrium fills the cavum arteriosum. During diastole, blood from the cavum venosum crosses the muscular ridge into the cavum pulmonale. During middle to late systole the muscular ridge closes, thus prohibiting further blood flow into the cavum pulmonale. At the same time, the atrio-ventricular valves open the interventricular canal and allow blood from the cavum arteriosum to flow into the cavum venosum. In the late <span class="hlt">phase</span> of ventricular systole, all blood from the cavum pulmonale is pressed into the pulmonary trunk; all blood from the cavum venosum is pressed into both aortas. Quantitative measures of blood flow volume showed that resting snakes bypass the pulmonary circulation and shunt about twice the blood volume into the systemic circulation as into the pulmonary circulation. When digesting, the oxygen demand of snakes increased tremendously. This is associated with shunting more blood into the pulmonary circulation. The results of this study allow the presentation of a detailed <span class="hlt">functional</span> model of the python heart. They are also the basis for a <span class="hlt">functional</span> hypothesis of how shunting is achieved. Further, it was shown that shunting is an active regulation process in response to changing demands of the organism (here, oxygen demand). Finally, the results of this study support earlier reports about a dual pressure</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26436405','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26436405"><span><span class="hlt">Morphological</span> analysis and muscle-associated gene expression during different muscle growth <span class="hlt">phases</span> of Megalobrama amblycephala.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhu, K C; Yu, D H; Zhao, J K; Wang, W M; Wang, H L</p> <p>2015-09-28</p> <p>Skeletal muscle growth is regulated by both positive and negative factors, such as myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) and myostatin (MSTN), and involves both hyperplasia and hypertrophy. In the present study, <span class="hlt">morphological</span> changes during muscle development in Megalobrama amblycephala were characterized and gene expression levels were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis in juvenile [60, 90, 120, and 180 days post-hatching (dph)] and adult fish. Our results show that during muscle development, the frequency of muscle fibers with a diameter <20 μm dramatically decreased in both red and white muscles, with a concomitant increase in the frequency of >30 μm fibers in red muscle and >50 μm fibers in white muscle. At 90-120 dph, the ratio of hyperplastic to hypertrophic areas in red and white muscles increased, but later decreased at 120-180 dph. The effect of hypertrophy was significantly larger than hyperplasia during these <span class="hlt">phases</span>. qRT-PCR indicated MRF and MSTN (MSTNa and MSTNb) genes had similar expression patterns that peaked at 120 dph, with the exception of MSTNa. This new information on the molecular regulation of muscle growth and rapid growth <span class="hlt">phases</span> will be of value to the cultivation of M. amblycephala.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20352827','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20352827"><span>Evolution of <span class="hlt">phase</span> and <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of titanium dioxide induced from peroxo titanate complex aqueous solution.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chang, Jeong Ah; Vithal, Muga; Baek, In Chan; Seok, Sang Il</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>We demonstrate the growth of anatase TiO2 in nanospheres and rutile TiO2 in nanorods, by the hydrolysis of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide at 100 degrees C using sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and surface area measurement techniques are used to characterize the <span class="hlt">phase</span> and shape developments of TiO2 obtained from peroxo titanate complex in an aqueous solution at 100 degrees C. Peroxo titanate complexes were prepared by a reaction of titanium hydroxide, formed by hydrolysis of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP), and different amounts of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). TEM and XRD investigations reveal that the size of spheres (anatase) and rods (rutile) are about 8 nm (diameter) and about 13 x 29 nm approximately 20 x 75 nm (width x length) respectively. The influence of molar ratio of H2O2/TTIP on the <span class="hlt">phase</span> and <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of TiO2 is presented. A mixture of anatase spheres and short rutile rods are formed at low H2O2/TTIP ratio while predominantly rutile a quit long rods are formed at higher H2O2/TTIP ratio.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7858E..09D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7858E..09D"><span><span class="hlt">Phase</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> effects for ocean color retrieval algorithm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Du, KePing; Lee, Zhongping</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>Inherent optical properties (IOPs), e.g., absorption, back scattering coefficients, and volume scattering <span class="hlt">function</span>, are important parameters for radiance transfer simulation. Commercially available instruments (e.g., Wetlabs ACS, BB9, etc, and HOBILabs a-sphere, HS6, etc) basically only measure absorption and back scattering coefficients. In this paper, we used the same IOPs of International Ocean-Colour Coordinating Group (IOCCG) report 5 and Hydrolight to simulate the radiance distribution, however, different <span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>, say, a new <span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> derived from the measured data by multispectral volume scattering meter (MVSM) in coastal waters, the widely used Petzold average <span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>, and the Fournier-Forand (FF) <span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>, were employed in the simulations. The simulation results were used to develop the retrieval algorithm with angular effects correction based on the quasi-analytical algorithm(QAA) developed by Lee et al.. Results showed that not only the back scattering probability, but also the angular shape of <span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> are important for ocean color retrieval algorithm. Considering the importance of <span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in ocean color remote sensing, methods to validate the <span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> data should be developed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5386591','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5386591"><span>Systematic <span class="hlt">morphological</span> profiling of human gene and allele <span class="hlt">function</span> via Cell Painting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rohban, Mohammad Hossein; Singh, Shantanu; Wu, Xiaoyun; Berthet, Julia B; Bray, Mark-Anthony; Shrestha, Yashaswi; Varelas, Xaralabos; Boehm, Jesse S; Carpenter, Anne E</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>We hypothesized that human genes and disease-associated alleles might be systematically <span class="hlt">functionally</span> annotated using <span class="hlt">morphological</span> profiling of cDNA constructs, via a microscopy-based Cell Painting assay. Indeed, 50% of the 220 tested genes yielded detectable <span class="hlt">morphological</span> profiles, which grouped into biologically meaningful gene clusters consistent with known <span class="hlt">functional</span> annotation (e.g., the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK cascade). We used novel subpopulation-based visualization methods to interpret the <span class="hlt">morphological</span> changes for specific clusters. This unbiased <span class="hlt">morphologic</span> map of gene <span class="hlt">function</span> revealed TRAF2/c-REL negative regulation of YAP1/WWTR1-responsive pathways. We confirmed this discovery of <span class="hlt">functional</span> connectivity between the NF-κB pathway and Hippo pathway effectors at the transcriptional level, thereby expanding knowledge of these two signaling pathways that critically regulate tumor initiation and progression. We make the images and raw data publicly available, providing an initial <span class="hlt">morphological</span> map of major biological pathways for future study. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.24060.001 PMID:28315521</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvB..91s5318S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvB..91s5318S"><span>Interpolating <span class="hlt">function</span> of the strain relief of epitaxial quantum dots via an alternative <span class="hlt">morphological</span> descriptor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scopece, Daniele</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Assessing the equilibrium <span class="hlt">morphologies</span> of self-assembled heteroepitaxial quantum dots requires the estimation of their elastic (volumetric), surface, and edge energy contribution, all of them being shape dependent. Due to the size and multifaceted <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of these islands, the estimation of the first term is typically a time-consuming or complicated task. A general rule to predict it from the sole <span class="hlt">morphologies</span> would guarantee a precious advantage in this field. Here we present an interpolating <span class="hlt">function</span> to fulfill this purpose for the prototypical systems of Ge/Si and InAs/GaAs. The trend is first extracted from a systematic analysis of realistic shapes observed on (001) substrates. It is then tested and corroborated for selected vicinal (tilted) substrates. Finally, the deviations due to intermixing and the underlying wetting layer are quantified. Of fundamental importance in this process is the identification of a <span class="hlt">morphological</span> descriptor more accurate than the widely adopted aspect ratio, the limitations of which are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750053946&hterms=Kahler&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DKahler%252C%2Bg.','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750053946&hterms=Kahler&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DKahler%252C%2Bg."><span><span class="hlt">Morphological</span> evolution of X-ray flare structures from the rise through the decay <span class="hlt">phase</span>. [Skylab study of solar flares</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kahler, S. W.; Krieger, A. S.; Vaiana, G. S.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">morphological</span> evolution of 12 solar X-ray subflares from onset through the decay <span class="hlt">phase</span> has been studied using photographic X-ray images obtained from Skylab. The spatial configurations are found to vary widely from flare to flare, but they appear to be composed of two basic kinds of structures. The first, termed 'X-ray kernels', are brightest during the rise <span class="hlt">phase</span>; the second, looplike structures, appear during the maximum and decay <span class="hlt">phases</span> of the event. The X-ray kernels are small pointlike structures which may be related to the nonthermal <span class="hlt">phases</span> of flares.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22236112','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22236112"><span><span class="hlt">Phase</span>, <span class="hlt">morphology</span>, and hygroscopicity of mixed oleic acid/sodium chloride/water aerosol particles before and after ozonolysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dennis-Smither, Benjamin J; Hanford, Kate L; Kwamena, Nana-Owusua A; Miles, Rachael E H; Reid, Jonathan P</p> <p>2012-06-21</p> <p>Aerosol optical tweezers are used to probe the <span class="hlt">phase</span>, <span class="hlt">morphology</span>, and hygroscopicity of single aerosol particles consisting of an inorganic component, sodium chloride, and a water insoluble organic component, oleic acid. Coagulation of oleic acid aerosol with an optically trapped aqueous sodium chloride droplet leads to formation of a <span class="hlt">phase</span>-separated particle with two partially engulfed liquid <span class="hlt">phases</span>. The dependence of the <span class="hlt">phase</span> and <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the trapped particle with variation in relative humidity (RH) is investigated by cavity enhanced Raman spectroscopy over the RH range <5% to >95%. The efflorescence and deliquescence behavior of the inorganic component is shown to be unaffected by the presence of the organic <span class="hlt">phase</span>. Whereas efflorescence occurs promptly (<1 s), the deliquescence process requires both dissolution of the inorganic component and the adoption of an equilibrium <span class="hlt">morphology</span> for the resulting two <span class="hlt">phase</span> particle, occurring on a time-scale of <20 s. Comparative measurements of the hygroscopicity of mixed aqueous sodium chloride/oleic acid droplets with undoped aqueous sodium chloride droplets show that the oleic acid does not impact on the equilibration partitioning of water between the inorganic component and the gas <span class="hlt">phase</span> or the time response of evaporation/condensation. The oxidative aging of the particles through reaction with ozone is shown to increase the hygroscopicity of the organic component.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20456255','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20456255"><span><span class="hlt">Morphological</span> and <span class="hlt">functional</span> correlations in riboflavin UV A corneal collagen cross-linking for keratoconus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mazzotta, Cosimo; Caporossi, Tomaso; Denaro, Rosario; Bovone, Cristina; Sparano, Caterina; Paradiso, Anna; Baiocchi, Stefano; Caporossi, Aldo</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>To investigate the correlations between corneal structural modifications assessed by in vivo corneal confocal microscopy with visual <span class="hlt">function</span> [uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA)] and <span class="hlt">morphological</span> data (corneal topography, pachymetry, elevation analysis) after riboflavin UV A corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) for the stabilization of progressive keratoconus. Forty-four eyes with progressive keratoconus were enrolled in the Siena Eye Cross Study (prospective nonrandomized <span class="hlt">phase</span> II open trial). All eyes underwent Riboflavin UV A CXL. Preoperative and postoperative evaluation comprised: UCVA, BSCVA, optical pachymetry (Visante OCT, Zeiss, Germany), corneal topography (CSO, Florence, Italy) and tomography (Orbscan IIz; B&L, Rochester, NY, USA) and in vivo confocal microscopy (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph II; Rostock, Heidelberg Gmbh, Germany). Examinations were performed preoperatively 6 months and one day before treatment and at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of follow-up. In vivo corneal confocal microscopy showed time-dependent postoperative epithelial and stromal modifications after cross-linking. Epithelial thinning associated with stromal oedema and keratocytes apoptosis explained initial tendency towards slightly reduced VA and more glare one month postoperatively in 70% of eyes. Furthermore, a statistically not significant early worsening of topographic mean K values was observed. Orbscan II analysis significantly underestimated pachymetric values after treatment. Pachymetric underestimation was rectified by high-resolution optical pachymetry provided by the Visante OCT system. After the third post-CXL month, epithelial thickening, disappearance of oedema and new collagen compaction recorded by in vivo corneal confocal microscopy explained the improvements in visual performance during the follow-up. Changes in stromal reflectivity and collagen compaction observed by in vivo confocal microscopy were associated with corneal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15636082','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15636082"><span>The mechanisms of <span class="hlt">morphological</span>-motor <span class="hlt">functioning</span> in elementary school female first- to fourth-graders.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Katić, Ratko; Pejcić, Aleksandra; Viskić-Stalec, Natasa</p> <p>2004-06-01</p> <p>Four <span class="hlt">morphological</span> and 7 motor variables were assessed in a sample of 2,235 female children (subdivided into 4 groups) aged 7-11 years, elementary school first- to fourth-graders from the Primorje-Gorski Kotar County, Republic of Croatia. The study objective was to analyze the <span class="hlt">morphological</span>-motor structures according to age. Factor analysis was done for each of the four subject groups. Results clearly showed the <span class="hlt">morphological</span>-motor <span class="hlt">functioning</span> of the girls to change with age. Developmental processes lead to the formation of a general <span class="hlt">morphological</span> factor defined as ectomesomorph and two general mechanisms responsible for motor efficiency in the form of strength regulation and speed regulation. The results obtained were found to be consistent with the existing relevant models related to the <span class="hlt">morphological</span>, motor, <span class="hlt">functional</span> and cognitive systems. The more so, these results allow for a supramodel to design, which will integrate relevant elements of all these models to define the <span class="hlt">function</span> of the body as a whole.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA425185','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA425185"><span>Spectrally Shaped Random-<span class="hlt">Phase</span> Spreading <span class="hlt">Functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2003-10-24</p> <p>gain reduction due to reference <span class="hlt">function</span> windowing. 18 3.3 Excision of narrow band interference. 19 4 4.1 Hardware based adaptive system with...frequency-spread CW interference falling within the data-rate bandwidth. Assuming that fref(t) is at base band, i.e. having a spectrum extending from zero...report describes the baseband hardware demonstrator based upon AT&T DSP32C digital signal processing cards in an IBM personal computer host platform, and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16800514','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16800514"><span>Comparing the <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and <span class="hlt">phase</span> diagram of H-shaped ABC block copolymers and linear ABC block copolymers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ye, Xianggui; Yu, Xifei; Sun, Zhaoyan; An, Lijia</p> <p>2006-06-22</p> <p>By using a combinatorial screening method based on the self-consistent field theory (SCFT) for polymers, we have investigated the <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of H-shaped ABC block copolymers (A2BC2) and compared them with those of the linear ABC block copolymers. By changing the ratios of the volume fractions of two A arms and two C arms, one can obtain block copolymers with different architectures ranging from linear block copolymer to H-shaped block copolymer. By systematically varying the volume fractions of block A, B, and C, the triangle <span class="hlt">phase</span> diagrams of the H-shaped ABC block copolymer with equal interactions among the three species are constructed. In this study, we find four different <span class="hlt">morphologies</span> (lamellar <span class="hlt">phase</span> (LAM), hexagonal lattice <span class="hlt">phase</span> (HEX), core-shell hexagonal lattice <span class="hlt">phase</span> (CSH), and two interpenetrating tetragonal lattice (TET2)). Furthermore, the order-order transitions driven by architectural change are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25658174','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25658174"><span><span class="hlt">MORPHOLOGY</span> SCORE AS A MARKER OF RETINAL <span class="hlt">FUNCTION</span> IN DRUSENOID PIGMENT EPITHELIAL DETACHMENT.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Clemens, Christoph R; Alten, Florian; Heiduschka, Peter; Eter, Nicole</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>To evaluate a <span class="hlt">morphology</span> score for drusenoid pigment epithelial detachment (dPED) regarding predictability of a decline in retinal <span class="hlt">function</span> beyond best-corrected visual acuity. Thirteen eyes of 10 patients with dPED due to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) were included (age 72.8 ± 4.2 years). All underwent volume spectral domain optical coherence tomography, fluorescence angiography, and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy infrared imaging as well as multifocal electroretinography and microperimetry. The dPED <span class="hlt">morphology</span> score suggested consists of five parameters: hyperreflective spots in infrared, lesion diameter, lesion height, presence of vitelliform-like material in the subretinal space or subretinal fluid, and integrity of the ellipsoid zone in spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Subsequently, a score value between 0 and 1 according to the extent of <span class="hlt">morphologic</span> changes was correlated to foveal multifocal electroretinography and microperimetry measurements. The mean best-corrected visual acuity was 20/40. The mean height and mean diameter of dPED were 312.2 ± 111 μm and 2,535 ± 805 μm. Two dPED showed no hyperreflective spots in confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy infrared images, three displayed a moderate stage of hyperreflective spots, and eight had severe hyperreflective spots. Two eyes showed subretinal fluid, and five patients showed vitelliform-like material in the subretinal space. Eight eyes revealed a severe disruption of the ellipsoid zone. Although no correlation was found between dPED <span class="hlt">morphology</span> score and best-corrected visual acuity, eyes with a dPED <span class="hlt">morphology</span> score >0.5 revealed distinctly decreased values in <span class="hlt">functional</span> measurements compared with those with a score ≤0.5. The dPED <span class="hlt">morphology</span> score aggregates all currently known <span class="hlt">morphologic</span> changes in dPED and represents a valuable tool for clinical lesion evaluation. Furthermore, it allows for assessing an estimate of <span class="hlt">functional</span> decline beyond best-corrected visual</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26346119','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26346119"><span>Linking <span class="hlt">morphological</span> and <span class="hlt">functional</span> variability in hand movement and silent reading.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sun, Z Y; Pinel, P; Rivière, D; Moreno, A; Dehaene, S; Mangin, J-F</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>It is generally accepted in neuroscience that anatomy and <span class="hlt">function</span> go hand in hand. Accordingly, a local <span class="hlt">morphological</span> variability could lead to a corresponding <span class="hlt">functional</span> variability. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by linking the variability of the cortical folding pattern of 252 right-handed subjects to the localization or the pattern of <span class="hlt">functional</span> activations induced by hand motion or silent reading. Three regions are selected: the central sulcus, the precentral sulcus and the superior temporal sulcus (STS). "Essential <span class="hlt">morphological</span> variability traits" are identified using a method building upon multidimensional scaling. The link between variability in anatomy and <span class="hlt">function</span> is confirmed by the perfect match between the central sulcus <span class="hlt">morphological</span> "hand knob" and the corresponding motor activation: as the location of the hand knob moves more or less dorsally along the central sulcus, the motor hand activation moves accordingly. Furthermore, the size of the left hand activation in the right hemisphere is correlated with the knob location in the central sulcus. A new link between <span class="hlt">functional</span> and <span class="hlt">morphological</span> variability is discovered relative to the location of a premotor activation induced by silent reading. While this reading activation is located next to the wall of the central sulcus when the hand knob has a ventral positioning, it is pushed into a deep gyrus interrupting the precentral sulcus when the knob is more dorsal. Finally, it is shown that the size of the reading activation along the STS is larger when the posterior branches are less developed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23509206','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23509206"><span>Thyroid <span class="hlt">function</span> and <span class="hlt">morphology</span> in overweight and obese children and adolescents in a Chinese population.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Huanhuan; Zhang, Hao; Tang, Wei; Xi, Qian; Liu, Xiaoyun; Duan, Yu; Liu, Chao</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>To investigate the changes in thyroid <span class="hlt">function</span> and <span class="hlt">morphology</span> in overweight and obese school-aged children and adolescents in Chinese population. Altogether, 880 children and adolescents were enrolled in a cross-sectional survey in Anhui Province and we assessed thyroid <span class="hlt">function</span>, thyroid ultrasound, metabolic indicators and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in 781 subjects, which were divided into obesity (n=327), overweight (n=242), and normal-weight (n=212) groups. Overweight and obese subjects were further divided into four subgroups according to thyroid peroxidase antibody and ultrasound pattern to compare thyroid <span class="hlt">function</span> and <span class="hlt">morphology</span> with or without thyroid autoimmune evidence. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (FT3), as well as thyroid volume, were found to be positively associated with body mass index Z-score, waist/hip ratio, waist/height ratio and/or waist circumference (WC). Conversely, free thyroxine was negatively associated with WC. The detection rates of thyroid nodules among these groups were not significantly different (p=0.828). Among the four subgroups in 569 overweight or obese subjects, the changes in thyroid <span class="hlt">function</span> and volume were more obvious in group D which showed no autoimmune evidence. The levels of hs-CRP were also higher in the overweight and obese groups with or without autoimmune evidence than in the normal-weight group (p<0.05). Thyroid <span class="hlt">function</span> and <span class="hlt">morphology</span> may be affected in obese and overweight children and adolescents with elevated TSH, FT3 and thyroid volume. The detection rates of thyroid nodules may not be affected by obesity. Alterations in thyroid <span class="hlt">function</span> and <span class="hlt">morphology</span> cannot be completely explained by local autoimmune responses. Low-grade inflammation may be involved in the changes in thyroid <span class="hlt">function</span> and <span class="hlt">morphology</span> in obesity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22910405','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22910405"><span><span class="hlt">Morphological</span> and <span class="hlt">functional</span> abnormalities of salience network in the early-stage of paranoid schizophrenia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pu, Weidan; Li, Li; Zhang, Huiran; Ouyang, Xuan; Liu, Haihong; Zhao, Jingping; Li, Lingjiang; Xue, Zhimin; Xu, Ke; Tang, Haibo; Shan, Baoci; Liu, Zhening; Wang, Fei</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>A salience network (SN), mainly composed of the anterior insula (AI) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), has been suggested to play an important role in salience attribution which has been proposed as central to the pathology of paranoid schizophrenia. The role of this SN in the pathophysiology of paranoid schizophrenia, however, still remains unclear. In the present study, voxel-based morphometry and resting-state <span class="hlt">functional</span> connectivity analyses were combined to identify <span class="hlt">morphological</span> and <span class="hlt">functional</span> abnormalities in the proposed SN in the early-stage of paranoid schizophrenia (ESPS). Voxel-based morphometry and resting-state <span class="hlt">functional</span> connectivity analyses were applied to 90 ESPS patients and 90 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC). Correlation analyses were performed to examine the relationships between various clinical variables and both gray matter <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and <span class="hlt">functional</span> connectivity within the SN in ESPS. Compared to the HC group, the ESPS group showed significantly reduced gray matter volume (GMV) in both bilateral AI and ACC. Moreover, significantly reduced <span class="hlt">functional</span> connectivity within the SN sub-networks was identified in the ESPS group. These convergent <span class="hlt">morphological</span> and <span class="hlt">functional</span> deficits in SN were significantly associated with hallucinations. Additionally, illness duration correlated with reduced GMV in the left AI in ESPS. In conclusion, these findings provide convergent evidence for the <span class="hlt">morphological</span> and <span class="hlt">functional</span> abnormalities of the SN in ESPS. Moreover, the association of illness duration with the reduced GMV in the left AI suggests that the SN and the AI, in particular, may manifest progressive <span class="hlt">morphological</span> changes that are especially important in the emergence of ESPS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA469652','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA469652"><span><span class="hlt">Morphology</span> and <span class="hlt">Phase</span> Transitions in Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene Triblock Copolymer Grafted with Isobutyl Substituted Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes (preprint)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2006-11-07</p> <p>studied because of their similar stereochemistry , similar molecular weight, and contrasting electronic properties. It was shown that the <span class="hlt">morphology</span>...butadiene domain is a continuous <span class="hlt">phase</span>. Hence, the addition of dimensionally well- defined nano-structured chemicals such as POSS to the continuous...precisely define the <span class="hlt">phase</span> space of the POSS-SBS grafts, but to put the TODT changes in the context of the reduction of polystyrene content by</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18273331','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18273331"><span><span class="hlt">Phase</span> pupil <span class="hlt">functions</span> for focal-depth enhancement derived from a Wigner distribution <span class="hlt">function</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zalvidea, D; Sicre, E E</p> <p>1998-06-10</p> <p>A method for obtaining <span class="hlt">phase</span>-retardation <span class="hlt">functions</span>, which give rise to an increase of the image focal depth, is proposed. To this end, the Wigner distribution <span class="hlt">function</span> corresponding to a specific aperture that has an associated small depth of focus in image space is conveniently sheared in the <span class="hlt">phase</span>-space domain to generate a new Wigner distribution <span class="hlt">function</span>. From this new <span class="hlt">function</span> a more uniform on-axis image irradiance can be accomplished. This approach is illustrated by comparison of the imaging performance of both the derived <span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> and a previously reported logarithmic <span class="hlt">phase</span> distribution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhRvB..80d5403B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhRvB..80d5403B"><span><span class="hlt">Phase</span> transition and surface <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of MnAs/GaAs(001) studied with in situ variable-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Breitwieser, R.; Vidal, F.; Graff, I. L.; Marangolo, M.; Eddrief, M.; Boulliard, J.-C.; Etgens, V. H.</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>The MnAs <span class="hlt">phase</span> transition from the hexagonal ferromagnetic α to the orthorhombic paramagnetic β <span class="hlt">phase</span> has been investigated in situ by variable-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of epilayer thickness. The α-β <span class="hlt">phase</span> coexistence leads to the formation of a self-organized stripes pattern of alternating α and β regions. The <span class="hlt">morphology</span> evolution of the α-β periodic array of domains has been imaged in detail. The period and corrugation of this pattern are linear <span class="hlt">functions</span> of the epilayer thickness with a domain periodicity nearly five times larger than film thickness. Also, STM local imaging through the <span class="hlt">phase</span>-coexistence region (10-45°C) shows unambiguously the absence of mass transport during the transition. The self-organization of α-β stripes is consistent with an elastic-energy equilibrium state of the heteroepitaxial system at each temperature, as previously proposed for the origin of the modulated structure [V. M. Kaganer , Phys. Rev. B 66, 045305 (2002)]. Independently of self-organized α-β regions, the surface displays anisotropic mounds that are elongated along MnAs a axis. This facetting process leads to a peculiar, highly anisotropic surface with oriented facets and submicron periodic modulation along the hexagonal c axis. Smoother surfaces with larger terraces are obtained following postgrowth annealing. These results suggest that a careful control of the growth temperature and annealing procedure can be used to tailor the surface <span class="hlt">morphology</span> for specific applications requiring anisotropic templates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23301920','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23301920"><span>Gas-<span class="hlt">phase</span> azide <span class="hlt">functionalization</span> of carbon.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stenehjem, Eric D; Ziatdinov, Vadim R; Stack, T Daniel P; Chidsey, Christopher E D</p> <p>2013-01-23</p> <p>Tailoring the surface and interfacial properties of inexpensive and abundant carbon materials plays an increasingly important role for innovative applications including those in electrocatalysis, energy storage, gas separations, and composite materials. Described here is the novel preparation and subsequent use of gaseous iodine azide for the azide modification of carbon surfaces. In-line generation of gaseous iodine azide from iodine monochloride vapor and solid sodium azide is safe and convenient. Immediate treatment of carbon surfaces with this gaseous stream of iodine azide provides a highly reproducible, selective, and scalable azide <span class="hlt">functionalization</span> that minimizes waste and reduces deleterious side reactions. Among the possible uses of azide-modified surfaces, they serve as versatile substrates for the attachment of additional <span class="hlt">functionality</span> by coupling with terminal alkynes under the mild copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) "click" reaction. For instance, coupling ethynylferrocene to azide-modified glassy carbon surfaces achieves ferrocene coverage up to 8 × 10(13) molecules/cm(2) by voltammetric and XPS analyses. The 1,2,3-triazole linker formed during the CuAAC reaction is robust and hydrolytically stable in both aqueous 1 M HClO(4) and 1 M NaOH for at least 12 h at 100 °C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4552331','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4552331"><span>Distinguishing Bicontinuous Lipid Cubic <span class="hlt">Phases</span> from Isotropic Membrane <span class="hlt">Morphologies</span> Using 31P Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yang, Yu; Yao, Hongwei</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Nonlamellar lipid membranes are frequently induced by proteins that fuse, bend, and cut membranes. Understanding the mechanism of action of these proteins requires the elucidation of the membrane <span class="hlt">morphologies</span> that they induce. While hexagonal <span class="hlt">phases</span> and lamellar <span class="hlt">phases</span> are readily identified by their characteristic solid-state NMR lineshapes, bicontinuous lipid cubic <span class="hlt">phases</span> are more difficult to discern, since the static NMR spectra of cubic-<span class="hlt">phase</span> lipids consist of an isotropic 31P or 2H peak, indistinguishable from the spectra of isotropic membrane <span class="hlt">morphologies</span> such as micelles and small vesicles. To date, small-angle X-ray scattering is the only method to identify bicontinuous lipid cubic <span class="hlt">phases</span>. To explore unique NMR signatures of lipid cubic <span class="hlt">phases</span>, we first describe the orientation distribution of lipid molecules in cubic <span class="hlt">phases</span> and simulate the static 31P chemical shift lineshapes of oriented cubic-<span class="hlt">phase</span> membranes in the limit of slow lateral diffusion. We then show that 31P T2 relaxation times differ significantly between isotropic micelles and cubic-<span class="hlt">phase</span> membranes: the latter exhibit two-orders-of magnitude shorter T2 relaxation times. These differences are explained by the different timescales of lipid lateral diffusion on the cubic-<span class="hlt">phase</span> surface versus the timescales of micelle tumbling. Using this relaxation NMR approach, we investigated a DOPE membrane containing the transmembrane domain (TMD) of a viral fusion protein. The static 31P spectrum of DOPE shows an isotropic peak, whose T2 relaxation times correspond to that of a cubic <span class="hlt">phase</span>. Thus, the viral fusion protein TMD induces negative Gaussian curvature, which is an intrinsic characteristic of cubic <span class="hlt">phases</span>, to the DOPE membrane. This curvature induction has important implications to the mechanism of virus-cell fusion. This study establishes a simple NMR diagnostic probe of lipid cubic <span class="hlt">phases</span>, which is expected to be useful for studying many protein-induced membrane remodeling phenomena in biology</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApSS..357.1133P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApSS..357.1133P"><span><span class="hlt">Phase</span>- and <span class="hlt">morphology</span>-controlled synthesis of cobalt sulfide nanocrystals and comparison of their catalytic activities for hydrogen evolution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pan, Yuan; Liu, Yunqi; Liu, Chenguang</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Colalt sulfide nanocrystals (NCs), including dandelion-like Co9S8 and sphere-like Co3S4, have been synthesized via a thermal decomposition approach using cobalt acetylacetonate as the cobalt source, 1-dodecanethiol as the sulfur source and oleic acid or oleylamine as the high boiling organic solvent. It is found that the molar ratio of the Co:S precursor and the species of solvent play an important role in the control of <span class="hlt">phase</span> and <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of cobalt sulfide nanostructures. The <span class="hlt">phase</span> structure and <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the as-synthesized nickel sulfide NCs are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) mapping, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and N2 adsorption-desorption. Then we further compare the electrocatalytic activity and stability of as-synthesized cobalt sulfide NCs for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The results show that sphere-like Co3S4 exhibits better electrocatalytic activity than the dandelion-like Co9S8 NCs for HER, which can be attributed to the difference of <span class="hlt">phase</span> structure and <span class="hlt">morphology</span>. The sphere-like Co3S4 NCs have large surface area and high electrical conductivity, both are beneficial to enhance the catalytic activity. This study indicates that the crystalline <span class="hlt">phase</span> structure and <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of cobalt sulfide NCs are important for designing HER electrocatalysts with high efficiency and good stability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CPL...660...87G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CPL...660...87G"><span>Modeling the atomic-scale structure, stability, and <span class="hlt">morphological</span> transformations in the tetragonal <span class="hlt">phase</span> of LaVO4</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gouveia, Amanda F.; Ferrer, Mateus M.; Sambrano, Júlio R.; Andrés, Juan; Longo, Elson</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>In this communication, a systematic study of the surface structure, including energy management during <span class="hlt">morphological</span> transformations of tetragonal <span class="hlt">phase</span> of LaVO4, has been carried out. For this study, we combined experimental findings and first-principles calculations to develop a Wulff construction model. Our findings can help further understand the synthetic control of crystal shape via tuning of surface chemistry.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1170572','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1170572"><span>In-situ Neutron Scattering Determination of 3D <span class="hlt">Phase-Morphology</span> Correlations in Fullerene Block Copolymer Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Karim, Alamgir; Bucknall, David; Raghavan, Dharmaraj</p> <p>2015-02-23</p> <p> a fundamental study that does not set out to evaluate new materials or produce devices, but rather we wish to understand from first principles how the molecular structure of polymer-fullerene mixtures determined using neutron scattering (small angle neutron scattering and neutron reflection) affects device characteristics and consequently performance. While this seems a very obvious question to ask, this critical understanding is far from being realized despite the wealth of studies into OPV’s and is severely limiting organic PV devices from achieving their theoretical potential. Despite the fundamental nature of proposed work, it is essential to remain technologically relevant and therefore to ensure we address these issues we have developed relationships on the fundamental nature of structure-processing-property paradigm as applied to future need for large area, flexible OPV devices. Nanoscale heterojunction systems consisting of fullerenes dispersed in conjugated polymers are promising materials candidates for achieving high performance organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. In order to understand the <span class="hlt">phase</span> behavior in these devices, neutron reflection is used to determine the behavior of model conjugated polymer-fullerene mixtures. Neutron reflection is particularly useful for these types of thin film studies since the fullerene generally have a high scattering contrast with respect to most polymers. We are studying model bulk heterojunction (BHJ) films based on mixtures of poly(3-hexyl thiophene)s (P3HT), a widely used photoconductive polymer, and different fullerenes (C60, PCBM and bis-PCBM). The characterization technique of neutron reflectivity measurements have been used to determine film <span class="hlt">morphology</span> in a direction normal to the film surfaces. The novelty of the approach over previous studies is that the BHJ layer is sandwiched between a PEDOT/PSS and Al layers in real device configuration. Using this model system, the effect of typical thermal annealing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20717707','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20717707"><span>Wigner <span class="hlt">function</span> and Schroedinger equation in <span class="hlt">phase</span>-space representation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chruscinski, Dariusz; Mlodawski, Krzysztof</p> <p>2005-05-15</p> <p>We discuss a family of quasidistributions (s-ordered Wigner <span class="hlt">functions</span> of Agarwal and Wolf [Phys. Rev. D 2, 2161 (1970); Phys. Rev. D 2, 2187 (1970); Phys. Rev. D 2, 2206 (1970)]) and its connection to the so-called <span class="hlt">phase</span> space representation of the Schroedinger equation. It turns out that although Wigner <span class="hlt">functions</span> satisfy the Schroedinger equation in <span class="hlt">phase</span> space, they have a completely different interpretation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920065254&hterms=pure+applied+mathematics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dpure%2Bapplied%2Bmathematics','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920065254&hterms=pure+applied+mathematics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dpure%2Bapplied%2Bmathematics"><span>An interface tracking method applied to <span class="hlt">morphological</span> evolution during <span class="hlt">phase</span> change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shyy, W.; Udaykumar, H. S.; Liang, S.-J.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The focus of this work is the numerical simulation of interface motion during solidification of pure materials. First, the applicability of the oft-used quasi-stationary approximation for interface motion is assessed. It is seen that such an approximation results in poor accuracy for nontrivial Stefan numbers. Solution of the full set of equations including grid movement terms yields close agreement with analytical results. Next, a generic interface tracking procedure is designed, which overcomes restrictions of single-valuedness of the interface imposed by commonly used mapping methods. This method incorporates with ease interface phenomena involving curvature, which assume importance at the smaller scales of a deformed interface. The method is then applied to study the development of a <span class="hlt">morphologically</span> unstable <span class="hlt">phase</span> interface. The issue of appropriate scaling has been addressed. The Gibbs-Thomson effect for curved interfaces has been included. The evolution of the interface, with the competing mechanisms of undercooling and surface tension is found to culminate in tip-splitting, cusp formation and persistent cellular development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011WRR....4710528H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011WRR....4710528H"><span>Experimental investigation on front <span class="hlt">morphology</span> for two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> flow in heterogeneous porous media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heiß, V. I.; Neuweiler, I.; Ochs, S.; FäRber, A.</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>In this work, we studied the influence of heterogeneities, fluid properties, and infiltration rates on front <span class="hlt">morphology</span> during two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> flow. In our experiments, a sand box, 40 cm × 60 cm × 1.2 cm, was packed with two different structures (either random or periodic) composed of 25% coarse material and 75% fine material. The infiltration process was characterized by the capillary number, Ca, and the viscosity ratio, M, between the fluids. The displacing and the displaced fluid had the same densities, such that gravity effects could be neglected. Similar to the pore scale, the stability of the front depends on the relation between M and Ca. However, on the scale under study, depending on the structure, zones of immobilized wetting fluid developed during drainage. The lifetime of these zones depended on the flow regime. Here we show that immobilized zones have an influence on the length of the transition zone, which could lead to a different time behavior than for that of the front width.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4541826','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4541826"><span>Recognition of a <span class="hlt">Phase</span>-Sensitivity OTDR Sensing System Based on <span class="hlt">Morphologic</span> Feature Extraction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sun, Qian; Feng, Hao; Yan, Xueying; Zeng, Zhoumo</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This paper proposes a novel feature extraction method for intrusion event recognition within a <span class="hlt">phase</span>-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometer (Φ-OTDR) sensing system. Feature extraction of time domain signals in these systems is time-consuming and may lead to inaccuracies due to noise disturbances. The recognition accuracy and speed of current systems cannot meet the requirements of Φ-OTDR online vibration monitoring systems. In the method proposed in this paper, the time-space domain signal is used for feature extraction instead of the time domain signal. Feature vectors are obtained from <span class="hlt">morphologic</span> features of time-space domain signals. A scatter matrix is calculated for the feature selection. Experiments show that the feature extraction method proposed in this paper can greatly improve recognition accuracies, with a lower computation time than traditional methods, i.e., a recognition accuracy of 97.8% can be achieved with a recognition time of below 1 s, making it is very suitable for Φ-OTDR system online vibration monitoring. PMID:26131671</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4311619','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4311619"><span>Manganese oxide <span class="hlt">phases</span> and <span class="hlt">morphologies</span>: A study on calcination temperature and atmospheric dependence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fenske, Daniela; Bardenhagen, Ingo; Westphal, Anne; Knipper, Martin; Plaggenborg, Thorsten; Kolny-Olesiak, Joanna; Parisi, Jürgen</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Summary Manganese oxides are one of the most important groups of materials in energy storage science. In order to fully leverage their application potential, precise control of their properties such as particle size, surface area and Mnx + oxidation state is required. Here, Mn3O4 and Mn5O8 nanoparticles as well as mesoporous α-Mn2O3 particles were synthesized by calcination of Mn(II) glycolate nanoparticles obtained through an economical route based on a polyol synthesis. The preparation of the different manganese oxides via one route facilitates assigning actual structure–property relationships. The oxidation process related to the different MnOx species was observed by in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements showing time- and temperature-dependent <span class="hlt">phase</span> transformations occurring during oxidation of the Mn(II) glycolate precursor to α-Mn2O3 via Mn3O4 and Mn5O8 in O2 atmosphere. Detailed structural and <span class="hlt">morphological</span> investigations using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and powder XRD revealed the dependence of the lattice constants and particle sizes of the MnOx species on the calcination temperature and the presence of an oxidizing or neutral atmosphere. Furthermore, to demonstrate the application potential of the synthesized MnOx species, we studied their catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction in aprotic media. Linear sweep voltammetry revealed the best performance for the mesoporous α-Mn2O3 species. PMID:25671151</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26131671','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26131671"><span>Recognition of a <span class="hlt">Phase</span>-Sensitivity OTDR Sensing System Based on <span class="hlt">Morphologic</span> Feature Extraction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sun, Qian; Feng, Hao; Yan, Xueying; Zeng, Zhoumo</p> <p>2015-06-29</p> <p>This paper proposes a novel feature extraction method for intrusion event recognition within a <span class="hlt">phase</span>-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometer (Φ-OTDR) sensing system. Feature extraction of time domain signals in these systems is time-consuming and may lead to inaccuracies due to noise disturbances. The recognition accuracy and speed of current systems cannot meet the requirements of Φ-OTDR online vibration monitoring systems. In the method proposed in this paper, the time-space domain signal is used for feature extraction instead of the time domain signal. Feature vectors are obtained from <span class="hlt">morphologic</span> features of time-space domain signals. A scatter matrix is calculated for the feature selection. Experiments show that the feature extraction method proposed in this paper can greatly improve recognition accuracies, with a lower computation time than traditional methods, i.e., a recognition accuracy of 97.8% can be achieved with a recognition time of below 1 s, making it is very suitable for Φ-OTDR system online vibration monitoring.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1042170','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1042170"><span>Low-temperature <span class="hlt">Phase</span> and <span class="hlt">Morphology</span> Transformations in Noble Metal Nanocatalysts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>O Malis; C Byard; D Mott; B Wanjala; R Loukrakpam; J Luo; C Zhong</p> <p>2011-12-31</p> <p>In situ real-time x-ray diffraction was used to study temperature-induced structural changes of 1-5 nm Au, Pt, and AuPt nanocatalysts supported on silicon substrates. Synchrotron-based x-ray diffraction indicates that the as-synthesized Au and Au{sub 64}Pt{sub 36} nanoparticles have a non-crystalline structure, while the Pt nanoparticles have the expected cubic structure. The nanoparticles undergo dramatic structural changes at temperatures as low as 120 C. During low-temperature annealing, the Au and AuPt nanoparticles first melt and then immediately coalesce to form 4-5 nm crystalline structures. The Pt nanoparticles also aggregate but with limited intermediate melting. The detailed mechanisms of nucleation and growth, though, are quite different for the three types of nanoparticles. Most interestingly, solidification of high-density AuPt nanoparticles involves an unusual transient <span class="hlt">morphological</span> transformation that affects only the surface of the particles. AuPt nanoparticles on silicon undergo partial <span class="hlt">phase</span> segregation only upon annealing at extremely high temperatures (800 C).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4197945','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4197945"><span>Double-bromo and extraterminal (BET) domain proteins regulate dendrite <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and mechanosensory <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bagley, Joshua A.; Yan, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Wei; Wildonger, Jill</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>A complex array of genetic factors regulates neuronal dendrite <span class="hlt">morphology</span>. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression represents a plausible mechanism to control pathways responsible for specific dendritic arbor shapes. By studying the Drosophila dendritic arborization (da) neurons, we discovered a role of the double-bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) family proteins in regulating dendrite arbor complexity. A loss-of-<span class="hlt">function</span> mutation in the single Drosophila BET protein encoded by female sterile 1 homeotic [fs(1)h] causes loss of fine, terminal dendritic branches. Moreover, fs(1)h is necessary for the induction of branching caused by a previously identified transcription factor, Cut (Ct), which regulates subtype-specific dendrite <span class="hlt">morphology</span>. Finally, disrupting fs(1)h <span class="hlt">function</span> impairs the mechanosensory response of class III da sensory neurons without compromising the expression of the ion channel NompC, which mediates the mechanosensitive response. Thus, our results identify a novel role for BET family proteins in regulating dendrite <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and a possible separation of developmental pathways specifying neural cell <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and ion channel expression. Since the BET proteins are known to bind acetylated histone tails, these results also suggest a role of epigenetic histone modifications and the “histone code,” in regulating dendrite <span class="hlt">morphology</span>. PMID:25184680</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25378276','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25378276"><span><span class="hlt">Functional</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the hallucal metatarsal with implications for inferring grasping ability in extinct primates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Goodenberger, Katherine E; Boyer, Doug M; Orr, Caley M; Jacobs, Rachel L; Femiani, John C; Patel, Biren A</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Primate evolutionary morphologists have argued that selection for life in a fine branch niche resulted in grasping specializations that are reflected in the hallucal metatarsal (Mt1) <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of extant "prosimians", while a transition to use of relatively larger, horizontal substrates explains the apparent loss of such characters in anthropoids. Accordingly, these <span class="hlt">morphological</span> characters-Mt1 torsion, peroneal process length and thickness, and physiological abduction angle-have been used to reconstruct grasping ability and locomotor mode in the earliest fossil primates. Although these characters are prominently featured in debates on the origin and subsequent radiation of Primates, questions remain about their <span class="hlt">functional</span> significance. This study examines the relationship between these <span class="hlt">morphological</span> characters of the Mt1 and a novel metric of pedal grasping ability for a large number of extant taxa in a phylogenetic framework. Results indicate greater Mt1 torsion in taxa that engage in hallucal grasping and in those that utilize relatively small substrates more frequently. This study provides evidence that Carpolestes simpsoni has a torsion value more similar to grasping primates than to any scandentian. The results also show that taxa that habitually grasp vertical substrates are distinguished from other taxa in having relatively longer peroneal processes. Furthermore, a longer peroneal process is also correlated with calcaneal elongation, a metric previously found to reflect leaping proclivity. A more refined understanding of the <span class="hlt">functional</span> associations between Mt1 <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and behavior in extant primates enhances the potential for using these <span class="hlt">morphological</span> characters to comprehend primate (locomotor) evolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3849076','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3849076"><span><span class="hlt">Phase</span>-Amplitude Response <span class="hlt">Functions</span> for Transient-State Stimuli</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Abstract The <span class="hlt">phase</span> response curve (PRC) is a powerful tool to study the effect of a perturbation on the <span class="hlt">phase</span> of an oscillator, assuming that all the dynamics can be explained by the <span class="hlt">phase</span> variable. However, factors like the rate of convergence to the oscillator, strong forcing or high stimulation frequency may invalidate the above assumption and raise the question of how is the <span class="hlt">phase</span> variation away from an attractor. The concept of isochrons turns out to be crucial to answer this question; from it, we have built up <span class="hlt">Phase</span> Response <span class="hlt">Functions</span> (PRF) and, in the present paper, we complete the extension of advancement <span class="hlt">functions</span> to the transient states by defining the Amplitude Response <span class="hlt">Function</span> (ARF) to control changes in the transversal variables. Based on the knowledge of both the PRF and the ARF, we study the case of a pulse-train stimulus, and compare the predictions given by the PRC-approach (a 1D map) to those given by the PRF-ARF-approach (a 2D map); we observe differences up to two orders of magnitude in favor of the 2D predictions, especially when the stimulation frequency is high or the strength of the stimulus is large. We also explore the role of hyperbolicity of the limit cycle as well as geometric aspects of the isochrons. Summing up, we aim at enlightening the contribution of transient effects in predicting the <span class="hlt">phase</span> response and showing the limits of the <span class="hlt">phase</span> reduction approach to prevent from falling into wrong predictions in synchronization problems. List of Abbreviations PRC <span class="hlt">phase</span> response curve, <span class="hlt">phase</span> resetting curve. PRF <span class="hlt">phase</span> response <span class="hlt">function</span>. ARF amplitude response <span class="hlt">function</span>. PMID:23945295</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4771445','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4771445"><span>Investigation of middle ear anatomy and <span class="hlt">function</span> with combined video otoscopy-<span class="hlt">phase</span> sensitive OCT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Park, Jesung; Cheng, Jeffrey T.; Ferguson, Daniel; Maguluri, Gopi; Chang, Ernest W.; Clancy, Caitlin; Lee, Daniel J.; Iftimia, Nicusor</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We report the development of a novel otoscopy probe for assessing middle ear anatomy and <span class="hlt">function</span>. Video imaging and <span class="hlt">phase</span>-sensitive optical coherence tomography are combined within the same optical path. A sound stimuli channel is incorporated as well to study middle ear <span class="hlt">function</span>. Thus, besides visualizing the <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the middle ear, the vibration amplitude and frequency of the eardrum and ossicles are retrieved as well. Preliminary testing on cadaveric human temporal bone models has demonstrated the capability of this instrument for retrieving middle ear anatomy with micron scale resolution, as well as the vibration of the tympanic membrane and ossicles with sub-nm resolution. PMID:26977336</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27847954','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27847954"><span>Conductivity and <span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of carbon black-filled immiscible polymer blends under creep: an experimental and theoretical study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pan, Yamin; Liu, Xianhu; Hao, Xiaoqiong; Schubert, Dirk W</p> <p>2016-11-30</p> <p>Blends of carbon black (CB)-filled co-continuous immiscible polystyrene/poly(methyl-methacrylate) (PS/PMMA) with a PS/PMMA ratio of 50/50 and CB selectively located in the PS <span class="hlt">phase</span> have been prepared by melt blending. The simultaneous evolution of conductivity and <span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of blend composites was investigated under shear and in the quiescent state at 200 °C. It was found that shear deformation had a significant influence on the conductivity of the unfilled PS/PMMA blend and its composites, which was attributed to the change of <span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> during shear. After the shear stress of 10 kPa, the conductivity of PS/PMMA blends filled with 2 vol% of CB decreased by about two orders of magnitude and the <span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> transformed from a fine co-continuous structure into a highly elongated lamellar structure. The deformation of <span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and the decrease of conductivity were weakened upon decreasing the shear stress or increasing the CB concentration. During subsequent recovery, pronounced <span class="hlt">phase</span> structure coarsening was observed in the mixture and the conductivity increased as well. A simple model describing the behavior of conductivity under shear deformation was derived and utilized for the description of the experimental data. For the first time, the Burgers model was used to describe the conductivity, and the viscoelastic and viscoplastic parameters were deduced by fitting the conductivity under shear. The results obtained in this study provide a deeper insight into the evolution of <span class="hlt">phase</span> structure in the conductive polymer blend composite induced by shear deformation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25724971','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25724971"><span><span class="hlt">Morphological</span> and <span class="hlt">functional</span> maturation of Leydig cells: from rodent models to primates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Teerds, Katja J; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Leydig cells (LC) are the sites of testicular androgen production. Development of LC occurs in the testes of most mammalian species as two distinct growth <span class="hlt">phases</span>, i.e. as fetal and pubertal/adult populations. In primates there are indications of a third neonatal growth <span class="hlt">phase</span>. LC androgen production begins in embryonic life and is crucial for the intrauterine masculinization of the male fetal genital tract and brain, and continues until birth after which it rapidly declines. A short post-natal <span class="hlt">phase</span> of LC activity in primates (including human) termed 'mini-puberty' precedes the period of juvenile quiescence. The adult population of LC evolves, depending on species, in mid- to late-prepuberty upon reawakening of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, and these cells are responsible for testicular androgen production in adult life, which continues with a slight gradual decline until senescence. This review is an updated comparative analysis of the <span class="hlt">functional</span> and <span class="hlt">morphological</span> maturation of LC in model species with special reference to rodents and primates. Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases were searched between December 2012 and October 2014. Studies published in languages other than English or German were excluded, as were data in abstract form only. Studies available on primates were primarily examined and compared with available data from specific animal models with emphasis on rodents. Expression of different marker genes in rodents provides evidence that at least two distinct progenitor lineages give rise to the fetal LC (FLC) population, one arising from the coelomic epithelium and the other from specialized vascular-associated cells along the gonad-mesonephros border. There is general agreement that the formation and <span class="hlt">functioning</span> of the FLC population in rodents is gonadotrophin-responsive but not gonadotrophin-dependent. In contrast, although there is in primates some controversy on the role of gonadotrophins in the formation of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28881442','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28881442"><span>Many-to-one form-to-<span class="hlt">function</span> mapping weakens parallel <span class="hlt">morphological</span> evolution.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thompson, Cole J; Ahmed, Newaz I; Veen, Thor; Peichel, Catherine L; Hendry, Andrew P; Bolnick, Daniel I; Stuart, Yoel E</p> <p>2017-09-07</p> <p>Evolutionary ecologists aim to explain and predict evolutionary change under different selective regimes. Theory suggests that such evolutionary prediction should be more difficult for biomechanical systems in which different trait combinations generate the same <span class="hlt">functional</span> output: "many-to-one mapping". Many-to-one mapping of phenotype to <span class="hlt">function</span> enables multiple <span class="hlt">morphological</span> solutions to meet the same adaptive challenges. Therefore, many-to-one mapping should undermine parallel <span class="hlt">morphological</span> evolution, and hence evolutionary predictability, even when selection pressures are shared among populations. Studying 16 replicate pairs of lake- and stream-adapted threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), we quantified three parts of the teleost feeding apparatus and used biomechanical models to calculate their expected <span class="hlt">functional</span> outputs. The three feeding structures differed in their form-to-<span class="hlt">function</span> relationship from one-to-one (lower jaw lever ratio) to increasingly many-to-one (buccal suction index, opercular 4-bar linkage). We tested for (1) weaker linear correlations between phenotype and calculated <span class="hlt">function</span>, and (2) less parallel evolution across lake-stream pairs, in the many-to-one systems relative to the one-to-one system. We confirm both predictions, thus supporting the theoretical expectation that increasing many-to-one mapping undermines parallel evolution. Therefore, sole consideration of <span class="hlt">morphological</span> variation within and among populations might not serve as a proxy for <span class="hlt">functional</span> variation when multiple adaptive trait combinations exist. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4293547','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4293547"><span>Methods for the <span class="hlt">morphological</span> and <span class="hlt">functional</span> evaluation of microvascular damage in systemic sclerosis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ruaro, Barbara; Smith, Vanessa; Sulli, Alberto; Decuman, Saskia; Pizzorni, Carmen</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Systemic sclerosis is a connective tissue disease characterized by alterations in microvascular structure and <span class="hlt">function</span>. In these patients, numerous studies have demonstrated a relationship between capillary <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and peripheral blood perfusion. Nailfold videocapillaroscopy reveals the peripheral microvascular <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and thus allows classification and scoring of capillary abnormalities with respect to different microangiopathy patterns (early, active, and late). Laser Doppler flowmetry and laser speckle contrast analysis can be used to estimate cutaneous blood flow through microvessels and to assess and quantify blood perfusion at peripheral sites. These two methods are also used to identify changes in digital blood perfusion after the infusion of vasodilators. PMID:25589827</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24429716','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24429716"><span>[<span class="hlt">Morphological</span> and <span class="hlt">functional</span> aspects of wound regeneration in the treatment by iodine-containing ointments].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chekmareva, I A; Blatun, L A; Terekhova, R P; Zakharova, O A; Kochergina, E V; Agafonov, V A</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The comprehensive <span class="hlt">morphological</span> investigation indicated a high antimicrobial activity of iodine-containing ointments in the treatment of septic wounds from the first days of the ointments using. 3% ointment "Stellanin-PEG" helps to reduce the local inflammatory changes by activating neutrophils and macrophages. A management of wounds by 3% ointment "Stellanin-PEG" improves their condition by stimulating regeneration, which leads to an intensification of the proliferative and <span class="hlt">functional</span> activity of granulation tissue. Clinical, <span class="hlt">morphological</span> and cytological data are evidence of time reduction of relief of purulent process, which leads to an earlier (in comparison with the use of ointment "Betadine") wound epithelization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24935112','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24935112"><span>Potential energy <span class="hlt">function</span> information from quantum <span class="hlt">phase</span> shift using the variable <span class="hlt">phase</span> method.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lemes, Nelson H T; Braga, João P; Alves, Márcio O; Costa, Éderson D'M</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>The present work discusses quantum <span class="hlt">phase</span> shift sensitivity analysis with respect to the potential energy <span class="hlt">function</span>. A set of differential equations for the <span class="hlt">functional</span> derivative of the quantum <span class="hlt">phase</span> shift with respect to the potential energy <span class="hlt">function</span> was established and coupled with the variable <span class="hlt">phase</span> equation. This set of differential equations provides a simple, exact and straightforward way to establish the sensitivity matrix. The present procedure is easier to use than the finite difference approach, in which several direct problems have to be addressed. Furthermore, integration of the established equations can be used to demonstrate how the sensitivity <span class="hlt">phase</span> shift is accumulated as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of the interatomic distance. The potential energy <span class="hlt">function</span> was refined to produce a better quality <span class="hlt">function</span>. The average error on the <span class="hlt">phase</span> shift decreased from 9.8% in the original potential <span class="hlt">function</span> to 0.13% in the recovered potential. The present procedure is an important initial step for further work towards recovering potential energy <span class="hlt">functions</span> in upper dimensions or to recovering this <span class="hlt">function</span> from cross sections.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PSST...26gLT01S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PSST...26gLT01S"><span>Luminous <span class="hlt">phase</span> of nanosecond discharge in deionized water: <span class="hlt">morphology</span>, propagation velocity and optical emission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Šimek, Milan; Pongrác, Branislav; Babický, Václav; Člupek, Martin; Lukeš, Petr</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>We employed the techniques of time-resolved intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) microscopy and spectroscopy to register basic <span class="hlt">morphologic</span> and emission fingerprints of micro-discharges produced in deionized water. Fast rise-time positive high-voltage pulses (full width at half maximum of ˜7 ns and amplitude of ˜100 kV) in a point-to-plane electrode geometry produced micro-discharges, either periodically or in a single-pulse regime with the energy of ˜0.1 J dissipated during a single discharge event. Time resolved ICCD images evidence typical streamer-like branched filamentary <span class="hlt">morphology</span>. Luminous discharge filaments show very fast and approximately linear initial expansion of the length with propagation velocity of ˜2 × 105 m s-1. When the HV pulse reaches its maximum value, the length of the primary luminous filaments reaches ˜1.3 mm. After initial expansion, the length of luminous filaments collapses and can be characterised by velocity of ˜1.9 × 104 m s-1. The first collapse is followed by a second slightly slower expansion, which is driven by the arrival of a reflected HV pulse, and which can be roughly approximated by propagation velocity of ˜1.5 × 105 m s-1. The second collapse (occurring after second expansion) proceeds at a nearly identical velocity compared with the first one. By combining two ICCD based techniques, we have been able to associate, for the first time ever, characteristic emission spectra with the most important <span class="hlt">phases</span> of the micro-discharge development. The UV-vis-NIR emission spectra show a broad-band continuum evolving during the first expansion and collapse, followed by the well-known HI/OI atomic lines occurring together with continuum emission during the second expansion and collapse. We conclude that bound-free and free-free radiative transitions are basic emission characteristics of the nanosecond discharge initiation mechanism in liquid water which does not involve the formation of vapour bubbles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20101727','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20101727"><span>Relating the ontogeny of <span class="hlt">functional</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and prey selection with larval mortality in Amphiprion frenatus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anto, Justin; Turingan, Ralph G</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>Survival during the pelagic larval <span class="hlt">phase</span> of marine fish is highly variable and is subject to numerous factors. A sharp decline in the number of surviving larvae usually occurs during the transition from endogenous to exogenous feeding known as the first feeding stage in fish larvae. The present study was designed to evaluate the link between <span class="hlt">functional</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and prey selection in an attempt to understand how the relationship influences mortality of a marine fish larva, Amphiprion frenatus, through ontogeny. Larvae were reared from hatch to 14 days post hatch (DPH) with one of four diets [rotifers and newly hatched Artemia sp. nauplii (RA); rotifers and wild plankton (RP); rotifers, wild plankton, and newly hatched Artemia nauplii (RPA); wild plankton and newly hatched Artemia nauplii (PA)]. Survival did not differ among diets. Larvae from all diets experienced mass mortality from 1 to 5 DPH followed by decreased mortality from 6 to 14 DPH; individuals fed RA were the exception, exhibiting continuous mortality from 6 to 14 DPH. Larvae consumed progressively larger prey with growth and age, likely due to age related increase in gape. During the mass mortality event, larvae selected small prey items and exhibited few ossified elements. Cessation of mass mortality coincided with consumption of large prey and ossification of key elements of the feeding apparatus. Mass mortality did not appear to be solely influenced by inability to establish first feeding. We hypothesize the interaction of reduced feeding capacities (i.e., complexity of the feeding apparatus) and larval physiology such as digestion or absorption efficiency contributed to the mortality event during the first feeding period.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17229537','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17229537"><span>Do Swiftlets have an ear for echolocation? The <span class="hlt">functional</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of Swiftlets' middle ears.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thomassen, Henri A; Gea, Stefan; Maas, Steve; Bout, Ron G; Dirckx, Joris J J; Decraemer, Willem F; Povel, G David E</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>The Oilbird and many Swiftlet species are unique among birds for their ability to echolocate. Echolocaters may benefit from improved hearing sensitivity. Therefore, <span class="hlt">morphological</span> adaptations to echolocation might be present in echolocating birds' middle ears. We studied the <span class="hlt">functional</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the tympano-ossicular chain of seven specimens of four echolocating Swiftlet species and one specimen each of five non-echolocating species. Three dimensional (3D) reconstructions were made from micro-Computer-Tomographic (muCT) scans. The reconstructions were used in <span class="hlt">functional</span> <span class="hlt">morphological</span> analyses and model calculations. A two dimensional (2D) rigid rod model with fixed rotational axes was developed to study footplate output-amplitudes and to describe how changes in the arrangement of the tympano-ossicular chain affect its <span class="hlt">function</span>. A 3D finite element model was used to predict ossicular-chain movement and to investigate the justification of the 2D approach. No <span class="hlt">morphological</span> adaptations towards echolocation were found in the middle-ear lever system or in the mass impedance of the middle ear. A wide range of middle-ear configurations result in maximum output-amplitudes and all investigated species are congruent with these predicted best configurations. Echolocation is unlikely to depend on adaptations in the middle ear tympano-ossicular chain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ZNatA..71.1031L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ZNatA..71.1031L"><span>Multi-Scale <span class="hlt">Morphological</span> Analysis of Conductance Signals in Vertical Upward Gas-Liquid Two-<span class="hlt">Phase</span> Flow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lian, Enyang; Ren, Yingyu; Han, Yunfeng; Liu, Weixin; Jin, Ningde; Zhao, Junying</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The multi-scale analysis is an important method for detecting nonlinear systems. In this study, we carry out experiments and measure the fluctuation signals from a rotating electric field conductance sensor with eight electrodes. We first use a recurrence plot to recognise flow patterns in vertical upward gas-liquid two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> pipe flow from measured signals. Then we apply a multi-scale <span class="hlt">morphological</span> analysis based on the first-order difference scatter plot to investigate the signals captured from the vertical upward gas-liquid two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> flow loop test. We find that the invariant scaling exponent extracted from the multi-scale first-order difference scatter plot with the bisector of the second-fourth quadrant as the reference line is sensitive to the inhomogeneous distribution characteristics of the flow structure, and the variation trend of the exponent is helpful to understand the process of breakup and coalescence of the gas <span class="hlt">phase</span>. In addition, we explore the dynamic mechanism influencing the inhomogeneous distribution of the gas <span class="hlt">phase</span> in terms of adaptive optimal kernel time-frequency representation. The research indicates that the system energy is a factor influencing the distribution of the gas <span class="hlt">phase</span> and the multi-scale <span class="hlt">morphological</span> analysis based on the first-order difference scatter plot is an effective method for indicating the inhomogeneous distribution of the gas <span class="hlt">phase</span> in gas-liquid two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> flow.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20855620','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20855620"><span>Oscillatory <span class="hlt">phase</span> coupling coordinates anatomically dispersed <span class="hlt">functional</span> cell assemblies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Canolty, Ryan T; Ganguly, Karunesh; Kennerley, Steven W; Cadieu, Charles F; Koepsell, Kilian; Wallis, Jonathan D; Carmena, Jose M</p> <p>2010-10-05</p> <p>Hebb proposed that neuronal cell assemblies are critical for effective perception, cognition, and action. However, evidence for brain mechanisms that coordinate multiple coactive assemblies remains lacking. Neuronal oscillations have been suggested as one possible mechanism for cell assembly coordination. Prior studies have shown that spike timing depends upon local field potential (LFP) <span class="hlt">phase</span> proximal to the cell body, but few studies have examined the dependence of spiking on distal LFP <span class="hlt">phases</span> in other brain areas far from the neuron or the influence of LFP-LFP <span class="hlt">phase</span> coupling between distal areas on spiking. We investigated these interactions by recording LFPs and single-unit activity using multiple microelectrode arrays in several brain areas and then used a unique probabilistic multivariate <span class="hlt">phase</span> distribution to model the dependence of spike timing on the full pattern of proximal LFP <span class="hlt">phases</span>, distal LFP <span class="hlt">phases</span>, and LFP-LFP <span class="hlt">phase</span> coupling between electrodes. Here we show that spiking activity in single neurons and neuronal ensembles depends on dynamic patterns of oscillatory <span class="hlt">phase</span> coupling between multiple brain areas, in addition to the effects of proximal LFP <span class="hlt">phase</span>. Neurons that prefer similar patterns of <span class="hlt">phase</span> coupling exhibit similar changes in spike rates, whereas neurons with different preferences show divergent responses, providing a basic mechanism to bind different neurons together into coordinated cell assemblies. Surprisingly, <span class="hlt">phase</span>-coupling-based rate correlations are independent of interneuron distance. <span class="hlt">Phase</span>-coupling preferences correlate with behavior and neural <span class="hlt">function</span> and remain stable over multiple days. These findings suggest that neuronal oscillations enable selective and dynamic control of distributed <span class="hlt">functional</span> cell assemblies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16423692','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16423692"><span>A critical role for myosin IIb in dendritic spine <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and synaptic <span class="hlt">function</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ryu, Jubin; Liu, Lidong; Wong, Tak Pan; Wu, Dong Chuan; Burette, Alain; Weinberg, Richard; Wang, Yu Tian; Sheng, Morgan</p> <p>2006-01-19</p> <p>Dendritic spines show rapid motility and plastic <span class="hlt">morphology</span>, which may mediate information storage in the brain. It is presently believed that polymerization/depolymerization of actin is the primary determinant of spine motility and morphogenesis. Here, we show that myosin IIB, a molecular motor that binds and contracts actin filaments, is essential for normal spine <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and dynamics and represents a distinct biophysical pathway to control spine size and shape. Myosin IIB is enriched in the postsynaptic density (PSD) of neurons. Pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of myosin IIB alters protrusive motility of spines, destabilizes their classical mushroom-head <span class="hlt">morphology</span>, and impairs excitatory synaptic transmission. Thus, the structure and <span class="hlt">function</span> of spines is regulated by an actin-based motor in addition to the polymerization state of actin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27111868','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27111868"><span><span class="hlt">Functional</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and structural characteristics of wings of the ladybird beetle, Coccinella septempunctata (L.).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xiang, Jinwu; Du, Jianxun; Li, Daochun; Zhen, Chong</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>In recent years, the surface <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and microstructure of ladybird (Coccinella septempunctata) wings have been used to help design the flapping-wing micro air vehicle (FWMAV). In this study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to verify the <span class="hlt">functional</span> roles of the ladybird forewing and hindwing. Surface <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and the cross-sectional microstructure of the wings are presented. Detailed <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of ladybird forewings was observed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the composition of the wings was characterized using Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The ladybird forewing may possess different performance characteristics than the beetle, Allomyrina dichotoma. Additionally, the circular holes in the forewing might be important for decreasing the weight of the forewing and to satisfy requirements of mechanical behavior. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:550-556, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvP...6e4008F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvP...6e4008F"><span>Drift-Diffusion Studies of Compositional <span class="hlt">Morphology</span> in Bulk Heterojunctions: The Role of the Mixed <span class="hlt">Phase</span> in Photovoltaic Performance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Finck, Benjamin Y.; Schwartz, Benjamin J.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The active layers of most organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices are constructed from a blend of two organic compounds. The two materials spontaneously segregate into pure-component <span class="hlt">phases</span> during device fabrication, creating a bicontinuous network of conduction pathways that are selective for electron or hole charge carriers. The <span class="hlt">morphological</span> distribution of these materials within the active layer has long been known to influence charge transport and resulting device performance. In addition to the two pure-component <span class="hlt">phases</span> present in these devices, a third, mixed-composition <span class="hlt">phase</span> exists at the interface between the two pure <span class="hlt">phases</span>. The exact effects of this mixed-composition <span class="hlt">phase</span> on OPV device performance are not well understood, although it is argued that the presence of a mixed <span class="hlt">phase</span> is necessary for optimal device operation. In this paper, we probe the effects of having a mixed-composition interfacial <span class="hlt">phase</span> on the performance and charge-transport characteristics of OPV devices through a series of drift-diffusion model simulations. We start with set of model <span class="hlt">morphologies</span> with only pure-component <span class="hlt">phases</span> and then introduce an interfacial mixed <span class="hlt">phase</span> in a controllable fashion. Our simulations show that a modest amount of mixing initially improves device efficiency by reducing the tortuosity of the device's conduction pathways and easing <span class="hlt">morphological</span> traps. However, an excessive amount of mixing can actually degrade high-conductivity pathways, reducing photovoltaic performance. The point at which mixing switches from being beneficial to detrimental to OPV performance depends on the average domain size of a device's <span class="hlt">morphology</span>. Devices with smaller feature sizes are more susceptible to the debilitating effects of overmixing, so that the presence of a mixed <span class="hlt">phase</span> may either raise power-conversion efficiency by as much as 100% or lower it by as much as 50%, depending on the average domain size and the extent of mixing. These trends suggest that variations in the amount</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27744513','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27744513"><span>Effects of Obesity on Cardiovascular Hemodynamics, Cardiac <span class="hlt">Morphology</span>, and Ventricular <span class="hlt">Function</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alpert, Martin A; Omran, Jad; Bostick, Brian P</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Obesity produces a variety of hemodynamic alterations that may cause changes in cardiac <span class="hlt">morphology</span> which predispose to left and right ventricular dysfunction. Various neurohormonal and metabolic alterations commonly associated with obesity may contribute to these abnormalities of cardiac structure and <span class="hlt">function</span>. These changes in cardiovascular hemodynamics, cardiac <span class="hlt">morphology</span>, and ventricular <span class="hlt">function</span> may, in severely obese patients, predispose to heart failure, even in the absence of other forms of heart disease (obesity cardiomyopathy). In normotensive obese patients, cardiac involvement is commonly characterized by elevated cardiac output, low peripheral vascular resistance, and increased left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic pressure. Sleep-disordered breathing may lead to pulmonary arterial hypertension and, in association with left heart failure, may contribute to elevation of right heart pressures. These alterations, in association with various neurohormonal and metabolic abnormalities, may produce LV hypertrophy; impaired LV diastolic <span class="hlt">function</span>; and less commonly, LV systolic dysfunction. Many of these alterations are reversible with substantial voluntary weight loss.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24717345','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24717345"><span><span class="hlt">Function</span> dictates the <span class="hlt">phase</span> dependence of vision during human locomotion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Logan, David; Ivanenko, Yuri P; Kiemel, Tim; Cappellini, Germana; Sylos-Labini, Francesca; Lacquaniti, Francesco; Jeka, John J</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>In human and animal locomotion, sensory input is thought to be processed in a <span class="hlt">phase</span>-dependent manner. Here we use full-field transient visual scene motion toward or away from subjects walking on a treadmill. Perturbations were presented at three <span class="hlt">phases</span> of walking to test 1) whether <span class="hlt">phase</span> dependence is observed for visual input and 2) whether the nature of <span class="hlt">phase</span> dependence differs across body segments. Results demonstrated that trunk responses to approaching perturbations were only weakly <span class="hlt">phase</span> dependent and instead depended primarily on the delay from the perturbation. Recording of kinematic and muscle responses from both right and left lower limb allowed the analysis of six distinct <span class="hlt">phases</span> of perturbation effects. In contrast to the trunk, leg responses were strongly <span class="hlt">phase</span> dependent. Leg responses during the same gait cycle as the perturbation exhibited gating, occurring only when perturbations were applied in midstance. In contrast, during the postperturbation gait cycle, leg responses occurred at similar response <span class="hlt">phases</span> of the gait cycle over a range of perturbation <span class="hlt">phases</span>. These distinct responses reflect modulation of trunk orientation for upright equilibrium and modulation of leg segments for both hazard accommodation/avoidance and positional maintenance on the treadmill. Overall, these results support the idea that the <span class="hlt">phase</span> dependence of responses to visual scene motion is determined by different <span class="hlt">functional</span> tasks during walking.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27575107','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27575107"><span>Background field <span class="hlt">functional</span> renormalization group for absorbing state <span class="hlt">phase</span> transitions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Buchhold, Michael; Diehl, Sebastian</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>We present a <span class="hlt">functional</span> renormalization group approach for the active to inactive <span class="hlt">phase</span> transition in directed percolation-type systems, in which the transition is approached from the active, finite density <span class="hlt">phase</span>. By expanding the effective potential for the density field around its minimum, we obtain a background field action <span class="hlt">functional</span>, which serves as a starting point for the <span class="hlt">functional</span> renormalization group approach. Due to the presence of the background field, the corresponding nonperturbative flow equations yield remarkably good estimates for the critical exponents of the directed percolation universality class, even in low dimensions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23159679','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23159679"><span>The role of foot <span class="hlt">morphology</span> on foot <span class="hlt">function</span> in diabetic subjects with or without neuropathy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guiotto, Annamaria; Sawacha, Zimi; Guarneri, Gabriella; Cristoferi, Giuseppe; Avogaro, Angelo; Cobelli, Claudio</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to investigate the role of foot <span class="hlt">morphology</span>, related with respect to diabetes and peripheral neuropathy in altering foot kinematics and plantar pressure during gait. Healthy and diabetic subjects with or without neuropathy with different foot types were analyzed. Three dimensional multisegment foot kinematics and plantar pressures were assessed on 120 feet: 40 feet (24 cavus, 20 with valgus heel and 11 with hallux valgus) in the control group, 80 feet in the diabetic (25 cavus 13 with valgus heel and 13 with hallux valgus) and the neuropathic groups (28 cavus, 24 with valgus heel and 18 with hallux valgus). Subjects were classified according to their foot <span class="hlt">morphology</span> allowing further comparisons among the subgroups with the same foot <span class="hlt">morphology</span>. When comparing neuropathic subjects with cavus foot, valgus heel with controls with the same foot <span class="hlt">morphology</span>, important differences were noticed: increased dorsiflexion and peak plantar pressure on the forefoot (P<0.05), decreased contact surface on the hindfoot (P<0.03). While results indicated the important role of foot <span class="hlt">morphology</span> in altering both kinematics and plantar pressure in diabetic subjects, diabetes appeared to further contribute in altering foot biomechanics. Surprisingly, all the diabetic subjects with normal foot arch or with valgus hallux were no more likely to display significant differences in biomechanics parameters than controls. This data could be considered a valuable support for future research on diabetic foot <span class="hlt">function</span>, and in planning preventive interventions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3836788','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3836788"><span>Comparative <span class="hlt">Morphology</span> of Premolar Foramen in Lagomorphs (Mammalia: Glires) and Its <span class="hlt">Functional</span> and Phylogenetic Implications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fostowicz-Frelik, Łucja; Meng, Jin</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Lagomorphs (a group that consists of pikas, hares, rabbits and allies) are notable for their conservative <span class="hlt">morphology</span> retained for most of their over 50 million years evolutionary history. On the other hand, their remarkable <span class="hlt">morphological</span> uniformity partly stems from a considerable number of homoplasies in cranial and dental structures that hamper phylogenetic analyses. The premolar foramen, an opening in the palate of lagomorphs, has been characterized as an important synapomorphy of one clade, Ochotonidae (pikas). Within Lagomorpha, however, its phylogenetic distribution is much wider, the foramen being present not only in all ochotonids but also in leporids and stem taxa; its <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and incidence also varies considerably across the order, even intraspecifically. In this study, we provide a broad survey of the taxonomic distribution of the premolar foramen in extant and fossil Lagomorpha and describe in detail the <span class="hlt">morphological</span> variation of this character within the group. Micro-computed tomography was used to examine the hard palate and infraorbital groove <span class="hlt">morphology</span> in Poelagus (Leporidae) and Ochotona. Scans revealed the course and contacts of the canal behind the premolar foramen and structural differences between the two crown clades. We propose that the premolar foramen has evolved independently in several lineages of Lagomorpha, and we discuss development and <span class="hlt">function</span> of this foramen in the lagomorph skull. This study shows the importance of comprehensive studies on phylogenetically informative non-dental characters in Lagomorpha. PMID:24278178</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25001917','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25001917"><span><span class="hlt">Functional</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and comparative anatomy of appendicular musculature in Cuban Anolis lizards with different locomotor habits.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anzai, Wataru; Omura, Ayano; Diaz, Antonio Cadiz; Kawata, Masakado; Endo, Hideki</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>We examined the diversity of the musculoskeletal <span class="hlt">morphology</span> in the limbs of Anolis lizards with different habitats and identified variations in <span class="hlt">functional</span> and <span class="hlt">morphological</span> adaptations to different ecologies or behaviors. Dissection and isolation of 40 muscles from the fore- and hindlimbs of five species of Anolis were performed, and the muscle mass and length of the moment arm were compared after body size effects were removed. Ecologically and behaviorally characteristic <span class="hlt">morphological</span> differences were observed in several muscles. Well-developed hindlimb extensors were observed in ground-dwelling species, A. sagrei and A. bremeri, and were considered advantageous for running, whereas adept climber species possessed expanded femoral retractors for weight-bearing during climbing. Moreover, <span class="hlt">morphological</span> variations were observed among arboreal species. Wider excursions of the forelimb joint characterized A. porcatus, presumably enabling branch-to-branch locomotion, while A. equestris and A. angusticeps possessed highly developed adductor muscles for grasping thick branches or twigs. These findings suggest divergent evolution of musculoskeletal characteristic in the limbs within the genus Anolis, with correlations observed among <span class="hlt">morphological</span> traits, locomotor performance, and habitat uses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4600100','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4600100"><span>Growth-<span class="hlt">Phase</span>-Specific Modulation of Cell <span class="hlt">Morphology</span> and Gene Expression by an Archaeal Histone Protein</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dulmage, Keely A.; Todor, Horia</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>ABSTRACT In all three domains of life, organisms use nonspecific DNA-binding proteins to compact and organize the genome as well as to regulate transcription on a global scale. Histone is the primary eukaryotic nucleoprotein, and its evolutionary roots can be traced to the archaea. However, not all archaea use this protein as the primary DNA-packaging component, raising questions regarding the role of histones in archaeal chromatin <span class="hlt">function</span>. Here, quantitative phenotyping, transcriptomic, and proteomic assays were performed on deletion and overexpression mutants of the sole histone protein of the hypersaline-adapted haloarchaeal model organism Halobacterium salinarum. This protein is highly conserved among all sequenced haloarchaeal species and maintains hallmark residues required for eukaryotic histone <span class="hlt">functions</span>. Surprisingly, despite this conservation at the sequence level, unlike in other archaea or eukaryotes, H. salinarum histone is required to regulate cell shape but is not necessary for survival. Genome-wide expression changes in histone deletion strains were global, significant but subtle in terms of fold change, bidirectional, and growth <span class="hlt">phase</span> dependent. Mass spectrometric proteomic identification of proteins from chromatin enrichments yielded levels of histone and putative nucleoid-associated proteins similar to those of transcription factors, consistent with an open and transcriptionally active genome. Taken together, these data suggest that histone in H. salinarum plays a minor role in DNA compaction but important roles in growth-<span class="hlt">phase</span>-dependent gene expression and regulation of cell shape. Histone <span class="hlt">function</span> in haloarchaea more closely resembles a regulator of gene expression than a chromatin-organizing protein like canonical eukaryotic histone. PMID:26350964</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26205909','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26205909"><span>Measurements of <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and refractive indexes on human downy hairs using three-dimensional quantitative <span class="hlt">phase</span> imaging.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, SangYun; Kim, Kyoohyun; Lee, Yuhyun; Park, Sungjin; Shin, Heejae; Yang, Jongwon; Ko, Kwanhong; Park, HyunJoo; Park, YongKeun</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We present optical measurements of <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and refractive indexes (RIs) of human downy arm hairs using three-dimensional (3-D) quantitative <span class="hlt">phase</span> imaging techniques. 3-D RI tomograms and high-resolution two-dimensional synthetic aperture images of individual downy arm hairs were measured using a Mach–Zehnder laser interferometric microscopy equipped with a two-axis galvanometer mirror. From the measured quantitative images, the RIs and <span class="hlt">morphological</span> parameters of downy hairs were noninvasively quantified including the mean RI, volume, cylinder, and effective radius of individual hairs. In addition, the effects of hydrogen peroxide on individual downy hairs were investigated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JBO....20k1207L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JBO....20k1207L"><span>Measurements of <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and refractive indexes on human downy hairs using three-dimensional quantitative <span class="hlt">phase</span> imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, SangYun; Kim, Kyoohyun; Lee, Yuhyun; Park, Sungjin; Shin, Heejae; Yang, Jongwon; Ko, Kwanhong; Park, HyunJoo; Park, YongKeun</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>We present optical measurements of <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and refractive indexes (RIs) of human downy arm hairs using three-dimensional (3-D) quantitative <span class="hlt">phase</span> imaging techniques. 3-D RI tomograms and high-resolution two-dimensional synthetic aperture images of individual downy arm hairs were measured using a Mach-Zehnder laser interferometric microscopy equipped with a two-axis galvanometer mirror. From the measured quantitative images, the RIs and <span class="hlt">morphological</span> parameters of downy hairs were noninvasively quantified including the mean RI, volume, cylinder, and effective radius of individual hairs. In addition, the effects of hydrogen peroxide on individual downy hairs were investigated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1319325','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1319325"><span>Correlation of Bulk Dielectric and Piezoelectric Properties to the Local Scale <span class="hlt">Phase</span> Transformations, Domain <span class="hlt">Morphology</span>, and Crystal Structure Modified</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Priya, Shashank; Viehland, Dwight</p> <p>2014-12-14</p> <p>Three year program entitled “Correlation of bulk dielectric and piezoelectric properties to the local scale <span class="hlt">phase</span> transformations, domain <span class="hlt">morphology</span>, and crystal structure in modified lead-free grain-textured ceramics and single crystals” was supported by the Department of Energy. This was a joint research program between D. Viehland and S. Priya at Virginia Tech. Single crystal and textured ceramics have been synthesized and characterized. Our goals have been (i) to conduct investigations of lead-free piezoelectric systems to establish the local structural and domain <span class="hlt">morphologies</span> that result in enhanced properties, and (ii) to synthesize polycrystalline and grain oriented ceramics for understanding the role of composition, microstructure, and anisotropy</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/930326','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/930326"><span>Anatase-TiO2 Nanomaterials: <span class="hlt">Morphological</span>/Size Dependence of the Crystallization and <span class="hlt">Phase</span> Behavior Phenomena</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fernandez-Garcia,M.; Wang, X.; Belver, C.; Hanson, J.; Rodriguez, J.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Nanoparticulated TiO{sub 2} materials with anatase structure were synthesized by using a microemulsion method. Three different syntheses with varying surfactant-to-water molar ratio ({omega}) were used to obtain amorphous solid precipitates at room temperature. The structural characteristics of these solid precursors were studied by using X-ray absorption structure (X-ray absorption near-edge structure and extended X-ray absorption fine structure) and Raman spectroscopies, which showed that all lack 3D (tridimensional) order but contain a different degree of 2D-confined connectivity. While heating such solid precursors under dry air, marked differences appeared in the <span class="hlt">phase</span> behavior; the onset temperature for anatase crystallization increases ca. 150 {sup o}C while the {omega} parameter decreases and only one of the samples shows the anatase-to-rutile transformation below 900 {sup o}C. In all cases, the crystallization of the anatase structure does not follow a traditional nucleation and growth mechanism and its analysis using the Avrami formalism gives conclusive evidence of a surface nucleation-dominated process. This appears as a distinctive feature of anatase-TiO{sub 2} nanomaterials, far from the corresponding behavior of microsized or bulk materials. After nucleation, the grain growth of anatase nanoparticles was found to follow the kinetic equation D{sup 2}-D{sub 0}{sup 2} = k{sub 0} exp(-E{sub a}/RT), where the activation energy is a <span class="hlt">function</span> of several structural properties of the solid materials mainly related to the hydration characteristics of the surface layer. A combined in situ X-ray diffraction/Raman/infrared study aimed to unveil the physical basis of the <span class="hlt">phase</span> behavior and to interpret key variables allowing control of the crystallization mechanism and <span class="hlt">morphological</span> properties, particularly primary particle size, in the nanometer regime.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25515889','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25515889"><span>Covalent <span class="hlt">functionalization</span> of monolayered transition metal dichalcogenides by <span class="hlt">phase</span> engineering.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Voiry, Damien; Goswami, Anandarup; Kappera, Rajesh; e Silva, Cecilia de Carvalho Castro; Kaplan, Daniel; Fujita, Takeshi; Chen, Mingwei; Asefa, Tewodros; Chhowalla, Manish</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Chemical <span class="hlt">functionalization</span> of low-dimensional materials such as nanotubes, nanowires and graphene leads to profound changes in their properties and is essential for solubilizing them in common solvents. Covalent attachment of <span class="hlt">functional</span> groups is generally achieved at defect sites, which facilitate electron transfer. Here, we describe a simple and general method for covalent <span class="hlt">functionalization</span> of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets (MoS₂, WS₂ and MoSe₂), which does not rely on defect engineering. The <span class="hlt">functionalization</span> reaction is instead facilitated by electron transfer between the electron-rich metallic 1T <span class="hlt">phase</span> and an organohalide reactant, resulting in <span class="hlt">functional</span> groups that are covalently attached to the chalcogen atoms of the transition metal dichalcogenide. The attachment of <span class="hlt">functional</span> groups leads to dramatic changes in the optoelectronic properties of the material. For example, we show that it renders the metallic 1T <span class="hlt">phase</span> semiconducting, and gives it strong and tunable photoluminescence and gate modulation in field-effect transistors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18426676','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18426676"><span>[<span class="hlt">Morphology</span>, ultrastructure and <span class="hlt">function</span> of glycosylation-modified chilled blood platelets].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guo, Yong; Han, Ying; Quan, Guo-Bo; Liu, Min-Xia; Liu, An</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>The glycosylation of platelets may prolong their life-span when being transfused after preservation under 4 degrees C, therefore this study was aimed to investigate the effect of glycosylation on <span class="hlt">morphology</span>, ultrastructure, <span class="hlt">function</span> and membrane glycoprotein of platelets. The experiments were divided into 3 groups: group preserved in room temperature (RT group), group preserved in 4 degrees C (4T group) and group UDP-Gal glycosylated and preserved in 4 degrees C (U+4T group). The binding rate of RCA I lectin and expression of platelet surface markers CD62P, CD42b were determined by flow cytometry. <span class="hlt">Morphology</span> and ultrastructure of platelets were observed by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Platelets aggregation was detected by aggregometer. The results showed that the binding rate of RCAI in U+4T group significantly higher than that in RT group (p<0.01), no obvious changes was found in ultrastructure of glycosylated platelets, as compared with fresh platelets. Some <span class="hlt">morphologic</span> changes, such as pseudopodium could be observed in 4T group. The aggregation rate of platelets in U+4T group reached to 50% of RT group. The expression levels of CD42b and CD62P, and the binding rate of annexin V in U+4T group were not significantly different from that in RT group. It is concluded that UDP-Gal can effectively cause galactosylation of platelets, and the platelets modified with UDP-Gal remain normal <span class="hlt">morphology</span>, ultrastructure and <span class="hlt">function</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040120942','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040120942"><span>A Comparison between Growth <span class="hlt">Morphology</span> of "Eutectic" Cells/Dendrites and Single-<span class="hlt">Phase</span> Cells/Dendrites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tewari, S. N.; Raj, S. V.; Locci, I. E.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Directionally solidified (DS) intermetallic and ceramic-based eutectic alloys with an in-situ composite microstructure containing finely distributed, long aspect ratio, fiber, or plate reinforcements are being seriously examined for several advanced aero-propulsion applications. In designing these alloys, additional solutes need to be added to the base eutectic composition in order to improve heir high-temperature strength, and provide for adequate toughness and resistance to environmental degradation. Solute addition, however, promotes instability at the planar liquid-solid interface resulting in the formation of two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> eutectic "colonies." Because <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of eutectic colonies is very similar to the single-<span class="hlt">phase</span> cells and dendrites, the stability analysis of Mullins and Sekerka has been extended to describe their formation. Onset of their formation shows a good agreement with this approach; however, unlike the single-<span class="hlt">phase</span> cells and dendrites, there is limited examination of their growth speed dependence of spacing, <span class="hlt">morphology</span>, and spatial distribution. The purpose of this study is to compare the growth speed dependence of the <span class="hlt">morphology</span>, spacing, and spatial distribution of eutectic cells and dendrites with that for the single-<span class="hlt">phase</span> cells and dendrites.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SRL....2350005A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SRL....2350005A"><span>Influence of the Substrate on the Crystalline <span class="hlt">Phase</span> and <span class="hlt">Morphology</span> of Poly (vinylidene Fluoride) (pvdf) Thin Film</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Abdullah, Ibtisam Yahya; Yahaya, Muhammad; Jumali, Mohammad Hafizuddin Hj; Shanshool, Haider Mohammed</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The effect of substrate on the crystalline <span class="hlt">phase</span> and <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) thin film has been investigated. The solution of PVDF/Hexamethyl phosphoramide (HMPA) was deposited on four different substrates, namely, silicon (Si), glass (SiO2), indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass and silver (Ag) coated glass respectively by using the spin coating technique. The crystalline structure was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) techniques. The <span class="hlt">morphology</span> was determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD demonstrated that the structure of PVDF thin films on each substrate is β-<span class="hlt">phase</span> with different orientations of the molecular chains. FTIR results confirmed XRD that the samples contain β-<span class="hlt">phase</span>. SEM shows spherulites structure, which is rough and porous, besides, the size of spherulites and the porosity are different for each sample. The size of spherulites is in average diameter range (1-6μm) and this range is attributed to the β-<span class="hlt">phase</span>. The nucleation process of β-<span class="hlt">phase</span> on the various substrates attributed either to the match of polymer-substrate or to the electrostatic interaction. Among the substrates used, the ITO substrate exhibited a greater tendency for β-<span class="hlt">phase</span> formation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995JOSAA..12.1984H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995JOSAA..12.1984H"><span>Exact probability-density <span class="hlt">function</span> for <span class="hlt">phase</span>-measurement interferometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ho, Keang-Po; Kahn, Joseph M.</p> <p>1995-09-01</p> <p>Conventional analyses of the accuracy of <span class="hlt">phase</span>-measurement interferometry derive a figure of merit that is either a variance or a signal-to-noise ratio. We derive the probability-density <span class="hlt">function</span> of the <span class="hlt">phase</span>-measurement output, so that the measurement confidence interval can be determined. We include both laser <span class="hlt">phase</span> noise and additive Gaussian noise, and we consider both unmodulated interferometers and those employing <span class="hlt">phase</span> or frequency modulation. For both unmodulated and modulated interferometers the confidence interval can be obtained by numerical integration of the probability-density <span class="hlt">function</span>. For the modulated interferometer we derive a series summation for the confidence interval. For both unmodulated and modulated interferometers we derive approximate analytical expressions for the confidence interval, which we show to be extremely accurate at high signal-to-noise ratios.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4151146','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4151146"><span>Assemblages: <span class="hlt">Functional</span> units formed by cellular <span class="hlt">phase</span> separation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wright, Peter E.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The partitioning of intracellular space beyond membrane-bound organelles can be achieved with collections of proteins that are multivalent or contain low-complexity, intrinsically disordered regions. These proteins can undergo a physical <span class="hlt">phase</span> change to form <span class="hlt">functional</span> granules or other entities within the cytoplasm or nucleoplasm that collectively we term “assemblage.” Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) play an important role in forming a subset of cellular assemblages by promoting <span class="hlt">phase</span> separation. Recent work points to an involvement of assemblages in disease states, indicating that intrinsic disorder and <span class="hlt">phase</span> transitions should be considered in the development of therapeutics. PMID:25179628</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19595618','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19595618"><span>Simple RF design for human <span class="hlt">functional</span> and <span class="hlt">morphological</span> cardiac imaging at 7tesla.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Versluis, M J; Tsekos, N; Smith, N B; Webb, A G</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Morphological</span> and <span class="hlt">functional</span> cardiac MRI can potentially benefit greatly from the recent advent of commercial high-field (7tesla and above) MRI systems. However, conventional hardware configurations at lower field using a body-coil for homogeneous transmission are not available at these field strengths. Sophisticated multiple-transmit-channel systems have been shown to be able to image the human heart at 7tesla but such systems are currently not widely available. In this paper, we empirically optimize the design of a simple quadrature coil for cardiac imaging at 7tesla. The size, geometry, and position have been chosen to produce a B(1) field with no tissue-induced signal voids within the heart. Standard navigator echoes for gating were adapted for operation at the heart/lung interface, directly along the head-foot direction. Using this setup, conventional and high-resolution cine <span class="hlt">functional</span> imaging have been successfully performed, as has <span class="hlt">morphological</span> imaging of the right coronary artery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApJ...846...85M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApJ...846...85M"><span>Experimental <span class="hlt">Phase</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span> of Millimeter-sized Cosmic Dust Grains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Muñoz, O.; Moreno, F.; Vargas-Martín, F.; Guirado, D.; Escobar-Cerezo, J.; Min, M.; Hovenier, J. W.</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>We present the experimental <span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of three types of millimeter-sized dust grains consisting of enstatite, quartz, and volcanic material from Mount Etna, respectively. The three grains present similar sizes but different absorbing properties. The measurements are performed at 527 nm covering the scattering angle range from 3° to 170°. The measured <span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> show two well-defined regions: (i) soft forward peaks and (ii) a continuous increase with the scattering angle at side- and back-scattering regions. This behavior at side- and back-scattering regions is in agreement with the observed <span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of the Fomalhaut and HR 4796A dust rings. Further computations and measurements (including polarization) for millimeter-sized grains are needed to draw some conclusions about the fluffy or compact structure of the dust grains.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..MAR.G1001R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..MAR.G1001R"><span>Insight into Structural <span class="hlt">Phase</span> Transitions from Density <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ruzsinszky, Adrienn</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Structural <span class="hlt">phase</span> transitions caused by high pressure or temperature are very relevant in materials science. The high pressure transitions are essential to understand the interior of planets. Pressure or temperature induced <span class="hlt">phase</span> transitions can be relevant to understand other <span class="hlt">phase</span> transitions in strongly correlated systems or molecular crystals.<span class="hlt">Phase</span> transitions are important also from the aspect of method development. Lower level density <span class="hlt">functionals</span>, LSDA and GGAs all fail to predict the lattice parameters of different polymorphs and the <span class="hlt">phase</span> transition parameters at the same time. At this time only nonlocal density <span class="hlt">functionals</span> like HSE and RPA have been proved to resolve the geometry-energy dilemma to some extent in structural <span class="hlt">phase</span> transitions. In this talk I will report new results from the MGGA_MS family of meta-GGAs and give an insight why this type of meta-GGAs can give a systematic improvement of the geometry and <span class="hlt">phase</span> transition parameters together. I will also present results from the RPA and show a possible way to improve beyond RPA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23184520','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23184520"><span>2.5D constructs for characterizing <span class="hlt">phase</span> separated polymer blend surface <span class="hlt">morphology</span> in tissue engineering scaffolds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Marszalek, Jolanta E; Simon, Carl G; Thodeti, Charles; Adapala, Ravi Kumar; Murthy, Ananth; Karim, Alamgir</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Previously, we used 2D films to identify an annealed PCL-PDLLA <span class="hlt">phase</span>-separated blend <span class="hlt">morphology</span> which provided nanoscale surface texture and patterning that stimulated osteoblast differentiation. In order to translate these 2D surface nanopatterning effects to the walls of 3D salt-leached scaffolds, the blend <span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of scaffold walls must be characterized. For salt-leached scaffolds, NaCl is used as a porogen, which may affect <span class="hlt">phase</span> separation in PCL-PDLLA blends. However, it is not possible to characterize the surface blend <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of 3D scaffold walls using standard approaches such as AFM or optical microscopy, since scaffolds are too rough for AFM and do not transmit light for optical microscopy. We introduce a 2.5D approach that mimics the processing conditions of 3D salt-leached scaffolds, but has a geometry amenable to surface characterization by AFM and optical microscopy. For the 2.5D approach, PCL-PDLLA blend films were covered with NaCl crystals prior to annealing. The presence of NaCl significantly influenced blend <span class="hlt">morphology</span> in PCL-PDLLA 2.5D constructs causing increased surface roughness, higher percent PCL area on the surface and a smaller PCL domain size. During cell culture on 2.5D constructs, osteoblast (MC3T3-E1) and dermal endothelial cell (MDEC) adhesion were enhanced on PCL-PDLLA blends that were annealed with NaCl while chondrogenic cell (ATDC5) adhesion was diminished. This work introduces a 2.5D approach that mimicked 3D salt-leached scaffold processing, but enabled characterization of scaffold surface properties by AFM and light microscopy, to demonstrate that the presence of NaCl during annealing strongly influenced polymer blend surface <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and cell adhesion. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27160459','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27160459"><span><span class="hlt">Functional</span> <span class="hlt">phases</span> and angular momentum characteristics of Tkatchev and Kovacs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Irwin, Gareth; Exell, Timothy A; Manning, Michelle L; Kerwin, David G</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Understanding the technical requirements and underlying biomechanics of complex release and re-grasp skills on high bar allows coaches and scientists to develop safe and effective training programmes. The aim of this study was to examine the differences in the <span class="hlt">functional</span> <span class="hlt">phases</span> between the Tkatchev and Kovacs skills and to explain how the angular momentum demands are addressed. Images of 18 gymnasts performing 10 Tkatchevs and 8 Kovacs at the Olympic Games were recorded (50 Hz), digitised and reconstructed (3D Direct Linear Transformation). Orientation of the <span class="hlt">functional</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span> action, defined by the rapid flexion to extension of the shoulders and extension to flexion of the hips as the performer passed through the lower vertical, along with shoulder and hip angular kinematics, angular momentum and key release parameters (body angle, mass centre velocity and angular momentum about the mass centre and bar) were compared between skills. Expected differences in the release parameters of angle, angular momentum and velocity were observed and the specific mechanical requirement of each skill were highlighted. Whilst there were no differences in joint kinematics, hip and shoulder <span class="hlt">functional</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span> were significantly earlier in the circle for the Tkatchev. These findings highlight the importance of the orientation of the <span class="hlt">functional</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span> in the preceding giant swing and provide coaches with further understanding of the critical timing in this key <span class="hlt">phase</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23088134','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23088134"><span>[Effect of domestic gas on <span class="hlt">morphological</span> and <span class="hlt">functional</span> state of parenchymatous organs in rats].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zinalieva, A N; Karimov, T K; Bermagambetova, S K</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The work is devoted to a study of <span class="hlt">morphological</span> and <span class="hlt">functional</span> changes in liver and kidneys in the simulation of subacute toxic exposure of rats to domestic gas in the experiment. In the course of studies found that the subacute intoxication by domestic gas and its metabolites were shown to causes profound structural and metabolic lesions of the liver and kidneys that can progress to develop the chronic liver and kidney insufficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12196262','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12196262"><span>Comparative <span class="hlt">functional</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the masticatory apparatus in the long-snouted crocodiles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Endo, H; Aoki, R; Taru, H; Kimura, J; Sasaki, M; Yamamoto, M; Arishima, K; Hayashi, Y</p> <p>2002-08-01</p> <p>The masticatory muscles and their related structures of the skull were observed in the Indian gavial (Gavialis gangeticus), the false gavial (Tomistoma schlegelii), and the African slender-snouted crocodile (Mecistops cataphractus) to detail some <span class="hlt">morphological</span> differences in comparison with the other crocodile species, and to compare and elucidate the <span class="hlt">functional</span> strategy of themasticatory apparatus in these long-snouted species. The Musculus pterygoideus posterior was relatively smaller in the three species compared with many short-snouted crocodiles. It suggests that the masticatory power in fish-eating long-snouted species is not so high as in the short-snouted crocodiles, while the masticatory muscles were <span class="hlt">morphologically</span> different among the three long-snouted species as follows. The M. pterygoideus posterior of the false gavial was extended in the lateral side of the lower jaw unlike the Indian gavial. The M. pseudotemporalis and the Fenestra supratemporalis were largely developed in the Indian gavial, however we suggest that the other two species possess the weak bundles in this muscle. The false gavial and the African slender-snouted crocodile have the pterygoid bone well-developed extending dorso-ventrally and it is suggested that the M. adductor mandibulae posterior attached to the pterygoid bone may be much larger than the Indian gavial. These data <span class="hlt">morphologically</span> clarify the masticatory mechanism in the long-snouted crocodiles different from the short-snouted species, and demonstrate that the evolutional strategy to share the <span class="hlt">functional</span> role in the masticatory muscles have been differently established between the Indian gavial and the other two species. We also obtained the <span class="hlt">morphological</span> data in the fossil skull of the Machikane crocodile (Toyotamaphymeia machikanense) and concluded from the fossil characters that the considerable developments of the M.pterygoideus posterior and the M.pseudotemporalis in this species had not <span class="hlt">morphologically</span> been</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28709310','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28709310"><span><span class="hlt">Phase</span>-field-crystal investigation of the <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of a steady-state dendrite tip on the atomic scale.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tang, Sai; Wang, Jincheng; Li, Junjie; Wang, Zhijun; Guo, Yaolin; Guo, Can; Zhou, Yaohe</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>Through <span class="hlt">phase</span>-field-crystal (PFC) simulations, we investigated, on the atomic scale, the crucial role played by interface energy anisotropy and growth driving force during the <span class="hlt">morphological</span> evolution of a dendrite tip at low growth driving force. In the layer-by-layer growth manner, the interface energy anisotropy drives the forefront of the dendrite tip to evolve to be highly similar to the corner of the corresponding equilibrium crystal from the aspects of atom configuration and <span class="hlt">morphology</span>, and thus affects greatly the formation and growth of a steady-state dendrite tip. Meanwhile, the driving force substantially influences the part behind the forefront of the dendrite tip, rather than the forefront itself. However, as the driving force increases enough to change the layer-by-layer growth to the multilayer growth, the <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the dendrite tip's forefront is completely altered. Parabolic fitting of the dendrite tip reveals that an increase in the influence of interface energy anisotropy makes dendrite tips deviate increasingly from a parabolic shape. By quantifying the deviations under various interface energy anisotropies and growth driving forces, it is suggested that a perfect parabola is an asymptotic limit for the shape of the dendrite tips. Furthermore, the atomic scale description of the dendrite tip obtained in the PFC simulation is compatible with the mesoscopic results obtained in the <span class="hlt">phase</span>-field simulation in terms of the dendrite tip's <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and the stability criterion constant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24215454','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24215454"><span><span class="hlt">Morphological</span> control of multihollow polymer latex particles through a controlled <span class="hlt">phase</span> separation in the seeded emulsion polymerization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Bingxin; Xu, Yongfei; Wang, Mozhen; Ge, Xuewu</p> <p>2013-12-03</p> <p>In this work, we first reported that the <span class="hlt">phase</span> separation can take place both inside and outside of a multihollow-structured cross-linked seed microspheres swollen by styrene monomers in water during the radiation-induced seeded emulsion polymerization. The <span class="hlt">phase</span> separation process in these two opposite directions will determine the <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of final latex particles. First, sulfonated cross-linked polystyrene (SCPS) seed microspheres were swollen by styrene in water. Water will permeate into the SCPS seed microspheres during the swelling process, forced by the osmotic pressure produced by the strong hydrophilicity of the sulfonic acid groups. New aqueous <span class="hlt">phases</span> are created and stabilized by the hydrophilic -SO3H groups, resulting in a multihollow structure of swollen SCPS seed microspheres. When the polymerization of styrene is induced by (60)Co γ-ray radiation, the <span class="hlt">phase</span> separation of newly formed polystyrene <span class="hlt">phase</span> will occur at the seed microsphere-water interface inside and/or outside of the SCPS seed microspheres through adjusting the diameter of seed microsphere, the content of cross-link agent, and the sulfonation degree of SCPS seed microspheres. As a result, SCPS latex particles with a variety of special <span class="hlt">morphologies</span>, such as spherical multihollow, plum-like, and walnut-like latex particles were obtained. The results of this study provide not only a simple and interesting way to design and synthesize multihollow polymer latex particles with controllable surface <span class="hlt">morphologies</span> but also a better understanding on <span class="hlt">phase</span> separation mechanism during the swelling and polymerization of monomers in cross-linked amphiphilic polymer networks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19619994','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19619994"><span><span class="hlt">Functional</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of unguiculiform papillae of the reticular groove in the ruminant stomach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Teixeira, Althen F; Kühnel, Wolfgang; Vives, Patricia; Wedel, Thilo</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>The arrangement of the ruminant stomach in four gastric compartments with specialized mucosal papillae along the gastric groove (GG) has been previously described. However, a debate remains about <span class="hlt">functional</span> implications of these <span class="hlt">morphological</span> pecularities. This study was aimed to elucidate the relation between the papillar <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and its putative <span class="hlt">functions</span>. The GG was obtained from adult bovine stomachs (n=10) and subdivided into (1) proximal, (2) middle, (3) distal portion of the reticular groove (RG) and (4) the area of the reticulo-omasal sphincter (ROS). The specimens were processed for scanning electron microscopy and stereomicroscopy to analyze the density, shape and location of the papillae. Whereas the proximal portion of the RG was characterized by small (1.5mm), conically shaped, smooth papillae, the middle portion exhibited larger papillae (4mm) with sharp borders covered by keratin. Towards the ROS the papillae further increased in size (3-11mm) and showed compound or single processes resembling the shape of arrows, twisted hooks or thorns (unguiculliform papillae). At the ROS the unguiculliform papillae were distributed in clusters groups and along the border of the sphincter. Due to their peculiar <span class="hlt">morphological</span> features it is suggested that unguiculliform papillae <span class="hlt">functions</span> as a filter barrier preventing the passage of large-sized food particles into the omasum and avoiding subsequent obstruction of both the RG and the ROS. The data give further evidence that unguiculliform papillae are actively involved in the complex mechanisms of food processing taking place within the ruminant pluricavity stomach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031921','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031921"><span>Gender identification of Caspian Terns using external <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and discriminant <span class="hlt">function</span> analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Ackerman, Joshua T.; Takekawa, John Y.; Bluso, J.D.; Yee, J.L.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Caspian Tern (Sterna caspia) plumage characteristics are sexually monochromatic and gender cannot easily be distinguished in the field without extensive behavioral observations. We assessed sexual size dimorphism and developed a discriminant <span class="hlt">function</span> to assign gender in Caspian Terns based on external <span class="hlt">morphology</span>. We collected and measured Caspian Terns in San Francisco Bay, California, and confirmed their gender based on necropsy and genetic analysis. Of the eight <span class="hlt">morphological</span> measurements we examined, only bill depth at the gonys and head plus bill length differed between males and females with males being larger than females. A discriminant <span class="hlt">function</span> using both bill depth at the gonys and head plus bill length accurately assigned gender of 83% of terns for which gender was known. We improved the accuracy of our discriminant <span class="hlt">function</span> to 90% by excluding individuals that had less than a 75% posterior probability of correctly being assigned to gender. Caspian Terns showed little sexual size dimorphism in many morphometries, but our results indicate they can be reliably assigned to gender in the field using two <span class="hlt">morphological</span> measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16739463','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16739463"><span>Testing hypotheses of convergence with multivariate data: <span class="hlt">morphological</span> and <span class="hlt">functional</span> convergence among herbivorous lizards.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stayton, C Tristan</p> <p>2006-04-01</p> <p>Despite its importance to evolutionary theory, convergence remains an understudied phenomenon and is usually investigated using qualitative data. This paper advances a new, multidimensional view of convergence. Three patterns indicative of convergence are discussed, and techniques to discover and test convergent patterns in a quantitative framework are developed. These concepts and methods are applied to a dataset of digitized coordinates on 1554 lizard skulls and 1292 lower jaws to test hypotheses of convergence among herbivorous lizards. Encompassing seven independent acquisitions of herbivory, this lizard sample provides an ideal natural experiment for exploring ideas of convergence among different systems (here, <span class="hlt">morphological</span> and <span class="hlt">functional</span>). Three related questions are addressed: (1) Do herbivorous lizards show evidence of convergence in skull and lower jaw <span class="hlt">morphology</span>? (2) What, if any, is the morphospace pattern associated with this convergence? (3) Is it possible to predict the direction of convergence using <span class="hlt">functional</span> models? Relative warp analysis and permutation tests reveal that the skulls and lower jaws of herbivorous lizards do show evidence of convergence. Herbivore skulls deviate from their carnivorous or omnivorous sister groups toward the same area of morphospace. Without a phylogenetic perspective, this pattern would not be recognizable. Lower jaws of herbivores are not convergent in <span class="hlt">morphology</span> but are convergent in <span class="hlt">function</span>: herbivores deviate away from their carnivorous sister groups toward higher values of mechanical advantage. These results illustrate the desirability of quantitative methods, informed by phylogenetic information, in the study of convergence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27190209','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27190209"><span>From Newborn to Senescence <span class="hlt">Morphological</span> and <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Remodeling Leads to Increased Contractile Capacity of Arteries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ivic, Ivan; Vamos, Zoltan; Cseplo, Peter; Koller, Akos</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Aging induces substantial <span class="hlt">morphological</span> and <span class="hlt">functional</span> changes in vessels. We hypothesized that due to <span class="hlt">morphological</span> remodeling the total contractile forces of arteries increase, especially in older age as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of age. Mean arterial blood pressure of rats and <span class="hlt">morphological</span> and <span class="hlt">functional</span> characteristics of isolated carotid arteries rats, from newborn to senescent, were assessed. The arterial blood pressure of rats increased significantly from 0.25 to the age of 6 months, and then it reached a level, which was maintained until age of 30 months. Wall lumen and wall thickness increased with age, mostly due to media (smooth muscle) thickening, whereas wall tension gradually reduced with age. Contractions of arteries to nonreceptor-mediated vasomotor agent (KCl, 60mM) increased in three consecutive age groups, whereas contractility first increased (until 2 months), then it did not change further with aging. Norepinephrine-induced contractions initially increased in young age and then did not change further in older age. These findings suggest that during normal aging due to remodeling of arterial wall (smooth muscle) the contractile capacity of arteries increases, which seems to be independent from systemic blood pressure. Thus, arterial remodeling can favor the development of increased circulatory resistance in older age.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18721914','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18721914"><span>Do masticatory <span class="hlt">functional</span> changes influence the mandibular <span class="hlt">morphology</span> in adult rats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Odman, Anna; Mavropoulos, Anestis; Kiliaridis, Stavros</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>This study aimed to investigate the effect of masticatory <span class="hlt">functional</span> changes on the lateral view <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the mandible in adult rats. Sixty 21-day-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups. Sixteen received ordinary (hard) food during the whole experimental period (normal group). The remaining 44 received a soft diet during 21 weeks to develop a hypofunctional masticatory system. Then, the now adult animals were divided into two equal groups: one continued on a soft diet (hypofunctional group), and the other changed to an ordinary diet with the aim of <span class="hlt">functionally</span> rehabilitating their masticatory system (rehabilitation group). After another 6 weeks all animals were sacrificed and their left mandible was dissected, photographed and customised cephalometric software was used to perform morphometric measurements. The area of the mandible was smaller in the hypofunctional compared to the normal group. Interestingly, the alveolar process was shorter in the normal group. Morphometric analysis revealed significant differences such as the area of the angular process and the inclination of the condylar process. The rehabilitation group was only marginally different compared to the hypofunctional group, although a general tendency to approach (catch-up) the normal group was observed, and one morphometric variable (condylar base inclination) was indeed significantly different. Morphometric analysis revealed only marginal changes of the adult rat mandibular <span class="hlt">morphology</span> during a 6-week period of masticatory <span class="hlt">function</span> rehabilitation. However, the observed catch-up tendency might suggest that a longer rehabilitation period may have significant effect on mandibular <span class="hlt">morphology</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4963538','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4963538"><span><span class="hlt">Morphology</span> and <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Anatomy of the Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve with Extralaryngeal Terminal Bifurcation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dogan, Sami</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Anatomical variations of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN), such as an extralaryngeal terminal bifurcation (ETB), threaten the safety of thyroid surgery. Besides the <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the nerve branches, intraoperative evaluation of their <span class="hlt">functional</span> anatomy may be useful to preserve motor activity. We exposed 67 RLNs in 36 patients. The main trunk, bifurcation point, and terminal branches of bifid nerves were macroscopically determined and exposed during thyroid surgery. The <span class="hlt">functional</span> anatomy of the nerve branches was evaluated by intraoperative nerve monitoring (IONM). Forty-six RLNs with an ETB were intraoperatively exposed. The bifurcation point was located along the prearterial, arterial, and postarterial segments in 11%, 39%, and 50% of bifid RLNs, respectively. Motor activity was determined in all anterior branches. The <span class="hlt">functional</span> anatomy of terminal branches detected motor activity in 4 (8.7%) posterior branches of 46 bifid RLNs. The motor activity in posterior branches created a wave amplitude at 25–69% of that in the corresponding anterior branches. The <span class="hlt">functional</span> anatomy of bifid RLNs demonstrated that anterior branches always contained motor fibres while posterior branches seldom contained motor fibres. The motor activity of the posterior branch was weaker than that of the anterior branch. IONM may help to differentiate between motor and sensory <span class="hlt">functions</span> of nerve branches. The <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and <span class="hlt">functional</span> anatomy of all nerve branches must be preserved to ensure a safer surgery. PMID:27493803</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010LNCS.6077..351D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010LNCS.6077..351D"><span>An Increasing Hybrid <span class="hlt">Morphological</span>-Linear Perceptron with Evolutionary Learning and <span class="hlt">Phase</span> Correction for Financial Time Series Forecasting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>de A. Araújo, Ricardo; Sussner, Peter</p> <p></p> <p>In this paper we present a suitable model to solve the financial time series forecasting problem, called increasing hybrid <span class="hlt">morphological</span>-linear perceptron (IHMP). An evolutionary training algorithm is presented to design the IHMP (learning process), using a modified genetic algorithm (MGA). The learning process includes an automatic <span class="hlt">phase</span> correction step that is geared at eliminating the time <span class="hlt">phase</span> distortions that typically occur in financial time series forecasting. Furthermore, we compare the proposed IHMP with other neural and statistical models using two complex nonlinear problems of financial forecasting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28839153','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28839153"><span>Melittin-induced alterations in <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and deformability of human red blood cells using quantitative <span class="hlt">phase</span> imaging techniques.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hur, Joonseok; Kim, Kyoohyun; Lee, SangYun; Park, HyunJoo; Park, YongKeun</p> <p>2017-08-24</p> <p>Here, the actions of melittin, the active molecule of apitoxin or bee venom, were investigated on human red blood cells (RBCs) using quantitative <span class="hlt">phase</span> imaging techniques. High-resolution real-time 3-D refractive index (RI) measurements and dynamic 2-D <span class="hlt">phase</span> images of individual melittin-bound RBCs enabled in-depth examination of melittin-induced biophysical alterations of the cells. From the measurements, <span class="hlt">morphological</span>, intracellular, and mechanical alterations of the RBCs were analyzed quantitatively. Furthermore, leakage of haemoglobin (Hb) inside the RBCs at high melittin concentration was also investigated.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6182190','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6182190"><span>Characterization of diamond thin films: Diamond <span class="hlt">phase</span> identification, surface <span class="hlt">morphology</span>, and defect structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Williams, B.E.; Glass, J.T.</p> <p>1989-03-01</p> <p>Thin carbon films grown from a low pressure methane-hydrogen gas mixture by microwave plasma enhanced CVD have been examined by Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, electron and x-ray diffraction, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and electron microscopy. They were determined to be similar to natural diamond in terms of composition, structure, and bonding. The surface <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the diamond films was a <span class="hlt">function</span> of position on the sample surface and the methane concentration in the feedgas. Well-faceted diamond crystals were observed near the center of the sample whereas a less faceted, cauliflower texture was observed near the edge of the sample, presumably due to variations in temperature across the surface of the sample. Regarding methane concentration effects, threefold /111/ faceted diamond crystals were predominant on a film grown at 0.3% CH/sub 4/ in H/sub 2/ while fourfold /100/ facets were observed on films grown in 1.0% and 2.0% CH/sub 4/ in H/sub 2/. Transmission electron microscopy of the diamond films has shown that the majority of diamond crystals have a very high defect density comprised of /111/ twins, /111/ stacking faults, and dislocations. In addition, cross-sectional TEM has revealed a 50 A epitaxial layer of ..beta..--SiC at the diamond-silicon interface of a film grown with 0.3% CH/sub 4/ in H/sub 2/ while no such layer was observed on a diamond film grown in 2.0% CH/sub 4/ in H/sub 2/.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5209359','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5209359"><span><span class="hlt">Morphological</span> and <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Differences between Athletes and Novices in Cortical Neuronal Networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tan, Xiao-Ying; Pi, Yan-Ling; Wang, Jue; Li, Xue-Pei; Zhang, Lan-Lan; Dai, Wen; Zhu, Hua; Ni, Zhen; Zhang, Jian; Wu, Yin</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The cortical structural and <span class="hlt">functional</span> differences in athletes and novices were investigated with a cross-sectional paradigm. We measured the gray matter volumes and resting-state <span class="hlt">functional</span> connectivity in 21 basketball players and 21 novices with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. It was found that gray matter volume in the left anterior insula (AI), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), precuneus is greater in basketball players than that in novices. These five brain regions were selected as the seed regions for testing the resting-state <span class="hlt">functional</span> connectivity in the second experiment. We found higher <span class="hlt">functional</span> connectivity in default mode network, salience network and executive control network in basketball players compared to novices. We conclude that the <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and <span class="hlt">functional</span> connectivity in cortical neuronal networks in athletes and novices are different. PMID:28101012</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28101012','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28101012"><span><span class="hlt">Morphological</span> and <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Differences between Athletes and Novices in Cortical Neuronal Networks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tan, Xiao-Ying; Pi, Yan-Ling; Wang, Jue; Li, Xue-Pei; Zhang, Lan-Lan; Dai, Wen; Zhu, Hua; Ni, Zhen; Zhang, Jian; Wu, Yin</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The cortical structural and <span class="hlt">functional</span> differences in athletes and novices were investigated with a cross-sectional paradigm. We measured the gray matter volumes and resting-state <span class="hlt">functional</span> connectivity in 21 basketball players and 21 novices with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. It was found that gray matter volume in the left anterior insula (AI), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), precuneus is greater in basketball players than that in novices. These five brain regions were selected as the seed regions for testing the resting-state <span class="hlt">functional</span> connectivity in the second experiment. We found higher <span class="hlt">functional</span> connectivity in default mode network, salience network and executive control network in basketball players compared to novices. We conclude that the <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and <span class="hlt">functional</span> connectivity in cortical neuronal networks in athletes and novices are different.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2685282','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2685282"><span><span class="hlt">Morphological</span> and <span class="hlt">Phase</span> Controlled Tungsten Based Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Characterization of Scheelites, Wolframites, and Oxides Nanomaterials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hernandez-Sanchez, Bernadette A.; Boyle, Timothy J.; Pratt, Harry D.; Rodriguez, Mark A.; Brewer, Luke N.; Dunphy, Darren R.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>For the first time tungsten based nanoparticles (WNPs) of scheelite (MWO4; M = Ca, Sr, Ba, Pb), wolframite (MWO4; M = Mn, Fe, Zn & (Mg0.60Mn0.17Fe0.26)WO4), and the oxide (WO3 and W18O49) were synthesized from solution precipitation (i.e.,trioctylamine or oleic acid) and solvothermal (i.e., benzyl alcohol) routes. The resultant WNPs were prepared directly from tungsten (VI) ethoxide (W(OCH2CH3)6, 1) and stoichiometeric mixtures of the following precursors: [Ca(N(SiMe3)2)2]2 (2), Pb(N(SiMe3)2)2 (3), Mn[(μ-Mes)2Mn(Mes)]2 (4), [Fe(μ-Mes)(Mes)]2 (5), Fe(CO)5 (6), H+[Ba2(μ3-ONep)(μ-ONep)2(ONep)(ONep)3(py)]−2 (7), H+[Sr5(μ4-O)(μ3-ONep)4(μ-ONep)4(ONep)(py)4]− (8), and [Zn(Et)(ONep)(py)]2 (9) where Mes = C6H2(CH3)3-2,4,6, ONep = OCH2CMe3, Et = CH2CH3, and py = pyridine. Through these routes, the WNP <span class="hlt">morphologies</span> were found to be manipulated by the processing conditions, while precursor selection influenced the final <span class="hlt">phase</span> observed. For the solution precipitation route, 1 yielded (5 × 100 nm) W18O49 rods while stochiometeric reactions between 1 and (2 – 9) generated homogenous sub 30 nm nano-dots, -diamonds, -rods, and -wires for the MWO4 systems. For the solvothermal route, 1 was found to produce wires of WO3 with aspect ratios of 20 while (1 & 2) formed 10 – 60 nm CaWO4 nanodots. Room temperature photoluminescent (PL) emission properties of select WNPs were also examined with fluorescence spectroscopy (λex = 320 nm). Broad PL emissions = 430, 420, 395, 420 nm were noted for 5 × 100 nm W18O49 rods, 5 × 15 nm, CaWO4 rods, 10 – 30 nm CaWO4 dots, and 10 nm BaWO4 diamonds, respectively. PMID:19911034</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JSSCh.243..282Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JSSCh.243..282Z"><span><span class="hlt">Morphology</span> and <span class="hlt">phase</span> transformations of tin oxide nanostructures synthesized by the hydrothermal method in the presence of dicarboxylic acids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zima, Tatyana.; Bataev, Ivan</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>A new approach to the synthesis of non-stoichiometric tin oxide structures with different <span class="hlt">morphologies</span> and the <span class="hlt">phase</span> compositions has been evaluated. The nanostructures were synthesized by hydrothermal treatment of the mixtures of dicarboxylic acids ― aminoterephthalic or oxalic ― with nanocrystalline SnO2 powder, which was obtained via the sol-gel technology. The products were characterized by Raman and IR spectroscopy, SEM, HRTEM, and XRD analysis. It was shown that the controlled addition of a dicarboxylic acid leads not only to a change in the <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the nanostructures, but also to SnO2-SnO2/Sn3O4-Sn3O4-SnO <span class="hlt">phase</span> transformations. A single-<span class="hlt">phase</span> Sn3O4 in the form of the well-separated hexagonal nanoplates and mixed SnO2/Sn3O4 <span class="hlt">phases</span> in the form of hierarchical flower-like structures were obtained in the presence of organic additives. The effects of concentration, redox activity of the acids and heat treatment on the basic characteristics of the synthesized tin oxide nanostructures and <span class="hlt">phase</span> transformations in the synthesized materials are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20565988','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20565988"><span><span class="hlt">Morphological</span> and molecular evidence for <span class="hlt">functional</span> organization along the rostrocaudal axis of the adult zebrafish intestine.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Zhengyuan; Du, Jianguo; Lam, Siew Hong; Mathavan, Sinnakarupan; Matsudaira, Paul; Gong, Zhiyuan</p> <p>2010-06-22</p> <p>The zebrafish intestine is a simple tapered tube that is folded into three sections. However, whether the intestine is <span class="hlt">functionally</span> similar along its length remains unknown. Thus, a systematic structural and <span class="hlt">functional</span> characterization of the zebrafish intestine is desirable for future studies of the digestive tract and the intestinal biology and development. To characterize the structure and <span class="hlt">function</span> of the adult zebrafish intestine, we divided the intestine into seven roughly equal-length segments, S1-S7, and systematically examined the <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the mucosal lining, histology of the epithelium, and molecular signatures from transcriptome analysis. Prominent <span class="hlt">morphological</span> features are circumferentially-oriented villar ridges in segments S1-S6 and the absence of crypts. Molecular characterization of the transcriptome from each segment shows that segments S1-S5 are very similar while S6 and S7 unique. Gene ontology analyses reveal that S1-S5 express genes whose <span class="hlt">functions</span> involve metabolism of carbohydrates, transport of lipids and energy generation, while the last two segments display relatively limited <span class="hlt">function</span>. Based on comparative Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, the first five segments share strong similarity with human and mouse small intestine while S6 shows similarity with human cecum and rectum, and S7 with human rectum. The intestinal tract does not display the anatomical, <span class="hlt">morphological</span>, and molecular signatures of a stomach and thus we conclude that this organ is absent from the zebrafish digestive system. Our genome-wide gene expression data indicate that, despite the lack of crypts, the rostral, mid, and caudal portions of the zebrafish intestine have distinct <span class="hlt">functions</span> analogous to the mammalian small and large intestine, respectively. Organization of ridge structures represents a unique feature of zebrafish intestine, though they produce similar cross sections to mammalian intestines. Evolutionary lack of stomach, crypts, Paneth cells and submucosal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2996925','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2996925"><span><span class="hlt">Morphological</span> and molecular evidence for <span class="hlt">functional</span> organization along the rostrocaudal axis of the adult zebrafish intestine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Background The zebrafish intestine is a simple tapered tube that is folded into three sections. However, whether the intestine is <span class="hlt">functionally</span> similar along its length remains unknown. Thus, a systematic structural and <span class="hlt">functional</span> characterization of the zebrafish intestine is desirable for future studies of the digestive tract and the intestinal biology and development. Results To characterize the structure and <span class="hlt">function</span> of the adult zebrafish intestine, we divided the intestine into seven roughly equal-length segments, S1-S7, and systematically examined the <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the mucosal lining, histology of the epithelium, and molecular signatures from transcriptome analysis. Prominent <span class="hlt">morphological</span> features are circumferentially-oriented villar ridges in segments S1-S6 and the absence of crypts. Molecular characterization of the transcriptome from each segment shows that segments S1-S5 are very similar while S6 and S7 unique. Gene ontology analyses reveal that S1-S5 express genes whose <span class="hlt">functions</span> involve metabolism of carbohydrates, transport of lipids and energy generation, while the last two segments display relatively limited <span class="hlt">function</span>. Based on comparative Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, the first five segments share strong similarity with human and mouse small intestine while S6 shows similarity with human cecum and rectum, and S7 with human rectum. The intestinal tract does not display the anatomical, <span class="hlt">morphological</span>, and molecular signatures of a stomach and thus we conclude that this organ is absent from the zebrafish digestive system. Conclusions Our genome-wide gene expression data indicate that, despite the lack of crypts, the rostral, mid, and caudal portions of the zebrafish intestine have distinct <span class="hlt">functions</span> analogous to the mammalian small and large intestine, respectively. Organization of ridge structures represents a unique feature of zebrafish intestine, though they produce similar cross sections to mammalian intestines. Evolutionary lack of stomach, crypts</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010CorRe..29..797O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010CorRe..29..797O"><span>Light-induced <span class="hlt">morphological</span> plasticity in the scleractinian coral Goniastrea pectinata and its <span class="hlt">functional</span> significance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ow, Y. X.; Todd, P. A.</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>Environment-induced i.e., phenotypically plastic, changes in <span class="hlt">morphology</span>, are potentially an important life-history component of sessile corals. Previous reciprocal transplant experiments have demonstrated depth-related responses in various coral species, but the potential adaptive significance is rarely investigated. To test for small-scale <span class="hlt">morphological</span> plasticity in the massive coral Goniastrea pectinata Ehrenberg 1834, fragments from five colonies were reciprocally transplanted between two depths at Raffles Lighthouse (Pulau Satumu), Singapore. After 163 days, all fragments were collected, cleared of tissue, and examined. Reaction norms and multivariate analysis of variance describe light-induced changes in corallite architecture and genotype × environment interactions. In fragments transplanted to the shallow station, calices were deeper, and septa were shorter than in fragments transplanted to the deep station. To explore the <span class="hlt">functional</span> significance of this plasticity, a two-dimensional model of corallite shape was constructed. The induced calice <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the shallow-water transplants was efficient at shading, possibly to protect tissue from excess radiation, whereas the calice <span class="hlt">morphology</span> found in the deep-water transplants was more efficient at capturing light when irradiance was low.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23721470','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23721470"><span><span class="hlt">Morphology</span> and ventilatory <span class="hlt">function</span> of gills in the carpet shark family Parascylliidae (Elasmobranchii, Orectolobiformes).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Goto, Tomoaki; Shiba, Yojiro; Shibagaki, Kazuhiro; Nakaya, Kazuhiro</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>We examined gill <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and ventilatory <span class="hlt">function</span> in the carpet shark family Parascylliidae using 14 preserved specimens of Parascyllium ferrugineum, P. variolatum, P. collare and Cirrhoscyllium japonicum, and two live specimens of P. ferrugineum and P. variolatum. <span class="hlt">Morphological</span> examinations revealed eight <span class="hlt">morphological</span> characteristics related to the fifth gill, based on comparisons with other elasmobranchs, viz. large fifth gill slit without gill filaments, anatomical modifications in the fourth ceratobranchial cartilage and coraco-branchialis muscle, and the hypaxialis muscle associated with the fifth gill arch. Ventilation examinations using dyed seawater and prey items showed different water flows through the gill slits for respiration and prey-capture actions. For respiration, water sucked into the mouth was expelled equally through the first to fourth gill slits via a "double-pump" action, there being no involvement of the fifth gill slit. In prey-capture, however, water sucked into the mouth was discharged only via the widely opened fifth gill slit. This form of water flow is similar to that in other benthic suction-feeding sharks (e.g., Chiloscyllium plagiosum), except for the active water discharge by wide expansion and contraction of the fifth parabranchial cavity. The latter is dependent upon the <span class="hlt">morphological</span> modifications of the fourth and fifth gill arches, derived phylogenetically as a mechanistic suction specialization in Parascylliidae.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27461746','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27461746"><span>Effect of amylose, particle size & <span class="hlt">morphology</span> on the <span class="hlt">functionality</span> of starches of traditional rice cultivars.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bhat, Farhan Mohiuddin; Riar, Charanjit Singh</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The research was carried out to investigate the effect of starch powder particle size, <span class="hlt">morphology</span>, amylose content and varietal effect on physicochemical, X-ray diffraction pattern, thermal and pasting characteristics. The results indicated that starches isolated from seven traditional rice cultivars of temperate region of India have possessed higher yield (82.47-86.83%) with lower degree of granule damage and higher level of starch crystallinity (36.55-39.15%). The water and oil binding capacities were observed to correlate positively with amylose content. The bulk density and color parameters of starches were found to have linked with starch powder particle size coupled with arrangement and <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the starch granules. The rice cultivars having smaller starch powder particle size indicated lowest degree of crystallinity. <span class="hlt">Morphological</span> studies revealed that the starches with tightly packed granules had greater mean granular width, while granules with openly spaced granular <span class="hlt">morphology</span> depicted the higher values for mean granular length. The peak height index (PHI) among different starches ranged from 1.01 to 2.57 whereas the gelatinization range varied from 10.66 to 10.88. Concluding, the differences in distributional pattern of starch granule size and shape and powder particle size indicated a significant effect on the <span class="hlt">functional</span> properties of starch. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ChPhB..24c7801L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ChPhB..24c7801L"><span><span class="hlt">Phase</span> transformation and <span class="hlt">morphology</span> tuning of β-NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+ nanocrystals through K+ ions codoping</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liang, Zhi-Qin; Zhao, Su-Ling; Cui, Yue; Tian, Li-Jiao; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Xu, Zheng</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>In this work, a simple method to modulate the crystal <span class="hlt">phase</span> and <span class="hlt">morphology</span> with a large amount of K+ ions codoping is proposed. The <span class="hlt">phase</span> changes to the mixture of β-NaYF4 and β-KYF4 with increasing the content of K+ ions to 80 mol%. When it exceeds 80 mol%, β-NaYF4 disappears gradually and β-KYF4 dominates with a poor crystalline. In addition, the <span class="hlt">morphology</span> changes from nanosphere to nanoplate, and then to nanoprism, which indicates that a higher content of K+ ions favors the growth rates along [0001] than the [10-10] of the nanocrystals. Additionally, the upconversion (UC) luminescence properties and the ratio of red/green (R/G) UC intensity of samples with different <span class="hlt">phases</span> and <span class="hlt">morphologies</span> are detected, which makes it possible to tune the UC fluorescence by varying the concentration of K+ ions. Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2013AA032205), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51272022), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. 2012JBZ001).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3240680','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3240680"><span>Nocturnality constrains <span class="hlt">morphological</span> and <span class="hlt">functional</span> diversity in the eyes of reef fishes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background Ambient light levels are often considered to drive the evolution of eye form and <span class="hlt">function</span>. Diel activity pattern is the main mechanism controlling the visual environment of teleost reef fish, with day-active (diurnal) fish active in well-illuminated conditions, whereas night-active (nocturnal) fish cope with dim light. Physiological optics predicts several specific evolutionary responses to dim-light vision that should be reflected in visual performance features of the eye. Results We analyzed a large comparative dataset on <span class="hlt">morphological</span> traits of the eyes in 265 species of teleost reef fish in 43 different families. The eye <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of nocturnal reef teleosts is characterized by a syndrome that indicates better light sensitivity, including large relative eye size, high optical ratio and large, rounded pupils. Improved dim-light image formation comes at the cost of reduced depth of focus and reduction of potential accommodative lens movement. Diurnal teleost reef fish, released from the stringent <span class="hlt">functional</span> requirements of dim-light vision have much higher <span class="hlt">morphological</span> and optical diversity than nocturnal species, with large ranges of optical ratio, depth of focus, and lens accommodation. Conclusions Physical characteristics of the environment are an important factor in the evolution and diversification of the vertebrate eye. Both teleost reef fish and terrestrial amniotes meet the <span class="hlt">functional</span> requirements of dim-light vision with a similar evolutionary response of <span class="hlt">morphological</span> and optical modifications. The trade-off between improved dim-light vision and reduced optical diversity may be a key factor in explaining the lower trophic diversity of nocturnal reef teleosts. PMID:22098687</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/463580','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/463580"><span>Role of dopant counter-anion <span class="hlt">functionality</span> in polyaniline salts/blends and implications to <span class="hlt">morphology</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hopkins, A.R.; Rasmussen, P.G.; Basheer, R.A.; Annis, B.K.; Wignall, G.D.</p> <p>1997-04-01</p> <p>Polyanilines are of particular current interest primarily due to their relative ease of synthesis, low cost and stable conductivity in air. The insulating, polyaniline emeraldine base (PANI-EB) form becomes electrically conducting by preferential protonation or doping the imine nitrogen sites to yield an electrically conducting polyaniline emeraldine salt (PANI-ES). In this paper, wide and small angle X-ray scattering techniques (i.e., WAXS and SAXS) and light microscopy are used to characterize the influence of the dopant`s structure on the <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of both polyaniline salt and blend. In an attempt to modify the <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the PANI-ES, the authors have evaluated a number of doping acids (i.e., methane sulfonic acid (HMSA), butane sulfonic acid (HBSA), dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid (HDBSA) and camphor sulfonic acid (HCSA)) that vary in size and polarity to better understanding the role of the acid in PANI-ES`s <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and the resulting electrical conductivity. The other goal was to investigate the effect of the counter-anion structure on the nature of the <span class="hlt">phase</span> separated PANI-ES network. The shape of the PANI-ES network in the host polycaprolactam has important implications on the nature of conduction behavior and the final electrical conductivity of the blend.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/459411','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/459411"><span>Role of dopant counter-anion <span class="hlt">functionality</span> in polyaniline salts/blends and implications to <span class="hlt">morphology</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hopkins, A.R.; Rasmussen, P.G.; Basheer, R.A.; Annis, B.K.; Wignall, G.D.</p> <p>1997-03-01</p> <p>In this paper, wide and small angle X-ray scattering techniques (i.e., WAXS and SAXS) and light microscopy are used to characterize the influence of the dopant`s structure on the <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of both polyaniline salt and blend. In an attempt to modify the <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the PANI-ES, the authors have evaluated a number of doping acids (i.e., methane sulfonic acid (HMSA), butane sulfonic acid (HBSA), dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid (HDBSA) and camphor sulfonic acid (HCSA)) that vary in size and polarity to better understand the role of the acid in PANI-ES`s <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and the resulting electrical conductivity. These salts were solution blended with polycaprolactam using hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) as a solvent. The other goal was to investigate the effect of the counter-anion structure on the nature of the <span class="hlt">phase</span> separated PANI-ES network. The shape of the PANI-ES network in the host polycaprolactam has important implications on the nature of conduction behavior and the final electrical conductivity of the blend.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9912E..6KH','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9912E..6KH"><span>Analysis of nulling <span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> suitable to image plane coronagraphy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hénault, François; Carlotti, Alexis; Vérinaud, Christophe</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Coronagraphy is a very efficient technique for identifying and characterizing extra-solar planets orbiting in the habitable zone of their parent star, especially in a space environment. An important family of coronagraphs is actually based on <span class="hlt">phase</span> plates located at an intermediate image plane of the optical system, and spreading the starlight outside the "Lyot" exit pupil plane of the instrument. In this commutation we present a set of candidate <span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> generating a central null at the Lyot plane, and study how it propagates to the image plane of the coronagraph. These <span class="hlt">functions</span> include linear azimuthal <span class="hlt">phase</span> ramps (the well-known optical vortex), azimuthally cosine-modulated <span class="hlt">phase</span> profiles, and circular <span class="hlt">phase</span> gratings. Nnumerical simulations of the expected null depth, inner working angle, sensitivity to pointing errors, effect of central obscuration located at the pupil or image planes, and effective throughput including image mask and Lyot stop transmissions are presented and discussed. The preliminary conclusion is that azimuthal cosine <span class="hlt">functions</span> appear as an interesting alternative to the classical optical vortex of integer topological charge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011Nanos...3.5090L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011Nanos...3.5090L"><span>Hydrothermal synthesis of copper selenides with controllable <span class="hlt">phases</span> and <span class="hlt">morphologies</span> from an ionic liquid precursor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Xiaodi; Duan, Xiaochuan; Peng, Peng; Zheng, Wenjun</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Cu2-xSe nanocrystals and CuSe nanoflakes are successfully synthesized through a convenient hydrothermal method from an ionic liquid precursor 1-n-butyl-3-ethylimidazolium methylselenite ([BMIm][SeO2(OCH3)]). The <span class="hlt">phases</span> and <span class="hlt">morphologies</span> of the copper selenides can be controlled by simply changing the atom ratio of Cu/Se in the reactants and reaction temperature. Furthermore, it is found that the [BMIm][SeO2(OCH3)] not only serves as Se source but also has influence on the shapes of CuSe nanoflakes. The adsorption of alkyl imidazolium rings ([BMIm]+) onto the (0001) facets of covellite CuSe prohibits the growth in the [0001] direction, and CuSe nuclei growth mainly processes along the six symmetric directions (+/-[01&cmb.macr;11], +/-[101&cmb.macr;1&cmb.macr;], and +/-[1&cmb.macr;100]) to form flakelike CuSe. The obtained copper selenides are characterized by XRD, SEM, EDS, XPS, TEM, and HRTEM. The results indicate that the Cu2-xSe nanocrystals are nearly spherical particles with an average diameter of about 20 nm, the hexagonal CuSe nanoflakes are single crystals with an edge length of 100-400 nm and a thickness of 25-50 nm. The potential formation mechanism of the copper selenides is also proposed.Cu2-xSe nanocrystals and CuSe nanoflakes are successfully synthesized through a convenient hydrothermal method from an ionic liquid precursor 1-n-butyl-3-ethylimidazolium methylselenite ([BMIm][SeO2(OCH3)]). The <span class="hlt">phases</span> and <span class="hlt">morphologies</span> of the copper selenides can be controlled by simply changing the atom ratio of Cu/Se in the reactants and reaction temperature. Furthermore, it is found that the [BMIm][SeO2(OCH3)] not only serves as Se source but also has influence on the shapes of CuSe nanoflakes. The adsorption of alkyl imidazolium rings ([BMIm]+) onto the (0001) facets of covellite CuSe prohibits the growth in the [0001] direction, and CuSe nuclei growth mainly processes along the six symmetric directions (+/-[01&cmb.macr;11], +/-[101&cmb.macr;1&cmb.macr;], and +/-[1</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1358656-clustering-pasta-phases-nuclear-density-functional-theory','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1358656-clustering-pasta-phases-nuclear-density-functional-theory"><span>Clustering and pasta <span class="hlt">phases</span> in nuclear density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Schuetrumpf, Bastian; Zhang, Chunli; Nazarewicz, Witold</p> <p>2017-05-23</p> <p>Nuclear density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory is the tool of choice in describing properties of complex nuclei and intricate <span class="hlt">phases</span> of bulk nucleonic matter. It is a microscopic approach based on an energy density <span class="hlt">functional</span> representing the nuclear interaction. An attractive feature of nuclear DFT is that it can be applied to both finite nuclei and pasta <span class="hlt">phases</span> appearing in the inner crust of neutron stars. While nuclear pasta clusters in a neutron star can be easily characterized through their density distributions, the level of clustering of nucleons in a nucleus can often be difficult to assess. To this end, we usemore » the concept of nucleon localization. We demonstrate that the localization measure provides us with fingerprints of clusters in light and heavy nuclei, including fissioning systems. Furthermore we investigate the rod-like pasta <span class="hlt">phase</span> using twist-averaged boundary conditions, which enable calculations in finite volumes accessible by state of the art DFT solvers.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22514072','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22514072"><span>Patterson <span class="hlt">function</span> and δ recycling: derivation of the <span class="hlt">phasing</span> equations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rius, Jordi</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>Two <span class="hlt">phasing</span> equations based on the Fourier syntheses δ(P) = T(-1)[(E(2) - <E(2)>)exp(iφ)] and δ(M) = T(-1)[(E - <E>)exp(iφ)] were recently described [Rius (2012). Acta Cryst. A 68, 77-81] (E is the quasi-normalized structure factor and <E> is the average over all reflections). These equations were found by comparison with the direct methods origin-free modulus sum <span class="hlt">function</span> and constitute the core of the `δ recycling' <span class="hlt">phasing</span> procedure. The derivation of these <span class="hlt">phasing</span> equations from the minimization of a residual (R(P)) between two differently calculated density <span class="hlt">functions</span> (one of them including the positivity constraint) is shown. © 2012 International Union of Crystallography</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17265443','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17265443"><span>Interspecific variation in sternohyoideus muscle <span class="hlt">morphology</span> in clariid catfishes: <span class="hlt">functional</span> implications for suction feeding.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Herrel, Anthony; Adriaens, Dominique; Aerts, Peter</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>Depression of the hyoid apparatus plays a crucial role in generating suction, especially in fishes with a dorso-ventrally flattened head shape. It is generally assumed that shortening of the sternohyoideus muscle, which connects the hyoid to the pectoral girdle, contributes to hyoid depression. However, a recent study on the clariid catfish Clarias gariepinus has shown that this muscle does not shorten but elongates during this <span class="hlt">phase</span> through retraction of the pectoral girdle. Here, we test whether this pattern is general among clariid catfish, or if variation in the <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the sternohyoideus may result in a different sternohyoideus behavior during hyoid depression. First, sternohyoideus mass, effective cross-sectional area, fiber length and fiber diameter were measured and compared for four clariid species. Next, velocity and magnitude of hyoid depression during prey capture (from high-speed videos), as well as patterns of sternohyoideus strain were analyzed (from high-speed X-ray videos) in these species. While <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and hyoid depression performance varied considerably among these species, only the species with the most massive sternohyoideus, Gymnallabes typus, showed shortening of the sternohyoideus muscle during the initial part of the expansive <span class="hlt">phase</span>. The data for Channallabes apus demonstrate that increasing the magnitude of hyoid depression does not necessarily require a shortening of the m. sternohyoideus, as it shows elongation of this muscle during hyoid depression. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1244653','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1244653"><span>Density <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Theory for <span class="hlt">Phase</span>-Ordering Transitions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wu, Jianzhong</p> <p>2016-03-30</p> <p>Colloids display astonishing structural and dynamic properties that can be dramatically altered by modest changes in the solution condition or an external field. This complex behavior stems from a subtle balance of colloidal forces and intriguing mesoscopic and macroscopic <span class="hlt">phase</span> transitions that are sensitive to the processing conditions and the dispersing environment. Whereas the knowledge on the microscopic structure and <span class="hlt">phase</span> behavior of colloidal systems at equilibrium is now well-advanced, quantitative predictions of the dynamic properties and the kinetics of <span class="hlt">phase</span>-ordering transitions in colloids are not always realized. Many important mesoscopic and off-equilibrium colloidal states remain poorly understood. The proposed research aims to develop a new, unifying approach to describe colloidal dynamics and the kinetics of <span class="hlt">phase</span>-ordering transitions based on accomplishments from previous work for the equilibrium properties of both uniform and inhomogeneous systems and on novel concepts from the state-of-the-art dynamic density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory. In addition to theoretical developments, computational research is designed to address a number of fundamental questions on <span class="hlt">phase</span>-ordering transitions in colloids, in particular those pertinent to a competition of the dynamic pathways leading to various mesoscopic structures, off-equilibrium states, and crystalline <span class="hlt">phases</span>. By providing a generic theoretical framework to describe equilibrium, metastable as well as non-ergodic <span class="hlt">phase</span> transitions concurrent with the colloidal self-assembly processes, accomplishments from this work will have major impacts on both fundamental research and technological applications.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24894646','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24894646"><span><span class="hlt">Morphology</span> and <span class="hlt">functions</span> of astrocytes cultured on water-repellent fractal tripalmitin surfaces.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hu, Wei-wei; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Shan-shan; Jiang, Lei; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Xiangnan; Lei, Qun-fang; Park, Hyun-Joo; Fang, Wen-jun; Chen, Zhong</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>In the brain, astrocytes play an essential role with their multiple <span class="hlt">functions</span> and sophisticated structure, as surrounded by a fractal environment which has not been available in our traditional cell culture. Water-repellent fractal tripalmitin (PPP) surfaces can imitate the fractal environment in vivo, so the <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and biochemical characterization of astrocytes on these surfaces are examined. Water-repellent fractal PPP surface can induce astrocytes to display sophisticated <span class="hlt">morphology</span> with smaller size of cell area, longer and finer filopodium-like processes, and higher <span class="hlt">morphological</span> complexity. The super water-repellent fractal PPP surface with water contact angle of 150°∼160° produces the maximal effects compared with other surfaces at lower water contact angles. The trends of characteristic protein expression, including that of nestin, vimentin, GFAP and glutamine synthetase, for astrocytes cultured on super water-repellent fractal PPP surfaces approximate more to in vivo pattern. The super water-repellent PPP surface also render astrocytes to perform more pronounced promotion of neurogenesis by increasing the release of nerve growth factor in a co-culture system. Altogether, our results suggest that the super water-repellent fractal PPP surface facilitates the astrocytes to mimic their in vivo performance, thus provides a closer-to-natural culture environment for experimental assessment of glial structure and <span class="hlt">functions</span>. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25882740','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25882740"><span><span class="hlt">Functional</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the male caudal appendages of the damselfly Ischnura elegans (Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Willkommen, Jana; Michels, Jan; Gorb, Stanislav N</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Odonata are usually regarded as one of the most ancient extant lineages of winged insects. Their copulatory apparatus and mating behavior are unique among insects. Male damselflies use their caudal appendages to clasp the female's prothorax during both copulation and egg-laying and have a secondary copulatory apparatus for sperm transfer. Knowledge of the <span class="hlt">functional</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the male caudal appendages is the basis for understanding the evolution of these structures in Odonata and respective organs in other insects. However, it is still not exactly known how the zygopteran claspers work. In this study, we applied micro-computed tomography and a variety of microscopy techniques to examine the <span class="hlt">morphology</span>, surface microstructure, cuticle material composition and muscle topography of the male caudal appendages of Ischnura elegans. The results indicate that the closing of the paraproctal claspers is mainly passive. This indirect closing mechanism is very likely supported by high proportions of the elastic protein resilin present in the cuticle of the paraproctal bases. In addition, the prothoracic <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the female plays an important role in the indirect closing of the male claspers. Our data indicate that both structures - the male claspers and the female prothoracic hump - <span class="hlt">function</span> together like a snap-fastener.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3858767','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3858767"><span>Internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint: <span class="hlt">morphologic</span> description with correlation to joint <span class="hlt">function</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Westesson, P L; Bronstein, S L; Liedberg, J</p> <p>1985-04-01</p> <p>Internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint has mainly been studied arthrographically from the standpoint of anterior disk displacement with or without reduction. Frequent clinical observations of disk deformation in joints with internal derangement implied the need for a systematic study of <span class="hlt">morphologic</span> alterations associated with internal derangement. Therefore, <span class="hlt">morphology</span>, internal derangement, and joint <span class="hlt">function</span> were studied in 58 randomly selected autopsy specimens of the temporomandibular joint. The results showed that joints with superior disk position rarely demonstrated <span class="hlt">morphologic</span> alterations. In joints with partially anterior disk position, disk deformation occurred somewhat more frequently (31%) and was consistently located in the part of the disk that was positioned anteriorly. Joints with completely anteriorly positioned disks showed disk deformation in 77% and irregularities of the articular surfaces in 65%. It appears that anterior disk position precedes disk deformation. Therefore, early causal treatment to correct symptomatic internal derangement appears indicated to decrease the possibility of development of disk deformation. Disk deformation was also closely associated with disturbed joint <span class="hlt">function</span> and should therefore be an important consideration when one is planning treatment of internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16470802','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16470802"><span>Organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous silicas: <span class="hlt">functionalization</span>, pore size, and <span class="hlt">morphology</span> control.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Park, Sung Soo; Ha, Chang-Sik</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Topological design of mesoporous silica materials, pore architecture, pore size, and <span class="hlt">morphology</span> are currently major issues in areas such as catalytic conversion of bulky molecules, adsorption, host-guest chemistry, etc. In this sense, we discuss the pore size-controlled mesostructure, framework <span class="hlt">functionalization</span>, and <span class="hlt">morphology</span> control of organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous silicas by which we can improve the applicability of mesoporous materials. First, we explain that the sizes of hexagonal- and cubic-type pores in organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous silicas are well controlled from 24.3 to 98.0 A by the direct micelle-control method using an organosilica precursor and surfactants with different alkyl chain lengths or triblock copolymers as templates and swelling agents incorporated in the formed micelles. Second, we describe that organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous materials with various <span class="hlt">functional</span> groups form various external <span class="hlt">morphologies</span> such as rod, cauliflower, film, rope, spheroid, monolith, and fiber shapes. Third, we discuss that transition metals (Ti and Ru) and rare-earth ions (Eu(3+) and Tb(3+)) are used to modify organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous silica materials. Such hybrid mesoporous silica materials are expected to be applied as excellent catalysts for organic reactions, photocatalysis, optical devices, etc. c) 2006 The Japan Chemical Journal Forum and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23742762','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23742762"><span>Dynein mutations associated with hereditary motor neuropathies impair mitochondrial <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and <span class="hlt">function</span> with age.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Eschbach, Judith; Sinniger, Jérôme; Bouitbir, Jamal; Fergani, Anissa; Schlagowski, Anna-Isabel; Zoll, Joffrey; Geny, Bernard; René, Frédérique; Larmet, Yves; Marion, Vincent; Baloh, Robert H; Harms, Matthew B; Shy, Michael E; Messadeq, Nadia; Weydt, Patrick; Loeffler, Jean-Philippe; Ludolph, Albert C; Dupuis, Luc</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Mutations in the DYNC1H1 gene encoding for dynein heavy chain cause two closely related human motor neuropathies, dominant spinal muscular atrophy with lower extremity predominance (SMA-LED) and axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, and lead to sensory neuropathy and striatal atrophy in mutant mice. Dynein is the molecular motor carrying mitochondria retrogradely on microtubules, yet the consequences of dynein mutations on mitochondrial physiology have not been explored. Here, we show that mouse fibroblasts bearing heterozygous or homozygous point mutation in Dync1h1, similar to human mutations, show profoundly abnormal mitochondrial <span class="hlt">morphology</span> associated with the loss of mitofusin 1. Furthermore, heterozygous Dync1h1 mutant mice display progressive mitochondrial dysfunction in muscle and mitochondria progressively increase in size and invade sarcomeres. As a likely consequence of systemic mitochondrial dysfunction, Dync1h1 mutant mice develop hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia and progress to glucose intolerance with age. Similar defects in mitochondrial <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and mitofusin levels are observed in fibroblasts from patients with SMA-LED. Last, we show that Dync1h1 mutant fibroblasts show impaired perinuclear clustering of mitochondria in response to mitochondrial uncoupling. Our results show that dynein <span class="hlt">function</span> is required for the maintenance of mitochondrial <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and <span class="hlt">function</span> with aging and suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to dynein-dependent neurological diseases, such as SMA-LED.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28328228','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28328228"><span>Reversible <span class="hlt">Morphological</span> Control of Cholecystokinin Tetrapeptide Amyloid Assemblies as a <span class="hlt">Function</span> of pH.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gobeaux, Frédéric; Porcher, Florence; Dattani, Rajeev</p> <p>2017-04-03</p> <p>Most amyloid assemblies are seen as irreversible and exhibit polymorphism because their assembly is kinetically controlled and different structures are trapped during the aggregation process. However, in the specific case of peptide hormones, formation of amyloid assemblies for storage purposes has been reported. This suggests a strict control of assembly and the ability to disassemble upon hormone secretion. In the present work, we have sought to test these assertions with a short peptide, the cholecystokinin (or gastrin) tetrapeptide (CCK-4), that has been found in both gastrointestinal tract and central nervous system, and whose sequence is shared by a large number of hormones. We have thus studied in vitro this peptide's self-assembling properties in dense <span class="hlt">phases</span> at different pH levels, thus mimicking in vivo storage conditions. The solubility and <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the supramolecular assemblies have been shown to vary with the pH. At low pH, the tetrapeptide exhibits a low solubility and forms microcrystals. At higher pH levels, peptide solubility increases and above a high enough concentration, peptide monomers self-assemble into typical amyloid fibrils of 10-20 nm diameter. The physical network formed by these fibrils results in a birefringent hydrogel <span class="hlt">phase</span>. Despite the different <span class="hlt">morphological</span> features exhibited at different pH, structural analysis shows strong similarities. Both supramolecular assemblies-microcrystals and fibrils-are structured by β-sheets. We also show that all these <span class="hlt">morphologies</span> are reversible and can be either dissolved or changed into one another by switching the pH. In addition, we demonstrate that a modification in the charge sequence of the peptide by amino acid mutation modifies its self-assembly properties. In conclusion, just as the CCK-4 sequence is the minimal sequence required for a complete biological activity at CCKB receptors in the brain, it is also sufficient to form amyloid fibers whose properties can be related to hormone</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26107629','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26107629"><span>The <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Significance of Chiral Genitalia: Patterns of Asymmetry, <span class="hlt">Functional</span> <span class="hlt">Morphology</span> and Mating Success in the Praying Mantis Ciulfina baldersoni.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Holwell, Gregory I; Kazakova, Olga; Evans, Felicity; O'Hanlon, James C; Barry, Katherine L</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Genital asymmetry is relatively common and widespread throughout the animal kingdom. The <span class="hlt">functional</span> significance of genital asymmetry is however, poorly understood for most species. Male praying mantids of the genus Ciulfina are remarkable in possessing complex and directionally asymmetric genital phallomeres in some species, and chirally dimorphic/antisymmetric genitalia in others. Here we explore the chiral dimorphism in male genitalia of Ciulfina baldersoni which appear to exhibit genital antisymmetry. We test whether genital orientation influences mating success, copulation duration and the attachment duration of spermatophores. Additionally we investigate genital interactions between male and females using x-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Lastly we assess whether genital asymmetry is associated with non-genital <span class="hlt">morphological</span> asymmetry of a range of traits. Our results highlight the complex <span class="hlt">functional</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of genitalia in this praying mantis species and yet demonstrate no <span class="hlt">functional</span> difference between dextral and sinistral morphs other than the direction of attachment with both morphs enjoying equal levels of mating success. Chiral morphs also did not strongly associate with any other forms of asymmetry. We therefore conclude that genital chirality in Ciulfina baldersoni is a likely case of antisymmetry with no <span class="hlt">functional</span> significance to genital orientation, and is likely to be selectively neutral.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4479579','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4479579"><span>The <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Significance of Chiral Genitalia: Patterns of Asymmetry, <span class="hlt">Functional</span> <span class="hlt">Morphology</span> and Mating Success in the Praying Mantis Ciulfina baldersoni</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Holwell, Gregory I.; Kazakova, Olga; Evans, Felicity; O’Hanlon, James C.; Barry, Katherine L.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Genital asymmetry is relatively common and widespread throughout the animal kingdom. The <span class="hlt">functional</span> significance of genital asymmetry is however, poorly understood for most species. Male praying mantids of the genus Ciulfina are remarkable in possessing complex and directionally asymmetric genital phallomeres in some species, and chirally dimorphic/antisymmetric genitalia in others. Here we explore the chiral dimorphism in male genitalia of Ciulfina baldersoni which appear to exhibit genital antisymmetry. We test whether genital orientation influences mating success, copulation duration and the attachment duration of spermatophores. Additionally we investigate genital interactions between male and females using x-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Lastly we assess whether genital asymmetry is associated with non-genital <span class="hlt">morphological</span> asymmetry of a range of traits. Our results highlight the complex <span class="hlt">functional</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of genitalia in this praying mantis species and yet demonstrate no <span class="hlt">functional</span> difference between dextral and sinistral morphs other than the direction of attachment with both morphs enjoying equal levels of mating success. Chiral morphs also did not strongly associate with any other forms of asymmetry. We therefore conclude that genital chirality in Ciulfina baldersoni is a likely case of antisymmetry with no <span class="hlt">functional</span> significance to genital orientation, and is likely to be selectively neutral. PMID:26107629</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20867862','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20867862"><span>Free energy <span class="hlt">functionals</span> for efficient <span class="hlt">phase</span> field crystal modeling of structural <span class="hlt">phase</span> transformations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Greenwood, Michael; Provatas, Nikolas; Rottler, Jörg</p> <p>2010-07-23</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">phase</span> field crystal (PFC) method is a promising technique for modeling materials with atomic resolution on mesoscopic time scales. While numerically more efficient than classical density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory (CDFT), its single mode free energy limits the complexity of structural transformations that can be simulated. We introduce a new PFC model inspired by CDFT, which uses a systematic construction of two-particle correlation <span class="hlt">functions</span> that allows for a broad class of structural transformations. Our approach considers planar spacings, lattice symmetries, planar atomic densities, and atomic vibrational amplitudes in the unit cell, and parameterizes temperature and anisotropic surface energies. The power of our approach is demonstrated by two examples of structural <span class="hlt">phase</span> transformations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28667487','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28667487"><span>Tibolone Preserves Mitochondrial <span class="hlt">Functionality</span> and Cell <span class="hlt">Morphology</span> in Astrocytic Cells Treated with Palmitic Acid.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>González-Giraldo, Yeimy; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel; Echeverria, Valentina; Barreto, George E</p> <p>2017-06-30</p> <p>Obesity has been associated with increased chronic neuroinflammation and augmented risk of neurodegeneration. This is worsened during the normal aging process when the levels of endogenous gonadal hormones are reduced. In this study, we have assessed the protective actions of tibolone, a synthetic steroid with estrogenic actions, on T98G human astrocytic cells exposed to palmitic acid, a saturated fatty acid used to mimic obesity in vitro. Tibolone improved cell survival, and preserved mitochondrial membrane potential in palmitic acid-treated astrocytic cells. Although we did not find significant actions of tibolone on free radical production, it modulated astrocytic <span class="hlt">morphology</span> after treatment with palmitic acid. These data suggest that tibolone protects astrocytic cells by preserving both mitochondrial <span class="hlt">functionality</span> and <span class="hlt">morphological</span> complexity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013MolPh.111..687M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013MolPh.111..687M"><span>MesoDyn simulation study on the <span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">morphologies</span> of Miktoarm PEO-b-PMMA copolymer doped by nanoparticles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mu, Dan; Li, Jian-Quan; Feng, Sheng-Yu</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>The compatibility of six groups of 12 miktoarm poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PEO-b-PMMA) copolymers is studied at 270, 298 and 400 K via mesoscopic modeling. The values of the order parameters depend on both the architectures of the block copolymers and the simulation temperature, while the tendency to change of the order parameters at low temperature, such as 270 and 298 K, is nearly the same. However, the values of order parameters of the copolymer in the same group are the same at high temperature, i.e. 400 K. Obviously, temperature has a more obvious effect on long and PEO-rich chains. A study of plain copolymers doped with nanoparticles shows that the microscopic <span class="hlt">phase</span> is influenced by not only the properties of the nanoparticles, such as the size, number and density, but also the composition and architecture of copolymers. Increasing the size and the number of the nanoparticles used as a dopant plays the most significant role on determining the <span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">morphologies</span> of the copolymers at lower and higher temperature, respectively. In paricular, the 23141 and 23241-type copolymers, which are both of PEO-rich composition, presents microscopic <span class="hlt">phase</span> separation as perforated lamallae <span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">morphologies</span> at 400 K, alternated with PEO and PMMA components.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26230395','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26230395"><span>Quantitative Evaluation of the Substantially Variable <span class="hlt">Morphology</span> and <span class="hlt">Function</span> of the Left Atrial Appendage and Its Relation with Adjacent Structures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Cai-Ying; Gao, Bu-Lang; Liu, Xiao-Wei; Fan, Qiong-Ying; Zhang, Xue-Jing; Liu, Guo-Chao; Yang, Hai-Qing; Feng, Ping-Yong; Wang, Yong; Song, Peng</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>To investigate quantitatively the <span class="hlt">morphology</span>, anatomy and <span class="hlt">function</span> of the left atrial appendage (LAA) and its relation with adjacent structures. A total of 860 patients (533 men, 62.0%, age 55.9±10.4 year) who had cardiac multidetector computed tomography angiography from May to October 2012 were enrolled for analysis. Seven types and 6 subtypes of LAA <span class="hlt">morphology</span> were found with Type 2 being the most prevalent. Type 5 was more significantly (P<0.05) present in women (8.0%) than in men (4.2%). LAA orifice was oval in 81.5%, triangular in 7.3%, semicircular in 4%, water drop-like in 3.2%, round in 2.4% and foot-like in 1.6%. The LAA orifice had a significantly greater (P<0.01) major axis in men (24.79±3.81) than in women (22.68±4.07). The LAA orifice long axis was significantly (P<0.05) positively correlated with the height, weight and surface area of the patient. The LAA <span class="hlt">morphology</span> parameters displayed strong positive correlation with the left atrium volume, aortic cross area long axis or LSPV long axis but poor correlation with the height, weight, surface area and vertebral body height of the patients. Four types of LAA ridge were identified: AI, AII, B and C with the distribution of 17.6%, 69.9%, 5.9% and 6.6%, respectively. The LAA had a significantly (P<0.05) greater distance from its orifice to the mitral ring in women than in men. The LAA had two filling and two emptying processes with the greatest volume at 45% <span class="hlt">phase</span> but the least volume at 5% <span class="hlt">phase</span>. The LAA maximal, minimal and emptying volumes were all significantly (P<0.05) positively correlated with the body height, weight and surface area, whereas the LAA ejection fraction had an inverse correlation with the LAA minimal volume but no correlation with the maximal volume. The LAA has substantially variable <span class="hlt">morphologies</span> and relation with the adjacent structures, which may be helpful in guiding the LAA trans-catheter occlusion or catheter ablation procedures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14733133','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14733133"><span>[Relationship between vitrectomy and the <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and <span class="hlt">function</span> of the retina].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Terasaki, Hiroko</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>Pathological processes in the vitreous will be reflected in the <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and <span class="hlt">function</span> of the retina, and these processes can originate from sources outside the vitreous. The purpose of vitreous surgery is to remove the qualitatively and/or <span class="hlt">morphologically</span> diseased vitreous. Successful vitrectomy will be manifested by an improvement in the structure and/or <span class="hlt">function</span> of the retina. We have evaluated the <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the vitreoretinal interface, and the <span class="hlt">function</span> of the retina before and after vitreous surgery. Plasmin-assisted vitrectomy was used in some cases to remove the diseased vitreous more efficiently and less invasively. The effect of this procedure was assessed by examining the <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and <span class="hlt">function</span> of the retina. First, the relationship between the qualitative and structural abnormality of the vitreous in macular diseases was studied. In aphakic/pseudophakic eyes with cystoid macular edema, there was a depression of retinal <span class="hlt">function</span> over the entire retina which may have been caused by chemical mediators released into the vitreous. These mediators may have been produced by inflammation in the anterior segment of the eye. In eyes with an idiopathic macular hole, optical coherence tomographic (OCT) images suggested that the progression of the macular hole might depend on a balance between foveal adhesion and the posterior vitreous. Second, the efficacy, surgical damage, and limitations of vitreous surgery were investigated. The recovery of macular <span class="hlt">function</span> was assessed by focal macular electroretinograms (FMERGs) after vitrectomy for epiretinal membrane, choroidal neovascularization, and diabetic macular edema. The concurrent examination by optical coherence tomography (OCT) suggested that a decrease in retinal thickness contributed to the <span class="hlt">functional</span> recovery. Macular <span class="hlt">functional</span> recovery was delayed and limited after macular translocation, diabetic macular edema, and internal limiting membrane peeling. Third, we studied the effect of plasmin</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26305469','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26305469"><span>Human Lymphatic Mesenteric Vessels: <span class="hlt">Morphology</span> and Possible <span class="hlt">Function</span> of Aminergic and NPY-ergic Nerve Fibers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>D'Andrea, Vito; Panarese, Alessandra; Taurone, Samanta; Coppola, Luigi; Cavallotti, Carlo; Artico, Marco</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The lymphatic vessels have been studied in different organs from a <span class="hlt">morphological</span> to a clinical point of view. Nevertheless, the knowledge of the catecholaminergic control of the lymphatic circulation is still incomplete. The aim of this work is to study the presence and distribution of the catecholaminergic and NPY-ergic nerve fibers in the whole wall of the human mesenteric lymphatic vessels in order to obtain knowledge about their <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and <span class="hlt">functional</span> significance. The following experimental procedures were performed: 1) drawing of tissue containing lymphatic vessels; 2) cutting of tissue; 3) staining of tissue; 4) staining of nerve fibers; 5) histofluorescence microscopy for the staining of catecholaminergic nerve fibers; 6) staining of neuropeptide Y like-immune reactivity; 7) biochemical assay of proteins; 8) measurement of noradrenaline; 9) quantitative analysis of images; 10) statistical analysis of data. Numerous nerve fibers run in the wall of lymphatic vessels. Many of them are catecholaminergic in nature. Some nerve fibers are NPY-positive. The biochemical results on noradrenaline amounts are in agreement with <span class="hlt">morphological</span> results on catecholaminergic nerve fibers. Moreover, the morphometric results, obtained by the quantitative analysis of images and the subsequent statistical analysis of data, confirm all our <span class="hlt">morphological</span> and biochemical data. The knowledge of the physiological or pathological mechanism regulating the <span class="hlt">functions</span> of the lymphatic system is incomplete. Nevertheless the catecholaminergic nerve fibers of the human mesenteric lymphatic vessels come from the adrenergic periarterial plexuses of the mesenterial arterial bed. NPY-ergic nerve fibers may modulate the microcirculatory mesenterial bed in different pathological conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11676819','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11676819"><span>Skin barrier structure and <span class="hlt">function</span>: the single gel <span class="hlt">phase</span> model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Norlén, L</p> <p>2001-10-01</p> <p>A new model for the structure and <span class="hlt">function</span> of the mammalian skin barrier is postulated. It is proposed that the skin barrier, i.e., the intercellular lipid within the stratum corneum, exists as a single and coherent lamellar gel <span class="hlt">phase</span>. This membrane structure is stabilized by the very particular lipid composition and lipid chain length distributions of the stratum corneum intercellular space and has virtually no <span class="hlt">phase</span> boundaries. The intact, i.e., unperturbed, single and coherent lamellar gel <span class="hlt">phase</span> is proposed to be mainly located at the lower half of stratum corneum. Further up, crystalline segregation and <span class="hlt">phase</span> separation may occur as a result of the desquamation process. The single gel <span class="hlt">phase</span> model differs significantly from earlier models in that it predicts that no <span class="hlt">phase</span> separation, neither between liquid crystalline and gel <span class="hlt">phases</span> nor between different crystalline <span class="hlt">phases</span> with hexagonal and orthorhombic chain packing, respectively, is present in the unperturbed barrier structure. The new skin barrier model may explain: (i) the measured water permeability of stratum corneum; (ii) the particular lipid composition of the stratum corneum intercellular space; (iii) the absence of swelling of the stratum corneum intercellular lipid matrix upon hydration; and (iv) the simultaneous presence of hexagonal and orthorhombic hydrocarbon chain packing of the stratum corneum intercellular lipid matrix at physiologic temperatures. Further, the new model is consistent with skin barrier formation according to the membrane folding model of Norlén (2001). This new theoretical model could fully account for the extraordinary barrier capacity of mammalian skin and is hereafter referred to as the single gel <span class="hlt">phase</span> model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19657767','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19657767"><span>Finite element analysis (FEA): applying an engineering method to <span class="hlt">functional</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> in anthropology and human biology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Panagiotopoulou, O</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>A fundamental research question for morphologists is how <span class="hlt">morphological</span> variation in the skeleton relates to <span class="hlt">function</span>. Traditional approaches have advanced our understanding of form-<span class="hlt">function</span> relationships considerably but have limitations. Strain gauges can only record strains on a surface, and the geometry of the structure can limit where they can be bonded. Theoretical approaches, such as geometric abstractions, work well on problems with simple geometries and material properties but biological structures typically have neither of these. Finite element analysis (FEA) is a method that overcomes these problems by reducing a complex geometry into a finite number of elements with simple geometries. In addition, FEA allows strain to be modelled across the entire surface of the structure and throughout the internal structure. With advances in the processing power of computers, FEA has become more accessible and as such is becoming an increasingly popular tool to address questions about form-<span class="hlt">function</span> relationships in development and evolution, as well as human biology generally. This paper provides an introduction to FEA including a review of the sequence of steps needed for the generation of biologically accurate finite element models that can be used for the testing of biological and <span class="hlt">functional</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> hypotheses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18985398','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18985398"><span>Detailed analysis of retinal <span class="hlt">function</span> and <span class="hlt">morphology</span> in a patient with autosomal recessive bestrophinopathy (ARB).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gerth, Christina; Zawadzki, Robert J; Werner, John S; Héon, Elise</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>The objective of the paper is to study the retinal microstructure and <span class="hlt">function</span> in a patient with autosomal recessive bestrophinopathy (ARB). Retinal <span class="hlt">function</span> and <span class="hlt">morphology</span> assessment in a patient diagnosed with a biallelic mutation in the BEST1 gene (heterozygote mutations: Leu88del17 and A195V) included: full-field electroretinogram (ffERG) and multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG), electro-oculogram (EOG) testing, and imaging with a high-resolution Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (Fd-OCT) system (UC Davis Medical Center; axial resolution: 4.5 microm, acquisition speed: 9 frames/s, 1,000 A-scans/frame) combined with a flexible scanning head (Bioptigen Inc.). The 11-year old asymptomatic boy showed a well-demarcated retinopathy with deposits. <span class="hlt">Functional</span> assessment revealed normal visual acuity, reduced central mfERG responses, delayed rod and rod-cone b-wave ffERG responses, and reduced light rise in the EOG. Fd-OCT demonstrated RPE deposits, photoreceptor detachment, elongated and thickened photoreceptor outer segments, but preserved inner retinal layers. In conclusion, ARB associated retinal dystrophy shows <span class="hlt">functional</span> and <span class="hlt">morphological</span> changes that overlap with classic Best disease. For the first time, high-resolution imaging provided in vivo evidence of RPE and photoreceptor involvement in ARB.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1976412','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1976412"><span>Social <span class="hlt">Function</span> in Boys with Cleft Lip and Palate: Relationship to Ventral Frontal Cortex <span class="hlt">Morphology</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Boes, Aaron D.; Murko, Vesna; Wood, Jessica L.; Langbehn, Douglas R.; Canady, John; Richman, Lynn; Nopoulos, Peg</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Isolated clefts of the lip and/or palate (ICLP) are developmental craniofacial abnormalities that have consistently been linked to increased social inhibition or shyness. Two explanations have been proposed: 1) psychosocial factors related to differences in facial appearance may lead to low self-concept and subsequent shyness, or 2) abnormal development of brain structures involved in social <span class="hlt">function</span>, such as the ventral frontal cortex (VFC), may underlie the difference. To investigate these two possibilities this study was designed to evaluate measures of social <span class="hlt">function</span> in relation to measures of self-concept and VFC <span class="hlt">morphology</span>. Subjects included 30 boys (age 7-12) with ICLP and a comparison group of 43 boys without cleft in the same age category. Social <span class="hlt">function</span> and self-concept were assessed using questionnaires with standardized scoring filled out by subjects and one of their parents. The cortical volume and surface area of the VFC, composed of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and straight gyrus (SG), were evaluated using structural magnetic resonance imaging. The ICLP subjects had significantly impaired social <span class="hlt">function</span> relative to the comparison group. No difference in self-concept was identified. VFC <span class="hlt">morphology</span> revealed significant differences between groups, particularly decreased volume and surface area in the left SG of the ICLP group. Moreover, abnormal VFC measures were correlated with social dysfunction but measures of self-concept were not. These results are consistent with the possibility that aberrant VFC development may partially underlie social dysfunction in boys with ICLP. PMID:17537526</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22711284','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22711284"><span>Diversity of <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and <span class="hlt">function</span> in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses in Brachypodium distachyon.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hong, Jeon J; Park, Yong-Soon; Bravo, Armando; Bhattarai, Kishor K; Daniels, Dierdra A; Harrison, Maria J</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Brachypodium distachyon is a grass species that serves as a useful model for wheat and also for many of the grass species proposed as feedstocks for bioenergy production. Here, we monitored B. distachyon symbioses with five different arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and identified symbioses that vary <span class="hlt">functionally</span> with respect to plant performance. Three symbioses promoted significant increases in shoot phosphorus (P) content and shoot growth of Brachypodium, while two associations were neutral. The Brachypodium/Glomus candidum symbiosis showed a classic 'Paris-type' <span class="hlt">morphology</span>. In the other four AM symbioses, hyphal growth was exclusively intracellular and linear; hyphal coils were not observed and arbuscules were abundant. Expression of the Brachypodium ortholog of the symbiosis-specific phosphate (Pi) transporter MtPT4 did not differ significantly in these five interactions indicating that the lack of apparent <span class="hlt">functionality</span> did not result from a failure to express this gene or several other AM symbiosis-associated genes. Analysis of the expression patterns of the complete PHT1 Pi transporter gene family and AMT2 gene family in B. distachyon/G. intraradices mycorrhizal roots identified additional family members induced during symbiosis and again, transcript levels were similar in the different Brachypodium AM symbioses. This initial <span class="hlt">morphological</span>, molecular and <span class="hlt">functional</span> characterization provides a framework for future studies of <span class="hlt">functional</span> diversity in AM symbiosis in B. distachyon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19429980','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19429980"><span>Retinal <span class="hlt">function</span> and <span class="hlt">morphology</span> are altered in cattle infected with the prion disease transmissible mink encephalopathy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Smith, J D; Greenlee, J J; Hamir, A N; Richt, J A; Greenlee, M H West</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of diseases that result in progressive and invariably fatal neurologic disease in both animals and humans. TSEs are characterized by the accumulation of an abnormal protease-resistant form of the prion protein in the central nervous system. Transmission of infectious TSEs is believed to occur via ingestion of prion protein-contaminated material. This material is also involved in the transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("mad cow disease") to humans, which resulted in the variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Abnormal prion protein has been reported in the retina of TSE-affected cattle, but despite these observations, the specific effect of abnormal prion protein on retinal <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and <span class="hlt">function</span> has not been assessed. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize potential <span class="hlt">functional</span> and <span class="hlt">morphologic</span> abnormalities in the retinas of cattle infected with a bovine-adapted isolate of transmissible mink encephalopathy. We used electroretinography and immunohistochemistry to examine retinas from 10 noninoculated and 5 transmissible mink encephalopathy-inoculated adult Holstein steers. Here we show altered retinal <span class="hlt">function</span>, as evidenced by prolonged implicit time of the electroretinogram b-wave, in transmissible mink encephalopathy-infected cattle before the onset of clinical illness. We also demonstrate disruption of rod bipolar cell synaptic terminals, indicated by decreased immunoreactivity for the alpha isoform of protein kinase C and vesicular glutamate transporter 1, and activation of Müller glia, as evidenced by increased glial fibrillary acidic protein and glutamine synthetase expression, in the retinas of these cattle at the time of euthanasia due to clinical deterioration. This is the first study to identify both <span class="hlt">functional</span> and <span class="hlt">morphologic</span> alterations in the retinas of TSE-infected cattle. Our results support future efforts to focus on the retina for the development of</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3144940','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3144940"><span>Impaired Cognitive <span class="hlt">Function</span> and Altered Hippocampal Synapse <span class="hlt">Morphology</span> in Mice Lacking Lrrtm1, a Gene Associated with Schizophrenia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sakoori, Kazuto; Akagi, Takumi; Hashikawa, Tsutomu; Morimura, Naoko; Yamada, Kazuyuki; Aruga, Jun</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Recent genetic linkage analysis has shown that LRRTM1 (Leucine rich repeat transmembrane neuronal 1) is associated with schizophrenia. Here, we characterized Lrrtm1 knockout mice behaviorally and <span class="hlt">morphologically</span>. Systematic behavioral analysis revealed reduced locomotor activity in the early dark <span class="hlt">phase</span>, altered behavioral responses to novel environments (open-field box, light-dark box, elevated plus maze, and hole board), avoidance of approach to large inanimate objects, social discrimination deficit, and spatial memory deficit. Upon administration of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801, Lrrtm1 knockout mice showed both locomotive activities in the open-field box and responses to the inanimate object that were distinct from those of wild-type mice, suggesting that altered glutamatergic transmission underlay the behavioral abnormalities. Furthermore, administration of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (fluoxetine) rescued the abnormality in the elevated plus maze. <span class="hlt">Morphologically</span>, the brains of Lrrtm1 knockout mice showed reduction in total hippocampus size and reduced synaptic density. The hippocampal synapses were characterized by elongated spines and diffusely distributed synaptic vesicles, indicating the role of Lrrtm1 in maintaining synaptic integrity. Although the pharmacobehavioral phenotype was not entirely characteristic of those of schizophrenia model animals, the impaired cognitive <span class="hlt">function</span> may warrant the further study of LRRTM1 in relevance to schizophrenia. PMID:21818371</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4941765','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4941765"><span><span class="hlt">Functional</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of parasitic isopods: understanding <span class="hlt">morphological</span> adaptations of attachment and feeding structures in Nerocila as a pre-requisite for reconstructing the evolution of Cymothoidae</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Haug, Joachim T.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Parasites significantly influence food webs and ecosystems and occur all over the world in almost every animal group. Within crustaceans there are numerous examples of ectoparasites; for example, representatives of the isopod group Cymothoidae. These obligatory parasitic isopods are relatively poorly studied regarding their <span class="hlt">functional</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span>. Here we present new details of the <span class="hlt">morphological</span> adaptations to parasitism of the cymothoiid ingroup Nerocila with up-to-date imaging methods (macro photography, stereo imaging, fluorescence photography, micro CT, and histology). Central aspects of the study were (1) the <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the mouthparts and (2) the attachment on the host, hence the <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the thoracopods. The mouthparts (labrum, mandibles, paragnaths, maxillulae, maxillae, maxillipeds) form a distinct mouth cone and are most likely used for true sucking. The mouthparts are tightly “folded” around each other and provide <span class="hlt">functional</span> rails for the only two moving mouthparts, mandible and maxillula. Both are not moving in an ancestral-type median-lateral movement, but are strongly tilted to move more in a proximal-distal axis. New details concerning the attachment demonstrate that the angular arrangement of the thoracopods is differentiated to impede removal by the host. The increased understanding of <span class="hlt">morphological</span> adaptation to parasitism of modern forms will be useful in identifying disarticulated (not attached to the host) fossil parasites. PMID:27441121</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NJPh...18k3035W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NJPh...18k3035W"><span>Insights into <span class="hlt">phase</span> transitions and entanglement from density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wei, Bo-Bo</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory (DFT) has met great success in solid state physics, quantum chemistry and in computational material sciences. In this work we show that DFT could shed light on <span class="hlt">phase</span> transitions and entanglement at finite temperatures. Specifically, we show that the equilibrium state of an interacting quantum many-body system which is in thermal equilibrium with a heat bath at a fixed temperature is a universal <span class="hlt">functional</span> of the first derivatives of the free energy with respect to temperature and other control parameters respectively. This insight from DFT enables us to express the average value of any physical observable and any entanglement measure as a universal <span class="hlt">functional</span> of the first derivatives of the free energy with respect to temperature and other control parameters. Since <span class="hlt">phase</span> transitions are marked by the nonanalytic behavior of free energy with respect to control parameters, the physical quantities and entanglement measures may present nonanalytic behavior at critical point inherited from their dependence on the first derivative of free energy. We use two solvable models to demonstrate these ideas. These results give new insights for <span class="hlt">phase</span> transitions and provide new profound connections between entanglement and <span class="hlt">phase</span> transitions in interacting quantum many-body physics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1357001','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1357001"><span>Pronounced Size Dependence in Structure and <span class="hlt">Morphology</span> of Gas-<span class="hlt">Phase</span> Produced, Partially Oxidized Cobalt Nanoparticles under Catalytic Reaction Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bartling, Stephan; Yin, Chunrong; Barke, Ingo; Oldenburg, Kevin; Hartmann, Hannes; von Oeynhausen, Viola; Pohl, Marga-Martina; Houben, Kelly; Tyo, Eric C.; Seifert, Sönke; Lievens, Peter; Meiwes-Broer, Karl-Heinz; Vajda, Stefan</p> <p>2015-06-23</p> <p>It is generally accepted that optimal particle sizes are key for efficient nanocatalysis. Much less attention is paid to the role of <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and atomic arrangement during catalytic reactions. Here we unravel the structural, stoichiometric, and <span class="hlt">morphological</span> evolution of gas-<span class="hlt">phase</span> produced cobalt nanoparticles in a broad size range. Particles with diameters between 1.4 nm and 22nm generated in cluster sources are size selected and deposited on amorphous alumina (Al2O3) and ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films. A combination of different techniques is employed to monitor particle properties at the stages of production, exposure to ambient conditions, and catalytic reaction, in this case the oxidative dehydrogenation of cyclohexane at elevated temperatures. A pronounced size dependence is found, naturally classifying the particles into three size regimes. While small and intermediate clusters essentially retain their compact <span class="hlt">morphology</span>, large particles transform into hollow spheres due to the nanoscale Kirkendall effect. Depending on the substrate an isotropic (Al2O3) or anisotropic (UNCD) Kirkendall effect is observed. The latter results in dramatic lateral size changes. Our results shed light on the interplay between chemical reactions and the catalyst's structure and provide an approach to tailor the cobalt oxide <span class="hlt">phase</span> composition required for specific catalytic schemes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910046592&hterms=biomolecules&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dbiomolecules','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910046592&hterms=biomolecules&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dbiomolecules"><span>Hexagonal and nematic <span class="hlt">phases</span> of chains. I - Correlation <span class="hlt">functions</span>. II - <span class="hlt">Phase</span> transitions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Selinger, Jonathan V.; Bruinsma, Robijn F.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The statistical mechanics of a system of semiflexible chains, which can represent polymer liquid crystals, long-chain biomolecules, stiff wormlike micelles, or columns of discotic liquid crystals, are examined. A continuum theory is used to calculate static correlation <span class="hlt">functions</span> in the hexagonal and nematic <span class="hlt">phases</span>. Two correlation <span class="hlt">functions</span> are considered: (1) the structure factor which describes fluctuations in the density; and (2) the director fluctuation spectrum, which describes fluctuations in the local optical axis. In addition, a model is developed for the <span class="hlt">phase</span> transitions of a system of infinitely long, semiflexible chains which interact through a steric, excluded-volume repulsion. The model yields generic <span class="hlt">phase</span> diagrams in terms of pressure or density vs. persistence length or temperature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27428566','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27428566"><span>The <span class="hlt">functional</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and role of cardiac telocytes in myocardium regeneration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Varga, Ivan; Danisovic, Lubos; Kyselovic, Jan; Gazova, Andrea; Musil, Peter; Miko, Michal; Polak, Stefan</p> <p>2016-05-19</p> <p>Key <span class="hlt">morphological</span> discoveries in recent years have included the discovery of new cell populations inside the heart called cardiac telocytes. These newly described cells of the connective tissue have extremely long cytoplasmic processes through which they form <span class="hlt">functionally</span> connected three-dimensional networks that connect cells of the immune system, nerve fibers, cardiac stem cells, and cardiac muscle cells. Based on their <span class="hlt">functions</span>, telocytes are also referred to as "connecting cells" or "nurse cells" for cardiac progenitor stem cells. In this critical review, we provide a summary of the latest research on cardiac telocytes localized in all layers of the heart - from the historical background of their discovery, through ultrastructural, immunohistochemical, and <span class="hlt">functional</span> characterizations, to the application of this knowledge to the fields of cardiology, stem cell research, and regenerative medicine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatMa..12..584O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatMa..12..584O"><span>Metre-long cell-laden microfibres exhibit tissue <span class="hlt">morphologies</span> and <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Onoe, Hiroaki; Okitsu, Teru; Itou, Akane; Kato-Negishi, Midori; Gojo, Riho; Kiriya, Daisuke; Sato, Koji; Miura, Shigenori; Iwanaga, Shintaroh; Kuribayashi-Shigetomi, Kaori; Matsunaga, Yukiko T.; Shimoyama, Yuto; Takeuchi, Shoji</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Artificial reconstruction of fibre-shaped cellular constructs could greatly contribute to tissue assembly in vitro. Here we show that, by using a microfluidic device with double-coaxial laminar flow, metre-long core-shell hydrogel microfibres encapsulating ECM proteins and differentiated cells or somatic stem cells can be fabricated, and that the microfibres reconstitute intrinsic <span class="hlt">morphologies</span> and <span class="hlt">functions</span> of living tissues. We also show that these <span class="hlt">functional</span> fibres can be assembled, by weaving and reeling, into macroscopic cellular structures with various spatial patterns. Moreover, fibres encapsulating primary pancreatic islet cells and transplanted through a microcatheter into the subrenal capsular space of diabetic mice normalized blood glucose concentrations for about two weeks. These microfibres may find use as templates for the reconstruction of fibre-shaped <span class="hlt">functional</span> tissues that mimic muscle fibres, blood vessels or nerve networks in vivo.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21952737','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21952737"><span><span class="hlt">Functional</span> and <span class="hlt">morphological</span> effects of resistance exercise on disuse-induced skeletal muscle atrophy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nicastro, H; Zanchi, N E; Luz, C R da; Lancha, A H</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>Abstract quality of life. Since there is no currently effective and safe treatment available for skeletal muscle atrophy, the search for new alternatives is necessary. Resistance exercise (RE) seems to be an important tool in the treatment of disuse-induced skeletal muscle atrophy by promoting positive <span class="hlt">functional</span> (strength and power) and structural (hypertrophy and phenotypic changes) adaptive responses. Human and animal studies using different types of resistance exercise (flywheel, vascular occlusion, dynamic, isometric, and eccentric) have obtained results of great importance. However, since RE is a complex phenomenon, lack of strict control of its variables (volume, frequency, intensity, muscle action, rest intervals) limits the interpretation of the impact of the manipulation on skeletal muscle remodeling and <span class="hlt">function</span> under disuse. The aim of this review is to critically describe the <span class="hlt">functional</span> and <span class="hlt">morphological</span> role of resistance exercise in disuse-induced skeletal muscle atrophy with emphasis on the principles of training.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EPJB...86..316J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EPJB...86..316J"><span><span class="hlt">Phase</span> transition of Boolean networks with partially nested canalizing <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jansen, Kayse; Matache, Mihaela Teodora</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>We generate the critical condition for the <span class="hlt">phase</span> transition of a Boolean network governed by partially nested canalizing <span class="hlt">functions</span> for which a fraction of the inputs are canalizing, while the remaining non-canalizing inputs obey a complementary threshold Boolean <span class="hlt">function</span>. Past studies have considered the stability of fully or partially nested canalizing <span class="hlt">functions</span> paired with random choices of the complementary <span class="hlt">function</span>. In some of those studies conflicting results were found with regard to the presence of chaotic behavior. Moreover, those studies focus mostly on ergodic networks in which initial states are assumed equally likely. We relax that assumption and find the critical condition for the sensitivity of the network under a non-ergodic scenario. We use the proposed mathematical model to determine parameter values for which <span class="hlt">phase</span> transitions from order to chaos occur. We generate Derrida plots to show that the mathematical model matches the actual network dynamics. The <span class="hlt">phase</span> transition diagrams indicate that both order and chaos can occur, and that certain parameters induce a larger range of values leading to order versus chaos. The edge-of-chaos curves are identified analytically and numerically. It is shown that the depth of canalization does not cause major dynamical changes once certain thresholds are reached; these thresholds are fairly small in comparison to the connectivity of the nodes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4878313','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4878313"><span>Cardiac <span class="hlt">Morphology</span> and <span class="hlt">Function</span>, and Blood Gas Transport in Aquaporin-1 Knockout Mice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Al-Samir, Samer; Wang, Yong; Meissner, Joachim D.; Gros, Gerolf; Endeward, Volker</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We have studied cardiac and respiratory <span class="hlt">functions</span> of aquaporin-1-deficient mice by the Pressure-Volume-loop technique and by blood gas analysis. In addition, the <span class="hlt">morphological</span> properties of the animals' hearts were analyzed. In anesthesia under maximal dobutamine stimulation, the mice exhibit a moderately elevated heart rate of < 600 min−1 and an O2 consumption of ~0.6 ml/min/g, which is about twice the basal rate. In this state, which is similar to the resting state of the conscious animal, all cardiac <span class="hlt">functions</span> including stroke volume and cardiac output exhibited resting values and were identical between deficient and wildtype animals. Likewise, pulmonary and peripheral exchange of O2 and CO2 were normal. In contrast, several <span class="hlt">morphological</span> parameters of the heart tissue of deficient mice were altered: (1) left ventricular wall thickness was reduced by 12%, (2) left ventricular mass, normalized to tibia length, was reduced by 10–20%, (3) cardiac muscle fiber cross sectional area was decreased by 17%, and (4) capillary density was diminished by 10%. As the P-V-loop technique yielded normal end-diastolic and end-systolic left ventricular volumes, the deficient hearts are characterized by thin ventricular walls in combination with normal intraventricular volumes. The aquaporin-1-deficient heart thus seems to be at a disadvantage compared to the wild-type heart by a reduced left-ventricular wall thickness and an increased diffusion distance between blood capillaries and muscle mitochondria. While under the present quasi-resting conditions these <span class="hlt">morphological</span> alterations have no consequences for cardiac <span class="hlt">function</span>, we expect that the deficient hearts will show a reduced maximal cardiac output. PMID:27252655</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1220580','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1220580"><span>[<span class="hlt">Function</span> and <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of isolated rat kidney following cellfree perfusion with various plasmaexpanders (author's transl)].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Franke, H; Sobotta, E E; Witzki, G; Unsicker, K</p> <p>1975-05-01</p> <p>Isolated arteficially perfused rat kidneys prepared as described by Franke et al. (1971) were perfused for 60 min with solutions of Haemaccel, Dextran 40, Pluronic-F-108, or hydroxy-aethyl starch in a single pass system. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of the Haemaccel or Dextran 40 perfused organs amounted during the first 30 min to 0.58 ml X g-1 X min-1 and 0.47 ml X g-1 X min-1 respectively. Using Pluronic-F-108 or hydroxy-aethyl starch GFR rose to 0.94 ml X g-1 X min-1 and to 0.85 ml X G-1 X min-1. With Haemaccel or Dextran 40 solutions a mean tubular Na-reabsorption of 75.4 mumol X g-1 X min-1 and of 59 mumol X g-1 X min-1 respectively was determined. Employing Pluronic-F-108 or hydroxy-aethyl starch a mean sodium net transport of 92.6 mumol X g-1 X min-1 in both experimental groups was obtained. The differences described in the <span class="hlt">functional</span> capabilities of Haemaccel or Dextran 40 and of Pluronic-F-108 or Hydroxyethyl starch perfused kidneys are in good accordance with <span class="hlt">morphological</span> changes in the ultrastructure. The most striking <span class="hlt">morphological</span> deviations were found in proximal tubules of those kidneys perfused with Haemaccel solutions. On the other hand after perfusion with hydroxyethyl starch only very few <span class="hlt">morphological</span> alterations could be detected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19623627','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19623627"><span><span class="hlt">Functional</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the gastric mills of carnivorous, omnivorous, and herbivorous land crabs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Allardyce, Benjamin J; Linton, Stuart M</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Terrestrial decapods consume a wide variety of plant and animal material. The potential adaptations of carnivorous, omnivorous, and herbivorous terrestrial crustaceans were studied by examining the <span class="hlt">functional</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the gastric mill. Two closely related species from each feeding preference group were examined to identify which features of the mill were due to phylogeny and which were due to adaptation. The <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the gastric mill matched the diet well; the gastric mills of the carnivorous species (Geograpsus grayi and Geograpsus crinipes) possessed a blunt, rounded medial tooth and flattened lateral teeth with a longitudinal grinding groove. These features make them well suited to a carnivorous diet of soft animal tissue as well as hard material, such as arthropod exoskeleton. In contrast, the mill of the herbivorous gecarcinids (Gecarcoidea natalis and Discoplax hirtipes) consisted of a medial tooth with sharp transverse ridges and lateral teeth with sharp interlocking cusps and ridges and no grinding surface. These features would efficiently shred fibrous plant material. The <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the mill of the omnivorous coenobitids (Coenobita perlatus and Birgus latro) was more generalized toward a mixed diet. However, the mill of B. latro was more adapted to deal with highly nutritious food items, such as nuts and heavily calcified decapods. Its mill possessed lateral teeth with extended ridges, which sat close to the calcified cardiopyloric valve to form a flattened floor. Hard items trapped in the mill would be crushed against this surface by the medial tooth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6469705','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6469705"><span>Influence of the amount of dietary gluten on gastrointestinal <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and <span class="hlt">function</span> in dermatitis herpetiformis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Andersson, H; Björkman, A C; Gillberg, R; Kastrup, W; Mobacken, H; Stockbrügger, R</p> <p>1984-07-01</p> <p>The individual daily intake of gluten was calculated in 45 patients with dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) on the basis of a depth interview about food habits. Gastric and small intestinal <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and <span class="hlt">function</span> were studied concurrently. Mean daily gluten intake was estimated to be 15 g, a figure which corresponds well to the average gluten intake in Sweden. There was a significant correlation between the degree of <span class="hlt">morphological</span> mucosal changes of the small intestine and the quantity of gluten ingested. All patients with jejunal villous atrophy consumed more than 10 g gluten daily and all but one patient with normal jejunal villous structure had a gluten intake of less than 10 g/d. The findings suggest a dose-dependent effect of gluten on the intestinal mucosa. Conversely, the daily gluten intake was not correlated to gastric <span class="hlt">morphology</span>, gastric acid secretion, serum gastrin levels or serum parietal cell antibodies. Patients with reduced ability to secrete gastric acid did not differ from the remaining patients in this respect. Whereas the coeliac-like enteropathy in DH seems to be caused by ingested gluten, the frequently occurring achlorhydric atrophic gastritis must be assumed to be of different immunopathogenesis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21389193','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21389193"><span>The integration of locomotion and prey capture in divergent cottid fishes: <span class="hlt">functional</span> disparity despite <span class="hlt">morphological</span> similarity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kane, Emily A; Higham, Timothy E</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>Many mobile animals rely on the integration of locomotion and feeding to capture prey. Fishes commonly swim up to a prey item and utilize a combination of ram and suction feeding for prey capture. Marine cottids represent a diverse and abundant lineage of fishes that exhibit variation in feeding mode that is related to their mouth <span class="hlt">morphology</span>. However, little is known regarding the integration of the locomotor and feeding systems during prey capture. We quantified the feeding kinematics, feeding performance and integration of locomotion and feeding in two species of divergent cottids: Blepsias cirrhosus (silver-spotted sculpin) and Oligocottus maculosus (tidepool sculpin). Individuals were caught from sympatric habitats near the Bamfield Marine Sciences Centre on Vancouver Island and filmed with a high-speed video camera (500 Hz) while feeding on amphipod prey. Two principal component axes summarize differences in integration and feeding mode despite similarity in attack velocity and feeding <span class="hlt">morphology</span> (peak gape, peak cranial elevation and peak jaw protrusion). A greater number of correlations between locomotor and feeding variables in B. cirrhosus, compared with O. maculosus, indicate greater integration. We conclude that traditional measures of attack kinematics do not capture <span class="hlt">functionally</span> and ecologically relevant differences between species. The mechanisms underlying differences in locomotor strategy likely result from unexplored <span class="hlt">morphological</span> or ecological differences between species. In cottids, integration is apparent in more basal, subtidal species such as B. cirrhosus, and the need for integration may be superceded by demands from the habitat in more derived, shallow-water species such as O. maculosus.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4680616','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4680616"><span><span class="hlt">Morphological</span> and <span class="hlt">functional</span> changes in the vertebral column with increasing aquatic adaptation in crocodylomorphs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Molnar, Julia L.; Pierce, Stephanie E.; Bhullar, Bhart-Anjan S.; Turner, Alan H.; Hutchinson, John R.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The lineage leading to modern Crocodylia has undergone dramatic evolutionary changes in <span class="hlt">morphology</span>, ecology and locomotion over the past 200+ Myr. These <span class="hlt">functional</span> innovations may be explained in part by <span class="hlt">morphological</span> changes in the axial skeleton, which is an integral part of the vertebrate locomotor system. Our objective was to estimate changes in osteological range of motion (RoM) and intervertebral joint stiffness of thoracic and lumbar vertebrae with increasing aquatic adaptation in crocodylomorphs. Using three-dimensional virtual models and morphometrics, we compared the modern crocodile Crocodylus to five extinct crocodylomorphs: Terrestrisuchus, Protosuchus, Pelagosaurus, Steneosaurus and Metriorhynchus, which span the spectrum from terrestrial to fully aquatic. In Crocodylus, we also experimentally measured changes in trunk flexibility with sequential removal of osteoderms and soft tissues. Our results for the more aquatic species matched our predictions fairly well, but those for the more terrestrial early crocodylomorphs did not. A likely explanation for this lack of correspondence is the influence of other axial structures, particularly the rigid series of dorsal osteoderms in early crocodylomorphs. The most important structures for determining RoM and stiffness of the trunk in Crocodylus were different in dorsoventral versus mediolateral bending, suggesting that changes in osteoderm and rib <span class="hlt">morphology</span> over crocodylomorph evolution would have affected movements in some directions more than others. PMID:26716001</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3681002','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3681002"><span><span class="hlt">Morphological</span> and <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Parameters in Patients with Tooth Wear before and after Treatment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sierpinska, Teresa; Kuc, Joanna; Golebiewska, Maria</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Advanced tooth wear often results in lost vertical dimension and impacts facial aesthetics. Complex restorative treatment can replace the lost tooth structure and improve <span class="hlt">functional</span> occlusal and facial skeleton parameters. Purpose: The aim of the study is to assess changes in the <span class="hlt">morphological</span> and <span class="hlt">functional</span> occlusal parameters of the facial skeleton after prosthetic rehabilitation that increased lost occlusal vertical dimension. Material and Methodology: 50 patients with advanced tooth wear were clinically examined, to assess the degree of wear. Each subject underwent cephalometric analysis, digital occlusal analysis, and electromyographic analysis, of the anterior temporalis, superficial masetter, anterior digastric, and the sternocleidomastoid muscles. Prosthodontic treatment was performed to restore the occlusal vertical dimension of each subject’s occlusion, which was followed by repeating the pretreatment analyses. Pre and post treatment parameters were statistically compared. Results: Pre-treatment cephalometric analysis showed that lost vertical dimension reduced anterior facial height and resulted in small angular skeletal parameters. Post treatment anterior facial height increased from the increased occlusal vertical dimension. The mean value of <span class="hlt">functional</span> electrical activity during clenching post treatment, increased compared to pretreatment. Conclusion: Increasing the vertical dimension of occlusion improved facial aesthetics by positively affecting facial skeletal angles. The restored occlusal surface <span class="hlt">morphology</span> changed the pre treatment flat broad occlusal contacts into more point contacts. The increased vertical dimension of occlusion after treatment also increased muscle activity levels over the pretreatment levels after three months period of adaptation. PMID:23802024</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19699723','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19699723"><span>Purkinje-like cells of the rat cochlear nucleus: a combined <span class="hlt">functional</span> and <span class="hlt">morphological</span> study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Koszeghy, Aron; Pál, Balázs; Pap, Pál; Pocsai, Krisztina; Nagy, Zsuzsanna; Szucs, Géza; Rusznák, Zoltán</p> <p>2009-11-10</p> <p>Purkinje-like cells (PLCs) of the cochlear nucleus (CN) are strongly calbindin positive neurones with unknown <span class="hlt">function</span>. In the present work <span class="hlt">functional</span> and <span class="hlt">morphological</span> methods have been employed to provide data about PLCs in general, and about their possible involvement in the synaptic organisation of the CN in particular. PLCs had slightly elongated soma, from which a complex dendritic arborisation extended with highly variable dimensions. On the basis of their <span class="hlt">morphology</span>, three classes of PLCs were identified. Positively identified PLCs fired a train of action potentials on sustained depolarization. When hyperpolarizing stimuli were applied, the presence of a slowly activating, ZD7288-sensitive inward current was noted that corresponded to the h-current. PLCs received both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs. <span class="hlt">Functional</span> experiments revealed that 76% and 14% of the spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents recorded from the cell bodies of the PLCs were mediated via glycinergic and GABAergic synapses, respectively. PLCs presented strong cerebellin1-like immunoreactivity, but its distribution differed from that seen in cerebellar Purkinje cells. Our results indicate that PLCs are parts of the synaptic circuitry of the CN, thus they may be actively involved in the processing and analysis of auditory information.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19623628','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19623628"><span><span class="hlt">Functional</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the palato-maxillary apparatus in "Palatine dragging" snakes (Serpentes: Elapidae: Acanthophis, Oxyuranus).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Deufel, Alexandra; Cundall, David</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Elapid snakes have previously been divided into two groups (palatine erectors and palatine draggers) based on the <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and inferred movements of their palatine bone during prey transport (swallowing). We investigated the <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and the <span class="hlt">functioning</span> of the feeding apparatus of several palatine draggers (Acanthophis antarcticus, Oxyuranus scutellatus, Pseudechis australis) and compared them to published records of palatine erectors. We found that the palatine in draggers does not move as a straight extension of the pterygoid as originally proposed. The dragger palato-pterygoid joint flexes laterally with maxillary rotation when the mouth opens and the jaw apparatus is protracted and slightly ventrally during mouth closing. In contrast, in palatine erectors, the palato-pterygoid joint flexes ventrally during upper jaw protraction. In draggers, the anterior end of the palatine also projects rostrally during protraction, unlike the stability of the anterior end seen in erectors. Palatine draggers differ from palatine erectors in four structural features of the palatine and its relationships to surrounding elements. The <span class="hlt">function</span> of the palato-pterygoid bar in both draggers and erectors can be explained by a typical colubroid muscle contraction pattern, which acts on a set of core characters shared among all derived snakes. Although palatine dragging elapids share a fundamental design of the palato-maxillary apparatus with all higher snakes, they provide yet another demonstration of minor structural modifications producing <span class="hlt">functional</span> variants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19771749','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19771749"><span>[Echocardiographic evaluation of the athlete's heart: from <span class="hlt">morphological</span> adaptations to myocardial <span class="hlt">function</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>D'Andrea, Antonello; Galderisi, Maurizio; Sciomer, Susanna; Nistri, Stefano; Agricola, Eustachio; Ballo, Piercarlo; Buralli, Simona; D'Errico, Arcangelo; Losi, Maria Angela; Mele, Donato; Mondillo, Sergio</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>The definition of the athlete's heart includes the mechanisms of cardiac adaptation to training, characterized by the increase of internal chamber dimensions, ventricular wall thickness, and atrial chambers. The <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the athlete's heart is intermediate between concentric and eccentric left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), in relation to the large prevalence of mixed sports activities and training protocols (including both aerobic and anaerobic exercise). Echocardiography is the tool of choice for the assessment of the athlete's heart and also for the differentiation of physiologic and pathologic LVH (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and LVH due to arterial hypertension). The initial echocardiographic approach includes the quantitative analysis of the left ventricle, in order to calculate left ventricular mass, left ventricular mass index and relative wall thickness for diagnosing concentric or eccentric LVH. Tissue Doppler (pulsed or color modality) and strain rate imaging (Doppler or two-dimensional modality) may give additional information to the standard indices of systolic <span class="hlt">function</span>. Diastolic <span class="hlt">function</span> can be evaluated not only by standard Doppler transmitral inflow measurements but also using pulsed tissue Doppler, which may allow to distinguish the athlete's LVH from diastolic impairment of hypertensive patients or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by the simple determination of myocardial early diastolic velocity. Also the <span class="hlt">morphological</span> and <span class="hlt">functional</span> features of the left atrium and of the right ventricle can be assessed in the athlete's heart by combining standard echocardiography with new echocardiographic technologies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20031991','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20031991"><span>Explosive eversion and <span class="hlt">functional</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the duck penis supports sexual conflict in waterfowl genitalia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brennan, Patricia L R; Clark, Christopher J; Prum, Richard O</p> <p>2010-05-07</p> <p>Coevolution of male and female genitalia in waterfowl has been hypothesized to occur through sexual conflict. This hypothesis raises questions about the <span class="hlt">functional</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the waterfowl penis and the mechanics of copulation in waterfowl, which are poorly understood. We used high-speed video of phallus eversion and histology to describe for the first time the <span class="hlt">functional</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the avian penis. Eversion of the 20 cm muscovy duck penis is explosive, taking an average of 0.36 s, and achieving a maximum velocity of 1.6 m s(-1). The collagen matrix of the penis is very thin and not arranged in an axial-orthogonal array, resulting in a penis that is flexible when erect. To test the hypothesis that female genital novelties make intromission difficult during forced copulations, we investigated penile eversion into glass tubes that presented different mechanical challenges to eversion. Eversion occurred successfully in a straight tube and a counterclockwise spiral tube that matched the chirality of the waterfowl penis, but eversion was significantly less successful into glass tubes with a clockwise spiral or a 135 degrees bend, which mimicked female vaginal geometry. Our results support the hypothesis that duck vaginal complexity <span class="hlt">functions</span> to exclude the penis during forced copulations, and coevolved with the waterfowl penis via antagonistic sexual conflict.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2871948','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2871948"><span>Explosive eversion and <span class="hlt">functional</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the duck penis supports sexual conflict in waterfowl genitalia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Brennan, Patricia L. R.; Clark, Christopher J.; Prum, Richard O.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Coevolution of male and female genitalia in waterfowl has been hypothesized to occur through sexual conflict. This hypothesis raises questions about the <span class="hlt">functional</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the waterfowl penis and the mechanics of copulation in waterfowl, which are poorly understood. We used high-speed video of phallus eversion and histology to describe for the first time the <span class="hlt">functional</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the avian penis. Eversion of the 20 cm muscovy duck penis is explosive, taking an average of 0.36 s, and achieving a maximum velocity of 1.6 m s−1. The collagen matrix of the penis is very thin and not arranged in an axial-orthogonal array, resulting in a penis that is flexible when erect. To test the hypothesis that female genital novelties make intromission difficult during forced copulations, we investigated penile eversion into glass tubes that presented different mechanical challenges to eversion. Eversion occurred successfully in a straight tube and a counterclockwise spiral tube that matched the chirality of the waterfowl penis, but eversion was significantly less successful into glass tubes with a clockwise spiral or a 135° bend, which mimicked female vaginal geometry. Our results support the hypothesis that duck vaginal complexity <span class="hlt">functions</span> to exclude the penis during forced copulations, and coevolved with the waterfowl penis via antagonistic sexual conflict. PMID:20031991</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4568916','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4568916"><span>The impact of inflammatory cells in malignant ascites on small intestinal ICCs’ <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Li, Jing; Kong, Dan; He, Yan; Wang, Xiuli; Gao, Lei; Li, Jiade; Yan, Meisi; Liu, Duanyang; Wang, Yufu; Zhang, Lei; Jin, Xiaoming</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Malignant ascites is one of the common complication at the late stage of abdominal cancers, which may deteriorate the environment of abdominal cavity and lead to potential damage of <span class="hlt">functional</span> cells. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are mesoderm-derived mesenchymal cells that <span class="hlt">function</span> normal gastrointestinal motility. The pathological changes of ICCs or the reduced number may lead to the motility disorders of gastrointestinal tract. In this study, through analysis of malignant ascites which were obtained from cancer patients, we found that inflammatory cells, including tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes, accounted for 17.26 ± 1.31% and tumour-associated macrophages, occupied 19.06 ± 2.27% of total cells in the ascites, suggesting these inflammatory cells, in addition to tumour cells, may exert important influence on the tumour environment of abdominal cavity. We further demonstrated that the number of mice ICCs were significant decreased, as well as <span class="hlt">morphological</span> and <span class="hlt">functional</span> damage when ICCs were in the simulated tumour microenvironment in vitro. Additionally, we illustrated intestinal myoelectrical activity reduced and irregular with <span class="hlt">morphological</span> changes of ICCs using the mice model of malignant ascites. In conclusion, our data suggested that inflammatory cells in malignant ascites may damage ICCs of the small intestine and lead to intestinal motility disorders. PMID:26087333</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26087333','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26087333"><span>The impact of inflammatory cells in malignant ascites on small intestinal ICCs' <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and <span class="hlt">function</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Jing; Kong, Dan; He, Yan; Wang, Xiuli; Gao, Lei; Li, Jiade; Yan, Meisi; Liu, Duanyang; Wang, Yufu; Zhang, Lei; Jin, Xiaoming</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Malignant ascites is one of the common complication at the late stage of abdominal cancers, which may deteriorate the environment of abdominal cavity and lead to potential damage of <span class="hlt">functional</span> cells. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are mesoderm-derived mesenchymal cells that <span class="hlt">function</span> normal gastrointestinal motility. The pathological changes of ICCs or the reduced number may lead to the motility disorders of gastrointestinal tract. In this study, through analysis of malignant ascites which were obtained from cancer patients, we found that inflammatory cells, including tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes, accounted for 17.26 ± 1.31% and tumour-associated macrophages, occupied 19.06 ± 2.27% of total cells in the ascites, suggesting these inflammatory cells, in addition to tumour cells, may exert important influence on the tumour environment of abdominal cavity. We further demonstrated that the number of mice ICCs were significant decreased, as well as <span class="hlt">morphological</span> and <span class="hlt">functional</span> damage when ICCs were in the simulated tumour microenvironment in vitro. Additionally, we illustrated intestinal myoelectrical activity reduced and irregular with <span class="hlt">morphological</span> changes of ICCs using the mice model of malignant ascites. In conclusion, our data suggested that inflammatory cells in malignant ascites may damage ICCs of the small intestine and lead to intestinal motility disorders. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCh...7...45V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCh...7...45V"><span>Covalent <span class="hlt">functionalization</span> of monolayered transition metal dichalcogenides by <span class="hlt">phase</span> engineering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Voiry, Damien; Goswami, Anandarup; Kappera, Rajesh; Silva, Cecilia De Carvalho Castro E.; Kaplan, Daniel; Fujita, Takeshi; Chen, Mingwei; Asefa, Tewodros; Chhowalla, Manish</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Chemical <span class="hlt">functionalization</span> of low-dimensional materials such as nanotubes, nanowires and graphene leads to profound changes in their properties and is essential for solubilizing them in common solvents. Covalent attachment of <span class="hlt">functional</span> groups is generally achieved at defect sites, which facilitate electron transfer. Here, we describe a simple and general method for covalent <span class="hlt">functionalization</span> of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets (MoS2, WS2 and MoSe2), which does not rely on defect engineering. The <span class="hlt">functionalization</span> reaction is instead facilitated by electron transfer between the electron-rich metallic 1T <span class="hlt">phase</span> and an organohalide reactant, resulting in <span class="hlt">functional</span> groups that are covalently attached to the chalcogen atoms of the transition metal dichalcogenide. The attachment of <span class="hlt">functional</span> groups leads to dramatic changes in the optoelectronic properties of the material. For example, we show that it renders the metallic 1T <span class="hlt">phase</span> semiconducting, and gives it strong and tunable photoluminescence and gate modulation in field-effect transistors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7170711','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7170711"><span><span class="hlt">Functional</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the midgut of a sandfly as compared to other hematophagous nematocera.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rudin, W; Hecker, H</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The midgut epithelium of female Lutzomyia longipalpis was investigated by means of electron microscopic morphometry before and during blood digestion. Ultrastructure and cytological changes of the stomach cells upon blood feeding were generally similar to the ones described for Phlebotomus longipes (Gemetchu, 1974) and for mosquitoes (Hecker, 1977). In addition, the quantitative composition of the cells resembled the one of mosquitoes in many respects. Despite some <span class="hlt">morphological</span> differences in the <span class="hlt">functional</span> gut cytology, it can be admitted that, in general, digestive processes may run similarly in the midguts of sandflies and mosquitoes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016REDS..171...22N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016REDS..171...22N"><span>Effects of nanoscale <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and defects in oxide: optoelectronic <span class="hlt">functions</span> of zinc oxide nanowires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nagao, Tadaaki; Duy Dao, Thang; Sugavaneshwar, R. P.; Chen, Kai; Nanda, K. K.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Oxide nanomaterials have been attracting growing interest for both fundamental research and industrial applications ranging from gas sensors, light-emitting devices, to photocatalysts, and solar cells. The optical and electronic properties of oxide nanomaterials are strongly dependent on their surface <span class="hlt">morphologies</span> as well as defects, such as surface areas, aspect ratios, foreign atom impurities, and oxygen vacancies. In this review, we describe some examples of our recent contributions to the nanomaterials and devices that exhibit remarkable <span class="hlt">functionalities</span> based on one-dimensional nanostructures of ZnO and their hetero junctions as well as their variants with appropriately incorporated dopants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21825582','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21825582"><span>Density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory study of hexagonal carbon <span class="hlt">phases</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Zhibin; Gao, Faming; Li, Na; Qu, Nianrui; Gou, Huiyang; Hao, Xianfeng</p> <p>2009-06-10</p> <p>It is reported frequently that the new carbon <span class="hlt">phases</span> may be harder than diamond (Wang et al 2004 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 101 13699 and Mao et al 2003 Science 302 425). However, the mechanism is still unclear. In this paper we systematically investigate the structural, electronic, and mechanical properties of the diamond polytypes using first-principles density <span class="hlt">functional</span> calculations. The results show that the bulk modulus and shear modulus for the hexagonal form of diamond approach those of diamond, suggesting they might be hard and low compressibility materials. According to the semiempirical method for hardness based on the Mulliken overlap population, the hardnesses for hexagonal forms have been evaluated and compared to diamond. The results indicate that these <span class="hlt">phases</span> are superhard. More importantly, the bonds in some specific directions of the hexagonal <span class="hlt">phases</span> are harder than those in diamond, which may lead to the noticeable indentation marks on the diamond anvils observed in experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JQSRT.131...13A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JQSRT.131...13A"><span>Decomposition of atmospheric aerosol <span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> by particle size and asphericity from measurements of single particle optical scattering patterns</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aptowicz, Kevin B.; Pan, Yong-Le; Martin, Sean D.; Fernandez, Elena; Chang, Richard K.; Pinnick, Ronald G.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>We demonstrate an experimental approach that provides insight into how particle size and shape affect the scattering <span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of atmospheric aerosol particles. Central to our approach is the design of an apparatus that measures the forward and backward scattering hemispheres (scattering patterns) of individual atmospheric aerosol particles in the coarse mode range. We captured over 30 000 scattering patterns during winter (January 2007) at an urban site in Las Cruces, NM. The size and shape of each particle is discerned from the corresponding scattering pattern. In particular, autocorrelation analysis is used to differentiate between spherical and non-spherical particles, the calculated asphericity factor is used to characterize the <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of non-spherical particles, and the integrated irradiance is used for particle sizing. We found that the fraction of spherical particles decays exponentially with particle size, decreasing from 11% for particles on the order of 1 μm to less than 1% for particles over 5 μm. The average <span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of subpopulations of particles, grouped by size and <span class="hlt">morphology</span>, are determined by averaging their corresponding scattering patterns. The <span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of spherical and non-spherical atmospheric particles are shown to diverge with increasing size. In addition, the <span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of non-spherical particles is found to vary little as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of the asphericity factor. Our results support the current remote sensing practice of characterizing atmospheric aerosol particles as a composition of spherical and non-spherical particles with less concern about the diversity of <span class="hlt">morphology</span> within non-spherical particles. In addition, our results suggest that assuming a constant spherical fraction independent of particle size may not accurately reflect the real <span class="hlt">morphological</span> distribution of atmospheric aerosol particles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16594703','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16594703"><span><span class="hlt">Morphology</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span> diagram of ultrathin anatase TiO2 films templated by a single PS-b-PEO block copolymer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cheng, Ya-Jun; Gutmann, Jochen S</p> <p>2006-04-12</p> <p>Ultrathin TiO2 films showing rich <span class="hlt">morphologies</span> are prepared on Si(100) substrates using sol-gel chemistry coupled with an amphilic polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) diblock copolymer as a structure-directing agent. The block copolymer undergoes a good-poor solvent pair induced <span class="hlt">phase</span> separation in a mixed solution of 1,4-dioxane, concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl), and titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP). By adjusting the weight fractions of 1,4-dioxane, HCl, and TTIP, inorganic block copolymer composite films containing a variety of different <span class="hlt">morphologies</span> are obtained. On the basis of the results a ternary <span class="hlt">phase</span> diagram of the <span class="hlt">morphologies</span> is mapped. By calcination, anatase TiO2 films are achieved. The <span class="hlt">morphologies</span> and crystallographic <span class="hlt">phase</span> of the films are studied with AFM, SEM, and XRD, respectively, and the formation mechanisms of the different <span class="hlt">morphologies</span> are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28770380','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28770380"><span>Sex steroids modulate <span class="hlt">morphological</span> and <span class="hlt">functional</span> features of the bovine oviduct.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gonella-Diaza, Angela Maria; Mesquita, Fernando Silveira; da Silva, Kauê Ribeiro; de Carvalho Balieiro, Júlio Cesar; Dos Santos, Nilton Pedro; Pugliesi, Guilherme; de Francisco Strefezzi, Ricardo; Binelli, Mario</p> <p>2017-08-02</p> <p>In cattle, the oviduct plays a major role in the reproductive process; however, molecular control of oviduct receptivity to the embryo is poorly understood. A model for receptivity based on size of the pre-ovulatory follicle (POF) was used to compare oviductal <span class="hlt">morphology</span>, cellular proliferation, and candidate transcript abundance. Growth of the POF of Nelore (Bos indicus) cows was manipulated to produce two groups: a large POF-large corpus luteum (CL) group (LF-LCL; greater receptivity) and a small POF-small CL group (SF-SCL). Samples of the ampulla and isthmus ipsilateral and contralateral to CL were collected 4 days after GnRH-induced ovulation. Tissues were either embedded in paraffin for Harris-Hematoxylin and Eosin and periodic acid-Schiff staining and KI67 immunostaining, followed by <span class="hlt">morphological</span> analyses, or stored at -80 °C for RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, and qPCR analyses. The effects of group (LF-LCL and SF-SCL), region (ampulla and isthmus), and side (ipsilateral and contralateral) were analyzed using three-way nested ANOVA. The ipsilateral ampulla of the LF-LCL group presented more primary mucosal folds, a greater mucosal-folding grade and luminal perimeter, and more secretory cells and proliferating cells when compared with the ampulla of the SF-SCL group and with the contralateral ampulla of both groups. There were no <span class="hlt">morphological</span> differences in the isthmus between groups and sides. Changes in transcript abundance are suggestive of LF-LCL-stimulated secretory activity. In summary, ovulation of a larger POF generates a periovulatory endocrine milieu that modulates <span class="hlt">morphological</span> and <span class="hlt">functional</span> features of the bovine oviduct which may support embryo survival and development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3530452','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3530452"><span>Anchoring Ethinylestradiol Induced Gene Expression Changes with Testicular <span class="hlt">Morphology</span> and Reproductive <span class="hlt">Function</span> in the Medaka</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Miller, Hilary D.; Clark, Bryan W.; Hinton, David E.; Whitehead, Andrew; Martin, Stan; Kwok, Kevin W.; Kullman, Seth W.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Environmental estrogens are ubiquitous in the environment and can cause detrimental effects on male reproduction. In fish, a multitude of effects from environmental estrogens have been observed including altered courting behavior and fertility, sex reversal, and gonadal histopathology. However, few studies in fish assess the impacts of estrogenic exposure on a physiological endpoint, such as reproduction, as well as the associated <span class="hlt">morphologic</span> response and underlying global gene expression changes. This study assessed the implications of a 14 day sub-chronic exposure of ethinylestradiol (EE2; 1.0 or 10.0 µg/L EE2) on male medaka fertility, testicular histology and testicular gene expression. The findings demonstrate that a 14 day exposure to EE2 induced impaired male reproductive capacity and time- and dose-dependent alterations in testicular <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and gene expression. The average fertilization rate/day following the exposure for control, 1.0 and 10.0 µg/L EE2 was 91.3% (±4.4), 62.8% (±8.3) and 28.8% (±5.8), respectively. The testicular <span class="hlt">morphologic</span> alterations included increased germ cell apoptosis, decreased germinal epithelium and thickening of the interstitium. These changes were highly associated with testicular gene expression changes using a medaka-specific microarray. A pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes emphasized genes and pathways associated with apoptosis, cell cycle and proliferation, collagen production/extracellular matrix organization, hormone signaling, male reproduction and protein ubiquitination among others. These findings highlight the importance of anchoring global gonadal gene expression changes with <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and ultimately with tissue/organ <span class="hlt">function</span>. PMID:23300682</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24114543','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24114543"><span><span class="hlt">Functional</span> principal component analysis reveals discriminating categories of retinal pigment epithelial <span class="hlt">morphology</span> in mice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jiang, Yi; Qi, Xin; Chrenek, Micah A; Gardner, Christopher; Boatright, Jeffrey H; Grossniklaus, Hans E; Nickerson, John M</p> <p>2013-11-05</p> <p>To determine whether multivariate, <span class="hlt">functional</span> principal component analysis of the size and shape of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell <span class="hlt">morphology</span> allows discrimination of mouse RPE genotypes and age. Flatmounts of RPE sheets obtained from C57BL/6J (n = 50) and rd10 (n = 61) mice at postnatal days 30 to 720 were stained for zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and imaged with confocal microscopy. A total of 111 flatmounts were prepared. Twenty-one morphometric measurements were made on tiled, composite images of complete flatmounts, including cell location, area, and eccentricity, using automated image analysis software for quantitatively measuring cell phenotypes. In young (≤61-day-old) C57BL/6J mice, the RPE <span class="hlt">morphology</span> resembled a regular hexagonal array of cells of uniform size throughout the retina, except near the ciliary body, where the shapes of RPE resembled a soft network. Old (≥180-day-old) C57BL/6J eyes had a subpopulation of large cells. A clear disruption of the regular cell size and shape appeared in rd10 mutants. Aspect ratio and cell area gave rise to principal components that predictively classified mouse age and genotype. Quantitative differences in the RPE sheet <span class="hlt">morphology</span> allowed discrimination of rd10 from C57BL/6J strains despite the confounding effect of aging. This has implications for RPE sheet <span class="hlt">morphology</span> as a potential early biomarker for diagnosis of eye disease and prognosis of the eye at early stages when disease is subtle. We conclude that an RPE cell's area and aspect ratio are very early quantitative indicators that predict progression to advanced RPE disease as manifested in rd10.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5590738','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5590738"><span>Robust <span class="hlt">phase</span>-retrieval-based X-ray tomography for <span class="hlt">morphological</span> assessment of early hepatic echinococcosis infection in rats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhang, Chuanshan; Fan, Xiaoxi; Duan, Yingni; Xiao, Tiqiao; Du, Guohao; Fu, Yanan; Liu, Haigang; Wen, Hao</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Propagation-based <span class="hlt">phase</span>-contrast computed micro-tomography (PPCT) dominates the non-destructive, three-dimensional inner-structure measurement in synchrotron-based biomedical research due to its simple experimental setup. To quantitatively visualize tiny density variations in soft tissues and organs closely related to early pathological <span class="hlt">morphology</span>, an experimental study of synchrotron-based X-ray PPCT combined with generalized <span class="hlt">phase</span> and attenuation duality (PAD) <span class="hlt">phase</span> retrieval was implemented with the hepatic echinococcosis (HE) infection rat model at different stages. We quantitatively analyzed and evaluated the different pathological characterizations of hepatic echinococcosis during the development of this disease via our PAD-based PPCT and especially provided evidence that hepatic alveolar echinococcosis invades the liver tissue and spreads through blood flow systems with abundant blood supply in the early stage. Additionally, the infiltration of tiny vesicles in HE lesions can be clearly observed by our PAD-PPCT technique due to the striking contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mass density resolution, which cannot be found by the medical imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and ultrasound, in hospitals. The results demonstrated that our PAD-PPCT technique has a great potential for indicating the subtle structural information of pathological changes in soft biomedical specimens, especially helpful for the research of early micro-<span class="hlt">morphology</span> of diseases. PMID:28886025</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27640880','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27640880"><span><span class="hlt">Morphological</span> examination of highly porous polylactic acid/Bioglass(®) scaffolds produced via nonsolvent induced <span class="hlt">phase</span> separation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rezabeigi, Ehsan; Wood-Adams, Paula M; Drew, Robin A L</p> <p>2016-09-19</p> <p>In this study, we produce highly porous (up to ∼91%) composite scaffolds of polylactic acid (PLA) containing 2 wt % sol-gel-derived 45S5 Bioglass(®) particles via nonsolvent induced <span class="hlt">phase</span> separation at -23°C with no sacrificial <span class="hlt">phases</span> involved. Before the incorporation of the bioglass with PLA, the particles are surface modified with a silane coupling agent which effectively diminishes agglomeration between them leading to a better dispersion of bioactive particles throughout the scaffold. Interestingly, the incorporation route (via solvent dichloromethane or nonsolvent hexane) of the surface modified particles in the foaming process has the greatest impact on porosity, crystallinity, and <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the scaffolds. The composite scaffolds with a <span class="hlt">morphology</span> consisting of both mesopores and large macropores, which is potentially beneficial for bone regeneration applications, are examined further. SEM images show that the surface modified bioglass particles take-up a unique configuration within the mesoporous structure of these scaffolds ensuring that the particles are well interlocked but not completely covered by PLA such that they can be in contact with physiological fluids. The results of preliminary in vitro tests confirm that this PLA/bioglass configuration promotes the interaction of the bioactive <span class="hlt">phase</span> with physiological fluids. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2016.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19226498','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19226498"><span>Preservation of the <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of a self-encapsulated thin titania film in a <span class="hlt">functional</span> multilayer stack: an X-ray scattering study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Perlich, Jan; Memesa, Mine; Diethert, Alexander; Metwalli, Ezzeldin; Wang, Weinan; Roth, Stephan V; Timmann, Andreas; Gutmann, Jochen S; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter</p> <p>2009-03-23</p> <p>Tailoring of the titania <span class="hlt">morphology</span> is achieved by the combination of a triblock copolymer, acting as structure-directing agent, and a sol-gel chemistry enabling the incorporation of the provided inorganic material (titania) into the selected <span class="hlt">phase</span> of the triblock copolymer. Spin-coating of the solution on FTO-coated glass, followed by plasma etching and calcination of the thin film results in the formation of self-encapsulated crystalline titania nanostructures. The fabricated nanostructures are coated stepwise with dye, conductive polymers and gold forming a <span class="hlt">functional</span> multilayer stack. An advanced small-angle scattering technique probing the sample with X-ray synchrotron radiation under grazing incidence (GISAXS) is employed for the characterization of the preparation route, as scattering allows accessing the structure inside the multilayers. The tailored titania <span class="hlt">morphology</span> is preserved during the preparation route towards the <span class="hlt">functional</span> multilayer stack of a photovoltaic demonstration cell. Two clearly distinguishable structures originate from the substrate and the titania templated by the triblock copolymer; hence the other layers induce no additional structures. Therefore, this investigation provides the evidence that the effort spent to tailor the <span class="hlt">morphology</span> is justified by the preservation of the self-encapsulated titania <span class="hlt">morphology</span> that is created by the structure-directing agent throughout the <span class="hlt">functional</span> multilayer stack build-up.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17174589','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17174589"><span>A two <span class="hlt">phase</span> harmonic model for left ventricular <span class="hlt">function</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dubi, Shay; Dubi, Chen; Dubi, Yonatan</p> <p>2007-11-01</p> <p>A minimal model for mechanical motion of the left ventricle is proposed. The model assumes the left ventricle to be a harmonic oscillator with two distinct <span class="hlt">phases</span>, simulating the systolic and diastolic <span class="hlt">phases</span>, at which both the amplitude and the elastic constant of the oscillator are different. Taking into account the pressure within the left ventricle, the model shows qualitative agreement with <span class="hlt">functional</span> parameters of the left ventricle. The model allows for a natural explanation of heart failure with preserved systolic left ventricular <span class="hlt">function</span>, also termed diastolic heart failure. Specifically, the rise in left ventricular filling pressures following increased left-ventricular wall stiffness is attributed to a mechanism aimed at preserving heart rate and cardiac output.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16852469','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16852469"><span>Polyurea-<span class="hlt">functionalized</span> multiwalled carbon nanotubes: synthesis, <span class="hlt">morphology</span>, and Raman spectroscopy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gao, Chao; Jin, Yi Zheng; Kong, Hao; Whitby, Raymond L D; Acquah, Steve F A; Chen, G Y; Qian, Huihong; Hartschuh, Achim; Silva, S R P; Henley, Simon; Fearon, Peter; Kroto, Harold W; Walton, David R M</p> <p>2005-06-23</p> <p>An in situ polycondensation approach was applied to <span class="hlt">functionalize</span> multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), resulting in various linear or hyperbranched polycondensed polymers [e.g., polyureas, polyurethanes, and poly(urea-urethane)-bonded carbon nanotubes]. The quantity of the grafted polymer can be easily controlled by the feed ratio of monomers. As a typical example, the polyurea-<span class="hlt">functionalized</span> MWNTs were measured and characterized in detail. The oxidized MWNTs (MWNT-COOH) were converted into acyl chloride-<span class="hlt">functionalized</span> MWNTs (MWNT-COCl) by reaction with neat thionyl chloride (SOCl2). MWNT-COCl was reacted with excess 1,6-diaminohexane, affording amino-<span class="hlt">functionalized</span> MWNTs (MWNT-NH2). In the presence of MWNT-NH2, the polyurea was covalently coated onto the surfaces of the nanotube by in situ polycondensation of diisocyanate [e.g., 4,4'-methylenebis(phenylisocyanate)] and 1,6-diaminohexane, followed by the removal of free polymer via repeated filtering and solvent washing. The coated polyurea content can be controlled to some extent by adjusting the feed ratio of the isocyanato and amino groups. The structure and <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the resulting nanocomposites were characterized by FTIR, NMR, Raman, confocal Raman, TEM, EDS, and SEM measurements. The polyurea-coated MWNTs showed interesting self-assembled flat- or flowerlike <span class="hlt">morphologies</span> in the solid state. The signals corresponding to that of the D and G bands of the carbon nanotubes were strongly attenuated after polyurea was chemically tethered to the MWNT surfaces. Comparative experiments showed that the grafted polymer species and structures have a strong effect on the Raman signals of polymer-<span class="hlt">functionalized</span> MWNTs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3177674','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3177674"><span>Flower power: its association with bee power and floral <span class="hlt">functional</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> in papilionate legumes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Córdoba, Silvina A.; Cocucci, Andrea A.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background and Aims A test was made of the hypothesis that papilionate legume flowers filter pollinators according to their ability to exert strength to open flowers to access rewards. In addition, interactions with pollen vectors were expected to explain the structural complexity of the architecture of these flowers since operative flower strength may be determined by a combination of <span class="hlt">morphological</span> traits which form part of an intrafloral <span class="hlt">functional</span> module. Methods Six papilionate species were studied: Collaea argentina, Desmodium uncinatum, Galactia latisiliqua, Lathyrus odoratus, Spartium junceum and Tipuana tipu. Measurements were made of the strength needed to open keels and the strength that pollinators were capable of exerting. <span class="hlt">Morphological</span> traits of all petals were also measured to determine which of them could be either mutually correlated or correlated with operative strength and moment of strength and participated in a <span class="hlt">functional</span> module. Key Results It was observed that pollinators were capable in all cases of exerting forces higher and often several times higher than that needed to access floral rewards, and no association could be detected between floral operative strength and strength exerted by the corresponding pollinators. On the other hand, strong and significant correlations were found among morphometric traits and, of these, with operative strength and moment. This was particularly evident among traits of the keel and the wings, presumably involved in the <span class="hlt">functioning</span> of the floral moveable mechanism. Conclusions Though visitors are often many times stronger than the operative strength of the flowers they pollinate, exceptionally weak bees such as Apis mellifera cannot open the strongest flowers. On the other hand, strong correlations among certain petal morphometric traits (particularly between the keel and wings) give support to the idea that an intrafloral module is associated with the <span class="hlt">functioning</span> of the mechanism of these legume flowers. In</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23869384','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23869384"><span>Energy-selective neutron imaging for <span class="hlt">morphological</span> and <span class="hlt">phase</span> analysis of iron-nickel meteorites.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peetermans, S; Grazzi, F; Salvemini, F; Lehmann, E H; Caporali, S; Pratesi, G</p> <p>2013-09-21</p> <p>We propose energy-selective neutron imaging as a new and non-destructive method to investigate rare metallic meteorites. It is based on attenuation of a neutron beam of limited spectral distribution in a sample depending on the elemental composition and crystalline structure. Radiography and tomography allow obtaining the presence, <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and orientation information in the bulk of mineral inclusions, oxide crust and crystalline structure. Its usage in classification and meteor formation studies would be of great value.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20189635','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20189635"><span>Changes in motility, ATP content, <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and fertilisation capacity during the movement <span class="hlt">phase</span> of tetraploid Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) sperm.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Suquet, M; Labbe, C; Brizard, R; Donval, A; Le Coz, J R; Quere, C; Haffray, P</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>Changes in sperm features during the movement <span class="hlt">phase</span> are especially interesting to study in external fertilization species whose sperm duration movement is long because this implies a significant adaptation of moving cells to the external medium. This study describes the changes in tetraploid Pacific oyster sperm characteristics in relation to time post activation. Sperm individually collected on three tetraploid males were activated in seawater. Their features were analysed over a 24h period and compared to a sperm pool collected on three diploid males as a reference. The percentage of motile spermatozoa, the intracellular ATP content, and the fine structure of spermatozoa were studied in relation to time post activation. Furthermore, the fertilisation capacity of sperm individually collected on five diploid males was assessed after 1 and 24h post activation. A forward progressive movement was maintained for at least a 20h duration. Compared to diploid males, the percentage of motile spermatozoa was lower in tetraploid males. The intracellular ATP concentration was higher in spermatozoa from tetraploid males than in spermatozoa from diploid males. A decrease in ATP content was observed in the first 6h post activation and severe alterations were observed in sperm <span class="hlt">morphology</span> after 24h. Then, a lower fertilisation capacity of sperm from diploid males was observed at the end of the movement <span class="hlt">phase</span>. The cessation of Pacific oyster sperm motility was unlikely caused by ATP consumption as ATP concentration was still high at the end of sperm movement but rather caused by drastic changes in sperm <span class="hlt">morphology</span>. Compared to sperm collected on diploid males, the lower quality of sperm from tetraploid males was emphasized by a shorter movement duration and deeper <span class="hlt">morphological</span> alterations at the end of the movement <span class="hlt">phase</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4168957','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4168957"><span>Growth evolution and <span class="hlt">phase</span> transition from chalcocite to digenite in nanocrystalline copper sulfide: <span class="hlt">Morphological</span>, optical and electrical properties</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Quintana-Ramirez, Priscilla Vasthi; Santos-Cruz, José; Vega-González, Marina; Martínez-Alvarez, Omar; Castaño-Meneses, Víctor Manuel; Acosta-Torres, Laura Susana; de la Fuente-Hernández, Javier</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Summary Copper sulfide is a promising p-type inorganic semiconductor for optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, due its small band gap energy and its electrical properties. In this work nanocrystalline copper sulfide (CuxS), with two stoichiometric ratios (x = 2, 1.8) was obtained by one-pot synthesis at 220, 230, 240 and 260 °C in an organic solvent and amorphous CuxS was obtained in aqueous solution. Nanoparticle-like nucleation centers are formed at lower temperatures (220 °C), mixtures of <span class="hlt">morphologies</span> (nanorods, nanodisks and nanoprisms) are seen at 230 and 240 °C, in which the nanodisks are predominant, while big hexagonal/prismatic crystals are obtained at 260 °C according to TEM results. A mixture of chalcocite and digenite <span class="hlt">phases</span> was found at 230 and 240 °C, while a clear transition to a pure digenite <span class="hlt">phase</span> was seen at 260 °C. The evolution of <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and transition of <span class="hlt">phases</span> is consistent to the electrical, optical, and <span class="hlt">morphological</span> properties of the copper sulfide. In fact, digenite Cu1.8S is less resistive (346 Ω/sq) and has a lower energy band gap (1.6 eV) than chalcocite Cu2S (5.72 × 105 Ω/sq, 1.87 eV). Low resistivity was also obtained in CuxS synthesized in aqueous solution, despite its amorphous structure. All CuxS products could be promising for optoelectronic applications. PMID:25247136</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25247136','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25247136"><span>Growth evolution and <span class="hlt">phase</span> transition from chalcocite to digenite in nanocrystalline copper sulfide: <span class="hlt">Morphological</span>, optical and electrical properties.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Quintana-Ramirez, Priscilla Vasthi; Arenas-Arrocena, Ma Concepción; Santos-Cruz, José; Vega-González, Marina; Martínez-Alvarez, Omar; Castaño-Meneses, Víctor Manuel; Acosta-Torres, Laura Susana; de la Fuente-Hernández, Javier</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Copper sulfide is a promising p-type inorganic semiconductor for optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, due its small band gap energy and its electrical properties. In this work nanocrystalline copper sulfide (Cu x S), with two stoichiometric ratios (x = 2, 1.8) was obtained by one-pot synthesis at 220, 230, 240 and 260 °C in an organic solvent and amorphous Cu x S was obtained in aqueous solution. Nanoparticle-like nucleation centers are formed at lower temperatures (220 °C), mixtures of <span class="hlt">morphologies</span> (nanorods, nanodisks and nanoprisms) are seen at 230 and 240 °C, in which the nanodisks are predominant, while big hexagonal/prismatic crystals are obtained at 260 °C according to TEM results. A mixture of chalcocite and digenite <span class="hlt">phases</span> was found at 230 and 240 °C, while a clear transition to a pure digenite <span class="hlt">phase</span> was seen at 260 °C. The evolution of <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and transition of <span class="hlt">phases</span> is consistent to the electrical, optical, and <span class="hlt">morphological</span> properties of the copper sulfide. In fact, digenite Cu1.8S is less resistive (346 Ω/sq) and has a lower energy band gap (1.6 eV) than chalcocite Cu2S (5.72 × 10(5) Ω/sq, 1.87 eV). Low resistivity was also obtained in Cu x S synthesized in aqueous solution, despite its amorphous structure. All Cu x S products could be promising for optoelectronic applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22012174','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22012174"><span>Crystalline molecular machines: <span class="hlt">function</span>, <span class="hlt">phase</span> order, dimensionality, and composition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vogelsberg, Cortnie S; Garcia-Garibay, Miguel A</p> <p>2012-03-07</p> <p>The design of molecular machines is stimulated by the possibility of developing new materials with complex physicochemical and mechanical properties that are responsive to external stimuli. Condensed-<span class="hlt">phase</span> matter with anisotropic molecular order and controlled dynamics, also defined as amphidynamic crystals, offers a promising platform for the design of bulk materials capable of performing such <span class="hlt">functions</span>. Recent studies have shown that it is possible to engineer molecular crystals and extended solids with Brownian rotation about specific axes that can be interfaced with external fields, which may ultimately be used to design novel optoelectronic materials. Structure/<span class="hlt">function</span> relationships of amphidynamic materials have been characterized, establishing the blueprints to further engineer sophisticated <span class="hlt">function</span>. However, the synthesis of amphidynamic molecular machines composed of multiple "parts" is essential to realize increasingly complex behavior. Recent progress in amphidynamic multicomponent systems suggests that sophisticated <span class="hlt">functions</span> similar to those of simple biomolecular machines may eventually be within reach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1379847-cumulants-correlation-functions-versus-qcd-phase-diagram','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1379847-cumulants-correlation-functions-versus-qcd-phase-diagram"><span>Cumulants and correlation <span class="hlt">functions</span> versus the QCD <span class="hlt">phase</span> diagram</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Bzdak, Adam; Koch, Volker; Strodthoff, Nils</p> <p>2017-05-12</p> <p>Here, we discuss the relation of particle number cumulants and correlation <span class="hlt">functions</span>. It is argued that measuring couplings of the genuine multiparticle correlation <span class="hlt">functions</span> could provide cleaner information on possible nontrivial dynamics in heavy-ion collisions. We also extract integrated multiproton correlation <span class="hlt">functions</span> from the presently available experimental data on proton cumulants. We find that the STAR data contain significant four-proton correlations, at least at the lower energies, with indication of changing dynamics in central collisions. We also find that these correlations are rather long ranged in rapidity. Finally, using the Ising model, we demonstrate how the signs of the multiprotonmore » correlation <span class="hlt">functions</span> may be used to exclude certain regions of the <span class="hlt">phase</span> diagram close to the critical point.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3654523','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3654523"><span>Importance of Tissue <span class="hlt">Morphology</span> Relative to Patient Reports of Symptoms and <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Limitations Resulting From Median Nerve Pathology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Evans, Kevin D.; Li, Xiaobai; Sommerich, Carolyn M.; Case-Smith, Jane</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Significant data exist for the personal, environmental, and occupational risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome. Few data, however, explain the interrelationship of tissue <span class="hlt">morphology</span> to these factors among patients with clinical presentation of median nerve pathology. Therefore, our primary objective was to examine the relationship of various risk factors that may be predictive of subjective reports of symptoms or <span class="hlt">functional</span> deficits accounting for median nerve <span class="hlt">morphology</span>. Using diagnostic ultrasonography, we observed real-time median nerve <span class="hlt">morphology</span> among 88 participants with varying reports of symptoms or <span class="hlt">functional</span> limitations resulting from median nerve pathology. Body mass index, educational level, and nerve <span class="hlt">morphology</span> were the primary predictive factors. Monitoring median nerve <span class="hlt">morphology</span> with ultrasonography may provide valuable information for clinicians treating patients with symptoms of median nerve pathology. Sonographic measurements may be a useful clinical tool for improving treatment planning and provision, documenting patient status, or measuring clinical outcomes of prevention and rehabilitation interventions. PMID:23245784</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23245784','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23245784"><span>Importance of tissue <span class="hlt">morphology</span> relative to patient reports of symptoms and <span class="hlt">functional</span> limitations resulting from median nerve pathology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Roll, Shawn C; Evans, Kevin D; Li, Xiaobai; Sommerich, Carolyn M; Case-Smith, Jane</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Significant data exist for the personal, environmental, and occupational risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome. Few data, however, explain the interrelationship of tissue <span class="hlt">morphology</span> to these factors among patients with clinical presentation of median nerve pathology. Therefore, our primary objective was to examine the relationship of various risk factors that may be predictive of subjective reports of symptoms or <span class="hlt">functional</span> deficits accounting for median nerve <span class="hlt">morphology</span>. Using diagnostic ultrasonography, we observed real-time median nerve <span class="hlt">morphology</span> among 88 participants with varying reports of symptoms or <span class="hlt">functional</span> limitations resulting from median nerve pathology. Body mass index, educational level, and nerve <span class="hlt">morphology</span> were the primary predictive factors. Monitoring median nerve <span class="hlt">morphology</span> with ultrasonography may provide valuable information for clinicians treating patients with symptoms of median nerve pathology. Sonographic measurements may be a useful clinical tool for improving treatment planning and provision, documenting patient status, or measuring clinical outcomes of prevention and rehabilitation interventions. Copyright © 2013 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22525157','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22525157"><span><span class="hlt">Morphological</span> and <span class="hlt">functional</span> reversal of phenotypes in a mouse model of Rett syndrome.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Robinson, Lianne; Guy, Jacky; McKay, Leanne; Brockett, Emma; Spike, Rosemary C; Selfridge, Jim; De Sousa, Dina; Merusi, Cara; Riedel, Gernot; Bird, Adrian; Cobb, Stuart R</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Rett syndrome is a neurological disorder caused by mutation of the X-linked MECP2 gene. Mice lacking <span class="hlt">functional</span> Mecp2 display a spectrum of Rett syndrome-like signs, including disturbances in motor <span class="hlt">function</span> and abnormal patterns of breathing, accompanied by structural defects in central motor areas and the brainstem. Although routinely classified as a neurodevelopmental disorder, many aspects of the mouse phenotype can be effectively reversed by activation of a quiescent Mecp2 gene in adults. This suggests that absence of Mecp2 during brain development does not irreversibly compromise brain <span class="hlt">function</span>. It is conceivable, however, that deep-seated neurological defects persist in mice rescued by late activation of Mecp2. To test this possibility, we have quantitatively analysed structural and <span class="hlt">functional</span> plasticity of the rescued adult male mouse brain. Activation of Mecp2 in ∼70% of neurons reversed many <span class="hlt">morphological</span> defects in the motor cortex, including neuronal size and dendritic complexity. Restoration of Mecp2 expression was also accompanied by a significant improvement in respiratory and sensory-motor <span class="hlt">functions</span>, including breathing pattern, grip strength, balance beam and rotarod performance. Our findings sustain the view that MeCP2 does not play a pivotal role in brain development, but may instead be required to maintain full neurological <span class="hlt">function</span> once development is complete.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3206895','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3206895"><span>Adapted to Roar: <span class="hlt">Functional</span> <span class="hlt">Morphology</span> of Tiger and Lion Vocal Folds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Klemuk, Sarah A.; Riede, Tobias; Walsh, Edward J.; Titze, Ingo R.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Vocal production requires active control of the respiratory system, larynx and vocal tract. Vocal sounds in mammals are produced by flow-induced vocal fold oscillation, which requires vocal fold tissue that can sustain the mechanical stress during phonation. Our understanding of the relationship between <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and vocal <span class="hlt">function</span> of vocal folds is very limited. Here we tested the hypothesis that vocal fold <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and viscoelastic properties allow a prediction of fundamental frequency range of sounds that can be produced, and minimal lung pressure necessary to initiate phonation. We tested the hypothesis in lions and tigers who are well-known for producing low frequency and very loud roaring sounds that expose vocal folds to large stresses. In histological sections, we found that the Panthera vocal fold lamina propria consists of a lateral region with adipocytes embedded in a network of collagen and elastin fibers and hyaluronan. There is also a medial region that contains only fibrous proteins and hyaluronan but no fat cells. Young's moduli range between 10 and 2000 kPa for strains up to 60%. Shear moduli ranged between 0.1 and 2 kPa and differed between layers. Biomechanical and <span class="hlt">morphological</span> data were used to make predictions of fundamental frequency and subglottal pressure ranges. Such predictions agreed well with measurements from natural phonation and phonation of excised larynges, respectively. We assume that fat shapes Panthera vocal folds into an advantageous geometry for phonation and it protects vocal folds. Its primary <span class="hlt">function</span> is probably not to increase vocal fold mass as suggested previously. The large square-shaped Panthera vocal fold eases phonation onset and thereby extends the dynamic range of the voice. PMID:22073246</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22073246','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22073246"><span>Adapted to roar: <span class="hlt">functional</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of tiger and lion vocal folds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Klemuk, Sarah A; Riede, Tobias; Walsh, Edward J; Titze, Ingo R</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Vocal production requires active control of the respiratory system, larynx and vocal tract. Vocal sounds in mammals are produced by flow-induced vocal fold oscillation, which requires vocal fold tissue that can sustain the mechanical stress during phonation. Our understanding of the relationship between <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and vocal <span class="hlt">function</span> of vocal folds is very limited. Here we tested the hypothesis that vocal fold <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and viscoelastic properties allow a prediction of fundamental frequency range of sounds that can be produced, and minimal lung pressure necessary to initiate phonation. We tested the hypothesis in lions and tigers who are well-known for producing low frequency and very loud roaring sounds that expose vocal folds to large stresses. In histological sections, we found that the Panthera vocal fold lamina propria consists of a lateral region with adipocytes embedded in a network of collagen and elastin fibers and hyaluronan. There is also a medial region that contains only fibrous proteins and hyaluronan but no fat cells. Young's moduli range between 10 and 2000 kPa for strains up to 60%. Shear moduli ranged between 0.1 and 2 kPa and differed between layers. Biomechanical and <span class="hlt">morphological</span> data were used to make predictions of fundamental frequency and subglottal pressure ranges. Such predictions agreed well with measurements from natural phonation and phonation of excised larynges, respectively. We assume that fat shapes Panthera vocal folds into an advantageous geometry for phonation and it protects vocal folds. Its primary <span class="hlt">function</span> is probably not to increase vocal fold mass as suggested previously. The large square-shaped Panthera vocal fold eases phonation onset and thereby extends the dynamic range of the voice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23636458','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23636458"><span><span class="hlt">Functional</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> underlies performance differences among invasive and non-invasive ruderal Rubus species.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Caplan, Joshua S; Yeakley, J Alan</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>The ability of some introduced plant species to outperform native species under altered resource conditions makes them highly productive in ecosystems with surplus resources. However, ruderal native species are also productive when resources are available. The differences in abundance among invasive and non-invasive ruderal plants may be related to differences in ability to maintain access to or store resources for continual use. For a group of ruderal species in the Pacific Northwest of North America (invasive Rubus armeniacus; non-invasive R. ursinus, R. parviflorus, R. spectabilis, and Rosa nutkana), we sought to determine whether differences in <span class="hlt">functional</span> <span class="hlt">morphological</span> traits, especially metrics of water access and storage, were consistent with differences in water conductance and growth rate. We also investigated the changes in these traits in response to abundant vs. limited water availability. Rubus armeniacus had among the largest root systems and cane cross-sectional areas, the lowest cane tissue densities, and the most plastic ratios of leaf area to plant mass and of xylem area to leaf area, often sharing its rank with R. ursinus or Rosa nutkana. These three species had the highest water conductance and relative growth rates, though Rubus armeniacus grew the most rapidly when water was not limited. Our results suggest that water access and storage abilities vary with <span class="hlt">morphology</span> among the ruderal species investigated, and that these abilities, in combination, are greatest in the invasive. In turn, <span class="hlt">functional</span> <span class="hlt">morphological</span> traits allow R. armeniacus to maintain rapid gas exchange rates during the dry summers in its invaded range, conferring on it high productivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22777476','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22777476"><span>Primary orbital fracture repair: development and validation of tools for <span class="hlt">morphologic</span> and <span class="hlt">functional</span> analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hontscharuk, Rayisa; Fialkov, Jeffrey A; Binhammer, Paul A; McMillan, Catherine R; Antonyshyn, Oleh</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a technique for objective quantitative evaluation of outcomes of orbital reconstruction. Facial three-dimensional images were captured using a Vectra three-dimensional camera. Morphometric analysis was based on interactive anthropometric identification. The analysis was applied to a population of healthy adults (n = 13) and a population of patients following primary repair of unilateral orbital fractures (n = 13). <span class="hlt">Morphologic</span> results following reconstruction were evaluated by identifying residual asymmetries. All subjects further completed the Derriford Appearance Questionnaire and the Orbital Appearance and <span class="hlt">Function</span> Questionnaire.Normative reference values for periorbital asymmetry were determined in a reference population. The mean asymmetry was less than 1.6 mm for each measured <span class="hlt">morphologic</span> feature. In the trauma population, primary orbital reconstruction effectively restored normal periorbital symmetry in 16 of 20 measured parameters. The fracture population showed no significant differences in the degree of asymmetry in globe projection, lower eyelid position, or ciliary margin length.The overall DAS59 scores were significantly higher in the fracture population (P = 0.04). This was due to significantly higher physical distress and dysfunction scores (P = 0.02), as well as a trend toward higher general and social self-consciousness scores (P = 0.06). No significant difference in facial self-consciousness was noted (P = 0.21). Thus, although primary orbital reconstruction was effective in restoring periorbital <span class="hlt">morphology</span>, patients still experienced a higher level of physical distress and dysfunction than their nontraumatized counterparts. This was in accordance with patient self-report, which indicated that a greater percentage of patients were significantly bothered by <span class="hlt">functional</span> outcomes postoperatively as opposed to appearance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994JCrGr.138..517A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994JCrGr.138..517A"><span>Interface <span class="hlt">morphology</span> studies of liquid <span class="hlt">phase</span> epitaxy grown HgCdTe films by atomic force microscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Azoulay, M.; George, M. A.; Burger, A.; Collins, W. E.; Silberman, E.</p> <p>1994-04-01</p> <p>In this paper we report an investigation of the <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the interfaces of liquid <span class="hlt">phase</span> epitaxy (LPE) grown HgCdTe thin films on CdTe and CdZnTe substrates by atomic force microscopy (AFM) on freshly cleaved (110) crystallographic planes. An empirical observation which may be linked to lattice mismatch was indicated by an angle between the cleavage steps of the substrate to those of the film. The precipitates with size ranging from 5 nm to 20 nm were found to be most apparent near the interface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22135050','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22135050"><span>Direct 3D visualization of the <span class="hlt">phase</span>-separated <span class="hlt">morphology</span> in chlorinated polyethylene/nylon terpolyamide based thermoplastic elastomers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Crisenza, Tommaso; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; Koynov, Kaloian; Simonutti, Roberto</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Blends of chlorinated polyethylene and nylon-6/-6,6/-12 terpolyamide were prepared. The ratio of the two components was systematically varied within the blends. The mechanical behavior of the samples was analyzed with tensile tests and dynamical mechanical analysis showing that, for several ratios, materials with improved mechanical properties typical of thermoplastic elastomers were obtained. In such a mechanical regime, a co-continuous <span class="hlt">phase</span>-separated <span class="hlt">morphology</span> was clearly evidenced at the microscopic scale by 3D laser scanning confocal fluorescent microscopy (LSCFM). At blend compositions where plastic tensile behavior is observed, LSCFM reveals dispersed spheres of one component in the other.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAP...120c3904W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAP...120c3904W"><span>Solvothermal synthesis of Fe7C3 and Fe3C nanostructures with <span class="hlt">phase</span> and <span class="hlt">morphology</span> control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Williams, Brent; Clifford, Dustin; El-Gendy, Ahmed A.; Carpenter, Everett E.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">phase</span> transition, from orthorhombic Fe3C to hexagonal Fe7C3, was observed using a wet synthesis mediated by hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC). In this study, CTAC has been shown to control carbide <span class="hlt">phase</span>, <span class="hlt">morphology</span>, and size of the iron carbide nanostructures. Fe7C3 hexagonal prisms were formed with an average diameter of 960 nm, the thickness of 150 nm, and Fe3C nanostructures with an approximate size of 50 nm. Magnetic studies show ferromagnetic behavior with Ms of 126 emu/g, and Hc of 170 Oe with respect to Fe7C3 and 95 emu/g and 590 Oe with respect to Fe3C. The thermal studies using high temperature x-ray diffraction show stability of Fe7C3 up to 500 °C. Upon slow cooling, the Fe7C3 <span class="hlt">phase</span> is recovered with an intermediate oxide <span class="hlt">phase</span> occurring around 300 °C. This study has demonstrated a simple route in synthesizing iron carbides for an in depth magnetic study and crystal <span class="hlt">phase</span> transition study of Fe7C3 at elevated temperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApSS..419..720S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApSS..419..720S"><span><span class="hlt">Phase</span> modification and <span class="hlt">morphological</span> evolution in Nb2O5 thin films and its influence in dye- sensitized solar cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Suresh, S.; Unni, Gautam E.; Ni, Chensheng; Sreedharan, R. Sreeja; Krishnan, R. Reshmi; Satyanarayana, M.; Shanmugam, Mariyappan; Pillai, V. P. Mahadevan</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>Thermal energy plays a crucial role on the <span class="hlt">phase</span> evolution of niobium oxide (Nb2O5) thin films and when employed as a blocking layer these films can manoeuvre charge transfer process in a dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Niobium oxide film, prepared by RF magnetron sputtering process, endured <span class="hlt">phase</span> transitions successively from amorphous to orthorhombic and finally to monoclinic <span class="hlt">phases</span> when subjected to post-deposition annealing. The co-existence of orthorhombic and monoclinic <span class="hlt">phases</span> with an interesting surface <span class="hlt">morphology</span> is perceived at an annealing temperature of 900 °C. Nb2O5 blocking layer at the FTO/TiO2 interface strongly influenced the photovoltaic parameters of the DSSC and the blocking layer in the orthorhombic <span class="hlt">phase</span> is found to be most effective in suppressing charge recombination and delivered a maximum efficiency of 7.33%. The improvement in open circuit voltage can be foreseeable as shifting of the Fermi level towards the conduction band edge of the TiO2 as a result of structural modification of the Nb2O5 blocking layer. The thermal stability of the FTO is also investigated and found that the electrical and optical properties of FTO were remarkably stable up to 600 °C and begin to change appreciably from 700 °C onwards.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27633679','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27633679"><span><span class="hlt">Morphological</span> and <span class="hlt">functional</span> development of the interbranchial lymphoid tissue (ILT) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dalum, Alf Seljenes; Griffiths, David James; Valen, Elin Christine; Amthor, Karoline Skaar; Austbø, Lars; Koppang, Erling Olaf; Press, Charles McLean; Kvellestad, Agnar</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The interbranchial lymphoid tissue (ILT) of Atlantic salmon originates from an embryological location that in higher vertebrates gives rise to both primary and secondary lymphoid tissues. Still much is unknown about the <span class="hlt">morphological</span> and <span class="hlt">functional</span> development of the ILT. In the present work a standardized method of organ volume determination was established to study its development in relation to its containing gill and the thymus. Based on <span class="hlt">morphological</span> findings and gene transcription data, the ILT shows no signs of primary lymphoid <span class="hlt">function</span>. In contrast to the thymus, an ILT-complex first became discernible after the yolk-sac period. After its appearance, the ILT-complex constitutes 3-7% of the total volume of the gill (excluding the gill arch) with the newly described distal ILT constituting a major part, and in adult fish it is approximately 13 times larger than the thymus. Confined regions of T-cell proliferation are present within the ILT. Communication with systemic circulation through the distal ILT is also highly plausible thus offering both internal and external recruitment of immune cells in the growing ILT.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22486687','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22486687"><span><span class="hlt">Morphological</span> integration in the hominin dentition: evolutionary, developmental, and <span class="hlt">functional</span> factors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gómez-Robles, Aida; Polly, P David</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>As the most common and best preserved remains in the fossil record, teeth are central to our understanding of evolution. However, many evolutionary analyses based on dental traits overlook the constraints that limit dental evolution. These constraints are diverse, ranging from developmental interactions between the individual elements of a homologous series (the whole dentition) to <span class="hlt">functional</span> constraints related to occlusion. This study evaluates <span class="hlt">morphological</span> integration in the hominin dentition and its effect on dental evolution in an extensive sample of Plio- and Pleistocene hominin teeth using geometric morphometrics and phylogenetic comparative methods. Results reveal that premolars and molars display significant levels of covariation; that integration is stronger in the mandibular dentition than in the maxillary dentition; and that antagonist teeth, especially first molars, are strongly integrated. Results also show an association of <span class="hlt">morphological</span> integration and evolution. Stasis is observed in elements with strong <span class="hlt">functional</span> and/or developmental interactions, namely in first molars. Alternatively, directional evolution (and weaker integration) occurs in the elements with marginal roles in occlusion and mastication, probably in response to other direct or indirect selective pressures. This study points to the need to reevaluate hypotheses about hominin evolution based on dental characters, given the complex scenario in which teeth evolve.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5219903','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5219903"><span>Renal <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and <span class="hlt">function</span> immediately after extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kaude, J.V.; Williams, C.M.; Millner, M.R.; Scott, K.N.; Finlayson, B.</p> <p>1985-08-01</p> <p>The acute effects of extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) on <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and <span class="hlt">function</span> of the kidney were evaluated by excretory urography, quantitative radionuclide renography (QRR), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 33 consecutive patients. Excretory urograms demonstrated an enlarged kidney in seven (18%) of 41 treatments and partial or complete obstruction of the ureter by stone fragments after 15 (37%) of 41 treatments. Total effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) was not changed after ESWL, but the percentage ERPF of the treated kidney was decreased by more than 5% in 10 (30%) of 33 cases. QRR images showed partial parenchymal obstruction in 10 (25%) of 41 teated kidneys and total parenchymal obstruction in 9 (22%). MRI disclosed one or more abnormalities in 24 (63%) of 38 treated kidneys. Treated kidneys were normal by all three imaging methods in 26% and abnormal by one or more tests in 74% of cases. The <span class="hlt">morphologic</span> and <span class="hlt">functional</span> changes are attributed to renal contusion resulting in edema and extravasation of urine and blood into the interstitial, subcapsular, and perirenal spaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15898353','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15898353"><span>Isolation and partial characterization of mango (Magnifera indica L.) starch: <span class="hlt">morphological</span>, physicochemical and <span class="hlt">functional</span> studies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bello-Pérez, L A; Aparicio-Saguilán, A; Méndez-Montealvo, G; Solorza-Feria, J; Flores-Huicochea, E</p> <p>2005-03-01</p> <p>Mango (Mangifera indica) is a fruit that grows in tropical regions. The aim of this work was to isolate the starch from two varieties of mango highly consumed in Mexico ("criollo" and "manila"), and to evaluate its chemical composition, along with some <span class="hlt">morphological</span>, physicochemical and <span class="hlt">functional</span> properties. Mango starch had an amylose content of about 13%, the fat content of "criollo" variety starch (0.1-0.12%), was similar to that of commercial corn starch used as control (0.2%); both mango starches had higher ash amount (0.2-0.4%) than corn starch. Mango starches presented a smaller granule size (10 microm) than corn starch (15 microm), along with an A-type X-ray diffraction pattern with slight tendency to a C-type. All values of water retention capacity (WRC) increased with the temperature. When the temperature increased, solubility and swelling values increased and in general, mango starches had higher values than corn starch. Both mango starches had gelatinization temperatures lower than the control, but "criollo" variety starch presented higher enthalpy values than "manila" variety and corn starches. Overall, it was concluded that due to its <span class="hlt">morphological</span>, physicochemical and <span class="hlt">functional</span> properties, mango starches could be a feasible starch source with adequate properties, suitable for using in the food industry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7027217','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7027217"><span>Role of laminin in maintenance of type II pneumocyte <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rannels, S.R.; Yarnell, J.A.; Fisher, C.S.; Fabisiak, J.P.; Rannels, D.E. )</p> <p>1987-12-01</p> <p>Loss of differentiated <span class="hlt">function</span> by type II pneumocytes plated on plastic surfaces was demonstrated by decreased lamellar body content, increased cellular protein, and rapid cellular flattening, changes that were retarded modestly by plating cells on laminin-coated surfaces. Laminin surfaces also inhibited ({sup 3}H)thymidine (THM) incorporation into cellular DNA by 40% compared with plastic at 40 h, but did not alter an additional mitogenic effect of rat serum over fetal calf serum. In contrast, cells plated on the laminin-rich basement membrane-like gel formed from an extract of EHS mouse sarcoma, matrix gel (MG), maintained a high content of intracellular lipids in lamellar inclusions and retained a rounded <span class="hlt">morphology</span> for at least 3 days. MG markedly inhibited THM incorporation and <span class="hlt">morphological</span> changes when cells were cultured on this surface of when MG was formed over cells initially plated on plastic for various intervals. The importance of the laminin component of MG was demonstrated when these surfaces were pretreated with a highly specific antilaminin serum. Type II cells commenced flattening on the treated MG surface, and THM incorporation increased with the same time course as did control cells on plastic. The data suggest that short-term culture and study of differentiated type II pneumocytes may require a laminin-rich substratum. THM incorporation into type II cell DNA provides an important early and sensitive index of cell-basement membrane interaction and subsequent maintenance of <span class="hlt">function</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22011768','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22011768"><span>Development and <span class="hlt">functional</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the larval foregut of two brachyuran species from Northern Brazil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Abrunhosa, Fernando A; Simith, Darlan J B; Monteiro, Joely R C; Souza Junior, Antonio N de; Oliva, Pedro A C</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Feeding is an important factor for the successful rearing of larvae of the crab species. Further information on the <span class="hlt">morphological</span> features of the foregut may to reveal larval feeding behaviour and or/whether there is a lecithotrophy in some or even in all stages of the larval cycle. In the present study, the structural development of the foregut and their digestive <span class="hlt">functions</span> were examined in larvae of two brachyurans, Uca vocator and Panopeus occidentalis, reared in the laboratory. During larval development, the foreguts of the larvae in the first and last zoeal stages and in the megalopa stage were microscopically examined, described and illustrated. The zoeal foreguts of both species were well developed, showing specialization with a <span class="hlt">functional</span> cardiopyloric valve and a filter press. The megalopa stage had a complex and specialized gastric mill similar to that found in adult crabs with the appearance of rigidly calcified structures. These results support the hypothesis that the feeding behaviour of each larval stage is directly related to the <span class="hlt">morphological</span> structure of the foregut. Such facts strongly indicate that all larval stages of both U. vocator and P. occidentalis need an external food source before completing the larval development in a planktonic environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23842929','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23842929"><span>Effects of pneumoperitoneum with carbon dioxide and helium on renal <span class="hlt">function</span> and <span class="hlt">morphology</span> in rats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Freitas, Pedro Felipe Silva de; Durães, Leonardo Castro; Carvalho, Felipe Augusto Neves Oliveira de; Duarte, Sérgio Andurte Carvalho; Carneiro, Fabiana Pirani; Sousa, João Batista de</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>To evaluate the effects of pneumoperitoneum with carbon dioxide and helium on renal <span class="hlt">function</span> and <span class="hlt">morphology</span> in a rat model. Twenty four rats were randomized into three groups (n=8): gasless insufflation ('open', Pressure=0 mmHg), carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum at 12 mmHg, and helium pneumoperitoneum at 12 mmHg; all lasting 90 minutes.. A cystostomy was performed and the bladder was emptied. At the end of the experiment, the urine produced, a blood sample and the left kidney of each animal were collected. The following variables were obtained: serum sodium, potassium, urea and creatinine, urine volume and creatinine. The creatinine clearance was estimated for each animal. The kidneys were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and evaluated by a pathologist blinded to the groups. The CO2 and Helium groups did not differ in the variables evaluated. Both developed oliguria (p<0.001 vs. gasless). The CO2 group presented hyperkalemia compared to gasless (p=0.05), which did not attain significance in the helium group. Histopathological analysis revealed mild hydropic degeneration and congestion in the three groups, with no significant difference among them. The type of gas resulted in no difference in the variables of renal <span class="hlt">function</span> and <span class="hlt">morphology</span> assessed. The increase in serum potassium was only observed with CO2 insufflation suggests a combined effect of elevated intra-abdominal pressure and metabolic effects of pneumoperitoneum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24290784','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24290784"><span>The fish tail as a derivation from axial musculoskeletal anatomy: an integrative analysis of <span class="hlt">functional</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Flammang, B E</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>The adult <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the tail varies greatly among extant fishes despite sharing both ontogenetic similarities and the <span class="hlt">functional</span> need to propel the body through a fluid medium. Both sharks (Chondrichthyes) and ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) control caudal fin musculature independently of axial body myomere activity to modify the stiffness and shape of their tails. For example, sharks and bony fishes possess different structural elements and muscles and move their tails in different ways, resulting in different locomotory hydrodynamic effects and a range of performance variables including speed and maneuverability. The stiffness of the heterocercal, lobate tail of the shark can be modulated during the tail beat resulting in nearly continuous thrust production. In contrast, the highly flexible tail of ray-finned fishes can be manipulated into many different shape conformations enabling increased maneuverability for these fishes. Consequently, the developmental, <span class="hlt">morphological</span>, and <span class="hlt">functional</span> derivation of the tail from the axial trunk has resulted in a diversity of form, the attributes of which may be of ecological and evolutionary significance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8133208','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8133208"><span>Investigation of the ontogenetic patterns of rat hypothalamic dopaminergic neurone <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and <span class="hlt">function</span> in vitro.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Murray, H E; Gillies, G E</p> <p>1993-12-01</p> <p>Using fetal rat hypothalamic cells in primary culture maintained in a serum-free defined medium we have investigated the <span class="hlt">morphological</span> and <span class="hlt">functional</span> development of the dopamine (DA)-containing neurones intrinsic to the hypothalamus. Immunocytochemical studies demonstrated the presence of three <span class="hlt">morphologically</span> distinct subtypes of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunopositive neurones. On day 3 in vitro unipolar, bipolar and multipolar cell types were apparent. The latter two subtypes persisted to later days in culture and increased both in perikarya size and neurite length. All subtypes have been shown to have correlates in vivo. Biochemical studies employing [3H]DA demonstrated a time- and temperature-dependent uptake mechanism within the cultures which was significantly attenuated by the uptake inhibitors benztropine and nomifensine in a dose-dependent manner. [3H]DA was also released under both basal and 56 mmol K+/l-stimulated conditions and the magnitude of the response was reduced by exclusion of calcium from the release medium. The amount of [3H]DA accumulated and released by the cultural cells increased with the age of the culture, suggesting <span class="hlt">functional</span> maturation of the DA-containing neurones within this preparation. The role of oestradiol-17 beta in regulating hypothalamic dopaminergic <span class="hlt">function</span> was also investigated both indirectly with the use of [3H]DA and by direct measurement of endogenously synthesized DA using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detection. Both uptake and release of [3H] and release of endogenous DA were significantly modulated by the concentration of steroid in the defined medium. These results demonstrate that hypothalamic dopaminergic neurones, when maintained in primary culture, undergo <span class="hlt">morphological</span> and <span class="hlt">functional</span> maturation which have several correlates in vivo. In addition, we have demonstrated that at least one sub-population of dopaminergic neurones within this preparation is responsive to oestradiol</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2981295','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2981295"><span>Caspofungin Affects Growth of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in Both <span class="hlt">Morphological</span> <span class="hlt">Phases</span> ▿ †</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rodríguez-Brito, Sabrina; Niño-Vega, Gustavo; San-Blas, Gioconda</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Five Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates were grown in the presence of caspofungin (0 to 1 μg/ml). Inhibition of the yeast <span class="hlt">phase</span> ranged from 20 to 65%, while in the mycelial form it ranged from 75% to 82%. Such variability was loosely related to the amount of cell wall β-1,3-glucan. No association with point mutations in the β-1,3-glucan synthase was detected. Caspofungin induced physical changes and cytoplasmic deterioration in both fungal <span class="hlt">phases</span>. PMID:20937789</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24296436','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24296436"><span><span class="hlt">Morphologic</span>, cytometric and <span class="hlt">functional</span> characterization of the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) hemocytes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Castellanos-Martínez, S; Prado-Alvarez, M; Lobo-da-Cunha, A; Azevedo, C; Gestal, C</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The hemocytes of Octopus vulgaris were <span class="hlt">morphologically</span> and <span class="hlt">functionally</span> characterized. Light and electron microscopy (TEM and SEM), and flow cytometry analyses revealed the existence of two hemocyte populations. Large granulocytes showed U-shaped nucleus, a mean of 11.6 μm±1.2 in diameter with basophilic granules, polysaccharide and lysosomic deposits in the cytoplasm. Small granulocytes measured a mean of 8.1 μm±0.7 in diameter, and have a round nucleus occupying almost the entire cell and few or not granules in the cytoplasm. Flow cytometry analysis showed that large granulocytes are the principal cells that develop phagocytosis of latex beads (rising up to 56%) and ROS after zymosan stimulation. Zymosan induced the highest production of both ROS and NO. This study is the first tread towards understanding the O. vulgaris immune system by applying new tools to provide a most comprehensive morpho-<span class="hlt">functional</span> study of their hemocytes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18470401','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18470401"><span>Development and <span class="hlt">functional</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the foreguts of larvae and postlarvae of three crustacean decapods.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Abrunhosa, F; Melo, M</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>The development of the foregut structure and the digestive <span class="hlt">function</span> of the decapods Litopenaeus vannamei, Sesarma rectum and Callichirus major larvae and post larvae were examined. The protozoeal foregut of L. vannamei is simple, lacking a cardiopyloric valve and bearing a rudimentary filter press. In mysis, the filter press is more developed. In the juvenile stage, grooves and a small lateral tooth arise. In S. rectum, the foregut has a <span class="hlt">functional</span> cardiopyloric valve and a filter press. The megalopal and juvenile stages of this species have a gastric mill similar to those in adult crabs. In C. major, the foregut of the zoeae is specialized, with the appearance of some rigid structures, but no gastric mill was found. Calcified structures are observed in the megalopae and they become more developed in the juvenile stage. The results support suppositions, previously reported in other studies, that feeding behavior of each larval and postlarval stage is directly related to the <span class="hlt">morphological</span> characteristics of the foreguts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991HM.....45..465V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991HM.....45..465V"><span>Ultrastructure and <span class="hlt">functional</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the female reproductive organs in Protodrilus (Polychaeta, Annelida)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>von Nordheim, Henning</p> <p>1991-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and <span class="hlt">function</span> of the female reproductive organs in 6 Protodrilus species are investigated by light- and transmission electron microscopy. Possible ways in which spermatozoa may enter the female coelom after leaving the spermatophore are discussed for species with and without special female reception organs. Only female P. rubropharyngeus and P. flavocapitatus have “dorsal organs” for spermatophore reception. The structure and <span class="hlt">function</span> of these organs are described, as well as those of the oviduct found in 3 of the species investigated. The possible phylogenetic origin of gonoducts and different modes of oviposition within the genus are discussed. Finally, the high taxonomic significance of female traits such as dorsal organs, oviducts, cocoon glands and lateral ciliary rows in this genus is stressed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT........11X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT........11X"><span><span class="hlt">Phase</span> transitions, magnetism and surface adsorptions assessed by meta-GGA <span class="hlt">functionals</span> and random <span class="hlt">phase</span> approximation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xiao, Bing</p> <p></p> <p>The meta-GGA <span class="hlt">functionals</span> and random <span class="hlt">phase</span> approximation are tested for <span class="hlt">phase</span> transitions and a strongly correlated transition metal oxide in this dissertation. One of the latest meta-GGA <span class="hlt">functionals</span> is also employed to study the van der Waals bound system in surface science. Our main purpose is to reveal the performance of new exchange-correlation <span class="hlt">functionals</span> on various properties and systems. We are also interested in seeking the possible relationship between the performance of a semilocal <span class="hlt">functional</span> and its exchange enhancement factor. We have studied the structural <span class="hlt">phase</span> transitions in crystalline Si (insulator to metal), SiO2 (insulator to insulator) and Zr (metal to metal) systems, as a test of exchange energy semilocal <span class="hlt">functionals</span> on Jacob's ladder. Our results confirm the energy-geometry delimma of GGAs in three systems. The most sophisticated non-empirical meta-generalized gradient approximations (meta-GGAs) such as TPSS (Tao-Perdew-Staroveov-Scuseria) and revTPSS (revised TPSS) give better lattice constants than PBE, but the <span class="hlt">phase</span> transition parameters (energy difference and transition pressure) are smaller and less realistic than those from the latter GGA. However, the recent <span class="hlt">functionals</span> of meta-GGA made simple family (MGGA_MS) behave differently to those previous meta-GGAs, predicting larger and more realistic <span class="hlt">phase</span> transition parameters. Meanwhile, MGGA_MS also delivers the equilibrium geometry of crystalline materials similar to previous non-empirical meta-GGAs. In contrast to semilocal <span class="hlt">functionals</span>, the nonlocal <span class="hlt">functionals</span> such as the range-separated hybrid <span class="hlt">functional</span> HSE06 (Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof) and non-self consistent random <span class="hlt">phase</span> approximation (RPA) are not only able to give the accurate equilibrium geometry , but also predict the realistic <span class="hlt">phase</span> transition parameters for Si and SiO2 systems. The ground state of rutile-type vanadium dioxide (R-VO2) represents a great challenge to the current density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory. In this dissertation, we</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3694790','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3694790"><span>Multimodal Assessment of Microscopic <span class="hlt">Morphology</span> and Retinal <span class="hlt">Function</span> in Patients With Geographic Atrophy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Panorgias, Athanasios; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Capps, Arlie G.; Hunter, Allan A.; Morse, Lawrence S.; Werner, John S.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Purpose. To correlate retinal <span class="hlt">function</span> and visual sensitivity with retinal <span class="hlt">morphology</span> revealed by ultrahigh-resolution imaging with adaptive optics–optical coherence tomography (AO-OCT), on patients with geographic atrophy. Methods. Five eyes from five subjects were tested (four with geographic atrophy [66.3 ± 6.4 years, mean ± 1 SD] and one normal [61 years]). Photopic and scotopic multifocal electroretinograms (mfERGs) were recorded. Visual fields were assessed with microperimetry (mP) combined with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope for high-resolution confocal retinal fundus imaging. The eye tracker of the microperimeter identified the preferred retinal locus that was then used as a reference for precise targeting of areas for advanced retinal imaging. Images were obtained with purpose-built, in-house, ultrahigh resolution AO-OCT. Fundus autofluorescence (FAF) and color fundus (CF) photographs were also acquired. Results. The AO-OCT imaging provided detailed cross-sectional structural representation of the retina. Up to 12 retinal layers were identified in the normal subject while many severe retinal abnormalities (i.e., calcified drusen, drusenoid pigment epithelium detachment, outer retinal tubulation) were identified in the retinae of the GA patients. The <span class="hlt">functional</span> tests showed preservation of sensitivities, although somewhat compromised, at the border of the GA. Conclusions. The images provided here advance our knowledge of the <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of retinal layers in GA patients. While there was a strong correlation between altered retinal structure and reduction in visual <span class="hlt">function</span>, there were a number of examples in which the photoreceptor inner/outer segment (IS/OS) junctions lost reflectivity at the margins of GA, while visual <span class="hlt">function</span> was still demonstrated. This was shown to be due to changes in photoreceptor orientation near the GA border. PMID:23696601</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27235455','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27235455"><span><span class="hlt">Functional</span> and <span class="hlt">morphological</span> alterations associated with working memory dysfunction in patients with generalized anxiety disorder.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moon, Chung-Man; Jeong, Gwang-Woo</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Background Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has been related to <span class="hlt">functional</span> brain activities and structural brain abnormalities. Purpose To investigate the neural mechanism on working memory dysfunction in patients with GAD in terms of the combined <span class="hlt">functional</span> and <span class="hlt">morphological</span> brain abnormalities. Material and Methods Patients with GAD and healthy controls matched for age, sex, and education level underwent high-resolution T1-weighted (T1W) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and <span class="hlt">functional</span> MRI (fMRI). In this study, fMRI and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) were used for assessing the differential brain activation patterns, as well as for comparing the <span class="hlt">morphological</span> alterations between the two groups. Results In response to the neutral distractors, the patients showed significantly lower activities in the regions of the fusiform gyrus (FuG), superior parietal gyrus (SPG), precuneus (PCu), superior occipital gyrus (SOG), lingual gyrus (LiG), cuneus (Cun), calcarine cortex (CaC), parahippocampal gyrus (PHG) and cerebellar cortex (Cb) compared to the controls. In response to the anxiety-inducing distractors, the patients showed significantly higher activity in the hippocampus and lower activities in the regions of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), FuG, SPG, PCu, SOG, and Cb. Also, the patients showed a significant reduction of the white matter volumes in the DLPFC, anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC) and midbrain. Conclusion This study provides the first evidence for the association between the morphometric alterations and <span class="hlt">functional</span> deficit in the working memory processing with the neutral and anxiety-inducing distractors in GAD patients. These findings would be helpful to understand the neural mechanisms on working memory impairment in connection with GAD symptoms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JSSCh.182..749C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JSSCh.182..749C"><span><span class="hlt">Morphological</span> and <span class="hlt">phase</span> evolution of TiO 2 nanocrystals prepared from peroxotitanate complex aqueous solution: Influence of acetic acid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chang, Jeong Ah; Vithal, Muga; Baek, In Chan; Seok, Sang Il</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Nanosized anatase and rutile TiO 2 having different shape, <span class="hlt">phase</span> and size have been prepared from aqueous solutions of peroxo titanium complex starting from titanium(IV) isopropoxide (TTIP), acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2) in water/isopropanol media by a facile sol-gel process. The TiO 2 nanocrystals are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, TEM, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) techniques. The influence of pH and the sequence of addition of reaction contents on the <span class="hlt">phase</span> and <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of TiO 2 are studied. The reasons for the observation of only anatase and/or mixture of anatase and rutile are given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvE..96b2803D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvE..96b2803D"><span>Growth kinetics and <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of snowflakes in supersaturated atmosphere using a three-dimensional <span class="hlt">phase</span>-field model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Demange, G.; Zapolsky, H.; Patte, R.; Brunel, M.</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Simulating ice crystal growth is a major issue for meteorology and aircraft safety. Yet, very few models currently succeed in reproducing correctly the diversity of snow crystal forms, and link the model parameters to thermodynamic quantities. Here, we demonstrate that the new three-dimensional <span class="hlt">phase</span>-field model developed in Demange et al. [npj Comput. Mater. 3, 1 (2017), 10.1038/s41524-017-0015-1] is capable of reproducing properly the <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and growth kinetics of snowflakes in supersaturated atmosphere. Aside from that, we show that the growth dynamics of snow crystals satisfies the selection theory, consistently with previous experimental observations. Finally, we link the parameters of the <span class="hlt">phase</span>-field model to atmospheric parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15266384','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15266384"><span>Evolution of <span class="hlt">morphological</span> integration. I. <span class="hlt">Functional</span> units channel stress-induced variation in shrew mandibles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Badyaev, Alexander V; Foresman, Kerry R</p> <p>2004-06-01</p> <p>Stress-induced deviations from normal development are often assumed to be random, yet their accumulation and expression can be influenced by patterns of <span class="hlt">morphological</span> integration within an organism. We studied within-individual developmental variation (fluctuating asymmetry) in the mandible of four shrew species raised under normal and extreme environments. Patterns of among-individual variation and fluctuating asymmetry were strongly concordant in traits that were involved in the attachment of the same muscles (i.e., <span class="hlt">functionally</span> integrated traits), and fluctuating asymmetry was closely integrated among these traits, implying direct developmental interactions among traits involved in the same <span class="hlt">function</span>. Stress-induced variation was largely confined to the directions delimited by <span class="hlt">functionally</span> integrated groups of traits in the pattern that was concordant with species divergence--species differed most in the same traits that were most sensitive to stress within each species. These results reveal a strong effect of <span class="hlt">functional</span> complexes on directing and incorporating stress-induced variation during development and might explain the historical persistence of sets of traits involved in the same <span class="hlt">function</span> in shrew jaws despite their high sensitivity to environmental variation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4945151','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4945151"><span>Astrocyte <span class="hlt">morphology</span> is confined by cortical <span class="hlt">functional</span> boundaries in mammals ranging from mice to human</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Eilam, Raya; Aharoni, Rina; Arnon, Ruth; Malach, Rafael</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Cortical blood flow can be modulated by local activity across a range of species; from barrel-specific blood flow in the rodent somatosensory cortex to the human cortex, where BOLD-fMRI reveals numerous <span class="hlt">functional</span> borders. However, it appears that the distribution of blood capillaries largely ignores these <span class="hlt">functional</span> boundaries. Here we report that, by contrast, astrocytes, a major player in blood-flow control, show a striking <span class="hlt">morphological</span> sensitivity to <span class="hlt">functional</span> borders. Specifically, we show that astrocyte processes are structurally confined by barrel boundaries in the mouse, by the border of primary auditory cortex in the rat and by layers IIIa/b and Cytochrome Oxidase (CO)-blobs boundaries in the human primary visual cortex. Thus, astrocytes which are critical elements in neuro-hemodynamic coupling show a significant anatomical segregation along <span class="hlt">functional</span> boundaries across different mammalian species. These results may open a new anatomical marker for delineating <span class="hlt">functional</span> borders across species, including post-mortem human brains. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15915.001 PMID:27282388</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPIE10045E..13J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPIE10045E..13J"><span>Wide-field human photoreceptor <span class="hlt">morphological</span> analysis using <span class="hlt">phase</span>-resolved sensorless adaptive optics swept-source OCT (Conference Presentation)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ju, Myeong Jin; Heisler, Morgan; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Bonora, Stefano; Jian, Yifan; Sarunic, Marinko V.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (AO-OCT) systems capable of 3D high resolution imaging have been applied to posterior eye imaging in order to resolve the fine <span class="hlt">morphological</span> features in the retina. Human cone photoreceptors have been extensively imaged and studied for the investigation of retinal degeneration resulting in photoreceptor cell death. However, there are still limitations of conventional approaches to AO in the clinic, such as relatively small field-of-view (FOV) and the complexities in system design and operation. In this research, a recently developed <span class="hlt">phase</span>-resolved Sensorless AO Swept Source based OCT (SAO-SS-OCT) system which is compact in size and easy to operate is presented. Owing to its lens-based system design, wide-field imaging can be performed up to 6° on the retina. A <span class="hlt">phase</span> stabilization unit was integrated with the OCT system. With the <span class="hlt">phase</span> stabilized OCT signal, we constructed retinal micro-vasculature image using a <span class="hlt">phase</span> variance technique. The retinal vasculature image was used to align and average multiple OCT volumes acquired sequentially. The contrast-enhanced photoreceptor projection image was then extracted from the averaged volume, and analyzed based on its <span class="hlt">morphological</span> features through a novel photoreceptor structure evaluation algorithm. The retinas of twelve human research subjects (10 normal and 2 pathological cases) were measured in vivo. Quantitative parameters used for evaluating the cone photoreceptor mosaic such as cell density, cell area, and mosaic regularity are presented and discussed. The SAO-SS-OCT system and the proposed photoreceptor evaluation method has significant potential to reveal early stage retinal diseases associated with retinal degeneration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2323016','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2323016"><span><span class="hlt">Morphology</span> and <span class="hlt">function</span> of cryopreserved whole ovine ovaries after heterotopic autotransplantation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Grazul-Bilska, Anna T; Banerjee, Jashoman; Yazici, Ilker; Borowczyk, Ewa; Bilski, Jerzy J; Sharma, Rakesh K; Siemionov, Maria; Falcone, Tommaso</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Background The objective of this study was to perform complex characterization of cryopreserved and then autotransplanted ovaries including determination of the ability to respond to in vivo follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)-treatment, fertilizability of retrieved oocytes, and <span class="hlt">morphology</span>, vascularization, cellular proliferation and apoptosis in sheep. Methods Mature crossbred ewes were divided into two groups; an intact (control) group (n = 4), and autotransplanted group (n = 4) in which oophorectomy was performed laparoscopically and ovaries with intact vascular pedicles frozen, thawed and transplanted back into the same animal at a different site. Approximately five months after autotransplantation, estrus was synchronized, ewes were treated with FSH, and ovaries were collected. For all ovaries, number of visible follicles was determined, and collected cumulus oocyte complexes (COC) were matured and fertilized in vitro. Remaining ovarian tissues were fixed for evaluation of <span class="hlt">morphology</span>, expression of factor VIII (marker of endothelial cells), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF; expressed by pericytes and smooth muscle cells), and smooth muscle cell actin (SMCA; marker of pericytes and smooth muscle cells), and cellular proliferation and apoptosis. Two fully <span class="hlt">functional</span> ovaries were collected from each control ewe (total 8 ovaries). Results Out of eight autotransplanted ovaries, a total of two ovaries with developing follicles were found. Control ewes had 10.6 +/- 2.7 follicles/ovary, oocytes were in vitro fertilized and developed to the blastocyst stage. One autotransplanted ewe had 4 visible follicles from which 3 COC were collected, but none of them was fertilized. The <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of autotransplanted and control ovaries was similar. In control and autotransplanted ovaries, primordial, primary, secondary, antral and preovulatory follicles were found along with fully <span class="hlt">functional</span> vascularization which was manifested by expression of factor VIII, VEGF and SMCA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvE..89b2702A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvE..89b2702A"><span>Lattice simulations of <span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> on lipid bilayers: Renormalization, membrane shape, and electrostatic dipole interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Amazon, Jonathan J.; Feigenson, Gerald W.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>When liquid <span class="hlt">phases</span> coexist at equilibrium but are not driven to minimize domain interfacial contact energy, the resulting patterns of <span class="hlt">phase</span> domains can have important implications for living cells. In this study we explore some of the interactions and conditions that produce the stable patterned <span class="hlt">phases</span> that are observed in model lipid mixtures. By use of Monte Carlo simulations we find that background curvature is important for the formation of patterned (modulated) <span class="hlt">phases</span>. The interactions that stabilize nanoscopic <span class="hlt">phase</span> separation are still not well understood. We show that inclusion of an electrostatic dipole repulsion with decay lengths as short as two to four lipid diameters can break up domains at the nanometer scale and that the location of the miscibility critical point is sensitive to this interaction. The use of a coarse-grained simulation raises questions about comparing parameters in simulations performed at different length scales. Using renormalization group techniques we show how to reconcile this problem, treating line tension as a running coupling constant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4391078','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4391078"><span>Lattice simulations of <span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> on lipid bilayers: Renormalization, membrane shape, and electrostatic dipole interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Amazon, Jonathan J.; Feigenson, Gerald W.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>When liquid <span class="hlt">phases</span> coexist at equilibrium but are not driven to minimize domain interfacial contact energy, the resulting patterns of <span class="hlt">phase</span> domains can have important implications for living cells. In this study we explore some of the interactions and conditions that produce the stable patterned <span class="hlt">phases</span> that are observed in model lipid mixtures. By use of Monte Carlo simulations we find that background curvature is important for the formation of patterned (modulated) <span class="hlt">phases</span>. The interactions that stabilize nanoscopic <span class="hlt">phase</span> separation are still not well understood. We show that inclusion of an electrostatic dipole repulsion with decay lengths as short as two to four lipid diameters can break up domains at the nanometer scale and that the location of the miscibility critical point is sensitive to this interaction. The use of a coarse-grained simulation raises questions about comparing parameters in simulations performed at different length scales. Using renormalization group techniques we show how to reconcile this problem, treating line tension as a running coupling constant. PMID:25353504</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EL....11850006K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EL....11850006K"><span><span class="hlt">Phase</span> response <span class="hlt">function</span> for oscillators with strong forcing or coupling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Klinshov, Vladimir; Yanchuk, Serhiy; Stephan, Artur; Nekorkin, Vladimir</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Phase</span> response curve (PRC) is an extremely useful tool for studying the response of oscillatory systems, e.g., neurons, to sparse or weak stimulation. Here we develop a framework for studying the response to a series of pulses which are frequent or/and strong. In this case the effect of a stimulus does not vanish before the next one arrives, so the standard PRC fails. In the present letter, we introduce the so-called <span class="hlt">phase</span> response <span class="hlt">function</span> (PRF) that measures the <span class="hlt">phase</span> response even when the system is far from the limit cycle. The PRF uses the history of several previous pulses and does not need the information about the distance from the limit cycle. As a result, an oscillator with pulse input is reduced to a <span class="hlt">phase</span> system. We illustrate our approach by its application to various systems, such as the Morris-Lecar, Hodgkin-Huxley neuron models, and others. We show that the PRF allows predicting the dynamics of forced and coupled oscillators even when the PRC fails. Thus, the PRF provides an effective tool that may be used for simulation of neural, chemical, optic and other oscillatory systems.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22494832','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22494832"><span><span class="hlt">Morphological</span> analysis of GeTe in inline <span class="hlt">phase</span> change switches</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>King, Matthew R.; El-Hinnawy, Nabil; Salmon, Mike; Gu, Jitty; Wagner, Brian P.; Jones, Evan B.; Howell, Robert S.; Nichols, Doyle T.; Young, Robert M.; Borodulin, Pavel</p> <p>2015-09-07</p> <p>Crystallization and amorphization phenomena in indirectly heated <span class="hlt">phase</span> change material-based devices were investigated. Scanning transmission electron microscopy was utilized to explore GeTe <span class="hlt">phase</span> transition processes in the context of the unique inline <span class="hlt">phase</span> change switch (IPCS) architecture. A monolithically integrated thin film heating element successfully converted GeTe to ON and OFF states. Device cycling prompted the formation of an active area which sustains the majority of structural changes during pulsing. A transition region on both sides of the active area consisting of polycrystalline GeTe and small nuclei (<15 nm) in an amorphous matrix was also observed. The switching mechanism, determined by variations in pulsing parameters, was shown to be predominantly growth-driven. A preliminary model for crystallization and amorphization in IPCS devices is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAP...118i4501K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAP...118i4501K"><span><span class="hlt">Morphological</span> analysis of GeTe in inline <span class="hlt">phase</span> change switches</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>King, Matthew R.; El-Hinnawy, Nabil; Salmon, Mike; Gu, Jitty; Wagner, Brian P.; Jones, Evan B.; Borodulin, Pavel; Howell, Robert S.; Nichols, Doyle T.; Young, Robert M.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Crystallization and amorphization phenomena in indirectly heated <span class="hlt">phase</span> change material-based devices were investigated. Scanning transmission electron microscopy was utilized to explore GeTe <span class="hlt">phase</span> transition processes in the context of the unique inline <span class="hlt">phase</span> change switch (IPCS) architecture. A monolithically integrated thin film heating element successfully converted GeTe to ON and OFF states. Device cycling prompted the formation of an active area which sustains the majority of structural changes during pulsing. A transition region on both sides of the active area consisting of polycrystalline GeTe and small nuclei (<15 nm) in an amorphous matrix was also observed. The switching mechanism, determined by variations in pulsing parameters, was shown to be predominantly growth-driven. A preliminary model for crystallization and amorphization in IPCS devices is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SurSc.618...27K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SurSc.618...27K"><span><span class="hlt">Morphology</span> of mesa surfaces on Si(111) prepared by molecular beam epitaxy at temperatures around the (7 × 7)-“1 × 1” surface <span class="hlt">phase</span> transition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krügener, Jan; Osten, H. Jörg; Fissel, Andreas</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Development of surface <span class="hlt">morphology</span> in Si molecular beam epitaxy on mesa-structured Si(111) at temperatures around the (7 × 7)-“1 × 1” surface <span class="hlt">phase</span> transition was studied by atomic force microscopy. Significant changes in surface <span class="hlt">morphology</span> were found for a small increase in temperature near the surface <span class="hlt">phase</span> transition, accompanied by a strong increase in step-free area dimension. This behavior is reported for the first time for epitaxial silicon growth, but supports earlier in situ studies of the thermal decay of 2-dimensional islands and voids on Si(111) close to the surface <span class="hlt">phase</span> transition using low energy electron microscopy by Hibino et al. (Phys. Rev. B 63, 245402, 2001). The observed changes in surface <span class="hlt">morphology</span> clearly demonstrate the interplay of crystal growth and the surface <span class="hlt">phase</span> transformation. In particular, the simultaneous appearance of two surface <span class="hlt">phases</span> under certain conditions and their specific influence on the growth behavior are discussed with regard to this matter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990MTA....21..529L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990MTA....21..529L"><span>Effect of <span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">morphologies</span> on the mechanical properties of babbitt-bronze composite interfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liaw, P. K.; Gungor, M. N.; Logsdon, W. A.; Ijiri, Y.; Taszarek, B. J.; Frohlich, S.</p> <p>1990-02-01</p> <p>Interfaces of two different babbitt-bronze composites were tested ultrasonically and then were fractured using the Chalmers test method. The primary distinction between the two composites was in the copper content. Use of less copper in the babbitt resulted in interfaces with higher strength, lower ductility, less cracking, and less unbonded area. The differences appeared to stem from the structure of the intermetallic compounds found at the interface, namely, the Cu3Sn and the Cu6Sn5 layers. The low-copper composite failed within a thick, dendrite-like Cu6Sn5 layer, while the high-copper one separated at the interface between a smooth Cu6Sn5 layer and the babbitt metal. The rough interface <span class="hlt">morphology</span> seemed responsible for the low-copper composite’s increased strength. The correlation between mechanical and ultrasonic properties was poor for the low-copper composite but excellent for the high-copper one. These results suggest that interface <span class="hlt">morphology</span> can significantly affect mechanical as well as ultrasonic properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23704918','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23704918"><span>Quantifying <span class="hlt">morphological</span> parameters of the terminal branching units in a mouse lung by <span class="hlt">phase</span> contrast synchrotron radiation computed tomography.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hwang, Jeongeun; Kim, Miju; Kim, Seunghwan; Lee, Jinwon</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>An effective technique of <span class="hlt">phase</span> contrast synchrotron radiation computed tomography was established for the quantitative analysis of the microstructures in the respiratory zone of a mouse lung. Heitzman's method was adopted for the whole-lung sample preparation, and Canny's edge detector was used for locating the air-tissue boundaries. This technique revealed detailed <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the respiratory zone components, including terminal bronchioles and alveolar sacs, with sufficiently high resolution of 1.74 µm isotropic voxel size. The technique enabled visual inspection of the respiratory zone components and comprehension of their relative positions in three dimensions. To check the method's feasibility for quantitative imaging, <span class="hlt">morphological</span> parameters such as diameter, surface area and volume were measured and analyzed for sixteen randomly selected terminal branching units, each consisting of a terminal bronchiole and a pair of succeeding alveolar sacs. The four types of asymmetry ratios concerning alveolar sac mouth diameter, alveolar sac surface area, and alveolar sac volume are measured. This is the first ever finding of the asymmetry ratio for the terminal bronchioles and alveolar sacs, and it is noteworthy that an appreciable degree of branching asymmetry was observed among the alveolar sacs at the terminal end of the airway tree, despite the number of samples was small yet. The series of efficient techniques developed and confirmed in this study, from sample preparation to quantification, is expected to contribute to a wider and exacter application of <span class="hlt">phase</span> contrast synchrotron radiation computed tomography to a variety of studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22258630','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22258630"><span><span class="hlt">Phase</span> formation and <span class="hlt">morphological</span> stability of ultrathin Ni-Co-Pt silicide films formed on Si(100)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Xu, Peng; Wu, Dongping; Kubart, Tomas; Gao, Xindong; Zhang, Shi-Li</p> <p>2014-05-15</p> <p>Ultrathin Ni, Co, and Pt films, each no more than 4 nm in thickness, as well as their various combinations are employed to investigate the competing growth of epitaxial Co{sub 1-y}Ni{sub y}Si{sub 2} films against polycrystalline Pt{sub 1-z}Ni{sub z}Si. The <span class="hlt">phase</span> formation critically affects the <span class="hlt">morphological</span> stability of the resulting silicide films, with the epitaxial films being superior to the polycrystalline ones. Any combination of those metals improves the <span class="hlt">morphological</span> stability with reference to their parent individual metal silicide films. When Ni, Co, and Pt are all included, the precise initial location of Pt does little to affect the final <span class="hlt">phase</span> formation in the silicide films and the epitaxial growth of Co{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x}Si{sub 2} films is always perturbed, in accordance to thermodynamics that shows a preferential formation of Pt{sub 1-z}Ni{sub z}Si over that of Co{sub 1-y}Ni{sub y}Si{sub 2}.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26973691','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26973691"><span>Quantitative Trait Loci for <span class="hlt">Morphological</span> Traits and their Association with <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Genes in Raphanus sativus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yu, Xiaona; Choi, Su Ryun; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Pang, Wenxing; Lee, Ji-Young; Lim, Yong Pyo</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) governing <span class="hlt">morphologically</span> important traits enables to comprehend their potential genetic mechanisms in the genetic breeding program. In this study, we used 210 F2 populations derived from a cross between two radish inbred lines (Raphanus sativus) "835" and "B2," including 258 SSR markers were used to detect QTLs for 11 <span class="hlt">morphological</span> traits that related to whole plant, leaf, and root yield in 3 years of replicated field test. Total 55 QTLs were detected which were distributed on each linkage group of the Raphanus genome. Individual QTLs accounted for 2.69-12.6 of the LOD value, and 0.82-16.25% of phenotypic variation. Several genomic regions have multiple traits that clustered together, suggested the existence of pleiotropy linkage. Synteny analysis of the QTL regions with A. thaliana genome selected orthologous genes in radish. InDels and SNPs in the parental lines were detected in those regions by Illumina genome sequence. Five identified candidate gene-based markers were validated by co-mapping with underlying QTLs affecting different traits. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed the different expression levels of these five genes in parental lines. In addition, comparative QTL analysis with B. rapa revealed six common QTL regions and four key major evolutionarily conserved crucifer blocks (J, U, R, and W) harboring QTL for <span class="hlt">morphological</span> traits. The QTL positions identified in this study will provide a valuable resource for identifying more <span class="hlt">functional</span> genes when whole radish genome sequence is released. Candidate genes identified in this study that co-localized in QTL regions are expected to facilitate in radish breeding programs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10952884','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10952884"><span>Inspiratory aerodynamic valving in the avian lung: <span class="hlt">functional</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the extrapulmonary primary bronchus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maina, J N; Africa, M</p> <p>2000-09-01</p> <p>The form, geometry and epithelial <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the extrapulmonary primary bronchi (EPPB) of the domestic fowl (Gallus gallus var. domesticus) and the rock dove (Columba livia) were studied microscopically and by three-dimensional computer reconstruction to determine the structural features that may be involved in the rectification of the inspired air past the openings of the medioventral secondary bronchi (MVSB), i.e. the inspiratory aerodynamic valving (IAV). In both species, the EPPB were intercalated between the clavicular and the cranial thoracic air-sacs. A notable difference between the <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the EPPB in G. g. domesticus and C. livia was that, in the former, the EPPB were constricted at the origin of the MVSB, while a dilatation occurred at the same site in the latter. In both species, a highly vascularized, dorsally located hemispherical epithelial swelling was observed cranial to the origin of the MVSB. The MVSB were narrow at their origin and variably angled relative to the longitudinal axis of the EPPB. Conspicuous epithelial tracts and folds were observed on the luminal aspect of the EPPB in both C. livia and G. g. domesticus. From their marked development and their orientation relative to the angled MVSB, these properties may influence the flow of the air in the EPPB. It was concluded that features such as syringeal constriction, an intimate topographic relationship between the EPPB and the cranial air-sacs, prominent epithelial tracts and folds, an epithelial swelling ahead of the origin of the first MVSB (corresponding to the 'segmentun accelerans'), and narrowing and angulation of the MVSB at their origin, may together contribute to IAV to a variable extent. In as much as the mechanism of pulmonary ventilation and mode of airflow in the parabronchial lung are basically similar in all birds, the <span class="hlt">morphological</span> differences observed between G. g. domesticus and C. livia suggest that either the mechanism of production of IAV or its <span class="hlt">functional</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4777717','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4777717"><span>Quantitative Trait Loci for <span class="hlt">Morphological</span> Traits and their Association with <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Genes in Raphanus sativus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yu, Xiaona; Choi, Su Ryun; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Pang, Wenxing; Lee, Ji-Young; Lim, Yong Pyo</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) governing <span class="hlt">morphologically</span> important traits enables to comprehend their potential genetic mechanisms in the genetic breeding program. In this study, we used 210 F2 populations derived from a cross between two radish inbred lines (Raphanus sativus) “835” and “B2,” including 258 SSR markers were used to detect QTLs for 11 <span class="hlt">morphological</span> traits that related to whole plant, leaf, and root yield in 3 years of replicated field test. Total 55 QTLs were detected which were distributed on each linkage group of the Raphanus genome. Individual QTLs accounted for 2.69–12.6 of the LOD value, and 0.82–16.25% of phenotypic variation. Several genomic regions have multiple traits that clustered together, suggested the existence of pleiotropy linkage. Synteny analysis of the QTL regions with A. thaliana genome selected orthologous genes in radish. InDels and SNPs in the parental lines were detected in those regions by Illumina genome sequence. Five identified candidate gene-based markers were validated by co-mapping with underlying QTLs affecting different traits. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed the different expression levels of these five genes in parental lines. In addition, comparative QTL analysis with B. rapa revealed six common QTL regions and four key major evolutionarily conserved crucifer blocks (J, U, R, and W) harboring QTL for <span class="hlt">morphological</span> traits. The QTL positions identified in this study will provide a valuable resource for identifying more <span class="hlt">functional</span> genes when whole radish genome sequence is released. Candidate genes identified in this study that co-localized in QTL regions are expected to facilitate in radish breeding programs. PMID:26973691</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19051250','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19051250"><span>Effect of eda loss of <span class="hlt">function</span> on upper jugal tooth <span class="hlt">morphology</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Charles, Cyril; Pantalacci, Sophie; Peterkova, Renata; Tafforeau, Paul; Laudet, Vincent; Viriot, Laurent</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>The Tabby/eda mice, which bear a loss of <span class="hlt">function</span> mutation for the eda (ectodysplasinA) gene, are known to display developmental anomalies in organs with an ectodermal origin. Although the lower jugal (cheek) teeth of Tabby/eda mice have been extensively studied, upper teeth have never been investigated in detail. However, this may help us to further understand the <span class="hlt">function</span> of the eda gene in tooth development. In this work, the shape and size of both the crown and the radicular system were studied in the Tabby/eda mice upper jugal teeth. To deal with the high <span class="hlt">morphological</span> variability, we defined several morphotypes based on cusp numbers and position. Statistical tests were then performed within and between the different morphotypes to test the correlation between tooth size and <span class="hlt">morphology</span>. Our analysis reveals that, as in lower teeth, eda is necessary to segment the dental lamina into three teeth with the characteristic size and proportions of the mouse. Nevertheless, since strong effects are observed in heterozygous upper teeth while lower are only mildly affected, it seems that the upper jaw is more sensitive than the lower jaw to the loss of eda <span class="hlt">function</span>. Modifications in cusp number and the abnormal crown size of the teeth are clearly linked, and our results indicate a role of eda in cusp patterning. Moreover, we found that the Tabby mutation induces variations in the dental root pattern, sometimes associated with hypercementosis, suggesting a newly uncovered role played by eda in root patterning and formation. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3241588','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3241588"><span><span class="hlt">Functional</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and wasp pollination of two South American asclepiads (Asclepiadoideae–Apocynaceae)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wiemer, A. P.; Sérsic, A. N.; Marino, S.; Simões, A. O.; Cocucci, A. A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background and Aims The extreme complexity of asclepiad flowers (Asclepiadoideae–Apocynaceae) has generated particular interest in the pollination biology of this group of plants especially in the mechanisms involved in the pollination processes. This study compares two South American species, Morrenia odorata and Morrenia brachystephana, with respect to <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and anatomy of flower structures, dynamic aspects of the pollination mechanism, diversity of visitors and effectiveness of pollinators. Methods Floral structure was studied with fresh and fixed flowers following classical techniques. The pollination mechanism was studied by visiting fresh flowers in the laboratory with artificial pollinator body parts created with an eyelash. Morphometric and nectar measurements were also taken. Pollen transfer efficiency in the flowers was calculated by recording the frequency of removed and inserted pollinia. Visitor activity was recorded in the field, and floral visitors were captured for subsequent analysis of pollen loads. Finally, pollinator effectiveness was calculated with an index. Key Results The detailed structure of the flowers revealed a complex system of guide rails and chambers precisely arranged in order to achieve effective pollinaria transport. Morrenia odorata is <span class="hlt">functionally</span> specialized for wasp pollination, and M. brachystephana for wasp and bee pollination. Pollinators transport chains of pollinaria adhered to their mouthparts. Conclusions Morrenia odorata and M. brachystephana present differences in the <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and size of their corona, gynostegium and pollinaria, which explain the differences in details of the <span class="hlt">functioning</span> of the general pollination mechanism. Pollination is performed by different groups of highly effective pollinators. Morrenia species are specialized for pollination mainly by several species of wasps, a specialized pollination which has been poorly studied. In particular, pompilid wasps are reported as important pollinators</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28912026','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28912026"><span>Influence of various therapeutic strategies on right ventricular <span class="hlt">morphology</span>, <span class="hlt">function</span> and hemodynamics in pulmonary arterial hypertension.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Badagliacca, Roberto; Raina, Amresh; Ghio, Stefano; D'Alto, Michele; Confalonieri, Marco; Correale, Michele; Corda, Marco; Paciocco, Giuseppe; Lombardi, Carlo; Mulè, Massimiliano; Poscia, Roberto; Scelsi, Laura; Argiento, Paola; Sciomer, Susanna; Benza, Raymond L; Vizza, Carmine Dario</p> <p>2017-08-26</p> <p>In idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) treatment goals include improving right ventricular (RV) <span class="hlt">function</span>, hemodynamics and symptoms to move patients to a low-risk category for adverse clinical outcomes. No data are available on the effect of upfront combination therapy on RV improvement as compared with monotherapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate echocardiographic RV <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and <span class="hlt">function</span> in patients affected by IPAH and treated with different strategies. Sixty-nine consecutive, treatment-naive IPAH patients treated with first-line upfront combination therapy at 10 centers were retrospectively evaluated and compared with 2 matched cohorts treated with monotherapy after short-term follow-up. Evaluation included clinical, hemodynamic and echocardiographic parameters. At 155 ± 65 days after baseline evaluation, patients in the oral+prostanoid group (Group 1) had the most clinical and hemodynamic improvement compared with the double oral group (Group 2), the oral monotherapy group (Group 3) and the prostanoid monotherapy group (Group 4). The more extensive reduction of pulmonary vascular resistance in Groups 1, 2 and 4 was associated with significant improvement in all RV echocardiographic parameters compared with Group 3. Considering the number of patients who reached the target goals suggested by established guidelines, 8 of 27 (29.6%) and 7 of 42 (16.7%) patients in Groups 1 and 2, respectively, achieved low-risk status, as compared with 2 of 69 (2.8%) and 6 of 27 (22.2%) in Groups 3 and 4, respectively. In advanced treatment-naive IPAH patients, an upfront combination therapy strategy seems to significantly improve hemodynamics and RV <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and <span class="hlt">function</span> compared with oral monotherapy. The most significant results seem to be achieved with prostanoids plus oral drug, whereas the use of the double oral combination and prostanoids as monotherapy seem to produce similar results. Copyright © 2017 International Society for the Heart and Lung</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25976729','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25976729"><span>Galectin-3 levels are associated with right ventricular <span class="hlt">functional</span> and <span class="hlt">morphologic</span> changes in pulmonary arterial hypertension.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fenster, Brett E; Lasalvia, Luis; Schroeder, Joyce D; Smyser, Jamey; Silveira, Lori J; Buckner, J Kern; Brown, Kevin K</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The response of the right ventricle (RV) to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) involves changes in contractile <span class="hlt">function</span>, chamber size, hypertrophy, and extracellular matrix (ECM). Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a mediator of myocardial ECM metabolism and biomarker for left heart remodeling, yet its ability to reflect RV remodeling is unknown. We hypothesized that serum Gal-3 levels correlate with RV <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and <span class="hlt">function</span> in PAH, and that Gal-3 is associated with circulating markers of ECM. Fifteen subjects with PAH and 10 age-matched controls underwent same-day echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging, and phlebotomy for Gal-3 and ECM biomarkers including N-terminal propeptide of type III collagen type (PIIINP), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), and hyaluronic acid (HA). RV ejection fraction, end diastolic volume index, end systolic volume index, and mass index were calculated using CMR. Echocardiography was used to estimate RV systolic pressure and measure RV strain. Serum Gal-3, TIMP-1, and HA levels were all significantly increased in PAH subjects when compared to controls. Gal-3 correlated with RV ejection fraction (ρ -0.44, p 0.03), end diastolic volume index (ρ 0.42, p 0.03), end systolic volume index (ρ 0.44, p 0.027), mass index (ρ 0.47, p 0.016), systolic pressure (ρ 0.55, p < 0.001), and strain (ρ 0.43, p 0.03). Gal-3 levels positively correlated with the ECM markers TIMP-1 and HA but not with PIIINP. In conclusion, Gal-3 levels are associated with multiple indices of RV <span class="hlt">function</span> and <span class="hlt">morphology</span>. Gal-3 may represent a novel biomarker for RV remodeling and associated ECM turnover in PAH.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22025522','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22025522"><span><span class="hlt">Functional</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and wasp pollination of two South American asclepiads (Asclepiadoideae-Apocynaceae).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wiemer, A P; Sérsic, A N; Marino, S; Simões, A O; Cocucci, A A</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>BACKGROUND AND AIMS The extreme complexity of asclepiad flowers (Asclepiadoideae-Apocynaceae) has generated particular interest in the pollination biology of this group of plants especially in the mechanisms involved in the pollination processes. This study compares two South American species, Morrenia odorata and Morrenia brachystephana, with respect to <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and anatomy of flower structures, dynamic aspects of the pollination mechanism, diversity of visitors and effectiveness of pollinators. Floral structure was studied with fresh and fixed flowers following classical techniques. The pollination mechanism was studied by visiting fresh flowers in the laboratory with artificial pollinator body parts created with an eyelash. Morphometric and nectar measurements were also taken. Pollen transfer efficiency in the flowers was calculated by recording the frequency of removed and inserted pollinia. Visitor activity was recorded in the field, and floral visitors were captured for subsequent analysis of pollen loads. Finally, pollinator effectiveness was calculated with an index. The detailed structure of the flowers revealed a complex system of guide rails and chambers precisely arranged in order to achieve effective pollinaria transport. Morrenia odorata is <span class="hlt">functionally</span> specialized for wasp pollination, and M. brachystephana for wasp and bee pollination. Pollinators transport chains of pollinaria adhered to their mouthparts. Morrenia odorata and M. brachystephana present differences in the <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and size of their corona, gynostegium and pollinaria, which explain the differences in details of the <span class="hlt">functioning</span> of the general pollination mechanism. Pollination is performed by different groups of highly effective pollinators. Morrenia species are specialized for pollination mainly by several species of wasps, a specialized pollination which has been poorly studied. In particular, pompilid wasps are reported as important pollinators in other regions outside South</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApPhA.122..894G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApPhA.122..894G"><span>Application of <span class="hlt">morphological</span> synthesis for understanding electrode microstructure evolution as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of applied charge/discharge cycles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Glazoff, Michael V.; Dufek, Eric J.; Shalashnikov, Egor V.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Morphological</span> synthesis operations were employed for understanding electrode microstructure transformations and evolution accompanying the application of charge/discharge cycles to electrochemical storage systems (batteries). Using state-of-the-art <span class="hlt">morphological</span> algorithms, it was possible to predict microstructure evolution in porous Si electrodes for Li-ion batteries with reasonable accuracy. The developed techniques could be considered supplementary to a <span class="hlt">phase</span>-field mesoscopic approach to microstructure evolution that is based upon clear and definitive changes in the appearance of microstructure. However, unlike in <span class="hlt">phase</span> field, the governing equations for the <span class="hlt">morphological</span> approach are geometry, not physics, based. A similar non-physics-based approach to understanding different phenomena was attempted with the introduction of cellular automata. It is anticipated that <span class="hlt">morphological</span> synthesis will represent a useful supplementary tool to <span class="hlt">phase</span> field and will render assistance to unraveling the underlying microstructure-property relationships. The paper contains data on electrochemical characterization of different electrode materials that was conducted in parallel to the <span class="hlt">morphological</span> study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1357755','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1357755"><span>Application of <span class="hlt">morphological</span> synthesis for understanding electrode microstructure evolution as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of applied charge/discharge cycles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Glazoff, Michael V.; Dufek, Eric J.; Shalashnikov, Egor V.</p> <p>2016-09-15</p> <p><span class="hlt">Morphological</span> analysis and synthesis operations were employed for analysis of electrode microstructure transformations and evolution accompanying the application of charge/discharge cycles to electrochemical storage systems (batteries). Using state-of-the-art <span class="hlt">morphological</span> algorithms, it was possible to predict microstructure evolution in porous Si electrodes for Li-ion batteries with sufficient accuracy. Algorithms for image analyses (segmentation, feature extraction, and 3D-reconstructions using 2D-images) were also developed. Altogether, these techniques could be considered supplementary to <span class="hlt">phase</span>-field mesoscopic approach to microstructure evolution that is based upon clear and definitive changes in the appearance of microstructure. However, unlike in <span class="hlt">phase</span>-field, the governing equations for <span class="hlt">morphological</span> approach are geometry-, not physics-based. Similar non-physics based approach to understanding different phenomena was attempted with the introduction of cellular automata. It is anticipated that <span class="hlt">morphological</span> synthesis and analysis will represent a useful supplementary tool to <span class="hlt">phase</span>-field and will render assistance to unraveling the underlying microstructure-property relationships. The paper contains data on electrochemical characterization of different electrode materials that was conducted in parallel to <span class="hlt">morphological</span> study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1357755-application-morphological-synthesis-understanding-electrode-microstructure-evolution-function-applied-charge-discharge-cycles','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1357755-application-morphological-synthesis-understanding-electrode-microstructure-evolution-function-applied-charge-discharge-cycles"><span>Application of <span class="hlt">morphological</span> synthesis for understanding electrode microstructure evolution as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of applied charge/discharge cycles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Glazoff, Michael V.; Dufek, Eric J.; Shalashnikov, Egor V.</p> <p>2016-09-15</p> <p><span class="hlt">Morphological</span> analysis and synthesis operations were employed for analysis of electrode microstructure transformations and evolution accompanying the application of charge/discharge cycles to electrochemical storage systems (batteries). Using state-of-the-art <span class="hlt">morphological</span> algorithms, it was possible to predict microstructure evolution in porous Si electrodes for Li-ion batteries with sufficient accuracy. Algorithms for image analyses (segmentation, feature extraction, and 3D-reconstructions using 2D-images) were also developed. Altogether, these techniques could be considered supplementary to <span class="hlt">phase</span>-field mesoscopic approach to microstructure evolution that is based upon clear and definitive changes in the appearance of microstructure. However, unlike in <span class="hlt">phase</span>-field, the governing equations for <span class="hlt">morphological</span> approach are geometry-,more » not physics-based. Similar non-physics based approach to understanding different phenomena was attempted with the introduction of cellular automata. It is anticipated that <span class="hlt">morphological</span> synthesis and analysis will represent a useful supplementary tool to <span class="hlt">phase</span>-field and will render assistance to unraveling the underlying microstructure-property relationships. The paper contains data on electrochemical characterization of different electrode materials that was conducted in parallel to <span class="hlt">morphological</span> study.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT.......108W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT.......108W"><span><span class="hlt">Morphology</span> of Poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) (PEDOT) Thin Films, Crystals, Cubic <span class="hlt">Phases</span>, Fibers and Tubes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Jinghang</p> <p></p> <p>Poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) (PEDOT) is a chemically stable, conjugated polymer that is of considerable interest for a variety of organic electronic devices including microfabricated neural electrodes that interface with living cortical tissue. The properties of conducting polymers are strongly dependent on the <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and structure of the material in the solid-state. The rigid pi-pi conjugated conformation of PEDOT facilitates charge transport and favors crystallization that reduces solubility and processability, making detailed studies of PEDOT <span class="hlt">morphology</span> difficult. This has also made it hard to control the microstructure at a variety of length scales. In this dissertation the <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of PEDOT has been studied and controlled at several different length scales from manometers to micrometers. On the nanoscale, the primary intermolecular (100) d-spacing in PEDOT crystals has been controlled from 1.15 nm to 1.52 nm by using different counter-ions as dopants. The surface <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and crystallinity of electrochemically deposited PEDOT films have been controlled by changing deposition conditions. A highly ordered, crystalline PEDOT-Br <span class="hlt">phase</span> was formed during electrochemical deposition in the presence of bromine counterions. On the tens of nanometers scale, isotropic PEDOT bicontinuous cubic structures with extremely large surface areas were developed using ternary non-ionic surfactant, water and oil systems. On the micrometer scale, aligned PEDOT fibers and tubes were prepared by electrospinning blends of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) or poly(caprolactone) (PCL) and EDOT monomer onto a rotating wheel or a dielectric gap in a metal substrate. These aligned fibers and tubes were shown to precisely direct neural regeneration in specific directions in vitro. These developments help understand the structure and properties of conjugated polymers for use in organic electronic devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790003512','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790003512"><span>Vestibular <span class="hlt">Function</span> Research (VFR) experiment. <span class="hlt">Phase</span> B: Design definition study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>The Vestibular <span class="hlt">Functions</span> Research (VFR) Experiment was established to investigate the neurosensory and related physiological processes believed to be associated with the space flight nausea syndrome and to develop logical means for its prediction, prevention and treatment. The VFR Project consists of ground and spaceflight experimentation using frogs as specimens. The <span class="hlt">phase</span> B Preliminary Design Study provided for the preliminary design of the experiment hardware, preparation of performance and hardware specification and a <span class="hlt">Phase</span> C/D development plan, establishment of STS (Space Transportation System) interfaces and mission operations, and the study of a variety of hardware, experiment and mission options. The study consist of three major tasks: (1) mission mode trade-off; (2) conceptual design; and (3) preliminary design.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11745126','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11745126"><span>Engineering hepatocyte <span class="hlt">functional</span> fate through growth factor dynamics: the role of cell <span class="hlt">morphologic</span> priming.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Semler, E J; Moghe, P V</p> <p>2001-12-05</p> <p>We have reported previously that cellular stimulation induced by variable mechanochemical properties of the extracellular microenvironment can significantly alter liver-specific <span class="hlt">function</span> in cultured hepatocytes (Semler et al., Biotech Bioeng 69:359-369, 2000). Cell activation via time-invariant presentation of biochemical growth factors was found to either enhance or repress cellular differentiation of cultured hepatocytes depending on the mechanical properties of the underlying substrate. In this work, we investigated the effects of dynamic growth factor stimulation on the cell growth and differentiation behavior of hepatocytes cultured on either compliant or rigid substrates. Specifically, hepatotrophic growth factors (epidermal and hepatocyte) were either temporally added or withdrawn from hepatocyte cultures on Matrigel that was crosslinked to yield differential degrees of mechanical compliance. We determined that the <span class="hlt">functional</span> responsiveness of hepatocytes to fluctuations in GF stimulation is substrate specific but only in conditions in which the initial mechanochemical environment induced significant cell morphogenesis. Our studies indicate that in conditions under which hepatocytes adopted a "rounded" phenotype, they exhibited increased levels of differentiated <span class="hlt">function</span> upon soluble stimulation and markedly decreased <span class="hlt">function</span> upon the depletion of GF stimulation. In contrast, hepatocytes that assumed a "spread" phenotype exhibited slightly increased <span class="hlt">function</span> upon the depletion of GF stimulation. By examining the <span class="hlt">functional</span> responsiveness of hepatocytes of differential <span class="hlt">morphology</span> to varied fluctuations in GF activation, insights into the ability of cell shape to "prime" hepatocyte behavior in dynamic microenvironments were elucidated. We report on the possibility of uncoupling and, thus, selectively manipulating, the concerted contributions of GF-induced cellular activation and substrate- and GF-induced cell morphogenesis toward induction of cell <span class="hlt">function</span></p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1082031','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1082031"><span><span class="hlt">Morphology</span> Mapping of <span class="hlt">Phase</span>-Separated Polymer Films Using Nanothermal Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nikiforov, Maxim; Gam, Sangah; Jesse, Stephen; Composto, Russel C; Kalinin, Sergei V</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Polymers films are attractive, in part, because their physical properties can be tuned by blending polymer with complementary characteristics. However, blending is typically challenging because most polymers will undergo <span class="hlt">phase</span> separation, resulting in unpredictable behavior. Here, we introduce band excitation nanothermal analysis (BE-NanoTA) as a nondestructive AFM-based technique for mapping the near surface, thermal properties of polymeric coatings. BE-NanoTA was used to investigate <span class="hlt">phase</span> separation and domain growth in poly(styrene-ran-acrylonitrile):poly(methyl methacrylate) SAN:PMMA films. The size and shape of PMMA-rich domains are consistent with prior measurements on the same system using a destructive method, namely UV-ozone etching of PMMA followed by topography mapping using standard AFM. Moreover, new insights into the mechanism of <span class="hlt">phase</span> separation were uncovered including the observation of SAN- and PMMA-rich channels near the surface at early times as well as small SAN-rich domains trapped within large PMMA domains during intermediate times. Because it is nondestructive, BE-NanoTA can be used to explore in situ <span class="hlt">phase</span> evolution in soft matter systems (e.g., polymer nanocomposites) which do not lend themselves to the UV-ozone etching method</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5126637','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5126637"><span>ECM proteins in a microporous scaffold influence hepatocyte <span class="hlt">morphology</span>, <span class="hlt">function</span>, and gene expression</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Yan; Kim, Myung Hee; Shirahama, Hitomi; Lee, Jae Ho; Ng, Soon Seng; Glenn, Jeffrey S.; Cho, Nam-Joon</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>It is well known that a three-dimensional (3D) culture environment and the presence of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins facilitate hepatocyte viability and maintenance of the liver-specific phenotype in vitro. However, it is not clear whether specific ECM components such as collagen or fibronectin differentially regulate such processes, especially in 3D scaffolds. In this study, a series of ECM-<span class="hlt">functionalized</span> inverted colloidal crystal (ICC) microporous scaffolds were fabricated and their influence on Huh-7.5 cell proliferation, <span class="hlt">morphology</span>, hepatic-specific <span class="hlt">functions</span>, and patterns of gene expression were compared. Both collagen and fibronectin promoted albumin production and liver-specific gene expression of Huh-7.5 cells, compared with the bare ICC scaffold. Interestingly, cells in the fibronectin-<span class="hlt">functionalized</span> scaffold exhibited different aggregation patterns to those in the collagen-<span class="hlt">functionalized</span> scaffold, a variation that could be related to the distinct mRNA expression levels of cell adhesion-related genes. Based on these results, we can conclude that different ECM proteins, such as fibronectin and collagen, indeed play distinct roles in the phenotypic regulation of cells cultured in a 3D environment. PMID:27897167</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21069752','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21069752"><span>Facial bristle feather histology and <span class="hlt">morphology</span> in New Zealand birds: implications for <span class="hlt">function</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cunningham, Susan J; Alley, Maurice R; Castro, Isabel</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Knowledge of structure in biology may help inform hypotheses about <span class="hlt">function</span>. Little is known about the histological structure or the <span class="hlt">function</span> of avian facial bristle feathers. Here we provide information on <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and histology, with inferences for <span class="hlt">function</span>, of bristles in five predominantly insectivorous birds from New Zealand. We chose species with differing ecologies, including: brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli), morepork (Ninox novaezealandae), hihi (Notiomystis cincta), New Zealand robin (Petroica australis), and New Zealand fantail (Rhipidura fuliginosa). Average bristle length corrected for body size was similar across species. Bristles occurred in distinct groups on different parts of the head and upper rictal bristles were generally longest. The lower rictal bristles of the fantail were the longest possessed by that species and were long compared to bristles of other species. Kiwi were the only species with forehead bristles, similar in length to the upper rictal bristles of other species, and the lower rictal bristles of fantails. Herbst corpuscles (vibration and pressure sensitive mechanoreceptors) were found in association with bristle follicles in all species. Nocturnal and hole-nesting birds had more heavily encapsulated corpuscles than diurnal open-nesting species. Our results suggest that avian facial bristles generally have a tactile <span class="hlt">function</span> in both nocturnal and diurnal species, perhaps playing a role in prey handling, gathering information during flight, navigating in nest cavities and on the ground at night and possibly in prey-detection. These differing roles may help explain the observed differences in capsule thickness of the corpuscles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27897167','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27897167"><span>ECM proteins in a microporous scaffold influence hepatocyte <span class="hlt">morphology</span>, <span class="hlt">function</span>, and gene expression.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Yan; Kim, Myung Hee; Shirahama, Hitomi; Lee, Jae Ho; Ng, Soon Seng; Glenn, Jeffrey S; Cho, Nam-Joon</p> <p>2016-11-29</p> <p>It is well known that a three-dimensional (3D) culture environment and the presence of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins facilitate hepatocyte viability and maintenance of the liver-specific phenotype in vitro. However, it is not clear whether specific ECM components such as collagen or fibronectin differentially regulate such processes, especially in 3D scaffolds. In this study, a series of ECM-<span class="hlt">functionalized</span> inverted colloidal crystal (ICC) microporous scaffolds were fabricated and their influence on Huh-7.5 cell proliferation, <span class="hlt">morphology</span>, hepatic-specific <span class="hlt">functions</span>, and patterns of gene expression were compared. Both collagen and fibronectin promoted albumin production and liver-specific gene expression of Huh-7.5 cells, compared with the bare ICC scaffold. Interestingly, cells in the fibronectin-<span class="hlt">functionalized</span> scaffold exhibited different aggregation patterns to those in the collagen-<span class="hlt">functionalized</span> scaffold, a variation that could be related to the distinct mRNA expression levels of cell adhesion-related genes. Based on these results, we can conclude that different ECM proteins, such as fibronectin and collagen, indeed play distinct roles in the phenotypic regulation of cells cultured in a 3D environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20651247','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20651247"><span><span class="hlt">Morphological</span> and <span class="hlt">functional</span> abnormalities in mitochondria associated with synaptic degeneration in prion disease.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sisková, Zuzana; Mahad, Don Joseph; Pudney, Carianne; Campbell, Graham; Cadogan, Mark; Asuni, Ayodeji; O'Connor, Vincent; Perry, Victor Hugh</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>Synaptic and dendritic pathology is a well-documented component of prion disease. In common with other neurodegenerative diseases that contain an element of protein misfolding, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of synaptic degeneration. In particular, in prion disease the relationship between synaptic malfunction, degeneration, and mitochondria has been neglected. We investigated a wide range of mitochondrial parameters, including changes in mitochondrial density, inner membrane ultrastructure, <span class="hlt">functional</span> properties and nature of mitochondrial DNA from hippocampal tissue of mice with prion disease, which have ongoing synaptic pathology. Our results indicate that despite a lack of detectable changes in either mitochondrial density or expression of the mitochondrial proteins, mitochondrial <span class="hlt">function</span> was impaired when compared with age-matched control animals. We observed changes in mitochondrial inner membrane <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and a reduction in the cytochrome c oxidase activity relative to a sustained level of mitochondrial proteins such as porin and individual, <span class="hlt">functionally</span> important subunits of complex II and complex IV. These data support the idea that mitochondrial dysfunction appears to occur due to inhibition or modification of respiratory complex rather than deletions of mitochondrial DNA. Indeed, these changes were seen in the stratum radiatum where synaptic pathology is readily detected, indicating that mitochondrial <span class="hlt">function</span> is impaired and could potentially contribute to or even initiate the synaptic pathology in prion disease.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5283731','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5283731"><span>Ovine Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: <span class="hlt">Morphologic</span>, Phenotypic and <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Characterization for Osteochondral Tissue Engineering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sanjurjo-Rodríguez, Clara; Castro-Viñuelas, Rocío; Hermida-Gómez, Tamara; Fernández-Vázquez, Tania; Fuentes-Boquete, Isaac Manuel; de Toro-Santos, Francisco Javier; Blanco-García, Francisco Javier</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Introduction Knowledge of ovine mesenchymal stromal cells (oMSCs) is currently expanding. Tissue engineering combining scaffolding with oMSCs provides promising therapies for the treatment of osteochondral diseases. Purpose The aim was to isolate and characterize oMSCs from bone marrow aspirates (oBMSCs) and to assess their usefulness for osteochondral repair using β-tricalcium phosphate (bTCP) and type I collagen (Col I) scaffolds. Methods Cells isolated from ovine bone marrow were characterized <span class="hlt">morphologically</span>, phenotypically, and <span class="hlt">functionally</span>. oBMSCs were cultured with osteogenic medium on bTCP and Col I scaffolds. The resulting constructs were evaluated by histology, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy studies. Furthermore, oBMSCs were cultured on Col I scaffolds to develop an in vitro cartilage repair model that was assessed using a modified International Cartilage Research Society (ICRS) II scale. Results oBMSCs presented <span class="hlt">morphology</span>, surface marker pattern and multipotent capacities similar to those of human BMSCs. oBMSCs seeded on Col I gave rise to osteogenic neotissue. Assessment by the modified ICRS II scale revealed that fibrocartilage/hyaline cartilage was obtained in the in vitro repair model. Conclusions The isolated ovine cells were demonstrated to be oBMSCs. oBMSCs cultured on Col I sponges successfully synthesized osteochondral tissue. The data suggest that oBMSCs have potential for use in preclinical models prior to human clinical studies. PMID:28141815</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6269990','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6269990"><span>Radon exposure mediated changes in lung macrophage <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and <span class="hlt">function</span>, in vitro</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Seed, T.M.; Niiro, G.K.; Kretz, N.D.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Bronchopulmonary macrophages play a key role in the normal physiology of the respiratory system. Potential respiratory dysfunctions due to radon/radon daughter exposure-mediated damage of the macrophage lung cell population has been explored via in vitro technology. In this study, macrophages were isolated from lungs of normal healthy dogs by saline lavage, cultured for varying periods (0-96 h) in the presence or absence of radon gas, and assessed for radon dose-dependent changes in cell <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and <span class="hlt">function</span>. The in vitro culture procedure and the cell exposing system allowed for detailed alpha particle dosimetry, in relation to the assessed biological end points; i.e. (1) exposure-dependent changes in macrophage surface topography, (2) capacity to elaborate specific growth factor (CSF) essential for self maintenance, and (3) alterations in cell viability. Highlights of the <span class="hlt">morphologic</span> assessment indicate that relatively low alpha particle doses arising from protracted radon/radon daughter exposure elicites pronounced topographic alterations of the exposed macrophage's cell surface. 27 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19411270','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19411270"><span><span class="hlt">Morphology</span>, performance, fitness: <span class="hlt">functional</span> insight into a post-Pleistocene radiation of mosquitofish.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Langerhans, R Brian</p> <p>2009-08-23</p> <p>Bahamas mosquitofish (Gambusia hubbsi) colonized blue holes during the past approximately 15 000 years and exhibit relatively larger caudal regions in blue holes that contain piscivorous fish. It is hypothesized that larger caudal regions enhance fast-start escape performance and thus reflect an adaptation for avoiding predation. Here I test this hypothesis using a three-pronged, experimental approach. First, G. hubbsi from blue holes with predators were found to possess both greater fast-start performance and greater survivorship in the presence of predatory fish. Second, using individual-level data to investigate the <span class="hlt">morphology</span>-performance-fitness pathway, I found that (i) fish with larger caudal regions produced higher fast-start performance and (ii) fish with higher fast-start performance enjoyed greater survivorship in the presence of fish predators-trends consistently observed across both predator regimes. Finally, I found that <span class="hlt">morphological</span> divergence between predator regimes at least partially reflects genetic differentiation, as differences were retained in fish raised in a common laboratory environment. These results suggest that natural selection favours increased fast-start performance in the presence of piscivorous fish, consequently driving the evolution of larger caudal regions. Combined with previous work, this provides <span class="hlt">functional</span> insight into body shape divergence and ecological speciation among Bahamian blue holes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2707094','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2707094"><span><span class="hlt">Functional</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and biomechanics of the tongue-bite apparatus in salmonid and osteoglossomorph fishes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Camp, Ariel L; Konow, Nicolai; Sanford, Christopher P J</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The tongue-bite apparatus and its associated musculoskeletal elements of the pectoral girdle and neurocranium form the structural basis of raking, a unique prey-processing behaviour in salmonid and osteoglossomorph fishes. Using a quantitative approach, the <span class="hlt">functional</span> osteology and myology of this system were compared between representatives of each lineage, i.e. the salmonid Salvelinus fontinalis (N =10) and the osteoglossomorph Chitala ornata(N = 8). Divergence was found in the <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the novel cleithrobranchial ligament, which potentially relates to kinematic differences between the raking lineage representatives. Salvelinus had greater anatomical cross-sectional areas of the epaxial, hypaxial and protractor hyoideus muscles, whereas Chitala had greater sternohyoideus and adductor mandibulae mass. Two osteology-based biomechanical models (a third-order lever for neurocranial elevation and a modified four-bar linkage for hyoid retraction) showed divergent force/velocity priorities in the study taxa. Salvelinus maximizes both force (via powerful cranial muscles) and velocity (through mechanical amplification) during raking. In contrast, Chitala has relatively low muscle force but more efficient force transmission through both mechanisms compared with Salvelinus. It remains unclear if and how behavioural modulation and specializations in the post-cranial anatomy may affect the force/velocity trade-offs in Chitala. Further studies of tongue-bite apparatus <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and biomechanics in a broader species range may help to clarify the role that osteology and myology play in the evolution of behavioural diversity. PMID:19438765</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2312356','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2312356"><span><span class="hlt">Morphological</span> and <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Features of Hepatic Cyst Epithelium in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Alvaro, Domenico; Onori, Paolo; Alpini, Gianfranco; Franchitto, Antonio; Jefferson, Douglas M.; Torrice, Alessia; Cardinale, Vincenzo; Stefanelli, Fabrizio; Mancino, Maria Grazia; Strazzabosco, Mario; Angelico, Mario; Attili, Adolfo; Gaudio, Eugenio</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>We evaluated the <span class="hlt">morphological</span> and <span class="hlt">functional</span> features of hepatic cyst epithelium in adult autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). In six ADPKD patients, we investigated the <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of cyst epithelium apical surface by scanning electron microscopy and the expression of estrogen receptors (ERs), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), IGF1 receptors (IGF1-R), growth hormone receptor, the proliferation marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and pAKT by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Proliferation of liver cyst-derived epithelial cells was evaluated by both MTS proliferation assay and [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA. The hepatic cyst epithelium displayed heterogeneous features, being normal in small cysts (<1 cm), characterized by rare or shortened cilia in 1- to 3-cm cysts, and exhibiting the absence of both primary cilia and microvilli in large cysts (>3 cm). Cyst epithelium showed marked immunohistochemical expression of ER, growth hormone receptor, IGF1, IGF1-R, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and pAKT. IGF1 was 10-fold more enriched in the hepatic cyst fluid than in serum. Serum-deprived liver cyst-derived epithelial cells proliferated when exposed to 17β-estradiol and IGF1 and when exposed to human cyst fluid. ER or IGF1-R antagonists inhibited the proliferative effect of serum readmission, cyst fluid, 17β-estradiol, and IGF1. Our findings could explain the role of estrogens in accelerating the progression of ADPKD and may suggest a potential benefit of therapeutic strategies based on estrogen antagonism. PMID:18202196</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17981857','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17981857"><span><span class="hlt">Morphology</span> and kinematics of feeding in hagfish: possible <span class="hlt">functional</span> advantages of jaws.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Clark, Andrew J; Summers, Adam P</p> <p>2007-11-01</p> <p>As in gnathostomes, the hagfish feeding apparatus includes skeletal, dental and muscular components. In the present study, we examined feeding <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and kinematics in two hagfish species, Eptatretus stoutii and Myxine glutinosa, representing the two major hagfish lineages. E. stoutii have larger dental plates, larger basal plates, and stronger clavatus muscles (the major dental plate retractor) than M. glutinosa. Despite <span class="hlt">morphological</span> differences, kinematic profiles are similar in E. stoutii and M. glutinosa. When protracted, the dental plate unfolds and exposes keratinous teeth, which are then embedded in the prey. Once food is grasped, the dental plate is retracted into the mouth. During retraction, the clavatus muscle can generate up to 16 N of force, which exceeds the bite force of some gnathostomes of similar size. In addition to producing high forces with the feeding muscles, hagfish can evert their dental plates to 180 degrees , exceeding the gape angles attained by virtually all gnathostomes, suggesting vertebrate jaws are not the prerequisites for muscle force generation and wide gapes. We propose that dental plate protraction and retraction can be modeled as a fixed pulley that lacks the speed amplification occurring in gnathostome jaws. Hagfish gape cycle times are approximately 1 s, and are longer than those of gnathostomes, suggesting that a <span class="hlt">functional</span> advantage of jaws is the speed that allows gnathostomes to exploit elusive prey.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25754851','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25754851"><span><span class="hlt">Functional</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the tubular genital organs in the female owl monkey (Aotus spp.).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mayor, Pedro; Takeshita, Rafaela Sayuri Cicalise; Coutinho, Leandro Nassar; Sánchez, Nofre; Gálvez, Hugo; Ique, Carlos; Ruiz, Julio Cesar; Monteiro, Frederico Ozanan Barros</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Studies on reproductive <span class="hlt">morphology</span> are important to understand the reproductive cycle of non-human primates. This study describes the <span class="hlt">functional</span> <span class="hlt">morphology</span> of the adult female tubular genital organs in 41 Aotus (12.8 ± 6.8 years old, ranging from 3 to 25 years), with respect to reproductive status and number of parturitions. In females with developing embryos, endometrial glands showed a higher secretion than other females, and the embryo implantation occupied this secretive endometrium. Changes in the thickening, number of layers, and keratinization in the vaginal epithelium suggest that vaginal cytology may be an indicator of the estrous cycle. Non-pregnant multiparous females had a larger uterine body than nulliparous females. Number of parturitions and reproductive state had an impact on tubular genital organs in female owl monkeys. These results can be useful for the development of biotechnologies of reproduction and for improvement of the management of this species. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5206739','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5206739"><span>Effects of Elevated β-Estradiol Levels on the <span class="hlt">Functional</span> <span class="hlt">Morphology</span> of the Testis - New Insights</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Leavy, Myles; Trottmann, Matthias; Liedl, Bernhard; Reese, Sven; Stief, Christian; Freitag, Benjamin; Baugh, John; Spagnoli, Giulio; Kölle, Sabine</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Elevated estradiol levels are correlated with male infertility. Causes of hyperestrogenism include diseases of the adrenal cortex, testis or medications affecting the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. The aim of our study was to elucidate the effects of estradiol treatment on testicular cellular <span class="hlt">morphology</span> and <span class="hlt">function</span>, with reference to the treatment regimen received. Testes samples (n = 9) were obtained post-orchiectomy from male-to-female transsexuals within the age range of 26–52 years. Each patient had a minimum of 1–6 years estradiol treatment. For comparison, additional samples were obtained from microscopically unaltered testicular tissue surrounding tumors (n = 7). The tissues obtained were investigated by stereomicroscopy, histochemistry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and immunohistochemistry. Our studies revealed that estradiol treatment significantly decreased the diameter of the seminiferous tubules (p < 0.05) and induced fatty degeneration in the surrounding connective tissue. An increase in collagen fiber synthesis in the extracellular matrix (ECM) surrounding the seminiferous tubules was also induced. Spermatogenesis was impaired resulting in mainly spermatogonia being present. Sertoli cells revealed diminished expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). Both Sertoli and Leydig cells showed <span class="hlt">morphological</span> alterations and glycoprotein accumulations. These results demonstrate that increased estradiol levels drastically impact the human testis. PMID:28045098</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27501088','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27501088"><span>Many Paths to a Common Destination: <span class="hlt">Morphological</span> Differentiation of a <span class="hlt">Functionally</span> Convergent Visual Signal.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hagman, Mattias; Ord, Terry J</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Understanding the interacting outcomes of selection and historical contingency in shaping adaptive evolution remains a challenge in evolutionary biology. While selection can produce convergent outcomes when species occupy similar environments, the unique history of each species can also influence evolutionary trajectories and result in different phenotypic end points. The question is to what extent historical contingency places species on different adaptive pathways and, in turn, the extent to which we can predict evolutionary outcomes. Among lizards there are several distantly related genera that have independently evolved an elaborate extendible dewlap for territorial communication. We conducted a detailed <span class="hlt">morphological</span> study and employed new phylogenetic comparative methods to investigate the evolution of the underlying hyoid that powers the extension of the dewlap. This analysis showed that there appear to have been multiple phenotypic pathways for evolving a <span class="hlt">functionally</span> convergent dewlap. The biomechanical complexity that underlies this <span class="hlt">morphological</span> structure implies that adaptation should have been constrained to a narrow phenotypic pathway. However, multiple adaptive solutions have been possible in apparent response to a common selection pressure. Thus, the phenotypic outcome that subsequently evolved in different genera seems to have been contingent on the history of the group in question. This blurs the distinction between convergent and historically contingent adaptation and suggests that adaptive phenotypic diversity can evolve without the need for divergent natural selection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26644191','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26644191"><span><span class="hlt">Morphological</span> and <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Evaluation of Meibomian Gland Dysfunction in Rosacea Patients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Machalińska, Anna; Zakrzewska, Aleksandra; Markowska, Agnieszka; Safranow, Krzysztof; Wiszniewska, Barbara; Parafiniuk, Mirosław; Machaliński, Bogusław</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Skin rosacea is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting up to 10% of the population in some European countries. Although considered a skin disease, acne rosacea may involve the eyes, causing eyelid and ocular surface inflammation. This study investigated the relationship between skin rosacea and various signs of ocular involvement and evaluated severity of meibomian gland dysfunction in rosacea patients. The ocular surface and meibomian gland parameters were evaluated in 41 patients with diagnosed skin rosacea and 44 age-matched healthy controls. We analyzed meibomian gland <span class="hlt">function</span> (meibum quality and meibum expressibility) and <span class="hlt">morphology</span> (meibography) and lid margin alterations. We correlated our findings with self-reported ocular symptoms and tear film abnormalities (tear film breakup time, Schirmer test). The prevalence of ocular erythema and lid margin alterations was significantly higher in rosacea patients compared with controls. We found that rosacea is accompanied with significant loss of meibomian gland tissue defined as reduced meibomian gland area and decreased meibomian gland density. A positive correlation between margin abnormality score and the extent of meibomian gland loss in rosacea group was observed (rs = +0.30, p = 0.005), suggesting that ocular rosacea is accompanied by meibomian gland dropout. Skin rosacea is associated with ocular erythema and lid margin abnormalities. Our results suggest that ocular signs of rosacea may influence meibomian gland <span class="hlt">morphology</span>, causing meibomian gland loss.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011OptEn..50a6002B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011OptEn..50a6002B"><span>Study on <span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in Monte Carlo transmission characteristics of poly-disperse aerosol</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.