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Sample records for phase space singularities

  1. Characterizing maximally singular phase-space distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperling, J.

    2016-07-01

    Phase-space distributions are widely applied in quantum optics to access the nonclassical features of radiations fields. In particular, the inability to interpret the Glauber-Sudarshan distribution in terms of a classical probability density is the fundamental benchmark for quantum light. However, this phase-space distribution cannot be directly reconstructed for arbitrary states, because of its singular behavior. In this work, we perform a characterization of the Glauber-Sudarshan representation in terms of distribution theory. We address important features of such distributions: (i) the maximal degree of their singularities is studied, (ii) the ambiguity of representation is shown, and (iii) their dual space for nonclassicality tests is specified. In this view, we reconsider the methods for regularizing the Glauber-Sudarshan distribution for verifying its nonclassicality. This treatment is supported with comprehensive examples and counterexamples.

  2. Phase correction-based singularity function analysis for partial k-space reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jianhua; Zhu, Yuemin; Magnin, Isabelle

    2008-07-01

    Partial k-space acquisition is a conventional method in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for reducing imaging time while maintaining image quality. In this field, image reconstruction from partial k-space is a key issue. This paper proposes an approach fundamentally different from traditional techniques for reconstructing magnetic resonance (MR) images from partial k-space. It uses a so-called singularity function analysis (SFA) model based on phase correction. With such a reconstruction approach, some nonacquired negative spatial frequencies are first recovered by means of phase correction and Hermitian symmetry property, and then the other nonacquired negative and/or positive spatial frequencies are estimated using the mathematical SFA model. The method is particularly suitable for asymmetrical partial k-space acquisition owing to its ability of overcoming reconstruction limitations due to k-space truncations. The performance of this approach is evaluated using both simulated and real MR brain images, and compared with existing techniques. The results demonstrate that the proposed SFA based on phase correction achieves higher image quality than the initial SFA or the projection-onto-convex sets (POCS) method.

  3. Dual Vector Spaces and Physical Singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowlands, Peter

    Though we often refer to 3-D vector space as constructed from points, there is no mechanism from within its definition for doing this. In particular, space, on its own, cannot accommodate the singularities that we call fundamental particles. This requires a commutative combination of space as we know it with another 3-D vector space, which is dual to the first (in a physical sense). The combination of the two spaces generates a nilpotent quantum mechanics/quantum field theory, which incorporates exact supersymmetry and ultimately removes the anomalies due to self-interaction. Among the many natural consequences of the dual space formalism are half-integral spin for fermions, zitterbewegung, Berry phase and a zero norm Berwald-Moor metric for fermionic states.

  4. Spacetime singularity resolution in Snyder noncommutative space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorji, M. A.; Nozari, K.; Vakili, B.

    2014-04-01

    Inspired by quantum gravity proposals, we construct a deformed phase space which supports the UV and IR cutoffs. We show that the Liouville theorem is satisfied in the deformed phase space which allows us to formulate the thermodynamics of the early universe in the semiclassical regime. Applying the proposed method to the Snyder noncommutative space, we find a temperature dependent equation of state which opens a new window for the natural realization of inflation as a phase transition from the quantum gravity regime to the standard radiation dominated era. Also, we obtain finite energy and entropy densities for the Universe when at least the weak energy condition is satisfied. We show that there is a minimum size for the Universe which is proportional to the Planck length and consequently the big bang singularity is removed.

  5. Space-time singularities in Weyl manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, I. P.; Barreto, A. B.; Romero, C.

    2015-09-01

    We extend one of the Hawking-Penrose singularity theorems in general relativity to the case of some scalar-tensor gravity theories in which the scalar field has a geometrical character and space-time has the mathematical structure of a Weyl integrable space-time. We adopt an invariant formalism, so that the extended version of the theorem does not depend on a particular frame.

  6. Numerical generation of a polarization singularity array with modulated amplitude and phase.

    PubMed

    Ye, Dong; Peng, Xinyu; Zhao, Qi; Chen, Yanru

    2016-09-01

    A point having no defined polarized ellipse azimuthal angle (circularly polarized) in a space-variant vector field is called a polarization singularity, and it has three types: Lemon, Monstar, and Star. Recently, the connection of polarization singularities has been performed. Inspired by this, we conduct a numerical generation of a polarization singularity array. Our method is based on two orthogonal linearly polarized light beams with modulated amplitude and phase. With appropriate distribution functions of amplitudes and phases we can control the polarized states of polarization singularities, which offer a possibility to simulate a polarization singularity array. PMID:27607491

  7. Propagation of the Lissajous singularity dipole in free space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haitao; Gao, Zenghui; Zou, Xuefang; Xiao, Xi; Wang, Fanhou; Yang, Huajun

    2014-01-01

    The propagation properties of a pair of Lissajous singularities with opposite singularity indexes called the Lissajous singularity dipole (LSD) in free space are studied analytically and illustrated numerically. It is shown that the motion, creation, annihilation and change in the degree of polarization of the LSD, and change in the shape of Lissajous figures take place by suitably varying the waist width, off-axis distance or propagation distance. In particular, the creation and shift to infinity of a single Lissajous singularity may appear. A comparison with the free-space propagation of an optical vortex dipole and a C-dipole is also made.

  8. Experimental verification of free-space singular boundary conditions in an invisibility cloak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qiannan; Gao, Fei; Song, Zhengyong; Lin, Xiao; Zhang, Youming; Chen, Huanyang; Zhang, Baile

    2016-04-01

    A major issue in invisibility cloaking, which caused intense mathematical discussions in the past few years but still remains physically elusive, is the plausible singular boundary conditions associated with the singular metamaterials at the inner boundary of an invisibility cloak. The perfect cloaking phenomenon, as originally proposed by Pendry et al for electromagnetic waves, cannot be treated as physical before a realistic inner boundary of a cloak is demonstrated. Although a recent demonstration has been done in a waveguide environment, the exotic singular boundary conditions should apply to a general environment as in free space. Here we fabricate a metamaterial surface that exhibits the singular boundary conditions and demonstrate its performance in free space. Particularly, the phase information of waves reflected from this metamaterial surface is explicitly measured, confirming the singular responses of boundary conditions for an invisibility cloak.

  9. Naked singularities in higher dimensional Vaidya space-times

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S. G.; Dadhich, Naresh

    2001-08-15

    We investigate the end state of the gravitational collapse of a null fluid in higher-dimensional space-times. Both naked singularities and black holes are shown to be developing as the final outcome of the collapse. The naked singularity spectrum in a collapsing Vaidya region (4D) gets covered with the increase in dimensions and hence higher dimensions favor a black hole in comparison to a naked singularity. The cosmic censorship conjecture will be fully respected for a space of infinite dimension.

  10. The Pancharatnam-Berry phase in polarization singular beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Vijay; Viswanathan, Nirmal K.

    2013-04-01

    Space-variant inhomogeneously polarized field formed due to superposition of orthogonally polarized Gaussian (LG00) and Laguerre-Gaussian (LG01) beams results in polarization singular beams with different morphology structures such as lemon, star and dipole patterns around the C-point in the beam cross-section. The Pancharatnam-Berry phase plays a critical role in the formation and characteristics of these spatially inhomogeneous fields. We present our experimental results wherein we measure the variable geometric phase by tracking the trajectory of the component vortices in the beam cross-section, by interfering with selective polarization states and by tracking different latitudes on the Poincaré sphere without the effect of a dynamic phase.

  11. Spatial Distribution of Phase Singularities in Optical Random Vector Waves.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, L; Alpeggiani, F; Di Falco, A; Kuipers, L

    2016-08-26

    Phase singularities are dislocations widely studied in optical fields as well as in other areas of physics. With experiment and theory we show that the vectorial nature of light affects the spatial distribution of phase singularities in random light fields. While in scalar random waves phase singularities exhibit spatial distributions reminiscent of particles in isotropic liquids, in vector fields their distribution for the different vector components becomes anisotropic due to the direct relation between propagation and field direction. By incorporating this relation in the theory for scalar fields by Berry and Dennis [Proc. R. Soc. A 456, 2059 (2000)], we quantitatively describe our experiments. PMID:27610854

  12. Analysis on singular spaces: Lie manifolds and operator algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nistor, Victor

    2016-07-01

    We discuss and develop some connections between analysis on singular spaces and operator algebras, as presented in my sequence of four lectures at the conference Noncommutative geometry and applications, Frascati, Italy, June 16-21, 2014. Therefore this paper is mostly a survey paper, but the presentation is new, and there are included some new results as well. In particular, Sections 3 and 4 provide a complete short introduction to analysis on noncompact manifolds that is geared towards a class of manifolds-called "Lie manifolds" -that often appears in practice. Our interest in Lie manifolds is due to the fact that they provide the link between analysis on singular spaces and operator algebras. The groupoids integrating Lie manifolds play an important background role in establishing this link because they provide operator algebras whose structure is often well understood. The initial motivation for the work surveyed here-work that spans over close to two decades-was to develop the index theory of stratified singular spaces. Meanwhile, several other applications have emerged as well, including applications to Partial Differential Equations and Numerical Methods. These will be mentioned only briefly, however, due to the lack of space. Instead, we shall concentrate on the applications to Index theory.

  13. Singularities and Closed String Tachyons

    SciTech Connect

    Silverstein, Eva; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2006-03-17

    A basic problem in gravitational physics is the resolution of spacetime singularities where general relativity breaks down. The simplest such singularities are conical singularities arising from orbifold identifications of flat space, and the most challenging are spacelike singularities inside black holes (and in cosmology). Topology changing processes also require evolution through classically singular spacetimes. I briefly review how a phase of closed string tachyon condensate replaces, and helps to resolve, basic singularities of each of these types. Finally I discuss some interesting features of singularities arising in the small volume limit of compact negatively curved spaces and the emerging zoology of spacelike singularities.

  14. Singularities, trapped sets, and cosmic censorship in asymptotically flat space-times

    SciTech Connect

    Krolak, A. ); Rudnicki, W. )

    1993-01-01

    We show that space-time is future asymptotically predictable from a regular partial Cauchy provided that singularities are causally preceded by trapped sets. Future asymptotic predictability is a formal statement of cosmic censorship in asymptotically flat space-times. A regular partial Cauchy surface means that singularities in gravitational collapse can arise only from regular initial data. Our result confirms a supposition by Hawking that singularities forced by singularity theorems cannot be naked.

  15. Horizons versus singularities in spherically symmetric space-times

    SciTech Connect

    Bronnikov, K. A.; Elizalde, E.; Odintsov, S. D.; Zaslavskii, O. B.

    2008-09-15

    We discuss different kinds of Killing horizons possible in static, spherically symmetric configurations and recently classified as 'usual', 'naked', and 'truly naked' ones depending on the near-horizon behavior of transverse tidal forces acting on an extended body. We obtain the necessary conditions for the metric to be extensible beyond a horizon in terms of an arbitrary radial coordinate and show that all truly naked horizons, as well as many of those previously characterized as naked and even usual ones, do not admit an extension and therefore must be considered as singularities. Some examples are given, showing which kinds of matter are able to create specific space-times with different kinds of horizons, including truly naked ones. Among them are fluids with negative pressure and scalar fields with a particular behavior of the potential. We also discuss horizons and singularities in Kantowski-Sachs spherically symmetric cosmologies and present horizon regularity conditions in terms of an arbitrary time coordinate and proper (synchronous) time. It turns out that horizons of orders 2 and higher occur in infinite proper times in the past or future, but one-way communication with regions beyond such horizons is still possible.

  16. Phase singularity of surface plasmon polaritons generated by optical vortices.

    PubMed

    Tan, P S; Yuan, G H; Wang, Q; Zhang, N; Zhang, D H; Yuan, X-C

    2011-08-15

    We demonstrate an experimental result that shows the phase singularity of surface plasmon waves generated by the direct transform of optical vortices at normal incidence focused on a structureless metal surface. The near-field two-dimensional intensity distribution near the focal plane is experimentally examined by using near-field scanning optical microscopy and shows a good agreement with the finite-difference time-domain simulation result. The experimental realization demonstrates a potential of the proposed excitation scheme to be reconfigured locally with advantages over structures milled into optically thick metallic films for plasmonics applications involving plasmonic vortices. PMID:21847236

  17. Black-and-white hole as a space-time with integrable singularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strokov, Vladimir N.; Lukash, Vladimir N.; Mikheeva, Elena V.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the problem of singularities in general relativity and emphasize the distinction that should be made between what is understood to be mathematical and physical singularities. We revise examples of space-times that conventionally contain a singularity which, in a sense, does not manifest itself physically. A special attention is paid to the case of integrable singularities for which we propose a well-defined mathematical procedure used to extend the space-time beyond the singularity. We argue that this type of singularity may connect the interior of a black hole with a newly born universe (a space-time referred to as black-and-white hole) giving a resolution to the problem of initial high density and symmetry of the universe. We exemplify by presenting toy models of eternal and astrophysical black-and-white holes.

  18. Gymnastics in Phase Space

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Alexander Wu; /SLAC

    2012-03-01

    As accelerator technology advances, the requirements on accelerator beam quality become increasingly demanding. Facing these new demands, the topic of phase space gymnastics is becoming a new focus of accelerator physics R&D. In a phase space gymnastics, the beam's phase space distribution is manipulated and precision tailored to meet the required beam qualities. On the other hand, all realization of such gymnastics will have to obey accelerator physics principles as well as technological limitations. Recent examples of phase space gymnastics include Emittance exchanges, Phase space exchanges, Emittance partitioning, Seeded FELs and Microbunched beams. The emittance related topics of this list are reviewed in this report. The accelerator physics basis, the optics design principles that provide these phase space manipulations, and the possible applications of these gymnastics, are discussed. This fascinating new field promises to be a powerful tool of the future.

  19. Practical approaches to handle the singularities of a wrist-partitioned space manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenfu; Liang, Bin; Xu, Yangsheng

    2011-01-01

    Space robotic systems are expected to play an increasingly important role in the future. However, the control methods based on the inverse kinematics are affected by singularities. In this paper, practical approaches are proposed to solve the problems of a wrist-partitioned space manipulator. For spacecraft-referenced end-point motion control, we presented the singularity separation plus damped reciprocal (SSPDR) method, which separates the singularity parameters from the inverse of the Jacobian, and replaces their reciprocals using the damped reciprocals. For another control strategy, i.e. inertially referenced end-point motion control, including spacecraft attitude-controlled mode and free-floating mode, the linear momentum equation is used to eliminate three independent variables. With modifying some expressions, the SSPDR method is utilized to solve the singularities of spacecraft attitude-controlled space robot. When the space robot is free-floating, the singularities, i.e. the so-called dynamic singularities, cannot be predicted according to its kinematic structure. Combining with the measured angular velocity of the base, the dynamic singularity handling problem is transformed into real-time kinematic singularity avoiding problem, which can be solved by the SSPDR method. Since the SVD decomposition, the estimation of the minimum singularity value, and the calculation of the generalized Jacobian matrix are not required, the algorithm has lower computation load. Another advantage is that, only the accuracy of part velocity components is reduced by adding the damped coefficients. Simulation results verify the proposed approaches.

  20. Description of phase singularities and their application to focusing design.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Niconoff, G; Muñoz-Lopez, J; Méndez-Martínez, E

    2001-09-01

    We describe the focusing region associated with transmittances, analyzing its associated phase function. We show that generic features can be studied from the differential equation for focusing geometry, which is obtained through angular representation for diffraction fields. With the treatment, we recover the results for circular zone plates, and by introducing a linear transformation into the transmittance function we generate structures that keep the ability to generate focusing. According to the choice of the parameters involved, the diffraction field presents new focusing regions, whose three-dimensional geometry and spatial evolution can be described in a selective fashion with analysis of only the phase singularities associated with the diffraction field and avoidance of the integral representation. The treatment is also applied to a simple lens. We recover the theoretical predictions obtained by Berry and Upstill [M. V. Berry and C. Upstill, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1980), Vol. XVIII, p. 259], and these predictions are corroborated experimentally. The results obtained are shown.

  1. Singular trajectories: space-time domain topology of developing speckle fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasil'ev, Vasiliy; Soskin, Marat S.

    2010-02-01

    It is shown the space-time dynamics of optical singularities is fully described by singularities trajectories in space-time domain, or evolution of transverse coordinates(x, y) in some fixed plane z0. The dynamics of generic developing speckle fields was realized experimentally by laser induced scattering in LiNbO3:Fe photorefractive crystal. The space-time trajectories of singularities can be divided topologically on two classes with essentially different scenario and duration. Some of them (direct topological reactions) consist from nucleation of singularities pair at some (x, y, z0, t) point, their movement and annihilation. They possess form of closed loops with relatively short time of existence. Another much more probable class of trajectories are chain topological reactions. Each of them consists from sequence of links, i.e. of singularities nucleation in various points (xi yi, ti) and following annihilation of both singularities in other space-time points with alien singularities of opposite topological indices. Their topology and properties are established. Chain topological reactions can stop on the borders of a developing speckle field or go to infinity. Examples of measured both types of topological reactions for optical vortices (polarization C points) in scalar (elliptically polarized) natural developing speckle fields are presented.

  2. Is the shell-focusing singularity of Szekeres space-time visible?

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, Brien C; Debnath, Ujjal

    2007-11-15

    The visibility of the shell-focusing singularity in Szekeres space-time--which represents quasispherical dust collapse--has been studied on numerous occasions in the context of the cosmic censorship conjecture. The various results derived have assumed that there exist radial null geodesics in the space-time. We show that such geodesics do not exist in general, and so previous results on the visibility of the singularity are not generally valid. More precisely, we show that the existence of a radial geodesic in Szekeres space-time implies that the space-time is axially symmetric, with the geodesic along the polar direction (i.e. along the axis of symmetry). If there is a second nonparallel radial geodesic, then the space-time is spherically symmetric, and so is a Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi space-time. For the case of the polar geodesic in an axially symmetric Szekeres space-time, we give conditions on the free functions (i.e. initial data) of the space-time which lead to visibility of the singularity along this direction. Likewise, we give a sufficient condition for censorship of the singularity. We point out the complications involved in addressing the question of visibility of the singularity both for nonradial null geodesics in the axially symmetric case and in the general (nonaxially symmetric) case, and suggest a possible approach.

  3. Compactification on phase space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovelady, Benjamin; Wheeler, James

    2016-03-01

    A major challenge for string theory is to understand the dimensional reduction required for comparison with the standard model. We propose reducing the dimension of the compactification by interpreting some of the extra dimensions as the energy-momentum portion of a phase-space. Such models naturally arise as generalized quotients of the conformal group called biconformal spaces. By combining the standard Kaluza-Klein approach with such a conformal gauge theory, we may start from the conformal group of an n-dimensional Euclidean space to form a 2n-dimensional quotient manifold with symplectic structure. A pair of involutions leads naturally to two n-dimensional Lorentzian manifolds. For n = 5, this leaves only two extra dimensions, with a countable family of possible compactifications and an SO(5) Yang-Mills field on the fibers. Starting with n=6 leads to 4-dimensional compactification of the phase space. In the latter case, if the two dimensions each from spacetime and momentum space are compactified onto spheres, then there is an SU(2)xSU(2) (left-right symmetric electroweak) field between phase and configuration space and an SO(6) field on the fibers. Such a theory, with minor additional symmetry breaking, could contain all parts of the standard model.

  4. Failure of the method of slowly varying amplitude and phase for non-linear, singular oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickens, R. E.; Ramadhani, I.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown that the method of slowly varying amplitude and phase yields erroneous results in the study of the mathematical properties of nonlinear singular oscillator systems. The analytical solution is described in which the phase function is constant and for which a special limiting behavior exists when the wavelength is zero. The previous method based on the condition of boundedness cannot be satisfied for nonlinear singular characteristics, and the erroneous designation of the expansion parameter is identified.

  5. Projection of phase singularities in moiré fringe onto a light field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Seigo

    2016-06-01

    A moiré pattern, which is a kind of spatial interference between two periodic patterns, is regarded as a spatial modulation of a "field." By defining the displacement field, we reveal that moiré patterns can have a topological phase singularity, similar to a disclination in liquid crystal and, more generally, a vector field treated in the singular optics. We propose that topological singularities in the moiré displacement field can be projected by passing an electromagnetic field through a metasurface. We designed a metasurface constructed from two layers of a metal disk array operating in the terahertz band; then we numerically estimated the spatial distribution of its transmission properties. The phase singularities in the electromagnetic fields coincided with the singularities appearing in the moiré pattern. We found two kinds of singularities, and the phase of the electromagnetic field changed by 2π or 4π around them. These phase changes were independent of the light frequency, implying that the topological properties of the moiré fields were projected onto the electromagnetic field. This feature of moiré metasurfaces can potentially be exploited in spiral phase plate arrays with no frequency dispersion of the phase change.

  6. Phase space quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Błaszak, Maciej; Domański, Ziemowit

    2012-02-01

    This paper develops an alternative formulation of quantum mechanics known as the phase space quantum mechanics or deformation quantization. It is shown that the quantization naturally arises as an appropriate deformation of the classical Hamiltonian mechanics. More precisely, the deformation of the point-wise product of observables to an appropriate noncommutative ⋆-product and the deformation of the Poisson bracket to an appropriate Lie bracket are the key elements in introducing the quantization of classical Hamiltonian systems. The formalism of the phase space quantum mechanics is presented in a very systematic way for the case of any smooth Hamiltonian function and for a very wide class of deformations. The considered class of deformations and the corresponding ⋆-products contains as a special case all deformations which can be found in the literature devoted to the subject of the phase space quantum mechanics. Fundamental properties of ⋆-products of observables, associated with the considered deformations are presented as well. Moreover, a space of states containing all admissible states is introduced, where the admissible states are appropriate pseudo-probability distributions defined on the phase space. It is proved that the space of states is endowed with a structure of a Hilbert algebra with respect to the ⋆-multiplication. The most important result of the paper shows that developed formalism is more fundamental than the axiomatic ordinary quantum mechanics which appears in the presented approach as the intrinsic element of the general formalism. The equivalence of two formulations of quantum mechanics is proved by observing that the Wigner-Moyal transform has all properties of the tensor product. This observation allows writing many previous results found in the literature in a transparent way, from which the equivalence of the two formulations of quantum mechanics follows naturally. In addition, examples of a free particle and a simple harmonic

  7. Scalar field probes of power-law space-time singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blau, Matthias; Frank, Denis; Weiss, Sebastian

    2006-08-01

    We analyse the effective potential of the scalar wave equation near generic space-time singularities of power-law type (Szekeres-Iyer metrics) and show that the effective potential exhibits a universal and scale invariant leading inverse square behaviour ~ x-2 in the ``tortoise coordinate'' x provided that the metrics satisfy the strict Dominant Energy Condition (DEC). This result parallels that obtained in [1] for probes consisting of families of massless particles (null geodesic deviation, a.k.a. the Penrose Limit). The detailed properties of the scalar wave operator depend sensitively on the numerical coefficient of the x-2-term, and as one application we show that timelike singularities satisfying the DEC are quantum mechanically singular in the sense of the Horowitz-Marolf (essential self-adjointness) criterion. We also comment on some related issues like the near-singularity behaviour of the scalar fields permitted by the Friedrichs extension.

  8. Efficiently enclosing the compact binary parameter space by singular-value decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, Kipp; Hanna, Chad; Keppel, Drew

    2011-10-15

    Gravitational-wave searches for the merger of compact binaries use matched filtering as the method of detecting signals and estimating parameters. Such searches construct a fine mesh of filters covering a signal parameter space at high density. Previously it has been shown that singular-value decomposition can reduce the effective number of filters required to search the data. Here we study how the basis provided by the singular-value decomposition changes dimension as a function of template-bank density. We will demonstrate that it is sufficient to use the basis provided by the singular-value decomposition of a low-density bank to accurately reconstruct arbitrary points within the boundaries of the template bank. Since this technique is purely numerical, it may have applications to interpolating the space of numerical relativity waveforms.

  9. Classical lattice spin models involving singular interactions isotropic in spin space.

    PubMed

    Chamati, Hassan; Romano, Silvano

    2015-07-01

    We address here a few classical lattice spin models, involving n-component unit vectors (n=2,3), associated with a D-dimensional lattice Z(D),D=1,2, and interacting via a pair potential restricted to nearest neighbors and being isotropic in spin space, i.e., defined by a function of the scalar product between the interacting spins. When the potential involves a continuous function of the scalar product, the Mermin-Wagner theorem and its generalizations exclude orientational order at all finite temperatures in the thermodynamic limit, and exclude phase transitions at finite temperatures when D=1; on the other hand, we have considered here some comparatively simple functions of the scalar product which are bounded from below, diverge to +∞ for certain mutual orientations, and are continuous almost everywhere with integrable singularities. Exact solutions are presented for D=1, showing an absence of phase transitions and an absence of orientational order at all finite temperatures in the thermodynamic limit; for D=2, and in the absence of more stringent mathematical results, extensive simulations carried out on some of them point to the absence of orientational order at all finite temperatures and suggest the existence of a Berezinskiĭ-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition. PMID:26274152

  10. Evolution of phase singularities of vortex beams propagating in atmospheric turbulence.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xiao-Lu; Wang, Ben-Yi; Guo, Cheng-Shan

    2015-05-01

    Optical vortex beams propagating through atmospheric turbulence are studied by numerical modeling, and the phase singularities of the vortices existing in the turbulence-distorted beams are calculated. It is found that the algebraic sum of topological charges (TCs) of all the phase singularities existing in test aperture is approximately equal to the TC of the input vortex beam. This property provides us a possible approach for determining the TC of the vortex beam propagating through the atmospheric turbulence, which could have potential application in optical communication using optical vortices.

  11. A Singular Perturbation Approach for Time-Domain Assessment of Phase Margin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, J. Jim; Yang, Xiaojing; Hodel, A Scottedward

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of time-domain assessment of the Phase Margin (PM) of a Single Input Single Output (SISO) Linear Time-Invariant (LTI) system using a singular perturbation approach, where a SISO LTI fast loop system, whose phase lag increases monotonically with frequency, is introduced into the loop as a singular perturbation with a singular perturbation (time-scale separation) parameter Epsilon. First, a bijective relationship between the Singular Perturbation Margin (SPM) max and the PM of the nominal (slow) system is established with an approximation error on the order of Epsilon(exp 2). In proving this result, relationships between the singular perturbation parameter Epsilon, PM of the perturbed system, PM and SPM of the nominal system, and the (monotonically increasing) phase of the fast system are also revealed. These results make it possible to assess the PM of the nominal system in the time-domain for SISO LTI systems using the SPM with a standardized testing system called "PM-gauge," as demonstrated by examples. PM is a widely used stability margin for LTI control system design and certification. Unfortunately, it is not applicable to Linear Time-Varying (LTV) and Nonlinear Time-Varying (NLTV) systems. The approach developed here can be used to establish a theoretical as well as practical metric of stability margin for LTV and NLTV systems using a standardized SPM that is backward compatible with PM.

  12. Viscous singular shock profiles for a system of conservation laws modeling two-phase flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Ting-Hao

    2016-08-01

    This paper is concerned with singular shocks for a system of conservation laws via the Dafermos regularization ut + f(u)x = ɛtuxx. For a system modeling incompressible two-phase fluid flow, the existence of viscous profiles is proved using Geometric Singular Perturbation Theory. The weak convergence and the growth rate of the viscous solution are also derived; the weak limit is the sum of a piecewise constant function and a δ-measure supported on a shock line, and the maximum value of the viscous solution is of order exp ⁡ (1 / ɛ).

  13. Griffiths singularity of quantum phase transition in ion-gated ZrNCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yu; Nojima, Tsutomu; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    Recent technological advances of thin films fabrication, especially mechanical exfoliation, led to discoveries of less-disordered highly-crystalline two-dimensional (2D) superconductors; atomically thin NbSe2 and ion-gated 2D materials, which show intrinsic properties of 2D superconductors with minimal disorder; for example, metallic ground state, and unconventional 2D Ising superconductivity due to pure spin-valley locking effect. In this talk, we focus on magnetotransport properties of an ionic-liquid gated ZrNCl, which exhibited Griffiths singularity-like behavior in superconductor-metal-insulator transition induced by magnetic fields at low carrier concentrations. The overall behavior is quite similar to the recent results of superconducting Ga thin films, in which quantum Griffiths singularity was observed in vortex-glass state. We will discuss the relationship between Griffiths singularity and quantum tunneling or flux flow of vortices phase (vortex liquid) in our system

  14. Implementation of sinh method in integration space for boundary integrals with near singularity in potential problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Guizhong; Zhang, Dehai; Zhang, Jianming; Meng, Fannian; Du, Wenliao; Wen, Xiaoyu

    2016-07-01

    As a widely used numerical method, boundary element method (BEM) is efficient for computer aided engineering (CAE). However, boundary integrals with near singularity need to be calculated accurately and efficiently to implement BEM for CAE analysis on thin bodies successfully. In this paper, the distance in the denominator of the fundamental solution is first designed as an equivalent form using approximate expansion and the original sinh method can be revised into a new form considering the minimum distance and the approximate expansion. Second, the acquisition of the projection point by Newton-Raphson method is introduced. We acquire the nearest point between the source point and element edge by solving a cubic equation if the location of the projection point is outside the element, where boundary integrals with near singularity appear. Finally, the subtriangles of the local coordinate space are mapped into the integration space and the sinh method is applied in the integration space. The revised sinh method can be directly performed in the integration element. Averification test of our method is proposed. Results demonstrate that our method is effective for regularizing the boundary integrals with near singularity.

  15. Multivariate singular spectrum analysis and phase synchronization: An application to U.S. business cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groth, Andreas; Ghil, Michael; Hallegatte, Stephane; Dumas, Patrice

    2010-05-01

    Over the last two decades, singular spectrum analysis (SSA) and multivariate SSA (M-SSA) have proven their power in the temporal and spatio-temporal analysis of short and noisy time series in numerous fields of the geosciences and of other disciplines. M-SSA provides insight into the unknown or partially known dynamics of the underlying system by decomposing the delay-coordinate phase space of a given multivariate time series into a set of data-adaptive orthonormal components. These components can be classified essentially into trends, oscillatory patterns and noise, and allow one to reconstruct a robust "skeleton" of the dynamical system's structure. For an overview we refer to Ghil et al. (Rev. Geophys., 2002). We first present M-SSA in the context of synchronization analysis and illustrate its ability to unveil information about the mechanisms behind the adjustment of rhythms in coupled dynamical systems. This poster deals with the special case of phase synchronization between coupled chaotic oscillators (Rosenblum et al., PRL, 1996). Several ways of measuring phase synchronization are in use, and the robust definition of a reasonable phase for each oscillator is critical in each of them. We illustrate here the advantages of M-SSA in the automatic identification of oscillatory modes and in drawing conclusions about the transition to phase synchronization. Without using any a priori definition of a suitable phase, we show that M-SSA is able to detect phase synchronization in a chain of coupled chaotic oscillators (Osipov et al., PRE, 1996). The key application of these theoretical results in this poster is to U.S. macroeconomic data for 1954--2005. M-SSA helps us draw conclusions about the cyclical behavior of the U.S. economy and its underlying dynamical properties. The recurrence of expansions and recessions, at approximately 5--6-year intervals, is referred to as business cycles; their origin is still a matter of considerable controversy. Our analysis sheds

  16. Singular perturbations with boundary conditions and the Casimir effect in the half space

    SciTech Connect

    Albeverio, S.; Cognola, G.; Zerbini, S.; Spreafico, M.

    2010-06-15

    We study the self-adjoint extensions of a class of nonmaximal multiplication operators with boundary conditions. We show that these extensions correspond to singular rank 1 perturbations (in the sense of Albeverio and Kurasov [Singular Perturbations of Differential Operaters (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2000)]) of the Laplace operator, namely, the formal Laplacian with a singular delta potential, on the half space. This construction is the appropriate setting to describe the Casimir effect related to a massless scalar field in the flat space-time with an infinite conducting plate and in the presence of a pointlike ''impurity.'' We use the relative zeta determinant (as defined in the works of Mueller [''Relative zeta functions, relative determinants and scattering theory,'' Commun. Math. Phys. 192, 309 (1998)] and Spreafico and Zerbini [''Finite temperature quantum field theory on noncompact domains and application to delta interactions,'' Rep. Math. Phys. 63, 163 (2009)]) in order to regularize the partition function of this model. We study the analytic extension of the associated relative zeta function, and we present explicit results for the partition function and for the Casimir force.

  17. Laser-Directed Hierarchical Assembly of Liquid Crystal Defects and Control of Optical Phase Singularities

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, P. J.; Qi, Z. Y.; Lin, Y. H.; Twombly, C. W.; Laviada, M. J.; Lansac, Y.; Smalyukh, I. I.

    2012-06-07

    Topological defect lines are ubiquitous and important in a wide variety of fascinating phenomena and theories in many fields ranging from materials science to early-universe cosmology, and to engineering of laser beams. However, they are typically hard to control in a reliable manner. Here we describe facile erasable 'optical drawing' of self-assembled defect clusters in liquid crystals. These quadrupolar defect clusters, stabilized by the medium's chirality and the tendency to form twisted configurations, are shaped into arbitrary two-dimensional patterns, including reconfigurable phase gratings capable of generating and controlling optical phase singularities in laser beams. Our findings bridge the studies of defects in condensed matter physics and optics and may enable applications in data storage, singular optics, displays, electro-optic devices, diffraction gratings, as well as in both optically- and electrically-addressed pixel-free spatial light modulators.

  18. Laser-directed hierarchical assembly of liquid crystal defects and control of optical phase singularities

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Paul J.; Qi, Zhiyuan; Lin, Yiheng; Twombly, Christopher W.; Laviada, Mauricio J.; Lansac, Yves; Smalyukh, Ivan I.

    2012-01-01

    Topological defect lines are ubiquitous and important in a wide variety of fascinating phenomena and theories in many fields ranging from materials science to early-universe cosmology, and to engineering of laser beams. However, they are typically hard to control in a reliable manner. Here we describe facile erasable “optical drawing” of self-assembled defect clusters in liquid crystals. These quadrupolar defect clusters, stabilized by the medium's chirality and the tendency to form twisted configurations, are shaped into arbitrary two-dimensional patterns, including reconfigurable phase gratings capable of generating and controlling optical phase singularities in laser beams. Our findings bridge the studies of defects in condensed matter physics and optics and may enable applications in data storage, singular optics, displays, electro-optic devices, diffraction gratings, as well as in both optically- and electrically-addressed pixel-free spatial light modulators. PMID:22679553

  19. Holographic curvature perturbations in a cosmology with a space-like singularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Elisa G. M.; Brandenberger, Robert

    2016-07-01

    We study the evolution of cosmological perturbations in an anti-de-Sitter (AdS) bulk through a cosmological singularity by mapping the dynamics onto the boundary conformal fields theory by means of the AdS/CFT correspondence. We consider a deformed AdS space-time obtained by considering a time-dependent dilaton which induces a curvature singularity in the bulk at a time which we call t = 0, and which asymptotically approaches AdS both for large positive and negative times. The boundary field theory becomes free when the bulk curvature goes to infinity. Hence, the evolution of the fluctuations is under better controle on the boundary than in the bulk. To avoid unbounded particle production across the bounce it is necessary to smooth out the curvature singularity at very high curvatures. We show how the bulk cosmological perturbations can be mapped onto boundary gauge field fluctuations. We evolve the latter and compare the spectrum of fluctuations on the infrared scales relevant for cosmological observations before and after the bounce point. We find that the index of the power spectrum of fluctuations is the same before and after the bounce.

  20. Singular phase nano-optics in plasmonic metamaterials for label-free single-molecule detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravets, V. G.; Schedin, F.; Jalil, R.; Britnell, L.; Gorbachev, R. V.; Ansell, D.; Thackray, B.; Novoselov, K. S.; Geim, A. K.; Kabashin, A. V.; Grigorenko, A. N.

    2013-04-01

    The non-trivial behaviour of phase is crucial for many important physical phenomena, such as, for example, the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the Berry phase. By manipulating the phase of light one can create ’twisted’ photons, vortex knots and dislocations which has led to the emergence of the field of singular optics relying on abrupt phase changes. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of singular visible-light nano-optics which exploits the benefits of both plasmonic field enhancement and the peculiarities of the phase of light. We show that properly designed plasmonic metamaterials exhibit topologically protected zero reflection yielding to sharp phase changes nearby, which can be employed to radically improve the sensitivity of detectors based on plasmon resonances. By using reversible hydrogenation of graphene and binding of streptavidin-biotin, we demonstrate an areal mass sensitivity at a level of fg mm-2 and detection of individual biomolecules, respectively. Our proof-of-concept results offer a route towards simple and scalable single-molecule label-free biosensing technologies.

  1. Phase microscope imaging in phase space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Colin J. R.; Mehta, Shalin B.

    2016-03-01

    Imaging in a bright field or phase contrast microscope is partially coherent. We have found that the image can be conveniently considered and modeled in terms of the Wigner distribution function (WDF) of the object transmission. The WDF of the object has a simple physical interpretation for the case of a slowly varying object. Basically, the image intensity is the spatial marginal of the spatial convolution of the object WDF with the phase space imager kernel (PSIkernel), a rotated version of the transmission cross-coefficient. The PSI-kernel can be regarded as a partially-coherent generalization of the point spread function. This approach can be extended to consider the partial coherence of the image itself. In particular, we can consider the mutual intensity, WDF or ambiguity function of the image. It is important to note that the spatial convolution of the object WDF with the PSI-kernel is not a WDF, and not the WDF of the image. The phase space representations of the image have relevance to phase reconstruction methods such as phase space tomography, or the transport of intensity equation approach, and to the three-dimensional image properties.

  2. Automatic Detections of P and S Phases using Singular Value Decomposition Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzon, I.; Vernon, F.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Rosenberger, A.

    2012-12-01

    We implement a new method for the automatic detection of the primary P and S phases using Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) analysis. The method is based on a real-time iteration algorithm of Rosenberger (2010) for the SVD of three component seismograms. Rosenberger's algorithm identifies the incidence angle by applying SVD and separates the waveforms into their P and S components. We have been using the same algorithm, with the modification that we apply a set of filters prior to the SVD, and study the success of these filters in detecting correctly the P and S arrivals, in different stations and segments of the San Jacinto Fault Zone. A recent deployment in San Jacinto Fault Zone area provides a very dense seismic networks, with ~ 90 stations in a fault zone which is 150km long and 30km wide. Embedded in this network are 5 linear arrays crossing the fault trace, with ~ 10 stations at ~ 25-50m spacing in each array. This allows us to test the detection algorithm in a diverse setting, including events with different source mechanisms, stations with different site characteristics, and ray paths that diverge from the SVD approximation used in the algorithm, such as rays propagating within the fault and recorded on the linear arrays. Comparing our new method with classic automatic detection methods using Short Time Average (STA) to Long Time Average (LTA) ratios, we show the success of this SVD detection. Unlike the STA to LTA ratio methods that normally tend to detect the P phase, but in many cases cannot distinguish the S arrival, the main advantage of the SVD method is that almost all the P arrivals have an associated S arrival. Moreover, even for cases of short distance events, in which the S arrivals are masked by the P waves, the SVD algorithm under low band filters, manages to detect those S arrivals. The method is less consistent for stations located directly on the fault traces, in which the SVD approximation is not always valid; but even in such cases the

  3. Quantum phase transition in space

    SciTech Connect

    Damski, Bogdan; Zurek, Wojciech H

    2008-01-01

    A quantum phase transition between the symmetric (polar) phase and the phase with broken symmetry can be induced in a ferromagnetic spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate in space (rather than in time). We consider such a phase transition and show that the transition region in the vicinity of the critical point exhibits scalings that reflect a compromise between the rate at which the transition is imposed (i.e., the gradient of the control parameter) and the scaling of the divergent healing length in the critical region. Our results suggest a method for the direct measurement of the scaling exponent {nu}.

  4. Formation of naked singularities in five-dimensional space-time

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Yuta; Shinkai, Hisa-aki

    2011-03-15

    We numerically investigate the gravitational collapse of collisionless particles in spheroidal configurations both in four- and five-dimensional (5D) space-time. We repeat the simulation performed by Shapiro and Teukolsky (1991) that announced an appearance of a naked singularity, and also find similar results in the 5D version. That is, in a collapse of a highly prolate spindle, the Kretschmann invariant blows up outside the matter and no apparent horizon forms. We also find that the collapses in 5D proceed more rapidly than in 4D, and the critical prolateness for the appearance of an apparent horizon in 5D is loosened, compared to 4D cases. We also show how collapses differ with spatial symmetries comparing 5D evolutions in single-axisymmetry, SO(3), and those in double-axisymmetry, U(1)xU(1).

  5. Longitudinal phase space tomography with space charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, S.; Lindroos, M.; Koscielniak, S.

    2000-12-01

    Tomography is now a very broad topic with a wealth of algorithms for the reconstruction of both qualitative and quantitative images. In an extension in the domain of particle accelerators, one of the simplest algorithms has been modified to take into account the nonlinearity of large-amplitude synchrotron motion. This permits the accurate reconstruction of longitudinal phase space density from one-dimensional bunch profile data. The method is a hybrid one which incorporates particle tracking. Hitherto, a very simple tracking algorithm has been employed because only a brief span of measured profile data is required to build a snapshot of phase space. This is one of the strengths of the method, as tracking for relatively few turns relaxes the precision to which input machine parameters need to be known. The recent addition of longitudinal space charge considerations as an optional refinement of the code is described. Simplicity suggested an approach based on the derivative of bunch shape with the properties of the vacuum chamber parametrized by a single value of distributed reactive impedance and by a geometrical coupling coefficient. This is sufficient to model the dominant collective effects in machines of low to moderate energy. In contrast to simulation codes, binning is not an issue since the profiles to be differentiated are measured ones. The program is written in Fortran 90 with high-performance Fortran extensions for parallel processing. A major effort has been made to identify and remove execution bottlenecks, for example, by reducing floating-point calculations and recoding slow intrinsic functions. A pointerlike mechanism which avoids the problems associated with pointers and parallel processing has been implemented. This is required to handle the large, sparse matrices that the algorithm employs. Results obtained with and without the inclusion of space charge are presented and compared for proton beams in the CERN protron synchrotron booster. Comparisons

  6. The force on a singularity in a two-phase layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aderogba, K.

    T HE FORCE acting on a centre of dilatation in the interior of one of two dissimilar layers of infinite extent but of different thicknesses is determined within the limits of the linear theory of elasticity. A remarkable feature of this force is that it is expressible in terms of the distances of the infinite series of images of the singularity from the interface and the plane boundaries. Owing to the dissimilarity in the elastic parameters and the presence of the plane boundaries, the influence of the force can be more drastic than that predicted by the case of a centre of dilatation in the interior of one of two bonded semi-infinite solids. The solution covers many interesting limiting cases, such as the effect of a thick elastic coating on an elastic half-space. As a pilot study on the effect of close boundaries on the force acting on singularities, a formula is first established for the force acting on an infinitesimal prismatic dislocation loop at an arbitrary site inside a free homogeneous layer.

  7. Quantum shuttle in phase space.

    PubMed

    Novotný, Tomás; Donarini, Andrea; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2003-06-27

    We present a quantum theory of the shuttle instability in electronic transport through a nanostructure with a mechanical degree of freedom. A phase space formulation in terms of the Wigner function allows us to identify a crossover from the tunneling to the shuttling regime, thus extending the previously found classical results to the quantum domain. Further, a new dynamical regime is discovered, where the shuttling is driven exclusively by the quantum noise.

  8. Enhancing multivariate singular spectrum analysis for phase synchronization: The role of observability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portes, Leonardo L.; Aguirre, Luis A.

    2016-09-01

    Multivariate singular spectrum analysis (M-SSA) was recently adapted to study systems of coupled oscillators. It does not require an a priori definition for phase nor detailed knowledge of the individual oscillators, but it uses all the variables of each system. This aspect could be restrictive for practical applications, since usually just a few (sometimes only one) variables are measured. Based on dynamical systems and observability theories, we first show how to apply the M-SSA with only one variable and show the conditions to achieve good performance. Next, we provide numerical evidence that this single-variable approach enhances the explanatory power compared to the original M-SSA when computed with all the system variables. This could have important practical implications, as pointed out using benchmark oscillators.

  9. Effects of misalignments in the optical vortex transformation performed by holograms with embedded phase singularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekshaev, A. Ya.; Sviridova, S. V.

    2010-12-01

    Spatial characteristics of diffracted beams produced by a "fork" hologram from an incident circular Laguerre-Gaussian beam whose axis differs from the hologram optical axis are studied theoretically. General analytical representations for the complex amplitude distribution of a diffracted beam are derived in terms of superposition of Kummer beams or hypergeometric-Gaussian beams. The diffracted beam structure is determined by combination of the "proper" topological charge m of the incident vortex beam and the topological charge l of the singularity "imparted" by the hologram. Evolution of the diffracted beam structure is studied in detail for several combinations of m and l and for various incident beam displacements with respect to the optical axis of the hologram. Variations of the intensity and phase distribution due to the incident beam misalignment are investigated and possible applications for the purposeful optical vortex beam generation and optical measurements are discussed.

  10. Robust Stability Analysis of the Space Launch System Control Design: A Singular Value Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pei, Jing; Newsome, Jerry R.

    2015-01-01

    Classical stability analysis consists of breaking the feedback loops one at a time and determining separately how much gain or phase variations would destabilize the stable nominal feedback system. For typical launch vehicle control design, classical control techniques are generally employed. In addition to stability margins, frequency domain Monte Carlo methods are used to evaluate the robustness of the design. However, such techniques were developed for Single-Input-Single-Output (SISO) systems and do not take into consideration the off-diagonal terms in the transfer function matrix of Multi-Input-Multi-Output (MIMO) systems. Robust stability analysis techniques such as H(sub infinity) and mu are applicable to MIMO systems but have not been adopted as standard practices within the launch vehicle controls community. This paper took advantage of a simple singular-value-based MIMO stability margin evaluation method based on work done by Mukhopadhyay and Newsom and applied it to the SLS high-fidelity dynamics model. The method computes a simultaneous multi-loop gain and phase margin that could be related back to classical margins. The results presented in this paper suggest that for the SLS system, traditional SISO stability margins are similar to the MIMO margins. This additional level of verification provides confidence in the robustness of the control design.

  11. Wave Geometry: a Plurality of Singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, M. V.

    Five interconnected wave singularities are discussed: phase monopoles, at eigenvalue degeneracies in parameter space, where the 2-form generating the geomeeic phase is singular, phase dislocations, at zeros of complex wavefunctions in position space, where different wavefronts (surfaces of constant phase) meet; caustics, that is envelopes (foci) of families of classical paths or geometrical rays, where real rays are born violently and which are complementary to dislocations; Stokes sets, at which a complex ray is born gently where it is maximally dominated by another ray; and complex degeneracies, which are the sources of adiabatic quantum transtions in analytic Hamiltonians.

  12. A general formalism for phase space calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Deutchman, Philip A.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1988-01-01

    General formulas for calculating the interactions of galactic cosmic rays with target nuclei are presented. Methods for calculating the appropriate normalization volume elements and phase space factors are presented. Particular emphasis is placed on obtaining correct phase space factors for 2-, and 3-body final states. Calculations for both Lorentz-invariant and noninvariant phase space are presented.

  13. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Stress - energy must be singular on the Misner space horizon even for automorphic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cramer, Claes R.; Kay, Bernard S.

    1996-12-01

    We use the image sum method to reproduce Sushkov's result that for a massless automorphic field on the initial globally hyperbolic region IGH of Misner space, one can always find a special value of the automorphic parameter 0264-9381/13/12/002/img1 such that the renormalized expectation value 0264-9381/13/12/002/img2 in the Sushkov state `0264-9381/13/12/002/img3' (i.e. the automorphic generalization of the Hiscock - Konkowski state) vanishes. However, we shall prove by elementary methods that the conclusions of a recent general theorem of Kay, Radzikowski and Wald apply in this case. That is, for any value of 0264-9381/13/12/002/img1 and any neighbourhood N of any point b on the chronology horizon there exists at least one pair of non-null related points 0264-9381/13/12/002/img5 such that the renormalized two-point function of an automorphic field 0264-9381/13/12/002/img6 in the Sushkov state is singular. In consequence 0264-9381/13/12/002/img2 (as well as other renormalized expectation values such as 0264-9381/13/12/002/img8) is necessarily singular on the chronology horizon. We point out that a similar situation (i.e. singularity on the chronology horizon) holds for states on Gott space and Grant space.

  14. EVALUATING THE HYDROGEOCHEMICAL RESPONSE OF SPRINGS USING PHASE-PLANE PLOTS AND SINGULAR SPECTRUM ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    B. NEWMAN; C. DUFFY; D. HICKMOTT

    2001-04-01

    An ongoing study is focused on understanding the hydrology and geochemistry of three contaminated, perennial, semi-arid zone springs at a high explosives production facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory, in northern New Mexico, USA. Springflow time series were examined using singular spectrum analysis (SSA) to identify the important time-scales affecting flow in the springs. SSA results suggest that springflow has two dominant patterns: a series of low-frequency modes which follow the seasonal and longer-term climate conditions at the site, and a large number of higher frequency modes which display the characteristic ''red noise'' spectrum related to local, short-term weather conditions. Phase-plane plots of {delta}{sup 18}O and spring discharge suggest that high flow conditions are dominated by snowmelt and summer monsoon inputs while low flow conditions can be affected by mixing of fast and slow flow components causing wide variations in {delta}{sup 18}O values. The analysis is being used for development of an efficient strategy for sampling design for environmental monitoring of contaminants that respond to multiple time scales.

  15. Transformation of the optical vortex light beams in holographic elements with embedded phase singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sviridova, S. V.; Bekshaev, A. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Transformations of spatial characteristics of optical vortex (OV) light beams at passing through a computer-generated hologram (CGH) that imparts an additional phase singularity ("fork" hologram) are investigated. The spatial structure of the diffracted beam is studied for different combinations of the incident OV order m, embedded topological charge of the CGH q and the diffraction order n. Variations of the intensity distribution are investigated experimentally. Due to the incident beam displacement with respect to the CGH optical axis, the diffracted beam profile is deformed, rotates in the azimuthal direction in agreement with the internal energy circulation and its 'center of gravity' is displaced orthogonally to the incident beam displacement. The results are compared with theoretical predictions based on two models of the incident OV beam. As, in experiment, the incident beam was created from the Gaussian beam passed another fork hologram, the Kummer beam model seems presumably more relevant but the standard Laguerre-Gaussian model in some cases fits the experimental data quite well.

  16. Transformation of the optical vortex light beams in holographic elements with embedded phase singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sviridova, S. V.; Bekshaev, A. Y.

    2011-09-01

    Transformations of spatial characteristics of optical vortex (OV) light beams at passing through a computer-generated hologram (CGH) that imparts an additional phase singularity ("fork" hologram) are investigated. The spatial structure of the diffracted beam is studied for different combinations of the incident OV order m, embedded topological charge of the CGH q and the diffraction order n. Variations of the intensity distribution are investigated experimentally. Due to the incident beam displacement with respect to the CGH optical axis, the diffracted beam profile is deformed, rotates in the azimuthal direction in agreement with the internal energy circulation and its 'center of gravity' is displaced orthogonally to the incident beam displacement. The results are compared with theoretical predictions based on two models of the incident OV beam. As, in experiment, the incident beam was created from the Gaussian beam passed another fork hologram, the Kummer beam model seems presumably more relevant but the standard Laguerre-Gaussian model in some cases fits the experimental data quite well.

  17. Quantum phase-space representation for curved configuration spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gneiting, Clemens; Fischer, Timo; Hornberger, Klaus

    2013-12-01

    We extend the Wigner-Weyl-Moyal phase-space formulation of quantum mechanics to general curved configuration spaces. The underlying phase space is based on the chosen coordinates of the manifold and their canonically conjugate momenta. The resulting Wigner function displays the axioms of a quasiprobability distribution, and any Weyl-ordered operator gets associated with the corresponding phase-space function, even in the absence of continuous symmetries. The corresponding quantum Liouville equation reduces to the classical curved space Liouville equation in the semiclassical limit. We demonstrate the formalism for a point particle moving on two-dimensional manifolds, such as a paraboloid or the surface of a sphere. The latter clarifies the treatment of compact coordinate spaces, as well as the relation of the presented phase-space representation to symmetry groups of the configuration space.

  18. Charge Inversion and Topological Phase Transition at a Twist Angle Induced van Hove Singularity of Bilayer Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngwook; Herlinger, Patrick; Moon, Pilkyung; Koshino, Mikito; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Smet, Jurgen H.

    2016-08-01

    Van Hove singularities (VHS's) in the density of states play an outstanding and diverse role for the electronic and thermodynamic properties of crystalline solids. At the critical point the Fermi surface connectivity changes and topological properties undergo a transition. Opportunities to systematically pass a VHS at the turn of a voltage knob and study its diverse impact are however rare. With the advent of van der Waals heterostructures, control over the atomic registry of neigbouring graphene layers offers an unprecedented tool to generate a low energy VHS easily accessible with conventional gating. Here we have addressed magnetotransport when the chemical potential crosses the twist angle induced VHS in twisted bilayer graphene. A topological phase transition is experimentally disclosed in the abrupt conversion of electrons to holes or vice versa, a loss of a non-zero Berry phase and distinct sequences of integer quantum Hall states above and below the singularity.

  19. Phase-space quantization of field theory.

    SciTech Connect

    Curtright, T.; Zachos, C.

    1999-04-20

    In this lecture, a limited introduction of gauge invariance in phase-space is provided, predicated on canonical transformations in quantum phase-space. Exact characteristic trajectories are also specified for the time-propagating Wigner phase-space distribution function: they are especially simple--indeed, classical--for the quantized simple harmonic oscillator. This serves as the underpinning of the field theoretic Wigner functional formulation introduced. Scalar field theory is thus reformulated in terms of distributions in field phase-space. This is a pedagogical selection from work published and reported at the Yukawa Institute Workshop ''Gauge Theory and Integrable Models'', 26-29 January, 1999.

  20. Application of matrix singular value properties for evaluating gain and phase margins of multiloop systems. [stability margins for wing flutter suppression and drone lateral attitude control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, V.; Newsom, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    A stability margin evaluation method in terms of simultaneous gain and phase changes in all loops of a multiloop system is presented. A universal gain-phase margin evaluation diagram is constructed by generalizing an existing method using matrix singular value properties. Using this diagram and computing the minimum singular value of the system return difference matrix over the operating frequency range, regions of guaranteed stability margins can be obtained. Singular values are computed for a wing flutter suppression and a drone lateral attitude control problem. The numerical results indicate that this method predicts quite conservative stability margins. In the second example if the eigenvalue magnitude is used instead of the singular value, as a measure of nearness to singularity, more realistic stability margins are obtained. However, this relaxed measure generally cannot guarantee global stability.

  1. Hawking radiation and classical tunneling: A ray phase space approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tracy, E. R.; Zhigunov, D.

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic waves in fluids undergoing the transition from sub- to supersonic flow satisfy governing equations similar to those for light waves in the immediate vicinity of a black hole event horizon. This acoustic analogy has been used by Unruh and others as a conceptual model for "Hawking radiation." Here, we use variational methods, originally introduced by Brizard for the study of linearized MHD, and ray phase space methods, to analyze linearized acoustics in the presence of background flows. The variational formulation endows the evolution equations with natural Hermitian and symplectic structures that prove useful for later analysis. We derive a 2 × 2 normal form governing the wave evolution in the vicinity of the "event horizon." This shows that the acoustic model can be reduced locally (in ray phase space) to a standard (scalar) tunneling process weakly coupled to a unidirectional non-dispersive wave (the "incoming wave"). Given the normal form, the Hawking "thermal spectrum" can be derived by invoking standard tunneling theory, but only by ignoring the coupling to the incoming wave. Deriving the normal form requires a novel extension of the modular ray-based theory used previously to study tunneling and mode conversion in plasmas. We also discuss how ray phase space methods can be used to change representation, which brings the problem into a form where the wave functions are less singular than in the usual formulation, a fact that might prove useful in numerical studies.

  2. Solving close-coupling equations in momentum space without singularities II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, A. W.; Abdurakhmanov, I. B.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Fursa, D. V.; Bray, I.

    2016-06-01

    The implementation of the convergent close-coupling method, whereby the principal-value singularity is treated analytically (Bray et al., 2015), has been extended to non-zero angular momenta. Its utility is demonstrated through application to proton scattering on excited states of positronium at incident energies spanning six orders of magnitude. It is shown that the analytic treatment is necessary in the case of highly excited positronium states.

  3. Singular dynamics of a q-difference Painlevé equation in its initial-value space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, N.; Lobb, S. B.

    2016-01-01

    We construct the initial-value space of a q-discrete first Painlevé equation explicitly and describe the behaviours of its solutions w(n) in this space as n\\to ∞ , with particular attention paid to neighbourhoods of exceptional lines and irreducible components of the anti-canonical divisor. These results show that trajectories starting in domains bounded away from the origin in initial value space are repelled away from such singular lines. However, the dynamical behaviours in neighbourhoods containing the origin are complicated by the merger of two simple base points at the origin in the limit. We show that these lead to a saddle-point-type behaviour in a punctured neighbourhood of the origin.

  4. The Way to Phase Space Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lingzhen; Michael, Marthaler; Schön, Gerd

    A novel way to create a band structure of the quasienergy spectrum for driven systems is proposed based on the discrete symmetry in phase space. The system, e.g., an ion or ultracold atom trapped in a potential, shows no spatial periodicity, but it is driven by a time-dependent field. Under rotating wave approximation, the system can produce a periodic lattice structure in phase space. The band structure in quasienergy arises as a consequence of the n-fold discrete periodicity in phase space induced by this driving field. We propose explicit models to realize such a phase space crystal and analyze its band structure in the frame of a tightbinding approximation. The phase space lattice differs fundamentally from a lattice in real space, because its coordinate system, i.e., phase space, has a noncommutative geometry. The phase space crystal opens new ways to engineer energy band structures, with the added advantage that its properties can be changed in situ by tuning the driving field's parameters. Carl-Zeiss Stiftung.

  5. Phase space correlation to improve detection accuracy.

    PubMed

    Carroll, T L; Rachford, F J

    2009-09-01

    The standard method used for detecting signals in radar or sonar is cross correlation. The accuracy of the detection with cross correlation is limited by the bandwidth of the signals. We show that by calculating the cross correlation based on points that are nearby in phase space rather than points that are simultaneous in time, the detection accuracy is improved. The phase space correlation technique works for some standard radar signals, but it is especially well suited to chaotic signals because trajectories that are adjacent in phase space move apart from each other at an exponential rate.

  6. Gravitational collapse of a homogeneous scalar field in deformed phase space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasouli, S. M. M.; Ziaie, A. H.; Marto, J.; Moniz, P. V.

    2014-02-01

    We study the gravitational collapse of a homogeneous scalar field, minimally coupled to gravity, in the presence of a particular type of dynamical deformation between the canonical momenta of the scale factor and of the scalar field. In the absence of such a deformation, a class of solutions can be found in the literature [R. Goswami and P. S. Joshi], whereby a curvature singularity occurs at the collapse end state, which can be either hidden behind a horizon or be visible to external observers. However, when the phase space is deformed, as implemented herein this paper, we find that the singularity may be either removed or instead, attained faster. More precisely, for negative values of the deformation parameter, we identify the emergence of a negative pressure term, which slows down the collapse so that the singularity is replaced with a bounce. In this respect, the formation of a dynamical horizon can be avoided depending on the suitable choice of the boundary surface of the star. Whereas for positive values, the pressure that originates from the deformation effects assists the collapse toward the singularity formation. In this case, since the collapse speed is unbounded, the condition on the horizon formation is always satisfied and furthermore the dynamical horizon develops earlier than when the phase-space deformations are absent. These results are obtained by means of a thoroughly numerical discussion.

  7. Deformed phase spaces with group valued momenta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzano, Michele; Nettel, Francisco

    2016-10-01

    We introduce a general framework for describing deformed phase spaces with group valued momenta. Using techniques from the theory of Poisson-Lie groups and Lie bialgebras we develop tools for constructing Poisson structures on the deformed phase space starting from the minimal input of the algebraic structure of the generators of the momentum Lie group. The tools developed are used to derive Poisson structures on examples of group momentum space much studied in the literature such as the n -dimensional generalization of the κ -deformed momentum space and the S L (2 ,R ) momentum space in three space-time dimensions. We discuss classical momentum observables associated to multiparticle systems and argue that these combine according the usual four-vector addition despite the non-Abelian group structure of momentum space.

  8. Identifying Multi-Dimensional Co-Clusters in Tensors Based on Hyperplane Detection in Singular Vector Spaces

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinyu; Yan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Co-clustering, often called biclustering for two-dimensional data, has found many applications, such as gene expression data analysis and text mining. Nowadays, a variety of multi-dimensional arrays (tensors) frequently occur in data analysis tasks, and co-clustering techniques play a key role in dealing with such datasets. Co-clusters represent coherent patterns and exhibit important properties along all the modes. Development of robust co-clustering techniques is important for the detection and analysis of these patterns. In this paper, a co-clustering method based on hyperplane detection in singular vector spaces (HDSVS) is proposed. Specifically in this method, higher-order singular value decomposition (HOSVD) transforms a tensor into a core part and a singular vector matrix along each mode, whose row vectors can be clustered by a linear grouping algorithm (LGA). Meanwhile, hyperplanar patterns are extracted and successfully supported the identification of multi-dimensional co-clusters. To validate HDSVS, a number of synthetic and biological tensors were adopted. The synthetic tensors attested a favorable performance of this algorithm on noisy or overlapped data. Experiments with gene expression data and lineage data of embryonic cells further verified the reliability of HDSVS to practical problems. Moreover, the detected co-clusters are well consistent with important genetic pathways and gene ontology annotations. Finally, a series of comparisons between HDSVS and state-of-the-art methods on synthetic tensors and a yeast gene expression tensor were implemented, verifying the robust and stable performance of our method. PMID:27598575

  9. Identifying Multi-Dimensional Co-Clusters in Tensors Based on Hyperplane Detection in Singular Vector Spaces.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongya; Wang, Debby D; Chen, Long; Liu, Xinyu; Yan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Co-clustering, often called biclustering for two-dimensional data, has found many applications, such as gene expression data analysis and text mining. Nowadays, a variety of multi-dimensional arrays (tensors) frequently occur in data analysis tasks, and co-clustering techniques play a key role in dealing with such datasets. Co-clusters represent coherent patterns and exhibit important properties along all the modes. Development of robust co-clustering techniques is important for the detection and analysis of these patterns. In this paper, a co-clustering method based on hyperplane detection in singular vector spaces (HDSVS) is proposed. Specifically in this method, higher-order singular value decomposition (HOSVD) transforms a tensor into a core part and a singular vector matrix along each mode, whose row vectors can be clustered by a linear grouping algorithm (LGA). Meanwhile, hyperplanar patterns are extracted and successfully supported the identification of multi-dimensional co-clusters. To validate HDSVS, a number of synthetic and biological tensors were adopted. The synthetic tensors attested a favorable performance of this algorithm on noisy or overlapped data. Experiments with gene expression data and lineage data of embryonic cells further verified the reliability of HDSVS to practical problems. Moreover, the detected co-clusters are well consistent with important genetic pathways and gene ontology annotations. Finally, a series of comparisons between HDSVS and state-of-the-art methods on synthetic tensors and a yeast gene expression tensor were implemented, verifying the robust and stable performance of our method. PMID:27598575

  10. RADON reconstruction in longitudinal phase space

    SciTech Connect

    Mane, V.; Peggs, S.; Wei, J.

    1997-07-01

    Longitudinal particle motion in circular accelerators is typically monitoring by one dimensional (1-D) profiles. Adiabatic particle motion in two dimensional (2-D) phase space can be reconstructed with tomographic techniques, using 1-D profiles. A computer program RADON has been developed in C++ to process digitized mountain range data and perform the phase space reconstruction for the AGS, and later for Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC).

  11. Deep space LADAR, phase 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Randy W.; Rawlins, Greg; Zepkin, Neil; Bohlin, John

    1989-03-01

    A pseudo-ranging laser radar (PRLADAR) concept is proposed to provide extended range capability to tracking LADAR systems meeting the long-range requirements of SDI mission scenarios such as the SIE midcourse program. The project will investigate the payoff of several transmitter modulation techniques and a feasibility demonstration using a breadboard implementation of a new receiver concept called the Phase Multiplexed Correlator (PMC) will be accomplished. The PRLADAR concept has specific application to spaceborne LADAR tracking missions where increased CNR/SNR performance gained by the proposed technique may reduce the laser power and/or optical aperture requirement for a given mission. The reduction in power/aperture has similar cost reduction advantages in commercial ranging applications. A successful Phase 1 program will lay the groundwork for a quick reaction upgrade to the AMOS/LASE system in support of near term SIE measurement objectives.

  12. Liquid crystal phase shifters for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woehrle, Christopher D.

    Space communication satellites have historically relied heavily on high gain gimbal dish antennas for performing communications. Reflector dish antennas lack flexibility in anti-jamming capabilities, and they tend to have a high risk associated to them given the need for mechanical mechanisms to beam steer. In recent years, a great amount of investment has been made into phased array antenna technologies. Phased arrays offer increased signal flexibility at reduced financial cost and in system risk. The problem with traditional phased arrays is the significant program cost and overall complexity added to the satellite by integrating antenna elements that require many dedicated components to properly perform adaptive beam steering. Several unique methods have been proposed to address the issues that plague traditional phase shifters slated for space applications. Proposed approaches range from complex mechanical switches (MEMS) and ferroelectric devices to more robust molecular changes. Nematic liquid crystals offer adaptive beam steering capabilities that traditional phased arrays have; however, with the added benefit of reduced system cost, complexity, and increased resilience to space environmental factors. The objective of the work presented is to investigate the feasibility of using nematic liquid crystals as a means of phase shifting individual phased array elements slated for space applications. Significant attention is paid to the survivability and performance of liquid crystal and associated materials in the space environment. Performance regarding thermal extremes and interactions with charged particles are the primary factors addressed.

  13. Single phase space laundry development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, Gerald V.; Putnam, David F.; Lunsford, Teddie D.; Streech, Neil D.; Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Reimers, Harold

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a newly designed, 2.7 Kg (6 pound) capacity, laundry machine called the Single Phase Laundry (SPSL). The machine was designed to wash and dry crew clothing in a micro-gravity environment. A prototype unit was fabricated for NASA-JSC under a Small Business Innovated Research (SBIR) contract extending from September 1990 to January 1993. The unit employs liquid jet agitation, microwave vacuum drying, and air jet tumbling, which was perfected by KC-135 zero-g flight testing. Operation is completely automated except for loading and unloading clothes. The unit uses about 20 percent less power than a conventional household appliance.

  14. Quantum dynamics in phase space: Moyal trajectories 2

    SciTech Connect

    Braunss, G.

    2013-01-15

    Continuing a previous paper [G. Braunss, J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 43, 025302 (2010)] where we had calculated Planck-Constant-Over-Two-Pi {sup 2}-approximations of quantum phase space viz. Moyal trajectories of examples with one and two degrees of freedom, we present in this paper the calculation of Planck-Constant-Over-Two-Pi {sup 2}-approximations for four examples: a two-dimensional Toda chain, the radially symmetric Schwarzschild field, and two examples with three degrees of freedom, the latter being the nonrelativistic spherically Coulomb potential and the relativistic cylinder symmetrical Coulomb potential with a magnetic field H. We show in particular that an Planck-Constant-Over-Two-Pi {sup 2}-approximation of the nonrelativistic Coulomb field has no singularity at the origin (r= 0) whereas the classical trajectories are singular at r= 0. In the third example, we show in particular that for an arbitrary function {gamma}(H, z) the expression {beta}{identical_to}p{sub z}+{gamma}(H, z) is classically ( Planck-Constant-Over-Two-Pi = 0) a constant of motion, whereas for Planck-Constant-Over-Two-Pi {ne} 0 this holds only if {gamma}(H, z) is an arbitrary polynomial of second order in z. This statement is shown to extend correspondingly to a cylinder symmetrical Schwarzschild field with a magnetic field. We exhibit in detail a number of properties of the radially symmetric Schwarzschild field. We exhibit finally the problems of the nonintegrable Henon-Heiles Hamiltonian and give a short review of the regular Hilbert space representation of Moyal operators.

  15. Beam Tomography in Longitudinal Phase Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mane, V.; Wei, J.; Peggs, S.

    1997-05-01

    Longitudinal particle motion in circular accelerators is typically monitored by one dimensional (1-D) profiles. Adiabatic particle motion in 2-D phase space can be reconstructed with tomographic techniques, using 1-D profiles. In this paper, we discuss a filtered backprojection algorithm, with a high pass ramp or Hann filter, for phase space reconstruction. The algorithm uses several projections of the beam at equally spaced angles over half a synchrotron period. A computer program RADON has been developed to process digitized mountain range data and do the phase space reconstruction for the AGS, and later for Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Analysis has been performed to determine the sensitivity to machine parameters and data acquisition errors. During the Sextant test of RHIC in early 1997, this program has been successfully employed to reconstruct the motion of Au^77+ beam in the AGS.

  16. Transformation of optical-vortex beams by holograms with embedded phase singularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekshaev, A. Ya.; Orlinska, O. V.

    2010-04-01

    Spatial characteristics of diffracted beams produced by the "fork" holograms from incident circular Laguerre-Gaussian modes are studied theoretically. The complex amplitude distribution of a diffracted beam is described by models of the Kummer beam or of the hypergeometric-Gaussian beam. Physically, in most cases its structure is formed under the influence of the divergent spherical wave originating from the discontinuity caused by the hologram's groove bifurcation. Presence of this wave is manifested by the ripple structure in the near-field beam pattern and by the power-law amplitude decay at the beam periphery. Conditions when the divergent wave is not excited are discussed. The diffracted beam carries a screw wavefront dislocation (optical vortex) whose order equals to algebraic sum of the incident beam azimuthal index and the topological charge of the singularity imparted by the hologram. The input beam singularity can be healed when the above sum is zero. In such cases the diffracted beam can provide better energy concentration in the central intensity peak than the Gaussian beam whose initial distribution coincides with the Gaussian envelope of the incident beam. Applications are possible for generation of optical-vortex beams with prescribed properties and for analyzing the optical-vortex beams in problems of information processing.

  17. Space Phase III - The commercial era dawns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allnutt, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    After the 'Phase I' of space activities, the period bounded by Sputnik and Apollo, 'Phase II', has been entered, a phase in which concerns over the use and the protection of space assets which support national security predominate. However, it is only when the commercial motive becomes prominent that human activity in new regions truly prospers and enters periods of exponential growth. It is believed that there are increasing signs that such a period, called 'Space Phase III', may be coming soon. A description is presented of developments and results upon which this conclusion is based. Since 1980, there have been three developments of great importance for the future of space activities. Six highly successful flights have demonstrated that the Space Shuttle concept works. A series of Soviet missions are related to the emergence of a capability to construct and service modular space stations. Successful tests of the European Ariane 1 indicate an end to U.S. monopoly with respect to the provision of launch services to the Western World.

  18. Resonance Van Hove singularities in wave kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yi-Kang; Eyink, Gregory L.

    2016-10-01

    Wave kinetic theory has been developed to describe the statistical dynamics of weakly nonlinear, dispersive waves. However, we show that systems which are generally dispersive can have resonant sets of wave modes with identical group velocities, leading to a local breakdown of dispersivity. This shows up as a geometric singularity of the resonant manifold and possibly as an infinite phase measure in the collision integral. Such singularities occur widely for classical wave systems, including acoustical waves, Rossby waves, helical waves in rotating fluids, light waves in nonlinear optics and also in quantum transport, e.g. kinetics of electron-hole excitations (matter waves) in graphene. These singularities are the exact analogue of the critical points found by Van Hove in 1953 for phonon dispersion relations in crystals. The importance of these singularities in wave kinetics depends on the dimension of phase space D =(N - 2) d (d physical space dimension, N the number of waves in resonance) and the degree of degeneracy δ of the critical points. Following Van Hove, we show that non-degenerate singularities lead to finite phase measures for D > 2 but produce divergences when D ≤ 2 and possible breakdown of wave kinetics if the collision integral itself becomes too large (or even infinite). Similar divergences and possible breakdown can occur for degenerate singularities, when D - δ ≤ 2, as we find for several physical examples, including electron-hole kinetics in graphene. When the standard kinetic equation breaks down, then one must develop a new singular wave kinetics. We discuss approaches from pioneering 1971 work of Newell & Aucoin on multi-scale perturbation theory for acoustic waves and field-theoretic methods based on exact Schwinger-Dyson integral equations for the wave dynamics.

  19. Renormalization group functions for two-dimensional phase transitions: To the problem of singular contributions

    SciTech Connect

    Pogorelov, A. A.; Suslov, I. M.

    2007-08-15

    According to the available publications, the field theoretical renormalization group approach in the two-dimensional case gives the critical exponents that differ from the known exact values. This property is associated with the existence of nonanalytic contributions in the renormalization group functions. The situation is analyzed in this work using a new algorithm for summing divergent series that makes it possible to determine the dependence of the results for the critical exponents on the expansion coefficients for the renormalization group functions. It has been shown that the exact values of all the exponents can be obtained with a reasonable form of the coefficient functions. These functions have small nonmonotonic sections or inflections, which are poorly reproduced in natural interpolations. It is not necessary to assume the existence of singular contributions in the renormalization group functions.

  20. Well-posedness and long-time behaviour for a singular phase field system of conserved type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilardi, Gianni; Rocca, Elisabetta

    2007-08-01

    In this paper, we study the well-posedness of a singular non-linear partial differential equation system and the long-time behaviour of its solutions. Namely, an equation ruling the evolution of the absolute temperature{theta} of the system (recently introduced in BONETTI, E., COLLI, P., FABRIZIO, M. & GILARDI, G. (2006) Modelling and long-time behaviour for phase transitions with entropy balance and thermal memory conductivity. Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst. Ser. B, 6, 1001-1026 (electronic) and BONETTI, E., COLLI, P., FABRIZIO, M. & GILARDI, G. (2007) Global solution to a singular integrodifferential system related to the entropy balance. Nonlinear Anal., 66, 1949-1979) is coupled with a generalization of the well-known Cahn-Hilliard equation for the order parameter{chi} . In particular, under suitable assumptions on the non-linearities involved, we prove that the elements of the{omega} -limit set (i.e. the cluster points) of the trajectories solve the steady-state system that is naturally associated to the evolution problem.

  1. Space Fence PDR Concept Development Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, L.; Phu, P.

    2011-09-01

    The Space Fence, a major Air Force acquisition program, will become the dominant low-earth orbit uncued sensor in the space surveillance network (SSN). Its primary objective is to provide a 24/7 un-cued capability to find, fix, and track small objects in low earth orbit to include emerging and evolving threats, as well as the rapidly growing population of orbital debris. Composed of up to two geographically dispersed large-scale S-band phased array radars, this new system-of-systems concept will provide comprehensive Space Situational Awareness through net-centric operations and integrated decision support. Additionally, this program will facilitate cost saving force structure changes in the SSN, specifically including the decommissioning of very-high frequency VHF Air Force Space Surveillance System (AFSSS). The Space Fence Program Office entered a Preliminary Design Review (PDR) concept development phase in January 2011 to achieve the delivery of the Initial Operational Capability (IOC) expected in FY17. Two contractors were awarded to perform preliminary system design, conduct radar performance analyses and evaluations, and develop a functional PDR radar system prototype. The key objectives for the Phase A PDR effort are to reduce Space Fence total program technical, cost, schedule, and performance risk. The overall program objective is to achieve a preliminary design that demonstrates sufficient technical and manufacturing maturity and that represents a low risk, affordable approach to meet the Space Fence Technical Requirements Document (TRD) requirements for the final development and production phase to begin in 3QFY12. This paper provides an overview of the revised Space Fence program acquisition strategy for the Phase-A PDR phase to IOC, the overall program milestones and major technical efforts. In addition, the key system trade studies and modeling/simulation efforts undertaken during the System Design Requirement (SDR) phase to address and mitigate

  2. Positive phase space distributions and uncertainty relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruger, Jan

    1993-01-01

    In contrast to a widespread belief, Wigner's theorem allows the construction of true joint probabilities in phase space for distributions describing the object system as well as for distributions depending on the measurement apparatus. The fundamental role of Heisenberg's uncertainty relations in Schroedinger form (including correlations) is pointed out for these two possible interpretations of joint probability distributions. Hence, in order that a multivariate normal probability distribution in phase space may correspond to a Wigner distribution of a pure or a mixed state, it is necessary and sufficient that Heisenberg's uncertainty relation in Schroedinger form should be satisfied.

  3. Phase space distributions tailored for dispersive media.

    PubMed

    Petruccelli, Jonathan C; Alonso, Miguel A

    2010-05-01

    New phase space distributions are proposed for describing pulse propagation in dispersive media for one spatial dimension. These distributions depend on time, position, and velocity, so that the pulse's spatial propagation or temporal evolution is described by a free-particle-like transformation followed by integration over velocity. Examples are considered for approximate Lorentz-model dielectrics and metallic waveguides. PMID:20448787

  4. Phase spaces for asymptotically de Sitter cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, William R.; Marolf, Donald

    2012-10-01

    We construct two types of phase spaces for asymptotically de Sitter Einstein-Hilbert gravity in each spacetime dimension d ⩾ 3. One type contains solutions asymptotic to the expanding spatially-flat (k = 0) cosmological patch of de Sitter space while the other is asymptotic to the expanding hyperbolic (k = -1) patch. Each phase space has a non-trivial asymptotic symmetry group (ASG) which includes the isometry group of the corresponding de Sitter patch. For d = 3 and k = -1 our ASG also contains additional generators and leads to a Virasoro algebra with vanishing central charge. Furthermore, we identify an interesting algebra (even larger than the ASG) containing two Virasoro algebras related by a reality condition and having imaginary central charges +/- i \\frac{3\\ell }{2G}. Our charges agree with those obtained previously using dS/CFT methods for the same asymptotic Killing fields showing that (at least some of) the dS/CFT charges act on a well-defined phase space. Along the way we show that, despite the lack of local degrees of freedom, the d = 3, k = -1 phase space is non-trivial even in pure Λ > 0 Einstein-Hilbert gravity due to the existence of a family of ‘wormhole’ solutions labeled by their angular momentum, a mass-like parameter θ0, the topology of future infinity (I+), and perhaps additional internal moduli. These solutions are Λ > 0 analogues of BTZ black holes and exhibit a corresponding mass gap relative to empty de Sitter.

  5. Measuring the Gouy Phase of Matter Waves using Singular Atom Optics with Spinor BECs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Justin T.; Hansen, Azure; Murphree, Joseph D.; Jayaseelan, Maitreyi; Bigelow, Nicholas P.

    2016-05-01

    The Gouy phase is a propagation-dependent geometric phase found in confined waves as they propagate through a focus. Although it has been observed and studied extensively both in scalar and vector optical beams as well as in electron vortex beams, it has not yet been directly observed in ultracold matter waves. The Schrödinger equation has the same form as the paraxial wave equation from electromagnetism; expansion of a BEC upon release from a trap has the same mathematical form as a beam propagating away from a focus. We employ and extend this analogy between coherent optical beams and coherent matter waves to include spin angular momentum (polarization), which enables us measure the matter wave Gouy phase using coreless vortex spin textures in spinor BECs. Because the Gouy phase is dependent on the orbital angular momentum of the wave, the vortex and core states acquire different Gouy phase shifts. Parameters that are sensitive to the relative phase such as two-dimensional maps of the Stokes parameters rotate during evolution due to this phase difference. Using atom-optic polarimetry we can access the evolution of the atomic Stokes parameters and observe this rotation.

  6. The conversion of phase structure of singular beams spreading in uniaxial crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolenko, B.; Poletaev, D.; Rubass, A.; Volyar, A.

    2016-08-01

    The transformation of the intensity and phase of paraxial optical beams passed uniaxial crystal strictly orthogonal to the optical axis is analysed. Imbedded optical vortex in such case imputes structural disturbance to the phase and intensity distribution after anisotropic media. Considering Left and Right circular polarized components of light, we theoretically and numerically shown the dynamics of phase shaping within the rotating birefringent crystal due to anisotropic diffraction effect. Off-axial vortex experienced tangential shift at the beam component and stimulates appearance of topological pairs in vicinity of beam axis.

  7. Identifying conical singularities

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira-Neto, G. |

    1996-09-01

    A method based upon the concept of holonomy of a metric space{endash}time ({ital M},{ital g}), in order to identify the presence of conical singularities in {ital M} is proposed. The validity and usefulness of this so-called holonomy method is proven by applying it to a set of four-dimensional space{endash}times and one three-dimensional space{endash}time. The holonomy method predictions are confirmed by the comparison with the predictions obtained after coordinate transformations which take the metrics {ital g}, to a new basis where the global properties of conical singularities are explicitly seen. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Rockstar: Phase-space halo finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behroozi, Peter; Wechsler, Risa; Wu, Hao-Yi

    2012-10-01

    Rockstar (Robust Overdensity Calculation using K-Space Topologically Adaptive Refinement) identifies dark matter halos, substructure, and tidal features. The approach is based on adaptive hierarchical refinement of friends-of-friends groups in six phase-space dimensions and one time dimension, which allows for robust (grid-independent, shape-independent, and noise-resilient) tracking of substructure. Our method is massively parallel (up to 10^5 CPUs) and runs on the largest current simulations (>10^10 particles) with high efficiency (10 CPU hours and 60 gigabytes of memory required per billion particles analyzed). Rockstar offers significant improvement in substructure recovery as compared to several other halo finders.

  9. Space market model development project, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Peter C.; Hamel, Gary P.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a research project investigating information needs for space commercialization is described. The Space Market Model Development Project (SMMDP) was designed to help NASA identify the information needs of the business community and to explore means to meet those needs. The activity of the SMMDP is reviewed and a report of its operation via three sections is presented. The first part contains a brief historical review of the project since inception. The next part reports results of Phase 3, the most recent stage of activity. Finally, overall conclusions and observations based on the SMMDP research results are presented.

  10. Phase Space Tomography: A Simple, Portable and Accurate Technique to Map Phase Spaces of Beams with Space Charge

    SciTech Connect

    Stratakis, D.; Kishek, R. A.; Bernal, S.; Walter, M.; Haber, I.; Fiorito, R.; Thangaraj, J. C. T.; Quinn, B.; Reiser, M.; O'Shea, P. G.; Li, H.

    2006-11-27

    In order to understand the charged particle dynamics, e.g. the halo formation, emittance growth, x-y energy transfer and coupling, knowledge of the actual phase space is needed. Other the past decade there is an increasing number of articles who use tomography to map the beam phase space and measure the beam emittance. These studies where performed at high energy facilities where the effect of space charge was neglible and therefore not considered in the analysis. This work extends the tomography technique to beams with space charge. In order to simplify the analysis linear forces where assumed. By carefully modeling the tomography process using the particle-in-cell code WARP we test the validity of our assumptions and the accuracy of the reconstructed phase space. Finally, we report experimental results of phase space mapping at the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER) using tomography.

  11. Generalizing the Boltzmann equation in complex phase space.

    PubMed

    Zadehgol, Abed

    2016-08-01

    In this work, a generalized form of the BGK-Boltzmann equation is proposed, where the velocity, position, and time can be represented by real or complex variables. The real representation leads to the conventional BGK-Boltzmann equation, which can recover the continuity and Navier-Stokes equations. We show that the complex representation yields a different set of equations, and it can also recover the conservation and Navier-Stokes equations, at low Mach numbers, provided that the imaginary component of the macroscopic mass can be neglected. We briefly review the Constant Speed Kinetic Model (CSKM), which was introduced in Zadehgol and Ashrafizaadeh [J. Comp. Phys. 274, 803 (2014)JCTPAH0021-999110.1016/j.jcp.2014.06.053] and Zadehgol [Phys. Rev. E 91, 063311 (2015)PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.91.063311]. The CSKM is then used as a basis to show that the complex-valued equilibrium distribution function of the present model can be identified with a simple singularity in the complex phase space. The virtual particles, in the present work, are concentrated on virtual "branes" which surround the computational nodes. Employing the Cauchy integral formula, it is shown that certain variations of the "branes," in the complex phase space, do not affect the local kinetic states. This property of the new model, which is referred to as the "apparent jumps" in the present work, is used to construct new models. The theoretical findings have been tested by simulating three benchmark flows. The results of the present simulations are in excellent agreement with the previous results reported by others. PMID:27627421

  12. Generalizing the Boltzmann equation in complex phase space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadehgol, Abed

    2016-08-01

    In this work, a generalized form of the BGK-Boltzmann equation is proposed, where the velocity, position, and time can be represented by real or complex variables. The real representation leads to the conventional BGK-Boltzmann equation, which can recover the continuity and Navier-Stokes equations. We show that the complex representation yields a different set of equations, and it can also recover the conservation and Navier-Stokes equations, at low Mach numbers, provided that the imaginary component of the macroscopic mass can be neglected. We briefly review the Constant Speed Kinetic Model (CSKM), which was introduced in Zadehgol and Ashrafizaadeh [J. Comp. Phys. 274, 803 (2014), 10.1016/j.jcp.2014.06.053] and Zadehgol [Phys. Rev. E 91, 063311 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevE.91.063311]. The CSKM is then used as a basis to show that the complex-valued equilibrium distribution function of the present model can be identified with a simple singularity in the complex phase space. The virtual particles, in the present work, are concentrated on virtual "branes" which surround the computational nodes. Employing the Cauchy integral formula, it is shown that certain variations of the "branes," in the complex phase space, do not affect the local kinetic states. This property of the new model, which is referred to as the "apparent jumps" in the present work, is used to construct new models. The theoretical findings have been tested by simulating three benchmark flows. The results of the present simulations are in excellent agreement with the previous results reported by others.

  13. Fourth order real space solver for the time-dependent Schrödinger equation with singular Coulomb potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majorosi, Szilárd; Czirják, Attila

    2016-11-01

    We present a novel numerical method and algorithm for the solution of the 3D axially symmetric time-dependent Schrödinger equation in cylindrical coordinates, involving singular Coulomb potential terms besides a smooth time-dependent potential. We use fourth order finite difference real space discretization, with special formulae for the arising Neumann and Robin boundary conditions along the symmetry axis. Our propagation algorithm is based on merging the method of the split-operator approximation of the exponential operator with the implicit equations of second order cylindrical 2D Crank-Nicolson scheme. We call this method hybrid splitting scheme because it inherits both the speed of the split step finite difference schemes and the robustness of the full Crank-Nicolson scheme. Based on a thorough error analysis, we verified both the fourth order accuracy of the spatial discretization in the optimal spatial step size range, and the fourth order scaling with the time step in the case of proper high order expressions of the split-operator. We demonstrate the performance and high accuracy of our hybrid splitting scheme by simulating optical tunneling from a hydrogen atom due to a few-cycle laser pulse with linear polarization.

  14. Attosecond strong-field interferometry in graphene: Chirality, singularity, and Berry phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelardeh, Hamed Koochaki; Apalkov, Vadym; Stockman, Mark I.

    2016-04-01

    We propose an interferometry in graphene's reciprocal space without a magnetic field, employing strong ultrafast circularly polarized optical pulses. The reciprocal space interferograms contain information on the electronic spectra and topological properties of graphene and on the waveform and circular polarization of the excitation optical pulses. These can be measured using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) with attosecond ultraviolet pulses. The predicted effects provide unique opportunities in fundamental studies of two-dimensional topological materials and in applications to future petahertz light-wave-driven electronics.

  15. Analytical satellite theory in extended phase space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, V.; Broucke, R.

    1980-01-01

    It is noted that a satellite theory, based on extended phase space and on the true anomaly, was introduced by Scheifele (1970). In the present paper a simple canonical transformation is shown that makes the transition from the classical Delaunay elements to the Scheifele variables. It is stressed that neither spherical coordinates nor Hamilton-Jacobi theory is used. Finally, attention is given to the meaning of the new variables, especially the use of the true anomaly as one of the variables.

  16. Analytical satellite theory in extended phase space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, V.; Broucke, R.

    1980-05-01

    It is noted that a satellite theory, based on extended phase space and on the true anomaly, was introduced by Scheifele (1970). In the present paper a simple canonical transformation is shown that makes the transition from the classical Delaunay elements to the Scheifele variables. It is stressed that neither spherical coordinates nor Hamilton-Jacobi theory is used. Finally, attention is given to the meaning of the new variables, especially the use of the true anomaly as one of the variables.

  17. On singular and sincerely singular compact patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenau, Philip; Zilburg, Alon

    2016-08-01

    A third order dispersive equation ut +(um)x +1/b[ua∇2ub]x = 0 is used to explore two very different classes of compact patterns. In the first, the prevailing singularity at the edge induces traveling compactons, solitary waves with a compact support. In the second, the singularity induced at the perimeter of the initial excitation, entraps the dynamics within the domain's interior (nonetheless, certain very singular excitations may escape it). Here, overlapping compactons undergo interaction which may result in an interchange of their positions, or form other structures, all confined within their initial support. We conjecture, and affirm it empirically, that whenever the system admits more than one type of compactons, only the least singular compactons may be evolutionary. The entrapment due to singularities is also unfolded and confirmed numerically in a class of diffusive equations ut =uk∇2un with k > 1 and n > 0 with excitations entrapped within their initial support observed to converge toward a space-time separable structure. A similar effect is also found in a class of nonlinear Klein-Gordon Equations.

  18. Chirp-driven giant phase space vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivedi, Pallavi; Ganesh, Rajaraman

    2016-06-01

    In a collisionless, unbounded, one-dimensional plasma, modelled using periodic boundary conditions, formation of steady state phase space coherent structures or phase space vortices (PSV) is investigated. Using a high resolution one-dimensional Vlasov-Poisson solver based on piecewise-parabolic advection scheme, the formation of giant PSV is addressed numerically. For an infinitesimal external drive amplitude and wavenumber k, we demonstrate the existence of a window of chirped external drive frequency that leads to the formation of giant PSV. The linear, small amplitude, external drive, when chirped, is shown to couple effectively to the plasma and increase both streaming of "untrapped" and "trapped" particle fraction. The steady state attained after the external drive is turned off and is shown to lead to a giant PSV with multiple extrema and phase velocities, with excess density fraction, defined as the deviation from the Maxwellian background, Δ n / n 0 ≃ 20 % - 25 % . It is shown that the process depends on the chirp time duration Δt. The excess density fraction Δn/n0, which contains both trapped and untrapped particle contribution, is also seen to scale with Δt, only inhibited by the gradient of the distribution in velocity space. Both single step drive and multistep chirp processes are shown to lead to steady state giant PSV, with multiple extrema due to embedded holes and clumps, long after the external drive is turned off.

  19. Feedback control of singular systems with applications to incompressible flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandikota, Ramakrishna V.

    2000-10-01

    Singular systems of differential equations, also referred to as differential algebraic equation (DAE) systems, arise as models in a variety of engineering applications. In chemical engineering, they typically arise under the quasi-steady state assumptions of phase, reaction or thermal equilibrium in the modeling of processes with fast mass transfer, reaction or heat transfer. They also arise in incompressible fluid flow systems. The control of singular systems has attracted considerable attention in the last two decades. The majority of the developed methods are on the state feedback control of linear and nonlinear singular systems in continuous-time, and they rely on the derivation of standard state space realizations (i.e. ODE descriptions) that can be used as the basis for the controller design. This thesis addresses (i) the derivation of state space realizations for the output feedback control of linear singular systems in continuous time, (ii) the derivation of state space realizations of singular systems of difference equations, which can be used for the state feedback control of nonlinear discrete time singular systems, (iii) a parallel analysis of the continuous in space and discretized in space incompressible Navier Stokes equations, with emphasis on the derivation of standard PDE and ODE descriptions respectively, and (iv) a case study on the numerical simulation and feedback control of the flow pattern in a lid-driven cavity. The performance of the developed controllers is illustrated via numerical simulation studies.

  20. Measurement of Phase Coherence in Space Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmont, G.; Panis, J.; Rezeau, L.; Sahraoui, F.

    2008-12-01

    In many space plasmas such as Magnetosheath, intense magnetic fluctuations are permanently observed, with power law spectra. Assuming these fluctuations belong to some kind of turbulence, which can legitimately be suspected, spectra are clearly not sufficient to characterize it. Is this turbulence made of non linear "phase-coherent" structures, like in the classical Kolmogorov image, or is it made of incoherent waves as in weak turbulence? Is it homogeneous in space and scales or is it intermittent? " Many methods allow analyzing the statistical properties of turbulence, and the results obtained by tools such as structure functions or wavelets are of course influenced by all these properties, such providing indirect information about them. But few of them are specifically dedicated to the study of phase coherence so that the consequences that can be inferred from them are generally not univocal for this point of view. We will review those few tools existing in the literature that allow measuring more directly the phase coherence and present a new method, called "phase gradient analysis", which we are presently developing for this analysis. Preliminary results of this new tool will be presented.

  1. Formation of phase space holes and clumps.

    PubMed

    Lilley, M K; Nyqvist, R M

    2014-04-18

    It is shown that the formation of phase space holes and clumps in kinetically driven, dissipative systems is not restricted to the near threshold regime, as previously reported and widely believed. Specifically, we observe hole-clump generation from the edges of an unmodulated phase space plateau, created via excitation, phase mixing and subsequent dissipative decay of a linearly unstable bulk plasma mode in the electrostatic bump-on-tail model. This has now allowed us to elucidate the underlying physics of the hole-clump formation process for the first time. Holes and clumps develop from negative energy waves that arise due to the sharp gradients at the interface between the plateau and the nearly unperturbed, ambient distribution and destabilize in the presence of dissipation in the bulk plasma. We confirm this picture by demonstrating that the formation of such nonlinear structures in general does not rely on a "seed" wave, only on the ability of the system to generate a plateau. In addition, we observe repetitive cycles of plateau generation and erosion, the latter due to hole-clump formation and detachment, which appear to be insensitive to initial conditions and can persist for a long time. We present an intuitive discussion of why this continual regeneration occurs. PMID:24785043

  2. Singular Values for Products of Complex Ginibre Matrices with a Source: Hard Edge Limit and Phase Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrester, Peter J.; Liu, Dang-Zheng

    2016-05-01

    The singular values squared of the random matrix product {Y = {Gr G_{r-1}} ldots G1 (G0 + A)}, where each {Gj} is a rectangular standard complex Gaussian matrix while A is non-random, are shown to be a determinantal point process with the correlation kernel given by a double contour integral. When all but finitely many eigenvalues of A* A are equal to bN, the kernel is shown to admit a well-defined hard edge scaling, in which case a critical value is established and a phase transition phenomenon is observed. More specifically, the limiting kernel in the subcritical regime of {0 < b < 1} is independent of b, and is in fact the same as that known for the case b = 0 due to Kuijlaars and Zhang. The critical regime of b = 1 allows for a double scaling limit by choosing {{b = (1 - τ/√{N})^{-1}}}, and for this the critical kernel and outlier phenomenon are established. In the simplest case r = 0, which is closely related to non-intersecting squared Bessel paths, a distribution corresponding to the finite shifted mean LUE is proven to be the scaling limit in the supercritical regime of {b > 1} with two distinct scaling rates. Similar results also hold true for the random matrix product {Tr T_{r-1} ldots T1 (G0 + A)}, with each {Tj} being a truncated unitary matrix.

  3. Singularity computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swedlow, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    An approach is described for singularity computations based on a numerical method for elastoplastic flow to delineate radial and angular distribution of field quantities and measure the intensity of the singularity. The method is applicable to problems in solid mechanics and lends itself to certain types of heat flow and fluid motion studies. Its use is not limited to linear, elastic, small strain, or two-dimensional situations.

  4. Optical image encryption in phase space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun; Xu, Xiaobin; Situ, Guohai; Wu, Quanying

    2014-11-01

    In the field of optical information security, the research of double random phase encoding is becoming deeper with each passing day, however the encryption system is linear, and the dependencies between plaintext and ciphertext is not complicated, with leaving a great hidden danger to the security of the encryption system. In this paper, we encrypted the higher dimensional Wigner distribution function of low dimensional plaintext by using the bilinear property of Wigner distribution function. Computer simulation results show that this method can not only enlarge the key space, but also break through the linear characteristic of the traditional optical encryption technology. So it can significantly improve the safety of the encryption system.

  5. Space Transportation Engine Program (STEP), phase B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Space Transportation Engine Program (STEP) Phase 2 effort includes preliminary design and activities plan preparation that will allow smooth and time transition into a Prototype Phase and then into Phases 3, 4, and 5. A Concurrent Engineering approach using Total Quality Management (TQM) techniques, is being applied to define an oxygen-hydrogen engine. The baseline from Phase 1/1' studies was used as a point of departure for trade studies and analyses. Existing STME system models are being enhanced as more detailed module/component characteristics are determined. Preliminary designs for the open expander, closed expander, and gas generator cycles were prepared, and recommendations for cycle selection made at the Design Concept Review (DCR). As a result of July '90 DCR, and information subsequently supplied to the Technical Review Team, a gas generator cycle was selected. Results of the various Advanced Development Programs (ADP's) for the Advanced Launch Systems (ALS) were contributive to this effort. An active vehicle integration effort is supplying the NASA, Air Force, and vehicle contractors with engine parameters and data, and flowing down appropriate vehicle requirements. Engine design and analysis trade studies are being documented in a data base that was developed and is being used to organize information. To date, seventy four trade studies were input to the data base.

  6. Space Transportation Engine Program (STEP), phase B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-10-01

    The Space Transportation Engine Program (STEP) Phase 2 effort includes preliminary design and activities plan preparation that will allow smooth and time transition into a Prototype Phase and then into Phases 3, 4, and 5. A Concurrent Engineering approach using Total Quality Management (TQM) techniques, is being applied to define an oxygen-hydrogen engine. The baseline from Phase 1/1' studies was used as a point of departure for trade studies and analyses. Existing STME system models are being enhanced as more detailed module/component characteristics are determined. Preliminary designs for the open expander, closed expander, and gas generator cycles were prepared, and recommendations for cycle selection made at the Design Concept Review (DCR). As a result of July '90 DCR, and information subsequently supplied to the Technical Review Team, a gas generator cycle was selected. Results of the various Advanced Development Programs (ADP's) for the Advanced Launch Systems (ALS) were contributive to this effort. An active vehicle integration effort is supplying the NASA, Air Force, and vehicle contractors with engine parameters and data, and flowing down appropriate vehicle requirements. Engine design and analysis trade studies are being documented in a data base that was developed and is being used to organize information. To date, seventy four trade studies were input to the data base.

  7. The singular gas-phase structure of 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid (Ac3c).

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Ana I; Vaquero, Vanesa; Cabezas, Carlos; López, Juan C; Cativiela, Carlos; Alonso, José L

    2011-07-13

    The natural nonproteinogenic α-amino acid 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid (Ac(3)c) has been vaporized by laser ablation and studied in the gas phase by molecular-beam Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Comparison of the experimental rotational and (14)N nuclear quadrupole coupling constants with the values predicted ab initio for these parameters has allowed the unambiguous identification of three Ac(3)c conformers differing in the hydrogen bonding pattern. Two of them resemble those characterized before for the coded aliphatic α-amino acids. Remarkably, a third conformer predicted to be energetically accessible for all of these amino acids but never observed (the so-called "missing conformer") has been found for Ac(3)c, close in energy to the global minimum. This is the first time that such a conformer, stabilized by an N-H···O(H) hydrogen bond, is detected in the rotational spectrum of a gaseous α-amino acid with a nonpolar side chain. The conjugative interaction established between the cyclopropane ring and the adjacent carbonyl group seems to be responsible for the unique conformational properties exhibited by Ac(3)c.

  8. Matter and singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, David R.; Taylor, Washington

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the structure of matter representations arising from codimension two singularities in F-theory, focusing on gauge groups SU( N). We give a detailed local description of the geometry associated with several types of singularities and the associated matter representations. We also construct global F-theory models for 6D and 4D theories containing these matter representations. The codimension two singularities encountered include examples where the apparent Kodaira singularity type does not need to be completely resolved to produce a smooth Calabi-Yau, examples with rank enhancement by more than one, and examples where the 7-brane configuration is singular. We identify novel phase transitions, in some of which the gauge group remains fixed but the singularity type and associated matter content change along a continuous family of theories. Global analysis of 6D theories on ℙ2 with 7-branes wrapped on curves of small degree reproduces the range of 6D supergravity theories identified through anomaly cancellation and other consistency conditions. Analogous 4D models are constructed through global F-theory compactifications on ℙ3, and have a similar pattern of SU( N) matter content. This leads to a constraint on the matter content of a limited class of 4D supergravity theories containing SU( N) as a local factor of the gauge group.

  9. Phase space localization and matrix element distributions in systems with mixed classical phase space.

    PubMed

    Mehlig, B; Müller, K; Eckhardt, B

    1999-05-01

    We consider distributions of diagonal matrix elements for smooth observables in systems whose classical phase space has a mixture of chaotic and nearly integrable regions. The quantum distributions agree very well with distributions obtained from classical trajectory segments whose length is the Heisenberg time. Non-Gaussian wings in the distributions can be linked to classical trapping in certain parts of phase space, sometimes connected to islands, but also to regions separated by other barriers to transport. Thus classical deviations from ergodicity are quantitatively reflected in quantum matrix elements. The relation to scars is discussed.

  10. Phase space representation of quantum dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Polkovnikov, Anatoli

    2010-08-15

    We discuss a phase space representation of quantum dynamics of systems with many degrees of freedom. This representation is based on a perturbative expansion in quantum fluctuations around one of the classical limits. We explicitly analyze expansions around three such limits: (i) corpuscular or Newtonian limit in the coordinate-momentum representation, (ii) wave or Gross-Pitaevskii limit for interacting bosons in the coherent state representation, and (iii) Bloch limit for the spin systems. We discuss both the semiclassical (truncated Wigner) approximation and further quantum corrections appearing in the form of either stochastic quantum jumps along the classical trajectories or the nonlinear response to such jumps. We also discuss how quantum jumps naturally emerge in the analysis of non-equal time correlation functions. This representation of quantum dynamics is closely related to the phase space methods based on the Wigner-Weyl quantization and to the Keldysh technique. We show how such concepts as the Wigner function, Weyl symbol, Moyal product, Bopp operators, and others automatically emerge from the Feynmann's path integral representation of the evolution in the Heisenberg representation. We illustrate the applicability of this expansion with various examples mostly in the context of cold atom systems including sine-Gordon model, one- and two-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model, Dicke model and others.

  11. Phase-space networks of geometrically frustrated systems.

    PubMed

    Han, Yilong

    2009-11-01

    We illustrate a network approach to the phase-space study by using two geometrical frustration models: antiferromagnet on triangular lattice and square ice. Their highly degenerated ground states are mapped as discrete networks such that the quantitative network analysis can be applied to phase-space studies. The resulting phase spaces share some comon features and establish a class of complex networks with unique Gaussian spectral densities. Although phase-space networks are heterogeneously connected, the systems are still ergodic due to the random Poisson processes. This network approach can be generalized to phase spaces of some other complex systems.

  12. Phase-space networks of geometrically frustrated systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yilong

    2009-11-01

    We illustrate a network approach to the phase-space study by using two geometrical frustration models: antiferromagnet on triangular lattice and square ice. Their highly degenerated ground states are mapped as discrete networks such that the quantitative network analysis can be applied to phase-space studies. The resulting phase spaces share some comon features and establish a class of complex networks with unique Gaussian spectral densities. Although phase-space networks are heterogeneously connected, the systems are still ergodic due to the random Poisson processes. This network approach can be generalized to phase spaces of some other complex systems.

  13. Electrophysiological Rotor Ablation in In-Silico Modeling of Atrial Fibrillation: Comparisons with Dominant Frequency, Shannon Entropy, and Phase Singularity

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Minki; Song, Jun-Seop; Lee, Young-Seon; Li, Changyong; Shim, Eun Bo; Pak, Hui-Nam

    2016-01-01

    Background Although rotors have been considered among the drivers of atrial fibrillation (AF), the rotor definition is inconsistent. We evaluated the nature of rotors in 2D and 3D in- silico models of persistent AF (PeAF) by analyzing phase singularity (PS), dominant frequency (DF), Shannon entropy (ShEn), and complex fractionated atrial electrogram cycle length (CFAE-CL) and their ablation. Methods Mother rotor was spatiotemporally defined as stationary reentries with a meandering tip remaining within half the wavelength and lasting longer than 5 s. We generated 2D- and 3D-maps of the PS, DF, ShEn, and CFAE-CL during AF. The spatial correlations and ablation outcomes targeting each parameter were analyzed. Results 1. In the 2D PeAF model, we observed a mother rotor that matched relatively well with DF (>9 Hz, 71.0%, p<0.001), ShEn (upper 2.5%, 33.2%, p<0.001), and CFAE-CL (lower 2.5%, 23.7%, p<0.001). 2. The 3D-PeAF model also showed mother rotors that had spatial correlations with DF (>5.5 Hz, 39.7%, p<0.001), ShEn (upper 8.5%, 15.1%, p <0.001), and CFAE (lower 8.5%, 8.0%, p = 0.002). 3. In both the 2D and 3D models, virtual ablation targeting the upper 5% of the DF terminated AF within 20 s, but not the ablations based on long-lasting PS, high ShEn area, or lower CFAE-CL area. Conclusion Mother rotors were observed in both 2D and 3D human AF models. Rotor locations were well represented by DF, and their virtual ablation altered wave dynamics and terminated AF. PMID:26909492

  14. Corrections to Wigner type phase space methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaim, Wolfgang; Lasser, Caroline

    2014-12-01

    Over decades, the time evolution of Wigner functions along classical Hamiltonian flows has been used for approximating key signatures of molecular quantum systems. Such approximations are for example the Wigner phase space method, the linearized semiclassical initial value representation, or the statistical quasiclassical method. The mathematical backbone of these approximations is Egorov's theorem. In this paper, we reformulate the well-known second order correction to Egorov's theorem as a system of ordinary differential equations and derive an algorithm with improved asymptotic accuracy for the computation of expectation values. For models with easily evaluated higher order derivatives of the classical Hamiltonian, the new algorithm's corrections are computationally less expensive than the leading order Wigner method. Numerical test calculations for a two-dimensional torsional system confirm the theoretical accuracy and efficiency of the new method.

  15. Uncertainty relations for general phase spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Reinhard F.

    2016-04-01

    We describe a setup for obtaining uncertainty relations for arbitrary pairs of observables related by a Fourier transform. The physical examples discussed here are the standard position and momentum, number and angle, finite qudit systems, and strings of qubits for quantum information applications. The uncertainty relations allow for an arbitrary choice of metric for the outcome distance, and the choice of an exponent distinguishing, e.g., absolute and root mean square deviations. The emphasis of this article is on developing a unified treatment, in which one observable takes on values in an arbitrary locally compact Abelian group and the other in the dual group. In all cases, the phase space symmetry implies the equality of measurement and preparation uncertainty bounds. There is also a straightforward method for determining the optimal bounds.

  16. Space-time geometry of topological phases

    SciTech Connect

    Burnell, F.J.; Simon, Steven H.

    2010-11-15

    The 2 + 1 dimensional lattice models of Levin and Wen (2005) provide the most general known microscopic construction of topological phases of matter. Based heavily on the mathematical structure of category theory, many of the special properties of these models are not obvious. In the current paper, we present a geometrical space-time picture of the partition function of the Levin-Wen models which can be described as doubles (two copies with opposite chiralities) of underlying anyon theories. Our space-time picture describes the partition function as a knot invariant of a complicated link, where both the lattice variables of the microscopic Levin-Wen model and the terms of the Hamiltonian are represented as labeled strings of this link. This complicated link, previously studied in the mathematical literature, and known as Chain-Mail, can be related directly to known topological invariants of 3-manifolds such as the so-called Turaev-Viro invariant and the Witten-Reshitikhin-Turaev invariant. We further consider quasi-particle excitations of the Levin-Wen models and we see how they can be understood by adding additional strings to the Chain-Mail link representing quasi-particle world-lines. Our construction gives particularly important new insight into how a doubled theory arises from these microscopic models.

  17. Space market model development project, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Peter C.

    1988-01-01

    The results of the prototype operations of the Space Business Information Center are presented. A clearinghouse for space business information for members of the U.S. space industry composed of public, private, and academic sectors was conducted. Behavioral and evaluation statistics were recorded from the clearinghouse and the conclusions from these statistics are presented. Business guidebooks on major markets in space business are discussed. Proprietary research and briefings for firms and agencies in the space industry are also discussed.

  18. Constructing Phase Space Distributions within the Heliosheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelof, E. C.

    2014-12-01

    The key function in the description of the dynamics of the heliosheath (HS) is the phase space distribution (PSD) of the protons, i.e., how the interaction between the thermal and non-thermal (heated pick-up) proton populations evolves from the termination shock to the heliopause (HP) in this high-beta plasma. Voyager 1 found the heliopause to be essentially a (compound) magnetic separatrix, because the intensity of the non-thermal particle population became undetectably small beyond the HP, whereas the anisotropy characteristics of the galactic cosmic rays were consistent with no re-entry of the magnetic field lines into the HS (at either end). This paper attempts to synthesize in situ observations from Voyagers 1 and 2 (thermal plasma, magnetic field, energetic ions, and cosmic rays) with global ENA images from IBEX and Cassini/INCA into a self-consistent representation of the PSD within the noseward HS from thermal energies to several MeV/nuc. The interpretation of the ENA images requires assumptions on the global behavior of the bulk plasma flow throughout the HS that are self-consistent with all the available data (e.g., the spatial and energy dependence of the IBEX ribbon), because the Compton-Getting effects produced by the flows strongly affect the intensities (and thereby the partial densities and pressures) inferred from the ENA images.

  19. Continuous-time quantum walks in phase space

    SciTech Connect

    Muelken, Oliver; Blumen, Alexander

    2006-01-15

    We formulate continuous time quantum walks (CTQW) in a discrete quantum mechanical phase space. We define and calculate the Wigner function (WF) and its marginal distributions for CTQWs on circles of arbitrary length N. The WF of the CTQW shows characteristic features in phase space. Revivals of the probability distributions found for continuous and for discrete quantum carpets do manifest themselves as characteristic patterns in phase space.

  20. Overview of Phase Space Manipulations of Relativistic Electron Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Dao; /SLAC

    2012-08-31

    Phase space manipulation is a process to rearrange beam's distribution in 6-D phase space. In this paper, we give an overview of the techniques for tailoring beam distribution in 2D, 4D, and 6D phase space to meet the requirements of various applications. These techniques become a new focus of accelerator physics R&D and very likely these advanced concepts will open up new opportunities in advanced accelerators and the science enabled by them.

  1. Singular behavior of jet substructure observables

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Moult, Ian

    2016-01-20

    Jet substructure observables play a central role at the Large Hadron Collider for identifying the boosted hadronic decay products of electroweak scale resonances. The complete description of these observables requires understanding both the limit in which hard substructure is resolved, as well as the limit of a jet with a single hard core. In this paper we study in detail the perturbative structure of two prominent jet substructure observables, N-subjettiness and the energy correlation functions, as measured on background QCD jets. In particular, we focus on the distinction between the limits in which two-prong structure is resolved or unresolved. Dependingmore » on the choice of subjet axes, we demonstrate that at fixed order, N-subjettiness can manifest myriad behaviors in the unresolved region: smooth tails, end-point singularities, or singularities in the physical region. The energy correlation functions, by contrast, only have non-singular perturbative tails extending to the end point. We discuss the effect of hadronization on the various observables with Monte Carlo simulation and demonstrate that the modeling of these effects with non-perturbative shape functions is highly dependent on the N-subjettiness axes definitions. Lastly, our study illustrates those regions of phase space that must be controlled for high-precision jet substructure calculations, and emphasizes how such calculations can be facilitated by designing substructure observables with simple singular structures.« less

  2. Evolution of singularities of potential flows in collisionfree media and the metamorphosis of caustics in three dimensional space

    SciTech Connect

    Arnol'd, V.I.

    1986-02-10

    The authors describe the critical values of the maps at time''t'' and their evolution as ''t'' changes for potential initial velocity fields in general position under the assumption that the force field is potential. The paper is concerned with the structure and evolution of caustics of a general one-parameter family of Lagrangian maps of manifolds of dimension not exceeding three. For each type of evolution, the authors give a detailed geometric description of the structure of the singularity. The investigation required new algebraic information about the manifold of polynomials with multiple roots; these are given in the paper.

  3. The Hamiltonian property of the flow of singular trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokutsievskiy, L. V.

    2014-03-01

    Pontryagin's maximum principle reduces optimal control problems to the investigation of Hamiltonian systems of ordinary differential equations with discontinuous right-hand side. An optimal synthesis is the totality of solutions to this system with a fixed terminal (or initial) condition, which fill a region in the phase space one-to-one. In the construction of optimal synthesis, singular trajectories that go along the discontinuity surface N of the right-hand side of the Hamiltonian system of ordinary differential equations, are crucial. The aim of the paper is to prove that the system of singular trajectories makes up a Hamiltonian flow on a submanifold of N. In particular, it is proved that the flow of singular trajectories in the problem of control of the magnetized Lagrange top in a variable magnetic field is completely Liouville integrable and can be embedded in the flow of a smooth superintegrable Hamiltonian system in the ambient space. Bibliography: 17 titles.

  4. Space shuttle phase B study plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hello, B.

    1971-01-01

    Phase B emphasis was directed toward development of data which would facilitate selection of the booster concept, and main propulsion system for the orbiter. A shuttle system is also defined which will form the baseline for Phase C program activities.

  5. Space Shuttle aerothermodynamic data report, phase C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Space shuttle aerothermodynamic data, collected from a continuing series of wind tunnel tests, are permanently stored with the Data Management Services (DMS) system. Information pertaining to current baseline configuration definition is also stored. Documentation of DMS processed data arranged sequentially and by space shuttle configuration are included. An up-to-date record of all applicable aerothermodynamic data collected, processed, or summarized during the space shuttle program is provided. Tables are designed to provide suvery information to the various space shuttle managerial and technical levels.

  6. Quasi-Hermitian quantum mechanics in phase space

    SciTech Connect

    Curtright, Thomas; Veitia, Andrzej

    2007-10-15

    We investigate quasi-Hermitian quantum mechanics in phase space using standard deformation quantization methods: Groenewold star products and Wigner transforms. We focus on imaginary Liouville theory as a representative example where exact results are easily obtained. We emphasize spatially periodic solutions, compute various distribution functions and phase-space metrics, and explore the relationships between them.

  7. Quantum dress for a naked singularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casals, Marc; Fabbri, Alessandro; Martínez, Cristián; Zanelli, Jorge

    2016-09-01

    We investigate semiclassical backreaction on a conical naked singularity space-time with a negative cosmological constant in (2 + 1)-dimensions. In particular, we calculate the renormalized quantum stress-energy tensor for a conformally coupled scalar field on such naked singularity space-time. We then obtain the backreacted metric via the semiclassical Einstein equations. We show that, in the regime where the semiclassical approximation can be trusted, backreaction dresses the naked singularity with an event horizon, thus enforcing (weak) cosmic censorship.

  8. Space law information system design, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morenoff, J.; Roth, D. L.; Singleton, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    Design alternatives were defined for the implementation of a Space Law Information System for the Office of the General Counsel, NASA. A thesaurus of space law terms was developed and a selected document sample indexed on the basis of that thesaurus. Abstracts were also prepared for the sample document set.

  9. Real-space Berry phases: Skyrmion soccer (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Everschor-Sitte, Karin Sitte, Matthias

    2014-05-07

    Berry phases occur when a system adiabatically evolves along a closed curve in parameter space. This tutorial-like article focuses on Berry phases accumulated in real space. In particular, we consider the situation where an electron traverses a smooth magnetic structure, while its magnetic moment adjusts to the local magnetization direction. Mapping the adiabatic physics to an effective problem in terms of emergent fields reveals that certain magnetic textures, skyrmions, are tailormade to study these Berry phase effects.

  10. Real-space Berry phases: Skyrmion soccer (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everschor-Sitte, Karin; Sitte, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    Berry phases occur when a system adiabatically evolves along a closed curve in parameter space. This tutorial-like article focuses on Berry phases accumulated in real space. In particular, we consider the situation where an electron traverses a smooth magnetic structure, while its magnetic moment adjusts to the local magnetization direction. Mapping the adiabatic physics to an effective problem in terms of emergent fields reveals that certain magnetic textures, skyrmions, are tailormade to study these Berry phase effects.

  11. Cryptanalysis of an information encryption in phase space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Quan, C.; Tay, C. J.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the security of an information encryption in phase space. We show that the scheme is vulnerable to two kinds of attack, namely, a chosen-ciphertext attack and a known-plaintext attack which is based on an iterative phase-retrieval algorithm using multiple plaintext-ciphertext pairs. The validity of the proposed methods of attack is verified by numerical simulations. The results cast doubts on the present security of information encryption in phase space.

  12. Tracing the dark matter sheet in phase space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Tom; Hahn, Oliver; Kaehler, Ralf

    2012-11-01

    The primordial velocity dispersion of dark matter is small compared to the velocities attained during structure formation. The initial density distribution is close to uniform, and it occupies an initial sheet in phase space that is single valued in velocity space. Because of gravitational forces, this 3D manifold evolves in phase space without ever tearing, conserving phase-space volume and preserving the connectivity of nearby points. N-body simulations already follow the motion of this sheet in phase space. This fact can be used to extract full fine-grained phase-space structure information from existing cosmological N-body simulations. Particles are considered as the vertices of an unstructured 3D mesh moving in 6D phase space. On this mesh, mass density and momentum are uniquely defined. We show how to obtain the space density of the fluid, detect caustics and count the number of streams as well as their individual contributions to any point in configuration space. We calculate the bulk velocity, local velocity dispersions and densities from the sheet - all without averaging over control volumes. This gives a wealth of new information about dark matter fluid flow which had previously been thought of as inaccessible to N-body simulations. We outline how this mapping may be used to create new accurate collisionless fluid simulation codes that may be able to overcome the sparse sampling and unphysical two-body effects that plague current N-body techniques.

  13. Unequally spaced four levels phase encoding in holographic data storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ke; Huang, Yong; Lin, Xiao; Cheng, Yabin; Li, Xiaotong; Tan, Xiaodi

    2016-09-01

    Holographic data storage system is a candidate for the information recording due to its large storage capacity and high transfer rate. We propose an unequally spaced four levels phase encoding in the holographic data storage system here. Compared with two levels or three levels phase encoding, four levels phase encoding effectively improves the code rate. While more phase levels can further improve code rate, it also puts higher demand for the camera to differentiate the resulting smaller grayscale difference. Unequally spaced quaternary level phases eliminates the ambiguity of pixels with same phase difference relative to reference light compared to equally spaced quaternary levels. Corresponding encoding pattern design with phase pairs as the data element and decoding method were developed. Our encoding improves the code rate up to 0.875, which is 1.75 times of the conventional amplitude method with an error rate of 0.13 % according to our simulation results.

  14. κ-deformed covariant quantum phase spaces as Hopf algebroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukierski, Jerzy; Škoda, Zoran; Woronowicz, Mariusz

    2015-11-01

    We consider the general D = 4 (10 + 10)-dimensional κ-deformed quantum phase space as given by Heisenberg double H of D = 4κ-deformed Poincaré-Hopf algebra H. The standard (4 + 4)-dimensional κ-deformed covariant quantum phase space spanned by κ-deformed Minkowski coordinates and commuting momenta generators (xˆμ ,pˆμ) is obtained as the subalgebra of H. We study further the property that Heisenberg double defines particular quantum spaces with Hopf algebroid structure. We calculate by using purely algebraic methods the explicit Hopf algebroid structure of standard κ-deformed quantum covariant phase space in Majid-Ruegg bicrossproduct basis. The coproducts for Hopf algebroids are not unique, determined modulo the coproduct gauge freedom. Finally we consider the interpretation of the algebraic description of quantum phase spaces as Hopf algebroids.

  15. 4D phase-space multiplexing for fluorescent microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hsiou-Yuan; Zhong, Jingshan; Waller, Laura

    2016-03-01

    Phase-space measurements enable characterization of second-order spatial coherence properties and can be used for digital aberration removal or 3D position reconstruction. Previous methods use a scanning aperture to measure the phase space spectrogram, which is slow and light inefficient, while also attenuating information about higher-order correlations. We demonstrate a significant improvement of speed and light throughput by incorporating multiplexing techniques into our phase-space imaging system. The scheme implements 2D coded aperture patterning in the Fourier (pupil) plane of a microscope using a Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), while capturing multiple intensity images in real space. We compare various multiplexing schemes to scanning apertures and show that our phase-space reconstructions are accurate for experimental data with biological samples containing many 3D fluorophores.

  16. Nonlinear singularly perturbed optimal control problems with singular arcs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M. D.

    1977-01-01

    A third order, nonlinear, singularly perturbed optimal control problem is considered under assumptions which assure that the full problem is singular and the reduced problem is nonsingular. The separation between the singular arc of the full problem and the optimal control law of the reduced one, both of which are hypersurfaces in state space, is of the same order as the small parameter of the problem. Boundary layer solutions are constructed which are stable and reach the outer solution in a finite time. A uniformly valid composite solution is then formed from the reduced and boundary layer solutions. The value of the approximate solution is that it is relatively easy to obtain and does not involve singular arcs. To illustrate the utility of the results, the technique is used to obtain an approximate solution of a simplified version of the aircraft minimum time-to-climb problem. A numerical example is included.

  17. Singular Casimir Elements of the Euler Equation and Equilibrium Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Zensho; Morrison, Philip J.; Dobarro, Fernando

    2013-04-01

    The problem of the nonequivalence of the sets of equilibrium points and energy-Casimir extremal points, which occurs in the noncanonical Hamiltonian formulation of equations describing ideal fluid and plasma dynamics, is addressed in the context of the Euler equation for an incompressible inviscid fluid. The problem is traced to a Casimir deficit, where Casimir elements constitute the center of the Poisson algebra underlying the Hamiltonian formulation, and this leads to a study of singularities of the Poisson operator defining the Poisson bracket. The kernel of the Poisson operator, for this typical example of an infinite-dimensional Hamiltonian system for media in terms of Eulerian variables, is analyzed. For two-dimensional flows, a rigorously solvable system is formulated. The nonlinearity of the Euler equation makes the Poisson operator inhomogeneous on phase space (the function space of the state variable), and it is seen that this creates a singularity where the nullity of the Poisson operator (the "dimension" of the center) changes. The problem is an infinite-dimension generalization of the theory of singular differential equations. Singular Casimir elements stemming from this singularity are unearthed using a generalization of the functional derivative that occurs in the Poisson bracket.

  18. Singular Casimir Elements of the Euler Equation and Equilibrium Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Zensho; Morrison, Philip J.; Dobarro, Fernando

    2014-03-01

    The problem of the nonequivalence of the sets of equilibrium points and energy-Casimir extremal points, which occurs in the noncanonical Hamiltonian formulation of equations describing ideal fluid and plasma dynamics, is addressed in the context of the Euler equation for an incompressible inviscid fluid. The problem is traced to a Casimir deficit, where Casimir elements constitute the center of the Poisson algebra underlying the Hamiltonian formulation, and this leads to a study of singularities of the Poisson operator defining the Poisson bracket. The kernel of the Poisson operator, for this typical example of an infinite-dimensional Hamiltonian system for media in terms of Eulerian variables, is analyzed. For two-dimensional flows, a rigorously solvable system is formulated. The nonlinearity of the Euler equation makes the Poisson operator inhomogeneous on phase space (the function space of the state variable), and it is seen that this creates a singularity where the nullity of the Poisson operator (the "dimension" of the center) changes. The problem is an infinite-dimension generalization of the theory of singular differential equations. Singular Casimir elements stemming from this singularity are unearthed using a generalization of the functional derivative that occurs in the Poisson bracket.

  19. Selected tether applications in space: Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorsen, M. H.; Lippy, L. J.

    1985-01-01

    System characteristics and design requirements are assessed for tether deployment. Criteria are established for comparing alternate concepts for: (1) deployment of 220 klb space shuttle from the space station; (2) tether assisted launch of a 20,000 lb payload to geosynchronous orbit; (3) placement of the 20,000 lb AXAF into 320 nmi orbit via orbiter; (4) retrieval of 20,000 lb AXAF from 205 nmi circular orbit for maintenance and reboost to 320 nmi; and (5) tethered OMV rendezvous and retrieval of OTV returning from a geosynchronous mission. Tether deployment systems and technical issues are discussed.

  20. Longitudinal phase space experiments on the ELSA photoinjector

    SciTech Connect

    Dowell, D.H.; Joly, S.; Brion, J.P. de

    1995-12-31

    The excellent beam quality produced by RF photocathode injectors is well established, andhas been verified by numerous measurements of the transverse emittance. However, there are few experimental determinations of the longitudinal phase space. This paper reports on experiments performed at the ELSA FEL facility to emasure the longitudinal phase space distribution at the exit of the 144 MHz photoinjector cavity. Phase spaces were determined by the analysis of beam energy spectra and pulse shapes at 17.5 MeV for micropulse charges between 0.5 and 5 nC.

  1. A Simple, Low Cost Longitudinal Phase Space Diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Bertsche, Kirk; Emma, Paul; Shevchenko, Oleg; /Novosibirsk, IYF

    2009-05-15

    For proper operation of the LCLS [1] x-ray free-electron laser (FEL), and other similar machines, measurement and control of the electron bunch longitudinal phase space is critical. The LCLS accelerator includes two bunch compressor chicanes to magnify the peak current. These magnetic chicanes can generate significant coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR), which can distort the phase space distribution. We propose a diagnostic scheme by exciting a weak skew quadrupole at an energy-chirped, high dispersion point in the first LCLS bunch compressor (BC1) to reconstruct longitudinal phase space on an OTR screen after BC1, allowing a time-resolved characterization of CSR effects.

  2. Understanding Singular Vectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, David; Botteron, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    matrix yields a surprisingly simple, heuristical approximation to its singular vectors. There are correspondingly good approximations to the singular values. Such rules of thumb provide an intuitive interpretation of the singular vectors that helps explain why the SVD is so…

  3. Quantum gravity, dynamical phase-space and string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freidel, Laurent; Leigh, Robert G.; Minic, Djordje

    2014-08-01

    In a natural extension of the relativity principle, we speculate that a quantum theory of gravity involves two fundamental scales associated with both dynamical spacetime as well as dynamical momentum space. This view of quantum gravity is explicitly realized in a new formulation of string theory which involves dynamical phase-space and in which spacetime is a derived concept. This formulation naturally unifies symplectic geometry of Hamiltonian dynamics, complex geometry of quantum theory and real geometry of general relativity. The spacetime and momentum space dynamics, and thus dynamical phase-space, is governed by a new version of the renormalization group (RG).

  4. The space transportation main engine phase A' study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The Space Transportation Main Engine Phase A prime study was conducted over a 7 month period as an extension to the Phase A study. The Phase A prime program was designed to expand the study effort completed in Phase A, focusing on the baseline engine configuration selected. Analysis and trade studies were conducted to further optimize some of the major engine subsystems. These changes resulted in improvements to the baseline engine. Several options were evaluated for consideration by vehicle contractors.

  5. Holographic signatures of cosmological singularities.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, Netta; Hertog, Thomas; Horowitz, Gary T

    2014-09-19

    To gain insight into the quantum nature of cosmological singularities, we study anisotropic Kasner solutions in gauge-gravity duality. The dual description of the bulk evolution towards the singularity involves N=4 super Yang-Mills theory on the expanding branch of deformed de Sitter space and is well defined. We compute two-point correlators of Yang-Mills operators of large dimensions using spacelike geodesics anchored on the boundary. The correlators show a strong signature of the singularity around horizon scales and decay at large boundary separation at different rates in different directions. More generally, the boundary evolution exhibits a process of particle creation similar to that in inflation. This leads us to conjecture that information on the quantum nature of cosmological singularities is encoded in long-wavelength features of the boundary wave function.

  6. Liquid phase sintered compacts in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mookherji, T. K.; Mcanelly, W. B.

    1974-01-01

    A model that will explain the effect of gravity on liquid phase sintering was developed. Wetting characteristics and density segregation which are the two important phenomena in liquid phase sintering are considered in the model development. Experiments were conducted on some selected material combinations to study the gravity effects on liquid phase sintering, and to verify the validity of the model. It is concluded that: (1) The surface tension forces acting on solid particles in a one-g environment are not appreciably different from those anticipated in a 0.00001g/g sub 0 (or lower) environment. (2) The capillary forces are dependent on the contact angle, the quantity of the liquid phase, and the distance between solid particles. (3) The pores (i.e., bubbles) do not appear to be driven to the surface by gravity-produced buoyancy forces. (4) The length of time to produce the same degree of settling in a low-gravity environment will be increased significantly. (5) A low gravity environment would appear to offer a unique means of satisfactorily infiltrating a larger and/or complex shaped compact.

  7. An extensive phase space for the potential martian biosphere.

    PubMed

    Jones, Eriita G; Lineweaver, Charles H; Clarke, Jonathan D

    2011-12-01

    We present a comprehensive model of martian pressure-temperature (P-T) phase space and compare it with that of Earth. Martian P-T conditions compatible with liquid water extend to a depth of ∼310 km. We use our phase space model of Mars and of terrestrial life to estimate the depths and extent of the water on Mars that is habitable for terrestrial life. We find an extensive overlap between inhabited terrestrial phase space and martian phase space. The lower martian surface temperatures and shallower martian geotherm suggest that, if there is a hot deep biosphere on Mars, it could extend 7 times deeper than the ∼5 km depth of the hot deep terrestrial biosphere in the crust inhabited by hyperthermophilic chemolithotrophs. This corresponds to ∼3.2% of the volume of present-day Mars being potentially habitable for terrestrial-like life.

  8. Phase Space Structures Explain Hydrogen Atom Roaming in Formaldehyde Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Mauguière, Frédéric A L; Collins, Peter; Kramer, Zeb C; Carpenter, Barry K; Ezra, Gregory S; Farantos, Stavros C; Wiggins, Stephen

    2015-10-15

    We re-examine the prototypical roaming reaction--hydrogen atom roaming in formaldehyde decomposition--from a phase space perspective. Specifically, we address the question "why do trajectories roam, rather than dissociate through the radical channel?" We describe and compute the phase space structures that define and control all possible reactive events for this reaction, as well as provide a dynamically exact description of the roaming region in phase space. Using these phase space constructs, we show that in the roaming region, there is an unstable periodic orbit whose stable and unstable manifolds define a conduit that both encompasses all roaming trajectories exiting the formaldehyde well and shepherds them toward the H2···CO well.

  9. Design and applications of a phase space analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rausch, Denise; Herkommer, Alois

    2016-04-01

    In the last few years the requirement of more special and complex optical system increases as the demand in industries for higher efficiency increases. To satisfy the demand more complex optical elements substitute continuously standard components. Therefore it is of high interest to develop new methods in evaluating optical systems. In classical illumination design a huge number of rays has to be traced to get enough information to evaluate the performance of the system. An other method is to investigate the transport of etendue in the phase space picture where we have direct access to the radiance, irradiance and radiant intensity without extensive ray tracing. The phase space analyzer offers a different way to illustrate directly the phase space diagram of an arbitrary light distribution restricted to two dimensions. This method is much faster than traditional ray tracing. Most often used illumination components like integrator rods and optical arrays can be understood in the phase space approach.

  10. An extensive phase space for the potential martian biosphere.

    PubMed

    Jones, Eriita G; Lineweaver, Charles H; Clarke, Jonathan D

    2011-12-01

    We present a comprehensive model of martian pressure-temperature (P-T) phase space and compare it with that of Earth. Martian P-T conditions compatible with liquid water extend to a depth of ∼310 km. We use our phase space model of Mars and of terrestrial life to estimate the depths and extent of the water on Mars that is habitable for terrestrial life. We find an extensive overlap between inhabited terrestrial phase space and martian phase space. The lower martian surface temperatures and shallower martian geotherm suggest that, if there is a hot deep biosphere on Mars, it could extend 7 times deeper than the ∼5 km depth of the hot deep terrestrial biosphere in the crust inhabited by hyperthermophilic chemolithotrophs. This corresponds to ∼3.2% of the volume of present-day Mars being potentially habitable for terrestrial-like life. PMID:22149914

  11. Two-Phase Thermal Management Systems for Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downing, Scott; Andres, Mike; Nguyen, Dam; Halsey, Dave; Bauch, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Active two-phase thermal management systems have been shown to be weight and power effective for space platforms dissipating over 20 kWt of waste heat. A two-phase thermal management system can provide nearly isothermal heat transport at mass flows significantly lower than required for single-phase systems by employing a working fluid's latent heat rather than absorbing the heat sensibly in temperature change. Phase management issues specific to reduced gravity include pump cavitation, loop inventory control and potential dry out in the evaporator. Hamilton Sundstrand has developed and demonstrated in a reduced gravity aircraft environment, a suite of two-phase technologies that manage the liquid-vapor phase distribution. These technologies keep the liquid phase available at the pump inlet for pumping and present at heat acquisition boundaries for evaporation. This paper reviews these technologies for future high power, long duration space platforms.

  12. Group theoretical construction of planar noncommutative phase spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ngendakumana, Ancille Todjihoundé, Leonard; Nzotungicimpaye, Joachim

    2014-01-15

    Noncommutative phase spaces are generated and classified in the framework of centrally extended anisotropic planar kinematical Lie groups as well as in the framework of noncentrally abelian extended planar absolute time Lie groups. Through these constructions the coordinates of the phase spaces do not commute due to the presence of naturally introduced fields giving rise to minimal couplings. By symplectic realizations methods, physical interpretations of generators coming from the obtained structures are given.

  13. Kac Moody theories for colored phase space (quantum Hall) droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polychronakos, Alexios P.

    2005-04-01

    We derive the canonical structure and Hamiltonian for arbitrary deformations of a higher-dimensional (quantum Hall) droplet of fermions with spin or color on a general phase space manifold. Gauge fields are introduced via a Kaluza-Klein construction on the phase space. The emerging theory is a nonlinear higher-dimensional generalization of the gauged Kac-Moody algebra. To leading order in ℏ this reproduces the edge state chiral Wess-Zumino-Witten action of the droplets.

  14. Wigner function and Schroedinger equation in phase-space representation

    SciTech Connect

    Chruscinski, Dariusz; Mlodawski, Krzysztof

    2005-05-15

    We discuss a family of quasidistributions (s-ordered Wigner functions of Agarwal and Wolf [Phys. Rev. D 2, 2161 (1970); Phys. Rev. D 2, 2187 (1970); Phys. Rev. D 2, 2206 (1970)]) and its connection to the so-called phase space representation of the Schroedinger equation. It turns out that although Wigner functions satisfy the Schroedinger equation in phase space, they have a completely different interpretation.

  15. Tracing, Analyzing and Visualizing Dark Matter in Phase Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Oliver; Abel, Tom; Kaehler, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    In a Universe dominated by cold dark matter, structure forms from foldings of a three-dimensional sheet permeating six-dimensional phase space. The dynamics of the sheet is governed by gravity alone, and it never tears or intersects itself in phase space. In position space, these foldings lead to the formation of pancakes, filaments and finally dark matter halos: the cosmic web. N-body simulations already follow the motion of this sheet in phase space. This fact can be used to extract full fine-grained phase-space-structure information from existing cosmological N-body simulations. Particles are considered as the vertices of an unstructured three dimensional mesh, moving in six dimensional phase-space. On this mesh, mass density and momentum are uniquely defined. We show how to obtain the space density of the fluid, local velocity dispersion and detect caustics. We also discuss how information about the sheet can be used to create highly accurate volume visualizations and devise new simulation codes to evolve cold collisionless fluids under self-gravity.

  16. Space power demonstrator engine, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The design, analysis, and preliminary test results for a 25 kWe Free-Piston Stirling engine with integral linear alternators are described. The project is conducted by Mechanical Technology under the direction of LeRC as part of the SP-100 Nuclear Space Power Systems Program. The engine/alternator system is designed to demonstrate the following performance: (1) 25 kWe output at a specific weight less than 8 kg/kW; (2) 25 percent efficiency at a temperature ratio of 2.0; (3) low vibration (amplitude less than .003 in); (4) internal gas bearings (no wear, no external pump); and (5) heater temperature/cooler temperature from 630 to 315 K. The design approach to minimize vibration is a two-module engine (12.5 kWe per module) in a linearly-opposed configuration with a common expansion space. The low specific weight is obtained at high helium pressure (150 bar) and high frequency (105 Hz) and by using high magnetic strength (samarium cobalt) alternator magnets. Engine tests began in June 1985; 16 months following initiation of engine and test cell design. Hydrotest and consequent engine testing to date has been intentionally limited to half pressure, and electrical power output is within 15 to 20 percent of design predictions.

  17. Phase space evolution in linear instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Pantellini, F.G.E.; Burgess, D.; Schwartz, S.J. )

    1994-12-01

    A simple and powerful way to investigate the linear evolution of particle distribution functions in kinetic instabilities in a homogeneous collisionless plasma is presented. The method can be applied to any kind of instability, provided the characteristics (growth rate, frequency, wave vector, and polarization) of the mode are known and can also be used to estimate the amplitude of the waves at the end of the linear phase of growth. Two didactic examples are used to illustrate the versatility of the technique: the Alfven Ion Cyclotron (AIC) instability, which is electromagnetic, and the Electron Ion Cyclotron (EIC) instability, which is electrostatic.

  18. Space transfer concepts and analyses for exploration missions, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon R.

    1993-01-01

    This report covers the third phase of a broad-scoped and systematic study of space transfer concepts for human lunar and Mars missions. The study addressed issues that were raised during Phase 2, developed generic Mars missions profile analysis data, and conducted preliminary analysis of the Mars in-space transportation requirements and implementation from Stafford Committee Synthesis Report. The major effort of the study was the development of the first Lunar Outpost (FLO) baseline which evolved from the Space Station Freedom Hab Module. Modifications for the First Lunar Outpost were made to meet mission requirements and technology advancements.

  19. Mesoscopic nonequilibrium thermodynamics of solid surfaces and interfaces with triple junction singularities under the capillary and electromigration forces in anisotropic three-dimensional space.

    PubMed

    Ogurtani, Tarik Omer

    2006-04-14

    A theory of irreversible thermodynamics of curved surfaces and interfaces with triple junction singularities is elaborated to give a full consideration of the effects of the specific surface Gibbs free energy anisotropy in addition to the diffusional anisotropy, on the morphological evolution of surfaces and interfaces in crystalline solids. To entangle this intricate problem, the internal entropy production associated with arbitrary virtual displacements of triple junction and ordinary points on the interfacial layers, embedded in a multicomponent, multiphase, anisotropic composite continuum system, is formulated by adapting a mesoscopic description of the orientation dependence of the chemical potentials in terms of the rotational degree of freedom of individual microelements. The rate of local internal entropy production resulted generalized forces and conjugated fluxes not only for the grain boundary triple junction transversal and longitudinal movements, but also for the ordinary points. The natural combination of the mesoscopic approach coupled with the rigorous theory of irreversible thermodynamics developed previously by the global entropy production hypothesis yields a well-posed, nonlinear, moving free-boundary value problem in two-dimensional (2D) space, as a unified theory. The results obtained for 2D space are generalized into the three-dimensional continuum by utilizing the invariant properties of the vector operators in connection with the descriptions of curved surfaces in differential geometry. This mathematical model after normalization and scaling procedures may be easily adapted for computer simulation studies without introducing any additional phenomenological system parameters (the generalized mobilities), other than the enlarged concept of the surface stiffness.

  20. "Supreme Efforts of Care and Honest Utterance": Grasping the Singular Power of the Spoken Word in School Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wissman, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates the teaching and writing of poetry within public school spaces, illuminating how the work of poetry in an Academic Interventions classroom stirs new visions of who the students and the teacher can be. The study involves five teachers from a range of rural, urban, and suburban districts. These teachers…

  1. Gevrey properties of real planar singularly perturbed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Maesschalck, P.

    By applying geometric techniques to real analytic singularly perturbed vector fields on the plane, we develop a way to give a bound on the Gevrey type of the Taylor development of canard manifolds at degenerate planar turning points. By blowing up the phase space at the turning point, we find asymptotic estimates even when such expansions w.r.t. traditional phase space variables do not exist. The asymptotic estimates are then used to give a sufficient and necessary condition on the existence of (local) canard solutions.

  2. Phase-Space Detection of Cyber Events

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez Jimenez, Jarilyn M; Ferber, Aaron E; Prowell, Stacy J; Hively, Lee M

    2015-01-01

    Energy Delivery Systems (EDS) are a network of processes that produce, transfer and distribute energy. EDS are increasingly dependent on networked computing assets, as are many Industrial Control Systems. Consequently, cyber-attacks pose a real and pertinent threat, as evidenced by Stuxnet, Shamoon and Dragonfly. Hence, there is a critical need for novel methods to detect, prevent, and mitigate effects of such attacks. To detect cyber-attacks in EDS, we developed a framework for gathering and analyzing timing data that involves establishing a baseline execution profile and then capturing the effect of perturbations in the state from injecting various malware. The data analysis was based on nonlinear dynamics and graph theory to improve detection of anomalous events in cyber applications. The goal was the extraction of changing dynamics or anomalous activity in the underlying computer system. Takens' theorem in nonlinear dynamics allows reconstruction of topologically invariant, time-delay-embedding states from the computer data in a sufficiently high-dimensional space. The resultant dynamical states were nodes, and the state-to-state transitions were links in a mathematical graph. Alternatively, sequential tabulation of executing instructions provides the nodes with corresponding instruction-to-instruction links. Graph theorems guarantee graph-invariant measures to quantify the dynamical changes in the running applications. Results showed a successful detection of cyber events.

  3. Phase space quantization, noncommutativity, and the gravitational field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatzistavrakidis, Athanasios

    2014-07-01

    In this paper we study the structure of the phase space in noncommutative geometry in the presence of a nontrivial frame. Our basic assumptions are that the underlying space is a symplectic and parallelizable manifold. Furthermore, we assume the validity of the Leibniz rule and the Jacobi identities. We consider noncommutative spaces due to the quantization of the symplectic structure and determine the momentum operators that guarantee a set of canonical commutation relations, appropriately extended to include the nontrivial frame. We stress the important role of left vs right acting operators and of symplectic duality. This enables us to write down the form of the full phase space algebra on these noncommutative spaces, both in the noncompact and in the compact case. We test our results against the class of four-dimensional and six-dimensional symplectic nilmanifolds, thus presenting a large set of nontrivial examples that realizes the general formalism.

  4. Einstein equation at singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoica, Ovidiu-Cristinel

    2014-02-01

    Einstein's equation is rewritten in an equivalent form, which remains valid at the singularities in some major cases. These cases include the Schwarzschild singularity, the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker Big Bang singularity, isotropic singularities, and a class of warped product singularities. This equation is constructed in terms of the Ricci part of the Riemann curvature (as the Kulkarni-Nomizu product between Einstein's equation and the metric tensor).

  5. Multivariable Hermite polynomials and phase-space dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dattoli, G.; Torre, Amalia; Lorenzutta, S.; Maino, G.; Chiccoli, C.

    1994-01-01

    The phase-space approach to classical and quantum systems demands for advanced analytical tools. Such an approach characterizes the evolution of a physical system through a set of variables, reducing to the canonically conjugate variables in the classical limit. It often happens that phase-space distributions can be written in terms of quadratic forms involving the above quoted variables. A significant analytical tool to treat these problems may come from the generalized many-variables Hermite polynomials, defined on quadratic forms in R(exp n). They form an orthonormal system in many dimensions and seem the natural tool to treat the harmonic oscillator dynamics in phase-space. In this contribution we discuss the properties of these polynomials and present some applications to physical problems.

  6. The role of phase space geometry in Heisenberg's uncertainty relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastopoulos, Charis; Savvidou, Ntina

    2003-11-01

    Aiming towards a geometric description of quantum theory, we study the coherent states-induced metric on the phase space, which provides a geometric formulation of the Heisenberg uncertainty relations (both the position-momentum and the time-energy ones). The metric also distinguishes the original uncertainty relations of Heisenberg from the ones that are obtained from non-commutativity of operators. Conversely, the uncertainty relations can be written in terms of this metric only, hence they can be formulated for any physical system, including ones with non-trivial phase space. Moreover, the metric is a key ingredient of the probability structure of continuous-time histories on phase space. This fact allows a simple new proof the impossibility of the physical manifestation of the quantum Zeno and anti-Zeno paradoxes. Finally, we construct the coherent states for a spinless relativistic particle, as a non-trivial example by which we demonstrate our results.

  7. Exact Quantum Dynamics Calculations Using Phase Space Wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halverson, Thomas; Poirier, Bill

    2013-06-01

    In a series of earlier papers, the authors introduced the first exact quantum dynamics method that defeats the exponential scaling of CPU effort with system dimensionality. The method used a ``weylet'' basis set (orthogonalized Weyl-Heisenberg wavelets), combined with a phase space truncation scheme first proposed by M. Davis and E. Heller. Here, we use a related, but much simpler, wavelet basis consisting of momentum-symmetrized phase space Gaussians. Despite being non-orthogonal, symmetrized Gaussians exhibit collective locality, allowing for effective phase space truncation and the defeat of exponential scaling. A ``universal'' and remarkably simple code has been written, which is dimensionally independent, and which also exploits massively parallel algorithms. The codes have been used to calculate the vibrational spectra of several molecules of varying dimensionality.

  8. Phase-space approach to continuous variable quantum teleportation

    SciTech Connect

    Ban, Masashi

    2004-05-01

    The phase-space method is applied for considering continuous variable quantum teleportation. It is found that the continuous variable quantum teleportation transforms the s-parametrized phase-space function of an input state into the (s+{delta})-parametrized phase-space function, where the parameter {delta} is determined by the shared quantum entanglement. It is shown from this result that the Wigner function of the teleported state is always non-negative for F{sub c}{<=}2/3 and the Glauber-Sudarshan P function non-negative for F{sub c}{<=}1/2, where F{sub c} is the fidelity of the coherent-state teleportation. Furthermore the fidelity between input and output states is calculated when Gaussian states are teleported.

  9. Phase-space evolution of x-ray coherence in phase-sensitive imaging.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2008-08-01

    X-ray coherence evolution in the imaging process plays a key role for x-ray phase-sensitive imaging. In this work we present a phase-space formulation for the phase-sensitive imaging. The theory is reformulated in terms of the cross-spectral density and associated Wigner distribution. The phase-space formulation enables an explicit and quantitative account of partial coherence effects on phase-sensitive imaging. The presented formulas for x-ray spectral density at the detector can be used for performing accurate phase retrieval and optimizing the phase-contrast visibility. The concept of phase-space shearing length derived from this phase-space formulation clarifies the spatial coherence requirement for phase-sensitive imaging with incoherent sources. The theory has been applied to x-ray Talbot interferometric imaging as well. The peak coherence condition derived reveals new insights into three-grating-based Talbot-interferometric imaging and gratings-based x-ray dark-field imaging.

  10. Explicit methods in extended phase space for inseparable Hamiltonian problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pihajoki, Pauli

    2015-03-01

    We present a method for explicit leapfrog integration of inseparable Hamiltonian systems by means of an extended phase space. A suitably defined new Hamiltonian on the extended phase space leads to equations of motion that can be numerically integrated by standard symplectic leapfrog (splitting) methods. When the leapfrog is combined with coordinate mixing transformations, the resulting algorithm shows good long term stability and error behaviour. We extend the method to non-Hamiltonian problems as well, and investigate optimal methods of projecting the extended phase space back to original dimension. Finally, we apply the methods to a Hamiltonian problem of geodesics in a curved space, and a non-Hamiltonian problem of a forced non-linear oscillator. We compare the performance of the methods to a general purpose differential equation solver LSODE, and the implicit midpoint method, a symplectic one-step method. We find the extended phase space methods to compare favorably to both for the Hamiltonian problem, and to the implicit midpoint method in the case of the non-linear oscillator.

  11. κ-Deformed Phase Space, Hopf Algebroid and Twisting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurić; , Tajron; Kovačević, Domagoj; Meljanac, Stjepan

    2014-11-01

    Hopf algebroid structures on the Weyl algebra (phase space) are presented. We define the coproduct for the Weyl generators from Leibniz rule. The codomain of the coproduct is modified in order to obtain an algebra structure. We use the dual base to construct the target map and antipode. The notion of twist is analyzed for κ-deformed phase space in Hopf algebroid setting. It is outlined how the twist in the Hopf algebroid setting reproduces the full Hopf algebra structure of κ-Poincaré algebra. Several examples of realizations are worked out in details.

  12. Phase space analysis of metamaterial-based optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihaescu, T.; Dragoman, D.

    2014-06-01

    Phase space analysis of light refraction in optical systems consisting of slabs or thin lenses from either metamaterials with negative refractive indices or common materials is performed with the aim of finding the conditions of perfect imaging for metamaterial-based optical systems. The analysis in the paraxial approximation uses ABCD matrices, whereas full ray tracing is employed in the non-paraxial case. The phase space analysis reveals that the ideality of planar metamaterial lenses only occurs when the absolute value of the refractive index in metamaterials is the same as in the surrounding medium.

  13. Classical phase-space descriptions of continuous-variable teleportation.

    PubMed

    Caves, Carlton M; Wódkiewicz, Krzysztof

    2004-07-23

    The non-negative Wigner function of all quantum states involved in teleportation of Gaussian states using the standard continuous-variable teleportation protocol means that there is a local realistic phase-space description of the process. This includes the coherent states teleported up to now in experiments. We extend the phase-space description to teleportation of non-Gaussian states using the standard protocol and conclude that teleportation of non-Gaussian pure states with a fidelity of 2/3 is a "gold standard" for this kind of teleportation.

  14. The solidification of monotectic alloys - Microstructures and phase spacings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, R. N.; Hellawell, A.; Lograsso, T. A.

    1984-01-01

    The microstructures of directionally grown monotectic alloys in metallic and organic systems fall into two categories those which can form aligned fibrous composite structures with even phase spacings and fiber sections, and those in which the phase distribution is coarser and less regular. This division appears to relate to the form of the phase diagram and has been rationalized by Cahn (1977, 1979) in terms of the relative surface energies between solid and two liquids to give steady state or nonsteady state profiles. The transition in growth behavior occurs when the ratio of the monotectic temperature to that of the upper consolute temperature is approximately 0.9. Differences in phase spacings between a range of monotectic and eutectic systems are discussed in terms of the expected growth interface shapes and the factors which will influence them.

  15. Adaptive optics and phase diversity imaging for responsive space applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Mark William; Wick, David Victor

    2004-11-01

    The combination of phase diversity and adaptive optics offers great flexibility. Phase diverse images can be used to diagnose aberrations and then provide feedback control to the optics to correct the aberrations. Alternatively, phase diversity can be used to partially compensate for aberrations during post-detection image processing. The adaptive optic can produce simple defocus or more complex types of phase diversity. This report presents an analysis, based on numerical simulations, of the efficiency of different modes of phase diversity with respect to compensating for specific aberrations during post-processing. It also comments on the efficiency of post-processing versus direct aberration correction. The construction of a bench top optical system that uses a membrane mirror as an active optic is described. The results of characterization tests performed on the bench top optical system are presented. The work described in this report was conducted to explore the use of adaptive optics and phase diversity imaging for responsive space applications.

  16. Grassmann phase space theory and the Jaynes–Cummings model

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, B.J.; Garraway, B.M.; Jeffers, J.; Barnett, S.M.

    2013-07-15

    The Jaynes–Cummings model of a two-level atom in a single mode cavity is of fundamental importance both in quantum optics and in quantum physics generally, involving the interaction of two simple quantum systems—one fermionic system (the TLA), the other bosonic (the cavity mode). Depending on the initial conditions a variety of interesting effects occur, ranging from ongoing oscillations of the atomic population difference at the Rabi frequency when the atom is excited and the cavity is in an n-photon Fock state, to collapses and revivals of these oscillations starting with the atom unexcited and the cavity mode in a coherent state. The observation of revivals for Rydberg atoms in a high-Q microwave cavity is key experimental evidence for quantisation of the EM field. Theoretical treatments of the Jaynes–Cummings model based on expanding the state vector in terms of products of atomic and n-photon states and deriving coupled equations for the amplitudes are a well-known and simple method for determining the effects. In quantum optics however, the behaviour of the bosonic quantum EM field is often treated using phase space methods, where the bosonic mode annihilation and creation operators are represented by c-number phase space variables, with the density operator represented by a distribution function of these variables. Fokker–Planck equations for the distribution function are obtained, and either used directly to determine quantities of experimental interest or used to develop c-number Langevin equations for stochastic versions of the phase space variables from which experimental quantities are obtained as stochastic averages. Phase space methods have also been developed to include atomic systems, with the atomic spin operators being represented by c-number phase space variables, and distribution functions involving these variables and those for any bosonic modes being shown to satisfy Fokker–Planck equations from which c-number Langevin equations are

  17. Topological regularizations of the triple collision singularity in the 3-vortex problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraoka, Yasuaki

    2008-02-01

    The triple collision singularity in the 3-vortex problem is studied in this paper. Under the necessary condition k_1^{-1}+k_2^{-1}+k_3^{-1}=0 for vorticities to have the triple collision, the main results are summarized as follows: (i) For k1 = k2, the triple collision singularity is topologically regularizable. (ii) For 0 < |k1 - k2| < epsilon with a sufficiently small epsilon, the triple collision singularity is not topologically regularizable. First of all, in order to prove these statements, all singularities in the 3-vortex problem are classified. Then, we introduce a dynamical system by blowing up the triple collision singularity with an appropriate time scaling. Roughly speaking, it corresponds to pasting an invariant manifold at the triple collision singularity on the original phase space. This technique is well known as McGehee's collision manifold (1974 Inventions Math. 27 191-227) in the N-body problem of celestial mechanics. Finally, by adopting the viewpoint of Easton (1971 J. Diff. Eqns 10 92-9), topological regularizations of the triple collision singularity are studied in detail.

  18. Two Phase Flow and Space-Based Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McQuillen, John

    1999-01-01

    A reduced gravity environment offers the ability to remove the effect of buoyancy on two phase flows whereby density differences that normally would promote relative velocities between the phases and also alter the shape of the interface are removed. However, besides being a potent research tool, there are also many space-based technologies that will either utilize or encounter two-phase flow behavior, and as a consequence, several questions must be addressed. This paper presents some of these technologies missions. Finally, this paper gives a description of web-sites for some funding.

  19. Dimension of quantum phase space measured by photon correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuchs, Gerd; Glauber, Roy J.; Schleich, Wolfgang P.

    2015-06-01

    We show that the different values 1, 2 and 3 of the normalized second-order correlation function {g}(2)(0) corresponding to a coherent state, a thermal state and a highly squeezed vacuum originate from the different dimensionality of these states in phase space. In particular, we derive an exact expression for {g}(2)(0) in terms of the ratio of the moments of the classical energy evaluated with the Wigner function of the quantum state of interest and corrections proportional to the reciprocal of powers of the average number of photons. In this way we establish a direct link between {g}(2)(0) and the shape of the state in phase space. Moreover, we illuminate this connection by demonstrating that in the semi-classical limit the familiar photon statistics of a thermal state arise from an area in phase space weighted by a two-dimensional Gaussian, whereas those of a highly squeezed state are governed by a line-integral of a one-dimensional Gaussian. We dedicate this article to Margarita and Vladimir Man’ko on the occasion of their birthdays. The topic of our contribution is deeply rooted in and motivated by their love for non-classical light, quantum mechanical phase space distribution functions and orthogonal polynomials. Indeed, through their articles, talks and most importantly by many stimulating discussions and intensive collaborations with us they have contributed much to our understanding of physics. Happy birthday to you both!

  20. Depositing spacing layers on magnetic film with liquid phase epitaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moody, J. W.; Shaw, R. W.; Sanfort, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    Liquid phase epitaxy spacing layer is compatible with systems which are hard-bubble proofed by use of second magnetic garnet film as capping layer. Composite is superior in that: circuit fabrication time is reduced; adherence is superior; visibility is better; and, good match of thermal expansion coefficients is provided.

  1. Phase-space reconstruction of focused x-ray fields

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, Chanh Q.; Mancuso, Adrian P.; Dhal, Bipin B.; Nugent, Keith A.; Peele, Andrew G.; Cai, Zhonghou; Paterson, David

    2006-01-01

    The phase-space tomography is used to reconstruct x-ray beams focused using a compound refractive lens, showing that it is possible to decouple the effect of aberrations in the optical system from the field and therefore measure both them and the original field. The complex coherence function is recovered and found to be consistent with expectations.

  2. Phase-space reconstruction of focused x-ray fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Chanh Q.; Mancuso, Adrian P.; Dhal, Bipin B.; Nugent, Keith A.; Peele, Andrew G.; Cai, Zhonghou; Paterson, David

    2006-07-01

    We apply the method of phase-space tomography to reconstruct x-ray beams focused using a compound refractive lens. We show that it is possible to decouple the effect of aberrations in the optical system from the field and hence measure both them and the original field. We recover the complex coherence function and find that it is consistent with expectations.

  3. Geometrical Series and Phase Space in a Finite Oscillatory Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mareco, H. R. Olmedo

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses some interesting physical properties of oscillatory motion of a particle on two joined inclined planes. The geometrical series demonstrates that the particle will oscillate during a finite time. Another detail is the converging path to the origin of the phase space. Due to its simplicity, this motion may be used as a…

  4. Strong Field Double Ionization: The Phase Space Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Mauger, F.; Chandre, C.; Uzer, T.

    2009-05-01

    We identify the phase-space structures that regulate atomic double ionization in strong ultrashort laser pulses. The emerging dynamical picture complements the recollision scenario by clarifying the distinct roles played by the recolliding and core electrons, and leads to verifiable predictions on the characteristic features of the 'knee', a hallmark of the nonsequential process.

  5. Vital phase of space science. [solar terrestrial interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, E. N.

    1994-01-01

    Space science began with the indirect phase where the activity in space was inferred from such terrestrial phenomena as geomagnetic storms, ionospheric variations, and fluctuations in the cosmic ray intensity. The direct phase was initiated with spaceflight placing instruments directly in space and permitting the direct observation of UV and X rays, as well as precision observations of solar luminosity variations. The evidence from these many direct studies, together with the historical record of terrestrial conditions, shows that the variations of the luminosity of the Sun affect the terrestrial atmosphere at all levels, with devastating changes in climate tracking the major changes in the activity level and luminosity of the Sun. The quantification and understanding of this vital connection should be the first priority of space science and geophysics, from oceans and atmosphere through the ionosphere, magnetosphere, and all the way to the convective zone of the Sun. It becomes the vital phase of space science, focused on the basic science of the changing habitability of Earth.

  6. Extended phase space description of human-controlled systems dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zgonnikov, Arkady; Lubashevsky, Ihor

    2014-03-01

    Humans are often incapable of precisely identifying and implementing the desired control strategy in controlling unstable dynamical systems. That is, the operator of a dynamical system treats the current control effort as acceptable even if it deviates slightly from the desired value, and starts correcting the actions only when the deviation has become evident. We argue that the standard Newtonian approach does not allow such behavior to be modeled. Instead, the physical phase space of a controlled system should be extended with an independent phase variable characterizing the motivated actions of the operator. The proposed approach is illustrated via a simple non-Newtonian model capturing the operators' fuzzy perception of their own actions. The properties of the model are investigated analytically and numerically; the results confirm that the extended phase space may aid in capturing the intricate dynamical properties of human-controlled systems.

  7. Gravitational phase transitions with an exclusion constraint in position space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavanis, Pierre-Henri

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the statistical mechanics of a system of self-gravitating particles with an exclusion constraint in position space in a space of dimension d. The exclusion constraint puts an upper bound on the density of the system and can stabilize it against gravitational collapse. We plot the caloric curves giving the temperature as a function of the energy and investigate the nature of phase transitions as a function of the size of the system and of the dimension of space in both microcanonical and canonical ensembles. We consider stable and metastable states and emphasize the importance of the latter for systems with long-range interactions. For d ≤ 2, there is no phase transition. For d > 2, phase transitions can take place between a "gaseous" phase unaffected by the exclusion constraint and a "condensed" phase dominated by this constraint. The condensed configurations have a core-halo structure made of a "rocky core" surrounded by an "atmosphere", similar to a giant gaseous planet. For large systems there exist microcanonical and canonical first order phase transitions. For intermediate systems, only canonical first order phase transitions are present. For small systems there is no phase transition at all. As a result, the phase diagram exhibits two critical points, one in each ensemble. There also exist a region of negative specific heats and a situation of ensemble inequivalence for sufficiently large systems. We show that a statistical equilibrium state exists for any values of energy and temperature in any dimension of space. This differs from the case of the self-gravitating Fermi gas for which there is no statistical equilibrium state at low energies and low temperatures when d ≥ 4. By a proper interpretation of the parameters, our results have application for the chemotaxis of bacterial populations in biology described by a generalized Keller-Segel model including an exclusion constraint in position space. They also describe colloids at a fluid

  8. Grassmann phase space theory and the Jaynes-Cummings model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, B. J.; Garraway, B. M.; Jeffers, J.; Barnett, S. M.

    2013-07-01

    The Jaynes-Cummings model of a two-level atom in a single mode cavity is of fundamental importance both in quantum optics and in quantum physics generally, involving the interaction of two simple quantum systems—one fermionic system (the TLA), the other bosonic (the cavity mode). Depending on the initial conditions a variety of interesting effects occur, ranging from ongoing oscillations of the atomic population difference at the Rabi frequency when the atom is excited and the cavity is in an n-photon Fock state, to collapses and revivals of these oscillations starting with the atom unexcited and the cavity mode in a coherent state. The observation of revivals for Rydberg atoms in a high-Q microwave cavity is key experimental evidence for quantisation of the EM field. Theoretical treatments of the Jaynes-Cummings model based on expanding the state vector in terms of products of atomic and n-photon states and deriving coupled equations for the amplitudes are a well-known and simple method for determining the effects. In quantum optics however, the behaviour of the bosonic quantum EM field is often treated using phase space methods, where the bosonic mode annihilation and creation operators are represented by c-number phase space variables, with the density operator represented by a distribution function of these variables. Fokker-Planck equations for the distribution function are obtained, and either used directly to determine quantities of experimental interest or used to develop c-number Langevin equations for stochastic versions of the phase space variables from which experimental quantities are obtained as stochastic averages. Phase space methods have also been developed to include atomic systems, with the atomic spin operators being represented by c-number phase space variables, and distribution functions involving these variables and those for any bosonic modes being shown to satisfy Fokker-Planck equations from which c-number Langevin equations are often

  9. Phase space structure and dynamics for the Hamiltonian isokinetic thermostat.

    PubMed

    Collins, Peter; Ezra, Gregory S; Wiggins, Stephen

    2010-07-01

    We investigate the phase space structure and dynamics of a Hamiltonian isokinetic thermostat, for which ergodic thermostat trajectories at fixed (zero) energy generate a canonical distribution in configuration space. Model potentials studied consist of a single bistable mode plus transverse harmonic modes. Interpreting the bistable mode as a reaction (isomerization) coordinate, we establish connections with the theory of unimolecular reaction rates, in particular the formulation of isomerization rates in terms of gap times. In the context of molecular reaction rates, the distribution of gap times (or associated lifetimes) for a microcanonical ensemble initiated on the dividing surface is of great dynamical significance; an exponential lifetime distribution is usually taken to be an indicator of "statistical" behavior. Moreover, comparison of the magnitude of the phase space volume swept out by reactive trajectories as they pass through the reactant region with the total phase space volume (classical density of states) for the reactant region provides a necessary condition for ergodic dynamics. We compute gap times, associated lifetime distributions, mean gap times, reactive fluxes, reactive volumes, and total reactant phase space volumes for model thermostat systems with three and four degrees of freedom at three different temperatures. At all three temperatures, the necessary condition for ergodicity is approximately satisfied. At high temperatures a nonexponential lifetime distribution is found, while at low temperatures the lifetime is more nearly exponential. The degree of exponentiality of the lifetime distribution is quantified by computing the information entropy deficit with respect to pure exponential decay. The efficacy of the Hamiltonian isokinetic thermostat is examined by computing coordinate distributions averaged over single long trajectories initiated on the dividing surface.

  10. Kinetic solvers with adaptive mesh in phase space.

    PubMed

    Arslanbekov, Robert R; Kolobov, Vladimir I; Frolova, Anna A

    2013-12-01

    An adaptive mesh in phase space (AMPS) methodology has been developed for solving multidimensional kinetic equations by the discrete velocity method. A Cartesian mesh for both configuration (r) and velocity (v) spaces is produced using a "tree of trees" (ToT) data structure. The r mesh is automatically generated around embedded boundaries, and is dynamically adapted to local solution properties. The v mesh is created on-the-fly in each r cell. Mappings between neighboring v-space trees is implemented for the advection operator in r space. We have developed algorithms for solving the full Boltzmann and linear Boltzmann equations with AMPS. Several recent innovations were used to calculate the discrete Boltzmann collision integral with dynamically adaptive v mesh: the importance sampling, multipoint projection, and variance reduction methods. We have developed an efficient algorithm for calculating the linear Boltzmann collision integral for elastic and inelastic collisions of hot light particles in a Lorentz gas. Our AMPS technique has been demonstrated for simulations of hypersonic rarefied gas flows, ion and electron kinetics in weakly ionized plasma, radiation and light-particle transport through thin films, and electron streaming in semiconductors. We have shown that AMPS allows minimizing the number of cells in phase space to reduce the computational cost and memory usage for solving challenging kinetic problems.

  11. Space transfer vehicle concepts and requirements study, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Jeffrey H.; Vinopal, Tim; Andrews, Dana; Richards, Bill; Weber, Gary; Paddock, Greg; Maricich, Peter; Bouton, Bruce; Hagen, Jim; Kolesar, Richard

    1992-01-01

    This final report is a compilation of the Phase 1 and Phase 2 study findings and is intended as a Space Transfer Vehicle (STV) 'users guide' rather than an exhaustive explanation of STV design details. It provides a database for design choices in the general areas of basing, reusability, propulsion, and staging; with selection criteria based on cost, performance, available infrastructure, risk, and technology. The report is organized into the following three parts: (1) design guide; (2) STV Phase 1 Concepts and Requirements Study Summary; and (3) STV Phase 2 Concepts and Requirements Study Summary. The overall objectives of the STV study were to: (1) define preferred STV concepts capable of accommodating future exploration missions in a cost-effective manner; (2) determine the level of technology development required to perform these missions in the most cost effective manner; and (3) develop a decision database of programmatic approaches for the development of an STV concept.

  12. Asteroid orbital inversion using uniform phase-space sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muinonen, K.; Pentikäinen, H.; Granvik, M.; Oszkiewicz, D.; Virtanen, J.

    2014-07-01

    We review statistical inverse methods for asteroid orbit computation from a small number of astrometric observations and short time intervals of observations. With the help of Markov-chain Monte Carlo methods (MCMC), we present a novel inverse method that utilizes uniform sampling of the phase space for the orbital elements. The statistical orbital ranging method (Virtanen et al. 2001, Muinonen et al. 2001) was set out to resolve the long-lasting challenges in the initial computation of orbits for asteroids. The ranging method starts from the selection of a pair of astrometric observations. Thereafter, the topocentric ranges and angular deviations in R.A. and Decl. are randomly sampled. The two Cartesian positions allow for the computation of orbital elements and, subsequently, the computation of ephemerides for the observation dates. Candidate orbital elements are included in the sample of accepted elements if the χ^2-value between the observed and computed observations is within a pre-defined threshold. The sample orbital elements obtain weights based on a certain debiasing procedure. When the weights are available, the full sample of orbital elements allows the probabilistic assessments for, e.g., object classification and ephemeris computation as well as the computation of collision probabilities. The MCMC ranging method (Oszkiewicz et al. 2009; see also Granvik et al. 2009) replaces the original sampling algorithm described above with a proposal probability density function (p.d.f.), and a chain of sample orbital elements results in the phase space. MCMC ranging is based on a bivariate Gaussian p.d.f. for the topocentric ranges, and allows for the sampling to focus on the phase-space domain with most of the probability mass. In the virtual-observation MCMC method (Muinonen et al. 2012), the proposal p.d.f. for the orbital elements is chosen to mimic the a posteriori p.d.f. for the elements: first, random errors are simulated for each observation, resulting in

  13. Dimensional mutation and spacelike singularities

    SciTech Connect

    Silverstein, Eva

    2006-04-15

    I argue that string theory compactified on a Riemann surface crosses over at small volume to a higher dimensional background of supercritical string theory. Several concrete measures of the count of degrees of freedom of the theory yield the consistent result that at finite volume, the effective dimensionality is increased by an amount of order 2h/V for a surface of genus h and volume V in string units. This arises in part from an exponentially growing density of states of winding modes supported by the fundamental group, and passes an interesting test of modular invariance. Further evidence for a plethora of examples with the spacelike singularity replaced by a higher dimensional phase arises from the fact that the sigma model on a Riemann surface can be naturally completed by many gauged linear sigma models, whose RG flows approximate time evolution in the full string backgrounds arising from this in the limit of large dimensionality. In recent examples of spacelike singularity resolution by tachyon condensation, the singularity is ultimately replaced by a phase with all modes becoming heavy and decoupling. In the present case, the opposite behavior ensues: more light degrees of freedom arise in the small radius regime. We comment on the emerging zoology of cosmological singularities that results.

  14. Singularity classification as a design tool for multiblock grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Alan K.

    1992-01-01

    A major stumbling block in interactive design of 3-D multiblock grids is the difficulty of visualizing the design as a whole. One way to make this visualization task easier is to focus, at least in early design stages, on an aspect of the grid which is inherently easy to present graphically, and to conceptualize mentally, namely the nature and location of singularities in the grid. The topological behavior of a multiblock grid design is determined by what happens at its edges and vertices. Only a few of these are in any way exceptional. The exceptional behaviors lie along a singularity graph, which is a 1-D construct embedded in 3-D space. The varieties of singular behavior are limited enough to make useful symbology on a graphics device possible. Furthermore, some forms of block design manipulation that appear appropriate to the early conceptual-modeling phase can be accomplished on this level of abstraction. An overview of a proposed singularity classification scheme and selected examples of corresponding manipulation techniques is presented.

  15. Space shuttle phase B wind tunnel test database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glynn, J. L.; Poucher, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    Archived wind tunnel test data are available for flyback booster or other alternate recoverable configurations as well as reusable orbiters studied during initial development (Phase B) of the Space Shuttle. Considerable wind tunnel data were acquired by competing contractors and NASA centers for an extensive variety of configurations with an array of wing and body planforms. This wind tunnel test data has been compiled into a database and are available for application to current winged flyback or recoverable booster aerodynamic studies. The Space Shuttle Phase B Wind Tunnel Database is structured by vehicle component and configuration type. Basic components include the booster, the orbiter and the launch vehicle. Booster configuration types include straight and delta wings, canard, cylindrical, retro-glide and twin body. Orbiter configuration types include straight and delta wings, lifting body, drop tanks and double delta wings.

  16. Large space telescope, phase A. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Phase A study of the Large Space Telescope (LST) is reported. The study defines an LST concept based on the broad mission guidelines provided by the Office of Space Science (OSS), the scientific requirements developed by OSS with the scientific community, and an understanding of long range NASA planning current at the time the study was performed. The LST is an unmanned astronomical observatory facility, consisting of an optical telescope assembly (OTA), scientific instrument package (SIP), and a support systems module (SSM). The report consists of five volumes. The report describes the constraints and trade off analyses that were performed to arrive at a reference design for each system and for the overall LST configuration. A low cost design approach was followed in the Phase A study. This resulted in the use of standard spacecraft hardware, the provision for maintenance at the black box level, growth potential in systems designs, and the sharing of shuttle maintenance flights with other payloads.

  17. Liouville`s theorem and phase-space cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, R.L.; Sessler, A.M.

    1993-09-28

    A discussion is presented of Liouville`s theorem and its consequences for conservative dynamical systems. A formal proof of Liouville`s theorem is given. The Boltzmann equation is derived, and the collisionless Boltzmann equation is shown to be rigorously true for a continuous medium. The Fokker-Planck equation is derived. Discussion is given as to when the various equations are applicable and, in particular, under what circumstances phase space cooling may occur.

  18. Torus as phase space: Weyl quantization, dequantization, and Wigner formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligabò, Marilena

    2016-08-01

    The Weyl quantization of classical observables on the torus (as phase space) without regularity assumptions is explicitly computed. The equivalence class of symbols yielding the same Weyl operator is characterized. The Heisenberg equation for the dynamics of general quantum observables is written through the Moyal brackets on the torus and the support of the Wigner transform is characterized. Finally, a dequantization procedure is introduced that applies, for instance, to the Pauli matrices. As a result we obtain the corresponding classical symbols.

  19. Phase space representation of spatially partially coherent imaging.

    PubMed

    Castaneda, Roman

    2008-08-01

    The phase space representation of imaging with optical fields in any state of spatial coherence is developed by using spatial coherence wavelets. It leads to new functions for describing the optical transfer and response of imaging systems when the field is represented by Wigner distribution functions. Specific imaging cases are analyzed in this context, and special attention is devoted to the imaging of two point sources.

  20. Phase-space structure of cold dark matter halos

    SciTech Connect

    Sikivie, P.; Ipser, J.R.

    1991-12-31

    A galactic halo of cold dark matter particles has a sheet-like structure in phase-space. The energy and momentum spectra of such particles on earth has a set of peaks whose central values and intensities form a record of the formation of the Galaxy. Scattering of the dark matter particles by stars and globular clusters broadens the peaks but does not erase them entirely. The giant shells around some elliptical galaxies may be a manifestation of this structure.

  1. The ESA Virtual Space Weather Modelling Centre - Phase 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poedts, Stefaan

    The ESA ITT project (AO/1-6738/11/NL/AT) to develop Phase 1 of a Virtual Space Weather Modelling Centre has the following objectives and scope: 1. The construction of a long term (~10 yrs) plan for the future development of a European virtual space weather modelling centre consisting of a new ‘open’ and distributed framework for the coupling of physics based models for space weather phenomena; 2. The assessment of model capabilities and the amount of work required to make them operational by integrating them in this framework and the identification of computing and networking requirements to do so. 3. The design of a system to enable models and other components to be installed locally or geographically distributed and the creation of a validation plan including a system of metrics for testing results. The consortium that took up this challenge involves: 1)the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Prime Contractor, coordinator: Prof. S. Poedts); 2) the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB); 3) the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB); 4) the Von Karman Institute (VKI); 5) DH Consultancy (DHC); 6) Space Applications Services (SAS). The project started on May 14 2012, and will finish in May 2014. Thus, by the time of the meeting, both Phase 1A and Phase 1B (the development of the prototype) will be finished. The final report will be presented incl. the architecture decisions made, the framework, the current models integrated already as well as the model couplers installed. The prototype VSWMC will be demonstrated.

  2. Dynamics of learning near singularities in layered networks.

    PubMed

    Wei, Haikun; Zhang, Jun; Cousseau, Florent; Ozeki, Tomoko; Amari, Shun-Ichi

    2008-03-01

    We explicitly analyze the trajectories of learning near singularities in hierarchical networks, such as multilayer perceptrons and radial basis function networks, which include permutation symmetry of hidden nodes, and show their general properties. Such symmetry induces singularities in their parameter space, where the Fisher information matrix degenerates and odd learning behaviors, especially the existence of plateaus in gradient descent learning, arise due to the geometric structure of singularity. We plot dynamic vector fields to demonstrate the universal trajectories of learning near singularities. The singularity induces two types of plateaus, the on-singularity plateau and the near-singularity plateau, depending on the stability of the singularity and the initial parameters of learning. The results presented in this letter are universally applicable to a wide class of hierarchical models. Detailed stability analysis of the dynamics of learning in radial basis function networks and multilayer perceptrons will be presented in separate work.

  3. Medical care capabilities for Space Station Freedom: A phase approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doarn, C. R.; Lloyd, C. W.

    1992-01-01

    As a result of Congressional mandate Space Station Freedom (SSF) was restructured. This restructuring activity has affected the capabilities for providing medical care on board the station. This presentation addresses the health care facility to be built and used on the orbiting space station. This unit, named the Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) is based on and modeled after remote, terrestrial medical facilities. It will provide a phased approach to health care for the crews of SSF. Beginning with a stabilization and transport phase, HMF will expand to provide the most advanced state of the art therapeutic and diagnostic capabilities. This presentation details the capabilities of such a phased HMF. As Freedom takes form over the next decade there will be ever-increasing engineering and scientific developmental activities. The HMF will evolve with this process until it eventually reaches a mature, complete stand-alone health care facility that provides a foundation to support interplanetary travel. As man's experience in space continues to grow so will the ability to provide advanced health care for Earth-orbital and exploratory missions as well.

  4. Relativistic algebraic spinors and quantum motions in phase space

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, P.R.

    1986-08-01

    Following suggestions of Schonberg and Bohm, we study the tensorial phase space representation of the Dirac and Feynman-Gell-Mann equations in terms of the complex Dirac algebra C/sub 4/, a Jordan-Wigner algebra G/sub 4/, and Wigner transformations. To do this we solve the problem of the conditions under which elements in C/sub 4/ generate minimal ideals, and extend this to G/sub 4/. This yields the linear theory of Dirac spin spaces and tensor representations of Dirac spinors, and the spin-1/2 wave equations are represented through fermionic state vectors in a higher space as a set of interconnected tensor relations.

  5. Calculation of a fluctuating entropic force by phase space sampling.

    PubMed

    Waters, James T; Kim, Harold D

    2015-07-01

    A polymer chain pinned in space exerts a fluctuating force on the pin point in thermal equilibrium. The average of such fluctuating force is well understood from statistical mechanics as an entropic force, but little is known about the underlying force distribution. Here, we introduce two phase space sampling methods that can produce the equilibrium distribution of instantaneous forces exerted by a terminally pinned polymer. In these methods, both the positions and momenta of mass points representing a freely jointed chain are perturbed in accordance with the spatial constraints and the Boltzmann distribution of total energy. The constraint force for each conformation and momentum is calculated using Lagrangian dynamics. Using terminally pinned chains in space and on a surface, we show that the force distribution is highly asymmetric with both tensile and compressive forces. Most importantly, the mean of the distribution, which is equal to the entropic force, is not the most probable force even for long chains. Our work provides insights into the mechanistic origin of entropic forces, and an efficient computational tool for unbiased sampling of the phase space of a constrained system. PMID:26274308

  6. Geometric Phase of Phase Space Trajectories:Mobius Strip and Nonlinear Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, Radha; Satija, Indubala

    2005-03-01

    We present a gauge invariant formulation of associating a geometric phase with classical phase space trajectories. This geometric phase which depends upon the integrated torsion of the trajectory, bears a close analogy to the generalized Berry phase associated with the time evolution of the quantum wave functions. This topological quantity serves as an order parameter signalling phase transitions including novel geometrical transitions. One of the interesting aspects seen in Duffing and other nonlinear oscillators is the sudden jumps in the geometric phase which is accompanied by the divergence of the local torsion and the vanishing of the local curvature. Intriguingly, the analogous phenomenon was seen in a mobius strip when the ratio of the width to the length of the strip exceeds beyound a critical value.

  7. Deep Space Habitat Team: HEFT Phase 2 Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toups, Larry D.; Smitherman, David; Shyface, Hilary; Simon, Matt; Bobkill, Marianne; Komar, D. R.; Guirgis, Peggy; Bagdigian, Bob; Spexarth, Gary

    2011-01-01

    HEFT was a NASA-wide team that performed analyses of architectures for human exploration beyond LEO, evaluating technical, programmatic, and budgetary issues to support decisions at the highest level of the agency in HSF planning. HEFT Phase I (April - September, 2010) and Phase II (September - December, 2010) examined a broad set of Human Exploration of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) Design Reference Missions (DRMs), evaluating such factors as elements, performance, technologies, schedule, and cost. At end of HEFT Phase 1, an architecture concept known as DRM 4a represented the best available option for a full capability NEO mission. Within DRM4a, the habitation system was provided by Deep Space Habitat (DSH), Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV), and Crew Transfer Vehicle (CTV) pressurized elements. HEFT Phase 2 extended DRM4a, resulting in DRM4b. Scrubbed element-level functionality assumptions and mission Concepts of Operations. Habitation Team developed more detailed concepts of the DSH and the DSH/MMSEV/CTV Conops, including functionality and accommodations, mass & volume estimates, technology requirements, and DDT&E costs. DRM 5 represented an effort to reduce cost by scaling back on technologies and eliminating the need for the development of an MMSEV.

  8. Parametric Modeling of Transverse Phase Space of an RF Photoinjector

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, E.; Sayyar-Rodsari, B.; Schweiger, C.A.; Lee, M.J.; Lui, P.; Paterson, Ewan; Schmerge, J.F.; /SLAC

    2008-01-24

    High brightness electron beam sources such as rf photo-injectors as proposed for SASE FELs must consistently produce the desired beam quality. We report the results of a study in which a combined neural network (NN) and first-principles (FP) model is used to model the transverse phase space of the beam as a function of quadrupole strength, while beam charge, solenoid field, accelerator gradient, and linac voltage and phase are kept constant. The parametric transport matrix between the exit of the linac section and the spectrometer screen constitutes the FP component of the combined model. The NN block provides the parameters of the transport matrix as functions of quad current. Using real data from SLAC Gun Test Facility, we will highlight the significance of the constrained training of the NN block and show that the phase space of the beam is accurately modeled by the combined NN and FP model, while variations of beam matrix parameters with the quad current are correctly captured. We plan to extend the combined model in the future to capture the effects of variations in beam charge, solenoid field, and accelerator voltage and phase.

  9. Singular perturbation of absolute stability.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siljak, D. D.

    1972-01-01

    It was previously shown (author, 1969) that the regions of absolute stability in the parameter space can be determined when the parameters appear on the right-hand side of the system equations, i.e., the regular case. Here, the effect on absolute stability of a small parameter attached to higher derivatives in the equations (the singular case) is studied. The Lur'e-Postnikov class of nonlinear systems is considered.

  10. The structure of the extended phase space of the Sitnikov problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, T.; Érdi, B.

    2007-10-01

    The extended phase space of the Sitnikov problem is studied by using a stroboscopic map and computing escape times. Comparisons of phase portraits and plots of escape times reveal the intrinsic connection between the geometry of the phase space and the dynamical behaviour of the system. Properties of the phase space are analysed both in the central regular region and far from it.

  11. Grassmann phase space methods for fermions. I. Mode theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, B. J.; Jeffers, J.; Barnett, S. M.

    2016-07-01

    In both quantum optics and cold atom physics, the behaviour of bosonic photons and atoms is often treated using phase space methods, where mode annihilation and creation operators are represented by c-number phase space variables, with the density operator equivalent to a distribution function of these variables. The anti-commutation rules for fermion annihilation, creation operators suggest the possibility of using anti-commuting Grassmann variables to represent these operators. However, in spite of the seminal work by Cahill and Glauber and a few applications, the use of Grassmann phase space methods in quantum-atom optics to treat fermionic systems is rather rare, though fermion coherent states using Grassmann variables are widely used in particle physics. The theory of Grassmann phase space methods for fermions based on separate modes is developed, showing how the distribution function is defined and used to determine quantum correlation functions, Fock state populations and coherences via Grassmann phase space integrals, how the Fokker-Planck equations are obtained and then converted into equivalent Ito equations for stochastic Grassmann variables. The fermion distribution function is an even Grassmann function, and is unique. The number of c-number Wiener increments involved is 2n2, if there are n modes. The situation is somewhat different to the bosonic c-number case where only 2 n Wiener increments are involved, the sign of the drift term in the Ito equation is reversed and the diffusion matrix in the Fokker-Planck equation is anti-symmetric rather than symmetric. The un-normalised B distribution is of particular importance for determining Fock state populations and coherences, and as pointed out by Plimak, Collett and Olsen, the drift vector in its Fokker-Planck equation only depends linearly on the Grassmann variables. Using this key feature we show how the Ito stochastic equations can be solved numerically for finite times in terms of c-number stochastic

  12. Synergistic and singular effects of river discharge and lunar illumination on dam passage of upstream migrant yellow-phase American eels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welsh, Stuart; Aldinger, Joni L.; Braham, Melissa; Zimmerman, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring of dam passage can be useful for management and conservation assessments of American eel, particularly if passage counts can be examined over multiple years. During a 7-year study (2007–2013) of upstream migration of American eels within the lower Shenandoah River (Potomac River drainage), we counted and measured American eels at the Millville Dam eel pass, where annual study periods were determined by the timing of the eel pass installation during spring or summer and removal during fall. Daily American eel counts were analysed with negative binomial regression models, with and without a year (YR) effect, and with the following time-varying environmental covariates: river discharge of the Shenandoah River at Millville (RDM) and of the Potomac River at Point of Rocks, lunar illumination (LI), water temperature, and cloud cover. A total of 17 161 yellow-phase American eels used the pass during the seven annual periods, and length measurements were obtained from 9213 individuals (mean = 294 mm TL, s.e. = 0.49, range 183–594 mm). Data on passage counts of American eels supported an additive-effects model (YR + LI + RDM) where parameter estimates were positive for river discharge (β = 7.3, s.e. = 0.01) and negative for LI (β = −1.9, s.e. = 0.34). Interestingly, RDM and LI acted synergistically and singularly as correlates of upstream migration of American eels, but the highest daily counts and multiple-day passage events were associated with increased RDM. Annual installation of the eel pass during late spring or summer prevented an early spring assessment, a period with higher RDM relative to those values obtained during sampling periods. Because increases in river discharge are climatically controlled events, upstream migration events of American eels within the Potomac River drainage are likely linked to the influence of climate variability on flow regime.

  13. Singularity spectrum of intermittent seismic tremor at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaw, H.R.; Chouet, B.

    1989-01-01

    Fractal singularity analysis (FSA) is used to study a 22-yr record of deep seismic tremor (30-60 km depth) for regions below Kilauea Volcano on the assumption that magma transport and fracture can be treated as a system of coupled nonlinear oscillators. Tremor episodes range from 1 to 100 min (cumulative duration = 1.60 ?? 104 min; yearly average - 727 min yr-1; mean gradient = 24.2 min yr-1km-1). Partitioning of probabilities, Pi, in the phase space of normalized durations, xi, are expressed in terms of a function f(??), where ?? is a variable exponent of a length scale, l. Plots of f(??) vs. ?? are called multifractal singularity spectra. The spectrum for deep tremor durations is bounded by ?? values of about 0.4 and 1.9 at f = O; fmax ???1.0 for ?? ??? 1. Results for tremor are similar to those found for systems transitional between complete mode locking and chaos. -Authors

  14. Singular Value Decomposition of Pinhole SPECT Systems.

    PubMed

    Palit, Robin; Kupinski, Matthew A; Barrett, Harrison H; Clarkson, Eric W; Aarsvold, John N; Volokh, Lana; Grobshtein, Yariv

    2009-03-12

    A single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging system can be modeled by a linear operator H that maps from object space to detector pixels in image space. The singular vectors and singular-value spectra of H provide useful tools for assessing system performance. The number of voxels used to discretize object space and the number of collection angles and pixels used to measure image space make the matrix dimensions H large. As a result, H must be stored sparsely which renders several conventional singular value decomposition (SVD) methods impractical. We used an iterative power methods SVD algorithm (Lanczos) designed to operate on very large sparsely stored matrices to calculate the singular vectors and singular-value spectra for two small animal pinhole SPECT imaging systems: FastSPECT II and M(3)R. The FastSPECT II system consisted of two rings of eight scintillation cameras each. The resulting dimensions of H were 68921 voxels by 97344 detector pixels. The M(3)R system is a four camera system that was reconfigured to measure image space using a single scintillation camera. The resulting dimensions of H were 50864 voxels by 6241 detector pixels. In this paper we present results of the SVD of each system and discuss calculation of the measurement and null space for each system.

  15. Linearization of the longitudinal phase space without higher harmonic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeitler, Benno; Floettmann, Klaus; Grüner, Florian

    2015-12-01

    Accelerator applications like free-electron lasers, time-resolved electron diffraction, and advanced accelerator concepts like plasma acceleration desire bunches of ever shorter longitudinal extent. However, apart from space charge repulsion, the internal bunch structure and its development along the beam line can limit the achievable compression due to nonlinear phase space correlations. In order to improve such a limited longitudinal focus, a correction by properly linearizing the phase space is required. At large scale facilities like Flash at Desy or the European Xfel, a higher harmonic cavity is installed for this purpose. In this paper, another method is described and evaluated: Expanding the beam after the electron source enables a higher order correction of the longitudinal focus by a subsequent accelerating cavity which is operated at the same frequency as the electron gun. The elaboration of this idea presented here is based on a ballistic bunching scheme, but can be extended to bunch compression based on magnetic chicanes. The core of this article is an analytic model describing this approach, which is verified by simulations, predicting possible bunch length below 1 fs at low bunch charge. Minimizing the energy spread down to σE/E <1 0-5 while keeping the bunch long is another interesting possibility, which finds applications, e.g., in time resolved transmission electron microscopy concepts.

  16. Singularities and Quantum Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojowald, Martin

    2007-06-01

    Although there is general agreement that a removal of classical gravitational singularities is not only a crucial conceptual test of any approach to quantum gravity but also a prerequisite for any fundamental theory, the precise criteria for non-singular behavior are often unclear or controversial. Often, only special types of singularities such as the curvature singularities found in isotropic cosmological models are discussed and it is far from clear what this implies for the very general singularities that arise according to the singularity theorems of general relativity. In these lectures we present an overview of the current status of singularities in classical and quantum gravity, starting with a review and interpretation of the classical singularity theorems. This suggests possible routes for quantum gravity to evade the devastating conclusion of the theorems by different means, including modified dynamics or modified geometrical structures underlying quantum gravity. The latter is most clearly present in canonical quantizations which are discussed in more detail. Finally, the results are used to propose a general scheme of singularity removal, quantum hyperbolicity, to show cases where it is realized and to derive intuitive semiclassical pictures of cosmological bounces.

  17. A fast phase space method for computing creeping rays

    SciTech Connect

    Motamed, Mohammad . E-mail: mohamad@nada.kth.se; Runborg, Olof . E-mail: olofr@nada.kth.se

    2006-11-20

    Creeping rays can give an important contribution to the solution of medium to high frequency scattering problems. They are generated at the shadow lines of the illuminated scatterer by grazing incident rays and propagate along geodesics on the scatterer surface, continuously shedding diffracted rays in their tangential direction. In this paper, we show how the ray propagation problem can be formulated as a partial differential equation (PDE) in a three-dimensional phase space. To solve the PDE we use a fast marching method. The PDE solution contains information about all possible creeping rays. This information includes the phase and amplitude of the field, which are extracted by a fast post-processing. Computationally, the cost of solving the PDE is less than tracing all rays individually by solving a system of ordinary differential equations. We consider an application to mono-static radar cross section problems where creeping rays from all illumination angles must be computed. The numerical results of the fast phase space method and a comparison with the results of ray tracing are presented.

  18. Tomographic measurement of the phase space distribution of a space-charge-dominated beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratakis, Diktys

    Many applications of accelerators, such as free electron lasers, pulsed neutron sources, and heavy ion fusion, require a good quality beam with high intensity. In practice, the achievable intensity is often limited by the dynamics at the low-energy, space-charge dominated end of the machine. Because low-energy beams can have complex distribution functions, a good understanding of their detailed evolution is needed. To address this issue, we have developed a simple and accurate tomographic method to map the beam phase using quadrupole magnets, which includes the effects from space charge. We extend this technique to use also solenoidal magnets which are commonly used at low energies, especially in photoinjectors, thus making the diagnostic applicable to most machines. We simulate our technique using a particle in cell code (PIC), to ascertain accuracy of the reconstruction. Using this diagnostic we report a number of experiments to study and optimize injection, transport and acceleration of intense space charge dominated beams. We examine phase mixing, by studying the phase-space evolution of an intense beam with a transversely nonuniform initial density distribution. Experimental measurements, theoretical predictions and PIC simulations are in good agreement each other. Finally, we generate a parabolic beam pulse to model those beams from photoinjectors, and combine tomography with fast imaging techniques to investigate the time-sliced parameters of beam current, size, energy spread and transverse emittance. We found significant differences between the slice emittance profiles and slice orientation as the beam propagates downstream. The combined effect of longitudinal nonuniform profiles and fast imaging of the transverse phase space provided us with information about correlations between longitudinal and transverse dynamics that we report within this dissertation.

  19. Invulnerability, coping, salutogenesis, integration: four phases of space psychology.

    PubMed

    Suedfeld, Peter

    2005-06-01

    The relationship between NASA and the psychological research community has progressed through a number of phases during the past four decades. This paper summarizes how the relationship has developed as data have accumulated and space missions and crews have changed. In the beginning, most NASA astronauts and staff considered possible psychological problems during space missions to be a non-issue. It was assumed that people with "the right stuff" would not experience any such problems. A more realistic recognition of stress and its consequences has led to a concern with prevention and countermeasures, a concern that has come to dominate NASA's involvement with psychology. Very recently, space psychologists have started to import the concepts of positive psychology, and consider the benefits of participation in the space program, including the self-enhancing aspects of stressful experiences (salutogenesis). Both the agency and psychologists now need to broaden their thinking and their research to cover the gamut of empirical data and theoretical concepts. These include human strengths as well as vulnerabilities, both negative and positive impacts of spaceflight, long- as well as short-term effects, and the reactions not only of the astronauts themselves but also of ground personnel and the families of both groups.

  20. Multimegawatt space nuclear power supply, Phase 1 Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-17

    This Specification establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the Boeing Multimegawatt Space Nuclear Power System (MSNPS). The Boeing Multimegawatt Space Power System is part of the DOE/SDIO Multimegawatt Space Nuclear Power Program. The purpose of this program is to provide a space-based nuclear power system to meet the needs of SDIO missions. The Boeing MSNPS is a category 1 concept which is capable of delivering 10's of MW(e) for 100's of seconds with effluent permitted. A design goal is for the system to have growth or downscale capability for other power system concepts. The growth objective is to meet the category 3 capability of 100's of MW(e) for 100's of seconds, also with effluent permitted. The purpose of this preliminary document is to guide the conceptual design effort throughout the Phase 1 study effort. This document will be updated through out the study. It will thus result in a record of the development of the design effort.

  1. Quantum information processing in phase space: A modular variables approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketterer, A.; Keller, A.; Walborn, S. P.; Coudreau, T.; Milman, P.

    2016-08-01

    Binary quantum information can be fault-tolerantly encoded in states defined in infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces. Such states define a computational basis, and permit a perfect equivalence between continuous and discrete universal operations. The drawback of this encoding is that the corresponding logical states are unphysical, meaning infinitely localized in phase space. We use the modular variables formalism to show that, in a number of protocols relevant for quantum information and for the realization of fundamental tests of quantum mechanics, it is possible to loosen the requirements on the logical subspace without jeopardizing their usefulness or their successful implementation. Such protocols involve measurements of appropriately chosen modular variables that permit the readout of the encoded discrete quantum information from the corresponding logical states. Finally, we demonstrate the experimental feasibility of our approach by applying it to the transverse degrees of freedom of single photons.

  2. A gauge theory of gravity in curved phase-spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Carlos

    2016-06-01

    After a cursory introduction of the basic ideas behind Born’s Reciprocal Relativity theory, the geometry of the cotangent bundle of spacetime is studied via the introduction of nonlinear connections associated with certain nonholonomic modifications of Riemann-Cartan gravity within the context of Finsler geometry. A novel gauge theory of gravity in the 8D cotangent bundle T∗M of spacetime is explicitly constructed and based on the gauge group SO(6, 2) ×sR8 which acts on the tangent space to the cotangent bundle T(x,p)T∗M at each point (x,p). Several gravitational actions involving curvature and torsion tensors and associated with the geometry of curved phase-spaces are presented. We conclude with a brief discussion of the field equations, the geometrization of matter, quantum field theory (QFT) in accelerated frames, T-duality, double field theory, and generalized geometry.

  3. A phase-space beam position monitor for synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Samadi, Nazanin; Bassey, Bassey; Martinson, Mercedes; Belev, George; Dallin, Les; de Jong, Mark; Chapman, Dean

    2015-07-01

    The stability of the photon beam position on synchrotron beamlines is critical for most if not all synchrotron radiation experiments. The position of the beam at the experiment or optical element location is set by the position and angle of the electron beam source as it traverses the magnetic field of the bend-magnet or insertion device. Thus an ideal photon beam monitor would be able to simultaneously measure the photon beam's position and angle, and thus infer the electron beam's position in phase space. X-ray diffraction is commonly used to prepare monochromatic beams on X-ray beamlines usually in the form of a double-crystal monochromator. Diffraction couples the photon wavelength or energy to the incident angle on the lattice planes within the crystal. The beam from such a monochromator will contain a spread of energies due to the vertical divergence of the photon beam from the source. This range of energies can easily cover the absorption edge of a filter element such as iodine at 33.17 keV. A vertical profile measurement of the photon beam footprint with and without the filter can be used to determine the vertical centroid position and angle of the photon beam. In the measurements described here an imaging detector is used to measure these vertical profiles with an iodine filter that horizontally covers part of the monochromatic beam. The goal was to investigate the use of a combined monochromator, filter and detector as a phase-space beam position monitor. The system was tested for sensitivity to position and angle under a number of synchrotron operating conditions, such as normal operations and special operating modes where the photon beam is intentionally altered in position and angle at the source point. The results are comparable with other methods of beam position measurement and indicate that such a system is feasible in situations where part of the synchrotron beam can be used for the phase-space measurement.

  4. Are Singularities Integral to General Theory of Relativity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krori, K.; Dutta, S.

    2011-11-01

    Since the 1960s the general relativists have been deeply obsessed with the possibilities of GTR singularities - blackhole as well as cosmological singularities. Senovilla, for the first time, followed by others, showed that there are cylindrically symmetric cosmological space-times which are free of singularities. On the other hand, Krori et al. have presently shown that spherically symmetric cosmological space-times - which later reduce to FRW space-times may also be free of singularities. Besides, Mitra has in the mean-time come forward with some realistic calculations which seem to rule out the possibility of a blackhole singularity. So whether singularities are integral to GTR seems to come under a shadow.

  5. Testing gravity with the stacked phase space around galaxy clusters.

    PubMed

    Lam, Tsz Yan; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Schmidt, Fabian; Takada, Masahiro

    2012-08-01

    In general relativity, the average velocity field of dark matter around galaxy clusters is uniquely determined by the mass profile. The latter can be measured through weak lensing. We propose a new method of measuring the velocity field (phase space density) by stacking redshifts of surrounding galaxies from a spectroscopic sample. In combination with lensing, this yields a direct test of gravity on scales of 1-30 Mpc. Using N-body simulations, we show that this method can improve upon current constraints on f(R) and Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model parameters by several orders of magnitude when applied to upcoming imaging and redshift surveys. PMID:23006162

  6. The Simpsons program 6-D phase space tracking with acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Machida, S. )

    1993-12-25

    A particle tracking code, Simpsons, in 6-D phase space including energy ramping has been developed to model proton synchrotrons and storage rings. We take time as the independent variable to change machine parameters and diagnose beam quality in a quite similar way as real machines, unlike existing tracking codes for synchrotrons which advance a particle element by element. Arbitrary energy ramping and rf voltage curves as a function of time are read as an input file for defining a machine cycle. The code is used to study beam dynamics with time dependent parameters. Some of the examples from simulations of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) boosters are shown.

  7. The Simpsons program 6-D phase space tracking with acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Machida, S.

    1993-02-01

    A particle tracking code, Simpsons, in 6-D phase space including energy ramping has been developed to model proton synchrotrons and storage rings. We take time as the independent variable to change machine parameters and diagnose beam quality in a quite similar way as real machines, unlike existing tracking codes for synchrotrons which advance a particle element by element. Arbitrary energy ramping and rf voltage curves as a function of time are read as an input file for defining a machine cycle. The code is used to study beam dynamics with time dependent parameters. Some of the examples from simulations of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) boosters are shown.

  8. The Simpsons program 6-D phase space tracking with acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machida, S.

    1993-12-01

    A particle tracking code, Simpsons, in 6-D phase space including energy ramping has been developed to model proton synchrotrons and storage rings. We take time as the independent variable to change machine parameters and diagnose beam quality in a quite similar way as real machines, unlike existing tracking codes for synchrotrons which advance a particle element by element. Arbitrary energy ramping and rf voltage curves as a function of time are read as an input file for defining a machine cycle. The code is used to study beam dynamics with time dependent parameters. Some of the examples from simulations of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) boosters are shown.

  9. Space shuttle phase B. Volume 2: Technical summary, addendum A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A study was conducted to analyze the characteristics and performance data for the booster vehicles to be used with the space shuttle operations. It was determined that the single pressure-fed booster offered the lowest program cost per flight of the pressure-fed booster arrangements studied. The fly back booster required the highest peak annual funding and highest program cost. It was recommended that the pressure-fed booster, series burn with liquid oxygen phase, be continued for further study. The flyback booster study was discontinued. Both solid and liquid propelled booster vehicles with 14 by 45 foot and 15 by 60 foot payload orbiters were considered.

  10. Constraining sterile neutrino dark matter with phase space density observations

    SciTech Connect

    Gorbunov, D; Khmelnitsky, A; Rubakov, V E-mail: khmeln@ms2.inr.ac.ru

    2008-10-15

    We apply phase space density considerations to obtain lower bounds on the mass of the sterile neutrino as a dark matter candidate. The bounds are different for non-resonant production, resonant production in the presence of lepton asymmetry and production in decays of heavier particles. In the former case our bound is comparable to but independent of the Lyman-{alpha} bound, and together with the x-ray upper limit it disfavors non-resonantly produced sterile neutrino dark matter. An interesting feature of the latter case is that warm dark matter may be composed of heavy particles.

  11. Values of the phase space factors for double beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Stoica, Sabin Mirea, Mihai

    2015-10-28

    We report an up-date list of the experimentally most interesting phase space factors for double beta decay (DBD). The electron/positron wave functions are obtained by solving the Dirac equations with a Coulomb potential derived from a realistic proton density distribution in nucleus and with inclusion of the finite nuclear size (FNS) and electron screening (ES) effects. We build up new numerical routines which allow us a good control of the accuracy of calculations. We found several notable differences as compared with previous results reported in literature and possible sources of these discrepancies are discussed.

  12. Heisenberg-Weyl Observables: Bloch vectors in phase space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadian, Ali; Erker, Paul; Huber, Marcus; Klöckl, Claude

    2016-07-01

    We introduce a Hermitian generalization of Pauli matrices to higher dimensions which is based on Heisenberg-Weyl operators. The complete set of Heisenberg-Weyl observables allows us to identify a real-valued Bloch vector for an arbitrary density operator in discrete phase space, with a smooth transition to infinite dimensions. Furthermore, we derive bounds on the sum of expectation values of any set of anticommuting observables. Such bounds can be used in entanglement detection and we show that Heisenberg-Weyl observables provide a first nontrivial example beyond the dichotomic case.

  13. Advanced microelectronics research for space applications, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaertner, W. W.

    1971-01-01

    Negative-resistance circuits with possible space flight applications are discussed. The basic design approach is to use impedance rotation, i.e., the conversion from capacitance to negative resistance, and from resistance to inductance by the phase shift of the transistor current gain at high frequencies. The subjects discussed in detail are the following: hybrid fabrication of VHF and UHF negative-resistance stages with lumped passive elements; formulation of measurement techniques to characterize transistors and to extend the frequency of negative-resistance transistor amplifiers to higher microwave frequencies; and derivation of transistor characteristics required to increase the frequency range of negative-resistance transistor stages.

  14. The Helmholtz Hierarchy: phase space statistics of cold dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Tassev, Svetlin V.

    2011-10-01

    We present a new formalism to study large-scale structure in the universe. The result is a hierarchy (which we call the ''Helmholtz Hierarchy'') of equations describing the phase space statistics of cold dark matter (CDM). The hierarchy features a physical ordering parameter which interpolates between the Zel'dovich approximation and fully-fledged gravitational interactions. The results incorporate the effects of stream crossing. We show that the Helmholtz hierarchy is self-consistent and obeys causality to all orders. We present an interpretation of the hierarchy in terms of effective particle trajectories.

  15. Efficient computations of quantum canonical Gibbs state in phase space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondar, Denys I.; Campos, Andre G.; Cabrera, Renan; Rabitz, Herschel A.

    2016-06-01

    The Gibbs canonical state, as a maximum entropy density matrix, represents a quantum system in equilibrium with a thermostat. This state plays an essential role in thermodynamics and serves as the initial condition for nonequilibrium dynamical simulations. We solve a long standing problem for computing the Gibbs state Wigner function with nearly machine accuracy by solving the Bloch equation directly in the phase space. Furthermore, the algorithms are provided yielding high quality Wigner distributions for pure stationary states as well as for Thomas-Fermi and Bose-Einstein distributions. The developed numerical methods furnish a long-sought efficient computation framework for nonequilibrium quantum simulations directly in the Wigner representation.

  16. Efficient computations of quantum canonical Gibbs state in phase space.

    PubMed

    Bondar, Denys I; Campos, Andre G; Cabrera, Renan; Rabitz, Herschel A

    2016-06-01

    The Gibbs canonical state, as a maximum entropy density matrix, represents a quantum system in equilibrium with a thermostat. This state plays an essential role in thermodynamics and serves as the initial condition for nonequilibrium dynamical simulations. We solve a long standing problem for computing the Gibbs state Wigner function with nearly machine accuracy by solving the Bloch equation directly in the phase space. Furthermore, the algorithms are provided yielding high quality Wigner distributions for pure stationary states as well as for Thomas-Fermi and Bose-Einstein distributions. The developed numerical methods furnish a long-sought efficient computation framework for nonequilibrium quantum simulations directly in the Wigner representation. PMID:27415384

  17. Dynamical Evolution of Quintessence Cosmology in a Physical Phase Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Jing-Zhao; Zhang, Ming-Jian; Liu, Wen-Biao

    2016-08-01

    The phase space analysis of cosmological parameters Ω ϕ and γ ϕ is given. Based on this, the well-known quintessence cosmology is studied with an exponential potential V(φ )=V0exp (-λ φ ). Given observational data, the current state of universe could be pinpointed in the phase diagrams, thus making the diagrams more informative. The scaling solution of quintessence usually is not supposed to give the cosmic accelerating expansion, but we prove it could educe the transient acceleration. We also find that the differential equations of system used widely in study of scalar field are incomplete, and then a numerical method is used to figure out the range of application.

  18. The complex structured singular value

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, A.; Doyle, J.

    1993-01-01

    A tutorial introduction to the complex structured singular value (mu) is presented, with an emphasis on the mathematical aspects of mu. The mu-based methods discussed here have been useful for analyzing the performance and robustness properties of linear feedback systems. Several tests for robust stability and performance with computable bounds for transfer functions and their state space realizations are compared, and a simple synthesis problem is studied. Uncertain systems are represented using linear fractional transformations which naturally unify the frequency-domain and state space methods.

  19. The Hamiltonian property of the flow of singular trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    Lokutsievskiy, L V

    2014-03-31

    Pontryagin's maximum principle reduces optimal control problems to the investigation of Hamiltonian systems of ordinary differential equations with discontinuous right-hand side. An optimal synthesis is the totality of solutions to this system with a fixed terminal (or initial) condition, which fill a region in the phase space one-to-one. In the construction of optimal synthesis, singular trajectories that go along the discontinuity surface N of the right-hand side of the Hamiltonian system of ordinary differential equations, are crucial. The aim of the paper is to prove that the system of singular trajectories makes up a Hamiltonian flow on a submanifold of N. In particular, it is proved that the flow of singular trajectories in the problem of control of the magnetized Lagrange top in a variable magnetic field is completely Liouville integrable and can be embedded in the flow of a smooth superintegrable Hamiltonian system in the ambient space. Bibliography: 17 titles.

  20. Estimation of elastic moduli in a compressible Gibson half-space by inverting Rayleigh-wave phase velocity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xia, J.; Xu, Y.; Miller, R.D.; Chen, C.

    2006-01-01

    A Gibson half-space model (a non-layered Earth model) has the shear modulus varying linearly with depth in an inhomogeneous elastic half-space. In a half-space of sedimentary granular soil under a geostatic state of initial stress, the density and the Poisson's ratio do not vary considerably with depth. In such an Earth body, the dynamic shear modulus is the parameter that mainly affects the dispersion of propagating waves. We have estimated shear-wave velocities in the compressible Gibson half-space by inverting Rayleigh-wave phase velocities. An analytical dispersion law of Rayleigh-type waves in a compressible Gibson half-space is given in an algebraic form, which makes our inversion process extremely simple and fast. The convergence of the weighted damping solution is guaranteed through selection of the damping factor using the Levenberg-Marquardt method. Calculation efficiency is achieved by reconstructing a weighted damping solution using singular value decomposition techniques. The main advantage of this algorithm is that only three parameters define the compressible Gibson half-space model. Theoretically, to determine the model by the inversion, only three Rayleigh-wave phase velocities at different frequencies are required. This is useful in practice where Rayleigh-wave energy is only developed in a limited frequency range or at certain frequencies as data acquired at manmade structures such as dams and levees. Two real examples are presented and verified by borehole S-wave velocity measurements. The results of these real examples are also compared with the results of the layered-Earth model. ?? Springer 2006.

  1. The phase-space analysis of modified gravity (MOG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamali, Sara; Roshan, Mahmood

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the cosmological consequences of a scalar-vector-tensor theory of gravity known as modified gravity (MOG). In MOG, in addition to metric tensor, there are two scalar fields G( x) and μ (x), and one vector field φ _{α }(x). Using the phase space analysis, we explore the cosmological consequences of a model of MOG and find some new interesting features which are absent in Λ CDM model. More specifically we study the possibility that if the extra fields of this theory behave like dark energy to explain the cosmic speedup. More interestingly, with or without cosmological constant, a strongly phantom crossing occurs. Also we find that this theory in its original form (Λ ≠ 0) possesses a true sequence of cosmological epochs. However, we show that, surprisingly, there are two radiation-dominated epochs, f_5 and f_6, two matter-dominated phases, f_3 and f_4, and two late time accelerated eras, f_{12} and f7. Depending on the initial conditions the universe will realize only three of these six eras. However, the matter-dominated phases are dramatically different from the standard matter-dominated epoch. In these phases the cosmic scale factor grows as a(t)˜ t^{0.46} and t^{0.52}, respectively, which are slower than the standard case, i.e. a(t)˜ t^{2/3}. Considering these results we discuss the cosmological viability of MOG.

  2. Singular finite element methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fix, George J.

    1987-01-01

    Singularities which arise in the solution to elliptic systems are often of great technological importance. This is certainly the case in models of fracture of structures. A survey of the ways singularities are modeled is presented with special emphasis on the effects due to nonlinearities.

  3. Fast-phase space computation of multiple arrivals.

    PubMed

    Fomel, S; Sethian, J A

    2002-05-28

    We present a fast, general computational technique for computing the phase-space solution of static Hamilton-Jacobi equations. Starting with the Liouville formulation of the characteristic equations, we derive "Escape Equations" which are static, time-independent Eulerian PDEs. They represent all arrivals to the given boundary from all possible starting configurations. The solution is numerically constructed through a "one-pass" formulation, building on ideas from semi-Lagrangian methods, Dijkstra-like methods for the Eikonal equation, and Ordered Upwind Methods. To compute all possible trajectories corresponding to all possible boundary conditions, the technique is of computational order O(N log N), where N is the total number of points in the computational phase-space domain; any particular set of boundary conditions then is extracted through rapid post-processing. Suggestions are made for speeding up the algorithm in the case when the particular distribution of sources is provided in advance. As an application, we apply the technique to the problem of computing first, multiple, and most energetic arrivals to the Eikonal equation. PMID:12032282

  4. Coherent quantum squeezing due to the phase space noncommutativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardini, Alex E.; Mizrahi, Salomon S.

    2015-06-01

    The effects of general noncommutativity of operators on producing deformed coherent squeezed states is examined in phase space. A two-dimensional noncommutative (NC) quantum system supported by a deformed mathematical structure, similar to that of Hadamard billiard, is obtained and the components behaviour is monitored in time. It is assumed that the independent degrees of freedom are two free 1D harmonic oscillators (HOs), so the system Hamiltonian does not contain interaction terms. Through the NC deformation parameterized by a Seiberg-Witten transform on the original canonical variables, one gets the standard commutation relations for the new ones, such that the obtained, new, Hamiltonian represents two interacting 1D HOs. By admitting that one HO is inverted relatively to the other, we show that their effective interaction induces a squeezing dynamics for initial coherent states imaged in the phase space. A suitable pattern of logarithmic spirals is obtained and some relevant properties are discussed in terms of Wigner functions, which are essential to put in evidence the effects of the noncommutativity.

  5. An Absolute Phase Space for the Physicality of Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, John S.

    2010-12-22

    We define an abstract and absolute phase space (''APS'') for sub-quantum intrinsic wave states, in three axes, each mapping directly to a duality having fundamental ontological basis. Many aspects of quantum physics emerge from the interaction algebra and a model deduced from principles of 'unique solvability' and 'identifiable entity', and we reconstruct previously abstract fundamental principles and phenomena from these new foundations. The physical model defines bosons as virtual continuous waves pairs in the APS, and fermions as real self-quantizing snapshots of those waves when simple conditions are met. The abstraction and physical model define a template for the constitution of all fermions, a template for all the standard fundamental bosons and their local interactions, in a common framework and compactified phase space for all forms of real matter and virtual vacuum energy, and a distinct algebra for observables and unobservables. To illustrate our scheme's potential, we provide examples of slit experiment variations (where the model finds theoretical basis for interference only occurring between two final sources), QCD (where we may model most attributes known to QCD, and a new view on entanglement), and we suggest approaches for other varied applications. We believe this is a viable candidate for further exploration as a foundational proposition for physics.

  6. An Absolute Phase Space for the Physicality of Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, John S.

    2010-12-01

    We define an abstract and absolute phase space ("APS") for sub-quantum intrinsic wave states, in three axes, each mapping directly to a duality having fundamental ontological basis. Many aspects of quantum physics emerge from the interaction algebra and a model deduced from principles of `unique solvability' and `identifiable entity', and we reconstruct previously abstract fundamental principles and phenomena from these new foundations. The physical model defines bosons as virtual continuous waves pairs in the APS, and fermions as real self-quantizing snapshots of those waves when simple conditions are met. The abstraction and physical model define a template for the constitution of all fermions, a template for all the standard fundamental bosons and their local interactions, in a common framework and compactified phase space for all forms of real matter and virtual vacuum energy, and a distinct algebra for observables and unobservables. To illustrate our scheme's potential, we provide examples of slit experiment variations (where the model finds theoretical basis for interference only occurring between two final sources), QCD (where we may model most attributes known to QCD, and a new view on entanglement), and we suggest approaches for other varied applications. We believe this is a viable candidate for further exploration as a foundational proposition for physics.

  7. Artwork: Johnson Space Center U.S./International Cooperation Phase II -- This is a representation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Artwork: Johnson Space Center U.S./International Cooperation Phase II -- This is a representation illustrating the United States' international cooperation in space. Phase II of the International Space Station is depicted with elements provided by the United States and Russia comprising the Human Tended Space Station. The scene was produced by John Frassanito and Associates. (JSC ref: S94-30086)

  8. Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) Far Field Phase Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waluschka, Eugene; Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) consists of three spacecraft in orbit about the sun. The orbits are chosen such that the three spacecraft are always at (roughly) the vertices of a equilateral triangle with 5 million kilometer leg lengths. Even though the distances between the three spacecraft are 5 million kilometers, the expected phase shifts between any two beams, due to a gravitational wave, only correspond to a distance change of about 10 pico meters, which is about 10(exp -5) waves for a laser wavelength of 1064 nm. To obtain the best signal-to-noise ratio, noise sources such as changes in the apparent distances due to pointing jitter must be controlled carefully. This is the main reason for determining the far-field phase patterns of a LISA type telescope. Because of torque on the LISA spacecraft and other disturbances, continuous adjustments to the pointing of the telescopes are required. These pointing adjustments will be a "jitter" source. If the transmitted wave is perfectly spherical then rotations (Jitter) about its geometric center will not produce any effect at the receiving spacecraft. However, if the outgoing wave is not perfectly spherical, then pointing jitter will produce a phase variation at the receiving spacecraft. The following sections describe the "brute force" computational approach used to determine the scalar wave front as a function of exit pupil (Zernike) aberrations and to show the results (mostly graphically) of the computations. This approach is straightforward and produces believable phase variations to sub-pico meter accuracy over distances on the order of 5 million kilometers. As such this analyzes the far field phase sensitivity to exit pupil aberrations.

  9. Volumic omit maps in ab initio dual-space phasing.

    PubMed

    Oszlányi, Gábor; Sütő, András

    2016-07-01

    Alternating-projection-type dual-space algorithms have a clear construction, but are susceptible to stagnation and, thus, inefficient for solving the phase problem ab initio. To improve this behaviour new omit maps are introduced, which are real-space perturbations applied periodically during the iteration process. The omit maps are called volumic, because they delete some predetermined subvolume of the unit cell without searching for atomic regions or analysing the electron density in any other way. The basic algorithms of positivity, histogram matching and low-density elimination are tested by their solution statistics. It is concluded that, while all these algorithms based on weak constraints are practically useless in their pure forms, appropriate volumic omit maps can transform them to practically useful methods. In addition, the efficiency of the already useful reflector-type charge-flipping algorithm can be further improved. It is important that these results are obtained by using non-sharpened structure factors and without any weighting scheme or reciprocal-space perturbation. The mathematical background of volumic omit maps and their expected applications are also discussed. PMID:27357850

  10. Constraining neutron guide optimizations with phase-space considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertelsen, Mads; Lefmann, Kim

    2016-09-01

    We introduce a method named the Minimalist Principle that serves to reduce the parameter space for neutron guide optimization when the required beam divergence is limited. The reduced parameter space will restrict the optimization to guides with a minimal neutron intake that are still theoretically able to deliver the maximal possible performance. The geometrical constraints are derived using phase-space propagation from moderator to guide and from guide to sample, while assuming that the optimized guides will achieve perfect transport of the limited neutron intake. Guide systems optimized using these constraints are shown to provide performance close to guides optimized without any constraints, however the divergence received at the sample is limited to the desired interval, even when the neutron transport is not limited by the supermirrors used in the guide. As the constraints strongly limit the parameter space for the optimizer, two control parameters are introduced that can be used to adjust the selected subspace, effectively balancing between maximizing neutron transport and avoiding background from unnecessary neutrons. One parameter is needed to describe the expected focusing abilities of the guide to be optimized, going from perfectly focusing to no correlation between position and velocity. The second parameter controls neutron intake into the guide, so that one can select exactly how aggressively the background should be limited. We show examples of guides optimized using these constraints which demonstrates the higher signal to noise than conventional optimizations. Furthermore the parameter controlling neutron intake is explored which shows that the simulated optimal neutron intake is close to the analytically predicted, when assuming that the guide is dominated by multiple scattering events.

  11. Evolution of classical and quantum phase-space distributions: A new trajectory approach for phase space hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trahan, Corey J.; Wyatt, Robert E.

    2003-10-01

    Recently, Donoso and Martens described a method for evolving both classical and quantum phase-space distribution functions, W(q,p,t), that involves the propagation of an ensemble of correlated trajectories. The trajectories are linked into a unified whole by spatial and momentum derivatives of density dependent terms in the equations of motion. On each time step, these nonlocal terms were evaluated by fitting the density around each trajectory to an assumed functional form. In the present study, we develop a different trajectory method for propagating phase-space distribution functions. A hierarchy of coupled analytic equations of motion are derived for the q and p derivatives of the density and a truncated set of these are integrated along each trajectory concurrently with the equation of motion for the density. The advantage of this approach is that individual trajectories can be propagated, one at a time, and function fitting is not required to evaluate the nonlocal terms. Regional nonlocality can be incorporated at various levels of approximation to "dress" what would otherwise be "thin" locally propagating trajectories. This derivative propagation method is used to obtain trajectory solutions for the Klein-Kramers equation, the Husimi equation, and for a smoothed version of the Caldeira-Leggett equation derived by the Diosi. Trajectory solutions are obtained for the relaxation of an oscillator in contact with a thermal bath and for the decay of a metastable state.

  12. A phase-space beam position monitor for synchrotron radiation

    PubMed Central

    Samadi, Nazanin; Bassey, Bassey; Martinson, Mercedes; Belev, George; Dallin, Les; de Jong, Mark; Chapman, Dean

    2015-01-01

    The stability of the photon beam position on synchrotron beamlines is critical for most if not all synchrotron radiation experiments. The position of the beam at the experiment or optical element location is set by the position and angle of the electron beam source as it traverses the magnetic field of the bend-magnet or insertion device. Thus an ideal photon beam monitor would be able to simultaneously measure the photon beam’s position and angle, and thus infer the electron beam’s position in phase space. X-ray diffraction is commonly used to prepare monochromatic beams on X-ray beamlines usually in the form of a double-crystal monochromator. Diffraction couples the photon wavelength or energy to the incident angle on the lattice planes within the crystal. The beam from such a monochromator will contain a spread of energies due to the vertical divergence of the photon beam from the source. This range of energies can easily cover the absorption edge of a filter element such as iodine at 33.17 keV. A vertical profile measurement of the photon beam footprint with and without the filter can be used to determine the vertical centroid position and angle of the photon beam. In the measurements described here an imaging detector is used to measure these vertical profiles with an iodine filter that horizontally covers part of the monochromatic beam. The goal was to investigate the use of a combined monochromator, filter and detector as a phase-space beam position monitor. The system was tested for sensitivity to position and angle under a number of synchrotron operating conditions, such as normal operations and special operating modes where the photon beam is intentionally altered in position and angle at the source point. The results are comparable with other methods of beam position measurement and indicate that such a system is feasible in situations where part of the synchrotron beam can be used for the phase-space measurement. PMID:26134798

  13. Capture into resonance and phase space dynamics in optical centrifuge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armon, Tsafrir; Friedland, Lazar

    2016-05-01

    The process of capture of a molecular enesemble into rotational resonance in the optical centrifuge is investigated. The adiabaticity and phase space incompressibility are used to find the resonant capture probability in terms of two dimensionless parameters P1 , 2 characterising the driving strength and the nonlinearity, and related to three characteristic time scales in the problem. The analysis is based on the transformation to action-angle variables and the single resonance approximation, yielding reduction of the three-dimensional rotation problem to one degree of freedom. The analytic results for capture probability are in a good agreement with simulations. The existing experiments satisfy the validity conditions of the theory. This work was supported by the Israel Science Foundation Grant 30/14.

  14. ORIGAMI: Delineating Halos Using Phase-space Folds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falck, Bridget L.; Neyrinck, Mark C.; Szalay, Alexander S.

    2012-08-01

    We present the ORIGAMI method of identifying structures, particularly halos, in cosmological N-body simulations. Structure formation can be thought of as the folding of an initially flat three-dimensional manifold in six-dimensional phase space. ORIGAMI finds the outer folds that delineate these structures. Halo particles are identified as those that have undergone shell-crossing along three orthogonal axes, providing a dynamical definition of halo regions that is independent of density. ORIGAMI also identifies other morphological structures: particles that have undergone shell-crossing along 2, 1, or 0 orthogonal axes correspond to filaments, walls, and voids, respectively. We compare this method to a standard friends-of-friends halo-finding algorithm and find that ORIGAMI halos are somewhat larger, more diffuse, and less spherical, though the global properties of ORIGAMI halos are in good agreement with other modern halo-finding algorithms.

  15. Interacting agegraphic dark energy models in phase space

    SciTech Connect

    Lemets, O.A.; Yerokhin, D.A.; Zazunov, L.G. E-mail: denyerokhin@gmail.com

    2011-01-01

    Agegraphic dark energy, has been recently proposed, based on the so-called Karolyhazy uncertainty relation, which arises from quantum mechanics together with general relativity. In the first part of the article we study the original agegraphic dark energy model by including the interaction between agegraphic dark energy and pressureless (dark) matter. The phase space analysis was made and the critical points were found, one of which is the attractor corresponding to an accelerated expanding Universe. Recent observations of near supernova show that the acceleration of Universe decreases. This phenomenon is called the transient acceleration. In the second part of Article we consider the 3-component Universe composed of a scalar field, interacting with the dark matter on the agegraphic dark energy background. We show that the transient acceleration appears in frame of such a model. The obtained results agree with the observations.

  16. ORIGAMI: DELINEATING HALOS USING PHASE-SPACE FOLDS

    SciTech Connect

    Falck, Bridget L.; Neyrinck, Mark C.; Szalay, Alexander S.

    2012-08-01

    We present the ORIGAMI method of identifying structures, particularly halos, in cosmological N-body simulations. Structure formation can be thought of as the folding of an initially flat three-dimensional manifold in six-dimensional phase space. ORIGAMI finds the outer folds that delineate these structures. Halo particles are identified as those that have undergone shell-crossing along three orthogonal axes, providing a dynamical definition of halo regions that is independent of density. ORIGAMI also identifies other morphological structures: particles that have undergone shell-crossing along 2, 1, or 0 orthogonal axes correspond to filaments, walls, and voids, respectively. We compare this method to a standard friends-of-friends halo-finding algorithm and find that ORIGAMI halos are somewhat larger, more diffuse, and less spherical, though the global properties of ORIGAMI halos are in good agreement with other modern halo-finding algorithms.

  17. Hubble Space Telescope characterized by using phase-retrieval algorithms.

    PubMed

    Fienup, J R; Marron, J C; Schulz, T J; Seldin, J H

    1993-04-01

    We describe several results characterizing the Hubble Space Telescope from measured point spread functions by using phase-retrieval algorithms. The Cramer-Rao lower bounds show that point spread functions taken well out of focus result in smaller errors when aberrations are estimated and that, for those images, photon noise is not a limiting factor. Reconstruction experiments with both simulated and real data show that the calculation of wave-front propagation by the retrieval algorithms must be performed with a multiple-plane propagation rather than a simple fast Fourier transform to ensure the high accuracy required. Pupil reconstruction was performed and indicates a misalignment of the optical axis of a camera relay telescope relative to the main telescope. After we accounted for measured spherical aberration in the relay telescope, our estimate of the conic constant of the primary mirror of the HST was - 1.0144.

  18. Searching for fractal phenomena in multidimensional phase-spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blažek, Mikuláš

    2000-07-01

    A unified point of view on the fractal analysis in d-dimensional phase-spaces is presented. It is applicable to the data coming from the counting experiments. Explicit expressions are formulated for the fundamental types of factorial moments characterizing the presence of the fractal phenomena, their number being given by (2 d+1 - 1), as well as for a variety of associated statistical moments; special attention is paid to two and three dimensions. In particular, it is found that scaling properties of the modified dispersion moments are directly related with the presence of empty bins in the corresponding distributions. As to the high-energy experiments, those expressions can be applied to the data presently available, e.g. from LEP, as well as to the data arising in the near future from heavy-ion collisions performed at the CERN collider and from the pp collisions observed at the Tevatron, Fermilab.

  19. Space shuttle electromagnetic environment experiment. Phase A: Definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haber, F.; Showers, R. M.; Taheri, S. H.; Forrest, L. A., Jr.; Kocher, C.

    1974-01-01

    A program is discussed which develops a concept for measuring the electromagnetic environment on earth with equipment on board an orbiting space shuttle. Earlier work on spaceborne measuring experiments is reviewed, and emissions to be expected are estimated using, in part, previously gathered data. General relations among system parameters are presented, followed by a proposal on spatial and frequency scanning concepts. The methods proposed include a nadir looking measurement with small lateral scan and a circularly scanned measurement looking tangent to the earth's surface at the horizon. Antenna requirements are given, assuming frequency coverage from 400 MHz to 40 GHz. For the low frequency range, 400-1000 MHz, a processed, thinned array is proposed which will be more fully analyzed in the next phase of the program. Preliminary hardware and data processing requirements are presented.

  20. The Harari Shupe preon model and nonrelativistic quantum phase space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żenczykowski, P.

    2008-03-01

    We propose that the whole algebraic structure of the Harari-Shupe rishon model originates via a Dirac-like linearization of quadratic form x2 +p2, with position and momentum satisfying standard commutation relations. The scheme does not invoke the concept of preons as spin-1/2 subparticles, thus evading the problem of preon confinement, while fully explaining all symmetries emboded in the Harari-Shupe model. Furthermore, the concept of quark colour is naturally linked to the ordering of rishons. Our scheme leads to group U (1) ⊗ SU (3) combined with SU (2), with two of the SU (2) generators not commuting with reflections. An interpretation of intra-generation quark-lepton transformations in terms of genuine rotations and reflections in phase space is proposed.

  1. Using a phase space statistic to identify resonant objects.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Thomas L

    2006-06-01

    The identification of resonant objects in radar or sonar, important for object identification, is difficult because existing methods require that the signal have a large signal-to-noise ratio. It is shown in this article that a modified version of the Kaplan-Glass (KG) statistic, a phase space statistic used to determine if a signal is deterministic, is sensitive to the properties of resonant objects. The modified KG statistic can be used to detect the presence of a resonant object even when the radar or sonar signal does not come from a deterministic dynamical system. The use of the modified KG statistic both numerically and in a simple experiment is also demonstrated.

  2. A study on quantum similarity in the phase space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellier, J. M.; Ivanova, D. Y.; Dimov, I.

    2016-10-01

    Quantum similarity represents an important concept in the context of many applied disciplines such as physical and quantum chemistry. Nowadays, two definitions exist based, respectively, on the real and the phase spaces. In this paper, we focus on the second one, which was presented recently, and investigate it. In particular, being its mathematical definition dependent on a given integer s, we study the influence of this parameter on the similarity between two systems. To keep this investigation comprehensible, while still meaningful, we focus on a very simple quantum system represented by a hydrogen atom in the ground and excited states corresponding to the quantum numbers (n , l , m) =(1 , 0 , 0) and (n , l , m) =(2 , 0 , 0) .

  3. Nonclassicality indicator for the real phase-space distribution functions

    SciTech Connect

    Sadeghi, Parvin; Khademi, Siamak; Nasiri, Sadollah

    2010-07-15

    Benedict et al. and Kenfack et al. advocated nonclassicality indicators based on the measurement of negativity of the Wigner distribution functions. These indicators have some applications in quantum mechanics and quantum optics. In this paper we define a nonclassicality indicator in terms of the interference in phase space, which is applicable to some real distribution functions including those of Wigner. As a special case one may reproduce the previous results using our indicator for the Wigner distribution functions. This indicator is examined for cases of the Schroedinger cat state and the thermal states and the results are compared with those obtained by previous methods. It seems that the physical behavior of nonclassicality indicators originates in the uncertainty principle. This is shown by an onto correspondence between these indicators and the uncertainty principle.

  4. Wigner phase space distribution via classical adiabatic switching

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, Amartya; Makri, Nancy

    2015-09-21

    Evaluation of the Wigner phase space density for systems of many degrees of freedom presents an extremely demanding task because of the oscillatory nature of the Fourier-type integral. We propose a simple and efficient, approximate procedure for generating the Wigner distribution that avoids the computational difficulties associated with the Wigner transform. Starting from a suitable zeroth-order Hamiltonian, for which the Wigner density is available (either analytically or numerically), the phase space distribution is propagated in time via classical trajectories, while the perturbation is gradually switched on. According to the classical adiabatic theorem, each trajectory maintains a constant action if the perturbation is switched on infinitely slowly. We show that the adiabatic switching procedure produces the exact Wigner density for harmonic oscillator eigenstates and also for eigenstates of anharmonic Hamiltonians within the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation. We generalize the approach to finite temperature by introducing a density rescaling factor that depends on the energy of each trajectory. Time-dependent properties are obtained simply by continuing the integration of each trajectory under the full target Hamiltonian. Further, by construction, the generated approximate Wigner distribution is invariant under classical propagation, and thus, thermodynamic properties are strictly preserved. Numerical tests on one-dimensional and dissipative systems indicate that the method produces results in very good agreement with those obtained by full quantum mechanical methods over a wide temperature range. The method is simple and efficient, as it requires no input besides the force fields required for classical trajectory integration, and is ideal for use in quasiclassical trajectory calculations.

  5. Nonlinear instabilities driven by coherent phase-space structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesur, Maxime

    2012-10-01

    Coherent phase-space (PS) structures are an important feature of plasma turbulence. They can drive nonlinear instabilities [1], intermittency in drift-wave turbulence [2], and transport [3]. We aim at a comprehensive understanding of turbulence, not just as an ensemble of waves, as quasilinear theory implies, but as a mixture of coupled waves and localized structures. This work, which focuses on isolated PS structures, is a fundamental advance in this direction. We analyze the effects of self-binding negative fluctuations (PS holes) on stability, intermittency and anomalous resistivity, both analytically and numerically. We present a new theory which describes the growth of a hole or clump [4]. We find that PS holes grow nonlinearly, independently of linear stability. Numerical simulations clarify the physics of nonlinear instabilities in both subcritical and supercritical conditions. When many resonances are unstable, several holes can coalesce into one main macro-scale structure, which survives much longer than a quasilinear diffusion time, suggesting that it may be crucial to resolve phase-space turbulence in analytical and numerical studies of transport. These findings are applied to two fundamental paradigms of plasma physics: bump-on-tail instabilities in 1D electronic plasma and current-driven ion-acoustic instabilities electron-ion plasma. Our results expose important limits of routinely-used linear and quasilinear theories.[4pt] [1] T.H. Dupree, Phys. Fluids 15, 334 (1972); R.H. Berman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 1249 (1982).[0pt] [2] P.W. Terry, P.H. Diamond, and T.S. Hahm, Phys. Fluids B 2, 2048 (1990).[0pt] [3] H. Biglari et al., Phys. Fluids 31, 2644 (1988); Y. Kosuga et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 122305 (2011).[0pt] [4] M. Lesur, P.H. Diamond, submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.

  6. Dynamics of Structures in Configuration Space and Phase Space: An Introductory Tutorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamond, P. H.; Kosuga, Y.; Lesur, M.

    2015-12-01

    Some basic ideas relevant to the dynamics of phase space and real space structures are presented in a pedagogical fashion. We focus on three paradigmatic examples, namely; G. I. Taylor's structure based re-formulation of Rayleigh's stability criterion and its implications for zonal flow momentum balance relations; Dupree's mechanism for nonlinear current driven ion acoustic instability and its implication for anomalous resistivity; and the dynamics of structures in drift and gyrokinetic turbulence and their relation to zonal flow physics. We briefly survey the extension of mean field theory to calculate evolution in the presence of localized structures for regimes where Kubo number K ≃ 1 rather than K ≪ 1, as is usual for quasilinear theory.

  7. Box graphs and singular fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Hirotaka; Lawrie, Craig; Morrison, David R.; Schafer-Nameki, Sakura

    2014-05-01

    We determine the higher codimension fibers of elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau fourfolds with section by studying the three-dimensional = 2 supersymmetric gauge theory with matter which describes the low energy effective theory of M-theory compactified on the associated Weierstrass model, a singular model of the fourfold. Each phase of the Coulomb branch of this theory corresponds to a particular resolution of the Weierstrass model, and we show that these have a concise description in terms of decorated box graphs based on the representation graph of the matter multiplets, or alternatively by a class of convex paths on said graph. Transitions between phases have a simple interpretation as "flopping" of the path, and in the geometry correspond to actual flop transitions. This description of the phases enables us to enumerate and determine the entire network between them, with various matter representations for all reductive Lie groups. Furthermore, we observe that each network of phases carries the structure of a (quasi-)minuscule representation of a specific Lie algebra. Interpreted from a geometric point of view, this analysis determines the generators of the cone of effective curves as well as the network of flop transitions between crepant resolutions of singular elliptic Calabi-Yau fourfolds. From the box graphs we determine all fiber types in codimensions two and three, and we find new, non-Kodaira, fiber types for E 6, E7 and E 8.

  8. Longitudinal phase space setup for the SLC beams

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, F.J.; Bane, K.L.F.; Minty, M.G.; Raimondi, P.; Holtzapple, R.L.

    1998-07-01

    The longitudinal phase space distribution of the SLC beams is affected by many different machine parameters and constraints. By using a technique of over-compression in the ring to linac transfer line, a small energy spread of 0.12% can be achieved at the end of the linac for a bunch length of 1.2 mm ({sigma}). In the final focus a small energy spread is desirable to reduce emittance dilution due to chromatic effects. Optimization of the bunch length is also important as a longer bunch of 1.2 mm can contribute up to 40% luminosity enhancement due to disruption. If there is a correlated energy variation along the bunch, for example due to mistuning of the optimal rf phase with respect to the beam, the bunch will be further compressed as it passes through the SLC Arcs. The resulting bunch can be too short to produce the desired disruption enhancement, but will radiate more beam-strahlung during collisions giving a false indication of higher luminosity. This paper discusses the interplay of these issues from the damping ring to the interaction point.

  9. Quantum trajectories in complex phase space: multidimensional barrier transmission.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Robert E; Rowland, Brad A

    2007-07-28

    The quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the action function is approximately solved by propagating individual Lagrangian quantum trajectories in complex-valued phase space. Equations of motion for these trajectories are derived through use of the derivative propagation method (DPM), which leads to a hierarchy of coupled differential equations for the action function and its spatial derivatives along each trajectory. In this study, complex-valued classical trajectories (second order DPM), along which is transported quantum phase information, are used to study low energy barrier transmission for a model two-dimensional system involving either an Eckart or Gaussian barrier along the reaction coordinate coupled to a harmonic oscillator. The arrival time for trajectories to reach the transmitted (product) region is studied. Trajectories launched from an "equal arrival time surface," defined as an isochrone, all reach the real-valued subspace in the transmitted region at the same time. The Rutherford-type diffraction of trajectories around poles in the complex extended Eckart potential energy surface is described. For thin barriers, these poles are close to the real axis and present problems for computing the transmitted density. In contrast, for the Gaussian barrier or the thick Eckart barrier where the poles are further from the real axis, smooth transmitted densities are obtained. Results obtained using higher-order quantum trajectories (third order DPM) are described for both thick and thin barriers, and some issues that arise for thin barriers are examined. PMID:17672677

  10. Timelike naked singularity

    SciTech Connect

    Goswami, Rituparno; Joshi, Pankaj S.; Vaz, Cenalo; Witten, Louis

    2004-10-15

    We construct a class of spherically symmetric collapse models in which a naked singularity may develop as the end state of collapse. The matter distribution considered has negative radial and tangential pressures, but the weak energy condition is obeyed throughout. The singularity forms at the center of the collapsing cloud and continues to be visible for a finite time. The duration of visibility depends on the nature of energy distribution. Hence the causal structure of the resulting singularity depends on the nature of the mass function chosen for the cloud. We present a general model in which the naked singularity formed is timelike, neither pointlike nor null. Our work represents a step toward clarifying the necessary conditions for the validity of the Cosmic Censorship Conjecture.

  11. The Big Bang Singularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Eric

    The big bang theory is a model of the universe which makes the striking prediction that the universe began a finite amount of time in the past at the so called "Big Bang singularity." We explore the physical and mathematical justification of this surprising result. After laying down the framework of the universe as a spacetime manifold, we combine physical observations with global symmetrical assumptions to deduce the FRW cosmological models which predict a big bang singularity. Next we prove a couple theorems due to Stephen Hawking which show that the big bang singularity exists even if one removes the global symmetrical assumptions. Lastly, we investigate the conditions one needs to impose on a spacetime if one wishes to avoid a singularity. The ideas and concepts used here to study spacetimes are similar to those used to study Riemannian manifolds, therefore we compare and contrast the two geometries throughout.

  12. Spacetime Singularities: Recent Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uggla, Claes

    2013-03-01

    Recent developments concerning oscillatory spacelike singularities in general relativity are taking place on two fronts. The first treats generic singularities in spatially homogeneous cosmology, most notably Bianchi types VIII and IX. The second deals with generic oscillatory singularities in inhomogeneous cosmologies, especially those with two commuting spacelike Killing vectors. This paper describes recent progress in these two areas: in the spatially homogeneous case, focus is on mathematically rigorous results, while analytical and numerical results concerning generic behavior and so-called recurring spike formation are the main topics in the inhomogeneous case. Unifying themes are connections between asymptotic behavior, hierarchical structures and solution generating techniques, which provide hints for a link between the nature of generic singularities and a hierarchy of hidden asymptotic symmetries.

  13. Robust interferometric imaging via prior-less phase recovery: redundant spacing calibration with generalized closure phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurien, Binoy G.; Ashcom, Jonathan B.; Shah, Vinay N.; Rachlin, Yaron; Tarokh, Vahid

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric turbulence presents a fundamental challenge to Fourier phase recovery in optical interferometry. Typical reconstruction algorithms employ Bayesian inference techniques which rely on prior knowledge of the scene under observation. In contrast, Redundant Spacing Calibration (RSC) algorithms employ redundancy in the baselines of the interferometric array to directly expose the contribution of turbulence, thereby enabling phase recovery for targets of arbitrary and unknown complexity. Traditionally RSC algorithms have been applied directly to single-exposure measurements, which are reliable only at high photon flux in general. In scenarios of low photon flux, such as those arising in the observation of dim objects in space, one must instead rely on time-averaged, atmosphere-invariant quantities such as the bispectrum. In this paper, we develop a novel RSC-based algorithm for prior-less phase recovery in which we generalize the bispectrum to higher-order atmosphere-invariants (n-spectra) for improved sensitivity. We provide a strategy for selection of a high-SNR set of n-spectra using the graph-theoretic notion of the minimum cycle basis. We also discuss a key property of this set (wrap-invariance), which then enables reliable application of standard linear estimation techniques to recover the Fourier phases from the 2π-wrapped n-spectra phases. For validation, we analyze the expected shot-noise-limited performance of our algorithm for both pairwise and Fizeau interferometric architectures, and corroborate this analysis with simulation results showing performance near an atmosphere-oracle Cramer-Rao bound. Lastly, we apply techniques from the field of compressed sensing to perform image reconstruction from the estimated complex visibilities.

  14. An Analytical Singularity-Free Solution to the J2 Perturbation Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, V. R.

    1979-01-01

    The development of a singularity-free solution of the J2 problem in satellite theory is presented. The procedure resembles that of Lyndane who rederives Brouwer's satellite theory using Poincare elements. A comparable procedure is used in this report in which the satellite theory of Scheifele, who used elements similar to the Delaunay elements but in the extended phase space, is rederived using Poincare elements also in the extended phase space. Only the short-period effects due to J2 are included.

  15. Phase space analysis for dynamics of three vortices of pure electron plasma trapped with Penning trap

    SciTech Connect

    Sanpei, Akio; Soga, Yukihiro; Ito, Kiyokazu; Himura, Haruhiko

    2015-06-29

    A trilinear phase space analysis is applied for dynamics of three electron clumps confined with a Penning-Malmberg trap. We show that the Aref’s concept of phase space describe the observed features of the dynamics of three point vortices qualitatively. In vacuum, phase point P moves to physical region boundary in phase space, i.e. triangular configuration cannot be kept. With the addition of a low level background vorticity distribution (BGVD), the excursion of the clumps is reduced and the distance between P and stable point does not extend in the phase space.

  16. Singular Lorentz-violating Lagrangians and associated Finsler structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colladay, Don; McDonald, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    Several Lagrangians associated with classical limits of Lorentz-violating fermions in the standard model extension (SME) have been shown to yield Finsler functions when the theory is expressed in Euclidean space. When spin couplings are present, the Lagrangian can develop singularities that obstruct the construction of a globally defined Legendre transformation, leading to singular Finsler spaces. A specific sector of the SME where such problems arise is studied. It is found that the singular behavior can be eliminated by an appropriate lifting of the problem to an associated algebraic variety. This provides a smooth classical model for the singular problem. In Euclidean space, the procedure involves combining two related singular Finsler functions into a single smooth function with a semi-positive-definite quadratic form defined on a desingularized variety.

  17. Dimensional Mutation and Spacelike Singularities

    SciTech Connect

    Silverstein, Eva; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2005-10-28

    I argue that critical string theory on a Riemann surface of genus h >> 1 crosses over, when the surface approaches the string scale in size, to a background of supercritical string theory with effective central charge as large as 2h. Concrete evidence for this proposal is provided by the high energy density of states (realized on the Riemann surface side by strings wrapping nontrivial elements of the fundamental group) and by a linear sigma model which at large h approximates the time evolution through the initial transition. This suggests that cosmological singularities arising in negatively curved FRW backgrounds may be replaced by a phase of supercritical string theory.

  18. Timelike BKL singularities and chaos in AdS/CFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaghoulian, Edgar; Wang, Huajia

    2016-06-01

    We study the nature of a family of curvature singularities which are precisely the timelike cousins of the spacelike singularities studied by Belinski, Khalatnikov, and Lifshitz (BKL). We show that the approach to the singularity can be modeled by a billiard ball problem on hyperbolic space, just as in the case of BKL. For pure gravity, generic chaotic behavior is retained in (3 + 1) dimensions, and we provide evidence that it disappears in higher dimensions. We speculate that such singularities, if occurring in AdS/CFT and of the chaotic variety, may be interpreted as (transient) chaotic renormalization group flows which exhibit features reminiscent of chaotic duality cascades.

  19. Phase-space surface hopping: nonadiabatic dynamics in a superadiabatic basis.

    PubMed

    Shenvi, Neil

    2009-03-28

    In this paper, we construct a phase-space surface hopping algorithm for use in systems that exhibit strong nonadiabatic coupling. The algorithm is derived from a representation of the electronic basis which is a function of the nuclear phase-space coordinates rather than the nuclear position coordinates. This phase-space adiabatic basis can be understood in the context of Berry's superadiabatic basis formalism as the first-order superadiabatic correction to the conventional position-space adiabatic basis. This superadiabatic representation leads to nuclear dynamics described not by Newton's equations of motion but by generalized Hamilton's equations of motion. The phase-space surface hopping algorithm captures physical effects that cannot be described by traditional algorithms. For a simple model problem, we show that phase-space surface hopping is more accurate than position-space surface hopping, especially when the nonadiabatic coupling is strong.

  20. PHASES: A Project to Perform Absolute Spectrophotometry from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Burgo, C.; Vather, D.; Allende Prieto, C.; Murphy, N.

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents the current status of the opto-mechanical design of PHASES (Planet Hunting and AsteroSeismology Explorer Spectrophotometer), which is a project to develop a space-borne telescope to obtain absolute flux calibrated spectra of bright stars. The science payload is intended to be housed in a micro-satellite launched into a low-earth Sun-synchronous orbit with an inclination to the equator of 98.7° and a local time ascending node LTAN of 6:00 AM. PHASES will be able to measure micromagnitude photometric variations due to stellar oscillations/activity and planet/moon transits. It consists of a 20 cm aperture modified Baker telescope feeding two detectors: the tracking detector provides the fine telescope guidance system with a required pointing stability of 0.2″, and the science detector performs spectrophotometry in the wavelength range 370-960 nm with a resolving power between 200 and 900. The spectrograph is designed to provide 1% RMS flux calibrated spectra with signal-to-noise ratios > 100 for stars with V < 10 in short integration times. Our strategy to calibrate the system using A type stars is explained. From comparison with model atmospheres it would be possible to determine the stellar angular diameters with an uncertainty of approximately 0.5%. In the case of a star hosting a transiting planet it would be possible to derive its light curve, and then the planet to stellar radius ratio. Bright stars have high precision Hipparcos parallaxes and the expected level of accuracy for their fluxes will be propagated to the stellar radii, and more significantly to the planetary radii. The scientific drivers for PHASES give rise to some design challenges, which are particularly related to the opto-mechanics for extreme environmental conditions. The optical design has been developed with the primary goal of avoiding stray light reaching the science detector. Three different proposals for the opto-mechanical design are under investigation.

  1. Phase Space Dissimilarity Measures for Structural Health Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Bubacz, Jacob A; Chmielewski, Hana T; Pape, Alexander E; Depersio, Andrew J; Hively, Lee M; Abercrombie, Robert K; Boone, Shane

    2011-11-01

    A novel method for structural health monitoring (SHM), known as the Phase Space Dissimilarity Measures (PSDM) approach, is proposed and developed. The patented PSDM approach has already been developed and demonstrated for a variety of equipment and biomedical applications. Here, we investigate SHM of bridges via analysis of time serial accelerometer measurements. This work has four aspects. The first is algorithm scalability, which was found to scale linearly from one processing core to four cores. Second, the same data are analyzed to determine how the use of the PSDM approach affects sensor placement. We found that a relatively low-density placement sufficiently captures the dynamics of the structure. Third, the same data are analyzed by unique combinations of accelerometer axes (vertical, longitudinal, and lateral with respect to the bridge) to determine how the choice of axes affects the analysis. The vertical axis is found to provide satisfactory SHM data. Fourth, statistical methods were investigated to validate the PSDM approach for this application, yielding statistically significant results.

  2. Phase-space estimate of satellite coverage time

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1992-05-01

    This note derives a phase-space estimate of the overlap in satellite coverage and evaluates its impact on the time for a constellation to cover some specified area. The satellites' motion is treated as random in the calculation of the overlaps. Enough passes are prescribed to assure that an adequate probability of observing each area is accumulated. For 0.9--0.99 probabilities of coverage, overlaps increase the time for coverage by factors of 2--4 over no-overlap estimates. This model also gives the probability of different vintages of data. If a given constellation covers the whole Earth in the no-overlap time T{sub 0}, the average vintage of the data over the earth will then be the average , which is essentially the same as T{sub 0}. Overlap over the poles might be wasteful, but overlap in areas of interest by inclined orbits just causes measurements to be more current in areas of interest.

  3. Phase-space estimate of satellite coverage time

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1992-05-01

    This note derives a phase-space estimate of the overlap in satellite coverage and evaluates its impact on the time for a constellation to cover some specified area. The satellites` motion is treated as random in the calculation of the overlaps. Enough passes are prescribed to assure that an adequate probability of observing each area is accumulated. For 0.9--0.99 probabilities of coverage, overlaps increase the time for coverage by factors of 2--4 over no-overlap estimates. This model also gives the probability of different vintages of data. If a given constellation covers the whole Earth in the no-overlap time T{sub 0}, the average vintage of the data over the earth will then be the average , which is essentially the same as T{sub 0}. Overlap over the poles might be wasteful, but overlap in areas of interest by inclined orbits just causes measurements to be more current in areas of interest.

  4. Topology of classical molecular optimal control landscapes in phase space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joe-Wong, Carlee; Ho, Tak-San; Long, Ruixing; Rabitz, Herschel; Wu, Rebing

    2013-03-01

    Optimal control of molecular dynamics is commonly expressed from a quantum mechanical perspective. However, in most contexts the preponderance of molecular dynamics studies utilize classical mechanical models. This paper treats laser-driven optimal control of molecular dynamics in a classical framework. We consider the objective of steering a molecular system from an initial point in phase space to a target point, subject to the dynamic constraint of Hamilton's equations. The classical control landscape corresponding to this objective is a functional of the control field, and the topology of the landscape is analyzed through its gradient and Hessian with respect to the control. Under specific assumptions on the regularity of the control fields, the classical control landscape is found to be free of traps that could hinder reaching the objective. The Hessian associated with an optimal control field is shown to have finite rank, indicating the presence of an inherent degree of robustness to control noise. Extensive numerical simulations are performed to illustrate the theoretical principles on (a) a model diatomic molecule, (b) two coupled Morse oscillators, and (c) a chaotic system with a coupled quartic oscillator, confirming the absence of traps in the classical control landscape. We compare the classical formulation with the mathematically analogous quantum state-to-state transition probability control landscape.

  5. Topology of classical molecular optimal control landscapes in phase space.

    PubMed

    Joe-Wong, Carlee; Ho, Tak-San; Long, Ruixing; Rabitz, Herschel; Wu, Rebing

    2013-03-28

    Optimal control of molecular dynamics is commonly expressed from a quantum mechanical perspective. However, in most contexts the preponderance of molecular dynamics studies utilize classical mechanical models. This paper treats laser-driven optimal control of molecular dynamics in a classical framework. We consider the objective of steering a molecular system from an initial point in phase space to a target point, subject to the dynamic constraint of Hamilton's equations. The classical control landscape corresponding to this objective is a functional of the control field, and the topology of the landscape is analyzed through its gradient and Hessian with respect to the control. Under specific assumptions on the regularity of the control fields, the classical control landscape is found to be free of traps that could hinder reaching the objective. The Hessian associated with an optimal control field is shown to have finite rank, indicating the presence of an inherent degree of robustness to control noise. Extensive numerical simulations are performed to illustrate the theoretical principles on (a) a model diatomic molecule, (b) two coupled Morse oscillators, and (c) a chaotic system with a coupled quartic oscillator, confirming the absence of traps in the classical control landscape. We compare the classical formulation with the mathematically analogous quantum state-to-state transition probability control landscape.

  6. Strong curvature singularities and causal simplicity

    SciTech Connect

    Krolak, A. )

    1992-02-01

    Techniques of differential topology in Lorentzian manifolds developed by Geroch, Hawking, and Penrose are used to rule out a class of locally naked strong curvature singularities in strongly causal space-times. This result yields some support to the validity of Penrose's strong cosmic censorship hypothesis.

  7. An Effective Method to Accurately Calculate the Phase Space Factors for β - β - Decay

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Neacsu, Andrei; Horoi, Mihai

    2016-01-01

    Accurate calculations of the electron phase space factors are necessary for reliable predictions of double-beta decay rates and for the analysis of the associated electron angular and energy distributions. We present an effective method to calculate these phase space factors that takes into account the distorted Coulomb field of the daughter nucleus, yet it allows one to easily calculate the phase space factors with good accuracy relative to the most exact methods available in the recent literature.

  8. Phase-space dissimilarity measures for industrial and biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protopopescu, V. A.; Hively, L. M.

    2005-12-01

    One of the most important problems in time-series analysis is the suitable characterization of the dynamics for timely, accurate, and robust condition assessment of the underlying system. Machine and physiological processes display complex, non-stationary behaviors that are affected by noise and may range from (quasi-)periodic to completely irregular (chaotic) regimes. Nevertheless, extensive experimental evidence indicates that even when the systems behave very irregularly (e.g., severe tool chatter or cardiac fibrillation), one may assume that - for all practical purposes - the dynamics are confined to low dimensional manifolds. As a result, the behavior of these systems can be described via traditional nonlinear measures (TNM), such as Lyapunov exponents, Kolmogorov entropy, and correlation dimension. While these measures are adequate for discriminating between clear-cut regular and chaotic dynamics, they are not sufficiently sensitive to distinguish between slightly different irregular (chaotic) regimes, especially when data are noisy and/or limited. Both machine and physiological dynamics usually fall into this latter category, creating a massive stumbling block to prognostication of abnormal regimes. We present here a recently developed approach that captures more efficiently changes in the underlying dynamics. We start with process-indicative, time-serial data that are checked for quality and discarded if inadequate. Acceptable data are filtered to remove confounding artifacts (e.g., sinusoidal variation in three-phase electrical signals or eye-blinks and muscular activity in EEG). The artifact-filtered data are then used to recover the essential features of the underlying dynamics via standard time-delay, phase-space reconstruction. One of the main results of this reconstruction is a discrete approximation of the distribution function (DF) on the attractor. Unaltered dynamics yield an unchanging geometry of the attractor and the visitation frequencies of

  9. Computational methods for microfluidic microscopy and phase-space imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegard, Nicolas Christian Richard

    Modern optical devices are made by assembling separate components such as lenses, objectives, and cameras. Traditionally, each part is optimized separately, even though the trade-offs typically limit the performance of the system overall. This component-based approach is particularly unfit to solve the new challenges brought by modern biology: 3D imaging, in vivo environments, and high sample throughput. In the first part of this thesis, we introduce a general method to design integrated optical systems. The laws of wave propagation, the performance of available technology, as well as other design parameters are combined as constraints into a single optimization problem. The solution provides qualitative design rules to improve optical systems as well as quantitative task-specific methods to minimize loss of information. Our results have applications in optical data storage, holography, and microscopy. The second part of this dissertation presents a direct application. We propose a more efficient design for wide-field microscopy with coherent light, based on double transmission through the sample. Historically, speckle noise and aberrations caused by undesired interferences have made coherent illumination unpopular for imaging. We were able to dramatically reduce speckle noise and unwanted interferences using optimized holographic wavefront reconstruction. The resulting microscope not only yields clear coherent images with low aberration---even in thick samples---but also increases contrast and enables optical filtering and in-depth sectioning. In the third part, we develop new imaging techniques that better respond to the needs of modern biology research through implementing optical design optimization. Using a 4D phase-space distribution, we first represent the state and propagation of incoherent light. We then introduce an additional degree of freedom by putting samples in motion in a microfluidic channel, increasing image diversity. From there, we develop a

  10. Singular Mueller matrices.

    PubMed

    Gil, José J; Ossikovski, Razvigor; José, Ignacio San

    2016-04-01

    Singular Mueller matrices play an important role in polarization algebra and have peculiar properties that stem from the fact that either the medium exhibits maximum diattenuation and/or polarizance or because its associated canonical depolarizer has the property of fully randomizing the circular component (at least) of the states of polarization of light incident on it. The formal reasons for which the Mueller matrix M of a given medium is singular are systematically investigated, analyzed, and interpreted in the framework of the serial decompositions and the characteristic ellipsoids of M. The analysis allows for a general classification and geometric representation of singular Mueller matrices, which are of potential usefulness to experimentalists dealing with such media. PMID:27140769

  11. Singular Mueller matrices.

    PubMed

    Gil, José J; Ossikovski, Razvigor; José, Ignacio San

    2016-04-01

    Singular Mueller matrices play an important role in polarization algebra and have peculiar properties that stem from the fact that either the medium exhibits maximum diattenuation and/or polarizance or because its associated canonical depolarizer has the property of fully randomizing the circular component (at least) of the states of polarization of light incident on it. The formal reasons for which the Mueller matrix M of a given medium is singular are systematically investigated, analyzed, and interpreted in the framework of the serial decompositions and the characteristic ellipsoids of M. The analysis allows for a general classification and geometric representation of singular Mueller matrices, which are of potential usefulness to experimentalists dealing with such media.

  12. Singular Dimensions of theN= 2 Superconformal Algebras. I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dörrzapf, Matthias; Gato-Rivera, Beatriz

    Verma modules of superconfomal algebras can have singular vector spaces with dimensions greater than 1. Following a method developed for the Virasoro algebra by Kent, we introduce the concept of adapted orderings on superconformal algebras. We prove several general results on the ordering kernels associated to the adapted orderings and show that the size of an ordering kernel implies an upper limit for the dimension of a singular vector space. We apply this method to the topological N= 2 algebra and obtain the maximal dimensions of the singular vector spaces in the topological Verma modules: 0, 1, 2 or 3 depending on the type of Verma module and the type of singular vector. As a consequence we prove the conjecture of Gato-Rivera and Rosado on the possible existing types of topological singular vectors (4 in chiral Verma modules and 29 in complete Verma modules). Interestingly, we have found two-dimensional spaces of singular vectors at level 1. Finally, by using the topological twists and the spectral flows, we also obtain the maximal dimensions of the singular vector spaces for the Neveu-Schwarz N= 2 algebra (0, 1 or 2) and for the Ramond N= 2 algebra (0, 1, 2 or 3).

  13. Three-dimensional isolated quotient singularities in odd characteristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, D. A.

    2016-06-01

    Let a finite group G act linearly on a finite-dimensional vector space V over an algebraically closed field k of characteristic p>2. Suppose that the quotient space V/G has an isolated singularity only. The isolated singularities of the form V/G are completely classified in the case when p does not divide the order of G, and their classification reduces to Vincent's classification of isolated quotient singularities over C. In the present paper we show that, if \\dim V=3, then the classification of isolated quotient singularities reduces to Vincent's classification in the modular case as well (when p divides \\vert G\\vert). Some remarks on quotient singularities in other dimensions and in even characteristic are also given. Bibliography: 14 titles.

  14. Definition of technology development missions for early space stations. Large space structures, phase 2, midterm review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The large space structures technology development missions to be performed on an early manned space station was studied and defined and the resources needed and the design implications to an early space station to carry out these large space structures technology development missions were determined. Emphasis is being placed on more detail in mission designs and space station resource requirements.

  15. Generalised partition functions: inferences on phase space distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treumann, Rudolf A.; Baumjohann, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    It is demonstrated that the statistical mechanical partition function can be used to construct various different forms of phase space distributions. This indicates that its structure is not restricted to the Gibbs-Boltzmann factor prescription which is based on counting statistics. With the widely used replacement of the Boltzmann factor by a generalised Lorentzian (also known as the q-deformed exponential function, where κ = 1/|q - 1|, with κ, q ∈ R) both the kappa-Bose and kappa-Fermi partition functions are obtained in quite a straightforward way, from which the conventional Bose and Fermi distributions follow for κ → ∞. For κ ≠ ∞ these are subject to the restrictions that they can be used only at temperatures far from zero. They thus, as shown earlier, have little value for quantum physics. This is reasonable, because physical κ systems imply strong correlations which are absent at zero temperature where apart from stochastics all dynamical interactions are frozen. In the classical large temperature limit one obtains physically reasonable κ distributions which depend on energy respectively momentum as well as on chemical potential. Looking for other functional dependencies, we examine Bessel functions whether they can be used for obtaining valid distributions. Again and for the same reason, no Fermi and Bose distributions exist in the low temperature limit. However, a classical Bessel-Boltzmann distribution can be constructed which is a Bessel-modified Lorentzian distribution. Whether it makes any physical sense remains an open question. This is not investigated here. The choice of Bessel functions is motivated solely by their convergence properties and not by reference to any physical demands. This result suggests that the Gibbs-Boltzmann partition function is fundamental not only to Gibbs-Boltzmann but also to a large class of generalised Lorentzian distributions as well as to the corresponding nonextensive statistical mechanics.

  16. Fluctuation removal around spectral and temporal constancy limits via use of an extended space expectation value weight function for singular quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kalay, Berfin; Demiralp, Metin

    2015-03-10

    This work is a new extension to our a very recent work whose paper will appear in the proceedings of a very recent international conference. What we have done in the previous work is the use of a weight operator to suppress the singularities causing nonexistence of some of temporal Maclaurin expansion coefficients. The weight operator has been constructed in such a way that certain number of expectation values of position operator’s first positive integer powers with and without the chosen weight operator match. Therein this match has not been considered for the momentum operator’s corresponding power expectation values and a finite linear combination of the spatial variable’s first reciprocal powers has been used in the construction of the weight operator. Here, that approach is extended to the case where matches for both position and momentum operators are considered and the weight operator involves finite linear combinations of the spatial variable’s both positive integer powers and their reciprocals.

  17. Singular Vectors' Subtle Secrets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, David; Lachance, Michael; Remski, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Social scientists use adjacency tables to discover influence networks within and among groups. Building on work by Moler and Morrison, we use ordered pairs from the components of the first and second singular vectors of adjacency matrices as tools to distinguish these groups and to identify particularly strong or weak individuals.

  18. Deformed phase space Kaluza-Klein cosmology and late time acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabido, M.; Yee-Romero, C.

    2016-06-01

    The effects of phase space deformations on Kaluza-Klein cosmology are studied. The deformation is introduced by modifying the symplectic structure of the minisuperspace variables. In the deformed model, we find an accelerating scale factor and therefore infer the existence of an effective cosmological constant from the phase space deformation parameter β.

  19. Analysis of local ionospheric time varying characteristics with singular value decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsen, Jakob; Knudsen, Per; Jensen, Anna B. O.

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, a time series from 1999 to 2007 of absolute total electron content (TEC) values has been computed and analyzed using singular value decomposition (SVD). The data set has been computed using a Kalman Filter and is based on dual frequency GPS data from three reference stations in Denmark located in the midlatitude region. The station separation between the three stations is 132-208 km (the time series of the TEC can be freely downloaded at http://www.heisesgade.dk ). For each year, a SVD has been performed on the TEC time series in order to identify the three time varying (daily, yearly, and 11 yearly) characteristics of the ionosphere. The applied SVD analysis provides a new method for separating the daily from the yearly components. The first singular value is very dominant (approximately six times larger than the second singular value), and this singular value corresponds clearly to the variation of the daily cycle over the year. The second singular value corresponds to variations of the width of the daily peak over the year, and the third singular value shows a clear yearly variation of the daily signal with peaks around the equinoxes. The singular values for each year show a very strong correlation with the sunspot number for all the singular values. The correlation coefficients for the first 5 sets of singular values are all above 0.96. Based on the SVD analysis yearly models of the TEC in the ionosphere can be recomposed and illustrate the three time varying characteristics of the ionosphere very clearly. By prediction of the yearly mean sunspot number, future yearly models can also be predicted. These can serve as a priori information for a real time space weather service providing information of the current status of the ionosphere. They will improve the Kalman filter processing making it more robust, but can also be used as

  20. Benchmarking of 3D space charge codes using direct phase space measurements from photoemission high voltage dc gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazarov, Ivan V.; Dunham, Bruce M.; Gulliford, Colwyn; Li, Yulin; Liu, Xianghong; Sinclair, Charles K.; Soong, Ken; Hannon, Fay

    2008-10-01

    We present a comparison between space charge calculations and direct measurements of the transverse phase space of space charge dominated electron bunches from a high voltage dc photoemission gun followed by an emittance compensation solenoid magnet. The measurements were performed using a double-slit emittance measurement system over a range of bunch charge and solenoid current values. The data are compared with detailed simulations using the 3D space charge codes GPT and Parmela3D. The initial particle distributions were generated from measured transverse and temporal laser beam profiles at the photocathode. The beam brightness as a function of beam fraction is calculated for the measured phase space maps and found to approach within a factor of 2 the theoretical maximum set by the thermal energy and the accelerating field at the photocathode.

  1. Characterization of cumulus cloud fields using trajectories in the center of gravity versus water mass phase space: 1. Cloud tracking and phase space description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiblum, Reuven H.; Altaratz, Orit; Koren, Ilan; Feingold, Graham; Kostinski, Alexander B.; Khain, Alexander P.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Fredj, Erick; Dagan, Guy; Pinto, Lital; Yaish, Ricki; Chen, Qian

    2016-06-01

    We study the evolution of warm convective cloud fields using large eddy simulations of continental and trade cumulus. Individual clouds are tracked a posteriori from formation to dissipation using a 3-D cloud-tracking algorithm, and results are presented in the phase space of center of gravity altitude versus cloud liquid water mass (CvM space). The CvM space is shown to contain rich information on cloud field characteristics, cloud morphology, and common cloud development pathways, together facilitating a comprehensive understanding of the cloud field. In this part we show how the meteorological (thermodynamic) conditions that determine the cloud properties are projected on the CvM phase space and how changes in the initial conditions affect the clouds' trajectories in this space. This part sets the stage for a detailed microphysical analysis that will be shown in part II.

  2. Mapping Upper Mantle Seismic Discontinuities Using Singular Spectrum Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Y. J.; Dokht, R.; Sacchi, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic discontinuities are fundamental to the understanding of mantle composition and dynamics. Their depth and impedance are generally determined using secondary seismic phases, most commonly SS precursors and P-to-S converted waves. However, the analysis and interpretation using these approaches often suffer from incomplete data coverage, high noise levels and interfering seismic phases, especially near tectonically complex regions such as subduction zones and continental margins. To overcome these pitfalls, we apply Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) to remove random noise, reconstruct missing traces and enhance the robustness of SS precursors and P-to-S conversions from seismic discontinuities. Our method takes advantage of the predictability of time series in frequency-space domain and performs a rank reduction using a singular value decomposition of the trajectory matrix. We apply SSA to synthetic record sections as well as observations of 1) SS precursors beneath the northwestern Pacific subduction zones, and 2) P-to-S converted waves from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB). In comparison with raw or interpolated data, the SSA enhanced reflectivity maps show a greater resolution and a stronger negative correlation between the depths of the 410 and 660 km discontinuities. These effects can be attributed to the suppression of incoherent noise, which tends to reduce the signal amplitude during normal averaging procedures, through rank reduction and the emphasis of principle singular values. Our new results suggest a more laterally coherent 520 km reflection in the western Pacific regions. Similar improvements in data imaging are achieved in western Canada, where strong lateral variations in discontinuity topography are observed in the craton-Cordillera boundary zone. Improvements from SSA relative to conventional approaches are most notable in under-sampled regions.

  3. Trajectories and causal phase-space approach to relativistic quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, P.R.; Kyprianidis, A.; Vigier, J.P.

    1987-05-01

    The authors analyze phase-space approaches to relativistic quantum mechanics from the viewpoint of the causal interpretation. In particular, they discuss the canonical phase space associated with stochastic quantization, its relation to Hilbert space, and the Wigner-Moyal formalism. They then consider the nature of Feynman paths, and the problem of nonlocality, and conclude that a perfectly consistent relativistically covariant interpretation of quantum mechanics which retains the notion of particle trajectory is possible.

  4. Space Station Freedom - Approaching the critical design phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohrs, Richard H.; Huckins, Earle, III

    1992-01-01

    The status and future developments of the Space Station Freedom are discussed. To date detailed design drawings are being produced to manufacture SSF hardware. A critical design review (CDR) for the man-tended capability configuration is planned to be performed in 1993 under the SSF program. The main objective of the CDR is to enable the program to make a full commitment to proceed to manufacture parts and assemblies. NASA recently signed a contract with the Russian space company, NPO Energia, to evaluate potential applications of various Russian space hardware for on-going NASA programs.

  5. Integrated study plan for space bioprocessing (phase 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Current economic evaluation and analytical techniques are applied to decision problems faced by the space bioprocessing program. NASA decision makers are enabled to choose candidate substances, after ranking them according to their potential economic benefit. The determination of appropriate evaluation techniques necessary to obtain measures of potential economic benefits which result from the pursuit of various space bioprocessing endeavors are focused upon. The treatment of each disease is impacted by a successful outcome of space bioprocessing and specify data and other input needs for each candidate substance.

  6. On the limit cycles of a class of planar singular perturbed differential equations.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuhai; Zhou, Jingjing

    2014-01-01

    Relaxation oscillations of two-dimensional planar singular perturbed systems with a layer equation exhibiting canard cycles are studied. The canard cycles under consideration contain two turning points and two jump points. We suppose that there exist three parameters permitting generic breaking at both the turning points and the connecting fast orbit. The conditions of one (resp., two, three) relaxation oscillation near the canard cycles are given by studying a map from the space of phase parameters to the space of breaking parameters. PMID:25143973

  7. On the Limit Cycles of a Class of Planar Singular Perturbed Differential Equations

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jingjing

    2014-01-01

    Relaxation oscillations of two-dimensional planar singular perturbed systems with a layer equation exhibiting canard cycles are studied. The canard cycles under consideration contain two turning points and two jump points. We suppose that there exist three parameters permitting generic breaking at both the turning points and the connecting fast orbit. The conditions of one (resp., two, three) relaxation oscillation near the canard cycles are given by studying a map from the space of phase parameters to the space of breaking parameters. PMID:25143973

  8. Space station gas compressor technology study program, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hafele, B. W.; Rapozo, R. R.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives were to identify the space station waste gases and their characteristics, and to investigate compressor and dryer types, as well as transport and storage requirements with tradeoffs leading to a preliminary system definition.

  9. Research opportunities in space motion sickness, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Space and motion sickness, the current and projected NASA research program, and the conclusions and suggestions of the ad hoc Working Group are summarized. The frame of reference for the report is ground-based research.

  10. Space shuttle auxiliary power unit study, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binsley, R. L.; Krause, A. A.; Maddox, R. D.; Marcy, R. D.; Siegler, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    A study was performed to establish the preliminary design of the space shuttle auxiliary power unit. Details of the analysis, optimizations, and design of the components, subsystems and systems are presented.

  11. Multicolor pyrometer for materials processing in space, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frish, Michael; Frank, Jonathan; Beerman, Henry

    1988-01-01

    The program goals were to design, construct, and program a prototype passive imaging pyrometer capable of measuring, as accurately as possible, the temperature distribution across the surface of a moving object suspended in space.

  12. Comments on ``The Euclidean gravitational action as black hole entropy, singularities, and space-time voids'' [J. Math. Phys. 49, 042501 (2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Abhas

    2009-04-01

    We point out that the space-time void inferred by Castro [J. Math. Phys. 49, 042501 (2008)] results from his choice of a discontinuous radial gauge. Further since the integration constant α0=2M0 (G =c=1) occurring in the vacuum Hilbert/Schwarzschild solution of a neutral "point mass" is zero [Arnowitt et al., in Gravitation: An Introduction to Current Research, edited by L. Witten (Wiley, New York, 1962), Chap. 7, p. 227; also Phys. Rev. Lett. 4, 375 (1960). A. Mitra, Adv. Space Res. 38, 2917 (2006); Proceedings of the XIth Marcel-Grossmann Conference on General Relativity (World Scientific, Singapore, 2008), Vol. 3, p. 1968], Castro's gauge reduces to the well behaved and physical Hilbert gauge. Physically this means that true Hilbert/Schwarzschild black holes have unique gravitational mass M =0. Accordingly, the unphysical space-time void inferred by Castro is actually nonexistent.

  13. Phase C aerothermodynamic data base. [for space shuttle program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moser, M., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Summary listings of published documentation of SADSAC processed data arranged chronologically and by shuttle configuration are presented to provide an up-to-date record of all applicable aerothermodynamic data collected, processed, or summarized in the course of the space shuttle program. The various tables or listings are designed to provide survey information to the various space shuttle managerial and technical levels. The various listings of the shuttle test data information, the list contents, and the purpose are described.

  14. Singularities in loop quantum cosmology.

    PubMed

    Cailleteau, Thomas; Cardoso, Antonio; Vandersloot, Kevin; Wands, David

    2008-12-19

    We show that simple scalar field models can give rise to curvature singularities in the effective Friedmann dynamics of loop quantum cosmology (LQC). We find singular solutions for spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmologies with a canonical scalar field and a negative exponential potential, or with a phantom scalar field and a positive potential. While LQC avoids big bang or big rip type singularities, we find sudden singularities where the Hubble rate is bounded, but the Ricci curvature scalar diverges. We conclude that the effective equations of LQC are not in themselves sufficient to avoid the occurrence of curvature singularities.

  15. Multimegawatt space nuclear power supply: Phase 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-17

    The preliminary safety assessment report analyzes the potential radiological risk of the integrated MSNPS with the launch vehicle including interface with the weapon system. Most emphasis will be placed the prime power concept design. Safety problems can occur any time during the entire life cycle of the system including contingency phases. The preliminary safety assessment report is to be delivered at the end of phase 2. This assessment will be the basis of the safety requirements which will be applied to the design of the MSNPS as it develops in subsequent phases. The assessment also focuses design activities on specific high-risk scenarios and missions that may impact safety.

  16. Neural Excitability and Singular Bifurcations.

    PubMed

    De Maesschalck, Peter; Wechselberger, Martin

    2015-12-01

    We discuss the notion of excitability in 2D slow/fast neural models from a geometric singular perturbation theory point of view. We focus on the inherent singular nature of slow/fast neural models and define excitability via singular bifurcations. In particular, we show that type I excitability is associated with a novel singular Bogdanov-Takens/SNIC bifurcation while type II excitability is associated with a singular Andronov-Hopf bifurcation. In both cases, canards play an important role in the understanding of the unfolding of these singular bifurcation structures. We also explain the transition between the two excitability types and highlight all bifurcations involved, thus providing a complete analysis of excitability based on geometric singular perturbation theory.

  17. Formulation of singular theories in a partial Hamiltonian formalism using a new bracket and multi-time dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duplij, Steven

    2015-09-01

    A formulation of singular classical theories (determined by degenerate Lagrangians) without constraints is presented. A partial Hamiltonian formalism in the phase space having an initially arbitrary number of momenta (which can be smaller than the number of velocities) is proposed. The equations of motion become first-order differential equations, and they coincide with those of multi-time dynamics, if a certain condition is imposed. In a singular theory, this condition is fulfilled in the case of the coincidence of the number of generalized momenta with the rank of the Hessian matrix. The noncanonical generalized velocities satisfy a system of linear algebraic equations, which allows an appropriate classification of singular theories (gauge and nongauge). A new antisymmetric bracket (similar to the Poisson bracket) is introduced, which describes the time evolution of physical quantities in a singular theory. The origin of constraints is shown to be a consequence of the (unneeded in our formulation) extension of the phase space, when the new bracket transforms into the Dirac bracket. Quantization is briefly discussed.

  18. Multimegawatt space nuclear power supply: Phase 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-17

    The Phase 2 program objectives are to (1) demonstrate concept feasibility, (2) develop a preliminary design, and (3) complete Phase 3 engineering development and ground test plans. The approach to accomplish these objectives is to prove technical feasibility of our baseline design early in the program while maintaining flexibility to easily respond to changing requirements and advances in technology. This approach recognizes that technology is advancing rapidly while the operational phase MSNPS is 15 to 20 years in the future. This plan further recognizes that the weapons platform and Advanced Launch System (ALS) are in very early program definition stages; consequently, their requirements, interfaces, and technological basis will evolve. This document outlines the Phase 2 plan along with task scheduling of the various program aspects.

  19. Space station contamination control study: Internal combustion, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruggeri, Robert T.

    1987-01-01

    Contamination inside Space Station modules was studied to determine the best methods of controlling contamination. The work was conducted in five tasks that identified existing contamination control requirements, analyzed contamination levels, developed outgassing specification for materials, wrote a contamination control plan, and evaluated current materials of offgassing tests used by NASA. It is concluded that current contamination control methods can be made to function on the Space Station for up to 1000 days, but that current methods are deficient for periods longer than about 1000 days.

  20. Large space telescope, phase A. Volume 3: Optical telescope assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development and characteristics of the optical telescope assembly for the Large Space Telescope are discussed. The systems considerations are based on mission-related parameters and optical equipment requirements. Information is included on: (1) structural design and analysis, (2) thermal design, (3) stabilization and control, (4) alignment, focus, and figure control, (5) electronic subsystem, and (6) scientific instrument design.

  1. Large space telescope, phase A. Volume 5: Support systems module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development and characteristics of the support systems module for the Large Space Telescope are discussed. The following systems and described: (1) thermal control, (2) electrical, (3) communication and data landing, (4) attitude control system, and (5) structural features. Analyses of maintainability and reliability considerations are included.

  2. Large space telescope, phase A. Volume 4: Scientific instrument package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design and characteristics of the scientific instrument package for the Large Space Telescope are discussed. The subjects include: (1) general scientific objectives, (2) package system analysis, (3) scientific instrumentation, (4) imaging photoelectric sensors, (5) environmental considerations, and (6) reliability and maintainability.

  3. Deep Space Habitat Concept of Operations for Transit Mission Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has begun evaluating various mission and system components of possible implementations of what the U.S. Human Spaceflight Plans Committee (also known as the Augustine Committee) has named the flexible path (Anon., 2009). As human spaceflight missions expand further into deep space, the duration of these missions increases to the point where a dedicated crew habitat element appears necessary. There are several destinations included in this flexible path a near Earth asteroid (NEA) mission, a Phobos/Deimos (Ph/D) mission, and a Mars surface exploration mission that all include at least a portion of the total mission in which the crew spends significant periods of time (measured in months) in the deep space environment and are thus candidates for a dedicated habitat element. As one facet of a number of studies being conducted by the Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) a workshop was conducted to consider how best to define and quantify habitable volume for these future deep space missions. One conclusion reached during this workshop was the need for a description of the scope and scale of these missions and the intended uses of a habitat element. A group was set up to prepare a concept of operations document to address this need. This document describes a concept of operations for a habitat element used for these deep space missions. Although it may eventually be determined that there is significant overlap with this concept of operations and that of a habitat destined for use on planetary surfaces, such as the Moon and Mars, no such presumption is made in this document.

  4. Velocity Dominated Singularities in the Cheese Slice Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giang, Dan; Dyer, Charles C.

    We investigate the properties of space-times resulting from matching together exact solutions using the Darmois matching conditions. In particular, we focus on the asymptotically velocity-term dominated property (AVTD). We propose a criterion that can be used to test if a space-time constructed from a matching can be considered AVTD. Using the "cheese slice" universe as an example, we show that a space-time constructed from a such a matching can inherit the AVTD property from the original space-times. Furthermore the singularity resulting from this particular matching is an AVTD singularity.

  5. Fringe spacing and phase of interfering matter waves

    SciTech Connect

    Vainio, O.; Vale, C. J.; Davis, M. J.; Heckenberg, N. R.; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H.

    2006-06-15

    We experimentally investigate the outcoupling of atoms from Bose-Einstein condensates using two radio-frequency (rf) fields in the presence of gravity. We show that the fringe separation in the resulting interference pattern derives entirely from the energy difference between the two rf fields and not the gravitational potential difference between the two resonances. We subsequently demonstrate how the phase and polarization of the rf radiation directly control the phase of the matter wave interference and provide a semiclassical interpretation of the results.

  6. Transverse emittance and phase space program developed for use at the Fermilab A0 Photoinjector

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman-Keup, R.; Johnson, A.S.; Lumpkin, A.H.; Ruan, J.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The Fermilab A0 Photoinjector is a 16 MeV high intensity, high brightness electron linac developed for advanced accelerator R&D. One of the key parameters for the electron beam is the transverse beam emittance. Here we report on a newly developed MATLAB based GUI program used for transverse emittance measurements using the multi-slit technique. This program combines the image acquisition and post-processing tools for determining the transverse phase space parameters with uncertainties. An integral part of accelerator research is a measurement of the beam phase space. Measurements of the transverse phase space can be accomplished by a variety of methods including multiple screens separated by drift spaces, or by sampling phase space via pepper pots or slits. In any case, the measurement of the phase space parameters, in particular the emittance, can be drastically simplified and sped up by automating the measurement in an intuitive fashion utilizing a graphical interface. At the A0 Photoinjector (A0PI), the control system is DOOCS, which originated at DESY. In addition, there is a library for interfacing to MATLAB, a graphically capable numerical analysis package sold by The Mathworks. It is this graphical package which was chosen as the basis for a graphical phase space measurement system due to its combination of analysis and display capabilities.

  7. Solution phase space and conserved charges: A general formulation for charges associated with exact symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajian, K.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.

    2016-02-01

    We provide a general formulation for calculating conserved charges for solutions to generally covariant gravitational theories with possibly other internal gauge symmetries, in any dimensions and with generic asymptotic behaviors. These solutions are generically specified by a number of exact (continuous, global) symmetries and some parameters. We define "parametric variations" as field perturbations generated by variations of the solution parameters. Employing the covariant phase space method, we establish that the set of these solutions (up to pure gauge transformations) form a phase space, the solution phase space, and that the tangent space of this phase space includes the parametric variations. We then compute conserved charge variations associated with the exact symmetries of the family of solutions, caused by parametric variations. Integrating the charge variations over a path in the solution phase space, we define the conserved charges. In particular, we revisit "black hole entropy as a conserved charge" and the derivation of the first law of black hole thermodynamics. We show that the solution phase space setting enables us to define black hole entropy by an integration over any compact, codminesion-2, smooth spacelike surface encircling the hole, as well as to a natural generalization of Wald and Iyer-Wald analysis to cases involving gauge fields.

  8. Inflationary perturbation theory is geometrical optics in phase space

    SciTech Connect

    Seery, David; Frazer, Jonathan; Mulryne, David J.; Ribeiro, Raquel H. E-mail: D.Mulryne@qmul.ac.uk E-mail: R.Ribeiro@damtp.cam.ac.uk

    2012-09-01

    A pressing problem in comparing inflationary models with observation is the accurate calculation of correlation functions. One approach is to evolve them using ordinary differential equations ({sup t}ransport equations{sup )}, analogous to the Schwinger-Dyson hierarchy of in-out quantum field theory. We extend this approach to the complete set of momentum space correlation functions. A formal solution can be obtained using raytracing techniques adapted from geometrical optics. We reformulate inflationary perturbation theory in this language, and show that raytracing reproduces the familiar 'δN' Taylor expansion. Our method produces ordinary differential equations which allow the Taylor coefficients to be computed efficiently. We use raytracing methods to express the gauge transformation between field fluctuations and the curvature perturbation, ζ, in geometrical terms. Using these results we give a compact expression for the nonlinear gauge-transform part of f{sub NL} in terms of the principal curvatures of uniform energy-density hypersurfaces in field space.

  9. Scaling and the start-up phase of space industrialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    By terrestrial standards very little mass is needed to construct the space portion of a 10,000 megawatt (10 GW) power system. Use of lunar materials makes it reasonable to consider alternatives to silicon solar cells for conversion of sunlight to electricity and thereby avoid present major problems associated with solar cell production. Machinery needed on the moon to excavate lunar materials and deliver them to a transport system, to beneficiate lunar materials, to produce glasses and ceramics from lunar materials and to chemically process lunar materials into their major oxides and elements are minor mass fractions of the total mass of equipment needed in space to produce an SPS. In addition the processing equipment can throughput several hundred times their own mass each year with very little requirement for makeup mass from earth.

  10. LDEF (Postflight), AO133 : Effect of Space Environment on Space-Based Radar Phased-Array Antenna, Tr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO133 : Effect of Space Environment on Space-Based Radar Phased-Array Antenna, Tray H07 The postflight photograph was taken in the KSC SAEF II facility after the experiment was removed from the LDEF. The Space-Based Radar (SBR) Phased-Array Antenna occupies a six (6) inch deep LDEF end corner tray located on the space end of the LDEF. A light tan discoloration is visible on the left and lower flanges of the experiment tray and also on the unpainted aluminum filler to the left of the passive part of the experiment. A darker stain has discolored the lower corners of the tray structure. The SBR Phased-Array Antenna experiment, consisting of an active part in the upper half of the tray and a passive part located in the lower half of the experiment tray, appears to be intact with no apparent physical damage. The black thermal coating on the active part of the experiment appears to have changed from a flat black to a dark gray while the coating on the passive part of the experiment appears less degraded. The exposed Kapton specimen surfaces in both the active and passive parts of the experiment appear to have changed from specular to diffuse from exposure to the space environment.

  11. Phase-space description of plasma waves. Part 1. Linear theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biro, T.; Rönnmark, K.

    1992-06-01

    We develop an (r, k) phase-space description of waves in plasmas by introducing Gaussian window functions to separate short-scale oscillations from long-scale modulations of the wave fields and variations in the plasma parameters. To obtain a wave equation that unambiguously separates conservative dynamics from dissipation in an inhomogeneous and time-varying background plasma, we first discuss the proper form of the current response function. In analogy with the particle distribution function f(v, r, t), we introduce a wave density N(k, r, t) on phase space. This function is proved to satisfy a simple continuity equation. Dissipation is also included, and this allows us to describe the damping or growth of wave density along rays. Problems involving geometric optics of continuous media often appear simpler when viewed in phase space, since the flow of N in phase space is incompressible.

  12. Emittance and Phase Space Exchange for Advanced Beam Manipulation and Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Dao; Chao, Alex; /SLAC

    2012-04-27

    Alternative chicane-type beam lines are proposed for exact emittance exchange between transverse phase space (x,x') and longitudinal phase space (z,{delta}), where x is the transverse position, x' is the transverse divergence, and z and {delta} are relative longitudinal position and energy deviation with respect to the reference particle. Methods to achieve exact phase space exchanges, i.e., mapping x to z, x' to {delta}, z to x, and {delta} to x', are suggested. Schemes to mitigate and completely compensate for the thick-lens effect of the transverse cavity on emittance exchange are studied. Some applications of the phase space exchange for advanced beam manipulation and diagnostics are discussed.

  13. Phase-space action conservation for non-eikonal wave fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Daniel R.; Flynn, William G.; Morehead, James J.; Kaufman, Allan N.

    1993-03-01

    We derive a local phase-space wave-action conservation law, valid for non-eikonal wave fields for which the medium and/or the wave amplitudes have rapid spatial variation. This six-dimensional conservation law leads to conservation laws on three-dimensional subspaces. The law is covariant under linear canonical transformations of phase-space, and under congruent transformations of the multi-component wave field.

  14. Subpicosecond electron bunch train production using a phase-space exchange technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y.-E.; Piot, P.; Johnson, A.S.; Lumpkin, A.H.; Maxwell, T.J.; Ruan, J.; Thurman-Keup, R.M.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Our recent experimental demonstration of a photoinjector electron bunch train with sub-picosecond structures is reported in this paper. The experiment is accomplished by converting an initially horizontal beam intensity modulation into a longitudinal phase space modulation, via a beamline capable of exchanging phase-space coordinates between the horizontal and longitudinal degrees of freedom. The initial transverse modulation is produced by intercepting the beam with a multislit mask prior to the exchange. We also compare our experimental results with numerical simulations.

  15. Linear processes in high dimensions: Phase space and critical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastromatteo, Iacopo; Bacry, Emmanuel; Muzy, Jean-François

    2015-04-01

    In this work we investigate the generic properties of a stochastic linear model in the regime of high dimensionality. We consider in particular the vector autoregressive (VAR) model and the multivariate Hawkes process. We analyze both deterministic and random versions of these models, showing the existence of a stable phase and an unstable phase. We find that along the transition region separating the two regimes the correlations of the process decay slowly, and we characterize the conditions under which these slow correlations are expected to become power laws. We check our findings with numerical simulations showing remarkable agreement with our predictions. We finally argue that real systems with a strong degree of self-interaction are naturally characterized by this type of slow relaxation of the correlations.

  16. Phase 1 Space Fission Propulsion System Design Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Mike; VanDyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Pedersen, Kevin; Martin, James; Carter, Robert; Dickens, Ricky; Salvail, Pat; Hrbud, Ivana; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Fission technology can enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. If fission propulsion systems are to be developed to their full potential; however, near-term customers must be identified and initial fission systems successfully developed, launched, and operated. Studies conducted in fiscal year 2001 (IISTP, 2001) show that fission electric propulsion (FEP) systems operating at 80 kWe or above could enhance or enable numerous robotic outer solar system missions of interest. At these power levels it is possible to develop safe, affordable systems that meet mission performance requirements. In selecting the system design to pursue, seven evaluation criteria were identified: safety, reliability, testability, specific mass, cost, schedule, and programmatic risk. A top-level comparison of three potential concepts was performed: an SP-100 based pumped liquid lithium system, a direct gas cooled system, and a heatpipe cooled system. For power levels up to at least 500 kWt (enabling electric power levels of 125-175 kWe, given 25-35% power conversion efficiency) the heatpipe system has advantages related to several criteria and is competitive with respect to all. Hardware-based research and development has further increased confidence in the heatpipe approach. Successful development and utilization of a "Phase 1" fission electric propulsion system will enable advanced Phase 2 and Phase 3 systems capable of providing rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system.

  17. Self-similarity of phase-space networks of frustrated spin models and lattice gas models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yi; Wang, Feng; Han, Yilong

    2013-03-01

    We studied the self-similar properties of the phase-spaces of two frustrated spin models and two lattice gas models. The frustrated spin models included (1) the anti-ferromagnetic Ising model on a two-dimensional triangular lattice (1a) at the ground states and (1b) above the ground states and (2) the six-vertex model. The two lattice gas models were (3) the one-dimensional lattice gas model and (4) the two-dimensional lattice gas model. The phase spaces were mapped to networks so that the fractal analysis of complex networks could be applied, i.e. the box-covering method and the cluster-growth method. These phase spaces, in turn, establish new classes of networks with unique self-similar properties. Models 1a, 2, and 3 with long-range power-law correlations in real space exhibit fractal phase spaces, while models 1b and 4 with short-range exponential correlations in real space exhibit nonfractal phase spaces. This behavior agrees with one of untested assumptions in Tsallis nonextensive statistics. Hong Kong GRC grants 601208 and 601911

  18. Space shuttle phase B. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify the differences among total system concepts of space shuttle configurations. Emphasis was placed on concepts that lead to selection of a system that performs the missions within budget and schedule constraints. The spectrum of launch vehicle configurations is illustrated. An inboard profile of the spacecraft is presented to show the interior arrangement of the major subsystems. The performance prediction of the spacecraft during specified portions of the mission is analyzed. A cost comparison of the various concepts is included.

  19. Development of CCD imaging sensors for space applications, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antcliffe, G. A.

    1975-01-01

    The results of an experimental investigation to develop a large area charge coupled device (CCD) imager for space photography applications are described. Details of the design and processing required to achieve 400 X 400 imagers are presented together with a discussion of the optical characterization techniques developed for this program. A discussion of several aspects of large CCD performance is given with detailed test reports. The areas covered include dark current, uniformity of optical response, square wave amplitude response, spectral responsivity and dynamic range.

  20. Classical resolution of black hole singularities via wormholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmo, Gonzalo J.; Rubiera-Garcia, D.; Sanchez-Puente, A.

    2016-03-01

    In certain extensions of General Relativity, wormholes generated by spherically symmetric electric fields can resolve black hole singularities without necessarily removing curvature divergences. This is shown by studying geodesic completeness, the behavior of time-like congruences going through the divergent region, and by means of scattering of waves off the wormhole. This provides an example of the logical independence between curvature divergences and space-time singularities, concepts very often identified with each other in the literature.

  1. Space Fission Propulsion Testing and Development Progress. Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDyke, Melissa; Houts, Mike; Pedersen, Kevin; Godfroy, Tom; Dickens, Ricky; Poston, David; Reid, Bob; Salvail, Pat; Ring, Peter; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Successful development of space fission systems will require an extensive program of affordable and realistic testing. In addition to tests related to design/development of the fission system, realistic testing of the actual flight unit must also be performed. Testing can be divided into two categories, non-nuclear tests and nuclear tests. Full power nuclear tests of space fission systems we expensive, time consuming, and of limited use, even in the best of programmatic environments. If the system is designed to operate within established radiation damage and fuel burn up limits while simultaneously being designed to allow close simulation of heat from fission using resistance heaters, high confidence in fission system performance and lifetime can be attained through a series of non-nuclear tests. Non-nuclear tests are affordable and timely, and the cause of component and system failures can be quickly and accurately identified. MSFC is leading a Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) test series whose ultimate goal is the demonstration of a 300 kW flight configuration system using non-nuclear testing. This test series is carried out in collaboration with other NASA centers, other government agencies, industry, and universities. If SAFE-related nuclear tests are desired they will have a high probability of success and can be performed at existing nuclear facilities. The paper describes the SAFE non-nuclear test series, which includes test article descriptions, test results and conclusions, and future test plans.

  2. Phase 1 space fission propulsion system testing and development progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dyke, Melissa; Houts, Mike; Pedersen, Kevin; Godfroy, Tom; Dickens, Ricky; Poston, David; Reid, Bob; Salvail, Pat; Ring, Peter

    2001-02-01

    Successful development of space fission systems will require an extensive program of affordable and realistic testing. In addition to tests related to design/development of the fission system, realistic testing of the actual flight unit must also be performed. Testing can be divided into two categories, non-nuclear tests and nuclear tests. Full power nuclear tests of space fission systems are expensive, time consuming, and of limited use, even in the best of programmatic environments. If the system is designed to operate within established radiation damage and fuel burn up limits while simultaneously being designed to allow close simulation of heat from fission using resistance heaters, high confidence in fission system performance and lifetime can be attained through a series of non-nuclear tests. Non-nuclear tests are affordable and timely, and the cause of component and system failures can be quickly and accurately identified, MSFC is leading a Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) test series whose ultimate goal is the demonstration of a 300 kW flight configuration system using non-nuclear testing. This test series is carried out in collaboration with other NASA centers, other government agencies, industry, and universities. If SAFE-related nuclear tests are desired, they will have a high probability of success and can be performed at existing nuclear facilities. The paper describes the SAFE non-nuclear test series, which includes test article descriptions, test results and conclusions, and future test plans. .

  3. Phase 1 Space Fission Propulsion Energy Source Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Mike; VanDyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Pedersen, Kevin; Martin, James; Dickens, Ricky; Salvail, Pat; Hrbud, Ivana; Carter, Robert; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Fission technology can enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. If fission propulsion systems are to be developed to their full potential; however, near-term customers must be identified and initial fission systems successfully developed, launched, and operated. Studies conducted in fiscal year 2001 (IISTP, 2001) show that fission electric propulsion (FEP) systems with a specific mass at or below 50 kg/kWjet could enhance or enable numerous robotic outer solar system missions of interest. At the required specific mass, it is possible to develop safe, affordable systems that meet mission requirements. To help select the system design to pursue, eight evaluation criteria were identified: system integration, safety, reliability, testability, specific mass, cost, schedule, and programmatic risk. A top-level comparison of four potential concepts was performed: a Testable, Passive, Redundant Reactor (TPRR), a Testable Multi-Cell In-Core Thermionic Reactor (TMCT), a Direct Gas Cooled Reactor (DGCR), and a Pumped Liquid Metal Reactor.(PLMR). Development of any of the four systems appears feasible. However, for power levels up to at least 500 kWt (enabling electric power levels of 125-175 kWe, given 25-35% power conversion efficiency) the TPRR has advantages related to several criteria and is competitive with respect to all. Hardware-based research and development has further increased confidence in the TPRR approach. Successful development and utilization of a "Phase I" fission electric propulsion system will enable advanced Phase 2 and Phase 3 systems capable of providing rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system.

  4. Modeling of recombinant yeast cells: reduction of phase space.

    PubMed

    Birol, G; Birol, I; Kirdar, B; Onsan, Z I

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism of starch fermentation by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae in batch reactor is studied. Experiments were carried in the presence and absence of oxygen, with different initial starch concentrations. A variety of data concerning biotic and abiotic phases are collected. Nonlinear data analysis techniques are used to determine the block diagram of the system under study. Data analysis and processing reported here, are believed to form a basis in further work in structured modeling of biological systems, recombinant yeast cultures in particular. PMID:9603032

  5. Natural environment design criteria for the space station program definition phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, W. W.

    1984-01-01

    The natural environment design criteria requirements for use in the Space Station and its Elements (SSPE) definition phase studies are presented. The atmospheric dynamic and thermodynamic environments, meteoroids, radiation, physical constants are addressed. It is intended to enable all groups involved in the definition phase studies to proceed with a common and consistent set of natural environment criteria requirements.

  6. PARAS program: Phased array radio astronomy from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakubowski, Antoni K.; Haynes, David A.; Nuss, Ken; Hoffmann, Chris; Madden, Michael; Dungan, Michael

    1992-01-01

    An orbiting radio telescope is proposed which, when operated in a Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBLI) scheme, would allow higher (than currently available) angular resolution and dynamic range in the maps, and the ability of observing rapidly changing astronomical sources. Using a passive phases array technology, the proposed design consists of 656 hexagonal modules forming a 150 meter diameter dish. Each observatory module is largely autonomous, having its own photovoltaic power supply and low-noise receiver and processor for phase shifting. The signals received by the modules are channeled via fiber optics to the central control computer in the central bus module. After processing and multiplexing, the data is transmitted to telemetry stations on the ground. The truss frame supporting each observatory pane is a hybrid structure consisting of a bottom graphite/epoxy tubular triangle and rigidized inflatable Kevlar tubes connecting the top observatory panel and bottom triangle. Attitude control and stationkeeping functions are performed by a system of momentum wheels in the bus and four propulsion modules located at the compass points on the periphery of the observatory dish. Each propulsion module has four monopropellant thrusters and six hydrazine arcjets, the latter supported by a nuclear reactor. The total mass of the spacecraft is 22,060 kg.

  7. Project PARAS: Phased array radio astronomy from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuss, Kenneth; Hoffmann, Christopher; Dungan, Michael; Madden, Michael; Bendakhlia, Monia

    1992-01-01

    An orbiting radio telescope is proposed which, when operated in a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) scheme, would allow higher than currently available angular resolution and dynamic range in the maps and the ability to observe rapidly changing astronomical sources. Using passive phased array technology, the proposed design consists of 656 hexagonal modules forming a 150-m diameter antenna dish. Each observatory module is largely autonomous, having its own photovoltaic power supply and low-noise receiver and processor for phase shifting. The signals received by the modules are channeled via fiber optics to the central control computer in the central bus module. After processing and multiplexing, the data are transmitted to telemetry stations on the ground. The truss frame supporting each observatory panel is a novel hybrid structure consisting of a bottom graphite/epoxy tubular triangle and rigidized inflatable Kevlar tubes connecting the top observatory panel and the bottom triangle. Attitude control and station keeping functions will be performed by a system of momentum wheels in the bus and four propulsion modules located at the compass points on the periphery of the observatory dish. Each propulsion module has four monopropellant thrusters and four hydrazine arcjets, the latter supported by either a photovoltaic array or a radioisotope thermoelectric generator. The total mass of the spacecraft is about 20,500 kg.

  8. Phased Array Ultrasonic Evaluation of Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Nozzle Weld

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Steve; Engel, J.; Kimbrough, D.; Suits, M.; Hopson, George (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the phased array ultrasonic evaluation of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) nozzle weld. Details are given on the nondestructive testing evaluation approach, conventional shear wave and phased array techniques, and an x-ray versus phased array risk analysis. The field set-up was duplicated to the greatest extent possible in the laboratory and the phased array ultrasonic technique was developed and validated prior to weld evaluation. Results are shown for the phased array ultrasonic evaluation and conventional ultrasonic evaluation results.

  9. Free-space microwave power transmission study, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    The results of an investigation of the technology of free-space power transmission by microwave beam are presented. A description of the steps that were taken to increase the overall dc to dc efficiency of microwave power transmission from 15 percent to over 50 percent is given. Included in this overall efficiency were the efficiencies of the dc to microwave conversion, the microwave transmission itself, and the microwave to dc conversion. Improvements in launching the microwave beam with high efficiency by means of a dual mode horn resulted in 95 percent of the output of the microwave generator reaching the receiving area. Emphasis was placed upon successive improvements in reception and rectification of the microwave power, resulting in the design of a rectenna device for this purpose whose efficiency was 75 percent. The procedures and the hardware developed were the basis for tests certified by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in which an overall dc to dc efficiency of 54 percent was achieved.

  10. Space shuttle electromagnetic environment experiment. Phase A: Definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haber, F.; Showers, R. M.; Kocher, C.; Forrest, L. A., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for carrying out measurements of earth electromagnetic environment using the space shuttle as a measurement system platform are herein reported. The goal is to provide means for mapping intentional and nonintentional emitters on earth in the frequency range 0.4 to 40 GHz. A survey was made of known emitters using available data from national and international regulatory agencies, and from industry sources. The spatial distribution of sources, power levels, frequencies, degree of frequency re-use, etc., found in the survey, are here presented. A concept is developed for scanning the earth using a directive antenna whose beam is made to rotate at a fixed angle relative to the nadir; the illuminated area swept by the beam is of the form of cycloidal annulus over a sphere. During the beam's sojourn over a point, the receiver sweeps in frequency over ranges in the order of octave width using sweeping filter bandwidths sufficient to give stable readings.

  11. 3D imaging of translucent media with a plenoptic sensor based on phase space optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuanzhe; Shu, Bohong; Du, Shaojun

    2015-05-01

    Traditional stereo imaging technology is not working for dynamical translucent media, because there are no obvious characteristic patterns on it and it's not allowed using multi-cameras in most cases, while phase space optics can solve the problem, extracting depth information directly from "space-spatial frequency" distribution of the target obtained by plenoptic sensor with single lens. This paper discussed the presentation of depth information in phase space data, and calculating algorithms with different transparency. A 3D imaging example of waterfall was given at last.

  12. LDEF (Prelaunch), AO133 : Effect of Space Environment on Space-Based Radar Phased-Array Antenna, Tra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    LDEF (Prelaunch), AO133 : Effect of Space Environment on Space-Based Radar Phased-Array Antenna, Tray H07 The prelaunch photograph was taken in SAEF II at KSC prior to installation of the integrated tray on the LDEF. The Space-Based Radar (SBR) Phased-Array Antenna Experiment occupies a six (6) inch deep LDEF end corner tray located on the space end of the LDEF. The SBR Phased-Array Antenna experiment consists of both passive and active parts. The passive part , shown in the left half of the experiment tray, investigates the dimensional stability of Kapton when exposed to induced stresses in the space environment. Continuous and spliced specimen of both plain Kapton (127 um thick) and glass reinforced Kapton (196 um thick) will be exposed for the entire mission. The Kapton specimen array contains eight 2.54-cm-wide specimen and sixteen (16) 1.27-cm-wide specimen. The specimen are stretched over an aluminum roller assembly and utilize a spring loaded mechanism to provide preselected stresses. An aluminum support structure houses two (2) identical set of specimen, one exposed to the total environment and one shadowed. The fasteners are non-magnetic stainless steel and the black surface is a thermal control coating, 3M-Nextel 401-610 (Black Velvet). The active part of the experiment, located in the right half of the tray, investigates the interaction between high voltage and low-Earth-orbit plasma. A fourteen (14) inch wide by twenty eight (28) inch long section of the Grumman SBR Phased-Array antenna consisting of two Kapton antenna planes and a perforated aluminum ground plane mounted on an aluminum support structure. Cop- per dipole elements deposited on the Kapton antenna plane provide the high voltage electrodes. The fasteners are non-magnetic stainless steel and the black surface is a thermal control coating, 3M-Nextel 401-610 (Black Velvet).

  13. Quantum tomography with wavelet transform in Banach space on homogeneous space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaee, M.; Rezaei, M.; Jafarizadeh, M. A.

    2007-11-01

    In this study the intimate connection is established between the Banach space wavelet reconstruction method on homogeneous spaces with both singular and nonsingular vacuum vectors, and some of the well known quantum tomographies, such as: Moyal-representation for a spin, discrete phase space tomography, tomography of a free particle, Homodyne tomography, phase space tomography and SU(1,1) tomography. And both the atomic decomposition and the Banach frame nature of these quantum tomographic examples are also revealed in details. Finally the connection between the wavelet formalism on Banach space and Q-function is discussed.

  14. Influence of chaotic synchronization on mixing in the phase space of interacting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astakhov, Sergey V.; Dvorak, Anton; Anishchenko, Vadim S.

    2013-03-01

    Using the concept of the relative metric entropy, we study the influence of the synchronization phenomenon on mixing rate in the phase space of deterministic and noisy chaotic systems. We show that transition to both complete and phase synchronization of chaos is accompanied by the decrease of the level of mixing induced by internal nonlinear mechanisms of interacting systems as well as by external noise influence. Therefore, the decrease of the mixing rate in the phase space of interacting systems may indicate transition to synchronization. The obtained results are important for time series analysis in various types of real noisy systems (e.g., biological, social, and financial systems).

  15. Space observations of cold-cloud phase change.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yong-Sang; Lindzen, Richard S; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Kim, Jinwon

    2010-06-22

    This study examines the vertically resolved cloud measurements from the cloud-aerosol lidar with orthogonal polarization instrument on Aqua satellite from June 2006 through May 2007 to estimate the extent to which the mixed cloud-phase composition can vary according to the ambient temperature, an important concern for the uncertainty in calculating cloud radiative effects. At -20 degrees C, the global average fraction of supercooled clouds in the total cloud population is found to be about 50% in the data period. Between -10 and -40 degrees C, the fraction is smaller at lower temperatures. However, there are appreciable regional and temporal deviations from the global mean (> +/- 20%) at the isotherm. In the analysis with coincident dust aerosol data from the same instrument, it appears that the variation in the supercooled cloud fraction is negatively correlated with the frequencies of dust aerosols at the -20 degrees C isotherm. This result suggests a possibility that dust particles lifted to the cold cloud layer effectively glaciate supercooled clouds. Observations of radiative flux from the clouds and earth's radiant energy system instrument aboard Terra satellite, as well as radiative transfer model simulations, show that the 20% variation in the supercooled cloud fraction is quantitatively important in cloud radiative effects, especially in shortwave, which are 10-20 W m(-2) for regions of mixed-phase clouds affected by dust. In particular, our results demonstrate that dust, by glaciating supercooled water, can decrease albedo, thus compensating for the increase in albedo due to the dust aerosols themselves. This has important implications for the determination of climate sensitivity.

  16. Space observations of cold-cloud phase change

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yong-Sang; Lindzen, Richard S.; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Kim, Jinwon

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the vertically resolved cloud measurements from the cloud-aerosol lidar with orthogonal polarization instrument on Aqua satellite from June 2006 through May 2007 to estimate the extent to which the mixed cloud-phase composition can vary according to the ambient temperature, an important concern for the uncertainty in calculating cloud radiative effects. At -20 °C, the global average fraction of supercooled clouds in the total cloud population is found to be about 50% in the data period. Between -10 and -40 °C, the fraction is smaller at lower temperatures. However, there are appreciable regional and temporal deviations from the global mean (>  ± 20%) at the isotherm. In the analysis with coincident dust aerosol data from the same instrument, it appears that the variation in the supercooled cloud fraction is negatively correlated with the frequencies of dust aerosols at the -20 °C isotherm. This result suggests a possibility that dust particles lifted to the cold cloud layer effectively glaciate supercooled clouds. Observations of radiative flux from the clouds and earth’s radiant energy system instrument aboard Terra satellite, as well as radiative transfer model simulations, show that the 20% variation in the supercooled cloud fraction is quantitatively important in cloud radiative effects, especially in shortwave, which are 10 - 20 W m-2 for regions of mixed-phase clouds affected by dust. In particular, our results demonstrate that dust, by glaciating supercooled water, can decrease albedo, thus compensating for the increase in albedo due to the dust aerosols themselves. This has important implications for the determination of climate sensitivity. PMID:20534562

  17. The effective two-dimensional phase space of cosmological scalar fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, David C.

    2016-08-01

    It has been shown by Remmen and Carroll [1] that, for a model universe which contains only a kinetically canonical scalar field minimally coupled to gravity it is possible to choose `special coordinates' to describe a two-dimensional effective phase space. The special, non-canonical, coordinates are phi,dot phi and the ability to describe an effective phase space with these coordinates empowers the common usage of phi-dot phi as the space to define inflationary initial conditions. This paper extends the result to the full Horndeski action. The existence of a two-dimensional effective phase space is shown for the general case. Subsets of the Horndeski action, relevant to cosmology are considered as particular examples to highlight important aspects of the procedure.

  18. Effective increase in beam emittance by phase-space expansion using asymmetric Bragg diffraction.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chia-Hung; Tang, Mau-Tsu; Chang, Shih-Lin

    2015-08-24

    We propose an innovative method to extend the utilization of the phase space downstream of a synchrotron light source for X-ray transmission microscopy. Based on the dynamical theory of X-ray diffraction, asymmetrically cut perfect crystals are applied to reshape the position-angle-wavelength space of the light source, by which the usable phase space of the source can be magnified by over one hundred times, thereby "phase-space-matching" the source with the objective lens of the microscope. The method's validity is confirmed using SHADOW code simulations, and aberration through an optical lens such as a Fresnel zone plate is examined via matrix optics for nano-resolution X-ray images.

  19. Effective increase in beam emittance by phase-space expansion using asymmetric Bragg diffraction.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chia-Hung; Tang, Mau-Tsu; Chang, Shih-Lin

    2015-08-24

    We propose an innovative method to extend the utilization of the phase space downstream of a synchrotron light source for X-ray transmission microscopy. Based on the dynamical theory of X-ray diffraction, asymmetrically cut perfect crystals are applied to reshape the position-angle-wavelength space of the light source, by which the usable phase space of the source can be magnified by over one hundred times, thereby "phase-space-matching" the source with the objective lens of the microscope. The method's validity is confirmed using SHADOW code simulations, and aberration through an optical lens such as a Fresnel zone plate is examined via matrix optics for nano-resolution X-ray images. PMID:26368150

  20. Evaluating the robustness of the enantioselective stationary phases on the Rosetta mission against space vacuum vaporization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meierhenrich, Uwe J.; Cason, Julie R. L.; Szopa, Cyril; Sternberg, Robert; Raulin, François; Thiemann, Wolfram H.-P.; Goesmann, Fred

    2013-12-01

    The European Space Agency's Rosetta mission was launched in March 2004 in order to reach comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by August 2014. The Cometary Sampling and Composition experiment (COSAC) onboard the Rosetta mission's lander "Philae" has been designed for the cometary in situ detection and quantification of organic molecules using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The GC unit of COSAC is equipped with eight capillary columns that will each provide a specific stationary phase for molecular separation. Three of these stationary phases will be used to chromatographically resolve enantiomers, as they are composed of liquid polymers of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to which chiral valine or cyclodextrin units are attached. Throughout the ten years of Rosetta's journey through space to reach comet 67P, these liquid stationary phases have been exposed to space vacuum, as the capillary columns within the COSAC unit were not sealed or filled with carrier gas. Long term exposures to space vacuum can cause damage to such liquid stationary phases as key monomers, volatiles, and chiral selectors can be vaporized and lost in transit. We have therefore exposed identical spare units of COSAC's chiral stationary phases over eight years to vacuum conditions mimicking those experienced in space and we have now investigated their resolution capabilities towards different enantiomers both before and after exposure to space vacuum environments. We have observed that enantiomeric resolution capabilities of these chiral liquid enantioselective stationary phases has not been affected by exposure to space vacuum conditions. Thus we conclude that the three chiral stationary phases of the COSAC experiment onboard the Rosetta mission lander "Philae" can be considered to have maintained their resolution capacities throughout their journey prior to cometary landing in November 2014.

  1. Phase 1 Space Fission Propulsion System Testing and Development Progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDyke, Melissa; Houts, Mike; Godfroy, Tom; Dickens, Ricky; Poston, David; Kapernick, Rick; Reid, Bob; Salvail, Pat; Ring, Peter; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Successful development of space fission systems requires an extensive program of affordable and realistic testing. In addition to tests related to design/development of the fission system, realistic testing of the actual flight unit must also be performed. If the system is designed to operate within established radiation damage and fuel burn up limits while simultaneously being designed to allow close simulation of heat from fission using resistance heaters, high confidence in fission system performance and lifetime can be attained through a series of non-nuclear tests. The Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) test series, whose ultimate goal is the demonstration of a 300 kW flight configuration system, has demonstrated that realistic testing can be performed using non-nuclear methods. This test series, carried out in collaboration with other NASA centers, other government agencies, industry, and universities, successfully completed a testing program with a 30 kWt core, Stirling engine, and ion engine configuration. Additionally, a 100 kWt core is in fabrication and appropriate test facilities are being reconfigured. This paper describes the current SAFE non-nuclear tests, which includes test article descriptions, test results and conclusions, and future test plans.

  2. D Phase Space Measurements at the SLAC Gun Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmerge, J. F.; Bolton, P. R.; Clendenin, J. E.; Dowell, D. H.; Gierman, S. M.; Limborg, C. G.; Murphy, B. F.

    2003-12-01

    Proposed fourth generation light sources using SASE FELs to generate short pulse, coherent, X-rays require demonstration of high brightness electron sources. The Gun Test Facility (GTF) at SLAC was built to test high brightness sources for the proposed Linac Coherent Light Source at SLAC. The GTF is composed of an S-band photocathode rf gun with a Cu cathode, emittance compensating solenoid, single 3 m SLAC linac section and e-beam diagnostic section with a UV drive laser system. The longitudinal emittance exiting the gun has been determined by measuring the energy spectrum downstream of the linac as a function of the linac phase. The e-beam pulse width, correlated and uncorrelated energy spread at the linac entrance have been fit to the measured energy spectra using a least square error fitting routine. The fit yields a pulse width of 2.9 ps FWHM for a 4.3 ps FWHM laser pulsewidth and 2% rms correlated energy spread with 0.07% rms uncorrelated energy spread. The correlated energy spread is enhanced in the linac to allow slice emittance measurements by conducting a quadrupole scan in a dispersive section. The normalized slice emittance has been measured to be as low as 2 mm-mrad for beams with peak currents up to 150 A (300 pC with a laser pulse length of 1.8 ps) while the full projected emittance is 3 mm-mrad.

  3. Surgery in space. Phase I: Basic surgical principles in a simulated space environment.

    PubMed

    Satava, R M

    1988-06-01

    The venturing forth of man into space confronts the surgeon with a new weightless environment with which he will inevitably have to contend. In this study operative procedures were performed on 20 rats in a simulated space environment with use of neutral buoyancy in order to identify those factors that could actually or potentially affect operative technique. There are three general areas of difference from normal conditions in simulated microgravity: physical adaptation to gravity deprivation tissue behavior, including bleeding; and the conduct of surgery. Without gravity, the tactile "feel" of objects is changed ("heavy" and "light" are meaningless terms) and proprioception is confused so that there is past pointing and overreaching of movements. Tissue planes tend to separate, and organs float and bob in the operative field, which makes clamping, cutting, and suturing different. Bleeding is a major consideration; surface tension tends to keep venous blood oozing along surfaces, whereas pulsatile arterial blood forms droplets, streamers, and clouds, depending on the force of the bleeding. These factors and others interfere with surgical technique in a number of ways: dispersion of blood obscures the surgeon's vision, sutures become entangled, organs are not stabilized, and instruments float into the operative field. The limitations of comparing neutral buoyancy to the true zero gravity of space are addressed. There is a definite need for further investigation for development of new surgical techniques in preparation for experimental and clinical surgery in space.

  4. Fluid Phase Separation (FPS) experiment for flight on a space shuttle Get Away Special (GAS) canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Bruce; Wingo, Dennis; Bower, Mark; Amborski, Robert; Blount, Laura; Daniel, Alan; Hagood, Bob; Handley, James; Hediger, Donald; Jimmerson, Lisa

    1990-01-01

    The separation of fluid phases in microgravity environments is of importance to environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) and materials processing in space. A successful fluid phase separation experiment will demonstrate a proof of concept for the separation technique and add to the knowledge base of material behavior. The phase separation experiment will contain a premixed fluid which will be exposed to a microgravity environment. After the phase separation of the compound has occurred, small samples of each of the species will be taken for analysis on the Earth. By correlating the time of separation and the temperature history of the fluid, it will be possible to characterize the process. The experiment has been integrated into space available on a manifested Get Away Special (GAS) experiment, CONCAP 2, part of the Consortium for Materials Complex Autonomous Payload (CAP) Program, scheduled for STS-42. The design and the production of a fluid phase separation experiment for rapid implementation at low cost is presented.

  5. Phase-Stable Free-Space Optical Lattices for Trapped Ions.

    PubMed

    Schmiegelow, C T; Kaufmann, H; Ruster, T; Schulz, J; Kaushal, V; Hettrich, M; Schmidt-Kaler, F; Poschinger, U G

    2016-01-22

    We demonstrate control of the absolute phase of an optical lattice with respect to a single trapped ion. The lattice is generated by off-resonant free-space laser beams, and we actively stabilize its phase by measuring its ac-Stark shift on a trapped ion. The ion is localized within the standing wave to better than 2% of its period. The locked lattice allows us to apply displacement operations via resonant optical forces with a controlled direction in phase space. Moreover, we observe the lattice-induced phase evolution of spin superposition states in order to analyze the relevant decoherence mechanisms. Finally, we employ lattice-induced phase shifts for inferring the variation of the ion position over the 157  μm range along the trap axis at accuracies of better than 6 nm.

  6. Performance evaluation of digital phase-locked loops for advanced deep space transponders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, T. M.; Hinedi, S. M.; Yeh, H.-G.; Kyriacou, C.

    1994-01-01

    The performances of the digital phase-locked loops (DPLL's) for the advanced deep-space transponders (ADT's) are investigated. DPLL's considered in this article are derived from the analog phase-locked loop, which is currently employed by the NASA standard deep space transponder, using S-domain to Z-domain mapping techniques. Three mappings are used to develop digital approximations of the standard deep space analog phase-locked loop, namely the bilinear transformation (BT), impulse invariant transformation (IIT), and step invariant transformation (SIT) techniques. The performance in terms of the closed loop phase and magnitude responses, carrier tracking jitter, and response of the loop to the phase offset (the difference between in incoming phase and reference phase) is evaluated for each digital approximation. Theoretical results of the carrier tracking jitter for command-on and command-off cases are then validated by computer simulation. Both theoretical and computer simulation results show that at high sampling frequency, the DPLL's approximated by all three transformations have the same tracking jitter. However, at low sampling frequency, the digital approximation using BT outperforms the others. The minimum sampling frequency for adequate tracking performance is determined for each digital approximation of the analog loop. In addition, computer simulation shows that the DPLL developed by BT provides faster response to the phase offset than IIT and SIT.

  7. EDITORIAL: The plurality of optical singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, Michael; Dennis, Mark; Soskin, Marat

    2004-05-01

    This collection of papers arose from an Advanced Research Workshop on Singular Optics, held at the Bogolyubov Institute in Kiev, Ukraine, during 24-28 June 2003. The workshop was generously financed by NATO, with welcome additional support from Institute of Physics Publishing and the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. There had been two previous international meetings devoted to singular optics, in Crimea in 1997 and 2000, reflecting the strong involvement of former Soviet Union countries in this research. Awareness of singular optics is growing within the wider optics community, indicated by symposia on the subject at several general optics meetings. As the papers demonstrate, the field of singular optics has reached maturity. Although the subject originated in an observation on ultrasound, it has been largely theory-driven until recently. Now, however, there is close contact between theory and experiment, and we speculate that this is one reason for its accelerated development. To single out particular papers for mention here would be invidious, and since the papers speak for themselves it is not necessary to describe them all. Instead, we will confine ourselves to a brief description of the main areas included in singular optics, to illustrate the broad scope of the subject. Optical vortices are lines of phase singularity: nodal lines where the intensity of the light, represented by a complex scalar field, vanishes. The subject has emerged from flatland, where the vortices are points characterized by topological charges, into the much richer world of vortex lines in three dimensions. By combining Laguerre-Gauss or Bessel beams, or reflecting light from plates with spiral steps, intricate arrangements can be generated, with vortices that are curved, looped, knotted, linked or braided. With light whose state of polarization varies with position, different singularities occur, associated with the vector nature of light. These are also lines, on which the

  8. Looking for phase-space structures in star-forming regions: an MST-based methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfaro, Emilio J.; González, Marta

    2016-03-01

    We present a method for analysing the phase space of star-forming regions. In particular we are searching for clumpy structures in the 3D sub-space formed by two position coordinates and radial velocity. The aim of the method is the detection of kinematic segregated radial velocity groups, that is, radial velocity intervals whose associated stars are spatially concentrated. To this end we define a kinematic segregation index, tilde{Λ }(RV), based on the Minimum Spanning Tree graph algorithm, which is estimated for a set of radial velocity intervals in the region. When tilde{Λ }(RV) is significantly greater than 1 we consider that this bin represents a grouping in the phase space. We split a star-forming region into radial velocity bins and calculate the kinematic segregation index for each bin, and then we obtain the spectrum of kinematic groupings, which enables a quick visualization of the kinematic behaviour of the region under study. We carried out numerical models of different configurations in the sub-space of the phase space formed by the coordinates and the that various case studies illustrate. The analysis of the test cases demonstrates the potential of the new methodology for detecting different kind of groupings in phase space.

  9. Quantum phase-space picture of Bose-Einstein condensates in a double well

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmud, Khan W.; Perry, Heidi; Reinhardt, William P.

    2005-02-01

    We present a quantum phase-space model of the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in a double-well potential. In a quantum two-mode approximation we examine the eigenvectors and eigenvalues and find that the energy correlation diagram indicates a transition from a delocalized to a fragmented regime. Phase-space information is extracted from the stationary quantum states using the Husimi distribution function. We show that the mean-field phase-space characteristics of a nonrigid physical pendulum arises from the exact quantum states, and that only 4-8 particles per well are needed to reach the semiclassical limit. For a driven double-well BEC, we show that the classical chaotic dynamics is manifest in the dynamics of the quantum states. Phase-space analogy also suggests that a {pi} phase-displaced wave packet put on the unstable fixed point on a separatrix bifurcates to create a superposition of two pendulum rotor states--a macroscopic superposition state of BEC. We show that the choice of initial barrier height and ramping, following a {pi} phase imprinting on the condensate, can be used to generate controlled entangled number states with tunable extremity and sharpness.

  10. Phase and Pupil Amplitude Recovery for JWST Space-Optics Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, B. H.; Zielinski, T. P.; Smith, J. S.; Bolcar, M. R.; Aronstein, D. L.; Fienup, J. R.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the phase and pupil amplitude recovery for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam). It includes views of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM), the NIRCam, examples of Phase Retrieval Data, Ghost Irradiance, Pupil Amplitude Estimation, Amplitude Retrieval, Initial Plate Scale Estimation using the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), Pupil Amplitude Estimation vs lambda, Pupil Amplitude Estimation vs. number of Images, Pupil Amplitude Estimation vs Rotation (clocking), and Typical Phase Retrieval Results Also included is information about the phase retrieval approach, Non-Linear Optimization (NLO) Optimized Diversity Functions, and Least Square Error vs. Starting Pupil Amplitude.

  11. Tangled nonlinear driven chain reactions of all optical singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasil'ev, V. I.; Soskin, M. S.

    2012-03-01

    Dynamics of polarization optical singularities chain reactions in generic elliptically polarized speckle fields created in photorefractive crystal LiNbO3 was investigated in details Induced speckle field develops in the tens of minutes scale due to photorefractive 'optical damage effect' induced by incident beam of He-Ne laser. It was shown that polarization singularities develop through topological chain reactions of developing speckle fields driven by photorefractive nonlinearities induced by incident laser beam. All optical singularities (C points, optical vortices, optical diabolos,) are defined by instantaneous topological structure of the output wavefront and are tangled by singular optics lows. Therefore, they have develop in tangled way by six topological chain reactions driven by nonlinear processes in used nonlinear medium (photorefractive LiNbO3:Fe in our case): C-points and optical diabolos for right (left) polarized components domains with orthogonally left (right) polarized optical vortices underlying them. All elements of chain reactions consist from loop and chain links when nucleated singularities annihilated directly or with alien singularities in 1:9 ratio. The topological reason of statistics was established by low probability of far enough separation of born singularities pair from existing neighbor singularities during loop trajectories. Topology of developing speckle field was measured and analyzed by dynamic stokes polarimetry with few seconds' resolution. The hierarchy of singularities govern scenario of tangled chain reactions was defined. The useful space-time data about peculiarities of optical damage evolution were obtained from existence and parameters of 'islands of stability' in developing speckle fields.

  12. Phase diagram of Model C in the parametric space of order parameter and space dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudka, M.; Folk, R.; Holovatch, Yu.

    2016-03-01

    The scaling behavior of Model C describing the dynamical behavior of the n -component nonconserved order parameter coupled statically to a scalar conserved density is considered in d -dimensional space. Conditions for the realization of different types of scaling regimes in the (n ,d ) plane are studied within the field-theoretical renormalization group approach. Borders separating these regions are calculated on the base of high-order RG functions using ɛ expansions as well as by fixed dimension d approach with resummation.

  13. Phase space structures in gyrokinetic simulations of fusion plasma turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghendrih, Philippe; Norscini, Claudia; Cartier-Michaud, Thomas; Dif-Pradalier, Guilhem; Abiteboul, Jérémie; Dong, Yue; Garbet, Xavier; Gürcan, Ozgür; Hennequin, Pascale; Grandgirard, Virginie; Latu, Guillaume; Morel, Pierre; Sarazin, Yanick; Storelli, Alexandre; Vermare, Laure

    2014-10-01

    Gyrokinetic simulations of fusion plasmas give extensive information in 5D on turbulence and transport. This paper highlights a few of these challenging physics in global, flux driven simulations using experimental inputs from Tore Supra shot TS45511. The electrostatic gyrokinetic code GYSELA is used for these simulations. The 3D structure of avalanches indicates that these structures propagate radially at localised toroidal angles and then expand along the field line at sound speed to form the filaments. Analysing the poloidal mode structure of the potential fluctuations (at a given toroidal location), one finds that the low modes m = 0 and m = 1 exhibit a global structure; the magnitude of the m = 0 mode is much larger than that of the m = 1 mode. The shear layers of the corrugation structures are thus found to be dominated by the m = 0 contribution, that are comparable to that of the zonal flows. This global mode seems to localise the m = 2 mode but has little effect on the localisation of the higher mode numbers. However when analysing the pulsation of the latter modes one finds that all modes exhibit a similar phase velocity, comparable to the local zonal flow velocity. The consequent dispersion like relation between the modes pulsation and the mode numbers provides a means to measure the zonal flow. Temperature fluctuations and the turbulent heat flux are localised between the corrugation structures. Temperature fluctuations are found to exhibit two scales, small fluctuations that are localised by the corrugation shear layers, and appear to bounce back and forth radially, and large fluctuations, also readily observed on the flux, which are associated to the disruption of the corrugations. The radial ballistic velocity of both avalanche events if of the order of 0.5ρ∗c0 where ρ∗ = ρ0/a, a being the tokamak minor radius and ρ0 being the characteristic Larmor radius, ρ0 = c0/Ω0. c0 is the reference ion thermal velocity and Ω0 = qiB0/mi the reference

  14. Cosmological singularities in Born-Infeld determinantal gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouhmadi-López, Mariam; Chen, Che-Yu; Chen, Pisin

    2014-12-01

    The Born-Infeld determinantal gravity has been recently proposed as a way to smooth the big bang singularity. This theory is formulated on the Weitzenböck space-time and the teleparallel representation is used instead of the standard Riemannian representation. We find that although this theory is shown to be singularity free for a certain region of the parameter space in which the divergence of the Hubble rate in the high-energy regime is substituted by a de Sitter stage or a bounce in a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe, cosmological singularities—such as a big rip, big bang, big freeze, and sudden singularities—can emerge in other regions of the configuration space of the theory. We also show that all these singular events exist even though the universe is filled with a perfect fluid with a constant equation of state.

  15. Unified matrix approach to the description of phase-space rotators.

    PubMed

    Gitin, Andrey V

    2016-03-01

    In optics, the rotation of a phase-space can be realized via light propagation through both an inhomogeneous medium with a radial gradient of refractive index and two special kinds of mirror-symmetrical optical systems suggested by Lohmann. Although light propagation through Lohmann's systems is described in terms of matrix optics, light propagation through the gradient-index medium is traditionally described as a solution of the wave equation. The difference in these descriptions hinders the understanding of the phase-space rotators. Fortunately, there is a matrix description of light propagation through a gradient-index medium too. A general description of the phase-space rotators is presented, which can be used to treat light propagation through both Lohmann's systems and the gradient-index medium in a unified matrix manner.

  16. Nonlinear Prediction As A Tool For Determining Parameters For Phase Space Reconstruction In Meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miksovsky, J.; Raidl, A.

    Time delays phase space reconstruction represents one of useful tools of nonlinear time series analysis, enabling number of applications. Its utilization requires the value of time delay to be known, as well as the value of embedding dimension. There are sev- eral methods how to estimate both these parameters. Typically, time delay is computed first, followed by embedding dimension. Our presented approach is slightly different - we reconstructed phase space for various combinations of mentioned parameters and used it for prediction by means of the nearest neighbours in the phase space. Then some measure of prediction's success was computed (correlation or RMSE, e.g.). The position of its global maximum (minimum) should indicate the suitable combination of time delay and embedding dimension. Several meteorological (particularly clima- tological) time series were used for the computations. We have also created a MS- Windows based program in order to implement this approach - its basic features will be presented as well.

  17. From time series to complex networks: The phase space coarse graining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Minggang; Tian, Lixin

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we present a simple and fast computational method, the phase space coarse graining algorithm that converts a time series into a directed and weighted complex network. The constructed directed and weighted complex network inherits several properties of the series in its structure. Thereby, periodic series convert into regular networks, and random series do so into random networks. Moreover, chaotic series convert into scale-free networks. It is shown that the phase space coarse graining algorithm allows us to distinguish, identify and describe in detail various time series. Finally, we apply the phase space coarse graining algorithm to the practical observations series, international gasoline regular spot price series and identify its dynamic characteristics.

  18. Phase space and quark mass effects in neutrino emissions in a color superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qun; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Wu, Jian

    2006-07-01

    We study the phase space for neutrino emissions with massive quarks in direct Urca processes in normal and color-superconducting quark matter. We derive in QCD and the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model the Fermi momentum reduction resulting from Fermi liquid properties which opens up the phase space for neutrino emissions. The relation between the Fermi momentum and chemical potential is found to be pF≈μ(1-κ) with κ depending on coupling constants. We find in the weak coupling regime that κ is a monotonically increasing function of the chemical potential. This implies quenched phase space for neutrino emissions at low baryon densities. We calculate neutrino emissivities with massive quarks in a spin-one color superconductor. The quark mass corrections are found to be of the same order as the contributions in the massless case, which will bring sizable effects on the cooling behavior of compact stars.

  19. X-ray imaging: a generalized approach using phase-space tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Chanh Q.; Peele, Andrew G.; Roberts, Ann; Nugent, Keith A.; Paterson, David; McNulty, Ian

    2005-08-01

    We discuss the role of coherence in x-ray imaging and consider how phase-space tomography can be used to extract information about partial coherence. We describe the application of phase-space tomography to x-ray imaging and recover the spatial coherence properties of a one-dimensional soft (1.5 keV) x-ray beam from a synchrotron undulator source. We present phase-space information from a Young's experiment and observe negative regions in the quasi-probability distribution. We show that, given knowledge of the coherence of the beam, we can use partially coherent diffraction data to recover fully coherent information, and we present some simple experimental demonstrations of this capability.

  20. Three-Phonon Phase Space as an Indicator of the Lattice Thermal Conductivity in Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, L.; Broido, D. A.

    2007-03-01

    The room temperature lattice thermal conductivity of many semiconductors is limited primarily by three-phonon scattering processes arising from the anharmonicity of the interatomic potential. We employ an adiabatic bond charge model [1,2] for the phonon dispersions to calculate the phase space for three-phonon scattering events of several group IV and III-V semiconductors. We find that the amount of phase space available for this scattering in materials varies inversely with their measured thermal conductivities. Anomalous behavior occurs in III-V materials having large mass differences between cation and anion, which we explain in terms of the severely restricted three-phonon phase space arising from the large gap between acoustic and optic phonon branches. [1] W. Weber, Physical Review B 15, 4789 (1977). [2] K. C. Rustagi and W. Weber, Solid State Communications 18, 673 (1976).

  1. High-order continuum kinetic method for modeling plasma dynamics in phase space

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Vogman, G. V.; Colella, P.; Shumlak, U.

    2014-12-15

    Continuum methods offer a high-fidelity means of simulating plasma kinetics. While computationally intensive, these methods are advantageous because they can be cast in conservation-law form, are not susceptible to noise, and can be implemented using high-order numerical methods. Advances in continuum method capabilities for modeling kinetic phenomena in plasmas require the development of validation tools in higher dimensional phase space and an ability to handle non-cartesian geometries. To that end, a new benchmark for validating Vlasov-Poisson simulations in 3D (x,vx,vy) is presented. The benchmark is based on the Dory-Guest-Harris instability and is successfully used to validate a continuum finite volumemore » algorithm. To address challenges associated with non-cartesian geometries, unique features of cylindrical phase space coordinates are described. Preliminary results of continuum kinetic simulations in 4D (r,z,vr,vz) phase space are presented.« less

  2. Amateur Radio on the International Space Station - Phase 2 Hardware System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; McFadin, L.; Bruninga, B.; Watarikawa, H.

    2003-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) ham radio system has been on-orbit for over 3 years. Since its first use in November 2000, the first seven expedition crews and three Soyuz taxi crews have utilized the amateur radio station in the Functional Cargo Block (also referred to as the FGB or Zarya module) to talk to thousands of students in schools, to their families on Earth, and to amateur radio operators around the world. Early on, the Amateur Radio on the International Space Station (ARISS) international team devised a multi-phased hardware development approach for the ISS ham radio station. Three internal development Phases. Initial Phase 1, Mobile Radio Phase 2 and Permanently Mounted Phase 3 plus an externally mounted system, were proposed and agreed to by the ARISS team. The Phase 1 system hardware development which was started in 1996 has since been delivered to ISS. It is currently operational on 2 meters. The 70 cm system is expected to be installed and operated later this year. Since 2001, the ARISS international team have worked to bring the second generation ham system, called Phase 2, to flight qualification status. At this time, major portions of the Phase 2 hardware system have been delivered to ISS and will soon be installed and checked out. This paper intends to provide an overview of the Phase 1 system for background and then describe the capabilities of the Phase 2 radio system. It will also describe the current plans to finalize the Phase 1 and Phase 2 testing in Russia and outlines the plans to bring the Phase 2 hardware system to full operation.

  3. Space shuttle main engine definition (phase B). Volume 2: Avionics. [for space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The advent of the space shuttle engine with its requirements for high specific impulse, long life, and low cost have dictated a combustion cycle and a closed loop control system to allow the engine components to run close to operating limits. These performance requirements, combined with the necessity for low operational costs, have placed new demands on rocket engine control, system checkout, and diagnosis technology. Based on considerations of precision environment, and compatibility with vehicle interface commands, an electronic control, makes available many functions that logically provide the information required for engine system checkout and diagnosis.

  4. The fault monitoring and diagnosis knowledge-based system for space power systems: AMPERES, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. C.

    1989-01-01

    The objective is to develop a real time fault monitoring and diagnosis knowledge-based system (KBS) for space power systems which can save costly operational manpower and can achieve more reliable space power system operation. The proposed KBS was developed using the Autonomously Managed Power System (AMPS) test facility currently installed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), but the basic approach taken for this project could be applicable for other space power systems. The proposed KBS is entitled Autonomously Managed Power-System Extendible Real-time Expert System (AMPERES). In Phase 1 the emphasis was put on the design of the overall KBS, the identification of the basic research required, the initial performance of the research, and the development of a prototype KBS. In Phase 2, emphasis is put on the completion of the research initiated in Phase 1, and the enhancement of the prototype KBS developed in Phase 1. This enhancement is intended to achieve a working real time KBS incorporated with the NASA space power system test facilities. Three major research areas were identified and progress was made in each area. These areas are real time data acquisition and its supporting data structure; sensor value validations; development of inference scheme for effective fault monitoring and diagnosis, and its supporting knowledge representation scheme.

  5. Symmetries of nonrelativistic phase space and the structure of quark-lepton generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Źenczykowski, Piotr

    2009-06-01

    According to the Hamiltonian formalism, nonrelativistic phase space may be considered as an arena of physics, with momentum and position treated as independent variables. Invariance of x2 + p2 constitutes then a natural generalization of ordinary rotational invariance. We consider Dirac-like linearization of this form, with position and momentum satisfying standard commutation relations. This leads to the identification of a quantum-level structure from which some phase space properties might emerge. Genuine rotations and reflections in phase space are tied to the existence of new quantum numbers, unrelated to ordinary 3D space. Their properties allow their identification with the internal quantum numbers characterising the structure of a single quark-lepton generation in the Standard Model. In particular, the algebraic structure of the Harari-Shupe preon model of fundamental particles is reproduced exactly and without invoking any subparticles. Analysis of the Clifford algebra of nonrelativistic phase space singles out an element which might be associated with the concept of lepton mass. This element is transformed into a corresponding element for a single coloured quark, leading to a generalization of the concept of mass and a different starting point for the discussion of quark unobservability.

  6. Evolution of electron beam phase space distribution in a high-gain FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Webb,S.D.; Litvinenko, V. N.

    2009-08-23

    FEL-based coherent electron cooling (CEC) offers a new avenue to achieve high luminosities in high energy colliders such as RHIC, LHC, and eRHIC. Traditional treatments consider the FEL as an amplifier of optical waves with specific initial conditions, focusing on the resulting field. CEC requires knowledge of the phase space distribution of the electron beam in the FEL. We present 1D analytical results for the phase space distribution of an electron beam with an arbitrary initial current profile, and discuss approaches of expanding to 3D results.

  7. Space Station Freedom environmental control and life support system phase 3 simplified integrated test detailed report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, B. C.; Carrasquillo, R. L.; Dubiel, M. Y.; Ogle, K. Y.; Perry, J. L.; Whitley, K. M.

    1990-01-01

    A description of the phase 3 simplified integrated test (SIT) conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Core Module Integration Facility (CMIF) in 1989 is presented. This was the first test in the phase 3 series integrated environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) tests. The basic goal of the SIT was to achieve full integration of the baseline air revitalization (AR) subsystems for Space Station Freedom. Included is a description of the SIT configuration, a performance analysis of each subsystem, results from air and water sampling, and a discussion of lessons learned from the test. Also included is a full description of the preprototype ECLSS hardware used in the test.

  8. Ion phase-space vortices and their relation to small amplitude double layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pecseli, Hans L.

    1987-01-01

    The properties of ion phase-space vortices are reviewed with particular attention to their role in the formation of small amplitude double layers in current-carrying plasmas. In a one-dimensional analysis, many such double layers simply add up to produce a large voltage drop. A laboratory experiment is carried out in order to investigate the properties of ion phase-space vortices in three dimensions. Their lifetime is significantly reduced as compared with similar results from one-dimensional numerical simulations of the problem.

  9. The application of the phase space time evolution method to electron shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordaro, M. C.; Zucker, M. S.

    1972-01-01

    A computer technique for treating the motion of charged and neutral particles and called the phase space time evolution method was developed. This technique employs the computer's bookkeeping capacity to keep track of the time development of a phase space distribution of particles. This method was applied to a study of the penetration of electrons. A 1 MeV beam of electrons normally incident on a semi-infinite slab of aluminum was used. Results of the calculation were compared with Monte Carlo calculations and experimental results. Time-dependent PSTE electron penetration results for the same problem are presented.

  10. GPU-based Monte Carlo radiotherapy dose calculation using phase-space sources.

    PubMed

    Townson, Reid W; Jia, Xun; Tian, Zhen; Graves, Yan Jiang; Zavgorodni, Sergei; Jiang, Steve B

    2013-06-21

    A novel phase-space source implementation has been designed for graphics processing unit (GPU)-based Monte Carlo dose calculation engines. Short of full simulation of the linac head, using a phase-space source is the most accurate method to model a clinical radiation beam in dose calculations. However, in GPU-based Monte Carlo dose calculations where the computation efficiency is very high, the time required to read and process a large phase-space file becomes comparable to the particle transport time. Moreover, due to the parallelized nature of GPU hardware, it is essential to simultaneously transport particles of the same type and similar energies but separated spatially to yield a high efficiency. We present three methods for phase-space implementation that have been integrated into the most recent version of the GPU-based Monte Carlo radiotherapy dose calculation package gDPM v3.0. The first method is to sequentially read particles from a patient-dependent phase-space and sort them on-the-fly based on particle type and energy. The second method supplements this with a simple secondary collimator model and fluence map implementation so that patient-independent phase-space sources can be used. Finally, as the third method (called the phase-space-let, or PSL, method) we introduce a novel source implementation utilizing pre-processed patient-independent phase-spaces that are sorted by particle type, energy and position. Position bins located outside a rectangular region of interest enclosing the treatment field are ignored, substantially decreasing simulation time with little effect on the final dose distribution. The three methods were validated in absolute dose against BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc and compared using gamma-index tests (2%/2 mm above the 10% isodose). It was found that the PSL method has the optimal balance between accuracy and efficiency and thus is used as the default method in gDPM v3.0. Using the PSL method, open fields of 4 × 4, 10 × 10 and 30 × 30 cm

  11. Phase-space dynamics of ionization injection in plasma-based accelerators.

    PubMed

    Xu, X L; Hua, J F; Li, F; Zhang, C J; Yan, L X; Du, Y C; Huang, W H; Chen, H B; Tang, C X; Lu, W; Yu, P; An, W; Joshi, C; Mori, W B

    2014-01-24

    The evolution of beam phase space in ionization injection into plasma wakefields is studied using theory and particle-in-cell simulations. The injection process involves both longitudinal and transverse phase mixing, leading initially to a rapid emittance growth followed by oscillation, decay, and a slow growth to saturation. An analytic theory for this evolution is presented and verified through particle-in-cell simulations. This theory includes the effects of injection distance (time), acceleration distance, wakefield structure, and nonlinear space charge forces, and it also shows how ultralow emittance beams can be produced using ionization injection methods.

  12. Phase space analysis for a scalar-tensor model with kinetic and Gauss-Bonnet couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granda, L. N.; Loaiza, E.

    2016-09-01

    We study the phase space for a scalar-tensor string inspired model of dark energy with nonminimal kinetic and Gauss-Bonnet couplings. The form of the scalar potential and of the coupling terms is of the exponential type, which gives rise to appealing cosmological solutions. The critical points describe a variety of cosmological scenarios that go from a matter or radiation dominated universe to a dark energy dominated universe. Trajectories were found in the phase space departing from unstable or saddle fixed points and arriving at the stable scalar field dominated point corresponding to late-time accelerated expansion.

  13. Effect of the phase space factor in the breakup of composite particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paić, G.; Antolković, B.

    1981-04-01

    The need to include the phase space factor in the analysis of α breakup spectra according to Fermi's Golden Rule is indicated. The importance of the number of particles present in the final state is exemplified by a model calculation for proton, deuteron, and triton spectra produced by the breakup of 160 MeV alphas on zirconium. NUCLEAR REACTIONS phase space factor, model alpha breakup spectra for Zr(α,xp), Zr(α,xd), and Zr(α,xt) reactions at Eα=160 MeV.

  14. A Gaussian wave packet phase-space representation of quantum canonical statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Coughtrie, David J.; Tew, David P.

    2015-07-28

    We present a mapping of quantum canonical statistical averages onto a phase-space average over thawed Gaussian wave-packet (GWP) parameters, which is exact for harmonic systems at all temperatures. The mapping invokes an effective potential surface, experienced by the wave packets, and a temperature-dependent phase-space integrand, to correctly transition from the GWP average at low temperature to classical statistics at high temperature. Numerical tests on weakly and strongly anharmonic model systems demonstrate that thermal averages of the system energy and geometric properties are accurate to within 1% of the exact quantum values at all temperatures.

  15. Free space optical communication link using a silicon photonic optical phased array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinovich, William S.; Goetz, Peter G.; Pruessner, Marcel; Mahon, Rita; Ferraro, Mike S.; Park, Doe; Fleet, Erin; DePrenger, Michael J.

    2015-03-01

    Many components for free space optical communication systems have shrunken in size over the last decade. However, the steering systems have remained large and power hungry. Non-mechanical beam steering offers a path to reducing the size of these systems. Optical phased arrays can allow integrated beam steering elements. One of the most important aspects of an optical phased array technology is its scalability to a large number of elements. Silicon photonics can potentially offer this scalability using CMOS foundry techniques. In this paper a small-scale silicon photonic optical phased array is demonstrated for both the transmitter and receiver functions in a free space optical link. The device using an array of thermo-optically controlled waveguide phase shifters and demonstrates one-dimensional steering with a single control electrode. Transmission of a digitized video data stream over the link is shown.

  16. The principle of space coherent laser communication based on Costas phase-locked loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yang; Zheng, Jianping; Tong, Shoufeng; Jiang, Huilin; He, Wenjun

    2013-08-01

    The space coherent laser communication is a very potential mean for high-speed laser communication in the future, because the excellent receiver sensitivities can be achieved by coherent detection techniques. The best coherent receiver sensitivity amounts to -59.4dBm at a data rate of 10Gbit/s and a bit error rate of 10-9, which is obtained with phase-shift keying modulation in combination with homodyne detection. In this paper, we investigated optical homodyne detection based on Costas phase-locked loop in the space coherent laser communication system. We obtain optimum loop bandwidth of Costas phase-locked loop and the maximum permissible laser line width based on Costas phase locked loop.

  17. Phase-space description of plasma waves: Linear and nonlinear theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biro, Thomas

    1992-11-01

    A (r,k) phase description of waves in plasmas is developed by introducing Gaussian window functions to separate short scale oscillations from long scale modulations of the wave fields and variations in the plasma parameters. To obtain a wave equation that unambiguously separates conservative dynamics from dissipation also in an inhomogeneous and time varying background plasma, the proper form of the current response function, is discussed. On the analogy of the particle distribution function f(v,r,t), a wave density N(k,r,t) is introduced on phase space. This function is proven to satisfy a simple continuity equation. Dissipation is also included, and this allows the damping or growth of wave density along rays to be described. Problems involving geometric optics of continuous media often appear simpler when viewed in phase space, since the flow of N in phase space is incompressible. Within the phase space representation, a very general formula for the second order nonlinear current is obtained in terms of the vector potential. This formula is a convenient starting point for studies of coherent as well as turbulent nonlinear processes. Kinetic equations for weakly inhomogeneous and turbulent plasmas are derived, including the effects of inhomogeneous turbulence, wave convection and refraction.

  18. Chemical potential driven phase transition of black holes in anti-de Sitter space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galante, Mario; Giribet, Gaston; Goya, Andrés; Oliva, Julio

    2015-11-01

    Einstein-Maxwell theory conformally coupled to a scalar field in D dimensions may exhibit a phase transition at low temperature whose end point is an asymptotically anti-de Sitter black hole with a scalar field profile that is regular everywhere outside and on the horizon. This provides a tractable model to study the phase transition of hairy black holes in anti-de Sitter space in which the backreaction on the geometry can be solved analytically.

  19. Phase space gradient of dissipated work and information: A role of relative Fisher information

    SciTech Connect

    Yamano, Takuya

    2013-11-15

    We show that an information theoretic distance measured by the relative Fisher information between canonical equilibrium phase densities corresponding to forward and backward processes is intimately related to the gradient of the dissipated work in phase space. We present a universal constraint on it via the logarithmic Sobolev inequality. Furthermore, we point out that a possible expression of the lower bound indicates a deep connection in terms of the relative entropy and the Fisher information of the canonical distributions.

  20. Phased Array Ultrasonic Examination of Space Shuttle Main Engine Nozzle Weld

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, S.; Engel, J.; Kimbrough, D.; Suits, M.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a Phased Array Ultrasonic Examination that was developed for the examination of a limited access circumferential Inconel 718 fusion weld of a Space Shuttle Main Engine Nozzle - Cone. The paper discusses the selection and formation criteria used for the phased array focal laws, the reference standard that simulated hardware conditions, the examination concept, and results. Several unique constraints present during this examination included limited probe movement to a single axis and one-sided access to the weld.

  1. Isolated singularities of graphs in warped products and Monge-Ampère equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gálvez, José A.; Jiménez, Asun; Mira, Pablo

    2016-02-01

    We study graphs of positive extrinsic curvature with a non-removable isolated singularity in 3-dimensional warped product spaces, and describe their behavior at the singularity in several natural situations. We use Monge-Ampère equations to give a classification of the surfaces in 3-dimensional space forms which are embedded around a non-removable isolated singularity and have a prescribed, real analytic, positive extrinsic curvature function at every point. Specifically, we prove that this space is in one-to-one correspondence with the space of regular, analytic, strictly convex Jordan curves in the 2-dimensional sphere S2.

  2. Extending the scanning angle of a phased array antenna by using a null-space medium.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fei; He, Sailing

    2014-01-01

    By introducing a columnar null-space region as the reference space, we design a radome that can extend the scanning angle of a phased array antenna (PAA) by a predetermined relationship (e.g. a linear relationship between the incident angle and steered output angle can be achieved). After some approximation, we only need two homogeneous materials to construct the proposed radome layer by layer. This kind of medium is called a null-space medium, which has been studied and fabricated for realizing hyper-lenses and some other devices. Numerical simulations verify the performance of our radome.

  3. Phase A conceptual design study of the Atmospheric, Magnetospheric and Plasmas in Space (AMPS) payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The 12 month Phase A Conceptual Design Study of the Atmospheric, Magnetospheric and Plasmas in Space (AMPS) payload performed within the Program Development Directorate of the Marshall Space Flight Center is presented. The AMPS payload makes use of the Spacelab pressurized module and pallet, is launched by the space shuttle, and will have initial flight durations of 7 days. Scientific instruments including particle accelerators, high power transmitters, optical instruments, and chemical release devices are mounted externally on the Spacelab pallet and are controlled by the experimenters from within the pressurized module. The capability of real-time scientist interaction on-orbit with the experiment is a major characteristic of AMPS.

  4. Extending the scanning angle of a phased array antenna by using a null-space medium.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fei; He, Sailing

    2014-01-01

    By introducing a columnar null-space region as the reference space, we design a radome that can extend the scanning angle of a phased array antenna (PAA) by a predetermined relationship (e.g. a linear relationship between the incident angle and steered output angle can be achieved). After some approximation, we only need two homogeneous materials to construct the proposed radome layer by layer. This kind of medium is called a null-space medium, which has been studied and fabricated for realizing hyper-lenses and some other devices. Numerical simulations verify the performance of our radome. PMID:25355198

  5. Extending the scanning angle of a phased array antenna by using a null-space medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Fei; He, Sailing

    2014-10-01

    By introducing a columnar null-space region as the reference space, we design a radome that can extend the scanning angle of a phased array antenna (PAA) by a predetermined relationship (e.g. a linear relationship between the incident angle and steered output angle can be achieved). After some approximation, we only need two homogeneous materials to construct the proposed radome layer by layer. This kind of medium is called a null-space medium, which has been studied and fabricated for realizing hyper-lenses and some other devices. Numerical simulations verify the performance of our radome.

  6. Extending the scanning angle of a phased array antenna by using a null-space medium

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Fei; He, Sailing

    2014-01-01

    By introducing a columnar null-space region as the reference space, we design a radome that can extend the scanning angle of a phased array antenna (PAA) by a predetermined relationship (e.g. a linear relationship between the incident angle and steered output angle can be achieved). After some approximation, we only need two homogeneous materials to construct the proposed radome layer by layer. This kind of medium is called a null-space medium, which has been studied and fabricated for realizing hyper-lenses and some other devices. Numerical simulations verify the performance of our radome. PMID:25355198

  7. Phase space localization for anti-de Sitter quantum mechanics and its zero curvature limit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elgradechi, Amine M.

    1993-01-01

    Using techniques of geometric quantization and SO(sub 0)(3,2)-coherent states, a notion of optimal localization on phase space is defined for the quantum theory of a massive and spinning particle in anti-de Sitter space time. It is shown that this notion disappears in the zero curvature limit, providing one with a concrete example of the regularizing character of the constant (nonzero) curvature of the anti-de Sitter space time. As a byproduct a geometric characterization of masslessness is obtained.

  8. Space debris proximity analysis in powered and orbital phases during satellite launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Priyankar; Sharma, R. K.; Adimurthy, V.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology of the space debris proximity analysis in powered and orbital phase at the time of a satellite launch. The details of the SPADEPRO analysis package, developed for this purpose, are presented. It consists of modules which provide the functions related to ephemeris generation and reconstruction of primary object (launch vehicle or its payload upon insertion), determination of close approaches with resident space objects, computation of the state vector variance of the primary and the secondary objects to represent the knowledge uncertainty, and computation of the collision risk given the variance. This has been successfully applied during the recent launches of the Indian Space Research Organization.

  9. Holographic phase space: c-functions and black holes as renormalization group flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulos, Miguel F.

    2011-05-01

    We construct a mathcal{N} -function for Lovelock theories of gravity, which yields a holographic c-function in domain-wall backgrounds, and seemingly generalizes the concept for black hole geometries. A flow equation equates the monotonicity properties of mathcal{N} with the gravitational field, which has opposite signs in the domain-wall and black hole backgrounds, due to the presence of negative/positive energy in the former/latter, and accordingly mathcal{N} monotonically decreases/increases from the UV to the IR. On AdS spaces the mathcal{N} -function is related to the Euler anomaly, and at a black hole horizon it is generically proportional to the entropy. For planar black holes, mathcal{N} diverges at the horizon, which we interpret as an order N 2 increase in the number of effective degrees of freedom. We show how mathcal{N} can be written as the ratio of the Wald entropy to an effective phase space volume, and using the flow equation relate this to Verlinde's notion of gravity as an entropic force. From the effective phase space we can obtain an expression for the dual field theory momentum cut-off, matching a previous proposal in the literature by Polchinski and Heemskerk. Finally, we propose that the area in Planck units counts states, not degrees of freedom, and identify it also as a phase space volume. Written in terms of the proper radial distance β, it takes the suggestive form of a canonical partition function at inverse temperature β, leading to a "mean energy" which is simply the extrinsic curvature of the surface. Using this we relate this definition of holographic phase space with the effective phase space appearing in the mathcal{N} -function.

  10. Singularity Resolution in Quantum Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Parampreet

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, progress in understanding of the quantization of cosmological spacetimes using techniques of loop quantum gravity, has led to important insights on the resolution of singularities. With a rigorous loop quantization of isotropic and anisotropic spacetimes and development of sophisticated numerical techniques, it is now possible to explore in detail the structure of spacetime in the Planck regime and extract new physics of the very early universe. Investigations of quantization of various spacetimes indicates that classical singularities such as the big bang are avoided, and quantum evolution results in a bounce of the scale factor. The resolution of singularities seems to occur without any assumption on the initial state for quantum evolution or the equation of state of matter. In this talk, we will review some of the main developments in this direction and provide an up to date summary of the novel results obtained on the resolution of singularities in various models in loop quantum gravity.

  11. Visibility of a spacetime singularity

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Pankaj S.

    2007-02-15

    We investigate here the causal structure of spacetime in the vicinity of a spacetime singularity. The particle and energy emission from such ultradense regions forming in gravitational collapse of a massive matter cloud is governed by the nature of nonspacelike paths near the same. These trajectories are examined to show that if a null geodesic comes out from the singularity, then there exist families of future-directed nonspacelike curves which also necessarily escape from the same. The existence of such families is crucial to the physical visibility of the singularity. We do not assume any underlying symmetries for the spacetime, and earlier considerations on the nature of causal trajectories emerging from a naked singularity are generalized and clarified.

  12. Pickup Ion Phase Space Distributions at Titan in a Three Dimensional Exosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartle, Richard; Sittler, Edward

    2006-01-01

    The composition and structure of neutral exospheres imbedded in moving plasmas can be determined by measurements of the velocity distributions of their pickup ion progeny. In turn, the velocity distributions are dependent on the spatial structure of the neutral source gases. Since Titan's neutral exosphere extends into the Saturn's magnetosphere (or solar wind) and well above its ionopause, it serves as a good place to analyze such characteristics. They are analyzed using pickup ion measurements made by the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) at Titan [e.g., Hartle et al., 2006] and an ion kinetic model. An early version of the model [Hartle and Sittler, 2007] is an expression describing the phase space density of pickup ions, which is derived from the Vlasov equation with an ion source that explicitly accounts for the velocity and spatial variation of the exosphere source gases. The current version used here includes exosphere source gases in three dimensions. A fundamental parameter of the phase space densities is the ratio of the gyroradius to the neutral scale height alpha, = r(sub g)/H. Titan's exosphere structure yields pickup ions whose phase space distributions are beam-like when alpha >> 1 and fluid-like when alpha << 1. Downstream from the source peak, the light pickup ions, with alpha << 1, are easily observed because their phase space densities are almost uniform over the orbit phases. On the other hand, the phase space distributions of the heavier ions, with alpha >> 1, peak over narrow velocity and spatial ranges. This beam-like nature makes it considerably more difficult to observe heavy ions because their downstream positions and viewing directions are narrowly constrained. Examples of these extremes will be discussed.

  13. Simulations of phase space distributions of storm time proton ring current

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Margaret W.; Lyons, Larry R.; Schulz, Michael

    1994-01-01

    We use results of guiding-center simulations of ion transport to map phase space densities of the stormtime proton ring current. We model a storm as a sequence of substorm-associated enhancements in the convection electric field. Our pre-storm phase space distribution is an analytical solution to a steady-state transport model in which quiet-time radial diffusion balances charge exchange. This pre-storm phase space spectra at L approximately 2 to 4 reproduce many of the features found in observed quiet-time spectra. Using results from simulations of ion transport during model storms having main phases of 3, 6, and 12 hr, we map phase space distributions from the pre-storm distribution in accordance with Liouville's theorem. We find stormtime enhancements in the phase space densities at energies E approximately 30-160 keV for L approximately 2.5 to 4. These enhancements agree well with the observed stormtime ring current. For storms with shorter main phases (approximately 3 hr), the enhancements are caused mainly by the trapping of ions injected from open night side trajectories, and diffusive transport of higher-energy (greater than or approximately 160 keV) ions contributes little to the stormtime ring current. However, the stormtime ring current is augmented also by the diffusive transport of higher-energy ions (E greater than or approximately 160 keV) durinng stroms having longer main phases (greater than or approximately 6 hr). In order to account for the increase in Dst associated with the formation of the stormtime ring current, we estimate the enhancement in particle-energy content that results from stormtime ion transport in the equatorial magnetosphere. We find that transport alone cannot account for the entire increase in absolute value of Dst typical of a major storm. However, we can account for the entire increase in absolute value of Dst by realistically increasing the stormtime outer boundary value of the phase space density relative to the quiet

  14. Design of multisample, multistep phase partitioning apparatus for use on Space Shuttle Spacelab, and Spacelab missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deuser, Mark S.; Vanalstine, James M.; Vellinger, John C.; Wessling, Francis C.; Lundquist, Charles A.

    1992-01-01

    Traditional separation techniques are inadequate for many new bioprocessing challenges. Innovative separation methods such as aqueous two phase partitioning are needed to perpetuate bioprocess commercialization. Aqueous two phase polymer partitioning systems provide a process for separating biological materials when combined with microgravity. An innovative space qualified apparatus developed for carrying out separations by partitioning in immiscible polymer systems under mirogravity conditions is described. The apparatus offers an innovative approach to low gravity bioseparations in general and phase partitioning in particular. These capabilities support NASA's interest in serving the biotechnology research community and providing quantitative data in the gravity dependent components of separation processes.

  15. Phase-space structure of the Buckingham's two-body problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pricopi, D.; Popescu, E.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we study the global flow for the two-body problem associated to the Buckingham potential. For this, using McGehee-type transformations, we write the regularized equations of motion. Then, reducing the 4-dimensional phase space to a 2-dimension one, the global flow in the phase plane is described for all possible values of the parameters of the potential and those of the energy and angular momentum constants. Every phase trajectory is interpreted in terms of physical motion, our problem being depicted both geometrically and physically.

  16. Quantum-field-theoretical approach to phase-space techniques: Generalizing the positive-P representation

    SciTech Connect

    Plimak, L.I.; Fleischhauer, M.; Olsen, M.K.; Collett, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    We present an introduction to phase-space techniques (PST) based on a quantum-field-theoretical (QFT) approach. In addition to bridging the gap between PST and QFT, our approach results in a number of generalizations of the PST. First, for problems where the usual PST do not result in a genuine Fokker-Planck equation (even after phase-space doubling) and hence fail to produce a stochastic differential equation (SDE), we show how the system in question may be approximated via stochastic difference equations (S{delta}E). Second, we show that introducing sources into the SDE's (or S{delta}E's) generalizes them to a full quantum nonlinear stochastic response problem (thus generalizing Kubo's linear reaction theory to a quantum nonlinear stochastic response theory). Third, we establish general relations linking quantum response properties of the system in question to averages of operator products ordered in a way different from time normal. This extends PST to a much wider assemblage of operator products than are usually considered in phase-space approaches. In all cases, our approach yields a very simple and straightforward way of deriving stochastic equations in phase space.

  17. Numerical method for estimating the size of chaotic regions of phase space

    SciTech Connect

    Henyey, F.S.; Pomphrey, N.

    1987-10-01

    A numerical method for estimating irregular volumes of phase space is derived. The estimate weights the irregular area on a surface of section with the average return time to the section. We illustrate the method by application to the stadium and oval billiard systems and also apply the method to the continuous Henon-Heiles system. 15 refs., 10 figs. (LSP)

  18. Transverse-transverse and transverse-longitudinal phase-space converters for enhanced beam applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.-J.; Accelerator Systems Division

    2008-01-01

    Emittance exchange and flat beam transform are two phase-space converting techniques being developed recently to enhance the performance of electron beams for various applications. We review these applications, the basic principles of the converters, and the status of experimental demonstration of these techniques.

  19. Molecular phase space transport in water: Non-stationary random walk model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerukh, Dmitry; Ryabov, Vladimir; Taiji, Makoto

    2009-11-01

    Molecular transport in phase space is crucial for chemical reactions because it defines how pre-reactive molecular configurations are found during the time evolution of the system. Using Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulated atomistic trajectories we test the assumption of the normal diffusion in the phase space for bulk water at ambient conditions by checking the equivalence of the transport to the random walk model. Contrary to common expectations we have found that some statistical features of the transport in the phase space differ from those of the normal diffusion models. This implies a non-random character of the path search process by the reacting complexes in water solutions. Our further numerical experiments show that a significant long period of non-stationarity in the transition probabilities of the segments of molecular trajectories can account for the observed non-uniform filling of the phase space. Surprisingly, the characteristic periods in the model non-stationarity constitute hundreds of nanoseconds, that is much longer time scales compared to typical lifetime of known liquid water molecular structures (several picoseconds).

  20. Ray tracing method in phase space for two-dimensional optical systems.

    PubMed

    Filosa, C; Ten Thije Boonkkamp, J H M; IJzerman, W L

    2016-05-01

    Ray tracing is a forward method to calculate the photometric variables at the target of a non-imaging optical system. In this paper, a new ray tracing technique is presented to improve the accuracy and to reduce the computational time of the classical ray tracing approach. The method is based on the phase space representation of the source and the target of the optical system, and it is applied to a two-dimensional TIR-collimator. The strength of the method lies in tracing fewer rays through the system. Only rays that lie in the meridional plane are considered. A procedure that disregards rays in smooth regions in phase space, where the luminance is continuous, is implemented and only the rays close to discontinuities are traced. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated by numerical simulations that compare the new method with Monte Carlo ray tracing. The results show that the phase space approach is faster and more accurate than the already existing ray tracing method; moreover the phase space method converges as one over the number of rays traced unlike Monte Carlo ray tracing in which the speed of convergence is proportional to one over the square root of the number of rays.

  1. Phase-space analysis of convection in a /sup 3/He - superfluid /sup 4/He solution

    SciTech Connect

    Haucke, H.; Maeno, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Observations have been made on thermal convection below 1K in a dilute solution of /sup 3/He in superfluid /sup 4/He contained in a cylindrical cell of aspect ratio GAMMA = 1.20. Complicated oscillatory phenomena were observed with a high degree of reproducibility using two temperature sensors. Phase-space analysis suggests a description in terms of strange-attractor dynamics.

  2. Ray tracing method in phase space for two-dimensional optical systems.

    PubMed

    Filosa, C; Ten Thije Boonkkamp, J H M; IJzerman, W L

    2016-05-01

    Ray tracing is a forward method to calculate the photometric variables at the target of a non-imaging optical system. In this paper, a new ray tracing technique is presented to improve the accuracy and to reduce the computational time of the classical ray tracing approach. The method is based on the phase space representation of the source and the target of the optical system, and it is applied to a two-dimensional TIR-collimator. The strength of the method lies in tracing fewer rays through the system. Only rays that lie in the meridional plane are considered. A procedure that disregards rays in smooth regions in phase space, where the luminance is continuous, is implemented and only the rays close to discontinuities are traced. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated by numerical simulations that compare the new method with Monte Carlo ray tracing. The results show that the phase space approach is faster and more accurate than the already existing ray tracing method; moreover the phase space method converges as one over the number of rays traced unlike Monte Carlo ray tracing in which the speed of convergence is proportional to one over the square root of the number of rays. PMID:27140377

  3. Bound-preserving discontinuous Galerkin methods for conservative phase space advection in curvilinear coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endeve, Eirik; Hauck, Cory D.; Xing, Yulong; Mezzacappa, Anthony

    2015-04-01

    We extend the positivity-preserving method of Zhang and Shu [49] to simulate the advection of neutral particles in phase space using curvilinear coordinates. The ability to utilize these coordinates is important for non-equilibrium transport problems in general relativity and also in science and engineering applications with specific geometries. The method achieves high-order accuracy using Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) discretization of phase space and strong stability-preserving, Runge-Kutta (SSP-RK) time integration. Special care is taken to ensure that the method preserves strict bounds for the phase space distribution function f; i.e., f ∈ [ 0 , 1 ]. The combination of suitable CFL conditions and the use of the high-order limiter proposed in [49] is sufficient to ensure positivity of the distribution function. However, to ensure that the distribution function satisfies the upper bound, the discretization must, in addition, preserve the divergence-free property of the phase space flow. Proofs that highlight the necessary conditions are presented for general curvilinear coordinates, and the details of these conditions are worked out for some commonly used coordinate systems (i.e., spherical polar spatial coordinates in spherical symmetry and cylindrical spatial coordinates in axial symmetry, both with spherical momentum coordinates). Results from numerical experiments - including one example in spherical symmetry adopting the Schwarzschild metric - demonstrate that the method achieves high-order accuracy and that the distribution function satisfies the maximum principle.

  4. Phase space and jet definitions in soft-collinear effective theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, William Man-Yin; Luke, Michael; Zuberi, Saba

    2009-12-01

    We discuss consistent power counting for integrating soft and collinear degrees of freedom over arbitrary regions of phase space in the soft-collinear effective theory, and illustrate our results at one-loop with several jet algorithms: JADE, Sterman-Weinberg and k⊥. Consistently applying soft-collinear effective theory power counting in phase space, along with nontrivial zero-bin subtractions, prevents double counting of final states. The resulting phase space integrals over soft and collinear regions are individually ultraviolet divergent, but the phase space ultraviolet divergences cancel in the sum. Whether the soft and collinear contributions are individually infrared safe depends on the jet definition. We show that while this is true at one-loop for JADE and Sterman-Weinberg, the k⊥ algorithm does not factorize into individually infrared safe soft and collinear pieces in dimensional regularization. We point out that this statement depends on the ultraviolet regulator, and that in a cutoff scheme the soft functions are infrared safe.

  5. Phase space and jet definitions in soft-collinear effective theory

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, William Man-Yin; Luke, Michael; Zuberi, Saba

    2009-12-01

    We discuss consistent power counting for integrating soft and collinear degrees of freedom over arbitrary regions of phase space in the soft-collinear effective theory, and illustrate our results at one-loop with several jet algorithms: JADE, Sterman-Weinberg and k{sub perpendicular}. Consistently applying soft-collinear effective theory power counting in phase space, along with nontrivial zero-bin subtractions, prevents double counting of final states. The resulting phase space integrals over soft and collinear regions are individually ultraviolet divergent, but the phase space ultraviolet divergences cancel in the sum. Whether the soft and collinear contributions are individually infrared safe depends on the jet definition. We show that while this is true at one-loop for JADE and Sterman-Weinberg, the k{sub perpendicular} algorithm does not factorize into individually infrared safe soft and collinear pieces in dimensional regularization. We point out that this statement depends on the ultraviolet regulator, and that in a cutoff scheme the soft functions are infrared safe.

  6. Parametric studies of phase change thermal energy storage canisters for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.

    1991-01-01

    Phase Change Materials (PCM) canister parametric studies are discussed wherein the thermal-structural effects of changing various canister dimensions and contained PCM mass values are examined. With the aim of improving performance, 11 modified canister designs are analyzed and judged relative to a baseline design using five quantitative performance indicators. Consideration is also given to qualitative factors such as fabrication/inspection, canister mass production, and PCM containment redundancy. Canister thermal analyses are performed using the finite-difference based computer program NUCAM-2DV. Thermal-stresses are calculated using closed-form solutions and simplifying assumptions. Canister wall thickness, outer radius, length, and contained PCM mass are the parameters considered for this study. Results show that singular canister design modifications can offer improvements on one or two performance indicators. Yet, improvement in one indicator is often realized at the expense of another. This confirms that the baseline canister is well designed. However, two alternative canister designs, which incorporate multiple modifications, are presented that offer modest improvements in mass or thermal performance, respectively.

  7. Curved singular beams for three-dimensional particle manipulation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Juanying; Chremmos, Ioannis D; Song, Daohong; Christodoulides, Demetrios N; Efremidis, Nikolaos K; Chen, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    For decades, singular beams carrying angular momentum have been a topic of considerable interest. Their intriguing applications are ubiquitous in a variety of fields, ranging from optical manipulation to photon entanglement, and from microscopy and coronagraphy to free-space communications, detection of rotating black holes, and even relativistic electrons and strong-field physics. In most applications, however, singular beams travel naturally along a straight line, expanding during linear propagation or breaking up in nonlinear media. Here, we design and demonstrate diffraction-resisting singular beams that travel along arbitrary trajectories in space. These curved beams not only maintain an invariant dark "hole" in the center but also preserve their angular momentum, exhibiting combined features of optical vortex, Bessel, and Airy beams. Furthermore, we observe three-dimensional spiraling of microparticles driven by such fine-shaped dynamical beams. Our findings may open up new avenues for shaped light in various applications.

  8. Curved singular beams for three-dimensional particle manipulation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Juanying; Chremmos, Ioannis D; Song, Daohong; Christodoulides, Demetrios N; Efremidis, Nikolaos K; Chen, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    For decades, singular beams carrying angular momentum have been a topic of considerable interest. Their intriguing applications are ubiquitous in a variety of fields, ranging from optical manipulation to photon entanglement, and from microscopy and coronagraphy to free-space communications, detection of rotating black holes, and even relativistic electrons and strong-field physics. In most applications, however, singular beams travel naturally along a straight line, expanding during linear propagation or breaking up in nonlinear media. Here, we design and demonstrate diffraction-resisting singular beams that travel along arbitrary trajectories in space. These curved beams not only maintain an invariant dark "hole" in the center but also preserve their angular momentum, exhibiting combined features of optical vortex, Bessel, and Airy beams. Furthermore, we observe three-dimensional spiraling of microparticles driven by such fine-shaped dynamical beams. Our findings may open up new avenues for shaped light in various applications. PMID:26166011

  9. Curved singular beams for three-dimensional particle manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Juanying; Chremmos, Ioannis D.; Song, Daohong; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.; Efremidis, Nikolaos K.; Chen, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    For decades, singular beams carrying angular momentum have been a topic of considerable interest. Their intriguing applications are ubiquitous in a variety of fields, ranging from optical manipulation to photon entanglement, and from microscopy and coronagraphy to free-space communications, detection of rotating black holes, and even relativistic electrons and strong-field physics. In most applications, however, singular beams travel naturally along a straight line, expanding during linear propagation or breaking up in nonlinear media. Here, we design and demonstrate diffraction-resisting singular beams that travel along arbitrary trajectories in space. These curved beams not only maintain an invariant dark “hole” in the center but also preserve their angular momentum, exhibiting combined features of optical vortex, Bessel, and Airy beams. Furthermore, we observe three-dimensional spiraling of microparticles driven by such fine-shaped dynamical beams. Our findings may open up new avenues for shaped light in various applications. PMID:26166011

  10. Design of an ammonia two-phase Prototype Thermal Bus for Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Richard F.; Gustafson, Eric; Parish, Richard

    1987-07-01

    The feasibility of two-phase heat transport systems for use on Space Station was demonstrated by testing the Thermal Bus Technology Demonstrator (TBTD) as part of the Integrated Two-Phase System Test in NASA-JSC's Thermal Test Bed. Under contract to NASA-JSC, Grumman is currently developing the successor to the TBTD, the Prototype Thermal Bus System (TBS). The TBS design, which uses ammonia as the working fluid, is intended to achieve a higher fidelity level than the TBTD by incorporating both improvements based on TBTD testing and realistic design margins, and by addressing Space Station issues such as redundancy and maintenance. The TBS is currently being fabricated, with testing scheduled for late 1987/early 1988. This paper describes the TBS design which features fully redundant plumbing loops, five evaporators designed to represent different heat acquisition interfaces, 14 condensers which mate with either space radiators or facility heat exchangers, and several modular components.

  11. Design of an ammonia two-phase Prototype Thermal Bus for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Richard F.; Gustafson, Eric; Parish, Richard

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of two-phase heat transport systems for use on Space Station was demonstrated by testing the Thermal Bus Technology Demonstrator (TBTD) as part of the Integrated Two-Phase System Test in NASA-JSC's Thermal Test Bed. Under contract to NASA-JSC, Grumman is currently developing the successor to the TBTD, the Prototype Thermal Bus System (TBS). The TBS design, which uses ammonia as the working fluid, is intended to achieve a higher fidelity level than the TBTD by incorporating both improvements based on TBTD testing and realistic design margins, and by addressing Space Station issues such as redundancy and maintenance. The TBS is currently being fabricated, with testing scheduled for late 1987/early 1988. This paper describes the TBS design which features fully redundant plumbing loops, five evaporators designed to represent different heat acquisition interfaces, 14 condensers which mate with either space radiators or facility heat exchangers, and several modular components.

  12. Simulated response of top-hat electrostatic analysers - importance of phase-space resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marco, Rossana; Bruno, Roberto; D'Amicis, Raffaella; Federica Marcucci, Maria; Servidio, Sergio; Valentini, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    We use a numerical code able to reproduce the angular/energy response of a typical electrostatic analyzer of top-hat type starting from velocity distribution functions (VDFs) generated by numerical imulations.The simulations are based on the Hybrid Vlasov-Maxwell (HVM) numerical algorithm which integrates the Vlasov equation for the ion distribution function in multi-dimensional geometry in phase space, while the electrons are treated as a fluid. Virtual satellites launched through the simulation box measure the particle VDFs. Such VDFs are interpolated into a spacecraft reference frame and moved from the simulation Cartesian grid to energy-angular coordinates to mimic the response of a real electrostatic sensor in the solar wind and in the magnetosheath for different conditions. We discuss the results of this study with respect to the importance of phase-space resolution for a space plasma experiment meant to investigate kinetic plasma regime.

  13. Naked singularity resolution in cylindrical collapse

    SciTech Connect

    Kurita, Yasunari; Nakao, Ken-ichi

    2006-03-15

    In this paper, we study the gravitational collapse of null dust in cylindrically symmetric spacetime. The naked singularity necessarily forms at the symmetry axis. We consider the situation in which null dust is emitted again from the naked singularity formed by the collapsed null dust and investigate the backreaction by this emission for the naked singularity. We show a very peculiar but physically important case in which the same amount of null dust as that of the collapsed one is emitted from the naked singularity as soon as the ingoing null dust hits the symmetry axis and forms the naked singularity. In this case, although this naked singularity satisfies the strong curvature condition by Krolak (limiting focusing condition), geodesics which hit the singularity can be extended uniquely across the singularity. Therefore, we may say that the collapsing null dust passes through the singularity formed by itself and then leaves for infinity. Finally, the singularity completely disappears and the flat spacetime remains.

  14. Identify Foot of Continental Slope by singular spectrum and fractal singularity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q.; Dehler, S.

    2012-04-01

    Identifying the Foot of Continental Slope (FOCS) plays a critical role in the determination of exclusive economic zone (EEZ) for coastal nations. The FOCS is defined by the Law of the Sea as the point of maximum change of the slope and it is mathematically equivalent to the point which has the maximum curvature value in its vicinity. However, curvature is the second derivative and the calculation of second derivative is a high pass and noise-prone filtering procedure. Therefore, identification of FOCS with curvature analysis methods is often uncertain and erroneous because observed bathymetry profiles or interpolated raster maps commonly include high frequency noises and artifacts, observation errors, and local sharp changes. Effective low-pass filtering methods and robust FOCS indicator algorithms are highly desirable. In this approach, nonlinear singular spectral filtering and singularity FOCS-indicator methods and software tools are developed to address this requirement. The normally used Fourier domain filtering methods decompose signals into Fourier space, composed of a fixed base that depends only on the acquisition interval of the signal; the signal is required to be stationary or at least weak stationary. In contrast to that requirement, the developed singular spectral filtering method constructs orthogonal basis functions dynamically according to different signals, and it does not require the signal to be stationary or weak stationary. Furthermore, singular spectrum analysis (SSA) can assist in designing suitable filters to carefully remove high-frequency local or noise components while reserving useful global and local components according to energy distribution. Geoscientific signals, including morphological ocean bathymetry data, often demonstrate fractal or multifractal properties. With proper definition of scales in the vicinity of a certain point and related measures, it is found that 1-dimensional bathymetry profiles and 2-dimensional raster maps

  15. Optical authentication based on moiré effect of nonlinear gratings in phase space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Meihua; He, Wenqi; Wu, Jiachen; Lu, Dajiang; Liu, Xiaoli; Peng, Xiang

    2015-12-01

    An optical authentication scheme based on the moiré effect of nonlinear gratings in phase space is proposed. According to the phase function relationship of the moiré effect in phase space, an arbitrary authentication image can be encoded into two nonlinear gratings which serve as the authentication lock (AL) and the authentication key (AK). The AL is stored in the authentication system while the AK is assigned to the authorized user. The authentication procedure can be performed using an optoelectronic approach, while the design process is accomplished by a digital approach. Furthermore, this optical authentication scheme can be extended for multiple users with different security levels. The proposed scheme can not only verify the legality of a user identity, but can also discriminate and control the security levels of legal users. Theoretical analysis and simulation experiments are provided to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  16. Advances in Scanning Reflectarray Antennas Based on Ferroelectric Thin Film Phase Shifters for Deep Space Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    Though there are a few examples of scanning phased array antennas that have flown successfully in space, the quest for low-cost, high-efficiency, large aperture microwave phased arrays continues. Fixed and mobile applications that may be part of a heterogeneous exploration communication architecture will benefit from the agile (rapid) beam steering and graceful degradation afforded by phased array antennas. The reflectarray promises greater efficiency and economy compared to directly-radiating varieties. Implementing a practical scanning version has proven elusive. The ferroelectric reflectarray, under development and described herein, involves phase shifters based on coupled microstrip patterned on Ba(x)Sr(1-x)TiO3 films, that were laser ablated onto LaAlO3 substrates. These devices outperform their semiconductor counterparts from X- through and K-band frequencies. There are special issues associated with the implementation of a scanning reflectarray antenna, especially one realized with thin film ferroelectric phase shifters. This paper will discuss these issues which include: relevance of phase shifter loss; modulo 2(pi) effects and phase shifter transient effects on bit error rate; scattering from the ground plane; presentation of a novel hybrid ferroelectric-semiconductor phase shifter; and the effect of mild radiation exposure on phase shifter performance.

  17. Mixed semiclassical-classical propagators for the Wigner phase space representation.

    PubMed

    Koda, Shin-Ichi

    2016-04-21

    We formulate mixed semiclassical-classical (SC-Cl) propagators by adding a further approximation to the phase-space SC propagators, which have been formulated in our previous paper [S. Koda, J. Chem. Phys. 143, 244110 (2015)]. We first show that the stationary phase approximation over the operation of the phase-space van Vleck propagator on initial distribution functions results in the classical mechanical time propagation. Then, after dividing the degrees of freedom (DOFs) of the total system into the semiclassical DOFs and the classical DOFs, the SC-Cl van Vleck propagator and the SC-Cl Herman-Kluk (HK) propagator are derived by performing the stationary phase approximation only with respect to the classical DOFs. These SC-Cl propagators are naturally decomposed to products of the phase-space SC propagators and the classical mechanical propagators when the system does not have any interaction between the semiclassical and the classical DOFs. In addition, we also numerically compare the original phase-space HK (full HK) propagator and the SC-Cl HK propagator in terms of accuracy and efficiency to find that the accuracy of the SC-Cl HK propagator can be comparable to that of the full HK propagator although the latter is more accurate than the former in general. On the other hand, we confirm that the convergence speed of the SC-Cl HK propagator is faster than that of the full HK propagator. The present numerical tests indicate that the SC-Cl HK propagator can be more accurate than the full HK propagator when they use a same and finite number of classical trajectories due to the balance of the accuracy and the efficiency. PMID:27389210

  18. Mixed semiclassical-classical propagators for the Wigner phase space representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koda, Shin-ichi

    2016-04-01

    We formulate mixed semiclassical-classical (SC-Cl) propagators by adding a further approximation to the phase-space SC propagators, which have been formulated in our previous paper [S. Koda, J. Chem. Phys. 143, 244110 (2015)]. We first show that the stationary phase approximation over the operation of the phase-space van Vleck propagator on initial distribution functions results in the classical mechanical time propagation. Then, after dividing the degrees of freedom (DOFs) of the total system into the semiclassical DOFs and the classical DOFs, the SC-Cl van Vleck propagator and the SC-Cl Herman-Kluk (HK) propagator are derived by performing the stationary phase approximation only with respect to the classical DOFs. These SC-Cl propagators are naturally decomposed to products of the phase-space SC propagators and the classical mechanical propagators when the system does not have any interaction between the semiclassical and the classical DOFs. In addition, we also numerically compare the original phase-space HK (full HK) propagator and the SC-Cl HK propagator in terms of accuracy and efficiency to find that the accuracy of the SC-Cl HK propagator can be comparable to that of the full HK propagator although the latter is more accurate than the former in general. On the other hand, we confirm that the convergence speed of the SC-Cl HK propagator is faster than that of the full HK propagator. The present numerical tests indicate that the SC-Cl HK propagator can be more accurate than the full HK propagator when they use a same and finite number of classical trajectories due to the balance of the accuracy and the efficiency.

  19. Restricted k-space sampling in pure phase encode MRI of rock core plugs.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Dan; Balcom, Bruce J

    2013-06-01

    In the study of rock core plugs with multidimensional MRI, the samples are of a regular cylindrical shape that yields well defined intensity distributions in reciprocal space. The high intensity k-space points are concentrated in the central region and in specific peripheral regions. A large proportion of the k-space points have signal intensities that are below the noise level. These points can be zero-filled instead of being collected experimentally. k-space sampling patterns that collect regions of high intensity signal while neglecting low intensity regions can be naturally applied to a wide variety of pure phase encoding measurements, such as T2 mapping SESPI, hybrid-SESPI and SPRITE, since all imaging dimensions can be under-sampled. With a shorter acquisition time, as fewer experimental data points are required, the RF and gradient duty cycles are reduced, while the image SNR is improved. PMID:23644352

  20. Restricted k-space sampling in pure phase encode MRI of rock core plugs.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Dan; Balcom, Bruce J

    2013-06-01

    In the study of rock core plugs with multidimensional MRI, the samples are of a regular cylindrical shape that yields well defined intensity distributions in reciprocal space. The high intensity k-space points are concentrated in the central region and in specific peripheral regions. A large proportion of the k-space points have signal intensities that are below the noise level. These points can be zero-filled instead of being collected experimentally. k-space sampling patterns that collect regions of high intensity signal while neglecting low intensity regions can be naturally applied to a wide variety of pure phase encoding measurements, such as T2 mapping SESPI, hybrid-SESPI and SPRITE, since all imaging dimensions can be under-sampled. With a shorter acquisition time, as fewer experimental data points are required, the RF and gradient duty cycles are reduced, while the image SNR is improved.

  1. MMIC linear-phase and digital modulators for deep space spacecraft X-band transponder applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mysoor, Narayan R.; Ali, Fazal

    1991-01-01

    The design concepts, analyses, and development of GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) linear-phase and digital modulators for the next generation of space-borne communications systems are summarized. The design approach uses a compact lumped element quadrature hybrid and Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MESFET)-varactors to provide low loss and well-controlled phase performance for deep space transponder (DST) applications. The measured results of the MESFET-diode show a capacitance range of 2:1 under reverse bias, and a Q of 38 at 10 GHz. Three cascaded sections of hybrid-coupled reflection phase shifters were modeled and simulations performed to provide an X-band (8415 +/- 50 MHz) DST phase modulator with +/- 2.5 radians of peak phase deviation. The modulator will accommodate downlink signal modulation with composite telemetry and ranging data, with a deviation linearity tolerance of +/- 8 percent and insertion loss of less than 8 +/- 0.5 dB. The MMIC digital modulator is designed to provide greater than 10 Mb/s of bi-phase modulation at X-band.

  2. Effects of space environment on space-based radar phased-array antenna: Status and preliminary observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteside, J. B.; Giangano, D.; Heuer, R. L.; Kamykowski, E.; Kesselman, M.; Rooney, W.; Schulte, R.; Stauber, Michael C.

    1991-06-01

    The overall objective is to evaluate the effect of the space environment on Kapton films considered for the Grumman space based radar (SBR) phased-array antenna. The most striking result is the overall good condition of the Kapton antenna planes and Kapton tensile specimens. This is largely attributable to the orientation of the Kapton (parallel and flush on the space end) and the stability of the LDEF in orbit. Results on elongation and mechanical properties of the plain and fiberglass reinforced Kapton will be described. Stress-dependent permanent deformation and some reductions in strain to failure were observed. Physical property testing of the materials is in progress. Electronic data acquisition and memory systems appeared to operate correctly, but functional tests were not yet performed. An evaluation of the high voltage-plasma interaction data is underway. Some minor systems anomalies (e.g., fastener sheared during removal, strong odor inside electronics container) were noted. Other observations such as radiation, contamination, impacts, and orientation features of atomic oxygen erosion are reported.

  3. Singular values, nematic disclinations, and emergent biaxiality.

    PubMed

    Čopar, Simon; Dennis, Mark R; Kamien, Randall D; Žumer, Slobodan

    2013-05-01

    Both uniaxial and biaxial nematic liquid crystals are defined by orientational ordering of their building blocks. While uniaxial nematics only orient the long molecular axis, biaxial order implies local order along three axes. As the natural degree of biaxiality and the associated frame that can be extracted from the tensorial description of the nematic order vanishes in the uniaxial phase, we extend the nematic director to a full biaxial frame by making use of a singular value decomposition of the gradient of the director field instead. The degrees of freedom are unveiled in the form of quasidefects and the similarities and differences between the uniaxial and biaxial phase are analyzed by applying the algebraic rules of the quaternion group to the uniaxial phase. PMID:23767474

  4. Cosmic Initial Singularities in a Single Repeating Universe as Opposed to Their Behavior in a Multiverse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckwith, Andrew

    When initial radius of the universe in four dimensions and there is only ONE repeating universe then the initial radius goes to zero or gets very close to zero if Stoica actually derived Einstein equations are used in a formalism which remove in four dimensions the big bang singularity pathology. So then the reason for Planck length no longer holds. This assumes a repeating single universe. We present a given entanglement entropy in the early universe with a shrinking scale factor, due to Muller and Lousto , and show that there are consequences due to initial entanged entropy for a time dependent horizon radius in cosmology, with (flat space conditions) horizon radius as equal to conformal time Even if the 3 dimensional spatial length goes to zero. This construction preserves a minimum non zero vacuum energy, and in doing so keep the bits, for computational bits cosmological evolution even if in four dimensions we have the initial radii going to zero We also find that in the case of a multiverse, that such considerations will not hold and that cosmic singularities have a different characteristic in the multiverse setting than in the single universe repeated over and over again. i.e. using an argument borrowed and modified from Kauffman, the multiverse will not mandate ‘perfect’ singularities. The existence of a multiverse may allow for non zero singularities in lieu with the Kauffman argument cited at the end of the document, plus the lower pre big bang temperatures which may allow for the survivial of gravitons just before the onset of the cosmological expansion phase, if a multiverse exists embedding our present universe

  5. GPS-Like Phasing Control of the Space Solar Power System Transmission Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Psiaki, Mark L.

    2003-01-01

    The problem of phasing of the Space Solar Power System's transmission array has been addressed by developing a GPS-like radio navigation system. The goal of this system is to provide power transmission phasing control for each node of the array that causes the power signals to add constructively at the ground reception station. The phasing control system operates in a distributed manner, which makes it practical to implement. A leader node and two radio navigation beacons are used to control the power transmission phasing of multiple follower nodes. The necessary one-way communications to the follower nodes are implemented using the RF beacon signals. The phasing control system uses differential carrier phase relative navigation/timing techniques. A special feature of the system is an integer ambiguity resolution procedure that periodically resolves carrier phase cycle count ambiguities via encoding of pseudo-random number codes on the power transmission signals. The system is capable of achieving phasing accuracies on the order of 3 mm down to 0.4 mm depending on whether the radio navigation beacons operate in the L or C bands.

  6. A real-space approach to the X-ray phase problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiangan

    Over the past few decades, the phase problem of X-ray crystallography has been explored in reciprocal space in the so called direct methods . Here we investigate the problem using a real-space approach that bypasses the laborious procedure of frequent Fourier synthesis and peak picking. Starting from a completely random structure, we move the atoms around in real space to minimize a cost function. A Monte Carlo method named simulated annealing (SA) is employed to search the global minimum of the cost function which could be constructed in either real space or reciprocal space. In the hybrid minimal principle, we combine the dual space costs together. One part of the cost function monitors the probability distribution of the phase triplets, while the other is a real space cost function which represents the discrepancy between measured and calculated intensities. Compared to the single space cost functions, the dual space cost function has a greatly improved landscape and therefore could prevent the system from being trapped in metastable states. Thus, the structures of large molecules such as virginiamycin (C43H 49N7O10 · 3CH0OH), isoleucinomycin (C60H102N 6O18) and hexadecaisoleucinomycin (HEXIL) (C80H136 N8O24) can now be solved, whereas it would not be possible using the single cost function. When a molecule gets larger, the configurational space becomes larger, and the requirement of CPU time increases exponentially. The method of improved Monte Carlo sampling has demonstrated its capability to solve large molecular structures. The atoms are encouraged to sample the high density regions in space determined by an approximate density map which in turn is updated and modified by averaging and Fourier synthesis. This type of biased sampling has led to considerable reduction of the configurational space. It greatly improves the algorithm compared to the previous uniform sampling. Hence, for instance, 90% of computer run time could be cut in solving the complex

  7. Experimental demonstration of electron longitudinal-phase-space linearization by shaping the photoinjector laser pulse.

    PubMed

    Penco, G; Danailov, M; Demidovich, A; Allaria, E; De Ninno, G; Di Mitri, S; Fawley, W M; Ferrari, E; Giannessi, L; Trovó, M

    2014-01-31

    Control of the electron-beam longitudinal-phase-space distribution is of crucial importance in a number of accelerator applications, such as linac-driven free-electron lasers, colliders and energy recovery linacs. Some longitudinal-phase-space features produced by nonlinear electron beam self- fields, such as a quadratic energy chirp introduced by geometric longitudinal wakefields in radio-frequency (rf) accelerator structures, cannot be compensated by ordinary tuning of the linac rf phases nor corrected by a single high harmonic accelerating cavity. In this Letter we report an experimental demonstration of the removal of the quadratic energy chirp by properly shaping the electron beam current at the photoinjector. Specifically, a longitudinal ramp in the current distribution at the cathode linearizes the longitudinal wakefields in the downstream linac, resulting in a flat electron current and energy distribution. We present longitudinal-phase-space measurements in this novel configuration compared to those typically obtained without longitudinal current shaping at the FERMI linac.

  8. Phase retrieval in digital speckle pattern interferometry by use of a smoothed space-frequency distribution.

    PubMed

    Federico, Alejandro; Kaufmann, Guillermo H

    2003-12-10

    We evaluate the use of a smoothed space-frequency distribution (SSFD) to retrieve optical phase maps in digital speckle pattern interferometry (DSPI). The performance of this method is tested by use of computer-simulated DSPI fringes. Phase gradients are found along a pixel path from a single DSPI image, and the phase map is finally determined by integration. This technique does not need the application of a phase unwrapping algorithm or the introduction of carrier fringes in the interferometer. It is shown that a Wigner-Ville distribution with a smoothing Gaussian kernel gives more-accurate results than methods based on the continuous wavelet transform. We also discuss the influence of filtering on smoothing of the DSPI fringes and some additional limitations that emerge when this technique is applied. The performance of the SSFD method for processing experimental data is then illustrated.

  9. Homoclinic orbits around spinning black holes. II. The phase space portrait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Giz, Gabe; Levin, Janna

    2009-06-01

    In paper I in this series, we found exact expressions for the equatorial homoclinic orbits: the separatrix between bound and plunging, whirling and not whirling motion. As a companion to that physical space study, in this paper we paint a phase space portrait of the homoclinic orbits that includes exact expressions for the actions and fundamental frequencies. Additionally, we develop a reduced Hamiltonian description of Kerr motion that allows us to track groups of trajectories with a single global clock. This facilitates a variational analysis, whose stability exponents and eigenvectors could potentially be useful for future studies of families of black hole orbits and their associated gravitational waveforms.

  10. Identification of gravitational wave signals from chaotic astrophysical systems through phase space and attractor properties

    SciTech Connect

    Ciszak, M.; Marino, F.; Ortolan, A.; Canton, T. Dal

    2009-08-15

    Phase space and attractor dimensions in a gravitational wave detector output can be estimated in order to identify chaotic (deterministic) signals in the presence of additive Gaussian noise. These quantities are evaluated, respectively, by means of conditional probabilities and the Grassberger-Procaccia algorithm, both methods relying on embedding in a suitable space of dimension d. By testing with different embedding dimensions, a deterministic--though erratic--signal can be detected by comparing the corresponding conditional probabilities via Kolmogorov-Smirnoff test and checking whether the correlation (fractal) dimension differs from d. Results of the two approaches are eventually compared, both for chaotic and periodic trajectories.

  11. Report on tests of a passive phase change solar diode for space heating

    SciTech Connect

    Maloney, T.J.; Wattles, G.S.

    1982-01-01

    Passive solar space conditioning systems suffer from the need for, and high cost of movable insulation devices to limit nighttime losses. Additionally, phase change materials (PCM) which melt only partially have been found to be less than cost-effective when compared to the low cost and predictable performance of water mass. Current PCM products used in passive applications suffer from low melt percentages due to insufficient exposure to insolation. Flow visualization tests under heating and cooling cycles have shown a unique diode device to show promise for space heating, cooling and water heating applications.

  12. Nonlinear interpolation of space-time phase fluctuations of a signal received together with noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmelev, A. B.

    An analysis is presented of the optimal space-time interpolation of the field of phase fluctuations of a quasi-harmonic signal observed on a background of white Gaussian noise. The method used involves the generalization to random fields of the equations of the Gaussian approximation describing the combined nonlinear filtering and interpolation of Markov processes. Equations describing the algorithm of space-time processing are obtained, and the rms estimation error is calculated in the case when the spatial fluctuations are caused by wave propagation in the turbulent atmosphere.

  13. Homoclinic orbits around spinning black holes. II. The phase space portrait

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Giz, Gabe; Levin, Janna

    2009-06-15

    In paper I in this series, we found exact expressions for the equatorial homoclinic orbits: the separatrix between bound and plunging, whirling and not whirling motion. As a companion to that physical space study, in this paper we paint a phase space portrait of the homoclinic orbits that includes exact expressions for the actions and fundamental frequencies. Additionally, we develop a reduced Hamiltonian description of Kerr motion that allows us to track groups of trajectories with a single global clock. This facilitates a variational analysis, whose stability exponents and eigenvectors could potentially be useful for future studies of families of black hole orbits and their associated gravitational waveforms.

  14. The Phase-Space Structure of Cold Dark Matter in the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shandarin, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    A novel method allowing to compute density, velocity and other fields in cosmological N-body simulations with unprecedentedly high spatial resolution is described. It is based on the tessellation of the three-dimensional manifold representing cold dark matter in six-dimensional phase space. The density, velocity and other fields are computed by projecting the tessellation on configuration space. The application of this technique to cosmological N-body simulations in ΛCDM cosmology reveals a far more elaborate cosmic web then dot plots or self-adaptive SPH. In addition, this method allows to uniquely define physical voids and identify and study the caustic surfaces directly.

  15. NASA Research Announcement Phase 1 Report and Phase 2 Proposal for the Development of a Power Assisted Space Suit Glove Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cadogan, Dave; Lingo, Bob

    1996-01-01

    In July of 1996, ILC Dover was awarded Phase 1 of a contract for NASA to develop a prototype Power Assisted Space Suit glove to enhance the performance of astronauts during Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). This report summarizes the work performed to date on Phase 1, and details the work to be conducted on Phase 2 of the program. Phase 1 of the program consisted of research and review of related technical sources, concept brainstorming, baseline design development, modeling and analysis, component mock-up testing, and test data analysis. ILC worked in conjunction with the University of Maryland's Space Systems Laboratory (SSL) to develop the power assisted glove. Phase 2 activities will focus on the design maturation and the manufacture of a working prototype system. The prototype will be tested and evaluated in conjunction with existing space suit glove technology to determine the performance enhancement anticipated with the implementation of the power assisted joint technology in space suit gloves.

  16. Absence of singularity along the wet solidus of carbonated peridotite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshav, S.; Gudfinnsson, G. H.

    2009-12-01

    For decades, there has been interest in the physical and chemical nature of petrological systems that undergo supercritical behavior. Such behavior is witnessed when a univariant reaction gets terminated because of its intersection with a critical curve (imposed by the condition, liquid=vapor or liquid X=liquid Y), resulting in the loss of a phase, which further turns the system divariant in pressure-temperature (P-T) space. The singularities that result from these terminations are commonly referred to as second critical end-points. In petrology, such behavior is observed in hydrous, silicate melt-aqueous vapor/fluid systems. At these terminations, the solute concentrations in the aqueous vapor become high enough that it can no longer be physically distinguished from silicate melt, as seen for example in albite, quartz, and granitic systems at 10-20 kbar. However, in mantle-relevant, basaltic or ultramafic systems (e.g., MgO-SiO2-H2O; MSH), the conditions where such singularities develop have been subject to vigorous and interesting debate. For instance, in MSH peridotite analog, supercriticality is claimed either at 40 or 110-130 kbar, translating to a difference of 80-90 kbar, which further affects our understanding of chemical transport in a variety of tectonic settings. Along with water, CO2 is the most important volatile component in magmatic systems. So far, barring studies in the systems CaO-SiO2-CO2-H2O (10-32 kbar), SiO2-H2O-CO2 (7-28 kbar) and albite-H2O-CO2 (3-20 kbar), experimental/theoretical studies of the influence of mixed volatiles on melting phase relations and critical phenomena are non-existent. In an effort to clarify some of these pending issues, and to systematically add chemical complexity to MSH, here we report melting phase relations of hydrous, carbonated garnet peridotite at 22 to 70 kbar in the system CMAS-CO2-H2O. With fo+opx+cpx+garnet+carbonate+melt present, the phase relations are divariant. In this divariant region, all the water

  17. Phase-space densities and effects of resonance decays in a hydrodynamic approach to heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Akkelin, S.V.; Sinyukov, Yu.M.

    2004-12-01

    A method allowing analysis of the overpopulation of phase space in heavy ion collisions in a model-independent way is proposed within the hydrodynamic approach. It makes it possible to extract a chemical potential of thermal pions at freeze-out, irrespective of the form of freeze-out (isothermal) hypersurface in Minkowski space and transverse flows on it. The contributions of resonance (with masses up to 2 GeV) decays to spectra, interferometry volumes, and phase-space densities are calculated and discussed in detail. The estimates of average phase-space densities and chemical potentials of thermal pions are obtained for SPS and RHIC energies. They demonstrate that multibosonic phenomena at those energies might be considered as a correction factor rather than as a significant physical effect. The analysis of the evolution of the pion average phase-space density in chemically frozen hadron systems shows that it is almost constant or slightly increases with time while the particle density and phase-space density at each space point decreases rapidly during the system's expansion. We found that, unlike the particle density, the average phase-space density has no direct link to the freeze-out criterion and final thermodynamic parameters, being connected rather to the initial phase-space density of hadronic matter formed in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions.

  18. Phase separation during the Experiment on Physics of Colloids in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Still photographs taken over 16 hours on Nov. 13, 2001, on the International Space Station have been condensed into a few seconds to show the de-mixing -- or phase separation -- process studied by the Experiment on Physics of Colloids in Space. Commanded from the ground, dozens of similar tests have been conducted since the experiment arrived on ISS in 2000. The sample is a mix of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA or acrylic) colloids, polystyrene polymers and solvents. The circular area is 2 cm (0.8 in.) in diameter. The phase separation process occurs spontaneously after the sample is mechanically mixed. The evolving lighter regions are rich in colloid and have the structure of a liquid. The dark regions are poor in colloids and have the structure of a gas. This behavior carnot be observed on Earth because gravity causes the particles to fall out of solution faster than the phase separation can occur. While similar to a gas-liquid phase transition, the growth rate observed in this test is different from any atomic gas-liquid or liquid-liquid phase transition ever measured experimentally. Ultimately, the sample separates into colloid-poor and colloid-rich areas, just as oil and vinegar separate. The fundamental science of de-mixing in this colloid-polymer sample is the same found in the annealing of metal alloys and plastic polymer blends. Improving the understanding of this process may lead to improving processing of these materials on Earth.

  19. Movie of phase separation during physics of colloids in space experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Still photographs taken over 16 hours on Nov. 13, 2001, on the International Space Station have been condensed into a few seconds to show the de-mixing -- or phase separation -- process studied by the Experiment on Physics of Colloids in Space. Commanded from the ground, dozens of similar tests have been conducted since the experiment arrived on ISS in 2000. The sample is a mix of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA or acrylic) colloids, polystyrene polymers and solvents. The circular area in the video is 2 cm (0.8 in.) in diameter. The phase separation process occurs spontaneously after the sample is mechanically mixed. The evolving lighter regions are rich in colloid and have the structure of a liquid. The dark regions are poor in colloids and have the structure of a gas. This behavior carnot be observed on Earth because gravity causes the particles to fall out of solution faster than the phase separation can occur. While similar to a gas-liquid phase transition, the growth rate observed in this test is different from any atomic gas-liquid or liquid-liquid phase transition ever measured experimentally. Ultimately, the sample separates into colloid-poor and colloid-rich areas, just as oil and vinegar separate. The fundamental science of de-mixing in this colloid-polymer sample is the same found in the annealing of metal alloys and plastic polymer blends. Improving the understanding of this process may lead to improving processing of these materials on Earth.

  20. Cycle-Averaged Phase-Space States for the Harmonic and the Morse Oscillators, and the Corresponding Uncertainty Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolaides, Cleanthes A.; Constantoudis, Vasilios

    2009-01-01

    In Planck's model of the harmonic oscillator (HO) a century ago, both the energy and the phase space were quantized according to epsilon[subscript n] = nhv, n = 0, 1, 2..., and [double integral]dp[subscript x] dx = h. By referring to just these two relations, we show how the adoption of "cycle-averaged phase-space states" (CAPSSs) leads to the…

  1. Phase-space overlap measures. II. Design and implementation of staging methods for free-energy calculations.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Kofke, David A

    2005-08-22

    We consider staged free-energy calculation methods in the context of phase-space overlap relations, and argue that the selection of work-based methods should be guided by consideration of the phase-space overlap of the systems of interest. Stages should always be constructed such that work is performed only into a system that has a phase-space subset relation with the starting system. Thus multiple stages are required if the systems of interest are not such that one forms a phase-space subset with the other. Three two-stage methods are possible, termed umbrella sampling, overlap sampling, and funnel sampling. The last is appropriate for cases in which the subset relation holds, but only in the extreme, meaning that one system's important phase space constitutes a very small portion of the others. Umbrella sampling is most suitable for nonoverlap systems, and overlap sampling is appropriate for systems exhibiting partial phase-space overlap. We review recently introduced metrics that characterize phase-space overlap, showing that the performance of the single- and two-stage methods is consistent with the phase-space picture. We also demonstrate that a recently introduced bias-detection measure is effective in identifying inaccuracy in single- and multistage calculations. The examples used are the chemical-potential calculation for a Lennard-Jones liquid at moderate and at high densities, the same for model water at ambient conditions, and a process of charging a neutral ion in water.

  2. Naked singularities as particle accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, Mandar; Joshi, Pankaj S.

    2010-11-15

    We investigate here the particle acceleration by naked singularities to arbitrarily high center of mass energies. Recently it has been suggested that black holes could be used as particle accelerators to probe the Planck scale physics. We show that the naked singularities serve the same purpose and probably would do better than their black hole counterparts. We focus on the scenario of a self-similar gravitational collapse starting from a regular initial data, leading to the formation of a globally naked singularity. It is seen that when particles moving along timelike geodesics interact and collide near the Cauchy horizon, the energy of collision in the center of mass frame will be arbitrarily high, thus offering a window to Planck scale physics.

  3. A Phase Space Monitoring of Injected Beam of J-PARC MR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatakeyama, Shuichiro; Toyama, Takeshi

    Beam power of J-PARC MR (30 GeV Proton Synchrotron Main Ring) has been improved since 2008 and now achieved over 200 kW for the user operation. A part of beam loss is localized at the beam injection phase so it is important to monitor the beam bunch behavior in the transverse direction. In this paper it is described the method how to measure the position and momentum for each injected beam bunch using Beam Position Monitors (BPMs). It is also mentioned some implementation of an operator's interface (OPI) to display the plots of injected and circulating beam bunches in phase space coordinate.

  4. Computation of Space Shuttle high-pressure cryogenic turbopump ball bearing two-phase coolant flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yen-Sen

    1990-01-01

    A homogeneous two-phase fluid flow model, implemented in a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver using computational fluid dynamics methodology is described. The application of the model to the analysis of the pump-end bearing coolant flow of the high-pressure oxygen turbopump of the Space Shuttle main engine is studied. Results indicate large boiling zones and hot spots near the ball/race contact points. The extent of the phase change of the liquid oxygen coolant flow due to the frictional and viscous heat fluxes near the contact areas has been investigated for the given inlet conditions of the coolant.

  5. Explosive synchronization as a process of explosive percolation in dynamical phase space

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiyun; Zou, Yong; Boccaletti, S.; Liu, Zonghua

    2014-01-01

    Explosive synchronization and explosive percolation are currently two independent phenomena occurring in complex networks, where the former takes place in dynamical phase space while the latter in configuration space. It has been revealed that the mechanism of EP can be explained by the Achlioptas process, where the formation of a giant component is controlled by a suppressive rule. We here introduce an equivalent suppressive rule for ES. Before the critical point of ES, the suppressive rule induces the presence of multiple, small sized, synchronized clusters, while inducing the abrupt formation of a giant cluster of synchronized oscillators at the critical coupling strength. We also show how the explosive character of ES degrades into a second-order phase transition when the suppressive rule is broken. These results suggest that our suppressive rule can be considered as a dynamical counterpart of the Achlioptas process, indicating that ES and EP can be unified into a same framework. PMID:24903808

  6. Exploring the phase space of multiple states in highly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Veen, Roeland C. A.; Huisman, Sander G.; Dung, On-Yu; Tang, Ho L.; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the existence of multiple turbulent states in highly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow in the range of Ta =1011 to 9 ×1012 by measuring the global torques and the local velocities while probing the phase space spanned by the rotation rates of the inner and outer cylinders. The multiple states are found to be very robust and are expected to persist beyond Ta =1013 . The rotation ratio is the parameter that most strongly controls the transitions between the flow states; the transitional values only weakly depend on the Taylor number. However, complex paths in the phase space are necessary to unlock the full region of multiple states. By mapping the flow structures for various rotation ratios in a Taylor-Couette setup with an equal radius ratio but a larger aspect ratio than before, multiple states are again observed. Here they are characterized by even richer roll structure phenomena, including an antisymmetrical roll state.

  7. Explosive synchronization as a process of explosive percolation in dynamical phase space.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiyun; Zou, Yong; Boccaletti, S; Liu, Zonghua

    2014-06-06

    Explosive synchronization and explosive percolation are currently two independent phenomena occurring in complex networks, where the former takes place in dynamical phase space while the latter in configuration space. It has been revealed that the mechanism of EP can be explained by the Achlioptas process, where the formation of a giant component is controlled by a suppressive rule. We here introduce an equivalent suppressive rule for ES. Before the critical point of ES, the suppressive rule induces the presence of multiple, small sized, synchronized clusters, while inducing the abrupt formation of a giant cluster of synchronized oscillators at the critical coupling strength. We also show how the explosive character of ES degrades into a second-order phase transition when the suppressive rule is broken. These results suggest that our suppressive rule can be considered as a dynamical counterpart of the Achlioptas process, indicating that ES and EP can be unified into a same framework.

  8. High order surface aberration contributions from phase space analysis of differential rays.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Herkommer, Alois M

    2016-03-21

    Phase space methods are very popular for illumination systems or paraxial system analysis. In this paper it will be shown that it is also a promising tool to visualize and quantify surface aberration contributions, including all orders. The method is based on the calculation and propagation of a differential ray pair. In order to validate the method we compare to Aldis calculus, an exact method to determine high order aberrations in rotational symmetric systems. A triplet lens is used as an example to visualize the results. The analysis indicates that the phase space method is a very good approximation to Aldis calculus and moreover it is not limited to any symmetry assumptions. PMID:27136789

  9. Workshop on Two-Phase Fluid Behavior in a Space Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Theodore D. (Editor); Juhasz, AL (Editor); Long, W. Russ (Editor); Ottenstein, Laura (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The Workshop was successful in achieving its main objective of identifying a large number of technical issues relating to the design of two-phase systems for space applications. The principal concern expressed was the need for verified analytical tools that will allow an engineer to confidently design a system to a known degree of accuracy. New and improved materials, for such applications as thermal storage and as heat transfer fluids, were also identified as major needs. In addition to these research efforts, a number of specific hardware needs were identified which will require development. These include heat pumps, low weight radiators, advanced heat pipes, stability enhancement devices, high heat flux evaporators, and liquid/vapor separators. Also identified was the need for a centralized source of reliable, up-to-date information on two-phase flow in a space environment.

  10. Observing the phase space trajectory of an entangled matter wave packet.

    PubMed

    Poschinger, U; Walther, A; Singer, K; Schmidt-Kaler, F

    2010-12-31

    We observe the phase space trajectory of an entangled wave packet of a trapped ion with high precision. The application of a spin-dependent light force on a superposition of spin states allows for coherent splitting of the matter wave packet such that two distinct components in phase space emerge. We observe such motion with a precision of better than 9% of the wave packet extension in both momentum and position, corresponding to a 0.8 nm position resolution. We accurately study the effect of the initial ion temperature on the quantum entanglement dynamics. Furthermore, we map out the phonon distributions throughout the action of the displacement force. Our investigation shows corrections to simplified models of the system evolution. The precise knowledge of these dynamics may improve quantum gates for ion crystals and lead to entangled matter wave states with large displacements. PMID:21231660

  11. New Thermodynamical Force in Plasma Phase Space that Controls Turbulence and Turbulent Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Sanae-I.; Itoh, Kimitaka

    2012-11-01

    Physics of turbulence and turbulent transport has been developed on the central dogma that spatial gradients constitute the controlling parameters, such as Reynolds number and Rayleigh number. Recent experiments with the nonequilibrium plasmas in magnetic confinement devices, however, have shown that the turbulence and transport change much faster than global parameters, after an abrupt change of heating power. Here we propose a theory of turbulence in inhomogeneous magnetized plasmas, showing that the heating power directly influences the turbulence. New mechanism, that an external source couples with plasma fluctuations in phase space so as to affect turbulence, is investigated. A new thermodynamical force in phase-space, i.e., the derivative of heating power by plasma pressure, plays the role of new control parameter, in addition to spatial gradients. Following the change of turbulence, turbulent transport is modified accordingly. The condition under which this new effect can be observed is also evaluated.

  12. Longitudinal phase-space coating of beam in a storage ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, C. M.

    2014-06-01

    In this Letter, I report on a novel scheme for beam stacking without any beam emittance dilution using a barrier rf system in synchrotrons. The general principle of the scheme called longitudinal phase-space coating, validation of the concept via multi-particle beam dynamics simulations applied to the Fermilab Recycler, and its experimental demonstration are presented. In addition, it has been shown and illustrated that the rf gymnastics involved in this scheme can be used in measuring the incoherent synchrotron tune spectrum of the beam in barrier buckets and in producing a clean hollow beam in longitudinal phase space. The method of beam stacking in synchrotrons presented here is the first of its kind.

  13. Phase-retrieval analysis of pre- and post-repair Hubble Space Telescope images.

    PubMed

    Krist, J E; Burrows, C J

    1995-08-01

    Phase-retrieval measurements of point-spread functions from the pre- and post-repair Hubble Space Telescope are presented. The primary goal was to determine the aberrations present in the second wide-field and planetary camera (WFPC2) to align and validate its corrective optics. With both parametric model-fitting techniques and iterative (Gerchberg-Saxton) methods, accurate measurements have been obtained of the WFPC2 and Hubble Space Telescope optics, including improved maps of the zonal errors in the mirrors. Additional phase-retrieval results were obtained for the aberrated, prerepair cameras and the corrected faint-object camera. The information has been used to improve models produced by point-spread-function simulation programs. On the basis of the measurements a conic constant for the primary mirror of κ = -1.0144 has been derived.

  14. Phase space density as a measure of cooling performance for the international muon ionization cooling experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, J. S.

    2015-05-03

    The International Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is an experiment to demonstrate ionization cooling of a muon beam in a beamline that shares characteristics with one that might be used for a muon collider or neutrino factory. I describe a way to quantify cooling performance by examining the phase space density of muons, and determining how much that density increases. This contrasts with the more common methods that rely on the covariance matrix and compute emittances from that. I discuss why a direct measure of phase space density might be preferable to a covariance matrix method. I apply this technique to an early proposal for the MICE final step beamline. I discuss how matching impacts the measured performance.

  15. New Thermodynamical Force in Plasma Phase Space that Controls Turbulence and Turbulent Transport

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Sanae-I.; Itoh, Kimitaka

    2012-01-01

    Physics of turbulence and turbulent transport has been developed on the central dogma that spatial gradients constitute the controlling parameters, such as Reynolds number and Rayleigh number. Recent experiments with the nonequilibrium plasmas in magnetic confinement devices, however, have shown that the turbulence and transport change much faster than global parameters, after an abrupt change of heating power. Here we propose a theory of turbulence in inhomogeneous magnetized plasmas, showing that the heating power directly influences the turbulence. New mechanism, that an external source couples with plasma fluctuations in phase space so as to affect turbulence, is investigated. A new thermodynamical force in phase-space, i.e., the derivative of heating power by plasma pressure, plays the role of new control parameter, in addition to spatial gradients. Following the change of turbulence, turbulent transport is modified accordingly. The condition under which this new effect can be observed is also evaluated. PMID:23155481

  16. Halo formation in three-dimensional bunches with various phase space distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedotov, A. V.; Gluckstern, R. L.; Kurennoy, S. S.; Ryne, R. D.

    1999-01-01

    A realistic treatment of halo formation must take into account 3D beam bunches and 6D phase space distributions. We recently constructed, analytically and numerically, a new class of self-consistent 6D phase space stationary distributions, which allowed us to study the halo development mechanism without being obscured by the effect of beam redistribution. In this paper we consider nonstationary distributions and study how the halo characteristics compare with those obtained using the stationary distribution. We then discuss the effect of redistribution on the halo development mechanism. In contrast to bunches with a large aspect ratio, we find that the effect of coupling between the r and z planes is especially important as the bunch shape becomes more spherical.

  17. Segmentation of singularity maps in the context of soil porosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Sotoca, Juan J.; Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Grau, Juan; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2016-04-01

    Geochemical exploration have found with increasingly interests and benefits of using fractal (power-law) models to characterize geochemical distribution, including concentration-area (C-A) model (Cheng et al., 1994; Cheng, 2012) and concentration-volume (C-V) model (Afzal et al., 2011) just to name a few examples. These methods are based on the singularity maps of a measure that at each point define areas with self-similar properties that are shown in power-law relationships in Concentration-Area plots (C-A method). The C-A method together with the singularity map ("Singularity-CA" method) define thresholds that can be applied to segment the map. Recently, the "Singularity-CA" method has been applied to binarize 2D grayscale Computed Tomography (CT) soil images (Martin-Sotoca et al, 2015). Unlike image segmentation based on global thresholding methods, the "Singularity-CA" method allows to quantify the local scaling property of the grayscale value map in the space domain and determinate the intensity of local singularities. It can be used as a high-pass-filter technique to enhance high frequency patterns usually regarded as anomalies when applied to maps. In this work we will put special attention on how to select the singularity thresholds in the C-A plot to segment the image. We will compare two methods: 1) cross point of linear regressions and 2) Wavelets Transform Modulus Maxima (WTMM) singularity function detection. REFERENCES Cheng, Q., Agterberg, F. P. and Ballantyne, S. B. (1994). The separation of geochemical anomalies from background by fractal methods. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 51, 109-130. Cheng, Q. (2012). Singularity theory and methods for mapping geochemical anomalies caused by buried sources and for predicting undiscovered mineral deposits in covered areas. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 122, 55-70. Afzal, P., Fadakar Alghalandis, Y., Khakzad, A., Moarefvand, P. and Rashidnejad Omran, N. (2011) Delineation of mineralization zones in

  18. Concatenated shift registers generating maximally spaced phase shifts of PN-sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurd, W. J.; Welch, L. R.

    1977-01-01

    A large class of linearly concatenated shift registers is shown to generate approximately maximally spaced phase shifts of pn-sequences, for use in pseudorandom number generation. A constructive method is presented for finding members of this class, for almost all degrees for which primitive trinomials exist. The sequences which result are not normally characterized by trinomial recursions, which is desirable since trinomial sequences can have some undesirable randomness properties.

  19. Quantum simulations in phase-space: from quantum optics to ultra-cold physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummond, Peter D.; Chaturvedi, Subhash

    2016-07-01

    As a contribution to the international year of light, we give a brief history of quantum optics in phase-space, with new directions including quantum simulations of multipartite Bell violations, opto-mechanics, ultra-cold atomic systems, matter-wave Bell violations, coherent transport and quantum fluctuations in the early Universe. We mostly focus on exact methods using the positive-P representation, and semiclassical truncated Wigner approximations.

  20. Generation of a novel phase-space-based cylindrical dose kernel for IMRT optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong Hualiang; Chetty, Indrin J.

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: Improving dose calculation accuracy is crucial in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). We have developed a method for generating a phase-space-based dose kernel for IMRT planning of lung cancer patients. Methods: Particle transport in the linear accelerator treatment head of a 21EX, 6 MV photon beam (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) was simulated using the EGSnrc/BEAMnrc code system. The phase space information was recorded under the secondary jaws. Each particle in the phase space file was associated with a beamlet whose index was calculated and saved in the particle's LATCH variable. The DOSXYZnrc code was modified to accumulate the energy deposited by each particle based on its beamlet index. Furthermore, the central axis of each beamlet was calculated from the orientation of all the particles in this beamlet. A cylinder was then defined around the central axis so that only the energy deposited within the cylinder was counted. A look-up table was established for each cylinder during the tallying process. The efficiency and accuracy of the cylindrical beamlet energy deposition approach was evaluated using a treatment plan developed on a simulated lung phantom. Results: Profile and percentage depth doses computed in a water phantom for an open, square field size were within 1.5% of measurements. Dose optimized with the cylindrical dose kernel was found to be within 0.6% of that computed with the nontruncated 3D kernel. The cylindrical truncation reduced optimization time by approximately 80%. Conclusions: A method for generating a phase-space-based dose kernel, using a truncated cylinder for scoring dose, in beamlet-based optimization of lung treatment planning was developed and found to be in good agreement with the standard, nontruncated scoring approach. Compared to previous techniques, our method significantly reduces computational time and memory requirements, which may be useful for Monte-Carlo-based 4D IMRT or IMAT treatment planning.

  1. Towards high phase space density of alkali atoms by simple optical cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jiazhong; Vendeiro, Zachary; Chen, Wenlan; Vuletic, Vladan

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate a simple optical cooling method, which can cool down the temperature of rubidium 87 to the ground state of the vibrational levels. We only use one far-detuned laser performing both cooling and optical repumping. By tuning the laser frequency, we verify the dependence of the two-body collision loss versus the laser detuning. Combining with the retrap of the atoms in the optical dipole trap, we can make the phase space density approaching to unity.

  2. Qubit phase space: SU(n) coherent-state P representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, D. W.; Drummond, P. D.

    2008-11-01

    We introduce a phase-space representation for qubits and spin models. The technique uses an SU(n) coherent-state basis and can equally be used for either static or dynamical simulations. We review previously known definitions and operator identities, and show how these can be used to define an off-diagonal, positive phase-space representation analogous to the positive- P function. As an illustration of the phase-space method, we use the example of the Ising model, which has exact solutions for the finite-temperature canonical ensemble in two dimensions. We show how a canonical ensemble for an Ising model of arbitrary structure can be efficiently simulated using SU(2) or atomic coherent states. The technique utilizes a transformation from a canonical (imaginary-time) weighted simulation to an equivalent unweighted real-time simulation. The results are compared to the exactly soluble two-dimensional case. We note that Ising models in one, two, or three dimensions are potentially achievable experimentally as a lattice gas of ultracold atoms in optical lattices. The technique is not restricted to canonical ensembles or to Ising-like couplings. It is also able to be used for real-time evolution and for systems whose time evolution follows a master equation describing decoherence and coupling to external reservoirs. The case of SU(n) phase space is used to describe n -level systems. In general, the requirement that time evolution be stochastic corresponds to a restriction to Hamiltonians and master equations that are quadratic in the group generators or generalized spin operators.

  3. Magnon Kinetics and Bose-Einstein Condensation Studied in Phase Space

    SciTech Connect

    Demidov, V. E.; Dzyapko, O.; Buchmeier, M.; Demokritov, S. O.; Stockhoff, T.; Schmitz, G.; Melkov, G. A.

    2008-12-19

    Using a novel technique providing simultaneous resolution with respect to the wave vector and frequency of magnons, we observed the formation of a Bose-Einstein condensate documented by the narrowing of the magnon distribution in phase space. Based on the measured width of the distribution we determined the effective correlation length of the condensate, which appears to be anisotropic, reflecting the anisotropy of the magnon dispersion spectrum.

  4. ESPAS, the near-Earth space data infrastructure for e-Science: design and development phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hapgood, M.; Belehaki, A.; Zolesi, B.

    2012-04-01

    Space physics models with good predictive capabilities may be used to forecast accurately the state of the near-Earth space environment and to enable end user communities to mitigate the effects of adverse space weather on humans and technological systems. The results obtained from model runs, and also the validation of their performance accuracy, depend to a large extent on the availability of data from as many as possible regions of the near-Earth geospace. Despite the abundance and variety of related observational data, their exploitation is still challenging as they come from different sensors, in different formats and time resolution, and are provided from various organizations worldwide with different distribution procedures and policies. The primary objective of ESPAS is to provide the e-Infrastructure necessary to support the access to observations, extending from the Earth's atmosphere up to the outer radiation belts, including ionosondes, incoherent scatter radars, magnetometers, GNSS receivers and a large number of space sensors and radars. The development of the ESPAS common interface will allow users to uniformly find, access, and use resources of near-Earth space environment observations from ground-based and space-borne instruments and data from distributed data repositories, based on semantically web services (www.espas-fp7.eu). The first phase that will lead to the release of a first prototype includes the design and development of the data model that will support location of all available data from ground based experiments and satellite missions, available at certain spatial coordinates and time interval. For the first release only the basic data sources will be registered (i.e. Cluster, IMAGE/RPI, DEMETER, DIAS, EISCAT ISRs and SWACI). In a second phase, when all databases and enhanced databases will be registered, the ESPAS infrastructure must be extensively tested through the application of several use cases, designed to serve the needs of the

  5. Phase space scales of free energy dissipation in gradient-driven gyrokinetic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatch, D. R.; Jenko, F.; Bratanov, V.; Navarro, A. Bañón; Navarro

    2014-08-01

    A reduced four-dimensional (integrated over perpendicular velocity) gyrokinetic model of slab ion temperature gradient-driven turbulence is used to study the phase-space scales of free energy dissipation in a turbulent kinetic system over a broad range of background gradients and collision frequencies. Parallel velocity is expressed in terms of Hermite polynomials, allowing for a detailed study of the scales of free energy dynamics over the four-dimensional phase space. A fully spectral code - the DNA code - that solves this system is described. Hermite free energy spectra are significantly steeper than would be expected linearly, causing collisional dissipation to peak at large scales in velocity space even for arbitrarily small collisionality. A key cause of the steep Hermite spectra is a critical balance - an equilibration of the parallel streaming time and the nonlinear correlation time - that extends to high Hermite number n. Although dissipation always peaks at large scales in all phase space dimensions, small-scale dissipation becomes important in an integrated sense when collisionality is low enough and/or nonlinear energy transfer is strong enough. Toroidal full-gyrokinetic simulations using the Gene code are used to verify results from the reduced model. Collision frequencies typically found in present-day experiments correspond to turbulence regimes slightly favoring large-scale dissipation, while turbulence in low-collisionality systems like ITER and space and astrophysical plasmas is expected to rely increasingly on small-scale dissipation mechanisms. This work is expected to inform gyrokinetic reduced modeling efforts like Large Eddy Simulation and gyrofluid techniques.

  6. Bianchi type I cyclic cosmology from Lie-algebraically deformed phase space

    SciTech Connect

    Vakili, Babak; Khosravi, Nima

    2010-11-15

    We study the effects of noncommutativity, in the form of a Lie-algebraically deformed Poisson commutation relations, on the evolution of a Bianchi type I cosmological model with a positive cosmological constant. The phase space variables turn out to correspond to the scale factors of this model in x, y, and z directions. According to the conditions that the structure constants (deformation parameters) should satisfy, we argue that there are two types of noncommutative phase space with Lie-algebraic structure. The exact classical solutions in commutative and type I noncommutative cases are presented. In the framework of this type of deformed phase space, we investigate the possibility of building a Bianchi I model with cyclic scale factors in which the size of the Universe in each direction experiences an endless sequence of contractions and reexpansions. We also obtain some approximate solutions for the type II noncommutative structure by numerical methods and show that the cyclic behavior is repeated as well. These results are compared with the standard commutative case, and similarities and differences of these solutions are discussed.

  7. Simulating longitudinal phase space in the SLC, from the damping rings to the final focus

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, K.L.F.

    1990-09-01

    At high currents the longitudinal phase space of the SLC beam is not simply described by gaussian distributions in both position and energy. The distorted ring beam, the curvature of the compressor rf, the limited energy aperture of the RTL, the wakefields in the linac, and the momentum compaction in the arc all contribute to some extent to a distortion of longitudinal phase space. In this paper we present simulation results that describe the phase space of the SLC beam, from the damping rings to the final focus area, and that include all these distorting effects. From bunch length measurements in the SLC it was discovered that the damping ring beam is lengthened and is clearly not gaussian. One author describes a potential well calculation for the ring bunch shape that agrees remarkably well with the measurements. These calculated shapes are the starting point for the simulations described in this paper. These initial distributions are propagated through the RTL, then the linac, and then the arcs. We will address questions of the bunch shape, beam tilt, beam loss, and tail population at the end of the RTL. Following this we discuss the energy spectrum at the end of the linac and the bunch shape when the beam reaches the final focus. Finally, in Appendix A we describe a method of measuring the bunch shape and the induced voltage in the SLC linac. 22 refs., 9 figs.

  8. High-order continuum kinetic method for modeling plasma dynamics in phase space

    SciTech Connect

    Vogman, G. V.; Colella, P.; Shumlak, U.

    2014-12-15

    Continuum methods offer a high-fidelity means of simulating plasma kinetics. While computationally intensive, these methods are advantageous because they can be cast in conservation-law form, are not susceptible to noise, and can be implemented using high-order numerical methods. Advances in continuum method capabilities for modeling kinetic phenomena in plasmas require the development of validation tools in higher dimensional phase space and an ability to handle non-cartesian geometries. To that end, a new benchmark for validating Vlasov-Poisson simulations in 3D (x,vx,vy) is presented. The benchmark is based on the Dory-Guest-Harris instability and is successfully used to validate a continuum finite volume algorithm. To address challenges associated with non-cartesian geometries, unique features of cylindrical phase space coordinates are described. Preliminary results of continuum kinetic simulations in 4D (r,z,vr,vz) phase space are presented.

  9. The Harmonic Oscillator Influenced by Gravitational Wave in Noncommutative Quantum Phase Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakup, Rehimhaji; Dulat, Sayipjamal; Li, Kang; Hekim, Mamatabdulla

    2014-04-01

    Dynamical property of harmonic oscillator affected by linearized gravitational wave (LGW) is studied in a particular case of both position and momentum operators which are noncommutative to each other. By using the generalized Bopp's shift, we, at first, derived the Hamiltonian in the noncommutative phase space (NPS) and, then, calculated the time evolution of coordinate and momentum operators in the Heisenberg representation. Tiny vibration of flat Minkowski space and effect of NPS let the Hamiltonian of harmonic oscillator, moving in the plain, get new extra terms from it's original and noncommutative space partner. At the end, for simplicity, we take the general form of the LGW into gravitational plain wave, obtain the explicit expression of coordinate and momentum operators.

  10. Constructing Periodic Phase Space Orbits from ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Trajectories to Analyze Vibrational Spectra: Case Study of the Zundel (H5O2(+)) Cation.

    PubMed

    Dietrick, Scott M; Iyengar, Srinivasan S

    2012-12-11

    A method of analysis is introduced to probe the spectral features obtained from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Here, the instantaneous mass-weighted velocities are projected onto irreducible representations constructed from discrete time translation groups comprising operations that invoke the time-domain symmetries (or periodic phase space orbits) reflected in the spectra. The projected velocities are decomposed using singular value decomposition (SVD) to construct a set of "modes" pertaining to a given frequency domain. These modes now include all anharmonicities, as sampled during the dynamics simulations. In this approach, the underlying motions are probed in a manner invariant with respect to coordinate transformations, operations being performed along the time axis rather than coordinate axes, making the analysis independent of choice of reference frame. The method is used to probe the underlying motions responsible for the doublet at ∼1000 cm(-1) in the vibrational spectrum of the H5O2(+), Zundel cation. The associated analysis results are confirmed by projecting the Fourier transformed velocities onto the harmonic normal mode coordinates and a set of mass-weighted, symmetrized Jacobi coordinates. It is found that the two peaks of the doublet are described and differentiated by their respective contributions from the proton transfer, water-water stretch, and water wag coordinates, as these are defined. Temperature dependent effects are also briefly noted.

  11. Phase space effects on fast ion distribution function modeling in tokamaks

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Podesta, M.; Gorelenkova, M.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; White, R. B.

    2016-04-14

    Here, integrated simulations of tokamak discharges typically rely on classical physics to model energetic particle (EP) dynamics. However, there are numerous cases in which energetic particles can suffer additional transport that is not classical in nature. Examples include transport by applied 3D magnetic perturbations and, more notably, by plasma instabilities. Focusing on the effects of instabilities,ad-hocmodels can empirically reproduce increased transport, but the choice of transport coefficients is usually somehow arbitrary. New approaches based on physics-based reduced models are being developed to address those issues in a simplified way, while retaining a more correct treatment of resonant wave-particle interactions. Themore » kick model implemented in the tokamaktransport code TRANSP is an example of such reduced models. It includes modifications of the EP distribution by instabilities in real and velocity space, retaining correlations between transport in energy and space typical of resonant EP transport. The relevance of EP phase space modifications by instabilities is first discussed in terms of predicted fast ion distribution. Results are compared with those from a simple, ad-hoc diffusive model. It is then shown that the phase-space resolved model can also provide additional insight into important issues such as internal consistency of the simulations and mode stability through the analysis of the power exchanged between energetic particles and the instabilities.« less

  12. Optimal singular control for nonlinear semistabilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L'Afflitto, Andrea; Haddad, Wassim M.

    2016-06-01

    The singular optimal control problem for asymptotic stabilisation has been extensively studied in the literature. In this paper, the optimal singular control problem is extended to address a weaker version of closed-loop stability, namely, semistability, which is of paramount importance for consensus control of network dynamical systems. Three approaches are presented to address the nonlinear semistable singular control problem. Namely, a singular perturbation method is presented to construct a state-feedback singular controller that guarantees closed-loop semistability for nonlinear systems. In this approach, we show that for a non-negative cost-to-go function the minimum cost of a nonlinear semistabilising singular controller is lower than the minimum cost of a singular controller that guarantees asymptotic stability of the closed-loop system. In the second approach, we solve the nonlinear semistable singular control problem by using the cost-to-go function to cancel the singularities in the corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation. For this case, we show that the minimum value of the singular performance measure is zero. Finally, we provide a framework based on the concepts of state-feedback linearisation and feedback equivalence to solve the singular control problem for semistabilisation of nonlinear dynamical systems. For this approach, we also show that the minimum value of the singular performance measure is zero. Three numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed singular semistabilisation frameworks.

  13. Image inversion analysis of the HST OTA (Hubble Space Telescope Optical Telescope Assembly), phase A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvak, M. M.

    1991-01-01

    Technical work during September-December 1990 consisted of: (1) analyzing HST point source images obtained from JPL; (2) retrieving phase information from the images by a direct (noniterative) technique; and (3) characterizing the wavefront aberration due to the errors in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) mirrors, in a preliminary manner. This work was in support of JPL design of compensating optics for the next generation wide-field planetary camera on HST. This digital technique for phase retrieval from pairs of defocused images, is based on the energy transport equation between these image planes. In addition, an end-to-end wave optics routine, based on the JPL Code 5 prescription of the unaberrated HST and WFPC, was derived for output of the reference phase front when mirror error is absent. Also, the Roddier routine unwrapped the retrieved phase by inserting the required jumps of +/- 2(pi) radians for the sake of smoothness. A least-squares fitting routine, insensitive to phase unwrapping, but nonlinear, was used to obtain estimates of the Zernike polynomial coefficients that describe the aberration. The phase results were close to, but higher than, the expected error in conic constant of the primary mirror suggested by the fossil evidence. The analysis of aberration contributed by the camera itself could be responsible for the small discrepancy, but was not verified by analysis.

  14. O the Phase Refinement and Extension of Macromolecular Structures Using both Real and Reciprocal Space Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kam Yong Jian

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. By examining the solution to the phase problem of X-ray crystallography, it is established that the structure factor magnitudes and phases are linked through constraints on the electron density. There are real and reciprocal space approaches to the phase problem depending on the way the constraints on electron density are exploited. A constraint on the electron density--the correct density histogram--is added to the list of other constraints. A new density modification technique--histogram matching --was developed based on the matching of the density histogram to that of the correct one. Its application to 2Zn pig insulin successfully refined and extended the 1.9A MIR phases to 1.5A resolution. In order to obtain a molecular envelope with a detailed boundary, a molecular envelope refinement technique was designed which proved to be quite effective. A gradient technique of defining molecular boundary was also explored and was found to be better than the conventional convolution technique. The two dimensional histogram of density and gradient was examined. It was found that the matching of density histograms also matches that of the gradient histograms. The combination of Sayre's equation with solvent flattening and histogram matching led to a new phase refinement and extension technique--SQUASH. It proved to be a powerful technique by its successful refinement of 3.0A MIR phases of 2Zn pig insulin and subsequent extension to 2.0A resolution.

  15. On the Backward Stability of the Schwarzschild Black Hole Singularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournodavlos, Grigorios

    2016-08-01

    We study the backwards-in-time stability of the Schwarzschild singularity from a dynamical PDE point of view. More precisely, considering a spacelike hypersurface {Σ_0} in the interior of the black hole region, tangent to the singular hypersurface {{r = 0}} at a single sphere, we study the problem of perturbing the Schwarzschild data on {Σ_0} and solving the Einstein vacuum equations backwards in time. We obtain a local backwards well-posedness result for small perturbations lying in certain weighted Sobolev spaces. No symmetry assumptions are imposed. The perturbed spacetimes all have a singularity at a "collapsed" sphere on {Σ_0}, where the leading asymptotics of the curvature and the metric match those of their Schwarzschild counterparts to a suitably high order. As in the Schwarzschild backward evolution, the pinched initial hypersurface {Σ_0} `opens up' instantly, becoming a regular spacelike (cylindrical) hypersurface. This result thus yields classes of examples of non-symmetric vacuum spacetimes, evolving forward-in-time from regular initial data, which form a Schwarzschild type singularity at a collapsed sphere. We rely on a precise asymptotic analysis of the Schwarzschild geometry near the singularity which turns out to be at the threshold that our energy methods can handle.

  16. Dynamics of learning near singularities in radial basis function networks.

    PubMed

    Wei, Haikun; Amari, Shun-Ichi

    2008-09-01

    The radial basis function (RBF) networks are one of the most widely used models for function approximation in the regression problem. In the learning paradigm, the best approximation is recursively or iteratively searched for based on observed data (teacher signals). One encounters difficulties in such a process when two component basis functions become identical, or when the magnitude of one component becomes null. In this case, the number of the components reduces by one, and then the reduced component recovers as the learning process proceeds further, provided such a component is necessary for the best approximation. Strange behaviors, especially the plateau phenomena, have been observed in dynamics of learning when such reduction occurs. There exist singularities in the space of parameters, and the above reduction takes place at the singular regions. This paper focuses on a detailed analysis of the dynamical behaviors of learning near the overlap and elimination singularities in RBF networks, based on the averaged learning equation that is applicable to both on-line and batch mode learning. We analyze the stability on the overlap singularity by solving the eigenvalues of the Hessian explicitly. Based on the stability analysis, we plot the analytical dynamic vector fields near the singularity, which are then compared to those real trajectories obtained by a numeric method. We also confirm the existence of the plateaus in both batch and on-line learning by simulation.

  17. Singularities of quantum control landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Re-Bing; Long, Ruixing; Dominy, Jason; Ho, Tak-San; Rabitz, Herschel

    2012-07-01

    Quantum control landscape theory was formulated to assess the ease of finding optimal control fields in simulations and in the laboratory. The landscape is the observable as a function of the controls, and a primary goal of the theory is the analysis of landscape features. In what is referred to as the kinematic picture of the landscape, prior work showed that the landscapes are generally free of traps that could halt the search for an optimal control at a suboptimal observable value. The present paper considers the dynamical picture of the landscape, seeking the existence of singular controls, especially of a nonkinematic nature along with an assessment of whether they correspond to traps. We analyze the necessary and sufficient conditions for singular controls to be kinematic or nonkinematic critical solutions and the likelihood of their being encountered while maximizing an observable. An algorithm is introduced to seek singular controls on the landscape in simulations along with an associated Hessian landscape analysis. Simulations are performed for a large number of model finite-level quantum systems, showing that all the numerically identified kinematic and nonkinematic singular critical controls are not traps, in support of the prior empirical observations on the ease of finding high-quality optimal control fields.

  18. Specialty functions singularity mechanics problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarigul, Nesrin

    1989-01-01

    The focus is in the development of more accurate and efficient advanced methods for solution of singular problems encountered in mechanics. At present, finite element methods in conjunction with special functions, boolean sum and blending interpolations are being considered. In dealing with systems which contain a singularity, special finite elements are being formulated to be used in singular regions. Further, special transition elements are being formulated to couple the special element to the mesh that models the rest of the system, and to be used in conjunction with 1-D, 2-D and 3-D elements within the same mesh. Computational simulation with a least squares fit is being utilized to construct special elements, if there is an unknown singularity in the system. A novel approach is taken in formulation of the elements in that: (1) the material properties are modified to include time, temperature, coordinate and stress dependant behavior within the element; (2) material properties vary at nodal points of the elements; (3) a hidden-symbolic computation scheme is developed and utilized in formulating the elements; and (4) special functions and boolean sum are utilized in order to interpolate the field variables and their derivatives along the boundary of the elements. It may be noted that the proposed methods are also applicable to fluids and coupled problems.

  19. Development and Execution of Autonomous Procedures Onboard the International Space Station to Support the Next Phase of Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beisert, Susan; Rodriggs, Michael; Moreno, Francisco; Korth, David; Gibson, Stephen; Lee, Young H.; Eagles, Donald E.

    2013-01-01

    Now that major assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) is complete, NASA's focus has turned to using this high fidelity in-space research testbed to not only advance fundamental science research, but also demonstrate and mature technologies and develop operational concepts that will enable future human exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. The ISS as a Testbed for Analog Research (ISTAR) project was established to reduce risks for manned missions to exploration destinations by utilizing ISS as a high fidelity micro-g laboratory to demonstrate technologies, operations concepts, and techniques associated with crew autonomous operations. One of these focus areas is the development and execution of ISS Testbed for Analog Research (ISTAR) autonomous flight crew procedures intended to increase crew autonomy that will be required for long duration human exploration missions. Due to increasing communications delays and reduced logistics resupply, autonomous procedures are expected to help reduce crew reliance on the ground flight control team, increase crew performance, and enable the crew to become more subject-matter experts on both the exploration space vehicle systems and the scientific investigation operations that will be conducted on a long duration human space exploration mission. These tests make use of previous or ongoing projects tested in ground analogs such as Research and Technology Studies (RATS) and NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO). Since the latter half of 2012, selected non-critical ISS systems crew procedures have been used to develop techniques for building ISTAR autonomous procedures, and ISS flight crews have successfully executed them without flight controller involvement. Although the main focus has been preparing for exploration, the ISS has been a beneficiary of this synergistic effort and is considering modifying additional standard ISS procedures that may increase crew efficiency, reduce operational costs, and

  20. Scale-invariant streamline equations and strings of singular vorticity for perturbed anisotropic solutions of the Navier-Stokes equation

    SciTech Connect

    Libin, A.

    2012-12-15

    A linear combination of a pair of dual anisotropic decaying Beltrami flows with spatially constant amplitudes (the Trkal solutions) with the same eigenvalue of the curl operator and of a constant velocity orthogonal vector to the Beltrami pair yields a triplet solution of the force-free Navier-Stokes equation. The amplitudes slightly variable in space (large scale perturbations) yield the emergence of a time-dependent phase between the dual Beltrami flows and of the upward velocity, which are unstable at large values of the Reynolds number. They also lead to the formation of large-scale curved prisms of streamlines with edges being the strings of singular vorticity.