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Sample records for phase synchrony predicts

  1. Predicting synchrony in heterogeneous pulse coupled oscillators.

    PubMed

    Talathi, Sachin S; Hwang, Dong-Uk; Miliotis, Abraham; Carney, Paul R; Ditto, William L

    2009-08-01

    Pulse coupled oscillators (PCOs) represent an ubiquitous model for a number of physical and biological systems. Phase response curves (PRCs) provide a general mathematical framework to analyze patterns of synchrony generated within these models. A general theoretical approach to account for the nonlinear contributions from higher-order PRCs in the generation of synchronous patterns by the PCOs is still lacking. Here, by considering a prototypical example of a PCO network, i.e., two synaptically coupled neurons, we present a general theory that extends beyond the weak-coupling approximation, to account for higher-order PRC corrections in the derivation of an approximate discrete map, the stable fixed point of which can predict the domain of 1:1 phase locked synchronous states generated by the PCO network.

  2. Maximal variability of phase synchrony in cortical networks with neuronal avalanches.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongdian; Shew, Woodrow L; Roy, Rajarshi; Plenz, Dietmar

    2012-01-18

    Ongoing interactions among cortical neurons often manifest as network-level synchrony. Understanding the spatiotemporal dynamics of such spontaneous synchrony is important because it may (1) influence network response to input, (2) shape activity-dependent microcircuit structure, and (3) reveal fundamental network properties, such as an imbalance of excitation (E) and inhibition (I). Here we delineate the spatiotemporal character of spontaneous synchrony in rat cortex slice cultures and a computational model over a range of different E-I conditions including disfacilitated (antagonized AMPA, NMDA receptors), unperturbed, and disinhibited (antagonized GABA(A) receptors). Local field potential was recorded with multielectrode arrays during spontaneous burst activity. Synchrony among neuronal groups was quantified based on phase-locking among recording sites. As network excitability was increased from low to high, we discovered three phenomena at an intermediate excitability level: (1) onset of synchrony, (2) maximized variability of synchrony, and (3) neuronal avalanches. Our computational model predicted that these three features occur when the network operates near a unique balanced E-I condition called "criticality." These results were invariant to changes in the measurement spatial extent, spatial resolution, and frequency bands. Our findings indicate that moderate average synchrony, which is required to avoid pathology, occurs over a limited range of E-I conditions and emerges together with maximally variable synchrony. If variable synchrony is detrimental to cortical function, this is a cost paid for moderate average synchrony. However, if variable synchrony is beneficial, then by operating near criticality the cortex may doubly benefit from moderate mean and maximized variability of synchrony.

  3. Female reproductive synchrony predicts skewed paternity across primates

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Charles L.; Schülke, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have uncovered remarkable variation in paternity within primate groups. To date, however, we lack a general understanding of the factors that drive variation in paternity skew among primate groups and across species. Our study focused on hypotheses from reproductive skew theory involving limited control and the use of paternity “concessions” by investigating how paternity covaries with the number of males, female estrous synchrony, and rates of extragroup paternity. In multivariate and phylogenetically controlled analyses of data from 27 studies on 19 species, we found strong support for a limited control skew model, with reproductive skew within groups declining as female reproductive synchrony and the number of males per group increase. Of these 2 variables, female reproductive synchrony explained more of the variation in paternity distributions. To test whether dominant males provide incentives to subordinates to resist matings by extragroup males, that is, whether dominants make concessions of paternity, we derived a novel prediction that skew is lower within groups when threat from outside the group exists. This prediction was not supported as a primary factor underlying patterns of reproductive skew among primate species. However, our approach revealed that if concessions occur in primates, they are most likely when female synchrony is low, as these conditions provide alpha male control of paternity that is assumed by concessions models. Collectively, our analyses demonstrate that aspects of male reproductive competition are the primary drivers of reproductive skew in primates. PMID:19018288

  4. Phase synchrony reveals organization in human atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Vidmar, David; Narayan, Sanjiv M; Rappel, Wouter-Jan

    2015-12-15

    It remains unclear if human atrial fibrillation (AF) is spatially nonhierarchical or exhibits a hierarchy of organization sustained by sources. We utilize activation times obtained at discrete locations during AF to compute the phase synchrony between tissue regions, to examine underlying spatial dynamics throughout both atria. We construct a binary synchronization network and show that this network can accurately define regions of coherence in coarse-grained in silico data. Specifically, domains controlled by spiral waves exhibit regions of high phase synchrony. We then apply this analysis to clinical data from patients experiencing cardiac arrhythmias using multielectrode catheters to simultaneously record from a majority of both atria. We show that pharmaceutical intervention with ibutilide organizes activation by increasing the size of the synchronized domain in AF and quantify the increase in temporal organization when arrhythmia changes from fibrillation to tachycardia. Finally, in recordings from 24 patients in AF we show that the level of synchrony is spatially broad with some patients showing large spatially contiguous regions of synchronization, while in others synchrony is localized to small pockets. Using computer simulations, we show that this distribution is inconsistent with distributions obtained from simulations that mimic multiwavelet reentry but is consistent with mechanisms in which one or more spatially conserved spiral waves is surrounded by tissue in which activation is disorganized. PMID:26475585

  5. Symmetry types and phase-shift synchrony in networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubitsky, Martin; Matamba Messi, Leopold; Spardy, Lucy E.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we discuss what is known about the classification of symmetry groups and patterns of phase-shift synchrony for periodic solutions of coupled cell networks. Specifically, we compare the lists of spatial and spatiotemporal symmetries of periodic solutions of admissible vector fields to those of equivariant vector fields in the three cases of Rn (coupled equations), Tn (coupled oscillators), and (Rk)n where k ≥ 2 (coupled systems). To do this we use the H / K Theorem of Buono and Golubitsky (2001) applied to coupled equations and coupled systems and prove the H / K theorem in the case of coupled oscillators. Josić and Török (2006) prove that the H / K lists for equivariant vector fields and admissible vector fields are the same for transitive coupled systems. We show that the corresponding theorem is false for coupled equations. We also prove that the pairs of subgroups H ⊃ K for coupled equations are contained in the pairs for coupled oscillators which are contained in the pairs for coupled systems. Finally, we prove that patterns of rigid phase-shift synchrony for coupled equations are contained in those of coupled oscillators and those of coupled systems.

  6. Time-delay-induced phase-transition to synchrony in coupled bursting neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Bhim Mani; Prasad, Awadhesh; Dhamala, Mukeshwar

    2011-06-01

    Signal transmission time delays in a network of nonlinear oscillators are known to be responsible for a variety of interesting dynamic behaviors including phase-flip transitions leading to synchrony or out of synchrony. Here, we uncover that phase-flip transitions are general phenomena and can occur in a network of coupled bursting neurons with a variety of coupling types. The transitions are marked by nonlinear changes in both temporal and phase-space characteristics of the coupled system. We demonstrate these phase-transitions with Hindmarsh-Rose and Leech-Heart interneuron models and discuss the implications of these results in understanding collective dynamics of bursting neurons in the brain.

  7. Phase synchrony facilitates binding and segmentation of natural images in a coupled neural oscillator network

    PubMed Central

    Finger, Holger; König, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Synchronization has been suggested as a mechanism of binding distributed feature representations facilitating segmentation of visual stimuli. Here we investigate this concept based on unsupervised learning using natural visual stimuli. We simulate dual-variable neural oscillators with separate activation and phase variables. The binding of a set of neurons is coded by synchronized phase variables. The network of tangential synchronizing connections learned from the induced activations exhibits small-world properties and allows binding even over larger distances. We evaluate the resulting dynamic phase maps using segmentation masks labeled by human experts. Our simulation results show a continuously increasing phase synchrony between neurons within the labeled segmentation masks. The evaluation of the network dynamics shows that the synchrony between network nodes establishes a relational coding of the natural image inputs. This demonstrates that the concept of binding by synchrony is applicable in the context of unsupervised learning using natural visual stimuli. PMID:24478685

  8. Don't worry, be (moderately) happy: Mothers' anxiety and positivity during pregnancy independently predict lower mother-infant synchrony.

    PubMed

    Moore, Ginger A; Quigley, Kelsey M; Voegtline, Kristin M; DiPietro, Janet A

    2016-02-01

    Maternal positivity and mother-infant synchrony have been linked, independently, to beneficial infant outcomes; however, research that has examined relations between the two has found that higher positivity is associated with lower synchrony. Methodological issues may inform this counter-intuitive association and clinical theory supports its validity. This study examined the theory that heightened positivity associated with anxiety is a way of avoiding negative emotion and contributes to lower synchrony because it interferes with appropriate responding to infant cues. We examined mothers' (N=75) self-reported anxiety and verbal expression of positivity during pregnancy in relation to mother-infant synchrony at 6 months post-partum. Verbal positivity was assessed using linguistic analysis of interviews about pregnancy experiences. Mother and infant affect and gaze were coded during interaction and synchrony was computed as the correlation between mother and infant behaviors. Higher verbal positivity and anxiety during pregnancy independently predicted lower mother-infant synchrony, suggesting distinct pathways to the same degree of synchrony with potentially different consequences for infant development.

  9. Don't worry, be (moderately) happy: Mothers' anxiety and positivity during pregnancy independently predict lower mother-infant synchrony.

    PubMed

    Moore, Ginger A; Quigley, Kelsey M; Voegtline, Kristin M; DiPietro, Janet A

    2016-02-01

    Maternal positivity and mother-infant synchrony have been linked, independently, to beneficial infant outcomes; however, research that has examined relations between the two has found that higher positivity is associated with lower synchrony. Methodological issues may inform this counter-intuitive association and clinical theory supports its validity. This study examined the theory that heightened positivity associated with anxiety is a way of avoiding negative emotion and contributes to lower synchrony because it interferes with appropriate responding to infant cues. We examined mothers' (N=75) self-reported anxiety and verbal expression of positivity during pregnancy in relation to mother-infant synchrony at 6 months post-partum. Verbal positivity was assessed using linguistic analysis of interviews about pregnancy experiences. Mother and infant affect and gaze were coded during interaction and synchrony was computed as the correlation between mother and infant behaviors. Higher verbal positivity and anxiety during pregnancy independently predicted lower mother-infant synchrony, suggesting distinct pathways to the same degree of synchrony with potentially different consequences for infant development. PMID:26705933

  10. On a Possible Relationship between Linguistic Expertise and EEG Gamma Band Phase Synchrony

    PubMed Central

    Reiterer, Susanne; Pereda, Ernesto; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has shown that extensive training in and exposure to a second language can modify the language organization in the brain by causing both structural and functional changes. However it is not yet known how these changes are manifested by the dynamic brain oscillations and synchronization patterns subserving the language networks. In search for synchronization correlates of proficiency and expertise in second language acquisition, multivariate EEG signals were recorded from 44 high and low proficiency bilinguals during processing of natural language in their first and second languages. Gamma band (30–45 Hz) phase synchronization (PS) was calculated mainly by two recently developed methods: coarse-graining of Markov chains (estimating global phase synchrony, measuring the degree of PS between one electrode and all other electrodes), and phase lag index (PLI; estimating bivariate phase synchrony, measuring the degree of PS between a pair of electrodes). On comparing second versus first language processing, global PS by coarse-graining Markov chains indicated that processing of the second language needs significantly higher synchronization strength than first language. On comparing the proficiency groups, bivariate PS measure (i.e., PLI) revealed that during second language processing the low proficiency group showed stronger and broader network patterns than the high proficiency group, with interconnectivities between a left fronto-parietal network. Mean phase coherence analysis also indicated that the network activity was globally stronger in the low proficiency group during second language processing. PMID:22125542

  11. Functional Contributions of Strong and Weak Cellular Oscillators to Synchrony and Light-shifted Phase Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Logan; Leise, Tanya L; Welsh, David K; Holmes, Todd C

    2016-08-01

    Light is the primary signal that calibrates circadian neural circuits and thus coordinates daily physiological and behavioral rhythms with solar entrainment cues. Drosophila and mammalian circadian circuits consist of diverse populations of cellular oscillators that exhibit a wide range of dynamic light responses, periods, phases, and degrees of synchrony. How heterogeneous circadian circuits can generate robust physiological rhythms while remaining flexible enough to respond to synchronizing stimuli has long remained enigmatic. Cryptochrome is a short-wavelength photoreceptor that is endogenously expressed in approximately half of Drosophila circadian neurons. In a previous study, physiological light response was measured using real-time bioluminescence recordings in Drosophila whole-brain explants, which remain intrinsically light-sensitive. Here we apply analysis of real-time bioluminescence experimental data to show detailed dynamic ensemble representations of whole circadian circuit light entrainment at single neuron resolution. Organotypic whole-brain explants were either maintained in constant darkness (DD) for 6 days or exposed to a phase-advancing light pulse on the second day. We find that stronger circadian oscillators support robust overall circuit rhythmicity in DD, whereas weaker oscillators can be pushed toward transient desynchrony and damped amplitude to facilitate a new state of phase-shifted network synchrony. Additionally, we use mathematical modeling to examine how a network composed of distinct oscillator types can give rise to complex dynamic signatures in DD conditions and in response to simulated light pulses. Simulations suggest that complementary coupling mechanisms and a combination of strong and weak oscillators may enable a robust yet flexible circadian network that promotes both synchrony and entrainment. A more complete understanding of how the properties of oscillators and their signaling mechanisms facilitate their distinct roles

  12. Phase-Dependent Modulation of Oscillatory Phase and Synchrony by Long-Lasting Depolarizing Inputs in Central Neurons

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Oscillatory neural activities have been implicated in various types of information processing in the CNS. The procerebral (PC) lobe of the land mollusk Limax valentianus shows an ongoing oscillatory local field potential (LFP). Olfactory input increases both the frequency and spatial synchrony of the LFP oscillation by a nitric oxide (NO)-mediated mechanism, but how NO modulates the activity in a specific manner has been unclear. In the present study, we used electrical stimulation and NO uncaging to systematically analyze the response of the LFP oscillation and found phase-dependent effects on phase shifting and synchrony. The neurons that presumably release NO in the PC lobe preferentially fired at phases in which NO has a synchronizing effect, suggesting that the timing of NO release is regulated to induce a stereotyped response to natural sensory stimuli. The phase–response curve (PRC) describes the timing dependence of responses of an oscillatory system to external input. PRCs are usually constructed by recording the temporal shifts of the neural activity in response to brief electrical pulses. However, NO evokes a long-lasting depolarization persisting for several cycles of oscillation. The phase–response relationship obtained by NO stimulation was approximately the integral of the PRC. A similar relationship was also shown for regular firing of mouse cerebellar Purkinje cells receiving step depolarization, suggesting the generality of the results to oscillatory neural systems with highly distinct properties. These results indicate novel dynamic effects of long-lasting inputs on network oscillation and synchrony, which are based on simple and ubiquitous mechanisms. PMID:27785464

  13. Cross-frequency phase synchrony around the saccade period as a correlate of perceiver's internal state

    PubMed Central

    Nakatani, Chie; Chehelcheraghi, Mojtaba; Jarrahi, Behnaz; Nakatani, Hironori; van Leeuwen, Cees

    2013-01-01

    In active vision, eye-movements depend on perceivers' internal state. We investigated peri-fixation brain activity for internal state-specific tagging. Human participants performed a task, in which a visual object was presented for identification in lateral visual field, to which they moved their eyes as soon as possible from a central fixation point. Next, a phrase appeared in the same location; the phrase could either be an easy or hard question about the object, answered by pressing one of two alternative response buttons, or it could be an instruction to simply press one of these two buttons. Depending on whether these messages were blocked or randomly mixed, one of two different internal states was induced: either the task was known in advance or it wasn't. Eye movements and electroencephalogram (EEG) were recorded simultaneously during task performance. Using eye-event-time-locked averaging and independent component analysis, saccade- and fixation-related components were identified. Coss-frequency phase-synchrony was observed between the alpha/beta1 ranges of fixation-related and beta2/gamma1 ranges of saccade-related activity 50 ms prior to fixation onset in the mixed-phrase condition only. We interpreted this result as evidence for internal state-specific tagging. PMID:23754990

  14. Correlation and prediction uncertainties in the CyberKnife Synchrony respiratory tracking system

    SciTech Connect

    Pepin, Eric W.; Wu, Huanmei; Zhang, Yuenian; Lord, Bryce

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: The CyberKnife uses an online prediction model to improve radiation delivery when treating lung tumors. This study evaluates the prediction model used by the CyberKnife radiation therapy system in terms of treatment margins about the gross tumor volume (GTV). Methods: From the data log files produced by the CyberKnife synchrony model, the uncertainty in radiation delivery can be calculated. Modeler points indicate the tracked position of the tumor and Predictor points predict the position about 115 ms in the future. The discrepancy between Predictor points and their corresponding Modeler points was analyzed for 100 treatment model data sets from 23 de-identified lung patients. The treatment margins were determined in each anatomic direction to cover an arbitrary volume of the GTV, derived from the Modeler points, when the radiation is targeted at the Predictor points. Each treatment model had about 30 min of motion data, of which about 10 min constituted treatment time; only these 10 min were used in the analysis. The frequencies of margin sizes were analyzed and truncated Gaussian normal functions were fit to each direction's distribution. The standard deviation of each Gaussian distribution was then used to describe the necessary margin expansions in each signed dimension in order to achieve the desired coverage. In this study, 95% modeler point coverage was compared to 99% modeler coverage. Two other error sources were investigated: the correlation error and the targeting error. These were added to the prediction error to give an aggregate error for the CyberKnife during treatment of lung tumors. Results: Considering the magnitude of 2{sigma} from the mean of the Gaussian in each signed dimension, the margin expansions needed for 95% modeler point coverage were 1.2 mm in the lateral (LAT) direction and 1.7 mm in the anterior-posterior (AP) direction. For the superior-inferior (SI) direction, the fit was poor; but empirically, the expansions were 3.5 mm

  15. Synchrony-Desynchrony in the Tripartite Model of Fear: Predicting Treatment Outcome in Clinically Phobic Children

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Kristy Benoit; Allen, Ben; Austin, Kristin E.; Waldron, Jonathan C.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    The tripartite model of fear posits that the fear response entails three loosely coupled components: subjective distress, behavioral avoidance, and physiological arousal. The concept of synchrony vs. desynchrony describes the degree to which changes in the activation of these components vary together (synchrony), independently, or inversely (both forms of desynchrony) over time. The present study assessed synchronony-desynchrony and its relationship to treatment outcome in a sample of 98 children with specific phobias both prior to and 1 week after receiving one-session treatment, a 3 hour cognitive-behavioral intervention. The results suggest an overall pattern of desynchronous change whereby youth improved on behavioral avoidance and subjective distress following treatment, but their level of cardiovascular reactivity remained stable. However, we found evidence that synchronous change on the behavioral avoidance and subjective distress components was related to better treatment outcome, whereas desynchronous change on these components was related to poorer treatment outcome. These findings suggest that a fuller understanding of the three response systems and their interrelations in phobic youth may assist us in the assessment and treatment of these disorders, potentially leading to a more person-centered approach and eventually to enhanced treatment outcomes. PMID:26073497

  16. EEG alpha band synchrony predicts cognitive and motor performance in patients with ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Dubovik, Sviatlana; Ptak, Radek; Aboulafia, Tatiana; Magnin, Cécile; Gillabert, Nicole; Allet, Lara; Pignat, Jean-Michel; Schnider, Armin; Guggisberg, Adrian G

    2013-01-01

    Functional brain networks are known to be affected by focal brain lesions. However, the clinical relevance of these changes remains unclear. This study assesses resting-state functional connectivity (FC) with electroencephalography (EEG) and relates observed topography of FC to cognitive and motor deficits in patients three months after ischemic stroke. Twenty patients (mean age 61.3 years, range 37-80, 9 females) and nineteen age-matched healthy participants (mean age 66.7 years, range 36-88, 13 females) underwent a ten-minute EEG-resting state examination. The neural oscillations at each grey matter voxel were reconstructed using an adaptive spatial filter and imaginary component of coherence (IC) was calculated as an index of FC. Maps representing mean connectivity value at each voxel were correlated with the clinical data. Compared to healthy controls, alpha band IC of stroke patients was locally reduced in brain regions critical to observed behavioral deficits. A voxel-wise Pearson correlation of clinical performances with FC yielded maps of the neural structures implicated in motor, language, and executive function. This correlation was again specific to alpha band coherence. Ischemic lesions decrease the synchrony of alpha band oscillations between affected brain regions and the rest of the brain. This decrease is linearly related to cognitive and motor deficits observed in the patients.

  17. Stabilizing synchrony by inhomogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Bolhasani, Ehsan; Valizadeh, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    We show that for two weakly coupled identical neuronal oscillators with strictly positive phase resetting curve, isochronous synchrony can only be seen in the absence of noise and an arbitrarily weak noise can destroy entrainment and generate intermittent phase slips. Small inhomogeneity–mismatch in the intrinsic firing rate of the neurons–can stabilize the phase locking and lead to more precise relative spike timing of the two neurons. The results can explain how for a class of neuronal models, including leaky integrate-fire model, inhomogeneity can increase correlation of spike trains when the neurons are synaptically connected. PMID:26338691

  18. Auditory conflict resolution correlates with medial-lateral frontal theta/alpha phase synchrony.

    PubMed

    Huang, Samantha; Rossi, Stephanie; Hämäläinen, Matti; Ahveninen, Jyrki

    2014-01-01

    When multiple persons speak simultaneously, it may be difficult for the listener to direct attention to correct sound objects among conflicting ones. This could occur, for example, in an emergency situation in which one hears conflicting instructions and the loudest, instead of the wisest, voice prevails. Here, we used cortically-constrained oscillatory MEG/EEG estimates to examine how different brain regions, including caudal anterior cingulate (cACC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (DLPFC), work together to resolve these kinds of auditory conflicts. During an auditory flanker interference task, subjects were presented with sound patterns consisting of three different voices, from three different directions (45° left, straight ahead, 45° right), sounding out either the letters "A" or "O". They were asked to discriminate which sound was presented centrally and ignore the flanking distracters that were phonetically either congruent (50%) or incongruent (50%) with the target. Our cortical MEG/EEG oscillatory estimates demonstrated a direct relationship between performance and brain activity, showing that efficient conflict resolution, as measured with reduced conflict-induced RT lags, is predicted by theta/alpha phase coupling between cACC and right lateral frontal cortex regions intersecting the right frontal eye fields (FEF) and DLPFC, as well as by increased pre-stimulus gamma (60-110 Hz) power in the left inferior fontal cortex. Notably, cACC connectivity patterns that correlated with behavioral conflict-resolution measures were found during both the pre-stimulus and the pre-response periods. Our data provide evidence that, instead of being only transiently activated upon conflict detection, cACC is involved in sustained engagement of attentional resources required for effective sound object selection performance.

  19. Auditory conflict resolution correlates with medial-lateral frontal theta/alpha phase synchrony.

    PubMed

    Huang, Samantha; Rossi, Stephanie; Hämäläinen, Matti; Ahveninen, Jyrki

    2014-01-01

    When multiple persons speak simultaneously, it may be difficult for the listener to direct attention to correct sound objects among conflicting ones. This could occur, for example, in an emergency situation in which one hears conflicting instructions and the loudest, instead of the wisest, voice prevails. Here, we used cortically-constrained oscillatory MEG/EEG estimates to examine how different brain regions, including caudal anterior cingulate (cACC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (DLPFC), work together to resolve these kinds of auditory conflicts. During an auditory flanker interference task, subjects were presented with sound patterns consisting of three different voices, from three different directions (45° left, straight ahead, 45° right), sounding out either the letters "A" or "O". They were asked to discriminate which sound was presented centrally and ignore the flanking distracters that were phonetically either congruent (50%) or incongruent (50%) with the target. Our cortical MEG/EEG oscillatory estimates demonstrated a direct relationship between performance and brain activity, showing that efficient conflict resolution, as measured with reduced conflict-induced RT lags, is predicted by theta/alpha phase coupling between cACC and right lateral frontal cortex regions intersecting the right frontal eye fields (FEF) and DLPFC, as well as by increased pre-stimulus gamma (60-110 Hz) power in the left inferior fontal cortex. Notably, cACC connectivity patterns that correlated with behavioral conflict-resolution measures were found during both the pre-stimulus and the pre-response periods. Our data provide evidence that, instead of being only transiently activated upon conflict detection, cACC is involved in sustained engagement of attentional resources required for effective sound object selection performance. PMID:25343503

  20. Establishing a Statistical Link between Network Oscillations and Neural Synchrony.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Pengcheng; Burton, Shawn D; Snyder, Adam C; Smith, Matthew A; Urban, Nathaniel N; Kass, Robert E

    2015-10-01

    Pairs of active neurons frequently fire action potentials or "spikes" nearly synchronously (i.e., within 5 ms of each other). This spike synchrony may occur by chance, based solely on the neurons' fluctuating firing patterns, or it may occur too frequently to be explicable by chance alone. When spike synchrony above chances levels is present, it may subserve computation for a specific cognitive process, or it could be an irrelevant byproduct of such computation. Either way, spike synchrony is a feature of neural data that should be explained. A point process regression framework has been developed previously for this purpose, using generalized linear models (GLMs). In this framework, the observed number of synchronous spikes is compared to the number predicted by chance under varying assumptions about the factors that affect each of the individual neuron's firing-rate functions. An important possible source of spike synchrony is network-wide oscillations, which may provide an essential mechanism of network information flow. To establish the statistical link between spike synchrony and network-wide oscillations, we have integrated oscillatory field potentials into our point process regression framework. We first extended a previously-published model of spike-field association and showed that we could recover phase relationships between oscillatory field potentials and firing rates. We then used this new framework to demonstrate the statistical relationship between oscillatory field potentials and spike synchrony in: 1) simulated neurons, 2) in vitro recordings of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells, and 3) in vivo recordings of neocortical V4 neurons. Our results provide a rigorous method for establishing a statistical link between network oscillations and neural synchrony. PMID:26465621

  1. Establishing a Statistical Link between Network Oscillations and Neural Synchrony

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Pengcheng; Burton, Shawn D.; Snyder, Adam C.; Smith, Matthew A.; Urban, Nathaniel N.; Kass, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Pairs of active neurons frequently fire action potentials or “spikes” nearly synchronously (i.e., within 5 ms of each other). This spike synchrony may occur by chance, based solely on the neurons’ fluctuating firing patterns, or it may occur too frequently to be explicable by chance alone. When spike synchrony above chances levels is present, it may subserve computation for a specific cognitive process, or it could be an irrelevant byproduct of such computation. Either way, spike synchrony is a feature of neural data that should be explained. A point process regression framework has been developed previously for this purpose, using generalized linear models (GLMs). In this framework, the observed number of synchronous spikes is compared to the number predicted by chance under varying assumptions about the factors that affect each of the individual neuron’s firing-rate functions. An important possible source of spike synchrony is network-wide oscillations, which may provide an essential mechanism of network information flow. To establish the statistical link between spike synchrony and network-wide oscillations, we have integrated oscillatory field potentials into our point process regression framework. We first extended a previously-published model of spike-field association and showed that we could recover phase relationships between oscillatory field potentials and firing rates. We then used this new framework to demonstrate the statistical relationship between oscillatory field potentials and spike synchrony in: 1) simulated neurons, 2) in vitro recordings of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells, and 3) in vivo recordings of neocortical V4 neurons. Our results provide a rigorous method for establishing a statistical link between network oscillations and neural synchrony. PMID:26465621

  2. Depression-Related Brain Connectivity Analyzed by EEG Event-Related Phase Synchrony Measure

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuezhi; Kang, Cheng; Qu, Xingda; Zhou, Yunfei; Wang, Wuyi; Hu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    This study is to examine changes of functional connectivity in patients with depressive disorder using synchronous brain activity. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were acquired during a visual oddball task in 14 patients with depressive disorder and 19 healthy controls. Electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings were analyzed using event-related phase coherence (ERPCOH) to obtain the functional network. Alteration of the phase synchronization index (PSI) of the functional network was investigated. Patients with depression showed a decreased number of significant electrode pairs in delta phase synchronization, and an increased number of significant electrode pairs in theta, alpha and beta phase synchronization, compared with controls. Patients with depression showed lower target-dependent PSI increment in the frontal-parietal/temporal/occipital electrode pairs in delta-phase synchronization than healthy participants. However, patients with depression showed higher target-dependent PSI increments in theta band in the prefrontal/frontal and frontal-temporal electrode pairs, higher PSI increments in alpha band in the prefrontal pairs and higher increments of beta PSI in the central and right frontal-parietal pairs than controls. It implied that the decrease in delta PSI activity in major depression may indicate impairment of the connection between the frontal and parietal/temporal/occipital regions. The increase in theta, alpha and beta PSI in the frontal/prefrontal sites might reflect the compensatory mechanism to maintain normal cognitive performance. These findings may provide a foundation for a new approach to evaluate the effectiveness of therapeutic strategies for depression. PMID:27725797

  3. Stepping to phase-perturbed metronome cues: multisensory advantage in movement synchrony but not correction

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Rachel L.; Spurgeon, Laura C.; Elliott, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    Humans can synchronize movements with auditory beats or rhythms without apparent effort. This ability to entrain to the beat is considered automatic, such that any perturbations are corrected for, even if the perturbation was not consciously noted. Temporal correction of upper limb (e.g., finger tapping) and lower limb (e.g., stepping) movements to a phase perturbed auditory beat usually results in individuals being back in phase after just a few beats. When a metronome is presented in more than one sensory modality, a multisensory advantage is observed, with reduced temporal variability in finger tapping movements compared to unimodal conditions. Here, we investigate synchronization of lower limb movements (stepping in place) to auditory, visual and combined auditory-visual (AV) metronome cues. In addition, we compare movement corrections to phase advance and phase delay perturbations in the metronome for the three sensory modality conditions. We hypothesized that, as with upper limb movements, there would be a multisensory advantage, with stepping variability being lowest in the bimodal condition. As such, we further expected correction to the phase perturbation to be quickest in the bimodal condition. Our results revealed lower variability in the asynchronies between foot strikes and the metronome beats in the bimodal condition, compared to unimodal conditions. However, while participants corrected substantially quicker to perturbations in auditory compared to visual metronomes, there was no multisensory advantage in the phase correction task—correction under the bimodal condition was almost identical to the auditory-only (AO) condition. On the whole, we noted that corrections in the stepping task were smaller than those previously reported for finger tapping studies. We conclude that temporal corrections are not only affected by the reliability of the sensory information, but also the complexity of the movement itself. PMID:25309397

  4. TMS-induced theta phase synchrony reveals a bottom-up network in working memory.

    PubMed

    Miyauchi, Eri; Kitajo, Keiichi; Kawasaki, Masahiro

    2016-05-27

    Global theta phase synchronization between the frontal and sensory areas has been suggested to connect the relevant areas for executive processes of working memory (WM). However, little is known regarding network directionality (i.e. top-down or bottom-up) of this interaction. To address the issue, the present study conducted transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-electroencephalography (EEG) experiment during WM tasks. Results showed that TMS-induced increases in theta phase synchronization were observed only when TMS was delivered to the sensory areas but not the frontal area. These findings suggest that network directionality represented in WM is bottom-up rather than top-down. PMID:27063284

  5. Theta phase synchrony and conscious target perception: impact of intensive mental training.

    PubMed

    Slagter, Heleen A; Lutz, Antoine; Greischar, Lawrence L; Nieuwenhuis, Sander; Davidson, Richard J

    2009-08-01

    The information processing capacity of the human mind is limited, as is evidenced by the attentional blink-a deficit in identifying the second of two targets (T1 and T2) presented in close succession. This deficit is thought to result from an overinvestment of limited resources in T1 processing. We previously reported that intensive mental training in a style of meditation aimed at reducing elaborate object processing, reduced brain resource allocation to T1, and improved T2 accuracy [Slagter, H. A., Lutz, A., Greischar, L. L., Francis, A. D., Nieuwenhuis, S., Davis, J., et al. Mental training affects distribution of limited brain resources. PloS Biology, 5, e138, 2007]. Here we report EEG spectral analyses to examine the possibility that this reduction in elaborate T1 processing rendered the system more available to process new target information, as indexed by T2-locked phase variability. Intensive mental training was associated with decreased cross-trial variability in the phase of oscillatory theta activity after successfully detected T2s, in particular, for those individuals who showed the greatest reduction in brain resource allocation to T1. These data implicate theta phase locking in conscious target perception, and suggest that after mental training the cognitive system is more rapidly available to process new target information. Mental training was not associated with changes in the amplitude of T2-induced responses or oscillatory activity before task onset. In combination, these findings illustrate the usefulness of systematic mental training in the study of the human mind by revealing the neural mechanisms that enable the brain to successfully represent target information.

  6. Endogenous rhythms influence interpersonal synchrony.

    PubMed

    Zamm, Anna; Wellman, Chelsea; Palmer, Caroline

    2016-05-01

    Interpersonal synchrony, the temporal coordination of actions between individuals, is fundamental to social behaviors from conversational speech to dance and music-making. Animal models indicate constraints on synchrony that arise from endogenous rhythms: Intrinsic periodic behaviors or processes that continue in the absence of change in external stimulus conditions. We report evidence for a direct causal link between endogenous rhythms and interpersonal synchrony in a music performance task, which places high demands on temporal coordination. We first establish that endogenous rhythms, measured by spontaneous rates of individual performance, are stable within individuals across stimulus materials, limb movements, and time points. We then test a causal link between endogenous rhythms and interpersonal synchrony by pairing each musician with a partner who is either matched or mismatched in spontaneous rate and by measuring their joint behavior up to 1 year later. Partners performed melodies together, using either the same or different hands. Partners who were matched for spontaneous rate showed greater interpersonal synchrony in joint performance than mismatched partners, regardless of hand used. Endogenous rhythms offer potential to predict optimal group membership in joint behaviors that require temporal coordination. PMID:26820249

  7. Exit from Synchrony in Joint Improvised Motion

    PubMed Central

    Dahan, Assi; Noy, Lior; Hart, Yuval; Mayo, Avi; Alon, Uri

    2016-01-01

    Motion synchrony correlates with effective and well-rated human interaction. However, people do not remain locked in synchrony; Instead, they repeatedly enter and exit synchrony. In many important interactions, such as therapy, marriage and parent-infant communication, it is the ability to exit and then re-enter synchrony that is thought to build strong relationship. The phenomenon of entry into zero-phase synchrony is well-studied experimentally and in terms of mathematical modeling. In contrast, exit-from-synchrony is under-studied. Here, we focus on human motion coordination, and examine the exit-from-synchrony phenomenon using experimental data from the mirror game paradigm, in which people perform joint improvised motion, and from human tracking of computer-generated stimuli. We present a mathematical mechanism that captures aspects of exit-from-synchrony in human motion. The mechanism adds a random motion component when the accumulated velocity error between the players is small. We introduce this mechanism to several models for human coordinated motion, including the widely studied HKB model, and the predictor-corrector model of Noy, Dekel and Alon. In all models, the new mechanism produces realistic simulated behavior when compared to experimental data from the mirror game and from tracking of computer generated stimuli, including repeated entry and exit from zero-phase synchrony that generates a complexity of motion similar to that of human players. We hope that these results can inform future research on exit-from-synchrony, to better understand the dynamics of coordinated action of people and to enhance human-computer and human-robot interaction. PMID:27711185

  8. Reduced Theta-Band Power and Phase Synchrony during Explicit Verbal Memory Tasks in Female, Non-Clinical Individuals with Schizotypal Traits

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jeong Woo; Jang, Kyoung-Mi; Jung, Ki-Young; Kim, Myung-Sun; Kim, Kyung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    The study of non-clinical individuals with schizotypal traits has been considered to provide a promising endophenotypic approach to understanding schizophrenia, because schizophrenia is highly heterogeneous, and a number of confounding factors may affect neuropsychological performance. Here, we investigated whether deficits in explicit verbal memory in individuals with schizotypal traits are associated with abnormalities in the local and inter-regional synchrony of brain activity. Memory deficits have been recognized as a core problem in schizophrenia, and previous studies have consistently shown explicit verbal memory impairment in schizophrenic patients. However, the mechanism of this impairment has not been fully revealed. Seventeen individuals with schizotypal traits and 17 age-matched, normal controls participated. Multichannel event-related electroencephalograms (EEGs) were recorded while the subjects performed a continuous recognition task. Event-related spectral perturbations (ERSPs) and inter-regional theta-band phase locking values (TPLVs) were investigated to determine the differences in local and global neural synchrony between the two subject groups. Additionally, the connection patterns of the TPLVs were quantitatively analyzed using graph theory measures. An old/new effect was found in the induced theta-band ERSP in both groups. However, the difference between the old and new was larger in normal controls than in schizotypal trait group. The tendency of elevated old/new effect in normal controls was observed in anterior-posterior theta-band phase synchrony as well. Our results suggest that explicit memory deficits observed in schizophrenia patients can also be found in non-clinical individuals with psychometrically defined schizotypal traits. PMID:26840071

  9. Inter-trial coherence as a marker of cortical phase synchrony in children with sensorineural hearing loss and auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder fitted with hearing aids and cochlear implants

    PubMed Central

    Nash-Kille, Amy; Sharma, Anu

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although brainstem dys-synchrony is a hallmark of children with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD), little is known about how the lack of neural synchrony manifests at more central levels. We used time-frequency single-trial EEG analyses (i.e., inter-trial coherence; ITC), to examine cortical phase synchrony in children with normal hearing (NH), sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and ANSD. Methods Single trial time-frequency analyses were performed on cortical auditory evoked responses from 41 NH children, 91 children with ANSD and 50 children with SNHL. The latter two groups included children who received intervention via hearing aids and cochlear implants. ITC measures were compared between groups as a function of hearing loss, intervention type, and cortical maturational status. Results In children with SNHL, ITC decreased as severity of hearing loss increased. Children with ANSD revealed lower levels of ITC relative to children with NH or SNHL, regardless of intervention. Children with ANSD who received cochlear implants showed significant improvements in ITC with increasing experience with their implants. Conclusions Cortical phase coherence is significantly reduced as a result of both severe-to-profound SNHL and ANSD. Significance ITC provides a window into the brain oscillations underlying the averaged cortical auditory evoked response. Our results provide a first description of deficits in cortical phase synchrony in children with SNHL and ANSD. PMID:24360131

  10. Infant negative reactivity defines the effects of parent-child synchrony on physiological and behavioral regulation of social stress.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Maayan; Singer, Magi; Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv; Feldman, Ruth

    2015-11-01

    How infants shape their own development has puzzled developmentalists for decades. Recent models suggest that infant dispositions, particularly negative reactivity and regulation, affect outcome by determining the extent of parental effects. Here, we used a microanalytic experimental approach and proposed that infants with varying levels of negative reactivity will be differentially impacted by parent-infant synchrony in predicting physiological and behavioral regulation of increasing social stress during an experimental paradigm. One hundred and twenty-two mother-infant dyads (4-6 months) were observed in the face-to-face still face (SF) paradigm and randomly assigned to three experimental conditions: SF with touch, standard SF, and SF with arms' restraint. Mother-infant synchrony and infant negative reactivity were observed at baseline, and three mechanisms of behavior regulation were microcoded; distress, disengagement, and social regulation. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia baseline, reactivity, and recovery were quantified. Structural equation modeling provided support for our hypothesis. For physiological regulation, infants high in negative reactivity receiving high mother-infant synchrony showed greater vagal withdrawal, which in turn predicted comparable levels of vagal recovery to that of nonreactive infants. In behavioral regulation, only infants low in negative reactivity who received high synchrony were able to regulate stress by employing social engagement cues during the SF phase. Distress was reduced only among calm infants to highly synchronous mothers, and disengagement was lowest among highly reactive infants experiencing high mother-infant synchrony. Findings chart two pathways by which synchrony may bolster regulation in infants of high and low reactivity. Among low reactive infants, synchrony builds a social repertoire for handling interpersonal stress, whereas in highly reactive infants, it constructs a platform for repeated reparation of

  11. Computing with neural synchrony.

    PubMed

    Brette, Romain

    2012-01-01

    Neurons communicate primarily with spikes, but most theories of neural computation are based on firing rates. Yet, many experimental observations suggest that the temporal coordination of spikes plays a role in sensory processing. Among potential spike-based codes, synchrony appears as a good candidate because neural firing and plasticity are sensitive to fine input correlations. However, it is unclear what role synchrony may play in neural computation, and what functional advantage it may provide. With a theoretical approach, I show that the computational interest of neural synchrony appears when neurons have heterogeneous properties. In this context, the relationship between stimuli and neural synchrony is captured by the concept of synchrony receptive field, the set of stimuli which induce synchronous responses in a group of neurons. In a heterogeneous neural population, it appears that synchrony patterns represent structure or sensory invariants in stimuli, which can then be detected by postsynaptic neurons. The required neural circuitry can spontaneously emerge with spike-timing-dependent plasticity. Using examples in different sensory modalities, I show that this allows simple neural circuits to extract relevant information from realistic sensory stimuli, for example to identify a fluctuating odor in the presence of distractors. This theory of synchrony-based computation shows that relative spike timing may indeed have computational relevance, and suggests new types of neural network models for sensory processing with appealing computational properties.

  12. Computing with Neural Synchrony

    PubMed Central

    Brette, Romain

    2012-01-01

    Neurons communicate primarily with spikes, but most theories of neural computation are based on firing rates. Yet, many experimental observations suggest that the temporal coordination of spikes plays a role in sensory processing. Among potential spike-based codes, synchrony appears as a good candidate because neural firing and plasticity are sensitive to fine input correlations. However, it is unclear what role synchrony may play in neural computation, and what functional advantage it may provide. With a theoretical approach, I show that the computational interest of neural synchrony appears when neurons have heterogeneous properties. In this context, the relationship between stimuli and neural synchrony is captured by the concept of synchrony receptive field, the set of stimuli which induce synchronous responses in a group of neurons. In a heterogeneous neural population, it appears that synchrony patterns represent structure or sensory invariants in stimuli, which can then be detected by postsynaptic neurons. The required neural circuitry can spontaneously emerge with spike-timing-dependent plasticity. Using examples in different sensory modalities, I show that this allows simple neural circuits to extract relevant information from realistic sensory stimuli, for example to identify a fluctuating odor in the presence of distractors. This theory of synchrony-based computation shows that relative spike timing may indeed have computational relevance, and suggests new types of neural network models for sensory processing with appealing computational properties. PMID:22719243

  13. Inspiratory-phase Short Time Scale Synchrony in the Brainstem Slice is Generated Downstream of the PreBötzinger Complex

    PubMed Central

    Sebe, Joy Y.; Berger, Albert J.

    2008-01-01

    Respiratory neurons are synchronized on a long time scale to generate inspiratory and expiratory-phase activities that are critical for respiration. Long time scale synchrony within the respiratory network occurs on a time scale of more than hundreds of milliseconds to seconds. During inspiration, neurons are synchronized on a short time scale to produce synchronous oscillations, which shape the pattern of inspiratory motor output. This latter form of synchrony within the respiratory network spans a shorter time range of tens of milliseconds. In the neonatal mouse rhythmically active medullary slice preparation, we recorded bilateral inspiratory activity from hypoglossal (XII) rootlets to study where in the slice synchronous oscillations are generated. Based on previous work that proposed the origin of these oscillations, we tested the PreBötzinger Complex (PreBötC) and the XII motor nucleus. Unilateral excitation of the PreBötC, via local application of a perfusate containing high K+, increased mean inspiratory burst frequency bilaterally (296 ± 66%; n=10, p<0.01), but had no effect on the relative power of oscillations. In contrast, unilateral excitation of the XII nucleus increased both mean peak integrated activity bilaterally (ipsilateral: 41 ± 10%, p<0.01;contralateral: 17 ± 7%; p<0.05, n=10) and oscillation power in the ipsilateral (50 ± 17%, n=7, p<0.05), but not in the contralateral rootlet. Crosscorrelation analysis of control inspiratory activity recorded from the left and right XII rootlets produced crosscorrelation histograms with significant peaks centered around a time lag of zero and showed no subsidiary harmonic peaks. Coherence analysis of left and right XII rootlet recordings demonstrated that oscillations are only weakly coherent. Together, the findings from local application experiments and crosscorrelation and coherence analyses indicate that short time scale synchronous oscillations recorded in the slice are likely generated in or

  14. A neuropeptide speeds circadian entrainment by reducing intercellular synchrony

    PubMed Central

    An, Sungwon; Harang, Rich; Meeker, Kirsten; Granados-Fuentes, Daniel; Tsai, Connie A.; Mazuski, Cristina; Kim, Jihee; Doyle, Francis J.; Petzold, Linda R.; Herzog, Erik D.

    2013-01-01

    Shift work or transmeridian travel can desynchronize the body's circadian rhythms from local light–dark cycles. The mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) generates and entrains daily rhythms in physiology and behavior. Paradoxically, we found that vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), a neuropeptide implicated in synchrony among SCN cells, can also desynchronize them. The degree and duration of desynchronization among SCN neurons depended on both the phase and the dose of VIP. A model of the SCN consisting of coupled stochastic cells predicted both the phase- and the dose-dependent response to VIP and that the transient phase desynchronization, or “phase tumbling”, could arise from intrinsic, stochastic noise in small populations of key molecules (notably, Period mRNA near its daily minimum). The model also predicted that phase tumbling following brief VIP treatment would accelerate entrainment to shifted environmental cycles. We tested this using a prepulse of VIP during the day before a shift in either a light cycle in vivo or a temperature cycle in vitro. Although VIP during the day does not shift circadian rhythms, the VIP pretreatment approximately halved the time required for mice to reentrain to an 8-h shifted light schedule and for SCN cultures to reentrain to a 10-h shifted temperature cycle. We conclude that VIP below 100 nM synchronizes SCN cells and above 100 nM reduces synchrony in the SCN. We show that exploiting these mechanisms that transiently reduce cellular synchrony before a large shift in the schedule of daily environmental cues has the potential to reduce jet lag. PMID:24167276

  15. Predictive thermodynamics for condensed phases.

    PubMed

    Glasser, Leslie; Jenkins, H Donald Brooke

    2005-10-01

    Thermodynamic information is central to assessment of the stability and reactivity of materials. However, because of both the demanding nature of experimental thermodynamics and the virtually unlimited number of conceivable compounds, experimental data is often unavailable or, for hypothetical materials, necessarily impossible to obtain. We describe simple procedures for thermodynamic prediction for condensed phases, both ionic and organic covalent, principally via formula unit volumes (or density); our volume-based approach (VBT) provides a new thermodynamic tool for such assessment. These methods, being independent of detailed knowledge of crystal structures, are applicable to liquids and amorphous materials as well as to crystalline solids. Examples of their use are provided. PMID:16172676

  16. Interpersonal synchrony increases prosocial behavior in infants.

    PubMed

    Cirelli, Laura K; Einarson, Kathleen M; Trainor, Laurel J

    2014-11-01

    Adults who move together to a shared musical beat synchronously as opposed to asynchronously are subsequently more likely to display prosocial behaviors toward each other. The development of musical behaviors during infancy has been described previously, but the social implications of such behaviors in infancy have been little studied. In Experiment 1, each of 48 14-month-old infants was held by an assistant and gently bounced to music while facing the experimenter, who bounced either in-synchrony or out-of-synchrony with the way the infant was bounced. The infants were then placed in a situation in which they had the opportunity to help the experimenter by handing objects to her that she had ‘accidently’ dropped. We found that 14-month-old infants were more likely to engage in altruistic behavior and help the experimenter after having been bounced to music in synchrony with her, compared to infants who were bounced to music asynchronously with her. The results of Experiment 2, using anti-phase bouncing, suggest that this is due to the contingency of the synchronous movements as opposed to movement symmetry. These findings support the hypothesis that interpersonal motor synchrony might be one key component of musical engagement that encourages social bonds among group members, and suggest that this motor synchrony to music may promote the very early development of altruistic behavior. PMID:25513669

  17. Biodiversity ensures plant-pollinator phenological synchrony against climate change.

    PubMed

    Bartomeus, Ignasi; Park, Mia G; Gibbs, Jason; Danforth, Bryan N; Lakso, Alan N; Winfree, Rachael

    2013-11-01

    Climate change has the potential to alter the phenological synchrony between interacting mutualists, such as plants and their pollinators. However, high levels of biodiversity might buffer the negative effects of species-specific phenological shifts and maintain synchrony at the community level, as predicted by the biodiversity insurance hypothesis. Here, we explore how biodiversity might enhance and stabilise phenological synchrony between a valuable crop, apple and its native pollinators. We combine 46 years of data on apple flowering phenology with historical records of bee pollinators over the same period. When the key apple pollinators are considered altogether, we found extensive synchrony between bee activity and apple peak bloom due to complementarity among bee species' activity periods, and also a stable trend over time due to differential responses to warming climate among bee species. A simulation model confirms that high biodiversity levels can ensure plant-pollinator phenological synchrony and thus pollination function.

  18. Resting state MEG oscillations show long-range temporal correlations of phase synchrony that break down during finger movement

    PubMed Central

    Botcharova, Maria; Berthouze, Luc; Brookes, Matthew J.; Barnes, Gareth R.; Farmer, Simon F.

    2015-01-01

    The capacity of the human brain to interpret and respond to multiple temporal scales in its surroundings suggests that its internal interactions must also be able to operate over a broad temporal range. In this paper, we utilize a recently introduced method for characterizing the rate of change of the phase difference between MEG signals and use it to study the temporal structure of the phase interactions between MEG recordings from the left and right motor cortices during rest and during a finger-tapping task. We use the Hilbert transform to estimate moment-to-moment fluctuations of the phase difference between signals. After confirming the presence of scale-invariance we estimate the Hurst exponent using detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). An exponent of >0.5 is indicative of long-range temporal correlations (LRTCs) in the signal. We find that LRTCs are present in the α/μ and β frequency bands of resting state MEG data. We demonstrate that finger movement disrupts LRTCs correlations, producing a phase relationship with a structure similar to that of Gaussian white noise. The results are validated by applying the same analysis to data with Gaussian white noise phase difference, recordings from an empty scanner and phase-shuffled time series. We interpret the findings through comparison of the results with those we obtained from an earlier study during which we adopted this method to characterize phase relationships within a Kuramoto model of oscillators in its sub-critical, critical, and super-critical synchronization states. We find that the resting state MEG from left and right motor cortices shows moment-to-moment fluctuations of phase difference with a similar temporal structure to that of a system of Kuramoto oscillators just prior to its critical level of coupling, and that finger tapping moves the system away from this pre-critical state toward a more random state. PMID:26136690

  19. Frontoparietal EEG alpha-phase synchrony reflects differential attentional demands during word recall and oculomotor dual-tasks.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Gusang; Kim, Min-Young; Lim, Sanghyun; Kwon, Hyukchan; Lee, Yong-Ho; Kim, Kiwoong; Lee, Eun-Ju; Suh, Minah

    2015-12-16

    To study the relationship between the varying degrees of cognitive load and long-range synchronization among neural networks, we utilized a dual-task paradigm combining concurrent word recall working memory tasks and oculomotor tasks that differentially activate the common frontoparietal (FP) network. We hypothesized that each dual-task combination would generate differential neuronal activation patterns among long-range connection during word retention period. Given that the FP alpha-phase synchronization is involved in attentional top-down processes, one would expect that the long-range synchronization pattern is affected by the degrees of dual-task demand. We measured a single-trial phase locking value in the alpha frequency (8-12 Hz) with electroencephalography in healthy participants. Single-trial phase locking value characterized the synchronization between two brain signals. Our results revealed that different amounts of FP alpha-phase synchronization were produced by different dual-task combinations, particularly during the early phase of the word retention period. These differences were dependent on the individual's working memory capacity and memory load. Our study shows that during dual-task, each oculomotor task, which is subserved by distinct neural network, generates different modulation patterns on long-range neuronal activation and FP alpha-phase synchronization seems to reflect these differential cognitive loads.

  20. Frontoparietal EEG alpha-phase synchrony reflects differential attentional demands during word recall and oculomotor dual-tasks.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Gusang; Kim, Min-Young; Lim, Sanghyun; Kwon, Hyukchan; Lee, Yong-Ho; Kim, Kiwoong; Lee, Eun-Ju; Suh, Minah

    2015-12-16

    To study the relationship between the varying degrees of cognitive load and long-range synchronization among neural networks, we utilized a dual-task paradigm combining concurrent word recall working memory tasks and oculomotor tasks that differentially activate the common frontoparietal (FP) network. We hypothesized that each dual-task combination would generate differential neuronal activation patterns among long-range connection during word retention period. Given that the FP alpha-phase synchronization is involved in attentional top-down processes, one would expect that the long-range synchronization pattern is affected by the degrees of dual-task demand. We measured a single-trial phase locking value in the alpha frequency (8-12 Hz) with electroencephalography in healthy participants. Single-trial phase locking value characterized the synchronization between two brain signals. Our results revealed that different amounts of FP alpha-phase synchronization were produced by different dual-task combinations, particularly during the early phase of the word retention period. These differences were dependent on the individual's working memory capacity and memory load. Our study shows that during dual-task, each oculomotor task, which is subserved by distinct neural network, generates different modulation patterns on long-range neuronal activation and FP alpha-phase synchronization seems to reflect these differential cognitive loads. PMID:26559729

  1. Gamma synchrony predicts neuron-neuron correlations and correlations with motor behavior in extrastriate visual area MT.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joonyeol; Lisberger, Stephen G

    2013-12-11

    Correlated variability of neuronal responses is an important factor in estimating sensory parameters from a population response. Large correlations among neurons reduce the effective size of a neural population and increase the variation of the estimates. They also allow the activity of one neuron to be informative about impending perceptual decisions or motor actions on single trials. In extrastriate visual area MT of the rhesus macaque, for example, some but not all neurons show nonzero "choice probabilities" for perceptual decisions or non-zero "MT-pursuit" correlations between the trial-by-trial variations in neural activity and smooth pursuit eye movements. To understand the functional implications of zero versus nonzero correlations between neural responses and impending perceptions or actions, we took advantage of prior observations that specific frequencies of local field potentials reflect the correlated activity of neurons. We found that the strength of the spike-field coherence of a neuron in the gamma-band frequency range is related to the size of its MT-pursuit correlations for eye direction, as well as to the size of the neuron-neuron correlations. Spike-field coherence predicts MT-pursuit correlations better for direction than for speed, perhaps because the topographic organization of direction preference in MT is more amenable to creating meaningful local field potentials. We suggest that the relationship between spiking and local-field potentials is stronger for neurons that have larger correlations with their neighbors; larger neuron-neuron correlations create stronger MT-pursuit correlations. Neurons that lack strong correlations with their neighbors also have weaker correlations with pursuit behavior, but still could drive pursuit strongly.

  2. Vagus Nerve Stimulation Alters Phase Synchrony of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex and Facilitates Decision Making in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Bing; Wang, Jun; Shahed, Mahadi; Jelfs, Beth; Chan, Rosa H. M.; Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) can enhance memory and cognitive functions in both rats and humans. Studies have shown that VNS influenced decision-making in epileptic patients. However, the sites of action involved in the cognitive-enhancement are poorly understood. By employing a conscious rat model equipped with vagus nerve cuff electrode, we assess the role of chronic VNS on decision-making in rat gambling task (RGT). Simultaneous multichannel-recordings offer an ideal setup to test the hypothesis that VNS may induce alterations of in both spike-field-coherence and synchronization of theta oscillations across brain areas in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA). Daily VNS, administered immediately following training sessions of RGT, caused an increase in ‘good decision-maker’ rats. Neural spikes in the ACC became synchronized with the ongoing theta oscillations of local field potential (LFP) in BLA following VNS. Moreover, cross-correlation analysis revealed synchronization between the ACC and BLA. Our results provide specific evidence that VNS facilitates decision-making and unveils several important roles for VNS in regulating LFP and spike phases, as well as enhancing spike-phase coherence between key brain areas involved in cognitive performance. These data may serve to provide fundamental notions regarding neurophysiological biomarkers for therapeutic VNS in cognitive impairment. PMID:27731403

  3. Algorithm for real-time detection of signal patterns using phase synchrony: an application to an electrode array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Saman; MacKay, William A.; van Dam, R. Michael; Thompson, Michael

    2011-02-01

    Real-time analysis of multi-channel spatio-temporal sensor data presents a considerable technical challenge for a number of applications. For example, in brain-computer interfaces, signal patterns originating on a time-dependent basis from an array of electrodes on the scalp (i.e. electroencephalography) must be analyzed in real time to recognize mental states and translate these to commands which control operations in a machine. In this paper we describe a new technique for recognition of spatio-temporal patterns based on performing online discrimination of time-resolved events through the use of correlation of phase dynamics between various channels in a multi-channel system. The algorithm extracts unique sensor signature patterns associated with each event during a training period and ranks importance of sensor pairs in order to distinguish between time-resolved stimuli to which the system may be exposed during real-time operation. We apply the algorithm to electroencephalographic signals obtained from subjects tested in the neurophysiology laboratories at the University of Toronto. The extension of this algorithm for rapid detection of patterns in other sensing applications, including chemical identification via chemical or bio-chemical sensor arrays, is also discussed.

  4. Monitoring spike train synchrony.

    PubMed

    Kreuz, Thomas; Chicharro, Daniel; Houghton, Conor; Andrzejak, Ralph G; Mormann, Florian

    2013-03-01

    Recently, the SPIKE-distance has been proposed as a parameter-free and timescale-independent measure of spike train synchrony. This measure is time resolved since it relies on instantaneous estimates of spike train dissimilarity. However, its original definition led to spuriously high instantaneous values for eventlike firing patterns. Here we present a substantial improvement of this measure that eliminates this shortcoming. The reliability gained allows us to track changes in instantaneous clustering, i.e., time-localized patterns of (dis)similarity among multiple spike trains. Additional new features include selective and triggered temporal averaging as well as the instantaneous comparison of spike train groups. In a second step, a causal SPIKE-distance is defined such that the instantaneous values of dissimilarity rely on past information only so that time-resolved spike train synchrony can be estimated in real time. We demonstrate that these methods are capable of extracting valuable information from field data by monitoring the synchrony between neuronal spike trains during an epileptic seizure. Finally, the applicability of both the regular and the real-time SPIKE-distance to continuous data is illustrated on model electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings. PMID:23221419

  5. Long-range neural synchrony in behavior

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Alexander Z.; Gordon, Joshua A.

    2015-01-01

    Long-range synchrony between distant brain regions accompanies multiple forms of behavior. This review compares and contrasts the methods by which long-range synchrony is evaluated in both humans and model animals. Three examples of behaviorally-relevant long-range synchrony are discussed in detail: gamma-frequency synchrony during visual perception; hippocampal-prefrontal synchrony during working memory; and prefrontal-amygdala synchrony during anxiety. Implications for circuit mechanism, translation, and clinical relevance are discussed. PMID:25897876

  6. Spatial synchrony in cisco recruitment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, Jared T.; Yule, Daniel L.; Jones, Michael L.; Ahrenstorff, Tyler D.; Hrabik, Thomas R.; Claramunt, Randall M.; Ebener, Mark P.; Berglund, Eric K.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the spatial scale of recruitment variability for disparate cisco (Coregonus artedi) populations in the Great Lakes (n = 8) and Minnesota inland lakes (n = 4). We found that the scale of synchrony was approximately 400 km when all available data were utilized; much greater than the 50-km scale suggested for freshwater fish populations in an earlier global analysis. The presence of recruitment synchrony between Great Lakes and inland lake cisco populations supports the hypothesis that synchronicity is driven by climate and not dispersal. We also found synchrony in larval densities among three Lake Superior populations separated by 25–275 km, which further supports the hypothesis that broad-scale climatic factors are the cause of spatial synchrony. Among several candidate climate variables measured during the period of larval cisco emergence, maximum wind speeds exhibited the most similar spatial scale of synchrony to that observed for cisco. Other factors, such as average water temperatures, exhibited synchrony on broader spatial scales, which suggests they could also be contributing to recruitment synchrony. Our results provide evidence that abiotic factors can induce synchronous patterns of recruitment for populations of cisco inhabiting waters across a broad geographic range, and show that broad-scale synchrony of recruitment can occur in freshwater fish populations as well as those from marine systems.

  7. Pre-ictal increase in theta synchrony between the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Broggini, Ana Clara Silveira; Esteves, Ingrid Miranda; Romcy-Pereira, Rodrigo Neves; Leite, João Pereira; Leão, Richardson Naves

    2016-05-01

    The pathologically synchronized neuronal activity in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) can be triggered by network events that were once normal. Under normal conditions, hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) work in synchrony during a variety of cognitive states. Abnormal changes in this circuit may aid to seizure onset and also help to explain the high association of TLE with mood disorders. We used a TLE rat model generated by perforant path (PP) stimulation to understand whether synchrony between dorsal hippocampal and mPFC networks is altered shortly before a seizure episode. We recorded hippocampal and mPFC local field potentials (LFPs) of animals with spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs) to verify the connectivity between these regions. We showed that SRSs decrease hippocampal theta oscillations whereas coherence in theta increases over time prior to seizure onset. This increase in synchrony is accompanied by a stronger coupling between hippocampal theta and mPFC gamma oscillation. Finally, using Granger causality we showed that hippocampus/mPFC synchrony increases in the pre-ictal phase and this increase is likely to be caused by hippocampal networks. The dorsal hippocampus is not directly connected to the mPFC; however, the functional coupling in theta between these two structures rises pre-ictally. Our data indicates that the increase in synchrony between dorsal hippocampus and mPFC may be predictive of seizures and may help to elucidate the network mechanisms that lead to seizure generation. PMID:26953232

  8. Predicting bird phenology from space: satellite-derived vegetation green-up signal uncovers spatial variation in phenological synchrony between birds and their environment.

    PubMed

    Cole, Ella F; Long, Peter R; Zelazowski, Przemyslaw; Szulkin, Marta; Sheldon, Ben C

    2015-11-01

    Population-level studies of how tit species (Parus spp.) track the changing phenology of their caterpillar food source have provided a model system allowing inference into how populations can adjust to changing climates, but are often limited because they implicitly assume all individuals experience similar environments. Ecologists are increasingly using satellite-derived data to quantify aspects of animals' environments, but so far studies examining phenology have generally done so at large spatial scales. Considering the scale at which individuals experience their environment is likely to be key if we are to understand the ecological and evolutionary processes acting on reproductive phenology within populations. Here, we use time series of satellite images, with a resolution of 240 m, to quantify spatial variation in vegetation green-up for a 385-ha mixed-deciduous woodland. Using data spanning 13 years, we demonstrate that annual population-level measures of the timing of peak abundance of winter moth larvae (Operophtera brumata) and the timing of egg laying in great tits (Parus major) and blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) is related to satellite-derived spring vegetation phenology. We go on to show that timing of local vegetation green-up significantly explained individual differences in tit reproductive phenology within the population, and that the degree of synchrony between bird and vegetation phenology showed marked spatial variation across the woodland. Areas of high oak tree (Quercus robur) and hazel (Corylus avellana) density showed the strongest match between remote-sensed vegetation phenology and reproductive phenology in both species. Marked within-population variation in the extent to which phenology of different trophic levels match suggests that more attention should be given to small-scale processes when exploring the causes and consequences of phenological matching. We discuss how use of remotely sensed data to study within-population variation

  9. Predicting bird phenology from space: satellite-derived vegetation green-up signal uncovers spatial variation in phenological synchrony between birds and their environment.

    PubMed

    Cole, Ella F; Long, Peter R; Zelazowski, Przemyslaw; Szulkin, Marta; Sheldon, Ben C

    2015-11-01

    Population-level studies of how tit species (Parus spp.) track the changing phenology of their caterpillar food source have provided a model system allowing inference into how populations can adjust to changing climates, but are often limited because they implicitly assume all individuals experience similar environments. Ecologists are increasingly using satellite-derived data to quantify aspects of animals' environments, but so far studies examining phenology have generally done so at large spatial scales. Considering the scale at which individuals experience their environment is likely to be key if we are to understand the ecological and evolutionary processes acting on reproductive phenology within populations. Here, we use time series of satellite images, with a resolution of 240 m, to quantify spatial variation in vegetation green-up for a 385-ha mixed-deciduous woodland. Using data spanning 13 years, we demonstrate that annual population-level measures of the timing of peak abundance of winter moth larvae (Operophtera brumata) and the timing of egg laying in great tits (Parus major) and blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) is related to satellite-derived spring vegetation phenology. We go on to show that timing of local vegetation green-up significantly explained individual differences in tit reproductive phenology within the population, and that the degree of synchrony between bird and vegetation phenology showed marked spatial variation across the woodland. Areas of high oak tree (Quercus robur) and hazel (Corylus avellana) density showed the strongest match between remote-sensed vegetation phenology and reproductive phenology in both species. Marked within-population variation in the extent to which phenology of different trophic levels match suggests that more attention should be given to small-scale processes when exploring the causes and consequences of phenological matching. We discuss how use of remotely sensed data to study within-population variation

  10. Evaluating Interpersonal Synchrony: Wavelet Transform Toward an Unstructured Conversation.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Ken; Daibo, Ikuo

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether interpersonal synchrony could be extracted using spectrum analysis (i.e., wavelet transform) in an unstructured conversation. Sixty-two female undergraduates were randomly paired and they engaged in a 6-min unstructured conversation. Interpersonal synchrony was evaluated by calculating the cross-wavelet coherence of the time-series movement data, extracted using a video-image analysis software. The existence of synchrony was tested using a pseudo-synchrony paradigm. In addition, the frequency at which the synchrony occurred and the distribution of the relative phase was explored. The results showed that the value of cross-wavelet coherence was higher in the experimental participant pairs than in the pseudo pairs. Further, the coherence value was higher in the frequency band under 0.5 Hz. These results support the validity of evaluating interpersonal synchron Behavioral mimicry and interpersonal syyby using wavelet transform even in an unstructured conversation. However, the role of relative phase was not clear; there was no significant difference between each relative-phase region. The theoretical contribution of these findings to the area of interpersonal coordination is discussed.

  11. Evaluating Interpersonal Synchrony: Wavelet Transform Toward an Unstructured Conversation

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Ken; Daibo, Ikuo

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether interpersonal synchrony could be extracted using spectrum analysis (i.e., wavelet transform) in an unstructured conversation. Sixty-two female undergraduates were randomly paired and they engaged in a 6-min unstructured conversation. Interpersonal synchrony was evaluated by calculating the cross-wavelet coherence of the time-series movement data, extracted using a video-image analysis software. The existence of synchrony was tested using a pseudo-synchrony paradigm. In addition, the frequency at which the synchrony occurred and the distribution of the relative phase was explored. The results showed that the value of cross-wavelet coherence was higher in the experimental participant pairs than in the pseudo pairs. Further, the coherence value was higher in the frequency band under 0.5 Hz. These results support the validity of evaluating interpersonal synchron Behavioral mimicry and interpersonal syyby using wavelet transform even in an unstructured conversation. However, the role of relative phase was not clear; there was no significant difference between each relative-phase region. The theoretical contribution of these findings to the area of interpersonal coordination is discussed. PMID:27148125

  12. Evaluating Interpersonal Synchrony: Wavelet Transform Toward an Unstructured Conversation.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Ken; Daibo, Ikuo

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether interpersonal synchrony could be extracted using spectrum analysis (i.e., wavelet transform) in an unstructured conversation. Sixty-two female undergraduates were randomly paired and they engaged in a 6-min unstructured conversation. Interpersonal synchrony was evaluated by calculating the cross-wavelet coherence of the time-series movement data, extracted using a video-image analysis software. The existence of synchrony was tested using a pseudo-synchrony paradigm. In addition, the frequency at which the synchrony occurred and the distribution of the relative phase was explored. The results showed that the value of cross-wavelet coherence was higher in the experimental participant pairs than in the pseudo pairs. Further, the coherence value was higher in the frequency band under 0.5 Hz. These results support the validity of evaluating interpersonal synchron Behavioral mimicry and interpersonal syyby using wavelet transform even in an unstructured conversation. However, the role of relative phase was not clear; there was no significant difference between each relative-phase region. The theoretical contribution of these findings to the area of interpersonal coordination is discussed. PMID:27148125

  13. The development of neural synchrony reflects late maturation and restructuring of functional networks in humans

    PubMed Central

    Uhlhaas, Peter J.; Roux, Frederic; Singer, Wolf; Haenschel, Corinna; Sireteanu, Ruxandra; Rodriguez, Eugenio

    2009-01-01

    Brain development is characterized by maturational processes that span the period from childhood through adolescence to adulthood, but little is known whether and how developmental processes differ during these phases. We analyzed the development of functional networks by measuring neural synchrony in EEG recordings during a Gestalt perception task in 68 participants ranging in age from 6 to 21 years. Until early adolescence, developmental improvements in cognitive performance were accompanied by increases in neural synchrony. This developmental phase was followed by an unexpected decrease in neural synchrony that occurred during late adolescence and was associated with reduced performance. After this period of destabilization, we observed a reorganization of synchronization patterns that was accompanied by pronounced increases in gamma-band power and in theta and beta phase synchrony. These findings provide evidence for the relationship between neural synchrony and late brain development that has important implications for the understanding of adolescence as a critical period of brain maturation. PMID:19478071

  14. Brief Report: A Pilot Study of Parent-Child Biobehavioral Synchrony in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Jason K.; Fenning, Rachel M.; Howland, Mariann A.; Baucom, Brian R.; Moffitt, Jacquelyn; Erath, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    The theory of biobehavioral synchrony proposes that the predictive power of parent-child attunement likely lies in the manner with which behaviors are aligned with relevant biological processes. Symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may challenge the formation of behavioral and physiological synchrony, but maintenance of such parent-child…

  15. Using phase resetting to predict 1:1 and 2:2 locking in two neuron networks in which firing order is not always preserved.

    PubMed

    Maran, Selva K; Canavier, Carmen C

    2008-02-01

    Our goal is to understand how nearly synchronous modes arise in heterogenous networks of neurons. In heterogenous networks, instead of exact synchrony, nearly synchronous modes arise, which include both 1:1 and 2:2 phase-locked modes. Existence and stability criteria for 2:2 phase-locked modes in reciprocally coupled two neuron circuits were derived based on the open loop phase resetting curve (PRC) without the assumption of weak coupling. The PRC for each component neuron was generated using the change in synaptic conductance produced by a presynaptic action potential as the perturbation. Separate derivations were required for modes in which the firing order is preserved and for those in which it alternates. Networks composed of two model neurons coupled by reciprocal inhibition were examined to test the predictions. The parameter regimes in which both types of nearly synchronous modes are exhibited were accurately predicted both qualitatively and quantitatively provided that the synaptic time constant is short with respect to the period and that the effect of second order resetting is considered. In contrast, PRC methods based on weak coupling could not predict 2:2 modes and did not predict the 1:1 modes with the level of accuracy achieved by the strong coupling methods. The strong coupling prediction methods provide insight into what manipulations promote near-synchrony in a two neuron network and may also have predictive value for larger networks, which can also manifest changes in firing order. We also identify a novel route by which synchrony is lost in mildly heterogenous networks.

  16. Gaze Synchrony between Mothers with Mood Disorders and Their Infants: Maternal Emotion Dysregulation Matters

    PubMed Central

    Lotzin, Annett; Romer, Georg; Schiborr, Julia; Noga, Berit; Schulte-Markwort, Michael; Ramsauer, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    A lowered and heightened synchrony between the mother’s and infant’s nonverbal behavior predicts adverse infant development. We know that maternal depressive symptoms predict lowered and heightened mother-infant gaze synchrony, but it is unclear whether maternal emotion dysregulation is related to mother-infant gaze synchrony. This cross-sectional study examined whether maternal emotion dysregulation in mothers with mood disorders is significantly related to mother-infant gaze synchrony. We also tested whether maternal emotion dysregulation is relatively more important than maternal depressive symptoms in predicting mother-infant gaze synchrony, and whether maternal emotion dysregulation mediates the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and mother-infant gaze synchrony. We observed 68 mothers and their 4- to 9-month-old infants in the Still-Face paradigm during two play interactions, before and after social stress was induced. The mothers’ and infants’ gaze behaviors were coded using microanalysis with the Maternal Regulatory Scoring System and Infant Regulatory Scoring System, respectively. The degree of mother-infant gaze synchrony was computed using time-series analysis. Maternal emotion dysregulation was measured by the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale; depressive symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory. Greater maternal emotion dysregulation was significantly related to heightened mother-infant gaze synchrony. The overall effect of maternal emotion dysregulation on mother-infant gaze synchrony was relatively more important than the effect of maternal depressive symptoms in the five tested models. Maternal emotion dysregulation fully mediated the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and mother-infant gaze synchrony. Our findings suggest that the effect of the mother’s depressive symptoms on the mother-infant gaze synchrony may be mediated by the mother’s emotion dysregulation. PMID:26657941

  17. Gaze Synchrony between Mothers with Mood Disorders and Their Infants: Maternal Emotion Dysregulation Matters.

    PubMed

    Lotzin, Annett; Romer, Georg; Schiborr, Julia; Noga, Berit; Schulte-Markwort, Michael; Ramsauer, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    A lowered and heightened synchrony between the mother's and infant's nonverbal behavior predicts adverse infant development. We know that maternal depressive symptoms predict lowered and heightened mother-infant gaze synchrony, but it is unclear whether maternal emotion dysregulation is related to mother-infant gaze synchrony. This cross-sectional study examined whether maternal emotion dysregulation in mothers with mood disorders is significantly related to mother-infant gaze synchrony. We also tested whether maternal emotion dysregulation is relatively more important than maternal depressive symptoms in predicting mother-infant gaze synchrony, and whether maternal emotion dysregulation mediates the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and mother-infant gaze synchrony. We observed 68 mothers and their 4- to 9-month-old infants in the Still-Face paradigm during two play interactions, before and after social stress was induced. The mothers' and infants' gaze behaviors were coded using microanalysis with the Maternal Regulatory Scoring System and Infant Regulatory Scoring System, respectively. The degree of mother-infant gaze synchrony was computed using time-series analysis. Maternal emotion dysregulation was measured by the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale; depressive symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory. Greater maternal emotion dysregulation was significantly related to heightened mother-infant gaze synchrony. The overall effect of maternal emotion dysregulation on mother-infant gaze synchrony was relatively more important than the effect of maternal depressive symptoms in the five tested models. Maternal emotion dysregulation fully mediated the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and mother-infant gaze synchrony. Our findings suggest that the effect of the mother's depressive symptoms on the mother-infant gaze synchrony may be mediated by the mother's emotion dysregulation. PMID:26657941

  18. Psychosocial effects of perceived emotional synchrony in collective gatherings.

    PubMed

    Páez, Dario; Rimé, Bernard; Basabe, Nekane; Wlodarczyk, Anna; Zumeta, Larraitz

    2015-05-01

    In a classic theory, Durkheim (1912) predicted that because of the social sharing of emotion they generate, collective gatherings bring participants to a stage of collective effervescence in which they experience a sense of union with others and a feeling of empowerment accompanied by positive affect. This would lead them to leave the collective situation with a renewed sense of confidence in life and in social institutions. A century after Durkheim's predictions of these effects, though, they remained untested as a whole. This article reports 4 studies, 2 correlational, 1 semilongitudinal, and 1 experimental, assessing the positive effects of participation in either positively valenced (folkloric marches) or negatively valenced (protest demonstrations) collective gatherings. Results confirmed that collective gatherings consistently strengthened collective identity, identity fusion, and social integration, as well as enhancing personal and collective self-esteem and efficacy, positive affect, and positive social beliefs among participants. In line with a central tenet of the theory, emotional communion, or perceived emotional synchrony with others mediated these effects. Higher perceived emotional synchrony was associated with stronger emotional reactions, stronger social support, and higher endorsement of social beliefs and values. Participation in symbolic collective gatherings also particularly reinforced identity fusion when perceived emotional synchrony was high. The respective contributions of perceived emotional synchrony and flow, or optimal experience, were also assessed. Whereas perceived emotional synchrony emerged as strongly related to the various social outcomes, flow was observed to be related first to collective efficacy and self-esteem, and thus, to encompass mainly empowerment effects. PMID:25822033

  19. Unconscious errors enhance prefrontal-occipital oscillatory synchrony.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Michael X; van Gaal, Simon; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; Lamme, Victor A F

    2009-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (MFC) is critical for our ability to learn from previous mistakes. Here we provide evidence that neurophysiological oscillatory long-range synchrony is a mechanism of post-error adaptation that occurs even without conscious awareness of the error. During a visually signaled Go/No-Go task in which half of the No-Go cues were masked and thus not consciously perceived, response errors enhanced tonic (i.e., over 1-2 s) oscillatory synchrony between MFC and occipital cortex (OCC) leading up to and during the subsequent trial. Spectral Granger causality analyses demonstrated that MFC --> OCC directional synchrony was enhanced during trials following both conscious and unconscious errors, whereas transient stimulus-induced occipital --> MFC directional synchrony was independent of errors in the previous trial. Further, the strength of pre-trial MFC-occipital synchrony predicted individual differences in task performance. Together, these findings suggest that synchronous neurophysiological oscillations are a plausible mechanism of MFC-driven cognitive control that is independent of conscious awareness. PMID:19956401

  20. Brief Report: A Pilot Study of Parent-Child Biobehavioral Synchrony in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Baker, Jason K; Fenning, Rachel M; Howland, Mariann A; Baucom, Brian R; Moffitt, Jacquelyn; Erath, Stephen A

    2015-12-01

    The theory of biobehavioral synchrony proposes that the predictive power of parent-child attunement likely lies in the manner with which behaviors are aligned with relevant biological processes. Symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may challenge the formation of behavioral and physiological synchrony, but maintenance of such parent-child attunement could prove beneficial. The present study is the first to examine parent-child physiological synchrony in ASD. Parent and child electrodermal activity (EDA) was measured continuously during naturalistic free play. Parent-child EDA synchrony (positive covariation) was positively correlated with observed parent-child emotional attunement. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that child ASD symptoms moderated the association between parent EDA and child EDA, such that EDA synchrony was stronger for children with lower ASD symptom levels.

  1. Reassessing the Determinants of Breeding Synchrony in Ungulates

    PubMed Central

    English, Annie K.; Chauvenet, Aliénor L. M.; Safi, Kamran; Pettorelli, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Predicting the consequences of climate change is a major challenge in ecology and wildlife management. While the impact of changes in climatic conditions on distribution ranges has been documented for many organisms, the consequences of changes in resource dynamics for species' overall performance have seldom been investigated. This study addresses this gap by identifying the factors shaping the reproductive synchrony of ungulates. In temporally-variable environments, reproductive phenology of individuals is a key determinant of fitness, with the timing of reproduction affecting their reproductive output and future performance. We used a satellite-based index of resource availability to explore how the level of seasonality and inter-annual variability in resource dynamics affect birth season length of ungulate populations. Contrary to what was previously thought, we found that both the degree of seasonal fluctuation in resource dynamics and inter-annual changes in resource availability influence the degree of birth synchrony within wild ungulate populations. Our results highlight how conclusions from previous interspecific analyses, which did not consider the existence of shared life-history among species, should be treated with caution. They also support the existence of a multi-faceted link between temporal variation in resource availability and breeding synchrony in terrestrial mammals, and increase our understanding of the mechanisms shaping reproductive synchrony in large herbivores, thus enhancing our ability to predict the potential impacts of climate change on biodiversity. PMID:22911793

  2. Nonverbal synchrony of head- and body-movement in psychotherapy: different signals have different associations with outcome

    PubMed Central

    Ramseyer, Fabian; Tschacher, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The coordination of patient’s and therapist’s bodily movement – nonverbal synchrony – has been empirically shown to be associated with psychotherapy outcome. This finding was based on dynamic movement patterns of the whole body. The present paper is a new analysis of an existing dataset (Ramseyer and Tschacher, 2011), which extends previous findings by differentiating movements pertaining to head and upper-body regions. Method: In a sample of 70 patients (37 female, 33 male) treated at an outpatient psychotherapy clinic, we quantified nonverbal synchrony with an automated objective video-analysis algorithm (motion energy analysis). Head- and body-synchrony was quantified during the initial 15 min of video-recorded therapy sessions. Micro-outcome was assessed with self-report post-session questionnaires provided by patients and their therapists. Macro-outcome was measured with questionnaires that quantified attainment of treatment goals and changes in experiencing and behavior at the end of therapy. Results: The differentiation of head- and body-synchrony showed that these two facets of motor coordination were differentially associated with outcome. Head-synchrony predicted global outcome of therapy, while body-synchrony did not, and body-synchrony predicted session outcome, while head-synchrony did not. Conclusion: The results pose an important amendment to previous findings, which showed that nonverbal synchrony embodied both outcome and interpersonal variables of psychotherapy dyads. The separation of head- and body-synchrony suggested that distinct mechanisms may operate in these two regions: Head-synchrony embodied phenomena with a long temporal extension (overall therapy success), while body-synchrony embodied phenomena of a more immediate nature (session-level success). More explorations with fine-grained analyses of synchronized phenomena in nonverbal behavior may shed additional light on the embodiment of psychotherapy process. PMID

  3. Synchrony - Cyberknife Respiratory Compensation Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ozhasoglu, Cihat Saw, Cheng B.; Chen Hungcheng; Burton, Steven; Komanduri, Krishna; Yue, Ning J.; Huq, Saiful M.; Heron, Dwight E.

    2008-07-01

    Studies of organs in the thorax and abdomen have shown that these organs can move as much as 40 mm due to respiratory motion. Without compensation for this motion during the course of external beam radiation therapy, the dose coverage to target may be compromised. On the other hand, if compensation of this motion is by expansion of the margin around the target, a significant volume of normal tissue may be unnecessarily irradiated. In hypofractionated regimens, the issue of respiratory compensation becomes an important factor and is critical in single-fraction extracranial radiosurgery applications. CyberKnife is an image-guided radiosurgery system that consists of a 6-MV LINAC mounted to a robotic arm coupled through a control loop to a digital diagnostic x-ray imaging system. The robotic arm can point the beam anywhere in space with 6 degrees of freedom, without being constrained to a conventional isocenter. The CyberKnife has been recently upgraded with a real-time respiratory tracking and compensation system called Synchrony. Using external markers in conjunction with diagnostic x-ray images, Synchrony helps guide the robotic arm to move the radiation beam in real time such that the beam always remains aligned with the target. With the aid of Synchrony, the tumor motion can be tracked in three-dimensional space, and the motion-induced dosimetric change to target can be minimized with a limited margin. The working principles, advantages, limitations, and our clinical experience with this new technology will be discussed.

  4. Temporal variation in the synchrony of weather and its consequences for spatiotemporal population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Allstadt, Andrew J; Liebhold, Andrew M; Johnson, Derek M; Davis, Robert E; Haynes, Kyle J

    2015-11-01

    Over large areas, synchronous fluctuations in population density are often attributed to environmental stochasticity (e.g., weather) shared among local populations. This concept was first advanced by Patrick Moran who showed, based on several assumptions, that long-term population synchrony will equal the synchrony of environmental stochasticity among locations. We examine the consequences of violating one of Moran's assumptions, namely that environmental synchrony is constant through time. We demonstrate that the synchrony of weather conditions from regions across the United States varied considerably from 1895 to 2010. Using a simulation model modified from Moran's original study, we show that temporal variation in environmental synchrony can cause changes in population synchrony, which in turn can temporarily increase or decrease the amplitude of regional-scale population fluctuations. A case study using the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) provides empirical support for these predictions. This study provides theoretical and empirical evidence that temporal variation in environmental synchrony can be used to identify factors that synchronize population fluctuations and highlights a previously underappreciated cause of variability in population dynamics.

  5. Temporal variation in the synchrony of weather and its consequences for spatiotemporal population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Allstadt, Andrew J; Liebhold, Andrew M; Johnson, Derek M; Davis, Robert E; Haynes, Kyle J

    2015-11-01

    Over large areas, synchronous fluctuations in population density are often attributed to environmental stochasticity (e.g., weather) shared among local populations. This concept was first advanced by Patrick Moran who showed, based on several assumptions, that long-term population synchrony will equal the synchrony of environmental stochasticity among locations. We examine the consequences of violating one of Moran's assumptions, namely that environmental synchrony is constant through time. We demonstrate that the synchrony of weather conditions from regions across the United States varied considerably from 1895 to 2010. Using a simulation model modified from Moran's original study, we show that temporal variation in environmental synchrony can cause changes in population synchrony, which in turn can temporarily increase or decrease the amplitude of regional-scale population fluctuations. A case study using the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) provides empirical support for these predictions. This study provides theoretical and empirical evidence that temporal variation in environmental synchrony can be used to identify factors that synchronize population fluctuations and highlights a previously underappreciated cause of variability in population dynamics. PMID:27070013

  6. Examination of menstrual synchrony among women basketball players.

    PubMed

    Weller, A; Weller, L

    1995-01-01

    Based on the hypothesis that olfactory communication may underlie menstrual synchrony, we examined menstrual synchrony among eight professional basketball teams in the Israeli womens' major basketball league. We investigated whether team synchrony occurred, whether best friends among the teammates synchronized, and whether menstrual-related or social-interaction factors were associated with synchrony. Synchrony was not found among the teams nor among best friends. No meaningful relation was found between synchrony and menstrual-related or social-interaction variables.

  7. A minimal model of self-consistent partial synchrony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clusella, Pau; Politi, Antonio; Rosenblum, Michael

    2016-09-01

    We show that self-consistent partial synchrony in globally coupled oscillatory ensembles is a general phenomenon. We analyze in detail appearance and stability properties of this state in possibly the simplest setup of a biharmonic Kuramoto–Daido phase model as well as demonstrate the effect in limit-cycle relaxational Rayleigh oscillators. Such a regime extends the notion of splay state from a uniform distribution of phases to an oscillating one. Suitable collective observables such as the Kuramoto order parameter allow detecting the presence of an inhomogeneous distribution. The characteristic and most peculiar property of self-consistent partial synchrony is the difference between the frequency of single units and that of the macroscopic field.

  8. Building trust: Heart rate synchrony and arousal during joint action increased by public goods game.

    PubMed

    Mitkidis, Panagiotis; McGraw, John J; Roepstorff, Andreas; Wallot, Sebastian

    2015-10-01

    The physiological processes underlying trust are subject of intense interest in the behavioral sciences. However, very little is known about how trust modulates the affective link between individuals. We show here that trust has an effect on heart rate arousal and synchrony, a result consistent with research on joint action and experimental economics. We engaged participants in a series of joint action tasks which, for one group of participants, was interleaved with a PGG, and measured their heart synchrony and arousal. We found that the introduction of the economic game shifted participants' attention to the dynamics of the interaction. This was followed by increased arousal and synchrony of heart rate profiles. Also, the degree of heart rate synchrony was predictive of participants' expectations regarding their partners in the economic game. We conclude that the above changes in physiology and behavior are shaped by the valuation of other people's social behavior, and ultimately indicate trust building process.

  9. Low voltage alpha EEG phenotype is associated with reduced amplitudes of alpha event-related oscillations, increased cortical phase synchrony, and a low level of response to alcohol.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Cindy L; Wills, Derek N; Phillips, Evelyn; Havstad, James

    2015-10-01

    Low voltage EEG (LVEEG) is a heritable phenotype that differs depending on ancestral heritage, yet its impact on brain networks and cognition remain relatively unexplored. In this study we assessed energy and task related phase locking of event-related oscillation (EROs), behavioral responses, measures of IQ and personality, and expected responses to alcohol in a large sample of individuals with LVEEG compared to those with higher voltage variants. Participants (n=762) were recruited from a Native American community and completed a diagnostic interview, the Quick Test, the Subjective High Assessment Scale Expectation Version (SHAS-E) and the Maudsley Personality Inventory. Clinical and spectral analyzed EEGs were collected for determination of the presence of a LVEEG variant. EROs were generated using a facial expression recognition task. Participants with LVEEG (n=451) were significantly more likely to be older, married and have higher degrees of Native American heritage but did not differ in gender, income or education. Individuals with LVEEG were also found to have decreased energy in their alpha EROs, increased phase locking between stimulus trials, and increased phase-locking between cortical brain areas. No significant differences in the cognitive tests, personality variables or alcohol dependence or anxiety diagnoses were found, however, individuals with LVEEG did report a larger number of drinks ever consumed in a 24-h period and a less intense expected response to alcohol. These data suggest that alpha power in the resting EEG is highly associated with energy and cortical connectivity measures generated by event-related stimuli, as well as potentially increased risk for alcohol use. PMID:26151497

  10. Low voltage alpha EEG phenotype is associated with reduced amplitudes of alpha event-related oscillations, increased cortical phase synchrony, and a low level of response to alcohol.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Cindy L; Wills, Derek N; Phillips, Evelyn; Havstad, James

    2015-10-01

    Low voltage EEG (LVEEG) is a heritable phenotype that differs depending on ancestral heritage, yet its impact on brain networks and cognition remain relatively unexplored. In this study we assessed energy and task related phase locking of event-related oscillation (EROs), behavioral responses, measures of IQ and personality, and expected responses to alcohol in a large sample of individuals with LVEEG compared to those with higher voltage variants. Participants (n=762) were recruited from a Native American community and completed a diagnostic interview, the Quick Test, the Subjective High Assessment Scale Expectation Version (SHAS-E) and the Maudsley Personality Inventory. Clinical and spectral analyzed EEGs were collected for determination of the presence of a LVEEG variant. EROs were generated using a facial expression recognition task. Participants with LVEEG (n=451) were significantly more likely to be older, married and have higher degrees of Native American heritage but did not differ in gender, income or education. Individuals with LVEEG were also found to have decreased energy in their alpha EROs, increased phase locking between stimulus trials, and increased phase-locking between cortical brain areas. No significant differences in the cognitive tests, personality variables or alcohol dependence or anxiety diagnoses were found, however, individuals with LVEEG did report a larger number of drinks ever consumed in a 24-h period and a less intense expected response to alcohol. These data suggest that alpha power in the resting EEG is highly associated with energy and cortical connectivity measures generated by event-related stimuli, as well as potentially increased risk for alcohol use.

  11. Measuring multiple spike train synchrony.

    PubMed

    Kreuz, Thomas; Chicharro, Daniel; Andrzejak, Ralph G; Haas, Julie S; Abarbanel, Henry D I

    2009-10-15

    Measures of multiple spike train synchrony are essential in order to study issues such as spike timing reliability, network synchronization, and neuronal coding. These measures can broadly be divided in multivariate measures and averages over bivariate measures. One of the most recent bivariate approaches, the ISI-distance, employs the ratio of instantaneous interspike intervals (ISIs). In this study we propose two extensions of the ISI-distance, the straightforward averaged bivariate ISI-distance and the multivariate ISI-diversity based on the coefficient of variation. Like the original measure these extensions combine many properties desirable in applications to real data. In particular, they are parameter-free, time scale independent, and easy to visualize in a time-resolved manner, as we illustrate with in vitro recordings from a cortical neuron. Using a simulated network of Hindemarsh-Rose neurons as a controlled configuration we compare the performance of our methods in distinguishing different levels of multi-neuron spike train synchrony to the performance of six other previously published measures. We show and explain why the averaged bivariate measures perform better than the multivariate ones and why the multivariate ISI-diversity is the best performer among the multivariate methods. Finally, in a comparison against standard methods that rely on moving window estimates, we use single-unit monkey data to demonstrate the advantages of the instantaneous nature of our methods. PMID:19591867

  12. Tracking the Changes in Synchrony of the Electrophysiological Activity as the Uterus Approaches Labor Using Magnetomyographic Technique

    PubMed Central

    Govindan, Rathinaswamy B.; Siegel, Eric; Mckelvey, Samantha; Murphy, Pam; Lowery, Curtis L.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to perform serial magnetomyographic examinations in order to detect changes in synchrony characteristics of myometrial electrophysiological activity as women approach labor. Of the total of 56 patients recruited, the results of 149 examinations from 29 patients were included in the analysis. The global synchrony across each sensor spread over the abdomen was computed and quantified as synchronization index. The mean and the median value of the global synchrony were computed and correlated with time to active labor from the last recording. Overall, synchrony increased as the patient approached active labor (P = .035). Furthermore, mean synchronization index increased twice as fast in the nonnulliparous group compared to the nulliparous group (P = .039). The changes in synchrony of uterine electrophysiological activity near term could aid in prediction of labor. PMID:25352329

  13. Assessing instantaneous synchrony of nonlinear nonstationary oscillators in the brain.

    PubMed

    Fine, Ananda S; Nicholls, David P; Mogul, David J

    2010-01-30

    Neuronal populations throughout the brain achieve levels of synchronous electrophysiological activity as a consequence of both normal brain function as well as during pathological states such as in epileptic seizures. Understanding this synchrony and being able to quantitatively assess the dynamics with which neuronal oscillators across the brain couple their activity is a critical component toward decoding such complex behavior. Commonly applied techniques to resolve relationships between oscillators typically make assumptions of linearity and stationarity that are likely not to be valid for complex neural signals. In this study, intracranial electroencephalographic activity was recorded bilaterally in both hippocampi and in anteromedial thalamus of rat under normal conditions and during hypersynchronous seizure activity induced by focal injection of the epileptogenic agent kainic acid. Nonlinear oscillators were first extracted using empirical mode decomposition. The technique of eigenvalue decomposition was used to assess global phase synchrony of the highest energy oscillators. The Hilbert analytical technique was then used to measure instantaneous phase synchrony of these oscillators as they evolved in time. To test the reliability of this method, we first applied it to a system of two coupled Rössler attractors under varying levels of coupling with small frequency mismatch. The application of these analytical techniques to intracranially recorded brain signals provides a means for assessing how complex oscillatory behavior in the brain evolves and changes during both normal activity and as a consequence of diseased states without making restrictive and possibly erroneous assumptions of the linearity and stationarity of the underlying oscillatory activity.

  14. Prediction of boron carbon nitrogen phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Sanxi; Zhang, Hantao; Widom, Michael

    We studied the phase diagram of boron, carbon and nitrogen, including the boron-carbon and boron-nitrogen binaries and the boron-carbon-nitrogen ternary. Based on the idea of electron counting and using a technique of mixing similar primitive cells, we constructed many ''electron precise'' structures. First principles calculation is performed on these structures, with either zero or high pressures. For the BN binary, our calculation confirms that a rhmobohedral phase can be stablized at high pressure, consistent with some experimental results. For the BCN ternary, a new ground state structure is discovered and an Ising-like phase transition is suggested. Moreover, we modeled BCN ternary phase diagram and show continuous solubility from boron carbide to the boron subnitride phase.

  15. Neural Synchrony in Cortical Networks: History, Concept and Current Status

    PubMed Central

    Uhlhaas, Peter J.; Pipa, Gordon; Lima, Bruss; Melloni, Lucia; Neuenschwander, Sergio; Nikolić, Danko; Singer, Wolf

    2009-01-01

    Following the discovery of context-dependent synchronization of oscillatory neuronal responses in the visual system, the role of neural synchrony in cortical networks has been expanded to provide a general mechanism for the coordination of distributed neural activity patterns. In the current paper, we present an update of the status of this hypothesis through summarizing recent results from our laboratory that suggest important new insights regarding the mechanisms, function and relevance of this phenomenon. In the first part, we present recent results derived from animal experiments and mathematical simulations that provide novel explanations and mechanisms for zero and nero-zero phase lag synchronization. In the second part, we shall discuss the role of neural synchrony for expectancy during perceptual organization and its role in conscious experience. This will be followed by evidence that indicates that in addition to supporting conscious cognition, neural synchrony is abnormal in major brain disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. We conclude this paper with suggestions for further research as well as with critical issues that need to be addressed in future studies. PMID:19668703

  16. Impacts of Hydrological and Biogeochemical Process Synchrony Transcend Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, C.; Kokelj, S.; McCluskie, M.; Hedstrom, N.

    2015-12-01

    In portions of the circumpolar north, there are documented cases of increases in annual inorganic nitrogen loading. Confounding the explanation of this phenomenon is a lack of accompanying annual trends in streamflow, precipitation or atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Evidence from Canada's subarctic suggests this dichotomy could be due to three key non-linearities in the predominant biogeochemical and hydrological processes. Because snowfall changes to rainfall near the zero degree air temperature isotherm, there has been an increase in late autumn rainfall across the region due to earlier passage of precipitation generating cold fronts. Runoff generation in cold regions is often a storage threshold-mediated process, and the enhanced rainfall results in more common exceedance of these thresholds and higher winter streamflow. Finally, net mineralization rates in regional lakes peak in winter following the onset of ice cover. Subtle increases in monthly rainfall at specific times of the year can permit hydro-chemical process synchrony within watersheds that enhances annual inorganic nitrogen loading, implying that the impacts of process synchrony transcend scale. The presence of shifts in nitrogen export suggests that sustained regular process synchrony can modify system states. Sound understanding of system processes and interactions across scales will be needed to properly predict impacts and make sound decisions when managing watersheds and competing resource demands.

  17. Using mechanistic models to understand synchrony in forest insect populations: the North American gypsy moth as a case study.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Karen C; Dwyer, Greg

    2008-11-01

    In many forest insects, subpopulations fluctuate concurrently across large geographical areas, a phenomenon known as population synchrony. Because of the large spatial scales involved, empirical tests to identify the causes of synchrony are often impractical. Simple models are, therefore, a useful aid to understanding, but data often seem to contradict model predictions. For instance, chaotic population dynamics and limited dispersal are not uncommon among synchronous forest defoliators, yet both make it difficult to achieve synchrony in simple models. To test whether this discrepancy can be explained by more realistic models, we introduced dispersal and spatially correlated stochasticity into a mechanistic population model for the North American gypsy moth Lymantria dispar. The resulting model shows both chaotic dynamics and spatial synchrony, suggesting that chaos and synchrony can be reconciled by the incorporation of realistic dynamics and spatial structure. By relating alterations in model structure to changes in synchrony levels, we show that the synchrony is due to a combination of spatial covariance in environmental stochasticity and the origins of chaos in our multispecies model.

  18. How robust is dispersal-induced spatial synchrony?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuxiang; Lutscher, Frithjof; Guichard, Frédéric

    2015-03-01

    Many biological populations fluctuate in synchrony over large geographic regions. This behavior may increase the chance of extinction. The combination of time-scale separation between interacting species and weak spatial linear diffusive coupling is one mechanism that can generate synchrony; however, accounting for travel time between habitat patches may destabilize this synchrony. Here, we show that ubiquitous behavioral aspects of dispersal (e.g., predator avoidance), implemented as nonlinear diffusive coupling, may also destabilize synchrony. In addition, these aspects interact with travel-time delays and amplify mechanisms that destroy synchrony. Our work suggests that dispersal-induced synchrony is more rare than typically assumed.

  19. Integrated design of electrical distribution systems: Phase balancing and phase prediction case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilek, Murat

    Distribution system analysis and design has experienced a gradual development over the past three decades. The once loosely assembled and largely ad hoc procedures have been progressing toward being well-organized. The increasing power of computers now allows for managing the large volumes of data and other obstacles inherent to distribution system studies. A variety of sophisticated optimization methods, which were impossible to conduct in the past, have been developed and successfully applied to distribution systems. Among the many procedures that deal with making decisions about the state and better operation of a distribution system, two decision support procedures will be addressed in this study: phase balancing and phase prediction. The former recommends re-phasing of single- and double-phase laterals in a radial distribution system in order to improve circuit loss while also maintaining/improving imbalances at various balance point locations. Phase balancing calculations are based on circuit loss information and current magnitudes that are calculated from a power flow solution. The phase balancing algorithm is designed to handle time-varying loads when evaluating phase moves that will result in improved circuit losses over all load points. Applied to radial distribution systems, the phase prediction algorithm attempts to predict the phases of single- and/or double phase laterals that have no phasing information previously recorded by the electric utility. In such an attempt, it uses available customer data and kW/kVar measurements taken at various locations in the system. It is shown that phase balancing is a special case of phase prediction. Building on the phase balancing and phase prediction design studies, this work introduces the concept of integrated design, an approach for coordinating the effects of various design calculations. Integrated design considers using results of multiple design applications rather than employing a single application for a

  20. Infanticide and within-clutch competition select for reproductive synchrony in a cooperative bird.

    PubMed

    Riehl, Christina

    2016-08-01

    Reproduction among members of social animal groups is often highly synchronized, but neither the selective advantages nor the proximate causes of synchrony are fully understood. Here I investigate the evolution of hatching synchrony in the Greater Ani (Crotophaga major), a communally nesting bird in which several unrelated females contribute eggs to a large, shared clutch. Hatching synchrony is variable, ranging from complete synchrony to moderate asynchrony, and is determined by the onset of incubation of the communal clutch. Data from a 10-year field study indicate that individual reproductive success is highest in synchronous groups, and that nestlings that hatch in the middle of the hatching sequence are most likely to survive. Nestling mortality is high in asynchronous clutches because early-hatching nestlings are more likely to be killed by adult group members, whereas late-hatching nestlings are more likely to starve due competition with their older nest-mates. Therefore, the timing of hatching appears to be under stabilizing selection from infanticide and resource competition acting in concert. These results provide empirical support for models predicting that synchrony may evolve as an adaptive counter-strategy to infanticide, and they highlight the importance of competition in shaping the timing of reproduction in social groups.

  1. Synchrony between sensory and cognitive networks is associated with subclinical variation in autistic traits

    PubMed Central

    Young, Jacob S.; Smith, David V.; Coutlee, Christopher G.; Huettel, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with autistic spectrum disorders exhibit distinct personality traits linked to attentional, social, and affective functions, and those traits are expressed with varying levels of severity in the neurotypical and subclinical population. Variation in autistic traits has been linked to reduced functional and structural connectivity (i.e., underconnectivity, or reduced synchrony) with neural networks modulated by attentional, social, and affective functions. Yet, it remains unclear whether reduced synchrony between these neural networks contributes to autistic traits. To investigate this issue, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to record brain activation while neurotypical participants who varied in their subclinical scores on the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) viewed alternating blocks of social and nonsocial stimuli (i.e., images of faces and of landscape scenes). We used independent component analysis (ICA) combined with a spatiotemporal regression to quantify synchrony between neural networks. Our results indicated that decreased synchrony between the executive control network (ECN) and a face-scene network (FSN) predicted higher scores on the AQ. This relationship was not explained by individual differences in head motion, preferences for faces, or personality variables related to social cognition. Our findings build on clinical reports by demonstrating that reduced synchrony between distinct neural networks contributes to a range of subclinical autistic traits. PMID:25852527

  2. Infanticide and within-clutch competition select for reproductive synchrony in a cooperative bird.

    PubMed

    Riehl, Christina

    2016-08-01

    Reproduction among members of social animal groups is often highly synchronized, but neither the selective advantages nor the proximate causes of synchrony are fully understood. Here I investigate the evolution of hatching synchrony in the Greater Ani (Crotophaga major), a communally nesting bird in which several unrelated females contribute eggs to a large, shared clutch. Hatching synchrony is variable, ranging from complete synchrony to moderate asynchrony, and is determined by the onset of incubation of the communal clutch. Data from a 10-year field study indicate that individual reproductive success is highest in synchronous groups, and that nestlings that hatch in the middle of the hatching sequence are most likely to survive. Nestling mortality is high in asynchronous clutches because early-hatching nestlings are more likely to be killed by adult group members, whereas late-hatching nestlings are more likely to starve due competition with their older nest-mates. Therefore, the timing of hatching appears to be under stabilizing selection from infanticide and resource competition acting in concert. These results provide empirical support for models predicting that synchrony may evolve as an adaptive counter-strategy to infanticide, and they highlight the importance of competition in shaping the timing of reproduction in social groups. PMID:27346386

  3. Finite-size-induced transitions to synchrony in oscillator ensembles with nonlinear global coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komarov, Maxim; Pikovsky, Arkady

    2015-08-01

    We report on finite-sized-induced transitions to synchrony in a population of phase oscillators coupled via a nonlinear mean field, which microscopically is equivalent to a hypernetwork organization of interactions. Using a self-consistent approach and direct numerical simulations, we argue that a transition to synchrony occurs only for finite-size ensembles and disappears in the thermodynamic limit. For all considered setups, which include purely deterministic oscillators with or without heterogeneity in natural oscillatory frequencies, and an ensemble of noise-driven identical oscillators, we establish scaling relations describing the order parameter as a function of the coupling constant and the system size.

  4. Detection of transient synchrony across oscillating receptors by the central electrosensory system of mormyrid fish

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Alejandro; Carlson, Bruce A

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we reported evidence for a novel mechanism of peripheral sensory coding based on oscillatory synchrony. Spontaneously oscillating electroreceptors in weakly electric fish (Mormyridae) respond to electrosensory stimuli with a phase reset that results in transient synchrony across the receptor population (Baker et al., 2015). Here, we asked whether the central electrosensory system actually detects the occurrence of synchronous oscillations among receptors. We found that electrosensory stimulation elicited evoked potentials in the midbrain exterolateral nucleus at a short latency following receptor synchronization. Frequency tuning in the midbrain resembled peripheral frequency tuning, which matches the intrinsic oscillation frequencies of the receptors. These frequencies are lower than those in individual conspecific signals, and instead match those found in collective signals produced by groups of conspecifics. Our results provide further support for a novel mechanism for sensory coding based on the detection of oscillatory synchrony among peripheral receptors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16851.001 PMID:27328322

  5. Bistability of patterns of synchrony in Kuramoto oscillators with inertia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belykh, Igor V.; Brister, Barrett N.; Belykh, Vladimir N.

    2016-09-01

    We study the co-existence of stable patterns of synchrony in two coupled populations of identical Kuramoto oscillators with inertia. The two populations have different sizes and can split into two clusters where the oscillators synchronize within a cluster while there is a phase shift between the dynamics of the two clusters. Due to the presence of inertia, which increases the dimensionality of the oscillator dynamics, this phase shift can oscillate, inducing a breathing cluster pattern. We derive analytical conditions for the co-existence of stable two-cluster patterns with constant and oscillating phase shifts. We demonstrate that the dynamics, that governs the bistability of the phase shifts, is described by a driven pendulum equation. We also discuss the implications of our stability results to the stability of chimeras.

  6. More than reflections: Empathy in motivational interviewing includes language style synchrony between therapist and client

    PubMed Central

    Lord, Sarah Peregrine; Sheng, Elisa; Imel, Zac E.; Baer, John; Atkins, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Empathy is a basic psychological process that involves the development of synchrony in dyads. It is also a foundational ingredient in specific, evidence-based behavioral treatments like motivational interviewing (MI). Ratings of therapist empathy typically rely on a gestalt, “felt sense” of therapist understanding and the presence of specific verbal behaviors like reflective listening. These ratings do not provide a direct test of psychological processes like behavioral synchrony that are theorized to be an important component of empathy in psychotherapy. To explore a new objective indicator of empathy, we hypothesized that synchrony in language style (i.e., matching how statements are phrased) between client and therapists would predict gestalt ratings of empathy over and above the contribution of reflections. We analyzed 122 MI transcripts with high and low empathy ratings based on the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity (MITI) global rating scale. Linguistic inquiry and word count was used to estimate language style synchrony (LSS) of adjacent client and therapist talk turns. High empathy sessions showed greater LSS across 11 language style categories compared to low empathy sessions (p < .01), and overall, average LSS was notably higher in high empathy vs. low empathy sessions (d = 0.62). Regression analyses showed that LSS was predictive of empathy ratings over and above reflection counts; a 1 SD increase in LSS is associated with 2.4 times increase in the odds of a high empathy rating, controlling for therapist reflections (odds ratio = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.36, 4.24, p < .01). These findings suggest empathy ratings are related to synchrony in language style, over and above synchrony of content as measured by therapist reflections. Novel indicators of therapist empathy may have implications for the study of MI process as well as the training of therapists. PMID:25892166

  7. More than reflections: empathy in motivational interviewing includes language style synchrony between therapist and client.

    PubMed

    Lord, Sarah Peregrine; Sheng, Elisa; Imel, Zac E; Baer, John; Atkins, David C

    2015-05-01

    Empathy is a basic psychological process that involves the development of synchrony in dyads. It is also a foundational ingredient in specific, evidence-based behavioral treatments like motivational interviewing (MI). Ratings of therapist empathy typically rely on a gestalt, "felt sense" of therapist understanding and the presence of specific verbal behaviors like reflective listening. These ratings do not provide a direct test of psychological processes like behavioral synchrony that are theorized to be an important component of empathy in psychotherapy. To explore a new objective indicator of empathy, we hypothesized that synchrony in language style (i.e., matching how statements are phrased) between client and therapists would predict gestalt ratings of empathy over and above the contribution of reflections. We analyzed 122 MI transcripts with high and low empathy ratings based on the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity global rating scale. Linguistic inquiry and word count was used to estimate language style synchrony (LSS) of adjacent client and therapist talk turns. High-empathy sessions showed greater LSS across 11 language style categories compared with low-empathy sessions (p<.01), and overall, average LSS was notably higher in high-empathy versus low-empathy sessions (d=0.62). Regression analyses showed that LSS was predictive of empathy ratings over and above reflection counts; a 1 SD increase in LSS is associated with a 2.4 times increase in the odds of a high-empathy rating, controlling for therapist reflections (odds ratio=2.4; 95% CI: 1.36; 4.24, p<.01). These findings suggest empathy ratings are related to synchrony in language style, over and above synchrony of content as measured by therapist reflections. Novel indicators of therapist empathy may have implications for the study of MI process as well as the training of therapists.

  8. Statistical detection of EEG synchrony using empirical bayesian inference.

    PubMed

    Singh, Archana K; Asoh, Hideki; Takeda, Yuji; Phillips, Steven

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in understanding how the brain utilizes synchronized oscillatory activity to integrate information across functionally connected regions. Computing phase-locking values (PLV) between EEG signals is a popular method for quantifying such synchronizations and elucidating their role in cognitive tasks. However, high-dimensionality in PLV data incurs a serious multiple testing problem. Standard multiple testing methods in neuroimaging research (e.g., false discovery rate, FDR) suffer severe loss of power, because they fail to exploit complex dependence structure between hypotheses that vary in spectral, temporal and spatial dimension. Previously, we showed that a hierarchical FDR and optimal discovery procedures could be effectively applied for PLV analysis to provide better power than FDR. In this article, we revisit the multiple comparison problem from a new Empirical Bayes perspective and propose the application of the local FDR method (locFDR; Efron, 2001) for PLV synchrony analysis to compute FDR as a posterior probability that an observed statistic belongs to a null hypothesis. We demonstrate the application of Efron's Empirical Bayes approach for PLV synchrony analysis for the first time. We use simulations to validate the specificity and sensitivity of locFDR and a real EEG dataset from a visual search study for experimental validation. We also compare locFDR with hierarchical FDR and optimal discovery procedures in both simulation and experimental analyses. Our simulation results showed that the locFDR can effectively control false positives without compromising on the power of PLV synchrony inference. Our results from the application locFDR on experiment data detected more significant discoveries than our previously proposed methods whereas the standard FDR method failed to detect any significant discoveries. PMID:25822617

  9. Oscillatory synchrony as a mechanism of attentional processing.

    PubMed

    Gregoriou, Georgia G; Paneri, Sofia; Sapountzis, Panagiotis

    2015-11-11

    The question of how the brain selects which stimuli in our visual field will be given priority to enter into perception, to guide our actions and to form our memories has been a matter of intense research in studies of visual attention. Work in humans and animal models has revealed an extended network of areas involved in the control and maintenance of attention. For many years, imaging studies in humans constituted the main source of a systems level approach, while electrophysiological recordings in non-human primates provided insight into the cellular mechanisms of visual attention. Recent technological advances and the development of sophisticated analytical tools have allowed us to bridge the gap between the two approaches and assess how neuronal ensembles across a distributed network of areas interact in visual attention tasks. A growing body of evidence suggests that oscillatory synchrony plays a crucial role in the selective communication of neuronal populations that encode the attended stimuli. Here, we discuss data from theoretical and electrophysiological studies, with more emphasis on findings from humans and non-human primates that point to the relevance of oscillatory activity and synchrony for attentional processing and behavior. These findings suggest that oscillatory synchrony in specific frequencies reflects the biophysical properties of specific cell types and local circuits and allows the brain to dynamically switch between different spatio-temporal patterns of activity to achieve flexible integration and selective routing of information along selected neuronal populations according to behavioral demands. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Prediction and Attention.

  10. Predicting polymorphic phase stability in multilayered thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Gregory Bruce

    As thin films are reduced in thickness, allotropic phase transformations to structures that are not the equilibrium phase in the standard state can be stabilized. These polymorphic phase transformations have been referred to as pseudomorphism. Many of these pseudomorphic phases have been serendipitously discovered. For the first time, the use of a classical thermodynamic model has been developed in the prediction of phase stability in Zr/Nb and Ti/Nb multilayered thin film structures. The classical thermodynamic model predicts that in regions of high volume fractions of Nb, the lower volume fraction, or alternatively, the thinner Zr or Ti layer, can be stabilized as a bcc phase rather then an hcp phase. The pseudomorphic phase is stabilized by a reduction in the interfacial free energy. An outcome of the classical thermodynamic model is a new type of phase stability diagram, referred to as a biphase diagram, in predicting which combinations of length scale and volume fraction will stabilize the pseudomorphic or bulk equilibrium phases. The change in hcp to bcc phase stability in Zr and Ti has been confirmed by transmission and reflection x-ray diffraction and electron diffraction. In each case, the Zr or Ti layer adopted a lattice parameter similar to its high temperature beta-bcc lattice parameter. An O-lattice construction, a nearest-neighbor-bond model, and a van der Merwe model have been used to estimate the contributing structural and chemical contributions to the hcp-bcc interfacial free energy reduction value. The Zr/Nb values match well to experimentally determined interfacial free energies that can be calculated from the slopes of the stability boundaries on the biphase diagram. Atom Probe Tomography (APT) results indicated a significant interdiffusion of up to 15 at.% Nb into the Ti layers that helped to facilitate the hcp-bcc transition in Ti. Refinement of the free energy calculations using the APT results brought the predicted and experimental

  11. Synchrony and entrainment properties of robust circadian oscillators

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Neda; Taylor, Stephanie R.; Meeker, Kirsten; Petzold, Linda R.; Doyle, Francis J.

    2008-01-01

    Systems theoretic tools (i.e. mathematical modelling, control, and feedback design) advance the understanding of robust performance in complex biological networks. We highlight phase entrainment as a key performance measure used to investigate dynamics of a single deterministic circadian oscillator for the purpose of generating insight into the behaviour of a population of (synchronized) oscillators. More specifically, the analysis of phase characteristics may facilitate the identification of appropriate coupling mechanisms for the ensemble of noisy (stochastic) circadian clocks. Phase also serves as a critical control objective to correct mismatch between the biological clock and its environment. Thus, we introduce methods of investigating synchrony and entrainment in both stochastic and deterministic frameworks, and as a property of a single oscillator or population of coupled oscillators. PMID:18426774

  12. Phase Synchronization in Electroencephalographic Recordings Prognosticates Outcome in Paediatric Coma

    PubMed Central

    Nenadovic, Vera; Perez Velazquez, Jose Luis; Hutchison, James Saunders

    2014-01-01

    Brain injury from trauma, cardiac arrest or stroke is the most important cause of death and acquired disability in the paediatric population. Due to the lifetime impact of brain injury, there is a need for methods to stratify patient risk and ultimately predict outcome. Early prognosis is fundamental to the implementation of interventions to improve recovery, but no clinical model as yet exists. Healthy physiology is associated with a relative high variability of physiologic signals in organ systems. This was first evaluated in heart rate variability research. Brain variability can be quantified through electroencephalographic (EEG) phase synchrony. We hypothesised that variability in brain signals from EEG recordings would correlate with patient outcome after brain injury. Lower variability in EEG phase synchronization, would be associated with poor patient prognosis. A retrospective study, spanning 10 years (2000–2010) analysed the scalp EEGs of children aged 1 month to 17 years in coma (Glasgow Coma Scale, GCS, <8) admitted to the paediatric critical care unit (PCCU) following brain injury from TBI, cardiac arrest or stroke. Phase synchrony of the EEGs was evaluated using the Hilbert transform and the variability of the phase synchrony calculated. Outcome was evaluated using the 6 point Paediatric Performance Category Score (PCPC) based on chart review at the time of hospital discharge. Outcome was dichotomized to good outcome (PCPC score 1 to 3) and poor outcome (PCPC score 4 to 6). Children who had a poor outcome following brain injury secondary to cardiac arrest, TBI or stroke, had a higher magnitude of synchrony (R index), a lower spatial complexity of the synchrony patterns and a lower temporal variability of the synchrony index values at 15 Hz when compared to those patients with a good outcome. PMID:24752289

  13. Predicting single-phase and two-phase non-Newtonian flow behavior in pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminsky, R.D.

    1998-12-31

    Improved and novel prediction methods are described for single-phase and two-phase flow of non-Newtonian fluids in pipes. Good predictions are achieved for pressure drop, liquid holdup fraction, and two-phase flow regime. The methods are applicable to any visco-inelastic non-Newtonian fluid and include the effect of surface roughness. The methods utilize a reference fluid for which validated models exist. For single-phase flow the use of Newtonian and power-law reference fluids are illustrated. For two-phase flow a Newtonian reference fluid is used. Focus is given to shear-thinning fluids. The approach is theoretically based and is better suited than correlation methods for two-phase flow in high pressure pipelines, for which no experimental data is available in the literature.

  14. Theoretical Predictions of Phase Transitions at Ultra-high Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boates, Brian

    2013-06-01

    We present ab initio calculations of the high-pressure phase diagrams of important planetary materials such as CO2, MgSiO3, and MgO. For CO2, we predict a series of distinct liquid phases over a wide pressure (P) and temperature (T) range, including a first-order transition to a dense polymer liquid. We have computed finite-temperature free energies of liquid and solid CO2 phases to determine the melting curve beyond existing measurements and investigate possible phase separation transitions. The interaction of these phase boundaries with the mantle geotherm will also be discussed. Furthermore, we find evidence for a vast pressure-temperature regime where molten MgSiO3 decomposes into liquid SiO2 and solid MgO, with a volume change of approximately 1.2 percent. The demixing transition is driven by the crystallization of MgO ? the reaction only occurs below the high-pressure MgO melting curve. The predicted transition pressure at 10,000 K is in close proximity to an anomaly reported in recent laser-driven shock experiments of MgSiO3. We also present new results for the high-pressure melting curve of MgO and its B1-B2 solid phase transition, with a triple point near 364 GPa and 12,000 K.

  15. Characterising intra- and inter-intrinsic network synchrony in combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Dunkley, Benjamin T; Doesburg, Sam M; Jetly, Rakesh; Sedge, Paul A; Pang, Elizabeth W; Taylor, Margot J

    2015-11-30

    Soldiers with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exhibit elevated gamma-band synchrony in left fronto-temporal cortex, and connectivity measures in these regions correlate with comorbidities and PTSD severity, which suggests increased gamma synchrony is related to symptomology. However, little is known about the role of intrinsic, phase-synchronised networks in the disorder. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we characterised spectral connectivity in the default-mode, salience, visual, and attention networks during resting-state in a PTSD population and a trauma-exposed control group. Intrinsic network connectivity was examined in canonical frequency bands. We observed increased inter-network synchronisation in the PTSD group compared with controls in the gamma (30-80 Hz) and high-gamma range (80-150 Hz). Analyses of connectivity and symptomology revealed that PTSD severity was positively associated with beta synchrony in the ventral-attention-to-salience networks, and gamma synchrony within the salience network, but also negatively correlated with beta synchrony within the visual network. These novel results show that frequency-specific, network-level atypicalities may reflect trauma-related alterations of ongoing functional connectivity, and correlations of beta synchrony in attentional-to-salience and visual networks with PTSD severity suggest complicated network interactions mediate symptoms. These results contribute to accumulating evidence that PTSD is a complicated network-based disorder expressed as altered neural interactions.

  16. Let’s Dance Together: Synchrony, Shared Intentionality and Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Reddish, Paul; Fischer, Ronald; Bulbulia, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the matching of rhythmic behaviour between individuals (synchrony) increases cooperation. Such synchrony is most noticeable in music, dance and collective rituals. As well as the matching of behaviour, such collective performances typically involve shared intentionality: performers actively collaborate to produce joint actions. Over three experiments we examined the importance of shared intentionality in promoting cooperation from group synchrony. Experiment 1 compared a condition in which group synchrony was produced through shared intentionality to conditions in which synchrony or asynchrony were created as a by-product of hearing the same or different rhythmic beats. We found that synchrony combined with shared intentionality produced the greatest level of cooperation. To examinef the importance of synchrony when shared intentionality is present, Experiment 2 compared a condition in which participants deliberately worked together to produce synchrony with a condition in which participants deliberately worked together to produce asynchrony. We found that synchrony combined with shared intentionality produced the greatest level of cooperation. Experiment 3 manipulated both the presence of synchrony and shared intentionality and found significantly greater cooperation with synchrony and shared intentionality combined. Path analysis supported a reinforcement of cooperation model according to which perceiving synchrony when there is a shared goal to produce synchrony provides immediate feedback for successful cooperation so reinforcing the group’s cooperative tendencies. The reinforcement of cooperation model helps to explain the evolutionary conservation of traditional music and dance performances, and furthermore suggests that the collectivist values of such cultures may be an essential part of the mechanisms by which synchrony galvanises cooperative behaviours. PMID:23951106

  17. Peripheral sensory coding through oscillatory synchrony in weakly electric fish

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Christa A; Huck, Kevin R; Carlson, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    Adaptations to an organism's environment often involve sensory system modifications. In this study, we address how evolutionary divergence in sensory perception relates to the physiological coding of stimuli. Mormyrid fishes that can detect subtle variations in electric communication signals encode signal waveform into spike-timing differences between sensory receptors. In contrast, the receptors of species insensitive to waveform variation produce spontaneously oscillating potentials. We found that oscillating receptors respond to electric pulses by resetting their phase, resulting in transient synchrony among receptors that encodes signal timing and location, but not waveform. These receptors were most sensitive to frequencies found only in the collective signals of groups of conspecifics, and this was correlated with increased behavioral responses to these frequencies. Thus, different perceptual capabilities correspond to different receptor physiologies. We hypothesize that these divergent mechanisms represent adaptations for different social environments. Our findings provide the first evidence for sensory coding through oscillatory synchrony. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08163.001 PMID:26238277

  18. High frequency synchrony in the cerebellar cortex during goal directed movements

    PubMed Central

    Groth, Jonathan D.; Sahin, Mesut

    2015-01-01

    The cerebellum is involved in sensory-motor integration and cognitive functions. The origin and function of the field potential oscillations in the cerebellum, especially in the high frequencies, have not been explored sufficiently. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the spatio-temporal characteristics of high frequency field potentials (150–350 Hz) in the cerebellar cortex in a behavioral context. To this end, we recorded from the paramedian lobule in rats using micro electro-corticogram (μ-ECoG) electrode arrays while the animal performed a lever press task using the forelimb. The phase synchrony analysis shows that the high frequency oscillations recorded at multiple points across the paramedian cortex episodically synchronize immediately before and desynchronize during the lever press. The electrode contacts were grouped according to their temporal course of phase synchrony around the time of lever press. Contact groups presented patches with slightly stronger synchrony values in the medio-lateral direction, and did not appear to form parasagittal zones. The size and location of these patches on the cortical surface are in agreement with the sensory evoked granular layer patches originally reported by Welker's lab (Shambes et al., 1978). Spatiotemporal synchrony of high frequency field potentials has not been reported at such large-scales previously in the cerebellar cortex. PMID:26257613

  19. Enhancing “theory of mind” through behavioral synchrony

    PubMed Central

    Baimel, Adam; Severson, Rachel L.; Baron, Andrew S.; Birch, Susan A. J.

    2015-01-01

    Theory of mind refers to the abilities underlying the capacity to reason about one’s own and others’ mental states. This ability is critical for predicting and making sense of the actions of others, is essential for efficient communication, fosters social learning, and provides the foundation for empathic concern. Clearly, there is incredible value in fostering theory of mind. Unfortunately, despite being the focus of a wealth of research over the last 40 years relatively little is known about specific strategies for fostering social perspective taking abilities. We provide a discussion of the rationale for applying one specific strategy for fostering efficient theory of mind—that of engaging in “behavioral synchrony” (i.e., the act of keeping together in time with others). Culturally evolved collective rituals involving synchronous actions have long been held to act as social glue. Specifically, here we present how behavioral synchrony tunes our minds for reasoning about other minds in the process of fostering social coordination and cooperation, and propose that we can apply behavioral synchrony as a tool for enhancing theory of mind. PMID:26157415

  20. Predictability of enantiomeric chromatographic behavior on various chiral stationary phases using typical reversed phase modeling software.

    PubMed

    Wagdy, Hebatallah A; Hanafi, Rasha S; El-Nashar, Rasha M; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2013-09-01

    Pharmaceutical companies worldwide tend to apply chiral chromatographic separation techniques in their mass production strategy rather than asymmetric synthesis. The present work aims to investigate the predictability of chromatographic behavior of enantiomers using DryLab HPLC method development software, which is typically used to predict the effect of changing various chromatographic parameters on resolution in the reversed phase mode. Three different types of chiral stationary phases were tested for predictability: macrocyclic antibiotics-based columns (Chirobiotic V and T), polysaccharide-based chiral column (Chiralpak AD-RH), and protein-based chiral column (Ultron ES-OVM). Preliminary basic runs were implemented, then exported to DryLab after peak tracking was accomplished. Prediction of the effect of % organic mobile phase on separation was possible for separations on Chirobiotic V for several probes: racemic propranolol with 97.80% accuracy; mixture of racemates of propranolol and terbutaline sulphate, as well as, racemates of propranolol and salbutamol sulphate with average 90.46% accuracy for the effect of percent organic mobile phase and average 98.39% for the effect of pH; and racemic warfarin with 93.45% accuracy for the effect of percent organic mobile phase and average 99.64% for the effect of pH. It can be concluded that Chirobiotic V reversed phase retention mechanism follows the solvophobic theory. PMID:23775938

  1. Prestimulation phase predicts the TMS-evoked response.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Bornali; Johnson, Jeffrey S; Postle, Bradley R

    2014-10-15

    Prestimulation oscillatory phase and power in particular frequency bands predict perception of at-threshold visual stimuli and of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-induced phosphenes. These effects may be due to changes in cortical excitability, such that certain ranges of power and/or phase values result in a state in which a particular brain area is more receptive to input, thereby biasing behavior. However, the effects of trial-by-trial fluctuations in phase and power of ongoing oscillations on the brain's electrical response to TMS itself have thus far not been addressed. The present study adopts a combined TMS and electroencepalography (EEG) approach to determine whether the TMS-evoked response is sensitive to momentary fluctuations in prestimulation phase and/or power in different frequency bands. Specifically, TMS was applied to superior parietal lobule while subjects performed a short-term memory task. Results showed that the prestimulation phase, particularly within the beta (15-25 Hz) band, predicted pulse-by-pulse variations in the global mean field amplitude. No such relationship was observed between prestimulation power and the global mean field amplitude. Furthermore, TMS-evoked power in the beta band fluctuated with prestimulation phase in the beta band in a manner that differed from spontaneous brain activity. These effects were observed in areas at and distal to the stimulation site. Together, these results confirm the idea that fluctuating phase of ongoing neuronal oscillations create "windows of excitability" in the brain, and they give insight into how TMS interacts with ongoing brain activity on a pulse-by-pulse basis.

  2. Simulating the Effect of Reinforcement Learning on Neuronal Synchrony and Periodicity in the Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Hélie, Sébastien; Fleischer, Pierson J.

    2016-01-01

    The study of rhythms and oscillations in the brain is gaining attention. While it is unclear exactly what the role of oscillation, synchrony, and rhythm is, it appears increasingly likely that synchrony is related to normal and abnormal brain states and possibly cognition. In this article, we explore the relationship between basal ganglia (BG) synchrony and reinforcement learning. We simulate a biologically-realistic model of the striatum initially proposed by Ponzi and Wickens (2010) and enhance the model by adding plastic cortico-BG synapses that can be modified using reinforcement learning. The effect of reinforcement learning on striatal rhythmic activity is then explored, and disrupted using simulated deep brain stimulation (DBS). The stimulator injects current in the brain structure to which it is attached, which affects neuronal synchrony. The results show that training the model without DBS yields a high accuracy in the learning task and reduced the number of active neurons in the striatum, along with an increased firing periodicity and a decreased firing synchrony between neurons in the same assembly. In addition, a spectral decomposition shows a stronger signal for correct trials than incorrect trials in high frequency bands. If the DBS is ON during the training phase, but not the test phase, the amount of learning in the model is reduced, along with firing periodicity. Similar to when the DBS is OFF, spectral decomposition shows a stronger signal for correct trials than for incorrect trials in high frequency domains, but this phenoemenon happens in higher frequency bands than when the DBS is OFF. Synchrony between the neurons is not affected. Finally, the results show that turning the DBS ON at test increases both firing periodicity and striatal synchrony, and spectral decomposition of the signal show that neural activity synchronizes with the DBS fundamental frequency (and its harmonics). Turning the DBS ON during the test phase results in chance

  3. Simulating the Effect of Reinforcement Learning on Neuronal Synchrony and Periodicity in the Striatum.

    PubMed

    Hélie, Sébastien; Fleischer, Pierson J

    2016-01-01

    The study of rhythms and oscillations in the brain is gaining attention. While it is unclear exactly what the role of oscillation, synchrony, and rhythm is, it appears increasingly likely that synchrony is related to normal and abnormal brain states and possibly cognition. In this article, we explore the relationship between basal ganglia (BG) synchrony and reinforcement learning. We simulate a biologically-realistic model of the striatum initially proposed by Ponzi and Wickens (2010) and enhance the model by adding plastic cortico-BG synapses that can be modified using reinforcement learning. The effect of reinforcement learning on striatal rhythmic activity is then explored, and disrupted using simulated deep brain stimulation (DBS). The stimulator injects current in the brain structure to which it is attached, which affects neuronal synchrony. The results show that training the model without DBS yields a high accuracy in the learning task and reduced the number of active neurons in the striatum, along with an increased firing periodicity and a decreased firing synchrony between neurons in the same assembly. In addition, a spectral decomposition shows a stronger signal for correct trials than incorrect trials in high frequency bands. If the DBS is ON during the training phase, but not the test phase, the amount of learning in the model is reduced, along with firing periodicity. Similar to when the DBS is OFF, spectral decomposition shows a stronger signal for correct trials than for incorrect trials in high frequency domains, but this phenoemenon happens in higher frequency bands than when the DBS is OFF. Synchrony between the neurons is not affected. Finally, the results show that turning the DBS ON at test increases both firing periodicity and striatal synchrony, and spectral decomposition of the signal show that neural activity synchronizes with the DBS fundamental frequency (and its harmonics). Turning the DBS ON during the test phase results in chance

  4. Adolescent anxiety and aggression can be differentially predicted by electrocortical phase reset variables.

    PubMed

    Lackner, Christine L; Marshall, William J; Santesso, Diane L; Dywan, Jane; Wade, Terrance; Segalowitz, Sidney J

    2014-08-01

    Increasing evidence supports the notion that both internalizing (e.g., anxiety) and externalizing (e.g., aggression) behavioral dysregulation are associated with abnormal communication between brain regions. Electroencephalographic (EEG) signals across two electrode sites are said to be coherent with one another when they show consistent phase relations. However, periods of desynchrony with shifting of phase relations are a necessary aspect of information processing. The components of EEG phase reset ('locking' when two regions remain in synchrony, and 'shifting' when the two regions desynchronize momentarily) show dramatic changes across development. We collected resting EEG data from typically developing 12 to 15-year-olds and calculated phase shift and lock values in the alpha frequency band across 14 pairs of electrodes varying in inter-electrode distance. A composite measure of participants' aggression levels was positively associated with phase shifting, particularly in the low alpha frequency range, most strongly over the left hemisphere, consistent with the relatively greater left-prefrontal activity reported in aggressive adults. A composite measure of anxiety levels was positively associated with alpha phase locking at sites over both hemispheres, consistent with changes in connectivity reported during anxious thinking in adults. Associations with anxiety could not be explained by traditional EEG coherence measures and suggest that phase shifting and locking might provide an important non-invasive associate of clinically problematic behavior.

  5. Predicting neural network firing pattern from phase resetting curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oprisan, Sorinel; Oprisan, Ana

    2007-04-01

    Autonomous neural networks called central pattern generators (CPG) are composed of endogenously bursting neurons and produce rhythmic activities, such as flying, swimming, walking, chewing, etc. Simplified CPGs for quadrupedal locomotion and swimming are modeled by a ring of neural oscillators such that the output of one oscillator constitutes the input for the subsequent neural oscillator. The phase response curve (PRC) theory discards the detailed conductance-based description of the component neurons of a network and reduces them to ``black boxes'' characterized by a transfer function, which tabulates the transient change in the intrinsic period of a neural oscillator subject to external stimuli. Based on open-loop PRC, we were able to successfully predict the phase-locked period and relative phase between neurons in a half-center network. We derived existence and stability criteria for heterogeneous ring neural networks that are in good agreement with experimental data.

  6. Prediction of phase separation during the drying of polymer shells

    SciTech Connect

    Wilemski, G.; Cook, R.; Boone, T.; Cheung, L.; Nelson, D.

    1995-12-01

    During the drying of polymer shells formed by microencapsulation, vacuole formation is believed to occur as a result of phase separation. To better understand and control this process, we have used a multicomponent diffusion formalism to predict compositional changes in the layer as organic solvents diffuse out and water diffuses into the layer. Formation of thermodynamically unstable compositions can lead to phase separation by condensation of water on submicron foreign particles present in the shell wall. We used statistical mechanics, the UNIFAP methodology, and empirical data to deduce the required values of transport coefficients and equilibrium phase compositions. The results suggest that vacuole formation can be eliminated or reduced by removing submicron and larger particles from the shell wall and by using solvents with lower intrinsic water solubilities. 21 refs., 7 figs.

  7. Dimensionless Equation of State to Predict Microemulsion Phase Behavior.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Soumyadeep; Johns, Russell T

    2016-09-01

    Prediction of microemulsion phase behavior for changing state variables is critical to formulation design of surfactant-oil-brine (SOB) systems. SOB systems find applications in various chemical and petroleum processes, including enhanced oil recovery. A dimensional equation-of-state (EoS) was recently presented by Ghosh and Johns1 that relied on estimation of the surfactant tail length and surface area. We give an algorithm for flash calculations for estimation of three-phase Winsor regions that is more robust, simpler, and noniterative by making the equations dimensionless so that estimates of tail length and surface area are no longer needed. We predict phase behavior as a function temperature, pressure, volume, salinity, oil type, oil-water ratio, and surfactant/alcohol concentration. The dimensionless EoS is based on coupling the HLD-NAC (Hydrophilic Lipophilic Difference-Net Average Curvature) equations with new relationships between optimum salinity and solubility. An updated HLD expression that includes pressure is also used to complete the state description. A significant advantage of the dimensionless form of the EoS over the dimensional version is that salinity scans are tuned based only on one parameter, the interfacial volume ratio. Further, stability conditions are developed in a simplified way to predict whether an overall compositions lies within the single, two-, or three-phase regions. Important new microemulsion relationships are also found, the most important of which is that optimum solubilization ratio is equal to the harmonic mean of the oil and water solubilization ratios in the type III region. Thus, only one experimental measurement is needed in the three-phase zone to estimate the optimum solubilization ratio, a result which can aid experimental design and improve estimates of optimum from noisy data. Predictions with changing state variables are illustrated by comparison to experimental data using standard diagrams including a new type

  8. Dimensionless Equation of State to Predict Microemulsion Phase Behavior.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Soumyadeep; Johns, Russell T

    2016-09-01

    Prediction of microemulsion phase behavior for changing state variables is critical to formulation design of surfactant-oil-brine (SOB) systems. SOB systems find applications in various chemical and petroleum processes, including enhanced oil recovery. A dimensional equation-of-state (EoS) was recently presented by Ghosh and Johns1 that relied on estimation of the surfactant tail length and surface area. We give an algorithm for flash calculations for estimation of three-phase Winsor regions that is more robust, simpler, and noniterative by making the equations dimensionless so that estimates of tail length and surface area are no longer needed. We predict phase behavior as a function temperature, pressure, volume, salinity, oil type, oil-water ratio, and surfactant/alcohol concentration. The dimensionless EoS is based on coupling the HLD-NAC (Hydrophilic Lipophilic Difference-Net Average Curvature) equations with new relationships between optimum salinity and solubility. An updated HLD expression that includes pressure is also used to complete the state description. A significant advantage of the dimensionless form of the EoS over the dimensional version is that salinity scans are tuned based only on one parameter, the interfacial volume ratio. Further, stability conditions are developed in a simplified way to predict whether an overall compositions lies within the single, two-, or three-phase regions. Important new microemulsion relationships are also found, the most important of which is that optimum solubilization ratio is equal to the harmonic mean of the oil and water solubilization ratios in the type III region. Thus, only one experimental measurement is needed in the three-phase zone to estimate the optimum solubilization ratio, a result which can aid experimental design and improve estimates of optimum from noisy data. Predictions with changing state variables are illustrated by comparison to experimental data using standard diagrams including a new type

  9. Pair bonds: arrival synchrony in migratory birds.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, T G; Gill, J A; Sigurbjörnsson, T; Sutherland, W J

    2004-10-01

    Synchronous arrival of pairs of migratory birds at their breeding grounds is important for maintaining pair bonds and is achieved by pairs that remain together all year round. Here we show that arrival is also synchronized in paired individuals of a migratory shorebird, the black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa islandica), even though they winter hundreds of kilometres apart and do not migrate together. The mechanisms required to achieve this synchrony and prevent 'divorce' illustrate the complexity of migratory systems. PMID:15470417

  10. Millisecond Timescale Synchrony among Hippocampal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Amarasingham, Asohan; Mizuseki, Kenji; Buzsáki, György

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitory neurons in cortical circuits play critical roles in composing spike timing and oscillatory patterns in neuronal activity. These roles in turn require coherent activation of interneurons at different timescales. To investigate how the local circuitry provides for these activities, we applied resampled cross-correlation analyses to large-scale recordings of neuronal populations in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) and CA3 regions of the hippocampus of freely moving rats. Significant counts in the cross-correlation of cell pairs, relative to jittered surrogate spike-trains, allowed us to identify the effective couplings between neurons in CA1 and CA3 hippocampal regions on the timescale of milliseconds. In addition to putative excitatory and inhibitory monosynaptic connections, we uncovered prominent millisecond timescale synchrony between cell pairs, observed as peaks in the central 0 ms bin of cross-correlograms. This millisecond timescale synchrony appeared to be independent of network state, excitatory input, and γ oscillations. Moreover, it was frequently observed between cells of differing putative interneuronal type, arguing against gap junctions as the sole underlying source. Our observations corroborate recent in vitro findings suggesting that inhibition alone is sufficient to synchronize interneurons at such fast timescales. Moreover, we show that this synchronous spiking may cause stronger inhibition and rebound spiking in target neurons, pointing toward a potential function for millisecond synchrony of interneurons in shaping and affecting timing in pyramidal populations within and downstream from the circuit. PMID:25378164

  11. Mechanisms for synchrony and alternation in song interactions of the bushcricket Mecopoda elongata (Tettigoniidae: Orthoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Hartbauer, Manfred; Kratzer, Silvia; Steiner, Klaus; Römer, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    Males of the bushcricket Mecopoda elongata synchronise or alternate their chirps with their neighbours in an aggregation. Since synchrony is imperfect, leader and follower chirps are established in song interactions; females prefer leader chirps in phonotactic trials. Using playback experiments and simulations of song oscillator interactions, we investigate the mechanisms that result in synchrony and alternation, and the probability for the leader role in synchrony. A major predictor for the leader role of a male is its intrinsic chirp period, which varies in a population from 1.6 to 2.3 s. Faster singing males establish the leader role more often than males with longer chirp periods. The phase-response curve (PRC) of the song oscillators differs to other rhythmically calling or flashing insects, in that only the disturbed cycle is influenced in duration by a stimulus. This results in sustained leader or follower chirps of one male, when the intrinsic chirp periods of two males differ by 150 ms or more. By contrast, the individual shape of the male’s PRC has only little influence on the outcome of chirp interactions. The consequences of these findings for the evolution of synchrony in this species are discussed. PMID:15614532

  12. Rigid patterns of synchrony for equilibria and periodic cycles in network dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubitsky, Martin; Stewart, Ian

    2016-09-01

    We survey general results relating patterns of synchrony to network topology, applying the formalism of coupled cell systems. We also discuss patterns of phase-locking for periodic states, where cells have identical waveforms but regularly spaced phases. We focus on rigid patterns, which are not changed by small perturbations of the differential equation. Symmetry is one mechanism that creates patterns of synchrony and phase-locking. In general networks, there is another: balanced colorings of the cells. A symmetric network may have anomalous patterns of synchrony and phase-locking that are not consequences of symmetry. We introduce basic notions on coupled cell networks and their associated systems of admissible differential equations. Periodic states also possess spatio-temporal symmetries, leading to phase relations; these are classified by the H/K theorem and its analog for general networks. Systematic general methods for computing the stability of synchronous states exist for symmetric networks, but stability in general networks requires methods adapted to special classes of model equations.

  13. Theoretical predictions of novel potassium chloride phases under pressure.

    PubMed

    Shamp, Andrew; Saitta, Patrick; Zurek, Eva

    2015-05-14

    Evolutionary structure searches predict two hitherto unknown phases of KCl that are the most stable in the pressure regime of 200-600 GPa. I41/amd-KCl, which has the lowest enthalpy between ∼200-350 GPa, can be thought of as being composed of two three-connected nets. This structure can be compared with that of the Cs-IV electride (Cs(+)e(-)): the potassium ions assume the positions of the cesium ions, and the chloride ions are found roughly in the regions of the valence electrons. Above ∼350 GPa a Pnma phase, which is isotypic with phases of CsH and CsI that are stable under pressure, becomes preferred. Just as in Pnma-CsI, the atoms in Pnma-KCl assume an hcp-like lattice; these alkali halides resemble the high-pressure structures of the isoelectronic noble gas solids Xe and Ar, respectively. The equation of state of KCl is extended to 600 GPa, enabling the use of this alkali halide as a pressure guage in ultra-high pressure static compression experiments. KCl is predicted to remain insulating to at least 420 GPa.

  14. Seizure Prediction and Detection via Phase and Amplitude Lock Values

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Mark H.; Padmanabha, Akshay; Hossain, Gahangir; de Jongh Curry, Amy L.; Blaha, Charles D.

    2016-01-01

    A robust seizure prediction methodology would enable a “closed-loop” system that would only activate as impending seizure activity is detected. Such a system would eliminate ongoing stimulation to the brain, thereby eliminating such side effects as coughing, hoarseness, voice alteration, and paresthesias (Murphy et al., 1998; Ben-Menachem, 2001), while preserving overall battery life of the system. The seizure prediction and detection algorithm uses Phase/Amplitude Lock Values (PLV/ALV) which calculate the difference of phase and amplitude between electroencephalogram (EEG) electrodes local and remote to the epileptic event. PLV is used as the seizure prediction marker and signifies the emergence of abnormal neuronal activations through local neuron populations. PLV/ALVs are used as seizure detection markers to demarcate the seizure event, or when the local seizure event has propagated throughout the brain turning into a grand-mal event. We verify the performance of this methodology against the “CHB-MIT Scalp EEG Database” which features seizure attributes for testing. Through this testing, we can demonstrate a high degree of sensivity and precision of our methodology between pre-ictal and ictal events. PMID:27014017

  15. Regular synchrony lattices for product coupled cell networks.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Manuela A D; Dias, Ana Paula S

    2015-01-01

    There are several ways for constructing (bigger) networks from smaller networks. We consider here the cartesian and the Kronecker (tensor) product networks. Our main aim is to determine a relation between the lattices of synchrony subspaces for a product network and the component networks of the product. In this sense, we show how to obtain the lattice of regular synchrony subspaces for a product network from the lattices of synchrony subspaces for the component networks. Specifically, we prove that a tensor of subspaces is of synchrony for the product network if and only if the subspaces involved in the tensor are synchrony subspaces for the component networks of the product. We also show that, in general, there are (irregular) synchrony subspaces for the product network that are not described by the synchrony subspaces for the component networks, concluding that, in general, it is not possible to obtain the all synchrony lattice for the product network from the corresponding lattices for the component networks. We also make the following remark concerning the fact that the cartesian and Kronecker products, as graph operations, are quite different, implying that the associated coupled cell systems have distinct structures. Although, the kinds of dynamics expected to occur are difficult to compare, we establish an inclusion relation between the lattices of synchrony subspaces for the cartesian and Kronecker products. PMID:25637919

  16. Regular synchrony lattices for product coupled cell networks.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Manuela A D; Dias, Ana Paula S

    2015-01-01

    There are several ways for constructing (bigger) networks from smaller networks. We consider here the cartesian and the Kronecker (tensor) product networks. Our main aim is to determine a relation between the lattices of synchrony subspaces for a product network and the component networks of the product. In this sense, we show how to obtain the lattice of regular synchrony subspaces for a product network from the lattices of synchrony subspaces for the component networks. Specifically, we prove that a tensor of subspaces is of synchrony for the product network if and only if the subspaces involved in the tensor are synchrony subspaces for the component networks of the product. We also show that, in general, there are (irregular) synchrony subspaces for the product network that are not described by the synchrony subspaces for the component networks, concluding that, in general, it is not possible to obtain the all synchrony lattice for the product network from the corresponding lattices for the component networks. We also make the following remark concerning the fact that the cartesian and Kronecker products, as graph operations, are quite different, implying that the associated coupled cell systems have distinct structures. Although, the kinds of dynamics expected to occur are difficult to compare, we establish an inclusion relation between the lattices of synchrony subspaces for the cartesian and Kronecker products.

  17. Effects of flowering phenology and synchrony on the reproductive success of a long-flowering shrub.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Javier; Traveset, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Flowering phenology and synchrony with biotic and abiotic resources are crucial traits determining the reproductive success in insect-pollinated plants. In seasonal climates, plants flowering for long periods should assure reproductive success when resources are more predictable. In this work, we evaluated the relationship between flowering phenology and synchrony and reproductive success in Hypericum balearicum, a shrub flowering all year round but mainly during spring and summer. We studied two contrasting localities (differing mostly in rainfall) during 3 years, and at different biological scales spanning from localities to individual flowers and fruits. We first monitored (monthly) flowering phenology and reproductive success (fruit and seed set) of plants, and assessed whether in the locality with higher rainfall plants had longer flowering phenology and synchrony and relatively higher reproductive success within or outside the flowering peak. Secondly, we censused pollinators on H. balearicum individuals and measured reproductive success along the flowering peak of each locality to test for an association between (i) richness and abundance of pollinators and (ii) fruit and seed set, and seed weight. We found that most flowers (∼90 %) and the highest fruit set (∼70 %) were produced during the flowering peak of each locality. Contrary to expectations, plants in the locality with lower rainfall showed more relaxed flowering phenology and synchrony and set more fruits outside the flowering peak. During the flowering peak of each locality, the reproductive success of early-flowering individuals depended on a combination of both pollinator richness and abundance and rainfall; by contrast, reproductive success of late-flowering individuals was most dependent on rainfall. Plant species flowering for long periods in seasonal climates, thus, appear to be ideal organisms to understand how flowering phenology and synchrony match with biotic and abiotic resources, and

  18. Effects of flowering phenology and synchrony on the reproductive success of a long-flowering shrub

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Javier; Traveset, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Flowering phenology and synchrony with biotic and abiotic resources are crucial traits determining the reproductive success in insect-pollinated plants. In seasonal climates, plants flowering for long periods should assure reproductive success when resources are more predictable. In this work, we evaluated the relationship between flowering phenology and synchrony and reproductive success in Hypericum balearicum, a shrub flowering all year round but mainly during spring and summer. We studied two contrasting localities (differing mostly in rainfall) during 3 years, and at different biological scales spanning from localities to individual flowers and fruits. We first monitored (monthly) flowering phenology and reproductive success (fruit and seed set) of plants, and assessed whether in the locality with higher rainfall plants had longer flowering phenology and synchrony and relatively higher reproductive success within or outside the flowering peak. Secondly, we censused pollinators on H. balearicum individuals and measured reproductive success along the flowering peak of each locality to test for an association between (i) richness and abundance of pollinators and (ii) fruit and seed set, and seed weight. We found that most flowers (∼90 %) and the highest fruit set (∼70 %) were produced during the flowering peak of each locality. Contrary to expectations, plants in the locality with lower rainfall showed more relaxed flowering phenology and synchrony and set more fruits outside the flowering peak. During the flowering peak of each locality, the reproductive success of early-flowering individuals depended on a combination of both pollinator richness and abundance and rainfall; by contrast, reproductive success of late-flowering individuals was most dependent on rainfall. Plant species flowering for long periods in seasonal climates, thus, appear to be ideal organisms to understand how flowering phenology and synchrony match with biotic and abiotic resources, and

  19. Periodically forced ensemble of nonlinearly coupled oscillators: from partial to full synchrony.

    PubMed

    Baibolatov, Yernur; Rosenblum, Michael; Zhanabaev, Zeinulla Zh; Kyzgarina, Meyramgul; Pikovsky, Arkady

    2009-10-01

    We analyze the dynamics of a periodically forced oscillator ensemble with global nonlinear coupling. Without forcing, the system exhibits complicated collective dynamics, even for the simplest case of identical phase oscillators: due to nonlinearity, the synchronous state becomes unstable for certain values of the coupling parameter, and the system settles at the border between synchrony and asynchrony, what can be denoted as partial synchrony. We find that an external common forcing can result in two synchronous states: (i) a weak forcing entrains only the mean field, whereas the individual oscillators remain unlocked to the force and, correspondingly, to the mean field; (ii) a strong forcing fully synchronizes the system, making the phases of all oscillators identical. Analytical results are confirmed by numerics.

  20. Nutrient synchrony: sound in theory, elusive in practice.

    PubMed

    Hall, M B; Huntington, G B

    2008-04-01

    The concept of improving animal performance by going beyond simply meeting requirements and synchronizing ruminal availability of protein and energy has been with us for at least 3 decades. Although theoretically appealing, research and field results have not supported this approach to diet formulation. Why? Essential to successful ruminal synchrony is the ability to predict available amounts and fates of diverse substrates. The substrates come from varied sources; their efficiencies of use and yields of products are affected by inherent properties, interactions, transformations, and passage. However, substrate quality and availability in the rumen are affected only in part by diet. For example, NPN, true protein, and peptides are contributed by diet and intraruminal recycling, with additional endogenous NPN contributions by the cow. Changes in factors that alter the rate or extent of substrate fermentation, such as the rate of passage or ruminal pH, can alter nutrient yield from the rumen and must be accounted for in order for synchrony to work. Our ability to estimate ruminally available substrate is also challenged by normal variation in feed composition and imprecision in component and digestibility analyses. Current in vitro assays may not be adequate to accurately describe the digestibility of feed components in vivo in mixed diets. There are some indications that the amount or pattern of supply of fermentable carbohydrate has a greater impact on microbial production and efficiency than does the pattern of protein supply. Animal responses to modifications in the supply of true protein from the rumen may be masked if additional protein is oxidized by tissues or if AA from endogenous sources cover deficiencies. Animal factors, such as response to immune challenge and sustained damage to tissues, will also affect partitioning of nutrients for production and may alter an animal's response to changes in nutrient supply. With the array of factors internal and

  1. Oscillatory synchrony in the monkey temporal lobe correlates with performance in a visual short-term memory task.

    PubMed

    Tallon-Baudry, Catherine; Mandon, Sunita; Freiwald, Winrich A; Kreiter, Andreas K

    2004-07-01

    Oscillatory synchrony has been proposed to dynamically coordinate distributed neural ensembles, but whether this mechanism is effectively used in neural processing remains controversial. We trained two monkeys to perform a delayed matching-to-sample task using new visual shapes at each trial. Measures of population-activity patterns (cortical field potentials) were obtained from a chronically implanted array of electrodes placed over area V4 and posterior infero-temporal cortex. In correct trials, oscillatory phase synchrony in the beta range (15-20 Hz) was observed between two focal sites in the inferior temporal cortex while holding the sample in short-term memory. Error trials were characterized by an absence of oscillatory synchrony during memory maintenance. Errors did not seem to be due to an impaired stimulus encoding, since various parameters of neural activity in sensory area V4 did not differ in correct and incorrect trials during sample presentation. Our findings suggest that the successful performance of a visual short-term memory task depends on the strength of oscillatory synchrony during the maintenance of the object in short-term memory. The strength of oscillatory synchrony thus seems to be a relevant parameter of the neural population dynamics that matches behavioral performance.

  2. Predicted phase diagram of boron-carbon-nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hantao; Yao, Sanxi; Widom, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Noting the structural relationships between phases of carbon and boron carbide with phases of boron nitride and boron subnitride, we investigate their mutual solubilities using a combination of first-principles total energies supplemented with statistical mechanics to address finite temperatures. Thus we predict the solid-state phase diagram of boron-carbon-nitrogen (B-C-N). Owing to the large energy costs of substitution, we find that the mutual solubilities of the ultrahard materials diamond and cubic boron nitride are negligible, and the same for the quasi-two-dimensional materials graphite and hexagonal boron nitride. In contrast, we find a continuous range of solubility connecting boron carbide to boron subnitride at elevated temperatures. An electron-precise ternary compound B13CN consisting of B12 icosahedra with NBC chains is found to be stable at all temperatures up to melting. It exhibits an order-disorder transition in the orientation of NBC chains at approximately T =500 K. We also propose that the recently discovered binary B13N2 actually has composition B12.67N2 .

  3. Cognitive Style and Synchrony in Measures of Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohmer, Douglas C.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined the extent to which a cognitive style variable, integrative complexity, was related to synchrony between behavioral and self-report measures of anxiety in counseling students (N=26). During a therapy analogue two measures of anxiety were taken. Results indicated a substantial dependence of synchrony/desynchrony on cognitive style.…

  4. Thermal Phase Variations of WASP-12b: Defying Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Machalek, Pavel; Croll, Bryce; Shekhtman, Louis M.; Burrows, Adam; Deming, Drake; Greene, Tom; Hora, Joseph L.

    2012-03-01

    We report Warm Spitzer full-orbit phase observations of WASP-12b at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. This extremely inflated hot Jupiter is thought to be overflowing its Roche lobe, undergoing mass loss and accretion onto its host star, and has been claimed to have a C/O ratio in excess of unity. We are able to measure the transit depths, eclipse depths, thermal and ellipsoidal phase variations at both wavelengths. The large-amplitude phase variations, combined with the planet's previously measured dayside spectral energy distribution, are indicative of non-zero Bond albedo and very poor day-night heat redistribution. The transit depths in the mid-infrared—(Rp /R *)2 = 0.0123(3) and 0.0111(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, respectively—indicate that the atmospheric opacity is greater at 3.6 than at 4.5 μm, in disagreement with model predictions, irrespective of C/O ratio. The secondary eclipse depths are consistent with previous studies: F day/F * = 0.0038(4) and 0.0039(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, respectively. We do not detect ellipsoidal variations at 3.6 μm, but our parameter uncertainties—estimated via prayer-bead Monte Carlo—keep this non-detection consistent with model predictions. At 4.5 μm, on the other hand, we detect ellipsoidal variations that are much stronger than predicted. If interpreted as a geometric effect due to the planet's elongated shape, these variations imply a 3:2 ratio for the planet's longest:shortest axes and a relatively bright day-night terminator. If we instead presume that the 4.5 μm ellipsoidal variations are due to uncorrected systematic noise and we fix the amplitude of the variations to zero, the best-fit 4.5 μm transit depth becomes commensurate with the 3.6 μm depth, within the uncertainties. The relative transit depths are then consistent with a solar composition and short scale height at the terminator. Assuming zero ellipsoidal variations also yields a much deeper 4.5 μm eclipse depth, consistent with a solar composition and modest

  5. Thermal Phase Variations of WASP-12b: Defying Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Machalek, Pavel; Croll, Bryce; Shekhtman, Louis M.; Burrows, Adam; Deming, Drake; Greene, Tom; Hora, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    We report Warm Spitzer full-orbit phase observations of WASP-12b at 3.6 and 4.5 micrometers. This extremely inflated hot Jupiter is thought to be overflowing its Roche lobe, undergoing mass loss and accretion onto its host star, and has been claimed to have a C/O ratio in excess of unity. We are able to measure the transit depths, eclipse depths, thermal and ellipsoidal phase variations at both wavelengths. The large-amplitude phase variations, combined with the planet's previously measured dayside spectral energy distribution, are indicative of non-zero Bond albedo and very poor day-night heat redistribution. The transit depths in the mid-infrared-(R(sub p)/R(sub *))(sup 2) = 0.0123(3) and 0.0111(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 micrometers, respectively-indicate that the atmospheric opacity is greater at 3.6 than at 4.5 micrometers, in disagreement with model predictions, irrespective of C/O ratio. The secondary eclipse depths are consistent with previous studies: F(sub day)/F(sub *) = 0.0038(4) and 0.0039(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 micrometers, respectively. We do not detect ellipsoidal variations at 3.6 micrometers, but our parameter uncertainties-estimated via prayer-bead Monte Carlo-keep this non-detection consistent with model predictions. At 4.5 micrometers, on the other hand, we detect ellipsoidal variations that are much stronger than predicted. If interpreted as a geometric effect due to the planet's elongated shape, these variations imply a 3:2 ratio for the planet's longest:shortest axes and a relatively bright day-night terminator. If we instead presume that the 4.5 micrometer ellipsoidal variations are due to uncorrected systematic noise and we fix the amplitude of the variations to zero, the best-fit 4.5 micrometer transit depth becomes commensurate with the 3.6 micrometer depth, within the uncertainties. The relative transit depths are then consistent with a solar composition and short scale height at the terminator. Assuming zero ellipsoidal variations also yields a much

  6. THERMAL PHASE VARIATIONS OF WASP-12b: DEFYING PREDICTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Shekhtman, Louis M.; Machalek, Pavel; Croll, Bryce; Burrows, Adam; Deming, Drake; Greene, Tom; Hora, Joseph L.

    2012-03-01

    We report Warm Spitzer full-orbit phase observations of WASP-12b at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m. This extremely inflated hot Jupiter is thought to be overflowing its Roche lobe, undergoing mass loss and accretion onto its host star, and has been claimed to have a C/O ratio in excess of unity. We are able to measure the transit depths, eclipse depths, thermal and ellipsoidal phase variations at both wavelengths. The large-amplitude phase variations, combined with the planet's previously measured dayside spectral energy distribution, are indicative of non-zero Bond albedo and very poor day-night heat redistribution. The transit depths in the mid-infrared-(R{sub p} /R{sub *}){sup 2} = 0.0123(3) and 0.0111(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m, respectively-indicate that the atmospheric opacity is greater at 3.6 than at 4.5 {mu}m, in disagreement with model predictions, irrespective of C/O ratio. The secondary eclipse depths are consistent with previous studies: F{sub day}/F{sub *} = 0.0038(4) and 0.0039(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m, respectively. We do not detect ellipsoidal variations at 3.6 {mu}m, but our parameter uncertainties-estimated via prayer-bead Monte Carlo-keep this non-detection consistent with model predictions. At 4.5 {mu}m, on the other hand, we detect ellipsoidal variations that are much stronger than predicted. If interpreted as a geometric effect due to the planet's elongated shape, these variations imply a 3:2 ratio for the planet's longest:shortest axes and a relatively bright day-night terminator. If we instead presume that the 4.5 {mu}m ellipsoidal variations are due to uncorrected systematic noise and we fix the amplitude of the variations to zero, the best-fit 4.5 {mu}m transit depth becomes commensurate with the 3.6 {mu}m depth, within the uncertainties. The relative transit depths are then consistent with a solar composition and short scale height at the terminator. Assuming zero ellipsoidal variations also yields a much deeper 4.5 {mu}m eclipse depth, consistent with a

  7. Prediction of the phase equilibria of methane hydrates using the direct phase coexistence methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Michalis, Vasileios K.; Costandy, Joseph; Economou, Ioannis G.; Tsimpanogiannis, Ioannis N.; Stubos, Athanassios K.

    2015-01-28

    The direct phase coexistence method is used for the determination of the three-phase coexistence line of sI methane hydrates. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are carried out in the isothermal–isobaric ensemble in order to determine the coexistence temperature (T{sub 3}) at four different pressures, namely, 40, 100, 400, and 600 bar. Methane bubble formation that results in supersaturation of water with methane is generally avoided. The observed stochasticity of the hydrate growth and dissociation processes, which can be misleading in the determination of T{sub 3}, is treated with long simulations in the range of 1000–4000 ns and a relatively large number of independent runs. Statistical averaging of 25 runs per pressure results in T{sub 3} predictions that are found to deviate systematically by approximately 3.5 K from the experimental values. This is in good agreement with the deviation of 3.15 K between the prediction of TIP4P/Ice water force field used and the experimental melting temperature of ice Ih. The current results offer the most consistent and accurate predictions from MD simulation for the determination of T{sub 3} of methane hydrates. Methane solubility values are also calculated at the predicted equilibrium conditions and are found in good agreement with continuum-scale models.

  8. Prediction of the phase equilibria of methane hydrates using the direct phase coexistence methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalis, Vasileios K.; Costandy, Joseph; Tsimpanogiannis, Ioannis N.; Stubos, Athanassios K.; Economou, Ioannis G.

    2015-01-01

    The direct phase coexistence method is used for the determination of the three-phase coexistence line of sI methane hydrates. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are carried out in the isothermal-isobaric ensemble in order to determine the coexistence temperature (T3) at four different pressures, namely, 40, 100, 400, and 600 bar. Methane bubble formation that results in supersaturation of water with methane is generally avoided. The observed stochasticity of the hydrate growth and dissociation processes, which can be misleading in the determination of T3, is treated with long simulations in the range of 1000-4000 ns and a relatively large number of independent runs. Statistical averaging of 25 runs per pressure results in T3 predictions that are found to deviate systematically by approximately 3.5 K from the experimental values. This is in good agreement with the deviation of 3.15 K between the prediction of TIP4P/Ice water force field used and the experimental melting temperature of ice Ih. The current results offer the most consistent and accurate predictions from MD simulation for the determination of T3 of methane hydrates. Methane solubility values are also calculated at the predicted equilibrium conditions and are found in good agreement with continuum-scale models.

  9. Prediction of the phase equilibria of methane hydrates using the direct phase coexistence methodology.

    PubMed

    Michalis, Vasileios K; Costandy, Joseph; Tsimpanogiannis, Ioannis N; Stubos, Athanassios K; Economou, Ioannis G

    2015-01-28

    The direct phase coexistence method is used for the determination of the three-phase coexistence line of sI methane hydrates. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are carried out in the isothermal-isobaric ensemble in order to determine the coexistence temperature (T3) at four different pressures, namely, 40, 100, 400, and 600 bar. Methane bubble formation that results in supersaturation of water with methane is generally avoided. The observed stochasticity of the hydrate growth and dissociation processes, which can be misleading in the determination of T3, is treated with long simulations in the range of 1000-4000 ns and a relatively large number of independent runs. Statistical averaging of 25 runs per pressure results in T3 predictions that are found to deviate systematically by approximately 3.5 K from the experimental values. This is in good agreement with the deviation of 3.15 K between the prediction of TIP4P/Ice water force field used and the experimental melting temperature of ice Ih. The current results offer the most consistent and accurate predictions from MD simulation for the determination of T3 of methane hydrates. Methane solubility values are also calculated at the predicted equilibrium conditions and are found in good agreement with continuum-scale models. PMID:25637989

  10. Prediction of the phase equilibria of methane hydrates using the direct phase coexistence methodology.

    PubMed

    Michalis, Vasileios K; Costandy, Joseph; Tsimpanogiannis, Ioannis N; Stubos, Athanassios K; Economou, Ioannis G

    2015-01-28

    The direct phase coexistence method is used for the determination of the three-phase coexistence line of sI methane hydrates. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are carried out in the isothermal-isobaric ensemble in order to determine the coexistence temperature (T3) at four different pressures, namely, 40, 100, 400, and 600 bar. Methane bubble formation that results in supersaturation of water with methane is generally avoided. The observed stochasticity of the hydrate growth and dissociation processes, which can be misleading in the determination of T3, is treated with long simulations in the range of 1000-4000 ns and a relatively large number of independent runs. Statistical averaging of 25 runs per pressure results in T3 predictions that are found to deviate systematically by approximately 3.5 K from the experimental values. This is in good agreement with the deviation of 3.15 K between the prediction of TIP4P/Ice water force field used and the experimental melting temperature of ice Ih. The current results offer the most consistent and accurate predictions from MD simulation for the determination of T3 of methane hydrates. Methane solubility values are also calculated at the predicted equilibrium conditions and are found in good agreement with continuum-scale models.

  11. Auditory-motor integration of subliminal phase shifts in tapping: better than auditory discrimination would predict.

    PubMed

    Kagerer, Florian A; Viswanathan, Priya; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L; Whitall, Jill

    2014-04-01

    Unilateral tapping studies have shown that adults adjust to both perceptible and subliminal changes in phase or frequency. This study focuses on the phase responses to abrupt/perceptible and gradual/subliminal changes in auditory-motor relations during alternating bilateral tapping. We investigated these responses in participants with and without good perceptual acuity as determined by an auditory threshold test. Non-musician adults (nine per group) alternately tapped their index fingers in synchrony with auditory cues set at a frequency of 1.4 Hz. Both groups modulated their responses (with no after-effects) to perceptible and to subliminal changes as low as a 5° change in phase. The high-threshold participants were more variable than the adults with low threshold in their responses in the gradual condition set. Both groups demonstrated a synchronization asymmetry between dominant and non-dominant hands associated with the abrupt condition and the later blocks of the gradual condition. Our findings extend previous work in unilateral tapping and suggest (1) no relationship between a discrimination threshold and perceptible auditory-motor integration and (2) a noisier sub-cortical circuitry in those with higher thresholds. PMID:24449013

  12. Unsupervised Synchrony Discovery in Human Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Wen-Sheng; Zeng, Jiabei; De la Torre, Fernando; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Messinger, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    People are inherently social. Social interaction plays an important and natural role in human behavior. Most computational methods focus on individuals alone rather than in social context. They also require labelled training data. We present an unsupervised approach to discover interpersonal synchrony, referred as to two or more persons preforming common actions in overlapping video frames or segments. For computational efficiency, we develop a branch-and-bound (B&B) approach that affords exhaustive search while guaranteeing a globally optimal solution. The proposed method is entirely general. It takes from two or more videos any multi-dimensional signal that can be represented as a histogram. We derive three novel bounding functions and provide efficient extensions, including multi-synchrony detection and accelerated search, using a warm-start strategy and parallelism. We evaluate the effectiveness of our approach in multiple databases, including human actions using the CMU Mocap dataset [1], spontaneous facial behaviors using group-formation task dataset [37] and parent-infant interaction dataset [28]. PMID:27346988

  13. Synchrony in Metapopulations with Sporadic Dispersal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeter, Russell; Belykh, Igor

    2015-06-01

    We study synchronization in ecological networks under the realistic assumption that the coupling among the patches is sporadic/stochastic and due to rare and short-term meteorological conditions. Each patch is described by a tritrophic food chain model, representing the producer, consumer, and predator. If all three species can migrate, we rigorously prove that the network can synchronize as long as the migration occurs frequently, i.e. fast compared to the period of the ecological cycle, even though the network is disconnected most of the time. In the case where only the top trophic level (i.e. the predator) can migrate, we reveal an unexpected range of intermediate switching frequencies where synchronization becomes stable in a network which switches between two nonsynchronous dynamics. As spatial synchrony increases the danger of extinction, this counterintuitive effect of synchrony emerging from slower switching dispersal can be destructive for overall metapopulation persistence, presumably expected from switching between two dynamics which are unfavorable to extinction.

  14. Predicting, Realizing and Exploiting Exotic Topological Phases of Quantum Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansil, Arun

    The revolution started by the discovery of topological insulators a few years ago has turned out to be the proverbial tip of the much larger iceberg of exotic phases harbored by quantum matter. Consideration of electronic states protected by time-reversal, crystalline and particle-hole symmetries has led to the prediction of many novel 3D materials, which can support Weyl, Dirac and Majorana fermions, and to new types of insulators such as topological crystalline insulators and topological Kondo insulators, as well as 2D quantum spin Hall insulators with large band gaps capable of surviving room temperature thermal excitations. In this talk, I will discuss our recent theoretical work aimed at predicting topological materials beyond the standard topological insulators and identify cases where robust experimental evidence has been obtained toward their successful materials realization. I will also comment on the potential of topological materials as next generation platforms for manipulating spin and charge transport and other applications. Work supported by the Materials Science & Engineering Division, Basic Energy Sciences, U.S.D.O.E.

  15. Predicting the Catalytic Reactions using Random Phase Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, J.; Olsen, T.; Mortensen, J. J.; Jacobsen, K. W.; Thygesen, K. S.; Abild-Pedersen, F.; Norskov, J. K.

    2012-02-01

    Density functional theory has became the workhorse for simulations of catalytic reactions and computational design of novel catalysis. The generally applied semi-local exchange-correlation functionals have successfully predicted catalytic reaction trends over a variety of surfaces. However, in order to achieve quantitative predictions of reaction rates for molecule-surface systems, in particular where there is weak Van der Waals interactions or strong correlation, it is of vital importance to include non-local correlation effects. The use of random phase approximation (RPA) to construct the correlation energy, combined with the exact, self-interaction free exchange energy, offers a non-empirical way for accurately describe the adsorption energies [1] and dispersion forces [2]. We have recently implemented RPA in the GPAW code [3-4], an electronic structure package using projector augmented wave method and real space grids. In this talk I will present our initial results comparing RPA and generalized gradient functionals for the activation energies and reaction energies for transition metal or metal oxide surfaces. [4pt] [1] L. Schimka, et.al, Nature Mat. 9, 741 (2010) [2] T. Olsen, et.al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 156401 (2011) [3] J. Yan, et.al, Phys. Rev. B 83, 245122 (2011). [4] J. Yan, et.al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 146803 (2011)

  16. Phase-resetting curves determine synchronization, phase locking, and clustering in networks of neural oscillators.

    PubMed

    Achuthan, Srisairam; Canavier, Carmen C

    2009-04-22

    Networks of model neurons were constructed and their activity was predicted using an iterated map based solely on the phase-resetting curves (PRCs). The predictions were quite accurate provided that the resetting to simultaneous inputs was calculated using the sum of the simultaneously active conductances, obviating the need for weak coupling assumptions. Fully synchronous activity was observed only when the slope of the PRC at a phase of zero, corresponding to spike initiation, was positive. A novel stability criterion was developed and tested for all-to-all networks of identical, identically connected neurons. When the PRC generated using N-1 simultaneously active inputs becomes too steep, the fully synchronous mode loses stability in a network of N model neurons. Therefore, the stability of synchrony can be lost by increasing the slope of this PRC either by increasing the network size or the strength of the individual synapses. Existence and stability criteria were also developed and tested for the splay mode in which neurons fire sequentially. Finally, N/M synchronous subclusters of M neurons were predicted using the intersection of parameters that supported both between-cluster splay and within-cluster synchrony. Surprisingly, the splay mode between clusters could enforce synchrony on subclusters that were incapable of synchronizing themselves. These results can be used to gain insights into the activity of networks of biological neurons whose PRCs can be measured.

  17. High reproductive synchrony of Acropora (Anthozoa: Scleractinia) in the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea

    PubMed Central

    Bouwmeester, Jessica; Berumen, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Coral spawning in the northern Gulf of Aqaba has been reported to be asynchronous, making it almost unique when compared to other regions in the world. Here, we document the reproductive condition of Acropora corals in early June 2014 in Dahab, in the Gulf of Aqaba, 125 km south of previous studies conducted in Eilat, Israel. Seventy-eight percent of Acropora colonies from 14 species had mature eggs, indicating that most colonies will spawn on or around the June full moon, with a very high probability of multi-species synchronous spawning. Given the proximity to Eilat, we predict that a comparable sampling protocol would detect similar levels of reproductive synchrony throughout the Gulf of Aqaba consistent with the hypothesis that high levels of spawning synchrony are a feature of all speciose coral assemblages. PMID:25653848

  18. Adsorbed solution model for prediction of normal-phase chromatography process with varying composition of the mobile phase.

    PubMed

    Piatkowski, Wojciech; Petrushka, Igor; Antos, Dorota

    2005-10-21

    The adsorbed solution model has been used to predict competitive adsorption equilibria of the solute and the active component of mobile phase in a normal-phase liquid chromatography system. The inputs to the calculations were the single adsorption isotherms accounting for energetic heterogeneity of the adsorbent surface and non-ideality of the mobile phase solution. The competitive adsorption model has been coupled with a model of the column dynamics and used for simulating of chromatography process at different mobile phase composition. The predictions have been verified by comparing the simulated and experimental chromatograms. The model allowed quantitative prediction of chromatography process on the basis of the pure-species adsorption isotherms.

  19. Quantifying temporal ventriloquism in audiovisual synchrony perception.

    PubMed

    Kuling, Irene A; Kohlrausch, Armin; Juola, James F

    2013-10-01

    The integration of visual and auditory inputs in the human brain works properly only if the components are perceived in close temporal proximity. In the present study, we quantified cross-modal interactions in the human brain for audiovisual stimuli with temporal asynchronies, using a paradigm from rhythm perception. In this method, participants had to align the temporal position of a target in a rhythmic sequence of four markers. In the first experiment, target and markers consisted of a visual flash or an auditory noise burst, and all four combinations of target and marker modalities were tested. In the same-modality conditions, no temporal biases and a high precision of the adjusted temporal position of the target were observed. In the different-modality conditions, we found a systematic temporal bias of 25-30 ms. In the second part of the first and in a second experiment, we tested conditions in which audiovisual markers with different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) between the two components and a visual target were used to quantify temporal ventriloquism. The adjusted target positions varied by up to about 50 ms and depended in a systematic way on the SOA and its proximity to the point of subjective synchrony. These data allowed testing different quantitative models. The most satisfying model, based on work by Maij, Brenner, and Smeets (Journal of Neurophysiology 102, 490-495, 2009), linked temporal ventriloquism and the percept of synchrony and was capable of adequately describing the results from the present study, as well as those of some earlier experiments. PMID:23868564

  20. Role of Myelin Plasticity in Oscillations and Synchrony of Neuronal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Pajevic, S.; Basser, P. J.; Fields, R. D.

    2014-01-01

    Conduction time is typically ignored in computational models of neural network function. Here we consider the effects of conduction delays on the synchrony of neuronal activity and neural oscillators, and evaluate the consequences of allowing conduction velocity (CV) to be regulated adaptively. We propose that CV variation, mediated by myelin, could provide an important mechanism of activity-dependent nervous system plasticity. Even small changes in CV, resulting from small changes in myelin thickness or nodal structure, could have profound effects on neuronal network function in terms of spike-time arrival, oscillation frequency, oscillator coupling, and propagation of brain waves. For example, a conduction delay of 5 ms could change interactions of two coupled oscillators at the upper end of the gamma frequency range (∼100 Hz) from constructive to destructive interference; delays smaller than 1 ms could change the phase by 30°, significantly affecting signal amplitude. Myelin plasticity, as another form of activity-dependent plasticity, is relevant not only to nervous system development but also to complex information processing tasks that involve coupling and synchrony among different brain rhythms. We use coupled oscillator models with time delays to explore the importance of adaptive time delays and adaptive synaptic strengths. The impairment of activity-dependent myelination and the loss of adaptive time delays may contribute to disorders where hyper- and hypo-synchrony of neuronal firing leads to dysfunction (e.g., dyslexia, schizophrenia, epilepsy). PMID:24291730

  1. Predicting Shear Failure of Dual-Phase Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ji Hoon; Sung, Ji Hyun; Matlock, D. K.; Kim, Daeyong; Wagoner, R. H.

    2010-06-01

    Dual-phase (DP) steels are being used increasingly to make automotive panels because of their advantageous combinations of high ductility (for forming) and high strength (for service). However, their adoption has been limited because of failures during die tryout that are unpredicted by the usual methods of finite element modeling and forming limit diagrams. The failures, often called "shear failures" occur at regions of high curvature (low R/t) where sheet of thickness t is drawn over a tool radius R. Recent work revealed that the type of failure and the formability of DP steels depend not only on R/t, but also on strain rate, an effect derived from the propensity of these steels to locally heat in areas of high strain when strain rates are sufficiently high to limit heat transfer. The formability is reduced significantly by the thermal effect for rates greater than approximately 0.1/s. This result explains at least partially why forming limit diagrams, which are measured quasi-statically (and thus isothermally) do not reflect the behavior of DP steels formed industrially (at typical strain rates of approximately 10/s). In order to apply laboratory test results of draw-bend formability to industrial forming operations, the inputs to commercial finite element codes (constitutive equations, forming limits) must be adapted to the reality of the material (DP steel) and underlying physics (thermal effects on constitutive behavior). Toward this end, two procedures have been developed and tested, one numerical and one analytical. Together they predict similar forming limits and provide a path for understanding the applied formability of DP steels.

  2. Measurements of spatial population synchrony: influence of time series transformations.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Mathieu; Laffaille, Pascal; Ferdy, Jean-Baptiste; Grenouillet, Gaël

    2015-09-01

    Two mechanisms have been proposed to explain spatial population synchrony: dispersal among populations, and the spatial correlation of density-independent factors (the "Moran effect"). To identify which of these two mechanisms is driving spatial population synchrony, time series transformations (TSTs) of abundance data have been used to remove the signature of one mechanism, and highlight the effect of the other. However, several issues with TSTs remain, and to date no consensus has emerged about how population time series should be handled in synchrony studies. Here, by using 3131 time series involving 34 fish species found in French rivers, we computed several metrics commonly used in synchrony studies to determine whether a large-scale climatic factor (temperature) influenced fish population dynamics at the regional scale, and to test the effect of three commonly used TSTs (detrending, prewhitening and a combination of both) on these metrics. We also tested whether the influence of TSTs on time series and population synchrony levels was related to the features of the time series using both empirical and simulated time series. For several species, and regardless of the TST used, we evidenced a Moran effect on freshwater fish populations. However, these results were globally biased downward by TSTs which reduced our ability to detect significant signals. Depending on the species and the features of the time series, we found that TSTs could lead to contradictory results, regardless of the metric considered. Finally, we suggest guidelines on how population time series should be processed in synchrony studies.

  3. Measurements of spatial population synchrony: influence of time series transformations.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Mathieu; Laffaille, Pascal; Ferdy, Jean-Baptiste; Grenouillet, Gaël

    2015-09-01

    Two mechanisms have been proposed to explain spatial population synchrony: dispersal among populations, and the spatial correlation of density-independent factors (the "Moran effect"). To identify which of these two mechanisms is driving spatial population synchrony, time series transformations (TSTs) of abundance data have been used to remove the signature of one mechanism, and highlight the effect of the other. However, several issues with TSTs remain, and to date no consensus has emerged about how population time series should be handled in synchrony studies. Here, by using 3131 time series involving 34 fish species found in French rivers, we computed several metrics commonly used in synchrony studies to determine whether a large-scale climatic factor (temperature) influenced fish population dynamics at the regional scale, and to test the effect of three commonly used TSTs (detrending, prewhitening and a combination of both) on these metrics. We also tested whether the influence of TSTs on time series and population synchrony levels was related to the features of the time series using both empirical and simulated time series. For several species, and regardless of the TST used, we evidenced a Moran effect on freshwater fish populations. However, these results were globally biased downward by TSTs which reduced our ability to detect significant signals. Depending on the species and the features of the time series, we found that TSTs could lead to contradictory results, regardless of the metric considered. Finally, we suggest guidelines on how population time series should be processed in synchrony studies. PMID:25953116

  4. Interhemispheric synchrony in the neonatal EEG revisited: activation synchrony index as a promising classifier.

    PubMed

    Koolen, Ninah; Dereymaeker, Anneleen; Räsänen, Okko; Jansen, Katrien; Vervisch, Jan; Matic, Vladimir; De Vos, Maarten; Van Huffel, Sabine; Naulaers, Gunnar; Vanhatalo, Sampsa

    2014-01-01

    A key feature of normal neonatal EEG at term age is interhemispheric synchrony (IHS), which refers to the temporal co-incidence of bursting across hemispheres during trace alternant EEG activity. The assessment of IHS in both clinical and scientific work relies on visual, qualitative EEG assessment without clearly quantifiable definitions. A quantitative measure, activation synchrony index (ASI), was recently shown to perform well as compared to visual assessments. The present study was set out to test whether IHS is stable enough for clinical use, and whether it could be an objective feature of EEG normality. We analyzed 31 neonatal EEG recordings that had been clinically classified as normal (n = 14) or abnormal (n = 17) using holistic, conventional visual criteria including amplitude, focal differences, qualitative synchrony, and focal abnormalities. We selected 20-min epochs of discontinuous background pattern. ASI values were computed separately for different channel pair combinations and window lengths to define them for the optimal ASI intraindividual stability. Finally, ROC curves were computed to find trade-offs related to compromised data lengths, a common challenge in neonatal EEG studies. Using the average of four consecutive 2.5-min epochs in the centro-occipital bipolar derivations gave ASI estimates that very accurately distinguished babies clinically classified as normal vs. abnormal. It was even possible to draw a cut-off limit (ASI~3.6) which correctly classified the EEGs in 97% of all cases. Finally, we showed that compromising the length of EEG segments from 20 to 5 min leads to increased variability in ASI-based classification. Our findings support the prior literature that IHS is an important feature of normal neonatal brain function. We show that ASI may provide diagnostic value even at individual level, which strongly supports its use in prospective clinical studies on neonatal EEG as well as in the feature set of upcoming EEG classifiers

  5. Factors defining a pacemaker region for synchrony in the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Wittner, Lucia; Miles, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Synchronous activities of neuronal populations are often initiated in a pacemaker region and spread to recruit other regions. Here we examine factors that define a pacemaker site. The CA3a region acts as the pacemaker for disinhibition induced synchrony in guinea pig hippocampal slices and CA3b is a follower region. We found CA3a pyramidal cells were more excitable and fired in bursts more frequently than CA3b cells. CA3a cells had more complex dendritic arbors than CA3b cells especially in zones targetted by recurrent synapses. The product of the density of pyramidal cell axon terminals and dendritic lengths in innervated zones predicted a higher recurrent synaptic connectivity in the CA3a than in the CA3b region. We show that some CA3a cells but few CA3b cells behave as pacemaker cells by firing early during population events and by recruiting follower cells to fire. With a greater excitability and enhanced synaptic connectivity these CA3a cells may also possess initiating functions for other hippocampal ensemble activities initiated in this region. PMID:17823211

  6. Predator-induced synchrony in population oscillations of coexisting small mammal species

    PubMed Central

    Korpimäki, Erkki; Norrdahl, Kai; Huitu, Otso; Klemola, Tero

    2005-01-01

    Comprehensive analyses of long-term (1977–2003) small-mammal abundance data from western Finland showed that populations of Microtus voles (field voles M. agrestis and sibling voles M. rossiaemeridionalis) voles, bank (Clethrionomys glareolus) and common shrews (Sorex araneus) fluctuated synchronously in 3 year population cycles. Time-series analyses indicated that interspecific synchrony is influenced strongly by density-dependent processes. Synchrony among Microtus and bank voles appeared additionally to be influenced by density-independent processes. To test whether interspecific synchronization through density-dependent processes is caused by predation, we experimentally reduced the densities of the main predators of small mammals in four large agricultural areas, and compared small mammal abundances in these to those in four control areas (2.5–3 km2) through a 3 year small-mammal population cycle. Predator reduction increased densities of the main prey species, Microtus voles, in all phases of the population cycle, while bank voles, the most important alternative prey of predators, responded positively only in the low and the increase phase. Manipulation also increased the autumn densities of water voles (Arvicola terrestris) in the increase phase of the cycle. No treatment effects were detected for common shrews or mice. Our results are in accordance with the alternative prey hypothesis, by which predators successively reduce the densities of both main and alternative prey species after the peak phase of small-mammal population cycles, thus inducing a synchronous low phase. PMID:15695211

  7. A synaptic mechanism for network synchrony

    PubMed Central

    Alford, Simon T.; Alpert, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    Within neural networks, synchronization of activity is dependent upon the synaptic connectivity of embedded microcircuits and the intrinsic membrane properties of their constituent neurons. Synaptic integration, dendritic Ca2+ signaling, and non-linear interactions are crucial cellular attributes that dictate single neuron computation, but their roles promoting synchrony and the generation of network oscillations are not well understood, especially within the context of a defined behavior. In this regard, the lamprey spinal central pattern generator (CPG) stands out as a well-characterized, conserved vertebrate model of a neural network (Smith et al., 2013a), which produces synchronized oscillations in which neural elements from the systems to cellular level that control rhythmic locomotion have been determined. We review the current evidence for the synaptic basis of oscillation generation with a particular emphasis on the linkage between synaptic communication and its cellular coupling to membrane processes that control oscillatory behavior of neurons within the locomotor network. We seek to relate dendritic function found in many vertebrate systems to the accessible lamprey central nervous system in which the relationship between neural network activity and behavior is well understood. This enables us to address how Ca2+ signaling in spinal neuron dendrites orchestrate oscillations that drive network behavior. PMID:25278839

  8. Timing of Neuropeptide Coupling Determines Synchrony and Entrainment in the Mammalian Circadian Clock

    PubMed Central

    Ananthasubramaniam, Bharath; Herzog, Erik D.; Herzel, Hanspeter

    2014-01-01

    Robust synchronization is a critical feature of several systems including the mammalian circadian clock. The master circadian clock in mammals consists of about 20000 ‘sloppy’ neuronal oscillators within the hypothalamus that keep robust time by synchronization driven by inter-neuronal coupling. The complete understanding of this synchronization in the mammalian circadian clock and the mechanisms underlying it remain an open question. Experiments and computational studies have shown that coupling individual oscillators can achieve robust synchrony, despite heterogeneity and different network topologies. But, much less is known regarding the mechanisms and circuits involved in achieving this coupling, due to both system complexity and experimental limitations. Here, we computationally study the coupling mediated by the primary coupling neuropeptide, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and its canonical receptor, VPAC2R, using the transcriptional elements and generic mode of VIP-VPAC2R signaling. We find that synchrony is only possible if VIP (an inducer of Per expression) is released in-phase with activators of Per expression. Moreover, anti-phasic VIP release suppresses coherent rhythms by moving the network into a desynchronous state. Importantly, experimentally observed rhythms in VPAC2R have little effect on network synchronization, but can improve the amplitude of the SCN network rhythms while narrowing the network entrainment range. We further show that these findings are valid across several computational network models. Thus, we identified a general design principle to achieve robust synchronization: An activating coupling agent, such as VIP, must act in-phase with the activity of core-clock promoters. More generally, the phase of coupling is as critical as the strength of coupling from the viewpoint of synchrony and entrainment. PMID:24743470

  9. Difficulty-related changes in inter-regional neural synchrony are dissociated between target and non-target processing.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeong Woo; Cha, Kwang Su; Choi, Jong Doo; Jung, Ki-Young; Kim, Kyung Hwan

    2015-04-01

    The major purpose of this study was to explore the changes in the local/global gamma-band neural synchronies during target/non-target processing due to task difficulty under an auditory three-stimulus oddball paradigm. Multichannel event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from fifteen healthy participants during the oddball task. In addition to the conventional ERP analysis, we investigated the modulations in gamma-band activity (GBA) and inter-regional gamma-band phase synchrony (GBPS) for infrequent target and non-target processing due to task difficulty. The most notable finding was that the difficulty-related changes in inter-regional GBPS (33-35 Hz) at P300 epoch (350-600 ms) completely differed for target and non-target processing. As task difficulty increased, the GBPS significantly reduced for target processing but increased for non-target processing. This result contrasts with the local neural synchrony in gamma-bands, which was not affected by task difficulty. Another major finding was that the spatial patterns of functional connectivity were dissociated for target and non-target processing with regard to the difficult task. The spatial pattern for target processing was compatible with the top-down attention network, whereas that for the non-target corresponded to the bottom-up attention network. Overall, we found that the inter-regional gamma-band neural synchronies during target/non-target processing change significantly with task difficulty and that this change is dissociated between target and non-target processing. Our results indicate that large-scale neural synchrony is more relevant for the difference in information processing between target and non-target stimuli.

  10. Plant phenological synchrony increases under rapid within-spring warming.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cong; Tang, Yanhong; Chen, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Phenological synchrony influences many ecological processes. Recent climate change has altered the synchrony of phenology, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Here using in situ phenological records from Europe, we found that the standard deviation (SD, as a measure of synchrony) of first leafing day (FLD) and the SD of first flowering day (FFD) among local plants were significantly smaller in the years and/or in the regions with a more rapid within-spring warming speed (WWS, the linear slope of the daily mean temperature against the days during spring, in (o)C/day) with correlation coefficients of -0.75 and -0.48 for FLD and -0.55 and -0.23 for FFD. We further found that the SDs of temperature sensitivity of local plants were smaller under the rapid WWS conditions with correlation coefficients of -0.46 and -0.33 for FLD and FFD respectively. This study provides the first evidence that the within-season rate of change of the temperature but not the magnitude determines plant phenological synchrony. It implies that temporally, the asymmetric seasonal climatic warming may decrease the synchrony via increasing WWS, especially in arctic regions; spatially, plants in coastal and low latitude areas with low WWS would have more diverse spring phenological traits. PMID:27145698

  11. Plant phenological synchrony increases under rapid within-spring warming

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cong; Tang, Yanhong; Chen, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Phenological synchrony influences many ecological processes. Recent climate change has altered the synchrony of phenology, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Here using in situ phenological records from Europe, we found that the standard deviation (SD, as a measure of synchrony) of first leafing day (FLD) and the SD of first flowering day (FFD) among local plants were significantly smaller in the years and/or in the regions with a more rapid within-spring warming speed (WWS, the linear slope of the daily mean temperature against the days during spring, in oC/day) with correlation coefficients of −0.75 and −0.48 for FLD and −0.55 and −0.23 for FFD. We further found that the SDs of temperature sensitivity of local plants were smaller under the rapid WWS conditions with correlation coefficients of −0.46 and −0.33 for FLD and FFD respectively. This study provides the first evidence that the within-season rate of change of the temperature but not the magnitude determines plant phenological synchrony. It implies that temporally, the asymmetric seasonal climatic warming may decrease the synchrony via increasing WWS, especially in arctic regions; spatially, plants in coastal and low latitude areas with low WWS would have more diverse spring phenological traits. PMID:27145698

  12. The Subjective Sensation of Synchrony: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Llobera, Joan; Charbonnier, Caecilia; Chagué, Sylvain; Preissmann, Delphine; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Ansermet, François; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2016-01-01

    People performing actions together have a natural tendency to synchronize their behavior. Consistently, people doing a task together build internal representations not only of their actions and goals, but also of the other people performing the task. However, little is known about which are the behavioral mechanisms and the psychological factors affecting the subjective sensation of synchrony, or “connecting” with someone else. In this work, we sought to find which factors induce the subjective sensation of synchrony, combining motion capture data and psychological measures. Our results show that the subjective sensation of synchrony is affected by performance quality together with task category, and time. Psychological factors such as empathy and negative subjective affects also correlate with the subjective sensation of synchrony. However, when people estimate synchrony as seen from a third person perspective, their psychological factors do not affect the accuracy of the estimation. We suggest that to feel this sensation it is necessary to, first, have a good joint performance and, second, to assume the existence of an attention monitoring mechanism that reports that the attention of both participants (self and other) is focused on the task. PMID:26870943

  13. CO adsorption on cobalt: Prediction of stable surface phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunasooriya, G. T. Kasun Kalhara; van Bavel, Alexander P.; Kuipers, Herman P. C. E.; Saeys, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Adsorption is often described by a Langmuir isotherm, sometimes accounting for a gradual decrease in the adsorption energy with coverage. Using density functional theory, we show that CO adsorption on cobalt does not follow this typical behavior. Instead, adsorption on Co(0001) is dominated by two surface phases. At low pressures, the (√3 × √3)R30°-CO structure is the stable phase, and CO forms (√3 × √3)R30°-CO islands for coverages below 1/3 ML because of attractive CO-CO interactions. Increasing the pressure does not gradually increase the coverage beyond 1/3 ML. Instead, a transition to a high coverage (2√3 × 2√3)R30°-7CO surface structure occurs at 0.1 mbar at room temperature and at 21 bar at 500 K. These two phases are also the dominant structures that have been characterized experimentally on Co(0001), and the conditions where each phase was observed match the first principle surface phase diagram.

  14. POPULATION SYNCHRONY WITHIN AND AMONG LEPIDOPTERA SPECIES IN RELATION TO WEATHER, PHYLOGENY, AND LARVEL PHENOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. The population dynamics of native herbivore species in central Appalachian deciduous forests were studied by analysing patterns of synchrony among intra- and interspecific populations and weather. 2. Spatial synchrony of 10 Lepidoptera species and three weather variables (min...

  15. Auditory Neuropathy/Dys-synchrony and Its Perceptual Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Rance, Gary

    2005-01-01

    Auditory neuropathy/dys-synchrony is a form of hearing impairment in which cochlear outer hair cell function is spared but neural transmission in the auditory pathway is disordered. This condition, or group of conditions with a common physiologic profile, accounts for approximately 7% of permanent childhood hearing loss and a significant (but as yet undetermined) proportion of adult impairment. This paper presents an overview of the mechanisms underlying auditory neuropathy/dys-synchrony-type hearing loss and the clinical profile for affected patients. In particular it examines the perceptual consequences of auditory neuropathy/dys-synchrony, which are quite different from those associated with sensorineural hearing loss, and considers currently available, and future management options. PMID:15920648

  16. Impairments of Social Motor Synchrony Evident in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Paula; Frazier, Jean A.; Cochran, David M.; Mitchell, Teresa; Coleman, Caitlin; Schmidt, R. C.

    2016-01-01

    Social interactions typically involve movements of the body that become synchronized over time and both intentional and spontaneous interactional synchrony have been found to be an essential part of successful human interaction. However, our understanding of the importance of temporal dimensions of social motor synchrony in social dysfunction is limited. Here, we used a pendulum coordination paradigm to assess dynamic, process-oriented measures of social motor synchrony in adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Our data indicate that adolescents with ASD demonstrate less synchronization in both spontaneous and intentional interpersonal coordination. Coupled oscillator modeling suggests that ASD participants assembled a synchronization dynamic with a weaker coupling strength, which corresponds to a lower sensitivity and decreased attention to the movements of the other person, but do not demonstrate evidence of a delay in information transmission. The implication of these findings for isolating an ASD-specific social synchronization deficit that could serve as an objective, bio-behavioral marker is discussed.

  17. Maladaptive Neural Synchrony in Tinnitus: Origin and Restoration

    PubMed Central

    Eggermont, Jos J.; Tass, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Tinnitus is the conscious perception of sound heard in the absence of physical sound sources external or internal to the body, reflected in aberrant neural synchrony of spontaneous or resting-state brain activity. Neural synchrony is generated by the nearly simultaneous firing of individual neurons, of the synchronization of membrane-potential changes in local neural groups as reflected in the local field potentials, resulting in the presence of oscillatory brain waves in the EEG. Noise-induced hearing loss, often resulting in tinnitus, causes a reorganization of the tonotopic map in auditory cortex and increased spontaneous firing rates and neural synchrony. Spontaneous brain rhythms rely on neural synchrony. Abnormal neural synchrony in tinnitus appears to be confined to specific frequency bands of brain rhythms. Increases in delta-band activity are generated by deafferented/deprived neuronal networks resulting from hearing loss. Coordinated reset (CR) stimulation was developed in order to specifically counteract such abnormal neuronal synchrony by desynchronization. The goal of acoustic CR neuromodulation is to desynchronize tinnitus-related abnormal delta-band oscillations. CR neuromodulation does not require permanent stimulus delivery in order to achieve long-lasting desynchronization or even a full-blown anti-kindling but may have cumulative effects, i.e., the effect of different CR epochs separated by pauses may accumulate. Unlike other approaches, acoustic CR neuromodulation does not intend to reduce tinnitus-related neuronal activity by employing lateral inhibition. The potential efficacy of acoustic CR modulation was shown in a clinical proof of concept trial, where effects achieved in 12 weeks of treatment delivered 4–6 h/day persisted through a preplanned 4-week therapy pause and showed sustained long-term effects after 10 months of therapy, leading to 75% responders. PMID:25741316

  18. How synaptic weights determine stability of synchrony in networks of pulse-coupled excitatory and inhibitory oscillators.

    PubMed

    Kriener, Birgit

    2012-09-01

    Under which conditions can a network of pulse-coupled oscillators sustain stable collective activity states? Previously, it was shown that stability of the simplest pattern conceivable, i.e., global synchrony, in networks of symmetrically pulse-coupled oscillators can be decided in a rigorous mathematical fashion, if interactions either all advance or all retard oscillation phases ("mono-interaction network"). Yet, many real-world networks-for example neuronal circuits-are asymmetric and moreover crucially feature both types of interactions. Here, we study complex networks of excitatory (phase-advancing) and inhibitory (phase-retarding) leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) oscillators. We show that for small coupling strength, previous results for mono-interaction networks also apply here: pulse time perturbations eventually decay if they are smaller than a transmission delay and if all eigenvalues of the linear stability operator have absolute value smaller or equal to one. In this case, the level of inhibition must typically be significantly stronger than that of excitation to ensure local stability of synchrony. For stronger coupling, however, network synchrony eventually becomes unstable to any finite perturbation, even if inhibition is strong and all eigenvalues of the stability operator are at most unity. This new type of instability occurs when any oscillator, inspite of receiving inhibitory input from the network on average, can by chance receive sufficient excitatory input to fire a pulse before all other pulses in the system are delivered, thus breaking the near-synchronous perturbation pattern.

  19. How synaptic weights determine stability of synchrony in networks of pulse-coupled excitatory and inhibitory oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriener, Birgit

    2012-09-01

    Under which conditions can a network of pulse-coupled oscillators sustain stable collective activity states? Previously, it was shown that stability of the simplest pattern conceivable, i.e., global synchrony, in networks of symmetrically pulse-coupled oscillators can be decided in a rigorous mathematical fashion, if interactions either all advance or all retard oscillation phases ("mono-interaction network"). Yet, many real-world networks—for example neuronal circuits—are asymmetric and moreover crucially feature both types of interactions. Here, we study complex networks of excitatory (phase-advancing) and inhibitory (phase-retarding) leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) oscillators. We show that for small coupling strength, previous results for mono-interaction networks also apply here: pulse time perturbations eventually decay if they are smaller than a transmission delay and if all eigenvalues of the linear stability operator have absolute value smaller or equal to one. In this case, the level of inhibition must typically be significantly stronger than that of excitation to ensure local stability of synchrony. For stronger coupling, however, network synchrony eventually becomes unstable to any finite perturbation, even if inhibition is strong and all eigenvalues of the stability operator are at most unity. This new type of instability occurs when any oscillator, inspite of receiving inhibitory input from the network on average, can by chance receive sufficient excitatory input to fire a pulse before all other pulses in the system are delivered, thus breaking the near-synchronous perturbation pattern.

  20. Thermal barrier coating life prediction model development, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demasi, Jeanine T.; Ortiz, Milton

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this program was to establish a methodology to predict thermal barrier coating (TBC) life on gas turbine engine components. The approach involved experimental life measurement coupled with analytical modeling of relevant degradation modes. Evaluation of experimental and flight service components indicate the predominant failure mode to be thermomechanical spallation of the ceramic coating layer resulting from propagation of a dominant near interface crack. Examination of fractionally exposed specimens indicated that dominant crack formation results from progressive structural damage in the form of subcritical microcrack link-up. Tests conducted to isolate important life drivers have shown MCrAlY oxidation to significantly affect the rate of damage accumulation. Mechanical property testing has shown the plasma deposited ceramic to exhibit a non-linear stress-strain response, creep and fatigue. The fatigue based life prediction model developed accounts for the unusual ceramic behavior and also incorporates an experimentally determined oxide rate model. The model predicts the growth of this oxide scale to influence the intensity of the mechanic driving force, resulting from cyclic strains and stresses caused by thermally induced and externally imposed mechanical loads.

  1. Spikes, synchrony, and attentive learning by laminar thalamocortical circuits.

    PubMed

    Grossberg, Stephen; Versace, Massimiliano

    2008-07-01

    This article develops the Synchronous Matching Adaptive Resonance Theory (SMART) neural model to explain how the brain may coordinate multiple levels of thalamocortical and corticocortical processing to rapidly learn, and stably remember, important information about a changing world. The model clarifies how bottom-up and top-down processes work together to realize this goal, notably how processes of learning, expectation, attention, resonance, and synchrony are coordinated. The model hereby clarifies, for the first time, how the following levels of brain organization coexist to realize cognitive processing properties that regulate fast learning and stable memory of brain representations: single-cell properties, such as spiking dynamics, spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP), and acetylcholine modulation; detailed laminar thalamic and cortical circuit designs and their interactions; aggregate cell recordings, such as current source densities and local field potentials; and single-cell and large-scale inter-areal oscillations in the gamma and beta frequency domains. In particular, the model predicts how laminar circuits of multiple cortical areas interact with primary and higher-order specific thalamic nuclei and nonspecific thalamic nuclei to carry out attentive visual learning and information processing. The model simulates how synchronization of neuronal spiking occurs within and across brain regions, and triggers STDP. Matches between bottom-up adaptively filtered input patterns and learned top-down expectations cause gamma oscillations that support attention, resonance, learning, and consciousness. Mismatches inhibit learning while causing beta oscillations during reset and hypothesis testing operations that are initiated in the deeper cortical layers. The generality of learned recognition codes is controlled by a vigilance process mediated by acetylcholine.

  2. Thermal barrier coating life prediction model development, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, Susan Manning; Sheffler, Keith D.; Nissley, David M.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this program was to generate a life prediction model for electron-beam-physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD) zirconia thermal barrier coating (TBC) on gas turbine engine components. Specific activities involved in development of the EB-PVD life prediction model included measurement of EB-PVD ceramic physical and mechanical properties and adherence strength, measurement of the thermally grown oxide (TGO) growth kinetics, generation of quantitative cyclic thermal spallation life data, and development of a spallation life prediction model. Life data useful for model development was obtained by exposing instrumented, EB-PVD ceramic coated cylindrical specimens in a jet fueled burner rig. Monotonic compression and tensile mechanical tests and physical property tests were conducted to obtain the EB-PVD ceramic behavior required for burner rig specimen analysis. As part of that effort, a nonlinear constitutive model was developed for the EB-PVD ceramic. Spallation failure of the EB-PVD TBC system consistently occurred at the TGO-metal interface. Calculated out-of-plane stresses were a small fraction of that required to statically fail the TGO. Thus, EB-PVD spallation was attributed to the interfacial cracking caused by in-plane TGO strains. Since TGO mechanical properties were not measured in this program, calculation of the burner rig specimen TGO in-plane strains was performed by using alumina properties. A life model based on maximum in-plane TGO tensile mechanical strain and TGO thickness correlated the burner rig specimen EB-PVD ceramic spallation lives within a factor of about plus or minus 2X.

  3. Menstrual Cycle Phase Does Not Predict Political Conservatism

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Isabel M.; Pound, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Recent authors have reported a relationship between women's fertility status, as indexed by menstrual cycle phase, and conservatism in moral, social and political values. We conducted a survey to test for the existence of a relationship between menstrual cycle day and conservatism. 2213 women reporting regular menstrual cycles provided data about their political views. Of these women, 2208 provided information about their cycle date, 1260 provided additional evidence of reliability in self-reported cycle date, and of these, 750 also indicated an absence of hormonal disruptors such as recent hormonal contraception use, breastfeeding or pregnancy. Cycle day was used to estimate day-specific fertility rate (probability of conception); political conservatism was measured via direct self-report and via responses to the "Moral Foundations” questionnaire. We also recorded relationship status, which has been reported to interact with menstrual cycle phase in determining political preferences. We found no evidence of a relationship between estimated cyclical fertility changes and conservatism, and no evidence of an interaction between relationship status and cyclical fertility in determining political attitudes. Our findings were robust to multiple inclusion/exclusion criteria and to different methods of estimating fertility and measuring conservatism. In summary, the relationship between cycle-linked reproductive parameters and conservatism may be weaker or less reliable than previously thought. PMID:25923332

  4. Menstrual cycle phase does not predict political conservatism.

    PubMed

    Scott, Isabel M; Pound, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Recent authors have reported a relationship between women's fertility status, as indexed by menstrual cycle phase, and conservatism in moral, social and political values. We conducted a survey to test for the existence of a relationship between menstrual cycle day and conservatism. 2213 women reporting regular menstrual cycles provided data about their political views. Of these women, 2208 provided information about their cycle date, 1260 provided additional evidence of reliability in self-reported cycle date, and of these, 750 also indicated an absence of hormonal disruptors such as recent hormonal contraception use, breastfeeding or pregnancy. Cycle day was used to estimate day-specific fertility rate (probability of conception); political conservatism was measured via direct self-report and via responses to the "Moral Foundations" questionnaire. We also recorded relationship status, which has been reported to interact with menstrual cycle phase in determining political preferences. We found no evidence of a relationship between estimated cyclical fertility changes and conservatism, and no evidence of an interaction between relationship status and cyclical fertility in determining political attitudes. Our findings were robust to multiple inclusion/exclusion criteria and to different methods of estimating fertility and measuring conservatism. In summary, the relationship between cycle-linked reproductive parameters and conservatism may be weaker or less reliable than previously thought.

  5. Synchrony due to parametric averaging in neurons coupled by a shared signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadra, Anmar

    2009-04-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a decapeptide secreted by GnRH neurons located in the hypothalamus. It is responsible for the onset of puberty and the regulation of hormone release from the pituitary. There is a strong evidence suggesting that GnRH exerts an autocrine regulation on its own release via three types of G-proteins [L.Z. Krsmanovic, N. Mores, C.E. Navarro, K.K. Arora, K.J. Catt, An agonist-induced switch in G protein coupling of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor regulates pulsatile neuropeptide secretion, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 100 (2003) 2969-2974]. A mathematical model based on this proposed mechanism has been developed and extended to explain the synchrony observed in GnRH neurons by incorporating the idea of a common pool of GnRH [A. Khadra, Y.X. Li, A model for the pulsatile secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone from synchronized hypothalamic neurons, Biophys. J. 91 (2006) 74-83]. This type of coupling led to a very robust synchrony between these neurons. We aim in this paper to reduce the one cell model to a two-variable model using quasi-steady state (QSS) analysis, to further examine its dynamics analytically and geometrically. The concept of synchrony of a heterogeneous population will be clearly defined and established for certain cases, while, for the general case, two different types of phases are introduced to gain more insight on how the model behaves. Bifurcation diagrams for certain parameters in the one cell model are also shown to explain some of the phenomena observed in a coupled population. A comparison between the population model and an averaged two-variable model is also conducted.

  6. Maintenance of temporal synchrony between syrphid flies and floral resources despite differential phenological responses to climate.

    PubMed

    Iler, Amy M; Inouye, David W; Høye, Toke T; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J; Burkle, Laura A; Johnston, Eleanor B

    2013-08-01

    Variation in species' responses to abiotic phenological cues under climate change may cause changes in temporal overlap among interacting taxa, with potential demographic consequences. Here, we examine associations between the abiotic environment and plant-pollinator phenological synchrony using a long-term syrphid fly-flowering phenology dataset (1992-2011). Degree-days above freezing, precipitation, and timing of snow melt were investigated as predictors of phenology. Syrphids generally emerge after flowering onset and end their activity before the end of flowering. Neither flowering nor syrphid phenology has changed significantly over our 20-year record, consistent with a lack of directional change in climate variables over the same time frame. Instead we document interannual variability in the abiotic environment and phenology. Timing of snow melt was the best predictor of flowering onset and syrphid emergence. Snow melt and degree-days were the best predictors of the end of flowering, whereas degree-days and precipitation best predicted the end of the syrphid period. Flowering advanced at a faster rate than syrphids in response to both advancing snow melt and increasing temperature. Different rates of phenological advancements resulted in more days of temporal overlap between the flower-syrphid community in years of early snow melt because of extended activity periods. Phenological synchrony at the community level is therefore likely to be maintained for some time, even under advancing snow melt conditions that are evident over longer term records at our site. These results show that interacting taxa may respond to different phenological cues and to the same cues at different rates but still maintain phenological synchrony over a range of abiotic conditions. However, our results also indicate that some individual plant species may overlap with the syrphid community for fewer days under continued climate change. This highlights the role of interannual variation

  7. Attentional synchrony and the influence of viewing task on gaze behavior in static and dynamic scenes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tim J; Mital, Parag K

    2013-01-01

    Does viewing task influence gaze during dynamic scene viewing? Research into the factors influencing gaze allocation during free viewing of dynamic scenes has reported that the gaze of multiple viewers clusters around points of high motion (attentional synchrony), suggesting that gaze may be primarily under exogenous control. However, the influence of viewing task on gaze behavior in static scenes and during real-world interaction has been widely demonstrated. To dissociate exogenous from endogenous factors during dynamic scene viewing we tracked participants' eye movements while they (a) freely watched unedited videos of real-world scenes (free viewing) or (b) quickly identified where the video was filmed (spot-the-location). Static scenes were also presented as controls for scene dynamics. Free viewing of dynamic scenes showed greater attentional synchrony, longer fixations, and more gaze to people and areas of high flicker compared with static scenes. These differences were minimized by the viewing task. In comparison with the free viewing of dynamic scenes, during the spot-the-location task fixation durations were shorter, saccade amplitudes were longer, and gaze exhibited less attentional synchrony and was biased away from areas of flicker and people. These results suggest that the viewing task can have a significant influence on gaze during a dynamic scene but that endogenous control is slow to kick in as initial saccades default toward the screen center, areas of high motion and people before shifting to task-relevant features. This default-like viewing behavior returns after the viewing task is completed, confirming that gaze behavior is more predictable during free viewing of dynamic than static scenes but that this may be due to natural correlation between regions of interest (e.g., people) and motion. PMID:23863509

  8. Theoretical prediction of phase relationships in planetary mantles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, B. J.; Holloway, J. R.

    Thermodynamic and phase equilibrium data are used to generate an internally consistent set of enthalpies and entropies for important components of the CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 (CMAS) system in silica-undersaturated compositions. The addition of Na and Fe(2+) to the CMAS system produces shifts in the plagioclase, spinel and garnet stability fields. While the Morgan and Anders (1979) model Martian composition has stability fields of plagioclase and garnet lherzolite, and a small spinel lherzolite field at temperatures below 900 C, the Martian mantle composition of McGetchin and Smyth (1978) would not contain orthopyroxene, and a low pressure assemblage of plagioclase-spinel wehrlite would be replaced by garnet-spinel wehrlite at higher pressure. In both cases, the Fe-Mg ratio would be substantially greater than that found in primitive terrestrial basalts.

  9. Theoretical prediction of phase relationships in planetary mantles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, B. J.; Holloway, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    Thermodynamic and phase equilibrium data are used to generate an internally consistent set of enthalpies and entropies for important components of the CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 (CMAS) system in silica-undersaturated compositions. The addition of Na and Fe(2+) to the CMAS system produces shifts in the plagioclase, spinel and garnet stability fields. While the Morgan and Anders (1979) model Martian composition has stability fields of plagioclase and garnet lherzolite, and a small spinel lherzolite field at temperatures below 900 C, the Martian mantle composition of McGetchin and Smyth (1978) would not contain orthopyroxene, and a low pressure assemblage of plagioclase-spinel wehrlite would be replaced by garnet-spinel wehrlite at higher pressure. In both cases, the Fe-Mg ratio would be substantially greater than that found in primitive terrestrial basalts.

  10. Predicting the stability of surface phases of molybdenum selenides

    SciTech Connect

    Roma, Guido; Ghorbani, Elaheh; Mirhosseini, Hossein; Kühne, Thomas D.; Kiss, Janos; Felser, Claudia

    2014-02-10

    The selenization of molybdenum might become an important step in the production of nanostructures based on the layered compound MoSe{sub 2}. It is already technologically relevant for the production of thin film chalcopyrite solar cells. However, the control of the process is still very poor, due to the lack of basic knowledge of the surface thermodynamics of the system. Here, we present a theoretical study on the stability of surface adlayers of Se on the Mo(110) surface, predicting surface patterns and their stability range in terms of temperature and selenium partial pressure. Our results, based on density functional theory, show that the attainable Se coverages range from 1/4 to 3/4 of a monolayer for systems in equilibrium with a gas formed of Se molecules. We provide simulated scanning tunneling microscopy images to help the experimental characterization of adsorbed surface patterns.

  11. Metaphors of Synchrony: Emergence and Differentiation of Online Chat Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latzko-Toth, Guillaume

    2010-01-01

    Through a detailed account of the history of online chat devices, this article shows the emergence, over time, of two distinct interactional formats underlying these social media. They may be captured by two generic metaphors of synchrony: "conference" (a gathering in a virtual place where unfocused interactions and group sociability occur) and…

  12. Infant Perception of Audio-Visual Speech Synchrony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewkowicz, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments investigated perception of audio-visual (A-V) speech synchrony in 4- to 10-month-old infants. Experiments 1 and 2 used a convergent-operations approach by habituating infants to an audiovisually synchronous syllable (Experiment 1) and then testing for detection of increasing degrees of A-V asynchrony (366, 500, and 666 ms) or by…

  13. Early development of synchrony in cortical activations in the human

    PubMed Central

    Koolen, N.; Dereymaeker, A.; Räsänen, O.; Jansen, K.; Vervisch, J.; Matic, V.; Naulaers, G.; De Vos, M.; Van Huffel, S.; Vanhatalo, S.

    2016-01-01

    Early intermittent cortical activity is thought to play a crucial role in the growth of neuronal network development, and large scale brain networks are known to provide the basis for higher brain functions. Yet, the early development of the large scale synchrony in cortical activations is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the early intermittent cortical activations seen in the human scalp EEG show a clear developmental course during the last trimester of pregnancy, the period of intensive growth of cortico-cortical connections. We recorded scalp EEG from altogether 22 premature infants at post-menstrual age between 30 and 44 weeks, and the early cortical synchrony was quantified using recently introduced activation synchrony index (ASI). The developmental correlations of ASI were computed for individual EEG signals as well as anatomically and mathematically defined spatial subgroups. We report two main findings. First, we observed a robust and statistically significant increase in ASI in all cortical areas. Second, there were significant spatial gradients in the synchrony in fronto-occipital and left-to-right directions. These findings provide evidence that early cortical activity is increasingly synchronized across the neocortex. The ASI-based metrics introduced in our work allow direct translational comparison to in vivo animal models, as well as hold promise for implementation as a functional developmental biomarker in future research on human neonates. PMID:26876605

  14. Phenological changes and reduced seasonal synchrony in western Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, Tim H.; Górska-Zajączkowska, Maria; Wójtowicz, Wanda; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2011-05-01

    Botanical gardens offer continuity for phenological recording in observers, protocols and plant specimens that may not be achievable from other sources. Here, we examine phenological change and synchrony from one such garden in western Poland. We analysed 66 botanical phenophases and 18 interphase intervals recorded between 1977 and 2007 from the Poznań Botanical Garden. These were examined for trends through time and responsiveness to temperature. Furthermore, we derived measures of synchrony for start of spring and end of autumn events to assess if these had changed over time. All 39 events with a mean date before mid-July demonstrated a significant negative relationship with temperature. Where autumn events were significantly related to temperature, they indicated a positive relationship. Typically, spring events showed an advance over time and autumn events a delay. Interphase intervals tended to lengthen over the study period. The measures of synchrony changed significantly over time suggesting less synchrony among spring events and also among autumn events. In combination, these results suggest increases in growing season length. However, responses to a changing climate were species-specific. Thus, the transitions from winter into spring and from autumn into winter are becoming less clearly defined.

  15. A Case of Hand Waving: Action Synchrony and Person Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macrae, C. Neil; Duffy, Oonagh K.; Miles, Lynden K.; Lawrence, Julie

    2008-01-01

    While previous research has demonstrated that people's movements can become coordinated during social interaction, little is known about the cognitive consequences of behavioral synchrony. Given intimate links between the systems that regulate perception and action, we hypothesized that the synchronization of movements during a dyadic interaction…

  16. Intermittent spatio-temporal desynchronization and sequenced synchrony in ECoG signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozma, Robert; Freeman, Walter J.

    2008-09-01

    Electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals from the brain surface typically exhibit high synchrony across large cortical areas, interrupted by brief periods of desynchronization exhibiting propagating phase discontinuities, across which spatial patterns of phase emerge in selected frequency bands. Experiments with rabbits trained using classical conditioning paradigms indicated that such desynchronization periods demarcate cognitive processing in the subjects; the ECoG in the frames between such periods revealed spatial patterns of amplitude modulation that were classified with respect to sensory stimuli that the rabbits had been trained to recognize. The present work describes intermittent synchrony and desynchronization of ECoG signals measured over the visual cortex. We analyze the analytic amplitude (AA) and analytic phase (AP) of the signals bandpassed over the beta band (12.5-25Hz) and theta band (3-7Hz) using the Hilbert transform. The AP of analytic signals evaluated using a Shannon-based synchronization index in theta band exhibits phase synchronization for varying time periods averaging about 1s, interrupted by desynchronization periods of duration about 0.1s. Synchronization periods in the beta-band last <100ms, with interruptions by desynchronization lasting one-tenth that, in which the analytic amplitude drops drastically. During these "null spikes," the analytic phase is undefined, and the spatial and temporal phase differences show high dispersion. Detailed examination of the bandpass filtered ECoG confirms the presence of a shared mean frequency in a frame of synchronized oscillation, at which frequency the spatial pattern of the AP has the form of a cone. Between frames the AA approaches zero. The form of the null spike resembles a tornado (a vortex), as shown in sequential frames by a rotating spatial pattern of amplitude in the filtered ECoG.

  17. Changes in large-scale climate alter spatial synchrony of aphid pests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Lawrence W.; Bell, James R.; Harrington, Richard; Reuman, Daniel C.

    2016-06-01

    Spatial synchrony, the tendency of distant populations to fluctuate similarly, is a major concern in ecology. Except in special circumstances, researchers historically had difficulty identifying drivers of synchrony in field systems. Perhaps for this reason, the possibility that changes in large-scale climatic drivers may modify synchrony, thereby impacting ecosystems and human concerns, has been little examined. Here, we use wavelets to determine environmental drivers of phenological synchrony across Britain for 20 aphid species, most major crop pests. Consistently across species, changes in drivers produced large changes in aphid synchrony. Different drivers acted on different timescales: using a new wavelet analogue of the Moran theorem, we show that on long timescales (>4 years), 80% of synchrony in aphid first flights is due to synchrony in winter climate; but this explanation accounts for less short-timescale (<=4 years) synchrony. Changes in aphid synchrony over time also differed by timescale: long-timescale synchrony fell from before 1993 to after, caused by similar changes in winter climate; whereas short-timescale synchrony increased. Shifts in winter climate are attributable to the North Atlantic Oscillation, an important climatic phenomenon, so effects described here may influence other taxa. This study documents a new way that climatic changes influence populations, through altered Moran effects.

  18. Theoretical predictions of volatile bearing phases and volatile resources in some carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganguly, Jibamitra; Saxena, Surendra K.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented from theoretical calculations to predict the modal abundances and compositions of the major mineral phases and the vapor phase that could develop in the bulk compositions of carbonaceous chondrites. The abundances and compositions are obtained as functions of temperature and pressure. The calculations are used to evaluate the volatile and mineralogical resource potential of C1 and C2 carbonaceous chondrites.

  19. Reproductive synchrony in a recovering bottlenecked sea turtle population.

    PubMed

    Plot, Virginie; de Thoisy, Benoît; Blanc, Stéphane; Kelle, Laurent; Lavergne, Anne; Roger-Bérubet, Hélène; Tremblay, Yann; Fossette, Sabrina; Georges, Jean-Yves

    2012-03-01

    1. The assessment of species extinction risk has been well established for some time now. Assessing the potential for recovery in endangered species is however much more challenging, because complementary approaches are required to detect reliable signals of positive trends. 2. This study combines genetics, demography and behavioural data at three different time-scales to assess historical and recent population changes and evidence of reproductive synchrony in a small population of olive ridley sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea. Lepidochelys is considered as the most extraordinary example of reproductive synchrony in reptiles, yet to date, it has only been reported in large populations. 3. Using Bayesian coalescent-based models on microsatellite nuclear DNA variability, we demonstrate that effective population size in olive ridleys nesting in French Guiana has dramatically declined by 99% over the last 20 centuries. This low current population size is further illustrated by the absence of genetic mitochondrial DNA diversity in the present nesting population. Yet, monitoring of nesting sites in French Guiana suggests a possible recovery of the population over the last decade. 4. Satellite telemetry shows that over the first 14 days of their 28-days inter-nesting interval, i.e. when eggs maturation is likely to occur, gravid females disperse over the continental shelf. They then gather together with a striking spatiotemporal consistency close to the nesting site, where they later emerge for their second nesting event. 5. Our results therefore suggest that reproductive synchrony also occurs in small populations. Olive ridleys may ensure this synchrony by adjusting the duration of the second half of their inter-nesting interval prior to landing, possibly through social mediation. 6. Such reproductive synchrony may be related to the maintenance of some species-specific strategy despite former collapse and may contribute to the present population recovery. The gregarious

  20. Reproductive synchrony in a recovering bottlenecked sea turtle population.

    PubMed

    Plot, Virginie; de Thoisy, Benoît; Blanc, Stéphane; Kelle, Laurent; Lavergne, Anne; Roger-Bérubet, Hélène; Tremblay, Yann; Fossette, Sabrina; Georges, Jean-Yves

    2012-03-01

    1. The assessment of species extinction risk has been well established for some time now. Assessing the potential for recovery in endangered species is however much more challenging, because complementary approaches are required to detect reliable signals of positive trends. 2. This study combines genetics, demography and behavioural data at three different time-scales to assess historical and recent population changes and evidence of reproductive synchrony in a small population of olive ridley sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea. Lepidochelys is considered as the most extraordinary example of reproductive synchrony in reptiles, yet to date, it has only been reported in large populations. 3. Using Bayesian coalescent-based models on microsatellite nuclear DNA variability, we demonstrate that effective population size in olive ridleys nesting in French Guiana has dramatically declined by 99% over the last 20 centuries. This low current population size is further illustrated by the absence of genetic mitochondrial DNA diversity in the present nesting population. Yet, monitoring of nesting sites in French Guiana suggests a possible recovery of the population over the last decade. 4. Satellite telemetry shows that over the first 14 days of their 28-days inter-nesting interval, i.e. when eggs maturation is likely to occur, gravid females disperse over the continental shelf. They then gather together with a striking spatiotemporal consistency close to the nesting site, where they later emerge for their second nesting event. 5. Our results therefore suggest that reproductive synchrony also occurs in small populations. Olive ridleys may ensure this synchrony by adjusting the duration of the second half of their inter-nesting interval prior to landing, possibly through social mediation. 6. Such reproductive synchrony may be related to the maintenance of some species-specific strategy despite former collapse and may contribute to the present population recovery. The gregarious

  1. A Tool for Predicting Regulatory Approval After Phase II Testing of New Oncology Compounds.

    PubMed

    DiMasi, J A; Hermann, J C; Twyman, K; Kondru, R K; Stergiopoulos, S; Getz, K A; Rackoff, W

    2015-11-01

    We developed an algorithm (ANDI) for predicting regulatory marketing approval for new cancer drugs after phase II testing has been conducted, with the objective of providing a tool to improve drug portfolio decision-making. We examined 98 oncology drugs from the top 50 pharmaceutical companies (2006 sales) that first entered clinical development from 1999 to 2007, had been taken to at least phase II development, and had a known final outcome (research abandonment or regulatory marketing approval). Data on safety, efficacy, operational, market, and company characteristics were obtained from public sources. Logistic regression and machine-learning methods were used to provide an unbiased approach to assess overall predictability and to identify the most important individual predictors. We found that a simple four-factor model (activity, number of patients in the pivotal phase II trial, phase II duration, and a prevalence-related measure) had high sensitivity and specificity for predicting regulatory marketing approval. PMID:26239772

  2. Short- and long-range neural synchrony in grapheme-color synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Volberg, Gregor; Karmann, Anna; Birkner, Stefanie; Greenlee, Mark W

    2013-07-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a perceptual phenomenon where single graphemes (e.g., the letter "E") induce simultaneous sensations of colors (e.g., the color green) that were not objectively shown. Current models disagree as to whether the color sensations arise from increased short-range connectivity between anatomically adjacent grapheme- and color-processing brain structures or from decreased effectiveness of inhibitory long-range connections feeding back into visual cortex. We addressed this issue by examining neural synchrony obtained from EEG activity, in a sample of grapheme-color synesthetes that were presented with color-inducing versus non-color-inducing graphemes. For color-inducing graphemes, the results showed a decrease in the number of long-range couplings in the theta frequency band (4-7 Hz, 280-540 msec) and a concurrent increase of short-range phase-locking within lower beta band (13-20 Hz, 380-420 msec at occipital electrodes). Because the effects were both found in long-range synchrony and later within the visual processing stream, the results support the idea that reduced inhibition is an important factor for the emergence of synesthetic colors.

  3. The effect of low light intensity on the maintenance of circadian synchrony in human subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winget, C. M.; Lyman, J.; Beljan, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on six healthy male subjects aged 20-23 yr and exposed for 21 days in a confined regulated environment to 16L:8D light:dark cycle with a view toward determining whether the light environment of 16L:8D at the relatively low light intensity of 15 ft.c. is adequate for the maintenance of circadian synchrony in man. The light intensity was 100 ft.c. during the first seven days, reduced to 15 ft.c. during the next seven days, and increased again to 100 ft.c. during the last seven days. Rectal temperature (RT) and heart rate (HR) were recorded throughout the three phases. In the 100 ft.c. regime, the RT and HR rhythms remained stable and circadian throughout. It is shown that 15 ft.c. light intensity is at or below threshold for maintaining circadian synchrony of human physiologic rhythms marked by instability and internal desynchronization with degradation of performance and well-being.

  4. The plausibility of visual information for hand ownership modulates multisensory synchrony perception.

    PubMed

    Zopf, Regine; Friedman, Jason; Williams, Mark A

    2015-08-01

    We are frequently changing the position of our bodies and body parts within complex environments. How does the brain keep track of one's own body? Current models of body ownership state that visual body ownership cues such as viewed object form and orientation are combined with multisensory information to correctly identify one's own body, estimate its current location and evoke an experience of body ownership. Within this framework, it may be possible that the brain relies on a separate perceptual analysis of body ownership cues (e.g. form, orientation, multisensory synchrony). Alternatively, these cues may interact in earlier stages of perceptual processing-visually derived body form and orientation cues may, for example, directly modulate temporal synchrony perception. The aim of the present study was to distinguish between these two alternatives. We employed a virtual hand set-up and psychophysical methods. In a two-interval force-choice task, participants were asked to detect temporal delays between executed index finger movements and observed movements. We found that body-specifying cues interact in perceptual processing. Specifically, we show that plausible visual information (both form and orientation) for one's own body led to significantly better detection performance for small multisensory asynchronies compared to implausible visual information. We suggest that this perceptual modulation when visual information plausible for one's own body is present is a consequence of body-specific sensory predictions. PMID:25980691

  5. Importance of the gas phase role to the prediction of energetic material behavior: An experimental study

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, A.N.; Son, S.F.; Asay, B.W.; Sander, R.K.

    2005-03-15

    Various thermal (radiative, conductive, and convective) initiation experiments are performed to demonstrate the importance of the gas phase role in combustion modeling of energetic materials (EM). A previously published condensed phase model that includes a predicted critical irradiance above which ignition is not possible is compared to experimental laser ignition results for octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). Experimental results conflict with the predicted critical irradiance concept. The failure of the model is believed to result from a misconception about the role of the gas phase in the ignition process of energetic materials. The model assumes that ignition occurs at the surface and that evolution of gases inhibits ignition. High speed video of laser ignition, oven cook-off and hot wire ignition experiments captures the ignition of HMX and TNT in the gas phase. A laser ignition gap test is performed to further evaluate the effect of gas phase laser absorption and gas phase disruption on the ignition process. Results indicate that gas phase absorption of the laser energy is probably not the primary factor governing the gas phase ignition observations. It is discovered that a critical gap between an HMX pellet and a salt window of 6 mm{+-}0.4 mm exists below which ignition by CO{sub 2} laser is not possible at the tested irradiances of 29 W/cm{sup 2} and 38 W/cm{sup 2} for HMX ignition. These observations demonstrate that a significant disruption of the gas phase, in certain scenarios, will inhibit ignition, independent of any condensed phase processes. These results underscore the importance of gas phase processes and illustrate that conditions can exist where simple condensed phase models are inadequate to accurately predict the behavior of energetic materials.

  6. Comparing predictive validity of four ballistic swing phase models of human walking.

    PubMed

    Selles, R W; Bussmann, J B; Wagenaar, R C; Stam, H J

    2001-09-01

    It is unclear to what extent ballistic walking models can be used to qualitatively predict the swing phase at comfortable walking speed. Different study findings regarding the accuracy of the predictions of the swing phase kinematics may have been caused by differences in (1) kinematic input, (2) model characteristics (e.g. the number of segments), and (3) evaluation criteria. In the present study, the predictive validity of four ballistic swing phase models was evaluated and compared, that is, (1) the ballistic walking model as originally introduced by Mochon and McMahon, (2) an extended version of this model in which heel-off of the stance leg is added, (3) a double pendulum model, consisting of a two-segment swing leg with a prescribed hip trajectory, and (4) a shank pendulum model consisting of a shank and rigidly attached foot with a prescribed knee trajectory. The predictive validity was evaluated by comparing the outcome of the model simulations with experimentally derived swing phase kinematics of six healthy subjects. In all models, statistically significant differences were found between model output and experimental data. All models underestimated swing time and step length. In addition, statistically significant differences were found between the output of the different models. The present study shows that although qualitative similarities exist between the ballistic models and normal gait at comfortable walking speed, these models cannot adequately predict swing phase kinematics. PMID:11506787

  7. Properties of precise firing synchrony between synaptically coupled cortical interneurons depend on their mode of coupling

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hang

    2015-01-01

    Precise spike synchrony has been widely reported in the central nervous system, but its functional role in encoding, processing, and transmitting information is yet unresolved. Of particular interest is firing synchrony between inhibitory cortical interneurons, thought to drive various cortical rhythms such as gamma oscillations, the hallmark of cognitive states. Precise synchrony can arise between two interneurons connected electrically, through gap junctions, chemically, through fast inhibitory synapses, or dually, through both types of connections, but the properties of synchrony generated by these different modes of connectivity have never been compared in the same data set. In the present study we recorded in vitro from 152 homotypic pairs of two major subtypes of mouse neocortical interneurons: parvalbumin-containing, fast-spiking (FS) interneurons and somatostatin-containing (SOM) interneurons. We tested firing synchrony when the two neurons were driven to fire by long, depolarizing current steps and used a novel synchrony index to quantify the strength of synchrony, its temporal precision, and its dependence on firing rate. We found that SOM-SOM synchrony, driven solely by electrical coupling, was less precise than FS-FS synchrony, driven by inhibitory or dual coupling. Unlike SOM-SOM synchrony, FS-FS synchrony was strongly firing rate dependent and was not evident at the prototypical 40-Hz gamma frequency. Computer simulations reproduced these differences in synchrony without assuming any differences in intrinsic properties, suggesting that the mode of coupling is more important than the interneuron subtype. Our results provide novel insights into the mechanisms and properties of interneuron synchrony and point out important caveats in current models of cortical oscillations. PMID:25972585

  8. Predictability of the Madden-Julian Oscillation index: seasonality and dependence on MJO phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Eric C. J.; Thompson, Keith R.

    2016-01-01

    We describe here a damped harmonic oscillator model for the Wheeler and Hendon (Mon Weather Rev 132(8):1917-1932, 2004) Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) index in order to gain new insights into the predictability of the MJO. Building on a tradition of idealized models, the model for the MJO state consists of a bivariate autoregressive process, equivalent to a finite difference approximation to a dynamical underdamped harmonic oscillator, as represented by a second order ordinary differential equation. The statistical properties of the model, namely the ensemble mean, ensemble variance, and within-ensemble correlation, are used to develop predictability time scales for canonical MJO events. We explore the model under both white noise and coloured noise forcing and the model parameters are estimated using maximum likelihood estimation, as a function of season and initial MJO event amplitude and phase. The model provides a significantly better fit using coloured noise forcing, which is equivalent to using a higher order model, indicating that the MJO index is not a simple order-1 coupled autoregressive process. Using the fitted model we map the predictability times scales for the mean, variance, and correlation as a function of initial MJO position in phase space. It is shown that the predictability time scales, and thus MJO predictability, vary as a function of MJO phase space and season which is a novel result for empirical models of the MJO. The result that MJO predictability varies with MJO state also has relevance for the interpretation of the Maritime Continent prediction barrier.

  9. Prediction of leptonic C P phase in A4 symmetric model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sin Kyu; Tanimoto, Morimitsu

    2015-04-01

    We consider minimal modifications to the tribimaximal (TBM) mixing matrix which accommodate nonzero mixing angle θ13 and C P violation. We derive four possible forms for the minimal modifications to TBM mixing in a model with A4 flavor symmetry by incorporating symmetry breaking terms appropriately. We show how possible values of the Dirac-type C P phase δD can be predicted with regards to two neutrino mixing angles in the standard parametrization of the neutrino mixing matrix. Carrying out a numerical analysis based on the recent updated experimental results for neutrino mixing angles, we predict the values of the C P phase for all possible cases. We also confront our predictions for the C P phase with the updated fit.

  10. Prediction of a New Phase of Cu x S near Stoichiometric Composition

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Khatri, Prashant; Huda, Muhammad N.

    2015-01-01

    Cumore » 2 S is known to be a promising solar absorber material due to its suitable band gap and the abundance of its constituent elements.2 S is known to have complex phase structures depending on the concentration ofvacancies. Its instability of phases is due to favorable formation ofvacancies and the mobility ofatoms within the crystal. Understanding its phase structures is of crucial important for its application as solar absorber material. In this paper, we have predicted a new crystal phase of copper sulfide (Cu x S) around chemical composition of x = 1.98 by utilizing crystal database search and density functional theory. We have shown that this new crystal phase of x S is more favorable than low chalcocite structure even at stoichiometric composition of x = 2 . However,vacancy formation probability was found to be higher in this new phase than the low chalcocite structure.« less

  11. Designing a deep brain stimulator to suppress pathological neuronal synchrony.

    PubMed

    Montaseri, Ghazal; Yazdanpanah, Mohammad Javad; Bahrami, Fariba

    2015-03-01

    Some of neuropathologies are believed to be related to abnormal synchronization of neurons. In the line of therapy, designing effective deep brain stimulators to suppress the pathological synchrony among neuronal ensembles is a challenge of high clinical relevance. The stimulation should be able to disrupt the synchrony in the presence of latencies due to imperfect knowledge about parameters of a neuronal ensemble and stimulation impacts on the ensemble. We propose an adaptive desynchronizing deep brain stimulator capable of dealing with these uncertainties. We analyze the collective behavior of the stimulated neuronal ensemble and show that, using the designed stimulator, the resulting asynchronous state is stable. Simulation results reveal the efficiency of the proposed technique. PMID:25601718

  12. Large-scale selection synchrony of Tetrahymena thermophila.

    PubMed

    Hill, R J; Kroft, T; Zuker, M; Smith, I C

    1986-08-01

    A method is described, based on the phagocytosis of colloidal ferrite particles, which gives highly synchronous populations of Tetrahymena thermophila. To ensure a successful synchrony, the cell culture doubling time, the limits of the phagocytic period and the distribution of cell stages must first be determined. Once these parameters are known, synchrony can be achieved under a variety of growth conditions and with cultures ranging in volume from a few millilitres to 12 litres or more. The main advantages of the method are that the apparatus required is simple, large volumes of cells can be handled easily, and the synchronous populations can be prepared within a few hours. In principle, the method should be applicable to any cell population in which phagocytosis occurs discontinuously over the cell cycle.

  13. Synchrony, Waves, and Spatial Hierarchies in the Spread of Influenza

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viboud, Cécile; Bjørnstad, Ottar N.; Smith, David L.; Simonsen, Lone; Miller, Mark A.; Grenfell, Bryan T.

    2006-04-01

    Quantifying long-range dissemination of infectious diseases is a key issue in their dynamics and control. Here, we use influenza-related mortality data to analyze the between-state progression of interpandemic influenza in the United States over the past 30 years. Outbreaks show hierarchical spatial spread evidenced by higher pairwise synchrony between more populous states. Seasons with higher influenza mortality are associated with higher disease transmission and more rapid spread than are mild ones. The regional spread of infection correlates more closely with rates of movement of people to and from their workplaces (workflows) than with geographical distance. Workflows are described in turn by a gravity model, with a rapid decay of commuting up to around 100 km and a long tail of rare longer range flow. A simple epidemiological model, based on the gravity formulation, captures the observed increase of influenza spatial synchrony with transmissibility; high transmission allows influenza to spread rapidly beyond local spatial constraints.

  14. Counting multidimensional objects: implications for the neural-synchrony theory.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, Liat; Treisman, Anne

    2013-03-01

    It has been suggested that a neural instantiation of the temporary multidimensional representations of objects might be synchrony of firing between the neurons representing the features that co-occur in a given location. In this article, we direct attention to a logical problem that arises when certain synchrony assumptions are applied to real situations in which multiple multidimensional objects are presented. We demonstrate a new behavioral effect that shows that this logical problem coincides with a genuine behavioral problem. Even when a display contains only a small number of objects characterized by features on two dimensions, the representation of the display becomes difficult when, according to our described assumptions, the object representations cannot be simultaneously synchronized on both features. This article outlines a new principle that governs object representation, and the experimental results might be unique behavioral evidence for a neural-based theory of feature binding. PMID:23334446

  15. Linking cortical network synchrony and excitability

    PubMed Central

    Meisel, Christian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Theoretical approaches based on dynamical systems theory can provide useful frameworks to guide experiments and analysis techniques when investigating cortical network activity. The notion of phase transitions between qualitatively different kinds of network dynamics has been such a framework inspiring novel approaches to neurophysiological data analysis over the recent years. One particular intriguing hypothesis has been that cortical networks reside in the vicinity of a phase transition. Although the final verdict on this hypothesis is still out, trying to understand cortex dynamics from this viewpoint has recently led to interesting insights on cortical network function with relevance for clinical practice. PMID:27065159

  16. Impairments of Social Motor Synchrony Evident in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Paula; Frazier, Jean A; Cochran, David M; Mitchell, Teresa; Coleman, Caitlin; Schmidt, R C

    2016-01-01

    Social interactions typically involve movements of the body that become synchronized over time and both intentional and spontaneous interactional synchrony have been found to be an essential part of successful human interaction. However, our understanding of the importance of temporal dimensions of social motor synchrony in social dysfunction is limited. Here, we used a pendulum coordination paradigm to assess dynamic, process-oriented measures of social motor synchrony in adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Our data indicate that adolescents with ASD demonstrate less synchronization in both spontaneous and intentional interpersonal coordination. Coupled oscillator modeling suggests that ASD participants assembled a synchronization dynamic with a weaker coupling strength, which corresponds to a lower sensitivity and decreased attention to the movements of the other person, but do not demonstrate evidence of a delay in information transmission. The implication of these findings for isolating an ASD-specific social synchronization deficit that could serve as an objective, bio-behavioral marker is discussed. PMID:27630599

  17. Sync or sink? Interpersonal synchrony impacts self-esteem

    PubMed Central

    Lumsden, Joanne; Miles, Lynden K.; Macrae, C. Neil

    2014-01-01

    Synchronized behavior has significant social influence both in terms of everyday activities (e.g., walking and talking) as well as via more historical contexts (e.g., cultural rituals). Grounded in the science of coordination dynamics, previous research has revealed that interpersonal synchrony has numerous affiliative and pro-social consequences, such as enhanced rapport, cooperation, and social-cognitive functioning. The current study sought to explore the impact of intentional synchrony versus asynchrony on an individual’s self-esteem and their feelings of social connection with a partner. The results revealed that individuals felt better about themselves following a period of synchronous compared to asynchronous movement, while they also perceived a greater self-other overlap with their partner. These findings not only extend previous research on social connections following interpersonal synchrony, but also provide the first demonstration of an influence on self-evaluations. Overall, it appears that moving in time with others may result in us feeling better about ourselves compared to moving to our own rhythm. PMID:25285090

  18. Impairments of Social Motor Synchrony Evident in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Paula; Frazier, Jean A.; Cochran, David M.; Mitchell, Teresa; Coleman, Caitlin; Schmidt, R. C.

    2016-01-01

    Social interactions typically involve movements of the body that become synchronized over time and both intentional and spontaneous interactional synchrony have been found to be an essential part of successful human interaction. However, our understanding of the importance of temporal dimensions of social motor synchrony in social dysfunction is limited. Here, we used a pendulum coordination paradigm to assess dynamic, process-oriented measures of social motor synchrony in adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Our data indicate that adolescents with ASD demonstrate less synchronization in both spontaneous and intentional interpersonal coordination. Coupled oscillator modeling suggests that ASD participants assembled a synchronization dynamic with a weaker coupling strength, which corresponds to a lower sensitivity and decreased attention to the movements of the other person, but do not demonstrate evidence of a delay in information transmission. The implication of these findings for isolating an ASD-specific social synchronization deficit that could serve as an objective, bio-behavioral marker is discussed. PMID:27630599

  19. First-principles prediction of a high-pressure hydrous phase of AlOOH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Jun; Tsuchiya, Taku

    2011-02-01

    We have predicted a high-pressure hydrous phase of AlOOH stabilizing at ˜170 GPa by first-principles density-functional calculations. The structure predicted has a cubic pyrite-type AlO2 framework with interstitial H atoms forming symmetric hydrogen bonds, whose symmetry is assigned to the space group Pa3¯ (No. 205). The predicted δ-AlOOH to the pyrite-type phase sequence is analogous to a recent theoretical and experimental discovery of high-pressure phase evolution in InOOH and invokes the high-pressure phase relationship in SiO2, but the transition pressure is much greater in AlOOH than in InOOH. Relative enthalpies also indicate that the dissociation of this phase into a CaIrO3-type phase of Al2O3 plus ice X finally occurs at a further pressure of 300 GPa. The present results suggest that AlOOH has an unexpectedly wide stability range in pressure compared to common hydrous materials.

  20. Ductile two-phase alloys: prediction of strengthening at high strains

    SciTech Connect

    Funkenbusch, P.D.; Lee, J.K.; Courtney, T.H.

    1987-07-01

    When alloys containing two ductile phases are heavily deformed, composite-like microstructures develop and strengths well in excess of either of the phases in single-phase form may be exhibited as a result of microstructure/dislocation density effects. In this paper, a previously-published model for such strengthening is reviewed, and its application in a predictive capacity discussed. Flow stress vs fabrication strain data for the two components in single-phase from and for one two-phase alloy are necessary for this purpose. The model may then be applied to predict strength for any other two-phase alloy as a function of composition, fabrication strain, and interphase spacing. The approach is illustrated using existing data for several alloy systems. For Ag-Fe and Cu-Nb alloys (with very limited mutual solubility) strengths can be predicted within 15 to 20 pct of the experimental values over the entire range of strains and volume fractions for which data are available. In systems whre the potential for precipitation hardening exists (e.g., Cu-Fe) thermal history is important. When such hardening becomes a significant factor, the model cannot be used in its present form due to uncertainty over how to add the strengthening from this effect. Such hardening may, however, be useful in further improving the properties of these materials.

  1. Why Synchrony Matters during Mother-Child Interactions: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Leclère, Chloë; Viaux, Sylvie; Avril, Marie; Achard, Catherine; Chetouani, Mohamed; Missonnier, Sylvain; Cohen, David

    2014-01-01

    Background Assessment of mother-child interactions is a core issue of early child development and psychopathology. This paper focuses on the concept of “synchrony” and examines (1) how synchrony in mother-child interaction is defined and operationalized; (2) the contribution that the concept of synchrony has brought to understanding the nature of mother-child interactions. Method Between 1977 and 2013, we searched several databases using the following key-words: « synchrony » « interaction » and « mother-child ». We focused on studies examining parent-child interactions among children aged 2 months to 5 years. From the 63 relevant studies, we extracted study description variables (authors, year, design, number of subjects, age); assessment conditions and modalities; and main findings. Results The most common terms referring to synchrony were mutuality, reciprocity, rhythmicity, harmonious interaction, turn-taking and shared affect; all terms were used to characterize the mother-child dyad. As a consequence, we propose defining synchrony as a dynamic and reciprocal adaptation of the temporal structure of behaviors and shared affect between interactive partners. Three main types of assessment methods for studying synchrony emerged: (1) global interaction scales with dyadic items; (2) specific synchrony scales; and (3) micro-coded time-series analyses. It appears that synchrony should be regarded as a social signal per se as it has been shown to be valid in both normal and pathological populations. Better mother-child synchrony is associated with familiarity (vs. unknown partner), a healthy mother (vs. pathological mother), typical development (vs. psychopathological development), and a more positive child outcomes. Discussion Synchrony is a key feature of mother-infant interactions. Adopting an objective approach in studying synchrony is not a simple task given available assessment tools and due to its temporality and multimodal expression. We propose an

  2. Dawn Orbit Determination Team: Trajectory and Gravity Prediction Performance During Vesta Science Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Brian; Abrahamson, Matt; Ardito, Alessandro; Han, Dongsuk; Haw, Robert; Mastrodemos, Nicholas; Nandi, Sumita; Park, Ryan; Rush, Brian; Vaughan, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The Dawn spacecraft was launched on September 27th, 2007. Its mission is to consecutively rendezvous with and observe the two largest bodies in the asteroid belt, Vesta and Ceres. It has already completed over a year's worth of direct observations of Vesta (spanning from early 2011 through late 2012) and is currently on a cruise trajectory to Ceres, where it will begin scientific observations in mid-2015. Achieving this data collection required careful planning and execution from all spacecraft teams. Dawn's Orbit Determination (OD) team was tasked with accurately predicting the trajectory of the Dawn spacecraft during the Vesta science phases, and also determining the parameters of Vesta to support future science orbit design. The future orbits included the upcoming science phase orbits as well as the transfer orbits between science phases. In all, five science phases were executed at Vesta, and this paper will describe some of the OD team contributions to the planning and execution of those phases.

  3. The generation of antiphase oscillations and synchrony by a rebound-based vertebrate central pattern generator.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Chang; Merrison-Hort, Robert; Zhang, Hong-Yan; Borisyuk, Roman

    2014-04-23

    Many neural circuits are capable of generating multiple stereotyped outputs after different sensory inputs or neuromodulation. We have previously identified the central pattern generator (CPG) for Xenopus tadpole swimming that involves antiphase oscillations of activity between the left and right sides. Here we analyze the cellular basis for spontaneous left-right motor synchrony characterized by simultaneous bursting on both sides at twice the swimming frequency. Spontaneous synchrony bouts are rare in most tadpoles, and they instantly emerge from and switch back to swimming, most frequently within the first second after skin stimulation. Analyses show that only neurons that are active during swimming fire action potentials in synchrony, suggesting both output patterns derive from the same neural circuit. The firing of excitatory descending interneurons (dINs) leads that of other types of neurons in synchrony as it does in swimming. During synchrony, the time window between phasic excitation and inhibition is 7.9 ± 1 ms, shorter than that in swimming (41 ± 2.3 ms). The occasional, extra midcycle firing of dINs during swimming may initiate synchrony, and mismatches of timing in the left and right activity can switch synchrony back to swimming. Computer modeling supports these findings by showing that the same neural network, in which reciprocal inhibition mediates rebound firing, can generate both swimming and synchrony without circuit reconfiguration. Modeling also shows that lengthening the time window between phasic excitation and inhibition by increasing dIN synaptic/conduction delay can improve the stability of synchrony.

  4. Spike synchrony generated by modulatory common input through NMDA-type synapses.

    PubMed

    Wagatsuma, Nobuhiko; von der Heydt, Rüdiger; Niebur, Ernst

    2016-09-01

    Common excitatory input to neurons increases their firing rates and the strength of the spike correlation (synchrony) between them. Little is known, however, about the synchronizing effects of modulatory common input. Here, we show that modulatory common input with the slow synaptic kinetics of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors enhances firing rates and also produces synchrony. Tight synchrony (correlations on the order of milliseconds) always increases with modulatory strength. Unexpectedly, the relationship between strength of modulation and strength of loose synchrony (tens of milliseconds) is not monotonic: The strongest loose synchrony is obtained for intermediate modulatory amplitudes. This finding explains recent neurophysiological results showing that in cortical areas V1 and V2, presumed modulatory top-down input due to contour grouping increases (loose and tight) synchrony but that additional modulatory input due to top-down attention does not change tight synchrony and actually decreases loose synchrony. These neurophysiological findings are understood from our model of integrate-and-fire neurons under the assumption that contour grouping as well as attention lead to additive modulatory common input through NMDA-type synapses. In contrast, circuits with common projections through model α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors did not exhibit the paradoxical decrease of synchrony with increased input. Our results suggest that NMDA receptors play a critical role in top-down response modulation in the visual cortex. PMID:27486111

  5. Climatically driven synchrony of gerbil populations allows large-scale plague outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Kausrud, Kyrre Linné; Viljugrein, Hildegunn; Frigessi, Arnoldo; Begon, Mike; Davis, Stephen; Leirs, Herwig; Dubyanskiy, Vladimir; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2007-08-22

    In central Asia, the great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus) is the main host for the bacterium Yersinia pestis, the cause of bubonic plague. In order to prevent plague outbreaks, monitoring of the great gerbil has been carried out in Kazakhstan since the late 1940s. We use the resulting data to demonstrate that climate forcing synchronizes the dynamics of gerbils over large geographical areas. As it is known that gerbil densities need to exceed a threshold level for plague to persist, synchrony in gerbil abundance across large geographical areas is likely to be a condition for plague outbreaks at similar large scales. Here, we substantiate this proposition through autoregressive modelling involving the normalized differentiated vegetation index as a forcing covariate. Based upon predicted climate changes, our study suggests that during the next century, plague epizootics may become more frequent in central Asia.

  6. Initialized decadal prediction for transition to positive phase of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation

    PubMed Central

    Meehl, Gerald A.; Hu, Aixue; Teng, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    The negative phase of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO), a dominant mode of multi-decadal variability of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Pacific, contributed to the reduced rate of global surface temperature warming in the early 2000s. A proposed mechanism for IPO multidecadal variability indicates that the presence of decadal timescale upper ocean heat content in the off-equatorial western tropical Pacific can provide conditions for an interannual El Niño/Southern Oscillation event to trigger a transition of tropical Pacific SSTs to the opposite IPO phase. Here we show that a decadal prediction initialized in 2013 simulates predicted Niño3.4 SSTs that have qualitatively tracked the observations through 2015. The year three to seven average prediction (2015–2019) from the 2013 initial state shows a transition to the positive phase of the IPO from the previous negative phase and a resumption of larger rates of global warming over the 2013–2022 period consistent with a positive IPO phase. PMID:27251760

  7. Initialized decadal prediction for transition to positive phase of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meehl, Gerald A.; Hu, Aixue; Teng, Haiyan

    2016-06-01

    The negative phase of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO), a dominant mode of multi-decadal variability of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Pacific, contributed to the reduced rate of global surface temperature warming in the early 2000s. A proposed mechanism for IPO multidecadal variability indicates that the presence of decadal timescale upper ocean heat content in the off-equatorial western tropical Pacific can provide conditions for an interannual El Niño/Southern Oscillation event to trigger a transition of tropical Pacific SSTs to the opposite IPO phase. Here we show that a decadal prediction initialized in 2013 simulates predicted Niño3.4 SSTs that have qualitatively tracked the observations through 2015. The year three to seven average prediction (2015-2019) from the 2013 initial state shows a transition to the positive phase of the IPO from the previous negative phase and a resumption of larger rates of global warming over the 2013-2022 period consistent with a positive IPO phase.

  8. Initialized decadal prediction for transition to positive phase of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Meehl, Gerald A.; Hu, Aixue; Teng, Haiyan

    2016-06-02

    The negative phase of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO), a dominant mode of multi-decadal variability of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Pacific, contributed to the reduced rate of global surface temperature warming in the early 2000s. Here, a proposed mechanism for IPO multidecadal variability indicates that the presence of decadal timescale upper ocean heat content in the off-equatorial western tropical Pacific can provide conditions for an interannual El Nino/Southern Oscillation event to trigger a transition of tropical Pacific SSTs to the opposite IPO phase. Here we show that a decadal prediction initialized in 2013 simulates predicted Nino3.4 SSTs thatmore » have qualitatively tracked the observations through 2015. The year three to seven average prediction (2015-2019) from the 2013 initial state shows a transition to the positive phase of the IPO from the previous negative phase and a resumption of larger rates of global warming over the 2013-2022 period consistent with a positive IPO phase.« less

  9. The role of intermolecular interactions in the prediction of the phase equilibria of carbon dioxide hydrates.

    PubMed

    Costandy, Joseph; Michalis, Vasileios K; Tsimpanogiannis, Ioannis N; Stubos, Athanassios K; Economou, Ioannis G

    2015-09-01

    The direct phase coexistence methodology was used to predict the three-phase equilibrium conditions of carbon dioxide hydrates. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed in the isobaric-isothermal ensemble for the determination of the three-phase coexistence temperature (T3) of the carbon dioxide-water system, at pressures in the range of 200-5000 bar. The relative importance of the water-water and water-guest interactions in the prediction of T3 is investigated. The water-water interactions were modeled through the use of TIP4P/Ice and TIP4P/2005 force fields. The TraPPE force field was used for carbon dioxide, and the water-guest interactions were probed through the modification of the cross-interaction Lennard-Jones energy parameter between the oxygens of the unlike molecules. It was found that when using the classic Lorentz-Berthelot combining rules, both models fail to predict T3 accurately. In order to rectify this problem, the water-guest interaction parameters were optimized, based on the solubility of carbon dioxide in water. In this case, it is shown that the prediction of T3 is limited only by the accuracy of the water model in predicting the melting temperature of ice. PMID:26342376

  10. The role of intermolecular interactions in the prediction of the phase equilibria of carbon dioxide hydrates.

    PubMed

    Costandy, Joseph; Michalis, Vasileios K; Tsimpanogiannis, Ioannis N; Stubos, Athanassios K; Economou, Ioannis G

    2015-09-01

    The direct phase coexistence methodology was used to predict the three-phase equilibrium conditions of carbon dioxide hydrates. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed in the isobaric-isothermal ensemble for the determination of the three-phase coexistence temperature (T3) of the carbon dioxide-water system, at pressures in the range of 200-5000 bar. The relative importance of the water-water and water-guest interactions in the prediction of T3 is investigated. The water-water interactions were modeled through the use of TIP4P/Ice and TIP4P/2005 force fields. The TraPPE force field was used for carbon dioxide, and the water-guest interactions were probed through the modification of the cross-interaction Lennard-Jones energy parameter between the oxygens of the unlike molecules. It was found that when using the classic Lorentz-Berthelot combining rules, both models fail to predict T3 accurately. In order to rectify this problem, the water-guest interaction parameters were optimized, based on the solubility of carbon dioxide in water. In this case, it is shown that the prediction of T3 is limited only by the accuracy of the water model in predicting the melting temperature of ice.

  11. The role of intermolecular interactions in the prediction of the phase equilibria of carbon dioxide hydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costandy, Joseph; Michalis, Vasileios K.; Tsimpanogiannis, Ioannis N.; Stubos, Athanassios K.; Economou, Ioannis G.

    2015-09-01

    The direct phase coexistence methodology was used to predict the three-phase equilibrium conditions of carbon dioxide hydrates. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed in the isobaric-isothermal ensemble for the determination of the three-phase coexistence temperature (T3) of the carbon dioxide-water system, at pressures in the range of 200-5000 bar. The relative importance of the water-water and water-guest interactions in the prediction of T3 is investigated. The water-water interactions were modeled through the use of TIP4P/Ice and TIP4P/2005 force fields. The TraPPE force field was used for carbon dioxide, and the water-guest interactions were probed through the modification of the cross-interaction Lennard-Jones energy parameter between the oxygens of the unlike molecules. It was found that when using the classic Lorentz-Berthelot combining rules, both models fail to predict T3 accurately. In order to rectify this problem, the water-guest interaction parameters were optimized, based on the solubility of carbon dioxide in water. In this case, it is shown that the prediction of T3 is limited only by the accuracy of the water model in predicting the melting temperature of ice.

  12. Nonlinear Prediction As A Tool For Determining Parameters For Phase Space Reconstruction In Meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miksovsky, J.; Raidl, A.

    Time delays phase space reconstruction represents one of useful tools of nonlinear time series analysis, enabling number of applications. Its utilization requires the value of time delay to be known, as well as the value of embedding dimension. There are sev- eral methods how to estimate both these parameters. Typically, time delay is computed first, followed by embedding dimension. Our presented approach is slightly different - we reconstructed phase space for various combinations of mentioned parameters and used it for prediction by means of the nearest neighbours in the phase space. Then some measure of prediction's success was computed (correlation or RMSE, e.g.). The position of its global maximum (minimum) should indicate the suitable combination of time delay and embedding dimension. Several meteorological (particularly clima- tological) time series were used for the computations. We have also created a MS- Windows based program in order to implement this approach - its basic features will be presented as well.

  13. Competing together: Assessing the dynamics of team-team and player-team synchrony in professional association football.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Ricardo; Araújo, Duarte; Correia, Vanda; Davids, Keith; Marques, Pedro; Richardson, Michael J

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated movement synchronization of players within and between teams during competitive association football performance. Cluster phase analysis was introduced as a method to assess synchronies between whole teams and between individual players with their team as a function of time, ball possession and field direction. Measures of dispersion (SD) and regularity (sample entropy - SampEn - and cross sample entropy - Cross-SampEn) were used to quantify the magnitude and structure of synchrony. Large synergistic relations within each professional team sport collective were observed, particularly in the longitudinal direction of the field (0.89±0.12) compared to the lateral direction (0.73±0.16, p<.01). The coupling between the group measures of the two teams also revealed that changes in the synchrony of each team were intimately related (Cross-SampEn values of 0.02±0.01). Interestingly, ball possession did not influence team synchronization levels. In player-team synchronization, individuals tended to be coordinated under near in-phase modes with team behavior (mean ranges between -7 and 5° of relative phase). The magnitudes of variations were low, but more irregular in time, for the longitudinal (SD: 18±3°; SampEn: 0.07±0.01), compared to the lateral direction (SD: 28±5°; SampEn: 0.06±0.01, p<.05) on-field. Increases in regularity were also observed between the first (SampEn: 0.07±0.01) and second half (SampEn: 0.06±0.01, p<.05) of the observed competitive game. Findings suggest that the method of analysis introduced in the current study may offer a suitable tool for examining team's synchronization behaviors and the mutual influence of each team's cohesiveness in competing social collectives.

  14. Field Verification of the Prediction Model on Desert Locust Adult Phase Status From Density and Vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Cissé, S.; Ghaout, S.; Babah Ebbe, M. A; Kamara, S; Piou, C.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies investigated the effect of vegetation on density thresholds of adult Desert Locust gregarization from historical data in Mauritania. We examine here the prediction of locust phase based on adult density and vegetation conditions using the statistical model from Cisse et al. compared with actual behavior of Desert Locust adults observed in the field in Mauritania. From the 130 sites where adult locusts were found, the model predicted the phase of Desert Locust adults with a relatively small error of prediction of 6.1%. Preventive locust control should be rational, based on a risk assessment. The staff involved in implementation of the preventive control strategy needs specific indicators for when or where chemical treatment should be done. In this respect, we show here that the statistical model of Cisse et al. may be appropriate. PMID:27432351

  15. Field Verification of the Prediction Model on Desert Locust Adult Phase Status From Density and Vegetation.

    PubMed

    Cissé, S; Ghaout, S; Babah Ebbe, M A; Kamara, S; Piou, C

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies investigated the effect of vegetation on density thresholds of adult Desert Locust gregarization from historical data in Mauritania. We examine here the prediction of locust phase based on adult density and vegetation conditions using the statistical model from Cisse et al. compared with actual behavior of Desert Locust adults observed in the field in Mauritania. From the 130 sites where adult locusts were found, the model predicted the phase of Desert Locust adults with a relatively small error of prediction of 6.1%. Preventive locust control should be rational, based on a risk assessment. The staff involved in implementation of the preventive control strategy needs specific indicators for when or where chemical treatment should be done. In this respect, we show here that the statistical model of Cisse et al. may be appropriate.

  16. Novel high-pressure phase of ZrO{sub 2}: An ab initio prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Durandurdu, Murat

    2015-10-15

    The high-pressure behavior of the orthorhombic cotunnite type ZrO{sub 2} is explored using an ab initio constant pressure technique. For the first time, a novel hexagonal phase (Ni{sub 2}In type) within P6{sub 3}/mmc symmetry is predicted through the simulation. The Ni{sub 2}In type crystal is the densest high-pressure phase of ZrO{sub 2} proposed so far and has not been observed in other metal dioxides at high pressure before. The phase transformation is accompanied by a small volume drop and likely to occur around 380 GPa in experiment. - Graphical abstract: Post-cotunnite Ni{sub 2}In type hexagonal phase forms in zirconia at high pressure. - Highlights: • A post-cotunnite phase is predicted for ZrO{sub 2} through an ab initio simulation. • Cotunnite ZrO{sub 2} adopts the Ni{sub 2}In type structure at high pressure. • The Ni{sub 2}In type structure is the densest high-pressure phase of ZrO{sub 2} proposed so far. • The preferred mechanism in ZrO{sub 2} differs from the other metal dioxides.

  17. Prediction of salt effects on protein phase behavior by HIC retention and thermal stability.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Kai; Großhans, Steffen; Schütz, Juliane; Suhm, Susanna; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2016-09-01

    In the biopharmaceutical industry it is mandatory to know and ensure the correct protein phase state as a critical quality attribute in every process step. Unwanted protein precipitation or crystallization can lead to column, pipe or filter blocking. In formulation, the formation of aggregates can even be lethal when injected into the patient. The typical methodology to illustrate protein phase states is the generation of protein phase diagrams. Commonly, protein phase behavior is shown in dependence of protein and precipitant concentration. Despite using high-throughput methods for the generation of phase diagrams, the time necessary to reach equilibrium is the bottleneck. Faster methods to predict protein phase behavior are desirable. In this study, hydrophobic interaction chromatography retention times were correlated to crystal size and form. High-throughput thermal stability measurements (melting and aggregation temperatures), using an Optim(®)2 system, were successfully correlated to glucose isomerase stability. By using hydrophobic interaction chromatography and thermal stability determinations, glucose isomerase conformational and colloidal stability were successfully predicted for different salts in a specific pH range. PMID:27268946

  18. Predictive model for toluene degradation and microbial phenotypic profiles in flat plate vapor phase bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Mirpuri, R.; Sharp, W.; Villaverde, S.; Jones, W.; Lewandowski, Z.; Cunningham, A.

    1997-06-01

    A predictive model has been developed to describe degradation of toluene in a flat-plate vapor phase bioreactor (VPBR). The VPBR model incorporates kinetic, stoichiometric, injury, and irreversible loss coefficients from suspended culture studies for toluene degradation by P. putida 54G and measured values of Henry`s law constant and boundary layer thickness at the gas-liquid and liquid-biofilm interface. The model is used to estimate the performance of the reactor with respect to toluene degradation and to predict profiles of toluene concentration and bacterial physiological state within the biofilm. These results have been compared with experimentally determined values from a flat plate VPBR under electron acceptor and electron donor limiting conditions. The model accurately predicts toluene concentrations in the vapor phase and toluene degradation rate by adjusting only three parameters: biomass density and rates of death and endogenous decay. Qualitatively, the model also predicts gradients in the physiological state cells in the biofilm. This model provides a rational design for predicting an upper limit of toluene degradation capability in a VPBR and is currently being tested to assess applications for predicting performance of bench and pilot-scale column reactors.

  19. Prediction of the stability of the Mn+1AXn phases from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keast, V. J.; Harris, S.; Smith, D. K.

    2009-12-01

    One of the unusual features of the Mn+1AXn phases (where M is a transition metal, A is a group A element, X is carbon or nitrogen, and n=1,2,3… ) is that for a given M-A-X system, only certain values of n are found to occur and there is no systematic behavior between the different systems. Density-functional theory was used to verify the stability of the different phases by comparing their total energy to that of the appropriate competing phases. Five systems (Ti-Al-C, Ti-Si-C, Ti-Al-N, Ti-Si-N, and Cr-Al-C) were studied for n=1-4 . Complete agreement with observed occurrences of these phases was found. Very small energy differences suggest that it may be possible to fabricate Ti2SiC , Ti2SiN , and Ti3AlN2 as metastable phases. None of the M5AX4 phases were predicted to occur and in all cases the α phases were found to be more energetically favorable than the β phases.

  20. Mechanisms of interpersonal sway synchrony and stability

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Raymond F.; Osler, Callum J.

    2014-01-01

    Here we explain the neural and mechanical mechanisms responsible for synchronizing sway and improving postural control during physical contact with another standing person. Postural control processes were modelled using an inverted pendulum under continuous feedback control. Interpersonal interactions were simulated either by coupling the sensory feedback loops or by physically coupling the pendulums with a damped spring. These simulations precisely recreated the timing and magnitude of sway interactions observed empirically. Effects of firmly grasping another person's shoulder were explained entirely by the mechanical linkage. This contrasted with light touch and/or visual contact, which were explained by a sensory weighting phenomenon; each person's estimate of upright was based on a weighted combination of veridical sensory feedback combined with a small contribution from their partner. Under these circumstances, the model predicted reductions in sway even without the need to distinguish between self and partner motion. Our findings explain the seemingly paradoxical observation that touching a swaying person can improve postural control. PMID:25339686

  1. CFD prediction of flow and phase distribution in fuel assemblies with spacers

    SciTech Connect

    Anglart, H.; Nylund, O.; Kurul, N.

    1995-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the modeling and computation of multi-dimensional two-phase flows in BWR fuel assemblies. The modeling principles are presented based on using a two-fluid model in which lateral interfacial effects are accounted for. This model has been used to evaluate the velocity fields of both vapor and liquid phases, as well as phase distribution, between fuel elements in geometries similar to BWR fuel bundles. Furthermore, this model has been used to predict, in a detailed mechanistic manner, the effects of spacers on flow and phase distribution between, and pressure drop along, fuel elements. The related numerical simulations have been performed using a CFD computer code, CFDS-FLOW3D.

  2. First Principles Prediction of Topological Phases in Thin Films of Pyrochlore Iridates

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiang; Zhong, Zhicheng; Fiete, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    While the theoretical and experimental study of topological phases of matter has experienced rapid growth over the last few years, there remain a relatively small number of material classes that have been experimentally shown to host these phases. Most of these materials contain bismuth, and none so far are oxides. In this work we make materials-specific predictions for topological phases using density functional theory combined with Hartree-Fock theory that includes the full orbital structure of the relevant iridium d-orbitals and the strong but finite spin-orbit coupling strength. We find Y2Ir2O7 bilayer and trilayer films grown along the [111] direction can support topological metallic phases with a direct gap of up to 0.05 eV, which could potentially bring transition metal oxides to the fore as a new class of topological materials with potential applications in oxide electronics. PMID:26076882

  3. Predicting phase behavior of mixtures of reservoir fluids with carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Grigg, R.B.; Lingane, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    The use of an equation of state to predict phase behavior during carbon dioxide flooding is well established. The characterization of the C/sub 7/ fraction and the selection of interaction parameters are the most important variables. Single-contact phase behavior is presented for mixtures of Ford Geraldine (Delaware), Maljamar (Grayburg), West Sussex (Shannon), and Reservoir D reservoir fluids, and of a synthetic oil with carbon dioxide. The phase behavior of these mixtures can be reproduced using 3 to 5 pseudo components and common interaction parameters. The critical properties of the pseudo components are calculated from detailed oil characterizations. Because the parameters are not further adjusted, this approach reduces the empiricism in fitting phase data and may result in a more accurate representation of the system as the composition of the oil changes during the approach to miscibility. 21 references.

  4. Theoretical prediction of high pressure phase transition in ScC and YC: Ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, B. D.; Joshi, K. D.; Gupta, Satish C.

    2013-08-01

    The structural stability of ScC and YC has been analyzed under hydrostatic compression employing the first-principles calculations using the plane-wave pseudopotential method. The comparison of theoretically calculated enthalpies of rocksalt type (B1), primitive orthorhombic (Pmmn), and CsCl type (B2) structures as a function of pressure suggests that the B1 structure transforms to Pmmn phase instead of transforming to B2 phase that predicted by Soni et al. [J. Phys. Chem. Solids 72, 810 (2011)]. The pressure for B1 to Pmmn transition predicted for ScC and YC are ˜80 GPa and ˜30 GPa, respectively. To further substantiate the outcomes of our static lattice calculations, we have performed lattice dynamic calculations also. Our lattice dynamic calculations correctly demonstrate that the B1 phase is dynamically stable structure at ambient condition. Further, for both the carbides, we find that the Pmmn structure becomes dynamically stable around the transition pressure whereas the B2 structure remains unstable, supporting the B1 to Pmmn phase transition predicted by our static lattice calculations.

  5. Elemental Solubility Tendency for the Phases of Uranium by Classical Models Used to Predict Alloy Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Van Blackwood; Travis Koenig; Saleem Drera; Brajenda Mishra; Davis Olson; Doug Porter; Robert Mariani

    2012-03-01

    Traditional alloy theory models, specifically Darken-Gurry and Miedema’s analyses, that characterize solutes in solid solvents relative to physical properties of the elements have been used to assist in predicting alloy behavior. These models will be applied relative to the three solid phases of uranium: alpha (orthorhombic), beta (tetragonal), and gamma (bcc). These phases have different solubilities for specific alloy additions as a function of temperature. The Darken-Gurry and Miedema models, with modifications based on concepts of Waber, Gschneider, and Brewer will be used to predict the behavior of four types of solutes: 1) Transition metals that are used for various purposes associated with the containment as alloy additions in the uranium fuel 2) Transuranic elements in the uranium 3) Rare earth fission products (lanthanides) 4) Transition metals and other fission products Using these solute map criteria, elemental behavior will be predicted as highly soluble, marginally soluble, or immiscible (compound formers) and will be used to compare solute effects during uranium phase transformations. The overlapping of these solute maps are convenient first approximation tools for predicting alloy behavior.

  6. Role of audiovisual synchrony in driving head orienting responses.

    PubMed

    Ho, Cristy; Gray, Rob; Spence, Charles

    2013-06-01

    Many studies now suggest that optimal multisensory integration sometimes occurs under conditions where auditory and visual stimuli are presented asynchronously (i.e. at asynchronies of 100 ms or more). Such observations lead to the suggestion that participants' speeded orienting responses might be enhanced following the presentation of asynchronous (as compared to synchronous) peripheral audiovisual spatial cues. Here, we report a series of three experiments designed to investigate this issue. Upon establishing the effectiveness of bimodal cuing over the best of its unimodal components (Experiment 1), participants had to make speeded head-turning or steering (wheel-turning) responses toward the cued direction (Experiment 2), or an incompatible response away from the cue (Experiment 3), in response to random peripheral audiovisual stimuli presented at stimulus onset asynchronies ranging from -100 to 100 ms. Race model inequality analysis of the results (Experiment 1) revealed different mechanisms underlying the observed multisensory facilitation of participants' head-turning versus steering responses. In Experiments 2 and 3, the synchronous presentation of the component auditory and visual cues gave rise to the largest facilitation of participants' response latencies. Intriguingly, when the participants had to subjectively judge the simultaneity of the audiovisual stimuli, the point of subjective simultaneity occurred when the auditory stimulus lagged behind the visual stimulus by 22 ms. Taken together, these results appear to suggest that the maximally beneficial behavioural (head and manual) orienting responses resulting from peripherally presented audiovisual stimuli occur when the component signals are presented in synchrony. These findings suggest that while the brain uses precise temporal synchrony in order to control its orienting responses, the system that the human brain uses to consciously judge synchrony appears to be less fine tuned.

  7. Unification of radar phenomena as spacetime curvature: prediction and observation of an affine-phase effect.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Andrew K

    2004-07-01

    The many properties of radar echoes and other radiative systems were recently described by Gabriel [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 946 (2002)] as lower-dimensional projections of simple forms in special relativity. A broader treatment including coherent phenomena is summarized, in which the phase properties of radar images and interferograms are also shown to have a simple unified structure. Their apparent complexity is a result of projection onto the lower dimension(s) of the observation. A predicted new property, locally scalable (affine) phase, is observed in a radar interferogram. PMID:15259737

  8. Predictions for the Dirac CP violation phase in the neutrino mixing matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petcov, S. T.; Girardi, I.; Titov, A. V.

    2015-05-01

    Using the fact that the neutrino mixing matrix U = UeUν , where Ue and Uν result from the diagonalization of the charged lepton and neutrino mass matrices, we analyze the predictions based on the sum rules which the Dirac phase δ present in U satisfies when Uν has a form dictated by, or associated with, discrete flavor symmetries and Ue has a "minimal" form (in terms of angles and phases it contains) that can provide the requisite corrections to Uν, so that the reactor, atmospheric and solar neutrino mixing angles θ13, θ23 and θ12 have values compatible with the current data.

  9. Predictions for the Dirac CP Violation Phase in the Neutrino Mixing Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petcov, S. T.; Girardi, I.; Titov, A. V.

    Using the fact that the neutrino mixing matrix U = U_{e}^{dagger} U_{ν}, where Ue and Uν result from the diagonalization of the charged lepton and neutrino mass matrices, we analyze the predictions based on the sum rules which the Dirac phase δ present in U satisfies when Uν has a form dictated by, or associated with, discrete favor symmetries and Ue has a "minimal" form (in terms of angles and phases it contains) that can provide the requisite corrections to Uν, so that the reactor, atmospheric and solar neutrino mixing angles θ13, θ23 and θ12 have values compatible with the current data.

  10. Persistence, chaos and synchrony in ecology and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Earn, D J; Rohani, P; Grenfell, B T

    1998-01-01

    The decline of species in natural habitats concerns ecologists, who view extinction as a danger and conservation of biological diversity as a goal. In contrast, the proliferation of 'undesirable' species is the principal concern of epidemiologists, who view persistence as a problem and eradication as an achievement. While ecologists and epidemiologists have essentially opposite goals, the mathematical structure of the population dynamics that they study is very similar. We briefly review the similarities and differences between these two fields, emphasizing recent work in both areas on the effects of spatial synchrony and dynamical chaos. We hope to stimulate further cross-fertilization of ideas between the disciplines.

  11. Persistence, chaos and synchrony in ecology and epidemiology.

    PubMed Central

    Earn, D J; Rohani, P; Grenfell, B T

    1998-01-01

    The decline of species in natural habitats concerns ecologists, who view extinction as a danger and conservation of biological diversity as a goal. In contrast, the proliferation of 'undesirable' species is the principal concern of epidemiologists, who view persistence as a problem and eradication as an achievement. While ecologists and epidemiologists have essentially opposite goals, the mathematical structure of the population dynamics that they study is very similar. We briefly review the similarities and differences between these two fields, emphasizing recent work in both areas on the effects of spatial synchrony and dynamical chaos. We hope to stimulate further cross-fertilization of ideas between the disciplines. PMID:9470213

  12. Timing and synchrony of parturition in Alaska caribou

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, L.; Dale, B.

    1998-01-01

    Timing of parturition of caribou varies with in populations, but the relative influences of nutritional condition of females during the autumn breeding season and during gestaton on that variation is not known. We determined timing of parturition of caribou in Denali National Park, Alaska, during 1984-1995, which had wide variation in snowfall that influenced nutritional condition and productivity of females. The first young were observed each year between 4 and 15 May. Annual median dates of parturition for radiocollared females during 1987-1995 varied from 13 to 21 May.Synchrony of births did not vary significantly among years. Females

  13. Prediction of gas-liquid two-phase flow regime in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jinho; Platt, Jonathan A.

    1993-01-01

    An attempt is made to predict gas-liquid two-phase flow regime in a pipe in a microgravity environment through scaling analysis based on dominant physical mechanisms. Simple inlet geometry is adopted in the analysis to see the effect of inlet configuration on flow regime transitions. Comparison of the prediction with the existing experimental data shows good agreement, though more work is required to better define some physical parameters. The analysis clarifies much of the physics involved in this problem and can be applied to other configurations.

  14. One in the Dance: Musical Correlates of Group Synchrony in a Real-World Club Environment

    PubMed Central

    Ellamil, Melissa; Berson, Joshua; Wong, Jen; Buckley, Louis; Margulies, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on interpersonal synchrony has mainly investigated small groups in isolated laboratory settings, which may not fully reflect the complex and dynamic interactions of real-life social situations. The present study expands on this by examining group synchrony across a large number of individuals in a naturalistic environment. Smartphone acceleration measures were recorded from participants during a music set in a dance club and assessed to identify how group movement synchrony covaried with various features of the music. In an evaluation of different preprocessing and analysis methods, giving more weight to front-back movement provided the most sensitive and reliable measure of group synchrony. During the club music set, group synchrony of torso movement was most strongly associated with pulsations that approximate walking rhythm (100–150 beats per minute). Songs with higher real-world play counts were also correlated with greater group synchrony. Group synchrony thus appears to be constrained by familiarity of the movement (walking action and rhythm) and of the music (song popularity). These findings from a real-world, large-scale social and musical setting can guide the development of methods for capturing and examining collective experiences in the laboratory and for effectively linking them to synchrony across people in daily life. PMID:27764167

  15. Timing and synchrony of births in bighorn sheep: implications for reintroduction and conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klaver, Robert W.; Jericho C. Whiting,; Daniel D. Olson,; Justin M. Shannon,; Terry Bowyer,; Jerran T. Flinders,

    2012-01-01

    Implications: Consideration should be given to the adjustment of timing and synchrony of births when reintroducing bighorns, especially when animals are released into different ecoregions. Also, biologists should select release sites that are ecologically similar to source areas, thereby reducing potential negative effects of animals adjusting timing and synchrony of births to environmental conditions of restoration areas.

  16. Nonverbal Synchrony in Psychotherapy: Coordinated Body Movement Reflects Relationship Quality and Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramseyer, Fabian; Tschacher, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors quantified nonverbal synchrony--the coordination of patient's and therapist's movement--in a random sample of same-sex psychotherapy dyads. The authors contrasted nonverbal synchrony in these dyads with a control condition and assessed its association with session-level and overall psychotherapy outcome. Method: Using an…

  17. A spiking Basal Ganglia model of synchrony, exploration and decision making.

    PubMed

    Mandali, Alekhya; Rengaswamy, Maithreye; Chakravarthy, V Srinivasa; Moustafa, Ahmed A

    2015-01-01

    To make an optimal decision we need to weigh all the available options, compare them with the current goal, and choose the most rewarding one. Depending on the situation an optimal decision could be to either "explore" or "exploit" or "not to take any action" for which the Basal Ganglia (BG) is considered to be a key neural substrate. In an attempt to expand this classical picture of BG function, we had earlier hypothesized that the Indirect Pathway (IP) of the BG could be the subcortical substrate for exploration. In this study we build a spiking network model to relate exploration to synchrony levels in the BG (which are a neural marker for tremor in Parkinson's disease). Key BG nuclei such as the Sub Thalamic Nucleus (STN), Globus Pallidus externus (GPe) and Globus Pallidus internus (GPi) were modeled as Izhikevich spiking neurons whereas the Striatal output was modeled as Poisson spikes. The model is cast in reinforcement learning framework with the dopamine signal representing reward prediction error. We apply the model to two decision making tasks: a binary action selection task (similar to one used by Humphries et al., 2006) and an n-armed bandit task (Bourdaud et al., 2008). The model shows that exploration levels could be controlled by STN's lateral connection strength which also influenced the synchrony levels in the STN-GPe circuit. An increase in STN's lateral strength led to a decrease in exploration which can be thought as the possible explanation for reduced exploratory levels in Parkinson's patients. Our simulations also show that on complete removal of IP, the model exhibits only Go and No-Go behaviors, thereby demonstrating the crucial role of IP in exploration. Our model provides a unified account for synchronization, action section, and explorative behavior. PMID:26074761

  18. A spiking Basal Ganglia model of synchrony, exploration and decision making

    PubMed Central

    Mandali, Alekhya; Rengaswamy, Maithreye; Chakravarthy, V. Srinivasa; Moustafa, Ahmed A.

    2015-01-01

    To make an optimal decision we need to weigh all the available options, compare them with the current goal, and choose the most rewarding one. Depending on the situation an optimal decision could be to either “explore” or “exploit” or “not to take any action” for which the Basal Ganglia (BG) is considered to be a key neural substrate. In an attempt to expand this classical picture of BG function, we had earlier hypothesized that the Indirect Pathway (IP) of the BG could be the subcortical substrate for exploration. In this study we build a spiking network model to relate exploration to synchrony levels in the BG (which are a neural marker for tremor in Parkinson's disease). Key BG nuclei such as the Sub Thalamic Nucleus (STN), Globus Pallidus externus (GPe) and Globus Pallidus internus (GPi) were modeled as Izhikevich spiking neurons whereas the Striatal output was modeled as Poisson spikes. The model is cast in reinforcement learning framework with the dopamine signal representing reward prediction error. We apply the model to two decision making tasks: a binary action selection task (similar to one used by Humphries et al., 2006) and an n-armed bandit task (Bourdaud et al., 2008). The model shows that exploration levels could be controlled by STN's lateral connection strength which also influenced the synchrony levels in the STN-GPe circuit. An increase in STN's lateral strength led to a decrease in exploration which can be thought as the possible explanation for reduced exploratory levels in Parkinson's patients. Our simulations also show that on complete removal of IP, the model exhibits only Go and No-Go behaviors, thereby demonstrating the crucial role of IP in exploration. Our model provides a unified account for synchronization, action section, and explorative behavior. PMID:26074761

  19. Region-wide synchrony and traveling waves of dengue across eight countries in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    van Panhuis, Willem G.; Choisy, Marc; Xiong, Xin; Chok, Nian Shong; Akarasewi, Pasakorn; Iamsirithaworn, Sopon; Lam, Sai K.; Chong, Chee K.; Lam, Fook C.; Phommasak, Bounlay; Vongphrachanh, Phengta; Bouaphanh, Khamphaphongphane; Rekol, Huy; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Thai, Pham Quang; Duong, Tran Nhu; Chuang, Jen-Hsiang; Liu, Yu-Lun; Ng, Lee-Ching; Shi, Yuan; Tayag, Enrique A.; Roque, Vito G.; Lee Suy, Lyndon L.; Jarman, Richard G.; Gibbons, Robert V.; Velasco, John Mark S.; Yoon, In-Kyu; Burke, Donald S.; Cummings, Derek A. T.

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-transmitted virus infection that causes epidemics of febrile illness and hemorrhagic fever across the tropics and subtropics worldwide. Annual epidemics are commonly observed, but there is substantial spatiotemporal heterogeneity in intensity. A better understanding of this heterogeneity in dengue transmission could lead to improved epidemic prediction and disease control. Time series decomposition methods enable the isolation and study of temporal epidemic dynamics with a specific periodicity (e.g., annual cycles related to climatic drivers and multiannual cycles caused by dynamics in population immunity). We collected and analyzed up to 18 y of monthly dengue surveillance reports on a total of 3.5 million reported dengue cases from 273 provinces in eight countries in Southeast Asia, covering ∼107 km2. We detected strong patterns of synchronous dengue transmission across the entire region, most markedly during a period of high incidence in 1997–1998, which was followed by a period of extremely low incidence in 2001–2002. This synchrony in dengue incidence coincided with elevated temperatures throughout the region in 1997–1998 and the strongest El Niño episode of the century. Multiannual dengue cycles (2–5 y) were highly coherent with the Oceanic Niño Index, and synchrony of these cycles increased with temperature. We also detected localized traveling waves of multiannual dengue epidemic cycles in Thailand, Laos, and the Philippines that were dependent on temperature. This study reveals forcing mechanisms that drive synchronization of dengue epidemics on a continental scale across Southeast Asia. PMID:26438851

  20. Region-wide synchrony and traveling waves of dengue across eight countries in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    van Panhuis, Willem G; Choisy, Marc; Xiong, Xin; Chok, Nian Shong; Akarasewi, Pasakorn; Iamsirithaworn, Sopon; Lam, Sai K; Chong, Chee K; Lam, Fook C; Phommasak, Bounlay; Vongphrachanh, Phengta; Bouaphanh, Khamphaphongphane; Rekol, Huy; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Thai, Pham Quang; Duong, Tran Nhu; Chuang, Jen-Hsiang; Liu, Yu-Lun; Ng, Lee-Ching; Shi, Yuan; Tayag, Enrique A; Roque, Vito G; Lee Suy, Lyndon L; Jarman, Richard G; Gibbons, Robert V; Velasco, John Mark S; Yoon, In-Kyu; Burke, Donald S; Cummings, Derek A T

    2015-10-20

    Dengue is a mosquito-transmitted virus infection that causes epidemics of febrile illness and hemorrhagic fever across the tropics and subtropics worldwide. Annual epidemics are commonly observed, but there is substantial spatiotemporal heterogeneity in intensity. A better understanding of this heterogeneity in dengue transmission could lead to improved epidemic prediction and disease control. Time series decomposition methods enable the isolation and study of temporal epidemic dynamics with a specific periodicity (e.g., annual cycles related to climatic drivers and multiannual cycles caused by dynamics in population immunity). We collected and analyzed up to 18 y of monthly dengue surveillance reports on a total of 3.5 million reported dengue cases from 273 provinces in eight countries in Southeast Asia, covering ∼ 10(7) km(2). We detected strong patterns of synchronous dengue transmission across the entire region, most markedly during a period of high incidence in 1997-1998, which was followed by a period of extremely low incidence in 2001-2002. This synchrony in dengue incidence coincided with elevated temperatures throughout the region in 1997-1998 and the strongest El Niño episode of the century. Multiannual dengue cycles (2-5 y) were highly coherent with the Oceanic Niño Index, and synchrony of these cycles increased with temperature. We also detected localized traveling waves of multiannual dengue epidemic cycles in Thailand, Laos, and the Philippines that were dependent on temperature. This study reveals forcing mechanisms that drive synchronization of dengue epidemics on a continental scale across Southeast Asia.

  1. Development of experiment and theory to detect and predict ligand phase separation on silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Zachary; Merz, Steve; Seager, Jon; Dunn, Caroline; Egorov, Sergei; Green, David L

    2015-05-26

    MALDI mass-spectrometry measurements are combined with self-consistent mean-field (SCF) calculations to detect and predict ligand phase separation on Ag nanoparticles. The experimental and theoretical techniques complement each other by enabling quantification of the nearest-neighbor distribution of a ligand mixture in a monolayer shell. By tracking a characteristic metallic fragment family, analysis of a MALDI spectrum produces a frequency distribution corresponding to specific ligand patterning. Inherent to the SCF calculation is the enumeration of local interactions that dictate ligand assembly. Interweaving MALDI and SCF facilitates a comparison between the experimentally and theoretically derived frequency distributions as well as their deviation from a well-mixed state. Thus, we combine these techniques to detect and predict phase separation in monolayers that mix uniformly or experience varying degrees of de-mixing, including microphase separation and stripe formation. Definition of MALDI removed as this is a commonly recognized technique. PMID:25882701

  2. Cortical localization of phase and amplitude dynamics predicting access to somatosensory awareness.

    PubMed

    Hirvonen, Jonni; Palva, Satu

    2016-01-01

    Neural dynamics leading to conscious sensory perception have remained enigmatic in despite of large interest. Human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have revealed that a co-activation of sensory and frontoparietal areas is crucial for conscious sensory perception in the several second time-scale of BOLD signal fluctuations. Electrophysiological recordings with magneto- and electroencephalography (MEG and EEG) and intracranial EEG (iEEG) have shown that event related responses (ERs), phase-locking of neuronal activity, and oscillation amplitude modulations in sub-second timescales are greater for consciously perceived than for unperceived stimuli. The cortical sources of ER and oscillation dynamics predicting the conscious perception have, however, remained unclear because these prior studies have utilized MEG/EEG sensor-level analyses or iEEG with limited neuroanatomical coverage. We used a somatosensory detection task, magnetoencephalography (MEG), and cortically constrained source reconstruction to identify the cortical areas where ERs, local poststimulus amplitudes and phase-locking of neuronal activity are predictive of the conscious access of somatosensory information. We show here that strengthened ERs, phase-locking to stimulus onset (SL), and induced oscillations amplitude modulations all predicted conscious somatosensory perception, but the most robust and widespread of these was SL that was sustained in low-alpha (6-10 Hz) band. The strength of SL and to a lesser extent that of ER predicted conscious perception in the somatosensory, lateral and medial frontal, posterior parietal, and in the cingulate cortex. These data suggest that a rapid phase-reorganization and concurrent oscillation amplitude modulations in these areas play an instrumental role in the emergence of a conscious percept.

  3. Validation of models for predicting formaldehyde concentrations in residences due to pressed wood products. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Grot, R.A.; Silberstein, S.; Ishiguro, K.

    1985-09-01

    The interim report describes procedures and presents results of the first phase of a laboratory project undertaken at the National Bureau of Standards for the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC). The purpose of the project is to assess the accuracy of emission and indoor-air-quality models to be used by CPSC in predicting formaldehyde (HCHO) concentrations in residences due to pressed-wood products made with urea-formaldehyde bonding resins, namely particleboard underlayment, hardwood-plywood paneling and medium-density fiberboard (MDF). In phase I, these products were characterized in medium-size dynamic measuring chambers by measuring their HCHO surface emission rates over a range of HCHO concentrations, at 23C and 50% RH. They were then installed in a two-room prototype house and the equilibrium HCHO concentrations were monitored as a function of air exchange rate. Excellent agreement was obtained between measured HCHO concentrations and those predicted by a mass-balance indoor air quality model. In the next phase, the study will be repeated at various different temperatures and relative humidities so that models predicting HCHO surface emission rate as a function of temperature and humidity can be tested.

  4. The spacing principle for unlearning abnormal neuronal synchrony.

    PubMed

    Popovych, Oleksandr V; Xenakis, Markos N; Tass, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Desynchronizing stimulation techniques were developed to specifically counteract abnormal neuronal synchronization relevant to several neurological and psychiatric disorders. The goal of our approach is to achieve an anti-kindling, where the affected neural networks unlearn abnormal synaptic connectivity and, hence, abnormal neuronal synchrony, by means of desynchronizing stimulation, in particular, Coordinated Reset (CR) stimulation. As known from neuroscience, psychology and education, learning effects can be enhanced by means of the spacing principle, i.e. by delivering repeated stimuli spaced by pauses as opposed to delivering a massed stimulus (in a single long stimulation session). To illustrate that the spacing principle may boost the anti-kindling effect of CR neuromodulation, in this computational study we carry this approach to extremes. To this end, we deliver spaced CR neuromodulation at particularly weak intensities which render permanently delivered CR neuromodulation ineffective. Intriguingly, spaced CR neuromodulation at these particularly weak intensities effectively induces an anti-kindling. In fact, the spacing principle enables the neuronal population to successively hop from one attractor to another one, finally approaching attractors characterized by down-regulated synaptic connectivity and synchrony. Our computational results might open up novel opportunities to effectively induce sustained desynchronization at particularly weak stimulation intensities, thereby avoiding side effects, e.g., in the case of deep brain stimulation.

  5. SPIKY: a graphical user interface for monitoring spike train synchrony

    PubMed Central

    Mulansky, Mario; Bozanic, Nebojsa

    2015-01-01

    Techniques for recording large-scale neuronal spiking activity are developing very fast. This leads to an increasing demand for algorithms capable of analyzing large amounts of experimental spike train data. One of the most crucial and demanding tasks is the identification of similarity patterns with a very high temporal resolution and across different spatial scales. To address this task, in recent years three time-resolved measures of spike train synchrony have been proposed, the ISI-distance, the SPIKE-distance, and event synchronization. The Matlab source codes for calculating and visualizing these measures have been made publicly available. However, due to the many different possible representations of the results the use of these codes is rather complicated and their application requires some basic knowledge of Matlab. Thus it became desirable to provide a more user-friendly and interactive interface. Here we address this need and present SPIKY, a graphical user interface that facilitates the application of time-resolved measures of spike train synchrony to both simulated and real data. SPIKY includes implementations of the ISI-distance, the SPIKE-distance, and the SPIKE-synchronization (an improved and simplified extension of event synchronization) that have been optimized with respect to computation speed and memory demand. It also comprises a spike train generator and an event detector that makes it capable of analyzing continuous data. Finally, the SPIKY package includes additional complementary programs aimed at the analysis of large numbers of datasets and the estimation of significance levels. PMID:25744888

  6. Developmental synchrony of thalamocortical circuits in the neonatal brain.

    PubMed

    Poh, Joann S; Li, Yue; Ratnarajah, Nagulan; Fortier, Marielle V; Chong, Yap-Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang-Mei; Gluckman, Peter D; Meaney, Michael J; Qiu, Anqi

    2015-08-01

    The thalamus is a deep gray matter structure and consists of axonal fibers projecting to the entire cortex, which provide the anatomical support for its sensorimotor and higher-level cognitive functions. There is limited in vivo evidence on the normal thalamocortical development, especially in early life. In this study, we aimed to investigate the developmental patterns of the cerebral cortex, the thalamic substructures, and their connectivity with the cortex in the first few weeks of the postnatal brain. We hypothesized that there is developmental synchrony of the thalamus, its cortical projections, and corresponding target cortical structures. We employed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and divided the thalamus into five substructures respectively connecting to the frontal, precentral, postcentral, temporal, and parietal and occipital cortex. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to measure cortical thickness. We found age-related increases in cortical thickness of bilateral frontal cortex and left temporal cortex in the early postnatal brain. We also found that the development of the thalamic substructures was synchronized with that of their respective thalamocortical connectivity in the first few weeks of the postnatal life. In particular, the right thalamo-frontal substructure had the fastest growth in the early postnatal brain. Our study suggests that the distinct growth patterns of the thalamic substructures are in synchrony with those of the cortex in early life, which may be critical for the development of the cortical and subcortical functional specialization.

  7. SPIKY: a graphical user interface for monitoring spike train synchrony.

    PubMed

    Kreuz, Thomas; Mulansky, Mario; Bozanic, Nebojsa

    2015-05-01

    Techniques for recording large-scale neuronal spiking activity are developing very fast. This leads to an increasing demand for algorithms capable of analyzing large amounts of experimental spike train data. One of the most crucial and demanding tasks is the identification of similarity patterns with a very high temporal resolution and across different spatial scales. To address this task, in recent years three time-resolved measures of spike train synchrony have been proposed, the ISI-distance, the SPIKE-distance, and event synchronization. The Matlab source codes for calculating and visualizing these measures have been made publicly available. However, due to the many different possible representations of the results the use of these codes is rather complicated and their application requires some basic knowledge of Matlab. Thus it became desirable to provide a more user-friendly and interactive interface. Here we address this need and present SPIKY, a graphical user interface that facilitates the application of time-resolved measures of spike train synchrony to both simulated and real data. SPIKY includes implementations of the ISI-distance, the SPIKE-distance, and the SPIKE-synchronization (an improved and simplified extension of event synchronization) that have been optimized with respect to computation speed and memory demand. It also comprises a spike train generator and an event detector that makes it capable of analyzing continuous data. Finally, the SPIKY package includes additional complementary programs aimed at the analysis of large numbers of datasets and the estimation of significance levels.

  8. Oscillatory neurocomputing with ring attractors: a network architecture for mapping locations in space onto patterns of neural synchrony.

    PubMed

    Blair, Hugh T; Wu, Allan; Cong, Jason

    2014-02-01

    Theories of neural coding seek to explain how states of the world are mapped onto states of the brain. Here, we compare how an animal's location in space can be encoded by two different kinds of brain states: population vectors stored by patterns of neural firing rates, versus synchronization vectors stored by patterns of synchrony among neural oscillators. It has previously been shown that a population code stored by spatially tuned 'grid cells' can exhibit desirable properties such as high storage capacity and strong fault tolerance; here it is shown that similar properties are attainable with a synchronization code stored by rhythmically bursting 'theta cells' that lack spatial tuning. Simulations of a ring attractor network composed from theta cells suggest how a synchronization code might be implemented using fewer neurons and synapses than a population code with similar storage capacity. It is conjectured that reciprocal connections between grid and theta cells might control phase noise to correct two kinds of errors that can arise in the code: path integration and teleportation errors. Based upon these analyses, it is proposed that a primary function of spatially tuned neurons might be to couple the phases of neural oscillators in a manner that allows them to encode spatial locations as patterns of neural synchrony. PMID:24366137

  9. Oscillatory neurocomputing with ring attractors: a network architecture for mapping locations in space onto patterns of neural synchrony

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Hugh T.; Wu, Allan; Cong, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Theories of neural coding seek to explain how states of the world are mapped onto states of the brain. Here, we compare how an animal's location in space can be encoded by two different kinds of brain states: population vectors stored by patterns of neural firing rates, versus synchronization vectors stored by patterns of synchrony among neural oscillators. It has previously been shown that a population code stored by spatially tuned ‘grid cells’ can exhibit desirable properties such as high storage capacity and strong fault tolerance; here it is shown that similar properties are attainable with a synchronization code stored by rhythmically bursting ‘theta cells’ that lack spatial tuning. Simulations of a ring attractor network composed from theta cells suggest how a synchronization code might be implemented using fewer neurons and synapses than a population code with similar storage capacity. It is conjectured that reciprocal connections between grid and theta cells might control phase noise to correct two kinds of errors that can arise in the code: path integration and teleportation errors. Based upon these analyses, it is proposed that a primary function of spatially tuned neurons might be to couple the phases of neural oscillators in a manner that allows them to encode spatial locations as patterns of neural synchrony. PMID:24366137

  10. Prediction of phase equilibrium and hydration free energy of carboxylic acids by Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, Nicolas; Gedik, Ibrahim; Lachet, Véronique; Pigeon, Laurent; Lugo, Rafael

    2013-06-13

    In this work, a new transferable united-atom force field has been developed to predict phase equilibrium and hydration free energy of carboxylic acids. To take advantage of the transferability of the AUA4 force field, all Lennard-Jones parameters of groups involved in the carboxylic acid chemical function are reused from previous parametrizations of this force field. Only a unique set of partial electrostatic charges is proposed to reproduce the experimental gas phase dipole moment, saturated liquid densities and vapor pressures. Phase equilibrium properties of various pure carboxylic acids (acetic acid, propanoic acid, butanoic acid, pentanoic acid, hexanoic acid) and one diacid (1,5-pentanedioic) are studied through Monte Carlo simulations in the Gibbs ensemble. A good accuracy is obtained for pure compound saturated liquid densities and vapor pressures (average deviation of 2% and 6%, respectively), as well as for critical points. The vaporization enthalpy is, however, poorly predicted for short acids, probably due to a limitation of the force field to correctly describe the significant dimerization in the vapor phase. Pressure-composition diagrams for two binary mixtures (acetic acid + n-butane and propanoic acid + pentanoic acid) are also computed with a good accuracy, showing the transferability of the proposed force field to mixtures. Hydration free energies are calculated for three carboxylic acids using thermodynamic integration. A systematic overestimation of around 10 kJ/mol is observed compared to experimental data. This new force field parametrized only on saturated equilibrium properties appears insufficient to reach an acceptable precision for this property, and only relative hydration free energies between two carboxylic acids can be correctly predicted. This highlights the limitation of the transferability feature of force fields to properties not included in the parametrization database.

  11. Prediction of phase equilibrium and hydration free energy of carboxylic acids by Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, Nicolas; Gedik, Ibrahim; Lachet, Véronique; Pigeon, Laurent; Lugo, Rafael

    2013-06-13

    In this work, a new transferable united-atom force field has been developed to predict phase equilibrium and hydration free energy of carboxylic acids. To take advantage of the transferability of the AUA4 force field, all Lennard-Jones parameters of groups involved in the carboxylic acid chemical function are reused from previous parametrizations of this force field. Only a unique set of partial electrostatic charges is proposed to reproduce the experimental gas phase dipole moment, saturated liquid densities and vapor pressures. Phase equilibrium properties of various pure carboxylic acids (acetic acid, propanoic acid, butanoic acid, pentanoic acid, hexanoic acid) and one diacid (1,5-pentanedioic) are studied through Monte Carlo simulations in the Gibbs ensemble. A good accuracy is obtained for pure compound saturated liquid densities and vapor pressures (average deviation of 2% and 6%, respectively), as well as for critical points. The vaporization enthalpy is, however, poorly predicted for short acids, probably due to a limitation of the force field to correctly describe the significant dimerization in the vapor phase. Pressure-composition diagrams for two binary mixtures (acetic acid + n-butane and propanoic acid + pentanoic acid) are also computed with a good accuracy, showing the transferability of the proposed force field to mixtures. Hydration free energies are calculated for three carboxylic acids using thermodynamic integration. A systematic overestimation of around 10 kJ/mol is observed compared to experimental data. This new force field parametrized only on saturated equilibrium properties appears insufficient to reach an acceptable precision for this property, and only relative hydration free energies between two carboxylic acids can be correctly predicted. This highlights the limitation of the transferability feature of force fields to properties not included in the parametrization database. PMID:23697338

  12. Mid- and long-term runoff predictions by an improved phase-space reconstruction model.

    PubMed

    Hong, Mei; Wang, Dong; Wang, Yuankun; Zeng, Xiankui; Ge, Shanshan; Yan, Hengqian; Singh, Vijay P

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, the phase-space reconstruction method has usually been used for mid- and long-term runoff predictions. However, the traditional phase-space reconstruction method is still needs to be improved. Using the genetic algorithm to improve the phase-space reconstruction method, a new nonlinear model of monthly runoff is constructed. The new model does not rely heavily on embedding dimensions. Recognizing that the rainfall-runoff process is complex, affected by a number of factors, more variables (e.g. temperature and rainfall) are incorporated in the model. In order to detect the possible presence of chaos in the runoff dynamics, chaotic characteristics of the model are also analyzed, which shows the model can represent the nonlinear and chaotic characteristics of the runoff. The model is tested for its forecasting performance in four types of experiments using data from six hydrological stations on the Yellow River and the Yangtze River. Results show that the medium-and long-term runoff is satisfactorily forecasted at the hydrological stations. Not only is the forecasting trend accurate, but also the mean absolute percentage error is no more than 15%. Moreover, the forecast results of wet years and dry years are both good, which means that the improved model can overcome the traditional ''wet years and dry years predictability barrier,'' to some extent. The model forecasts for different regions are all good, showing the universality of the approach. Compared with selected conceptual and empirical methods, the model exhibits greater reliability and stability in the long-term runoff prediction. Our study provides a new thinking for research on the association between the monthly runoff and other hydrological factors, and also provides a new method for the prediction of the monthly runoff. PMID:26632992

  13. Mid- and long-term runoff predictions by an improved phase-space reconstruction model.

    PubMed

    Hong, Mei; Wang, Dong; Wang, Yuankun; Zeng, Xiankui; Ge, Shanshan; Yan, Hengqian; Singh, Vijay P

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, the phase-space reconstruction method has usually been used for mid- and long-term runoff predictions. However, the traditional phase-space reconstruction method is still needs to be improved. Using the genetic algorithm to improve the phase-space reconstruction method, a new nonlinear model of monthly runoff is constructed. The new model does not rely heavily on embedding dimensions. Recognizing that the rainfall-runoff process is complex, affected by a number of factors, more variables (e.g. temperature and rainfall) are incorporated in the model. In order to detect the possible presence of chaos in the runoff dynamics, chaotic characteristics of the model are also analyzed, which shows the model can represent the nonlinear and chaotic characteristics of the runoff. The model is tested for its forecasting performance in four types of experiments using data from six hydrological stations on the Yellow River and the Yangtze River. Results show that the medium-and long-term runoff is satisfactorily forecasted at the hydrological stations. Not only is the forecasting trend accurate, but also the mean absolute percentage error is no more than 15%. Moreover, the forecast results of wet years and dry years are both good, which means that the improved model can overcome the traditional ''wet years and dry years predictability barrier,'' to some extent. The model forecasts for different regions are all good, showing the universality of the approach. Compared with selected conceptual and empirical methods, the model exhibits greater reliability and stability in the long-term runoff prediction. Our study provides a new thinking for research on the association between the monthly runoff and other hydrological factors, and also provides a new method for the prediction of the monthly runoff.

  14. Probing the causal role of prestimulus interregional synchrony for perceptual integration via tACS

    PubMed Central

    Stonkus, Rolandas; Braun, Verena; Kerlin, Jess R.; Volberg, Gregor; Hanslmayr, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The phase of prestimulus oscillations at 7–10 Hz has been shown to modulate perception of briefly presented visual stimuli. Specifically, a recent combined EEG-fMRI study suggested that a prestimulus oscillation at around 7 Hz represents open and closed windows for perceptual integration by modulating connectivity between lower order occipital and higher order parietal brain regions. We here utilized brief event-related transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) to specifically modulate this prestimulus 7 Hz oscillation, and the synchrony between parietal and occipital brain regions. To this end we tested for a causal role of this particular prestimulus oscillation for perceptual integration. The EEG was acquired at the same time allowing us to investigate frequency specific after effects phase-locked to stimulation offset. On a behavioural level our results suggest that tACS did modulate perceptual integration, however, in an unexpected manner. On an electrophysiological level our results suggest that brief tACS does induce oscillatory entrainment, as visible in frequency specific activity phase-locked to stimulation offset. Together, our results do not strongly support a causal role of prestimulus 7 Hz oscillations for perceptual integration. However, our results suggest that brief tACS is capable of modulating oscillatory activity in a temporally sensitive manner. PMID:27616188

  15. Probing the causal role of prestimulus interregional synchrony for perceptual integration via tACS.

    PubMed

    Stonkus, Rolandas; Braun, Verena; Kerlin, Jess R; Volberg, Gregor; Hanslmayr, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The phase of prestimulus oscillations at 7-10 Hz has been shown to modulate perception of briefly presented visual stimuli. Specifically, a recent combined EEG-fMRI study suggested that a prestimulus oscillation at around 7 Hz represents open and closed windows for perceptual integration by modulating connectivity between lower order occipital and higher order parietal brain regions. We here utilized brief event-related transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) to specifically modulate this prestimulus 7 Hz oscillation, and the synchrony between parietal and occipital brain regions. To this end we tested for a causal role of this particular prestimulus oscillation for perceptual integration. The EEG was acquired at the same time allowing us to investigate frequency specific after effects phase-locked to stimulation offset. On a behavioural level our results suggest that tACS did modulate perceptual integration, however, in an unexpected manner. On an electrophysiological level our results suggest that brief tACS does induce oscillatory entrainment, as visible in frequency specific activity phase-locked to stimulation offset. Together, our results do not strongly support a causal role of prestimulus 7 Hz oscillations for perceptual integration. However, our results suggest that brief tACS is capable of modulating oscillatory activity in a temporally sensitive manner. PMID:27616188

  16. Is there an impact of small phase lags in the Kuramoto model?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omel'chenko, Oleh E.; Wolfrum, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    We discuss the influence of small phase lags on the synchronization transitions in the Kuramoto model for a large inhomogeneous population of globally coupled phase oscillators. Without a phase lag, all unimodal distributions of the natural frequencies give rise to a classical synchronization scenario, where above the onset of synchrony at the Kuramoto threshold, there is an increasing synchrony for increasing coupling strength. We show that already for arbitrarily small phase lags, there are certain unimodal distributions of natural frequencies such that for increasing coupling strength synchrony may decrease and even complete incoherence may regain stability. Moreover, our example allows a qualitative understanding of the mechanism for such non-universal synchronization transitions.

  17. Distribution of Organophosphate Esters between the Gas and Particle Phase-Model Predictions vs Measured Data.

    PubMed

    Sühring, Roxana; Wolschke, Hendrik; Diamond, Miriam L; Jantunen, Liisa M; Scheringer, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Gas-particle partitioning is one of the key factors that affect the environmental fate of semivolatile organic chemicals. Many organophosphate esters (OPEs) have been reported to primarily partition to particles in the atmosphere. However, because of the wide range of their physicochemical properties, it is unlikely that OPEs are mainly in the particle phase "as a class". We compared gas-particle partitioning predictions for 32 OPEs made by the commonly used OECD POV and LRTP Screening Tool ("the Tool") with the partitioning models of Junge-Pankow (J-P) and Harner-Bidleman (H-B), as well as recently measured data on OPE gas-particle partitioning. The results indicate that half of the tested OPEs partition into the gas phase. Partitioning into the gas phase seems to be determined by an octanol-air partition coefficient (log KOA) < 10 and a subcooled liquid vapor pressure (log PL) > -5 (PL in Pa), as well as the total suspended particle concentration (TSP) in the sampling area. The uncertainty of the physicochemical property data of the OPEs did not change this estimate. Furthermore, the predictions by the Tool, J-P- and H-B-models agreed with recently measured OPE gas-particle partitioning. PMID:27144674

  18. Job stress and dyadic synchrony in police marriages: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Nicole A; Leonard, Rachel C; Butler, Emily A; Levenson, Robert W; Kanter, Jonathan W

    2013-06-01

    Despite reports documenting adverse effects of stress on police marriages, few empirical studies focus on actual emotional behaviors of officers and spouses. In this preliminary investigation, 17 male police officers and their nonpolice wives completed daily stress diaries for 1 week and then participated in a laboratory-based discussion about their respective days. Conversations were video-recorded and coded for specific emotional behaviors reflecting hostility and affection, which are strong predictors of marital outcomes. We examined associations between officers' job stress (per diaries and the Police Stress Survey) and couples' emotional behavior (mean levels and behavioral synchrony) using a dyadic repeated measures design capitalizing on the large number of observations available for each couple (1020 observations). When officers reported more job stress, they showed less hostility, less synchrony with their wives' hostility, and more synchrony with their wives' affection; their wives showed greater synchrony with officers' hostility and less synchrony with officers' affection. Therefore, for officers, greater job stress was associated with less behavioral negativity, potentially less attunement to wives' negativity, but potentially greater attunement to wives' affection-perhaps a compensatory strategy or attempt to buffer their marriage from stress. These attempts may be less effective, however, if, as our synchrony findings may suggest, wives are focusing on officers' hostility rather than affection. Although it will be important to replicate these results given the small sample, our findings reveal that patterns of behavioral synchrony may be a key means to better understand how job stress exacts a toll on police marriages.

  19. Rate-synchrony relationship between input and output of spike trains in neuronal networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sentao; Zhou, Changsong

    2010-01-01

    Neuronal networks interact via spike trains. How the spike trains are transformed by neuronal networks is critical for understanding the underlying mechanism of information processing in the nervous system. Both the rate and synchrony of the spikes can affect the transmission, while the relationship between them has not been fully understood. Here we investigate the mapping between input and output spike trains of a neuronal network in terms of firing rate and synchrony. With large enough input rate, the working mode of the neurons is gradually changed from temporal integrators into coincidence detectors when the synchrony degree of input spike trains increases. Since the membrane potentials of the neurons can be depolarized to near the firing threshold by uncorrelated input spikes, small input synchrony can cause great output synchrony. On the other hand, the synchrony in the output may be reduced when the input rate is too small. The case of the feedforward network can be regarded as iterative process of such an input-output relationship. The activity in deep layers of the feedforward network is in an all-or-none manner depending on the input rate and synchrony.

  20. Increased Synchrony and Bursting of Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus Fusiform Cells Correlate with Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Calvin; Martel, David T.

    2016-01-01

    Tinnitus, the perception of phantom sounds, is thought to arise from increased neural synchrony, which facilitates perceptual binding and creates salient sensory features in the absence of physical stimuli. In the auditory cortex, increased spontaneous cross-unit synchrony and single-unit bursting are de facto physiological correlates of tinnitus. However, it is unknown whether neurons in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), the putative tinnitus-induction site, exhibit increased synchrony. Using a temporary-threshold shift model and gap-prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle to assess tinnitus, we recorded spontaneous activity from fusiform cells, the principle neurons of the DCN, in normal hearing, tinnitus, and non-tinnitus guinea pigs. Synchrony and bursting, as well as spontaneous firing rate (SFR), correlated with behavioral evidence of tinnitus, and increased synchrony and bursting were associated with SFR elevation. The presence of increased synchrony and bursting in DCN fusiform cells suggests that a neural code for phantom sounds emerges in this brainstem location and likely contributes to the formation of the tinnitus percept. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Tinnitus, a phantom auditory percept, is encoded by pathological changes in the neural synchrony code of perceptual processing. Increased cross-unit synchrony and bursting have been linked to tinnitus in several higher auditory stations but not in fusiform cells of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), key brainstem neurons in tinnitus generation. Here, we demonstrate increased synchrony and bursting of fusiform cell spontaneous firing, which correlate with frequency-specific behavioral measures of tinnitus. Thus, the neural representation of tinnitus emerges early in auditory processing and likely drives its pathophysiology in higher structures. PMID:26865628

  1. Deviations from the mean-field predictions for the phase behaviour of random copolymers melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houdayer, J.; Müller, M.

    2002-06-01

    We investigate the phase behaviour of random copolymers melts via large-scale Monte Carlo simulations. We observe macrophase separation into A- and B-rich phases as predicted by the mean-field theory only for systems with a very large correlation λ of blocks along the polymer chains, far away from the Lifshitz point. For smaller values of λ, we find that a locally segregated, disordered microemulsion-like structure gradually forms as the temperature decreases. As we increase the number of blocks in the polymers, the region of macrophase separation further shrinks. The results of our Monte Carlo simulation are in agreement with a Ginzburg criterium, which suggests that the mean-field theory becomes worse as the number of blocks in polymers increases.

  2. Prediction of Parameters Distribution of Upward Boiling Two-Phase Flow With Two-Fluid Models

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Wei; Morel, Christophe

    2002-07-01

    In this paper, a multidimensional two-fluid model with additional turbulence k - {epsilon} equations is used to predict the two-phase parameters distribution in freon R12 boiling flow. The 3D module of the CATHARE code is used for numerical calculation. The DEBORA experiment has been chosen to evaluate our models. The radial profiles of the outlet parameters were measured by means of an optical probe. The comparison of the radial profiles of void fraction, liquid temperature, gas velocity and volumetric interfacial area at the end of the heated section shows that the multidimensional two-fluid model with proper constitutive relations can yield reasonably predicted results in boiling conditions. Sensitivity tests show that the turbulent dispersion force, which involves the void fraction gradient, plays an important role in determining the void fraction distribution; and the turbulence eddy viscosity is a significant factor to influence the liquid temperature distribution. (authors)

  3. A two-phase model of plantar tissue: a step toward prediction of diabetic foot ulceration.

    PubMed

    Sciumè, G; Boso, D P; Gray, W G; Cobelli, C; Schrefler, B A

    2014-11-01

    A new computational model, based on the thermodynamically constrained averaging theory, has been recently proposed to predict tumor initiation and proliferation. A similar mathematical approach is proposed here as an aid in diabetic ulcer prevention. The common aspects at the continuum level are the macroscopic balance equations governing the flow of the fluid phase, diffusion of chemical species, tissue mechanics, and some of the constitutive equations. The soft plantar tissue is modeled as a two-phase system: a solid phase consisting of the tissue cells and their extracellular matrix, and a fluid one (interstitial fluid and dissolved chemical species). The solid phase may become necrotic depending on the stress level and on the oxygen availability in the tissue. Actually, in diabetic patients, peripheral vascular disease impacts tissue necrosis; this is considered in the model via the introduction of an effective diffusion coefficient that governs transport of nutrients within the microvasculature. The governing equations of the mathematical model are discretized in space by the finite element method and in time domain using the θ-Wilson Method. While the full mathematical model is developed in this paper, the example is limited to the simulation of several gait cycles of a healthy foot.

  4. Predicting mixture phase equilibria and critical behavior using the SAFT-VRX approach.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lixin; Zhao, Honggang; Kiselev, Sergei B; McCabe, Clare

    2005-05-12

    The SAFT-VRX equation of state combines the SAFT-VR equation with a crossover function that smoothly transforms the classical equation into a nonanalytical form close to the critical point. By a combinination of the accuracy of the SAFT-VR approach away from the critical region with the asymptotic scaling behavior seen at the critical point of real fluids, the SAFT-VRX equation can accurately describe the global fluid phase diagram. In previous work, we demonstrated that the SAFT-VRX equation very accurately describes the pvT and phase behavior of both nonassociating and associating pure fluids, with a minimum of fitting to experimental data. Here, we present a generalized SAFT-VRX equation of state for binary mixtures that is found to accurately predict the vapor-liquid equilibrium and pvT behavior of the systems studied. In particular, we examine binary mixtures of n-alkanes and carbon dioxide + n-alkanes. The SAFT-VRX equation accurately describes not only the gas-liquid critical locus for these systems but also the vapor-liquid equilibrium phase diagrams and thermal properties in single-phase regions.

  5. Predicting phase behavior of mixtures of reservoir fluids with carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Grigg, R.B.; Lingane, P.J.

    1983-10-01

    The use of an equation of state to predict phase behavior during carbon dioxide flooding is well established. There is consensus that the characterization of the C fraction, the grouping of this fraction into ''pseudo components'', and the selection of interaction parameters are the most important variables. However, the literature is vague as to how to best select the pseudo components, especially when aiming for a few-component representation as for a field scale compositional simulation. Single-contact phase behavior is presented for mixtures of Ford Geraldine (Delaware), Maljamar (Grayburg), West Sussex (Shannon), and Reservoir D reservoir fluids, and of a synthetic oil C/C/C, with carbon dioxide. One can reproduce the phase behavior of these mixtures using 3-5 pseudo components and common interaction parameters. The critical properties of the pseudo components are calculated from detailed oil characterizations. Because the parameters are not further adjusted, this approach reduces the empiricism in fitting phase data and may result in a more accurate representation of the system as the composition of the oil changes during the approach to miscibility.

  6. Prediction of slug frequency in horizontal two-phase slug flow

    SciTech Connect

    Tronconi, E. )

    1990-05-01

    In this paper available data on slug frequency in horizontal two-phase intermittent flow are predicted with adequate accuracy by assuming that the slug frequency is one half of the frequency of the unstable waves precursors slugs, as determined according to published analyses of finite amplitude waves in conduits. The experimental effects of gas and liquid flow rates, pipe diameter, gas density and liquid viscosity on slug frequency are explained by modifications of the wave properties due to changes in the liquid level of the stratified flow existing in the pipe inlet region prior to slug formation. Simple generalized equations are proposed to estimate the slug frequency for engineering calculations.

  7. Prediction of prostate cancer recurrence using quantitative phase imaging: Validation on a general population

    PubMed Central

    Sridharan, Shamira; Macias, Virgilia; Tangella, Krishnarao; Melamed, Jonathan; Dube, Emily; Kong, Max Xiangtian; Kajdacsy-Balla, André; Popescu, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Prediction of biochemical recurrence risk of prostate cancer following radical prostatectomy is critical for determining whether the patient would benefit from adjuvant treatments. Various nomograms exist today for identifying individuals at higher risk for recurrence; however, an optimistic under-estimation of recurrence risk is a common problem associated with these methods. We previously showed that anisotropy of light scattering measured using quantitative phase imaging, in the stromal layer adjacent to cancerous glands, is predictive of recurrence. That nested-case controlled study consisted of specimens specifically chosen such that the current prognostic methods fail. Here we report on validating the utility of optical anisotropy for prediction of prostate cancer recurrence in a general population of 192 patients, with 17% probability of recurrence. Our results show that our method can identify recurrent cases with 73% sensitivity and 72% specificity, which is comparable to that of CAPRA-S, a current state of the art method, in the same population. However, our results show that optical anisotropy outperforms CAPRA-S for patients with Gleason grades 7–10. In essence, we demonstrate that anisotropy is a better biomarker for identifying high-risk cases, while Gleason grade is better suited for selecting non-recurrence. Therefore, we propose that anisotropy and current techniques be used together to maximize prediction accuracy. PMID:27658807

  8. Prediction of prostate cancer recurrence using quantitative phase imaging: Validation on a general population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, Shamira; Macias, Virgilia; Tangella, Krishnarao; Melamed, Jonathan; Dube, Emily; Kong, Max Xiangtian; Kajdacsy-Balla, André; Popescu, Gabriel

    2016-09-01

    Prediction of biochemical recurrence risk of prostate cancer following radical prostatectomy is critical for determining whether the patient would benefit from adjuvant treatments. Various nomograms exist today for identifying individuals at higher risk for recurrence; however, an optimistic under-estimation of recurrence risk is a common problem associated with these methods. We previously showed that anisotropy of light scattering measured using quantitative phase imaging, in the stromal layer adjacent to cancerous glands, is predictive of recurrence. That nested-case controlled study consisted of specimens specifically chosen such that the current prognostic methods fail. Here we report on validating the utility of optical anisotropy for prediction of prostate cancer recurrence in a general population of 192 patients, with 17% probability of recurrence. Our results show that our method can identify recurrent cases with 73% sensitivity and 72% specificity, which is comparable to that of CAPRA-S, a current state of the art method, in the same population. However, our results show that optical anisotropy outperforms CAPRA-S for patients with Gleason grades 7–10. In essence, we demonstrate that anisotropy is a better biomarker for identifying high-risk cases, while Gleason grade is better suited for selecting non-recurrence. Therefore, we propose that anisotropy and current techniques be used together to maximize prediction accuracy.

  9. Prediction of contaminant persistence in aqueous phase: a quantum chemical approach.

    PubMed

    Blotevogel, Jens; Mayeno, Arthur N; Sale, Tom C; Borch, Thomas

    2011-03-15

    At contaminated field sites where active remediation measures are not feasible, monitored natural attenuation is sometimes the only alternative for surface water or groundwater decontamination. However, due to slow degradation rates of some contaminants under natural conditions, attenuation processes and their performance assessment can take several years to decades to complete. Here, we apply quantum chemical calculations to predict contaminant persistence in the aqueous phase. For the test compound hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA), P-N bond hydrolysis is the only thermodynamically favorable reaction that may lead to its degradation under reducing conditions. Through calculation of aqueous Gibbs free energies of activation for all potential reaction mechanisms, it is predicted that HMPA hydrolyzes via an acid-catalyzed mechanism at pH < 8.2, and an uncatalyzed mechanism at pH 8.2-8.5. The estimated half-lives of thousands to hundreds of thousands of years over the groundwater-typical pH range of 6.0 to 8.5 indicate that HMPA will be persistent in the absence of suitable oxidants. At pH 0, where the hydrolysis reaction is rapid enough to enable measurement, the experimentally determined rate constant and half-life are in excellent agreement with the predicted values. Since the quantum chemical methodology described herein can be applied to virtually any contaminant or reaction of interest, it is especially valuable for the prediction of persistence when slow reaction rates impede experimental investigations and appropriate QSARs are unavailable.

  10. Cell Autonomy and Synchrony of Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Circadian Oscillators

    PubMed Central

    Mohawk, Jennifer A.; Takahashi, Joseph S.

    2013-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus is the site of the master circadian pacemaker in mammals. The individual cells of the SCN are capable of functioning independently from one another and therefore must form a cohesive circadian network through intercellular coupling. The network properties of the SCN lead to coordination of circadian rhythms among its neurons and neuronal subpopulations. There is increasing evidence for multiple interconnected oscillators within the SCN, and in this Review, we will highlight recent advances in our understanding of the complex organization and function of the cellular and network-level SCN clock. Understanding the way in which synchrony is achieved between cells in the SCN will provide insight into the means by which this important nucleus orchestrates circadian rhythms throughout the organism. PMID:21665298

  11. Heartbeat, embryo communication and hatching synchrony in snake eggs.

    PubMed

    Aubret, Fabien; Blanvillain, Gaëlle; Bignon, Florent; Kok, Philippe J R

    2016-01-01

    Communication is central to life at all levels of complexity, from cells to organs, through to organisms and communities. Turtle eggs were recently shown to communicate with each other in order to synchronise their development and generate beneficial hatching synchrony. Yet the mechanism underlying embryo to embryo communication remains unknown. Here we show that within a clutch, developing snake embryos use heart beats emanating from neighbouring eggs as a clue for their metabolic level, in order to synchronise development and ultimately hatching. Eggs of the water snake Natrix maura increased heart rates and hatched earlier than control eggs in response to being incubated in physical contact with more advanced eggs. The former produced shorter and slower swimming young than their control siblings. Our results suggest potential fitness consequences of embryo to embryo communication and describe a novel driver for the evolution of egg-clustering behaviour in animals. PMID:26988725

  12. Heartbeat, embryo communication and hatching synchrony in snake eggs

    PubMed Central

    Aubret, Fabien; Blanvillain, Gaëlle; Bignon, Florent; Kok, Philippe J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Communication is central to life at all levels of complexity, from cells to organs, through to organisms and communities. Turtle eggs were recently shown to communicate with each other in order to synchronise their development and generate beneficial hatching synchrony. Yet the mechanism underlying embryo to embryo communication remains unknown. Here we show that within a clutch, developing snake embryos use heart beats emanating from neighbouring eggs as a clue for their metabolic level, in order to synchronise development and ultimately hatching. Eggs of the water snake Natrix maura increased heart rates and hatched earlier than control eggs in response to being incubated in physical contact with more advanced eggs. The former produced shorter and slower swimming young than their control siblings. Our results suggest potential fitness consequences of embryo to embryo communication and describe a novel driver for the evolution of egg-clustering behaviour in animals. PMID:26988725

  13. Synchrony in schizophrenia: a window into circuit-level pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Spellman, Timothy J; Gordon, Joshua A

    2015-02-01

    As a complex neuropsychiatric disease with both hereditary and environmental components, schizophrenia must be understood across multiple biological scales, from genes through cells and circuits to behaviors. The key to evaluating candidate explanatory models, therefore, is to establish causal links between disease-related phenomena observed across these scales. To this end, there has been a resurgence of interest in the circuit-level pathophysiology of schizophrenia, which has the potential to link molecular and cellular data from risk factor and post-mortem studies with the behavioral phenomena that plague patients. The demonstration that patients with schizophrenia frequently have deficits in neuronal synchrony, including deficits in local oscillations and long-range functional connectivity, offers a promising opportunity to forge such links across scales.

  14. Crowd Synchrony and Quorum Sensing in Delay-Coupled Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamora-Munt, Jordi; Masoller, C.; Garcia-Ojalvo, Jordi; Roy, Rajarshi

    2010-12-01

    Crowd synchrony and quorum sensing arise when a large number of dynamical elements communicate with each other via a common information pool. Previous evidence has shown that this type of coupling leads to synchronization, when coupling is instantaneous and the number of coupled elements is large enough. Here we consider a situation in which the transmission of information between the system components and the coupling pool is not instantaneous. To that end, we model a system of semiconductor lasers optically coupled to a central laser with a delay. Our results show that, even though the lasers are nonidentical due to their distinct optical frequencies, zero-lag synchronization arises. By changing a system parameter, we can switch between two different types of synchronization transition. The dependence of the transition with respect to the delay-coupling parameters is studied.

  15. Computational Thermodynamic Study to Predict Complex Phase Equilibria in the Nickel-Base Superalloy Rene N6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan H.; Jacobson, Nathan S.; Ritzert, Frank J.

    2001-01-01

    A previous study by Ritzert et al. on the formation and prediction of topologically closed packed (TCP) phases in the nickel-base superalloy Rene' N6 is re-examined with computational thermodynamics. The experimental data on phase distribution in forty-four alloys with a composition within the patent limits of the nickel-base superalloy Rene' N6 provide a good basis for comparison to and validation of a commercial nickel superalloy database used with ThermoCalc. Volume fraction of the phases and partitioning of the elements are determined for the forty-four alloys in this dataset. The baseline heat treatment of 400 h at 1366 K was used. This composition set is particularly interesting since small composition differences lead to dramatic changes in phase composition. In general the calculated values follow the experimental trends. However, the calculations indicated no TCP phase formation when the experimental measurements gave a volume percent of TCP phase less than 2 percent. When TCP phases were predicted, the calculations under-predict the volume percent of TCP phases by a factor of 2 to 8. The calculated compositions of the gamma and gamma' phases show fair agreement with the measurements. However, the calculated compositions of the P Phase do not agree with those measured. This may be due to inaccuracies in the model parameters for P phase and/or issues with the microprobe analyses of these phases. In addition, phase fraction diagrams and sigma and P phase solvus temperatures are calculated for each of the alloys. These calculations indicate that P phase is the primary TCP phase formed for the alloys considered here at 1366 K. Finally, a series of isopleths are calculated for each of the seven alloying elements. These show the effect of each alloying element on creating TCP phases.

  16. A new phase of ThC at high pressure predicted from a first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yongliang; Qiu, Wujie; Ke, Xuezhi; Huai, Ping; Cheng, Cheng; Han, Han; Ren, Cuilan; Zhu, Zhiyuan

    2015-08-01

    The phase transition of thorium monocarbide (ThC) at high pressure has been studied by means of density functional theory. Through structure search, a new phase with space group P 4 / nmm has been predicted. The calculated phonons demonstrate that this new phase and the previous B2 phase are dynamically stable as the external pressure is greater than 60 GPa and 120 GPa, respectively. The transformation from B1 to P 4 / nmm is predicted to be a first-order transition, while that from P 4 / nmm to B2 is found to be a second-order transition.

  17. Synchrony during acoustic interactions in the bushcricket Mecopoda 'Chirper' (Tettigoniidae:Orthoptera) is generated by a combination of chirp-by-chirp resetting and change in intrinsic chirp rate.

    PubMed

    Nityananda, Vivek; Balakrishnan, Rohini

    2007-01-01

    In several bushcricket species, individual males synchronise their chirps during acoustic interactions. Synchrony is imperfect with the chirps of one male leading or lagging the other by a few milliseconds. Imperfect synchrony is believed to have evolved in response to female preferences for leading chirps. We investigated the mechanism underlying synchrony in the bushcricket species Mecopoda 'Chirper' from Southern India using playback experiments and simulations of pairwise interactions. We also investigated whether intrinsic chirp period is a good predictor of leading probability during interactions between males. The mechanism underlying synchrony in this species differs from previously reported mechanisms in that it involves both a change in the oscillator's intrinsic rate and resetting on a chirp-by-chirp basis. The form of the phase response curve differs from those of previously reported firefly and bushcricket species including the closely related Malaysian species Mecopoda elongata. Simulations exploring oscillator properties showed that the outcome of pairwise interactions was independent of initial phase and alternation was not possible. Solo intrinsic chirp period was a relatively good predictor of leading probability. However, changing the intrinsic period during interactions could enable males with longer periods to lead during acoustic interactions. PMID:16983544

  18. Impaired limbic gamma oscillatory synchrony during anxiety-related behavior in a genetic mouse model of bipolar mania.

    PubMed

    Dzirasa, Kafui; McGarity, DeAnna L; Bhattacharya, Anirban; Kumar, Sunil; Takahashi, Joseph S; Dunson, David; McClung, Colleen A; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

    2011-04-27

    Alterations in anxiety-related processing are observed across many neuropsychiatric disorders, including bipolar disorder. Though polymorphisms in a number of circadian genes confer risk for this disorder, little is known about how changes in circadian gene function disrupt brain circuits critical for anxiety-related processing. Here we characterize neurophysiological activity simultaneously across five limbic brain areas (nucleus accumbens, amygdala, prelimbic cortex, ventral hippocampus, and ventral tegmental area) as wild-type (WT) mice and mice with a mutation in the circadian gene, CLOCK (Clock-Δ19 mice) perform an elevated zero maze task. In WT mice, basal limbic gamma oscillatory synchrony observed before task performance predicted future anxiety-related behaviors. Additionally, dynamic changes in limbic gamma oscillatory synchrony were observed based on the position of WT mice in the zero maze. Clock-Δ19 mice, which displayed an increased propensity to enter the open section of the elevated maze, showed profound deficits in these anxiety-related circuit processes. Thus, our findings link the anxiety-related behavioral deficits observed in Clock-Δ19 mice with dysfunctional gamma oscillatory tuning across limbic circuits and suggest that alterations in limbic oscillatory circuit function induced by circadian gene polymorphisms may contribute to the behavioral manifestations seen in bipolar mania.

  19. Using phase diagrams to predict the performance of cosolvent floods for NAPL remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Falta, R.W.

    1998-12-31

    Cosolvent flooding using water miscible solvents such as alcohols has been proposed as an in situ NAPL remediation technique. This process is conceptually similar to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) using alcohols and some surfactant formulations. As a result of interest in the EOR aspects of these systems, analytical and graphical methods based on fractional flow theory were developed in the petroleum engineering literature for modeling these floods. The existing fractional flow solutions have not been used previously in environmental applications of cosolvent flooding, but they are applicable and provide many useful insights into the process. These applications are discussed, with an emphasis on explaining the mechanisms which tend to mobilize trapped NAPL during a cosolvent flood. The theory provides a simple way to predict the general behavior of a cosolvent flood using the phase diagram. It is concluded that the one-dimensional performance of a cosolvent flood can be predicted largely by inspection of the ternary phase diagram. In particular, the nature of the cosolvent flood depends primarily on the position of the cosolvent injection concentration relative to a critical tie line extension which passes through the plait point, tangent to the binodal curve.

  20. Effects of synaptic synchrony on the neuronal input-output relationship.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoshen; Ascoli, Giorgio A

    2008-07-01

    The firing rate of individual neurons depends on the firing frequency of their distributed synaptic inputs, with linear and nonlinear relations subserving different computational functions. This letter explores the relationship between the degree of synchrony among excitatory synapses and the linearity of the response using detailed compartmental models of cortical pyramidal cells. Synchronous input resulted in a linear input-output relationship, while asynchronous stimulation yielded sub- and supraproportional outputs at low and high frequencies, respectively. The dependence of input-output linearity on synchrony was sigmoidal and considerably robust with respect to dendritic location, stimulus irregularity, and alteration of active and synaptic properties. Moreover, synchrony affected firing rate differently at lower and higher input frequencies. A reduced integrate-and-fire model suggested a mechanism explaining these results based on spatiotemporal integration, with fundamental implications relating synchrony to memory encoding. PMID:18254692

  1. Silent disco: dancing in synchrony leads to elevated pain thresholds and social closeness

    PubMed Central

    Tarr, Bronwyn; Launay, Jacques; Dunbar, Robin I.M.

    2016-01-01

    Moving in synchrony leads to cooperative behaviour and feelings of social closeness, and dance (involving synchronisation to others and music) may cause social bonding, possibly as a consequence of released endorphins. This study uses an experimental paradigm to determine which aspects of synchrony in dance are associated with changes in pain threshold (a proxy for endorphin release) and social bonding between strangers. Those who danced in synchrony experienced elevated pain thresholds, whereas those in the partial and asynchrony conditions experienced no analgesic effects. Similarly, those in the synchrony condition reported being more socially bonded, although they did not perform more cooperatively in an economic game. This experiment suggests that dance encourages social bonding amongst co-actors by stimulating the production of endorphins, but may not make people more altruistic. We conclude that dance may have been an important human behaviour evolved to encourage social closeness between strangers. PMID:27540276

  2. Geometric properties-dependent neural synchrony modulated by extracellular subthreshold electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xile; Si, Kaili; Yi, Guosheng; Wang, Jiang; Lu, Meili

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we use a reduced two-compartment neuron model to investigate the interaction between extracellular subthreshold electric field and synchrony in small world networks. It is observed that network synchronization is closely related to the strength of electric field and geometric properties of the two-compartment model. Specifically, increasing the electric field induces a gradual improvement in network synchrony, while increasing the geometric factor results in an abrupt decrease in synchronization of network. In addition, increasing electric field can make the network become synchronous from asynchronous when the geometric parameter is set to a given value. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that network synchrony can also be affected by the firing frequency and dynamical bifurcation feature of single neuron. These results highlight the effect of weak field on network synchrony from the view of biophysical model, which may contribute to further understanding the effect of electric field on network activity.

  3. Photic entrainment of Period mutant mice is predicted from their phase response curves

    PubMed Central

    Pendergast, Julie S.; Friday, Rio C.; Yamazaki, Shin

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental property of circadian clocks is that they entrain to environmental cues. The circadian genes, Period1 and Period2, are involved in entrainment of the mammalian circadian system. To investigate the roles of the Period genes in photic entrainment, we constructed phase response curves (PRC) to light pulses for C57BL/6J wild-type, Per1−/−, Per2−/−, and Per3−/− mice and tested whether the PRCs accurately predict entrainment to non-24 light-dark cycles (T-cycles) and constant light (LL). The PRCs of wild-type and Per3−/− mice are similar in shape and amplitude and have relatively large delay zones and small advance zones, resulting in successful entrainment to T26, but not T21, with similar phase angles. Per1−/− mice have a high-amplitude PRC, resulting in entrainment to a broad range of T-cycles. Per2−/− mice also entrain to a wide range of T-cycles because the advance portion of their PRC is larger than wild-types. Period aftereffects following entrainment to T-cycles were similar among all genotypes. We found that the ratio of the advance portion to the delay portion of the PRC accurately predicts the lengthening of the period of the activity rhythm in LL. Wild-type, Per1−/−, and Per3−/− mice had larger delay zones than advance zones and lengthened (>24hrs) periods in LL, while Per2−/− mice had delay and advance zones that were equal in size and no period lengthening in LL. Together, these results demonstrate that PRCs are powerful tools for predicting and understanding photic entrainment of circadian mutant mice. PMID:20826680

  4. Online Epileptic Seizure Prediction Using Wavelet-Based Bi-Phase Correlation of Electrical Signals Tomography.

    PubMed

    Vahabi, Zahra; Amirfattahi, Rasoul; Shayegh, Farzaneh; Ghassemi, Fahimeh

    2015-09-01

    Considerable efforts have been made in order to predict seizures. Among these methods, the ones that quantify synchronization between brain areas, are the most important methods. However, to date, a practically acceptable result has not been reported. In this paper, we use a synchronization measurement method that is derived according to the ability of bi-spectrum in determining the nonlinear properties of a system. In this method, first, temporal variation of the bi-spectrum of different channels of electro cardiography (ECoG) signals are obtained via an extended wavelet-based time-frequency analysis method; then, to compare different channels, the bi-phase correlation measure is introduced. Since, in this way, the temporal variation of the amount of nonlinear coupling between brain regions, which have not been considered yet, are taken into account, results are more reliable than the conventional phase-synchronization measures. It is shown that, for 21 patients of FSPEEG database, bi-phase correlation can discriminate the pre-ictal and ictal states, with very low false positive rates (FPRs) (average: 0.078/h) and high sensitivity (100%). However, the proposed seizure predictor still cannot significantly overcome the random predictor for all patients. PMID:26126613

  5. TransportTP: A two-phase classification approach for membrane transporter prediction and characterization

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Membrane transporters play crucial roles in living cells. Experimental characterization of transporters is costly and time-consuming. Current computational methods for transporter characterization still require extensive curation efforts, especially for eukaryotic organisms. We developed a novel genome-scale transporter prediction and characterization system called TransportTP that combined homology-based and machine learning methods in a two-phase classification approach. First, traditional homology methods were employed to predict novel transporters based on sequence similarity to known classified proteins in the Transporter Classification Database (TCDB). Second, machine learning methods were used to integrate a variety of features to refine the initial predictions. A set of rules based on transporter features was developed by machine learning using well-curated proteomes as guides. Results In a cross-validation using the yeast proteome for training and the proteomes of ten other organisms for testing, TransportTP achieved an equivalent recall and precision of 81.8%, based on TransportDB, a manually annotated transporter database. In an independent test using the Arabidopsis proteome for training and four recently sequenced plant proteomes for testing, it achieved a recall of 74.6% and a precision of 73.4%, according to our manual curation. Conclusions TransportTP is the most effective tool for eukaryotic transporter characterization up to date. PMID:20003433

  6. Computational/Experimental Aeroheating Predictions for X-33. Phase 2; Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, H. Harris, II; Weilmuenster, K. James; Horvath, Thomas J.; Berry, Scott A.

    1998-01-01

    Laminar and turbulent heating-rate calculations from an "engineering" code and laminar calculations from a "benchmark" Navier-Stokes code are compared with experimental wind-tunnel data obtained on several candidate configurations for the X-33 Phase 2 flight vehicle. The experimental data were obtained at a Mach number of 6 and a freestream Reynolds number ranging from 1 to 8 x 10(exp 6)/ft. Comparisons are presented along the windward symmetry plane and in a circumferential direction around the body at several axial stations at angles of attack from 20 to 40 deg. The experimental results include both laminar and turbulent flow. For the highest angle of attack some of the measured heating data exhibited a "non-laminar" behavior which caused the heating to increase above the laminar level long before "classical" transition to turbulent flow was observed. This trend was not observed at the lower angles of attack. When the flow was laminar, both codes predicted the heating along the windward symmetry plane reasonably well but under-predicted the heating in the chine region. When the flow was turbulent the LATCH code accurately predicted the measured heating rates. Both codes were used to calculate heating rates over the X-33 vehicle at the peak heating point on the design trajectory and they were found to be in very good agreement over most of the vehicle windward surface.

  7. Audiovisual Temporal Recalibration for Speech in Synchrony Perception and Speech Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, Kaori; Tanaka, Akihiro; Imai, Hisato

    We investigated whether audiovisual synchrony perception for speech could change after observation of the audiovisual temporal mismatch. Previous studies have revealed that audiovisual synchrony perception is re-calibrated after exposure to a constant timing difference between auditory and visual signals in non-speech. In the present study, we examined whether this audiovisual temporal recalibration occurs at the perceptual level even for speech (monosyllables). In Experiment 1, participants performed an audiovisual simultaneity judgment task (i.e., a direct measurement of the audiovisual synchrony perception) in terms of the speech signal after observation of the speech stimuli which had a constant audiovisual lag. The results showed that the “simultaneous” responses (i.e., proportion of responses for which participants judged the auditory and visual stimuli to be synchronous) at least partly depended on exposure lag. In Experiment 2, we adopted the McGurk identification task (i.e., an indirect measurement of the audiovisual synchrony perception) to exclude the possibility that this modulation of synchrony perception was solely attributable to the response strategy using stimuli identical to those of Experiment 1. The characteristics of the McGurk effect reported by participants depended on exposure lag. Thus, it was shown that audiovisual synchrony perception for speech could be modulated following exposure to constant lag both in direct and indirect measurement. Our results suggest that temporal recalibration occurs not only in non-speech signals but also in monosyllabic speech at the perceptual level.

  8. Temporally increasing spatial synchrony of North American temperature and bird populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Walter D.; Liebhold, Andrew M.

    2016-06-01

    The ecological impacts of modern global climate change are detectable in a wide variety of phenomena, ranging from shifts in species ranges to changes in community composition and human disease dynamics. So far, however, little attention has been given to temporal changes in spatial synchrony--the coincident change in abundance or value across the landscape--despite the importance of environmental synchrony as a driver of population trends and the central role of environmental variability in population rescue and extinction. Here we demonstrate that across North America, spatial synchrony of a significant proportion of 49 widespread North American wintering bird species has increased over the past 50 years--the period encompassing particularly intense anthropogenic effects in climate--paralleling significant increases in spatial synchrony of mean maximum air temperature. These results suggest the potential for increased spatial synchrony in environmental factors to be affecting a wide range of ecological phenomena. These effects are likely to vary, but for North American wildlife species, increased spatial synchrony driven by environmental factors may be the basis for a previously unrecognized threat to their long-term persistence in the form of more synchronized population dynamics reducing the potential for demographic rescue among interacting subpopulations.

  9. Development of a group contribution method to predict aqueous phase hydroxyl radical (HO*) reaction rate constants.

    PubMed

    Minakata, Daisuke; Li, Ke; Westerhoff, Paul; Crittenden, John

    2009-08-15

    The hydroxyl radical (HO*) is a strong oxidant that reacts with electron-rich sites of organic compounds and initiates complex chain mechanisms. In order to help understand the reaction mechanisms, a rule-based model was previously developed to predict the reaction pathways. For a kinetic model, there is a need to develop a rate constant estimator that predicts the rate constants for a variety of organic compounds. In this study, a group contribution method (GCM) is developed to predict the aqueous phase HO* rate constants for the following reaction mechanisms: (1) H-atom abstraction, (2) HO* addition to alkenes, (3) HO* addition to aromatic compounds, and (4) HO* interaction with sulfur (S)-, nitrogen (N)-, or phosphorus (P)-atom-containing compounds. The GCM hypothesizes that an observed experimental rate constant for a given organic compound is the combined rate of all elementary reactions involving HO*, which can be estimated using the Arrhenius activation energy, E(a), and temperature. Each E(a) for those elementary reactions can be comprised of two parts: (1) a base part that includes a reactive bond in each reaction mechanism and (2) contributions from its neighboring functional groups. The GCM includes 66 group rate constants and 80 group contribution factors, which characterize each HO* reaction mechanism with steric effects of the chemical structure groups and impacts of the neighboring functional groups, respectively. Literature-reported experimental HO* rate constants for 310 and 124 compounds were used for calibration and prediction, respectively. The genetic algorithms were used to determine the group rate constants and group contribution factors. The group contribution factors for H-atom abstraction and HO* addition to the aromatic compounds were found to linearly correlate with the Taft constants, sigma*, and electrophilic substituent parameters, sigma+, respectively. The best calibrations for 83% (257 rate constants) and predictions for 62% (77

  10. Application of the cell potential method to predict phase equilibria of multicomponent gas hydrate systems.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Brian J; Bazant, Martin Z; Tester, Jefferson W; Trout, Bernhardt L

    2005-04-28

    We present the application of a mathematical method reported earlier by which the van der Waals-Platteeuw statistical mechanical model with the Lennard-Jones and Devonshire approximation can be posed as an integral equation with the unknown function being the intermolecular potential between the guest molecules and the host molecules. This method allows us to solve for the potential directly for hydrates for which the Langmuir constants are computed, either from experimental data or from ab initio data. Given the assumptions made in the van der Waals-Platteeuw model with the spherical-cell approximation, there are an infinite number of solutions; however, the only solution without cusps is a unique central-well solution in which the potential is at a finite minimum at the center to the cage. From this central-well solution, we have found the potential well depths and volumes of negative energy for 16 single-component hydrate systems: ethane (C2H6), cyclopropane (C3H6), methane (CH4), argon (Ar), and chlorodifluoromethane (R-22) in structure I; and ethane (C2H6), cyclopropane (C3H6), propane (C3H8), isobutane (C4H10), methane (CH4), argon (Ar), trichlorofluoromethane (R-11), dichlorodifluoromethane (R-12), bromotrifluoromethane (R-13B1), chloroform (CHCl3), and 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R-134a) in structure II. This method and the calculated cell potentials were validated by predicting existing mixed hydrate phase equilibrium data without any fitting parameters and calculating mixture phase diagrams for methane, ethane, isobutane, and cyclopropane mixtures. Several structural transitions that have been determined experimentally as well as some structural transitions that have not been examined experimentally were also predicted. In the methane-cyclopropane hydrate system, a structural transition from structure I to structure II and back to structure I is predicted to occur outside of the known structure II range for the cyclopropane hydrate. Quintuple (L

  11. An attempt to theoretically predict third-phase formation in the dimethyldibutyltetradecylmalonamide (DMDBTDMA)/dodecane/water/nitric acid extraction system

    SciTech Connect

    LeFrancois, L.; Tondre, C.; Belnet, F.; Noel, D.

    1999-03-01

    The formation of a third phase in solvent extraction (due to splitting of the organic phase into two layers) often occurs when the aqueous phase is highly concentrated in acids. This has been reported with the extraction system dimethyldibutyltetradecylmalonamide (DMDBTDMA)/n-dodecane/water/nitric acid, both in the presence and absence of metal ions. Whereas many experimental efforts have been made to investigate the effects of different parameters on third-phase formation, very few attempts have been made to predict this phenomenon on theoretical grounds. Because the part played by aggregation of the extractant molecules is recognized, the authors propose a new predictive approach based on the use of the Flory-Huggins theory of polymer solutions, which had been successfully applied for the prediction of phase separation phenomena in nonionic surfactant solutions. The authors show that this model can provide an excellent prediction of the demixing curve (in the absence of metal ions) when establishing the relation between the interaction parameter {chi}{sub 12} calculated from this theory and the nitric acid content of the aqueous phase. Apparent values of the solubility parameter {delta}{sub 2} of the diamide extractant at different acid loadings have been calculated, from which the effect of the nature of the diluent can also be very nicely predicted.

  12. The North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME): Phase-1 Seasonal to Interannual Prediction, Phase-2 Toward Developing Intra-Seasonal Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirtman, Ben P.; Min, Dughong; Infanti, Johnna M.; Kinter, James L., III; Paolino, Daniel A.; Zhang, Qin; vandenDool, Huug; Saha, Suranjana; Mendez, Malaquias Pena; Becker, Emily; Peng, Peitao; Tripp, Patrick; Huang, Jin; DeWitt, David G.; Tippett, Michael K.; Barnston, Anthony G.; Li, Shuhua; Rosati, Anthony; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Rienecker, Michele; Suarez, Max; Li, Zhao E.; Marshak, Jelena; Lim, Young-Kwon; Tribbia, Joseph; Pegion, Kathleen; Merryfield, William J.; Denis, Bertrand; Wood, Eric F.

    2013-01-01

    The recent US National Academies report "Assessment of Intraseasonal to Interannual Climate Prediction and Predictability" was unequivocal in recommending the need for the development of a North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) operational predictive capability. Indeed, this effort is required to meet the specific tailored regional prediction and decision support needs of a large community of climate information users. The multi-model ensemble approach has proven extremely effective at quantifying prediction uncertainty due to uncertainty in model formulation, and has proven to produce better prediction quality (on average) then any single model ensemble. This multi-model approach is the basis for several international collaborative prediction research efforts, an operational European system and there are numerous examples of how this multi-model ensemble approach yields superior forecasts compared to any single model. Based on two NOAA Climate Test Bed (CTB) NMME workshops (February 18, and April 8, 2011) a collaborative and coordinated implementation strategy for a NMME prediction system has been developed and is currently delivering real-time seasonal-to-interannual predictions on the NOAA Climate Prediction Center (CPC) operational schedule. The hindcast and real-time prediction data is readily available (e.g., http://iridl.ldeo.columbia.edu/SOURCES/.Models/.NMME/) and in graphical format from CPC (http://origin.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/people/wd51yf/NMME/index.html). Moreover, the NMME forecast are already currently being used as guidance for operational forecasters. This paper describes the new NMME effort, presents an overview of the multi-model forecast quality, and the complementary skill associated with individual models.

  13. Long-term meditators self-induce high-amplitude gamma synchrony during mental practice

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Antoine; Greischar, Lawrence L.; Rawlings, Nancy B.; Ricard, Matthieu; Davidson, Richard J.

    2004-01-01

    Practitioners understand “meditation,” or mental training, to be a process of familiarization with one's own mental life leading to long-lasting changes in cognition and emotion. Little is known about this process and its impact on the brain. Here we find that long-term Buddhist practitioners self-induce sustained electroencephalographic high-amplitude gamma-band oscillations and phase-synchrony during meditation. These electroencephalogram patterns differ from those of controls, in particular over lateral frontoparietal electrodes. In addition, the ratio of gamma-band activity (25-42 Hz) to slow oscillatory activity (4-13 Hz) is initially higher in the resting baseline before meditation for the practitioners than the controls over medial frontoparietal electrodes. This difference increases sharply during meditation over most of the scalp electrodes and remains higher than the initial baseline in the postmeditation baseline. These data suggest that mental training involves temporal integrative mechanisms and may induce short-term and long-term neural changes. PMID:15534199

  14. Long-term meditators self-induce high-amplitude gamma synchrony during mental practice.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Antoine; Greischar, Lawrence L; Rawlings, Nancy B; Ricard, Matthieu; Davidson, Richard J

    2004-11-16

    Practitioners understand "meditation," or mental training, to be a process of familiarization with one's own mental life leading to long-lasting changes in cognition and emotion. Little is known about this process and its impact on the brain. Here we find that long-term Buddhist practitioners self-induce sustained electroencephalographic high-amplitude gamma-band oscillations and phase-synchrony during meditation. These electroencephalogram patterns differ from those of controls, in particular over lateral frontoparietal electrodes. In addition, the ratio of gamma-band activity (25-42 Hz) to slow oscillatory activity (4-13 Hz) is initially higher in the resting baseline before meditation for the practitioners than the controls over medial frontoparietal electrodes. This difference increases sharply during meditation over most of the scalp electrodes and remains higher than the initial baseline in the postmeditation baseline. These data suggest that mental training involves temporal integrative mechanisms and may induce short-term and long-term neural changes.

  15. Influence of weather on the synchrony of gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) outbreaks in New England

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.W.; Liebhold, A.M.

    1995-10-01

    Outbreaks of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), were partially synchronous across New England states (Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont) from 1938 to 1992. To explain this synchrony, we investigated the Moran effect, a hypothesis that local population oscillations, which result form similar density-dependent mechanisms operating at time lags, may be synchronized over wide areas by exposure to common weather patterns. We also investigated the theory of climatic release, which ostulates that outbreaks are triggered by climatic factors favorable for population growth. Time series analysis revealed defoliation series in 2 states as 1st-order autoregressive processes and the other 2 as periodic 2nd-order autoregressive processes. Defoliation residuals series computed using the autoregressive models for each state were cross correlated with series of weather variables recorded in the respective states. The weather variables significantly correlated with defoliation residuals in all 4 states were minimum temperature and precipitation in mid-December in the same gypsy moth generation and minimum temperature in mid- to late July of the previous generation. These weather variables also were correlated strongly among the 4 states. The analyses supported the predictions of the Moran effect and suggest the common weather may synchronize local populations so as to produce pest outbreaks over wide areas. We did not find convincing evidence to support the theory of climatic release. 41 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Light-driven synchrony of Prochlorococcus growth and mortality in the subtropical Pacific gyre.

    PubMed

    Ribalet, Francois; Swalwell, Jarred; Clayton, Sophie; Jiménez, Valeria; Sudek, Sebastian; Lin, Yajuan; Johnson, Zackary I; Worden, Alexandra Z; Armbrust, E Virginia

    2015-06-30

    Theoretical studies predict that competition for limited resources reduces biodiversity to the point of ecological instability, whereas strong predator/prey interactions enhance the number of coexisting species and limit fluctuations in abundances. In open ocean ecosystems, competition for low availability of essential nutrients results in relatively few abundant microbial species. The remarkable stability in overall cell abundance of the dominant photosynthetic cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus is assumed to reflect a simple food web structure strongly controlled by grazers and/or viruses. This hypothesized link between stability and ecological interactions, however, has been difficult to test with open ocean microbes because sampling methods commonly have poor temporal and spatial resolution. Here we use continuous techniques on two different winter-time cruises to show that Prochlorococcus cell production and mortality rates are tightly synchronized to the day/night cycle across the subtropical Pacific Ocean. In warmer waters, we observed harmonic oscillations in cell production and mortality rates, with a peak in mortality rate consistently occurring ∼6 h after the peak in cell production. Essentially no cell mortality was observed during daylight. Our results are best explained as a synchronized two-component trophic interaction with the per-capita rates of Prochlorococcus consumption driven either directly by the day/night cycle or indirectly by Prochlorococcus cell production. Light-driven synchrony of food web dynamics in which most of the newly produced Prochlorococcus cells are consumed each night likely enforces ecosystem stability across vast expanses of the open ocean. PMID:26080407

  17. Light-driven synchrony of Prochlorococcus growth and mortality in the subtropical Pacific gyre.

    PubMed

    Ribalet, Francois; Swalwell, Jarred; Clayton, Sophie; Jiménez, Valeria; Sudek, Sebastian; Lin, Yajuan; Johnson, Zackary I; Worden, Alexandra Z; Armbrust, E Virginia

    2015-06-30

    Theoretical studies predict that competition for limited resources reduces biodiversity to the point of ecological instability, whereas strong predator/prey interactions enhance the number of coexisting species and limit fluctuations in abundances. In open ocean ecosystems, competition for low availability of essential nutrients results in relatively few abundant microbial species. The remarkable stability in overall cell abundance of the dominant photosynthetic cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus is assumed to reflect a simple food web structure strongly controlled by grazers and/or viruses. This hypothesized link between stability and ecological interactions, however, has been difficult to test with open ocean microbes because sampling methods commonly have poor temporal and spatial resolution. Here we use continuous techniques on two different winter-time cruises to show that Prochlorococcus cell production and mortality rates are tightly synchronized to the day/night cycle across the subtropical Pacific Ocean. In warmer waters, we observed harmonic oscillations in cell production and mortality rates, with a peak in mortality rate consistently occurring ∼6 h after the peak in cell production. Essentially no cell mortality was observed during daylight. Our results are best explained as a synchronized two-component trophic interaction with the per-capita rates of Prochlorococcus consumption driven either directly by the day/night cycle or indirectly by Prochlorococcus cell production. Light-driven synchrony of food web dynamics in which most of the newly produced Prochlorococcus cells are consumed each night likely enforces ecosystem stability across vast expanses of the open ocean.

  18. A dual-phase-lag diffusion model for predicting thin film growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. K.; Beraun, J. E.; Tzou, D. Y.

    2000-03-01

    A dual-phase-lag diffusion (DPLD) model, which extends Fick's law by including two lagging times, icons/Journals/Common/tau" ALT="tau" ALIGN="TOP"/> j for the mass flux vector and icons/Journals/Common/tau" ALT="tau" ALIGN="TOP"/> icons/Journals/Common/rho" ALT="rho" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> for the density gradient, is developed to predict thin film growth. Depending upon the phase lag ratio icons/Journals/Common/tau" ALT="tau" ALIGN="TOP"/> icons/Journals/Common/rho" ALT="rho" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> /icons/Journals/Common/tau" ALT="tau" ALIGN="TOP"/> j , the DPLD model uniquely characterizes four types of growth kinetics as reported in the literature. The model validation with experimental data of silicon oxidation and Hg1-x Cdx Te film deposition demonstrates that the present model captures the anomalous behaviour of thin film growth from the very beginning of the process to relatively long times very well.

  19. Application of Statistical Thermodynamics To Predict the Adsorption Properties of Polypeptides in Reversed-Phase HPLC.

    PubMed

    Tarasova, Irina A; Goloborodko, Anton A; Perlova, Tatyana Y; Pridatchenko, Marina L; Gorshkov, Alexander V; Evreinov, Victor V; Ivanov, Alexander R; Gorshkov, Mikhail V

    2015-07-01

    The theory of critical chromatography for biomacromolecules (BioLCCC) describes polypeptide retention in reversed-phase HPLC using the basic principles of statistical thermodynamics. However, whether this theory correctly depicts a variety of empirical observations and laws introduced for peptide chromatography over the last decades remains to be determined. In this study, by comparing theoretical results with experimental data, we demonstrate that the BioLCCC: (1) fits the empirical dependence of the polypeptide retention on the amino acid sequence length with R(2) > 0.99 and allows in silico determination of the linear regression coefficients of the log-length correction in the additive model for arbitrary sequences and lengths and (2) predicts the distribution coefficients of polypeptides with an accuracy from 0.98 to 0.99 R(2). The latter enables direct calculation of the retention factors for given solvent compositions and modeling of the migration dynamics of polypeptides separated under isocratic or gradient conditions. The obtained results demonstrate that the suggested theory correctly relates the main aspects of polypeptide separation in reversed-phase HPLC. PMID:26023813

  20. Application of Statistical Thermodynamics To Predict the Adsorption Properties of Polypeptides in Reversed-Phase HPLC.

    PubMed

    Tarasova, Irina A; Goloborodko, Anton A; Perlova, Tatyana Y; Pridatchenko, Marina L; Gorshkov, Alexander V; Evreinov, Victor V; Ivanov, Alexander R; Gorshkov, Mikhail V

    2015-07-01

    The theory of critical chromatography for biomacromolecules (BioLCCC) describes polypeptide retention in reversed-phase HPLC using the basic principles of statistical thermodynamics. However, whether this theory correctly depicts a variety of empirical observations and laws introduced for peptide chromatography over the last decades remains to be determined. In this study, by comparing theoretical results with experimental data, we demonstrate that the BioLCCC: (1) fits the empirical dependence of the polypeptide retention on the amino acid sequence length with R(2) > 0.99 and allows in silico determination of the linear regression coefficients of the log-length correction in the additive model for arbitrary sequences and lengths and (2) predicts the distribution coefficients of polypeptides with an accuracy from 0.98 to 0.99 R(2). The latter enables direct calculation of the retention factors for given solvent compositions and modeling of the migration dynamics of polypeptides separated under isocratic or gradient conditions. The obtained results demonstrate that the suggested theory correctly relates the main aspects of polypeptide separation in reversed-phase HPLC.

  1. Prediction and Validation of the Austenite Phase Fraction upon Intercritical Annealing of Medium Mn Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahani, Hussein; Xu, Wei; van der Zwaag, Sybrand

    2015-11-01

    In this research, the effects of Mn and Si concentration and that of the isothermal intercritical holding temperature on the austenite-to-ferrite ( γ → α) and the martensite-to-austenite ( α' → γ) phase transformations are studied for a series of Fe-C-Mn-Si steels with up to 7 wt pct Mn. The model is based on the local equilibrium (LE) concept. The model predictions are compared to experimental observations. It is found that the austenite volume fraction at the end of intercritical annealing depends significantly on the initial microstructure. For Mn concentrations between 3 and 7 wt pct, the LE model is qualitatively correct. However, at higher Mn levels the discrepancy between the predicted austenite fractions and the experimental values increases, in particular for the α' → γ transformation. Intragrain nucleation is held responsible for the higher austenite fractions observed experimentally. Silicon is found have a much smaller effect on the kinetics of the intercritical annealing than Mn.

  2. Theoretical prediction of new mineral phases in Earth's mantle and core (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oganov, A. R.

    2010-12-01

    After theoretical-experimental discovery of MgSiO3 post-perovskite [1,2], many other important mineral phases have been proposed in the deep Earth’s interior. We have developed [3] and further enhanced [4] an evolutionary method for predicting the most stable crystal structure at given thermodynamic conditions. Here, I will illustrate several examples from our recent works. For example, we have predicted new phases of CaCO3, MgCO3 and CO2 at Earth’s mantle pressures, and many of these phases have already found experimental support [5-7]. These results shed new light on the behavior of carbon in the Earth’s mantle [7]. More recently, we have studied the behavior of methane at high pressures and temperatures [8], and we confirm that indeed CH4 should break down under pressure - first, into hydrocarbons (ethane, butane) and hydrogen, and then into diamond and hydrogen. Crucial role here is played by lattice vibrations (zero-point vibrations and entropic factor). These vibrational effects are frequently neglected, but we have demonstrated that without them the decomposition into diamond and hydrogen would not be possible. Considering variable-composition systems, we have demonstrated [9] that FeSi with the CsCl-type structure is the only iron silicide stable at pressures of the Earth’s inner core. Similar studies can be performed also for Fe-O, Fe-S, Fe-O and Fe-H systems, addressing the common assumptions on their behavior at ultrahigh pressures of the inner core. REFERENCES: [1] Murakami M., et al., Science 304, 855-858 (2004). [2] Oganov A.R., Ono S., Nature 430, 445-448 (2004). [3] Oganov A.R., Glass C.W., J. Chem. Phys. 124, 244704 (2006). [4] Lyakhov A.O., Oganov A.R., Valle M. Comp. Phys. Comm. 181, 1623-1632 (2010). [5] Oganov A.R., Glass C.W., Ono S., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 241, 95-103 (2006). [6] Ono S., Kikegawa T., Ohishi Y. Am. Mineral. 92, 1246-1249 (2007). [7] Oganov A.R., et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 273, 38-47 (2008). [8] Gao G., Oganov A

  3. Predicting Pattern Tooling and Casting Dimensions for Investment Casting, Phase III

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S

    2008-04-01

    Efforts during Phase III focused mainly on the shell-alloy systems. A high melting point alloy, 17-4PH stainless steel, was considered. The experimental part of the program was conducted at ORNL and commercial foundries, where wax patterns were injected, molds were invested, and alloys were poured. Shell molds made of fused-silica and alumino-silicates were considered. A literature review was conducted on thermophysical and thermomechanical properties alumino-silicates. Material property data, which were not available from material suppliers, was obtained. For all the properties of 17-4PH stainless steel, the experimental data available in the literature did not cover the entire temperature range necessary for process simulation. Thus, some material properties were evaluated using ProCAST, based on CompuTherm database. A comparison between the predicted material property data and measured property data was made. It was found that most material properties were accurately predicted only over several temperature ranges. No experimental data for plastic modulus were found. Thus, several assumptions were made and ProCAST recommendations were followed in order to obtain a complete set of mechanical property data at high temperatures. Thermal expansion measurements for the 17-4PH alloy were conducted during heating and cooling. As a function of temperature, the thermal expansion for both the alloy and shell mold materials showed different evolution on heating and cooling. Numerical simulations were performed using ProCAST for the investment casting of 17-4PH stainless steel parts in fused silica molds using the thermal expansion obtained on heating and another one with thermal expansion obtained on cooling. Since the fused silica shells had the lowest thermal expansion properties in the industry, the dewaxing phase, including the coupling between wax-shell systems, was neglected. The shell mold was considered to be a pure elastic material. The alloy dimensions were

  4. Interspecific synchrony of seabird population growth rate and breeding success

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, James P W; Dornelas, Maria; Ojanguren, Alfredo F

    2013-01-01

    Environmental variability can destabilize communities by causing correlated interspecific fluctuations that weaken the portfolio effect, yet evidence of such a mechanism is rare in natural systems. Here, we ask whether the population dynamics of similar sympatric species of a seabird breeding community are synchronized, and if these species have similar exceptional responses to environmental variation. We used a 24-year time series of the breeding success and population growth rate of a marine top predator species group to assess the degree of synchrony between species demography. We then developed a novel method to examine the species group – all species combined – response to environmental variability, in particular, whether multiple species experience similar, pronounced fluctuations in their demography. Multiple species were positively correlated in breeding success and growth rate. Evidence of “exceptional” years was found, where the species group experienced pronounced fluctuations in their demography. The synchronous response of the species group was negatively correlated with winter sea surface temperature of the preceding year for both growth rate and breeding success. We present evidence for synchronous, exceptional responses of a species group that are driven by environmental variation. Such species covariation destabilizes communities by reducing the portfolio effect, and such exceptional responses may increase the risk of a state change in this community. Our understanding of the future responses to environmental change requires an increased focus on the short-term fluctuations in demography that are driven by extreme environmental variability. PMID:23919147

  5. Rhythm and interpersonal synchrony in early social development.

    PubMed

    Trainor, Laurel J; Cirelli, Laura

    2015-03-01

    Adults who engage in synchronous movement to music later report liking each other better, remembering more about each other, trusting each other more, and are more likely to cooperate with each other compared to adults who engage in asynchronous movements. Although poor motor coordination limits infants' ability to entrain to a musical beat, they perceive metrical structure in auditory rhythm patterns, their movements are affected by the tempo of music they hear, and if they are bounced by an adult to a rhythm pattern, the manner of this bouncing can affect their auditory interpretation of the meter of that pattern. In this paper, we review studies showing that by 14 months of age, infants who are bounced in synchrony with an adult subsequently show more altruistic behavior toward that adult in the form of handing back objects "accidentally" dropped by the adult compared to infants who are bounced asynchronously with the adult. Furthermore, increased helpfulness is directed at the synchronized bounce partner, but not at a neutral stranger. Interestingly, however, helpfulness does generalize to a "friend" of the synchronized bounce partner. In sum, synchronous movement between infants and adults has a powerful effect on infants' expression of directed prosocial behavior. PMID:25773616

  6. Movement Synchrony Forges Social Bonds across Group Divides

    PubMed Central

    Tunçgenç, Bahar; Cohen, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Group dynamics play an important role in the social interactions of both children and adults. A large amount of research has shown that merely being allocated to arbitrarily defined groups can evoke disproportionately positive attitudes toward one's in-group and negative attitudes toward out-groups, and that these biases emerge in early childhood. This prompts important empirical questions with far-reaching theoretical and applied significance. How robust are these inter-group biases? Can biases be mitigated by behaviors known to bond individuals and groups together? How can bonds be forged across existing group divides? To explore these questions, we examined the bonding effects of interpersonal synchrony on minimally constructed groups in a controlled experiment. In-group and out-group bonding were assessed using questionnaires administered before and after a task in which groups performed movements either synchronously or non-synchronously in a between-participants design. We also developed an implicit behavioral measure, the Island Game, in which physical proximity was used as an indirect measure of interpersonal closeness. Self-report and behavioral measures showed increased bonding between groups after synchronous movement. Bonding with the out-group was significantly higher in the condition in which movements were performed synchronously than when movements were performed non-synchronously between groups. The findings are discussed in terms of their importance for the developmental social psychology of group dynamics as well as their implications for applied intervention programs. PMID:27303341

  7. Synchrony, connectivity, and functional similarity in auditory midbrain local circuits.

    PubMed

    Atencio, Craig A; Shen, Victor; Schreiner, Christoph E

    2016-10-29

    The central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) contains a laminar structure that functions as an organizing substrate of ascending inputs and local processing. While topographic distributions of ICC response parameters within and across laminae have been reported, the functional micro-organization of the ICC is less well understood. For pairs of neighboring ICC neurons, we examined the nature of functional connectivity and receptive field preferences to gain a better understanding of the structure and function of local circuits. By recording from pairs of adjacent neurons and presenting pure-tone and dynamic broad-band stimulation, we estimated functional connectivity and local differences in frequency response areas (FRAs), spectrotemporal receptive fields (STRFs), nonlinear input/output functions, and single-spike information. From the cross-covariance functions we identified putative unidirectional as well as bidirectional excitatory/inhibitory interactions. STRFs of neighboring neurons strongly conserve best frequency, and moderately agree in STRF similarity, bandwidth, temporal response type, best modulation frequency, nonlinearity structure, and degree of information processing. Excitatory connectivity was stronger and temporally more precise than for inhibitory connections. Neither connection strength nor degree of synchrony correlated with receptive field parameters. The functional similarity of local pairs of ICC neurons was substantially less than for local pairs in the granular layers of primary auditory cortex (AI). These results imply that while the ICC is an obligatory nexus of ascending information, local neurons are comparatively weakly connected and exhibit considerable receptive field variability, potentially reflecting the heterogeneity of converging inputs to ICC functional zones.

  8. Visual Orientation and Directional Selectivity through Thalamic Synchrony

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Garrett B.; Jin, Jianzhong; Wang, Yushi; Desbordes, Gaëlle; Wang, Qi; Black, Michael J.; Alonso, Jose-Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Thalamic neurons respond to visual scenes by generating synchronous spike trains on the timescale of 10 – 20 ms that are very effective at driving cortical targets. Here we demonstrate that this synchronous activity contains unexpectedly rich information about fundamental properties of visual stimuli. We report that the occurrence of synchronous firing of cat thalamic cells with highly overlapping receptive fields is strongly sensitive to the orientation and the direction of motion of the visual stimulus. We show that this stimulus selectivity is robust, remaining relatively unchanged under different contrasts and temporal frequencies (stimulus velocities). A computational analysis based on an integrate-and-fire model of the direct thalamic input to a layer 4 cortical cell reveals a strong correlation between the degree of thalamic synchrony and the nonlinear relationship between cortical membrane potential and the resultant firing rate. Together, these findings suggest a novel population code in the synchronous firing of neurons in the early visual pathway that could serve as the substrate for establishing cortical representations of the visual scene. PMID:22745507

  9. Synchrony and motor mimicking in chimpanzee observational learning.

    PubMed

    Fuhrmann, Delia; Ravignani, Andrea; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Whiten, Andrew

    2014-06-13

    Cumulative tool-based culture underwrote our species' evolutionary success, and tool-based nut-cracking is one of the strongest candidates for cultural transmission in our closest relatives, chimpanzees. However the social learning processes that may explain both the similarities and differences between the species remain unclear. A previous study of nut-cracking by initially naïve chimpanzees suggested that a learning chimpanzee holding no hammer nevertheless replicated hammering actions it witnessed. This observation has potentially important implications for the nature of the social learning processes and underlying motor coding involved. In the present study, model and observer actions were quantified frame-by-frame and analysed with stringent statistical methods, demonstrating synchrony between the observer's and model's movements, cross-correlation of these movements above chance level and a unidirectional transmission process from model to observer. These results provide the first quantitative evidence for motor mimicking underlain by motor coding in apes, with implications for mirror neuron function.

  10. Geographical variation in the spatial synchrony of a forest-defoliating insect: isolation of environmental and spatial drivers

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, Kyle J.; Bjørnstad, Ottar N.; Allstadt, Andrew J.; Liebhold, Andrew M.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the pervasiveness of spatial synchrony of population fluctuations in virtually every taxon, it remains difficult to disentangle its underlying mechanisms, such as environmental perturbations and dispersal. We used multiple regression of distance matrices (MRMs) to statistically partition the importance of several factors potentially synchronizing the dynamics of the gypsy moth, an invasive species in North America, exhibiting outbreaks that are partially synchronized over long distances (approx. 900 km). The factors considered in the MRM were synchrony in weather conditions, spatial proximity and forest-type similarity. We found that the most likely driver of outbreak synchrony is synchronous precipitation. Proximity played no apparent role in influencing outbreak synchrony after accounting for precipitation, suggesting dispersal does not drive outbreak synchrony. Because a previous modelling study indicated weather might indirectly synchronize outbreaks through synchronization of oak masting and generalist predators that feed upon acorns, we also examined the influence of weather and proximity on synchrony of acorn production. As we found for outbreak synchrony, synchrony in oak masting increased with synchrony in precipitation, though it also increased with proximity. We conclude that precipitation could synchronize gypsy moth populations directly, as in a Moran effect, or indirectly, through effects on oak masting, generalist predators or diseases. PMID:23282993

  11. Geographical variation in the spatial synchrony of a forest-defoliating insect: isolation of environmental and spatial drivers.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Kyle J; Bjørnstad, Ottar N; Allstadt, Andrew J; Liebhold, Andrew M

    2013-02-22

    Despite the pervasiveness of spatial synchrony of population fluctuations in virtually every taxon, it remains difficult to disentangle its underlying mechanisms, such as environmental perturbations and dispersal. We used multiple regression of distance matrices (MRMs) to statistically partition the importance of several factors potentially synchronizing the dynamics of the gypsy moth, an invasive species in North America, exhibiting outbreaks that are partially synchronized over long distances (approx. 900 km). The factors considered in the MRM were synchrony in weather conditions, spatial proximity and forest-type similarity. We found that the most likely driver of outbreak synchrony is synchronous precipitation. Proximity played no apparent role in influencing outbreak synchrony after accounting for precipitation, suggesting dispersal does not drive outbreak synchrony. Because a previous modelling study indicated weather might indirectly synchronize outbreaks through synchronization of oak masting and generalist predators that feed upon acorns, we also examined the influence of weather and proximity on synchrony of acorn production. As we found for outbreak synchrony, synchrony in oak masting increased with synchrony in precipitation, though it also increased with proximity. We conclude that precipitation could synchronize gypsy moth populations directly, as in a Moran effect, or indirectly, through effects on oak masting, generalist predators or diseases. PMID:23282993

  12. Predicting Pattern Tooling and Casting Dimensions for Investment Casting, Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Cannell; Adrian S. Sabau

    2005-09-30

    The investment casting process allows the production of complex-shape parts and close dimensional tolerances. One of the most important phases in the investment casting process is the design of the pattern die. Pattern dies are used to create wax patterns by injecting wax into dies. The first part of the project involved preparation of reports on the state of the art at that time for all the areas under consideration (die-wax, wax-shell, and shell-alloy). The primary R&D focus during Phase I was on the wax material since the least was known about it. The main R&D accomplishments during this phase were determination of procedures for obtaining the thermal conductivity and viscoelastic properties of an unfilled wax and validating those procedures. Phase II focused on die-wax and shell-alloy systems. A wax material model was developed based on results obtained during the previous R&D phase, and a die-wax model was successfully incorporated into and used in commercial computer programs. Current computer simulation programs have complementary features. A viscoelastic module was available in ABAQUS but unavailable in ProCAST, while the mold-filling module was available in ProCAST but unavailable in ABAQUS. Thus, the numerical simulation results were only in good qualitative agreement with experimental results, the predicted shrinkage factors being approximately 2.5 times larger than those measured. Significant progress was made, and results showed that the testing and modeling of wax material had great potential for industrial applications. Additional R&D focus was placed on one shell-alloy system. The fused-silica shell mold and A356 aluminum alloy were considered. The experimental part of the program was conducted at ORNL and commercial foundries, where wax patterns were injected, molds were invested, and alloys were poured. It was very important to obtain accurate temperature data from actual castings, and significant effort was made to obtain temperature profiles in

  13. Predicting leptonic CP phase by considering deviations in charged lepton and neutrino sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sruthilaya, M.; Soumya, C.; Deepthi, K. N.; Mohanta, R.

    2015-08-01

    Recently, the reactor mixing angle {θ }13 has been measured precisely by Daya Bay, RENO, and T2K experiments with a moderately large value. However, the standard form of neutrino mixing patterns such as bimaximal, tri-bimaximal, golden ratio of types A and B, hexagonal, etc., which are based on certain flavor symmetries, predict vanishing {θ }13. Using the fact that the neutrino mixing matrix can be represented as {V}{PMNS}={U}l\\dagger {U}ν {P}ν , where Ul and {U}ν result from the diagonalization of the charged lepton and neutrino mass matrices and {P}ν is a diagonal matrix containing Majorana phases, we explore the possibility of accounting for the large reactor mixing angle by considering deviations both in the charged lepton and neutrino sector. In the charged lepton sector we consider the deviation as an additional rotation in the (12) and (13) planes, whereas in the neutrino sector we consider deviations to various neutrino mixing patterns through (13) and (23) rotations. We find that with the inclusion of these deviations it is possible to accommodate the observed large reactor mixing angle {θ }13, and one can also obtain limits on the charge-conjugation parity-violating Dirac phase{δ }{CP} and Jarlskog invariant JCP for most of the cases. We then explore whether our findings can be tested in the currently running NuMI Off-axis ve Appearance experiment with three years of data taking in neutrino mode followed by three years with the anti-neutrino mode.

  14. Hybrid Plasma Simulations at 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko: Predictions for the High Activity Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenders, C.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Richter, I.; Motschmann, U.

    2014-04-01

    In August 2014 the Rosetta spacecraft will arrive at its target comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. One of the main objectives of this unique mission is to study the evolution of the cometary activity. Among others, the instruments of the Rosetta Plasma Consortium will study the plasma interaction of the solar wind and the awaking comet. Since the gas production rate of the comet is relatively low, the kinetic effects of the ion motion are important for the entire interaction region. A hybrid model, which treats the ions as particles and the electrons as a fluid, is most capable of making predictions about the interaction. The results of our latest 3D global hybrid simulations of the plasma environment in the active phase of the comet, performed with the A.I.K.E.F. code, will be presented. Next to the perihelion passage of the comet the gas production rate will be high enough for the Mach cones, which are triggered during the weak activity phases, to be transformed into a bow shock. Close to the nucleus, the simulations reveal a separation of the massloaded flow from the upstream regions and the pure cometary ion flow from the inner most region. According to this flow pattern, a diamagnetic cavity and several other features are resolved by our simulations. Most of them exhibit an asymmetry caused by the pick-up of the cometary ions and the deflection of the solar wind. In addition, we will show that cometary ions, which are picked-up by the solar wind, enter the transition region and move into opposite directions of the bulk flow.

  15. A semianalytical model to predict recovery of light, nonaqueous phase liquids from unconfined aquifers

    SciTech Connect

    Waddill, D.W.; Parker, J.C.

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes the development and testing of a semianalytical model that may be used to design LNAPL containment and recovery systems at spill sites. The objective of this study was to derive an enhanced semianalytical algorithm for calculating recovery and trapping of free phase oil. The enhancements were derived and evaluated by comparison with an established numerical model that describes transient flow of oil and water. The semianalytical model employs an analytical solution for steady-state drawdown in an unconfined aquifer due to water pumping. When pumping rates are sufficient to contain the separate phase plume, the model calculates recoverable and residual oil volumes based on the initial free oil distribution. Refinements were implemented to calculate the water-table drawdown and the maximum unsaturated zone residual saturation (S{sub og}) as functions of soil type. Also the influence of hysteresis on the oil-water capillary fringe was incorporated into the calculation of oil trapping below a rising oil-water interface. A method was derived to reduce saturated zone trapping to account for oil recovery that occurs while pumping proceeds. The above enhancements yielded close agreement between the semianalytical model and the transient model predictions of recoverable oil and residua oil in the unsaturated and saturated zones. The models were compared for hypothetical gasoline spills in a sandy and a silt loam soil, using a range of pumping rates and regional water-table fluctuations. Field data from a pipeline leak were evaluated by the semianalytical model for hypothetical scenarios involving oil recovery from three wells and a falling regional water table.

  16. Two-Phase Flow in Porous Media: Predicting Its Dependence on Capillary Number and Viscosity Ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Ferer, M.; Anna, Shelley L.; Tortora, Paul; Kadambi, J. R.; Oliver, M.; Bromhal, Grant S.; Smith, Duane H.

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by the need to determine the dependencies of two-phase flow in a wide range of applications from carbon dioxide sequestration to enhanced oil recovery, we have developed a standard two-dimensional, pore-level model of immiscible drainage, incorporating viscous and capillary effects. This model has been validated through comparison with several experiments. For a range of stable viscosity ratios (M=μinjected,nwfdefending,wf ≥ 1), we had increased the capillary number, Nc and studied the way in which the flows deviate from fractal capillary fingering at a characteristic time and become compact for realistic capillary numbers. This crossover has enabled predictions for the dependence of the flow behavior upon capillary number and viscosity ratio. Our results for the crossover agreed with earlier theoretical predictions, including the universality of the leading power-law indicating its independence of details of the porous medium structure. In this article, we have observed a similar crossover from initial fractal viscous fingering (FVF) to compact flow, for large capillary numbers and unstable viscosity ratios M < 1. In this case, we increased the viscosity ratio from infinitesimal values, and studied the way in which the flows deviate from FVF at a characteristic time and become compact for non-zero viscosity ratios. This crossover has been studied using both our pore-level model and micro-fluidic flow-cell experiments. The same characteristic time, τ = 1/M0.7, satisfactorily describes both the pore-level results.

  17. Synchrony in Psychotherapy: A Review and an Integrative Framework for the Therapeutic Alliance

    PubMed Central

    Koole, Sander L.; Tschacher, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    During psychotherapy, patient and therapist tend to spontaneously synchronize their vocal pitch, bodily movements, and even their physiological processes. In the present article, we consider how this pervasive phenomenon may shed new light on the therapeutic relationship– or alliance– and its role within psychotherapy. We first review clinical research on the alliance and the multidisciplinary area of interpersonal synchrony. We then integrate both literatures in the Interpersonal Synchrony (In-Sync) model of psychotherapy. According to the model, the alliance is grounded in the coupling of patient and therapist’s brains. Because brains do not interact directly, movement synchrony may help to establish inter-brain coupling. Inter-brain coupling may provide patient and therapist with access to another’s internal states, which facilitates common understanding and emotional sharing. Over time, these interpersonal exchanges may improve patients’ emotion-regulatory capacities and related therapeutic outcomes. We discuss the empirical assessment of interpersonal synchrony and review preliminary research on synchrony in psychotherapy. Finally, we summarize our main conclusions and consider the broader implications of viewing psychotherapy as the product of two interacting brains. PMID:27378968

  18. A dispersal-induced paradox: synchrony and stability in stochastic metapopulations.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Karen C

    2011-11-01

    Understanding how dispersal influences the dynamics of spatially distributed populations is a major priority of both basic and applied ecologists. Two well-known effects of dispersal are spatial synchrony (positively correlated population dynamics at different points in space) and dispersal-induced stability (the phenomenon whereby populations have simpler or less extinction-prone dynamics when they are linked by dispersal than when they are isolated). Although both these effects of dispersal should occur simultaneously, they have primarily been studied separately. Herein, I summarise evidence from the literature that these effects are expected to interact, and I use a series of models to characterise that interaction. In particular, I explore the observation that although dispersal can promote both synchrony and stability singly, it is widely held that synchrony paradoxically prevents dispersal-induced stability. I show here that in many realistic scenarios, dispersal is expected to promote both synchrony and stability at once despite this apparent destabilising influence of synchrony. This work demonstrates that studying the spatial and temporal impacts of dispersal together will be vital for the conservation and management of the many communities for which human activities are altering natural dispersal rates.

  19. Temporal Synchrony Detection and Associations with Language in Young Children with ASD

    PubMed Central

    Baranek, Grace T.

    2014-01-01

    Temporally synchronous audio-visual stimuli serve to recruit attention and enhance learning, including language learning in infants. Although few studies have examined this effect on children with autism, it appears that the ability to detect temporal synchrony between auditory and visual stimuli may be impaired, particularly given social-linguistic stimuli delivered via oral movement and spoken language pairings. However, children with autism can detect audio-visual synchrony given nonsocial stimuli (objects dropping and their corresponding sounds). We tested whether preschool children with autism could detect audio-visual synchrony given video recordings of linguistic stimuli paired with movement of related toys in the absence of faces. As a group, children with autism demonstrated the ability to detect audio-visual synchrony. Further, the amount of time they attended to the synchronous condition was positively correlated with receptive language. Findings suggest that object manipulations may enhance multisensory processing in linguistic contexts. Moreover, associations between synchrony detection and language development suggest that better processing of multisensory stimuli may guide and direct attention to communicative events thus enhancing linguistic development. PMID:25614835

  20. Making children laugh: parent-child dyadic synchrony and preschool attachment.

    PubMed

    Bureau, Jean-FrançOis; Yurkowski, Kim; Schmiedel, Sabrina; Martin, Jodi; Moss, Ellen; Pallanca, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined whether dyadic synchrony of father-child and mother-child interactions in a playful context were associated with attachment organization in preschool children. One hundred seven children (48 boys, Mage = 46.67 months, SD = 8.57) and their mothers and fathers (counterbalanced order of lab visits) participated in a playful interaction without toys (Laughing Task procedure). Playful interactions were coded based on the degree to which the dyads demonstrated a variety of behavior representing dyadic synchrony and task management. Children's attachment behavior toward fathers and mothers was observed in a modified separation-reunion procedure adapted for the preschool period. Results demonstrate that mothers and fathers are similar in their effort to arouse and engage their child in a playful context, but mothers achieved a greater synchrony with their child. Disorganized attachment to either mother or father is linked with a lack of synchrony in dyadic interaction. Findings are in contrast with prevailing theory, suggesting that despite gender-related differences in parental playful behaviors, dyadic synchrony is equally important in both mother- and father-child relationships for the development of organized social and affectional bonds.

  1. Making children laugh: parent-child dyadic synchrony and preschool attachment.

    PubMed

    Bureau, Jean-FrançOis; Yurkowski, Kim; Schmiedel, Sabrina; Martin, Jodi; Moss, Ellen; Pallanca, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined whether dyadic synchrony of father-child and mother-child interactions in a playful context were associated with attachment organization in preschool children. One hundred seven children (48 boys, Mage = 46.67 months, SD = 8.57) and their mothers and fathers (counterbalanced order of lab visits) participated in a playful interaction without toys (Laughing Task procedure). Playful interactions were coded based on the degree to which the dyads demonstrated a variety of behavior representing dyadic synchrony and task management. Children's attachment behavior toward fathers and mothers was observed in a modified separation-reunion procedure adapted for the preschool period. Results demonstrate that mothers and fathers are similar in their effort to arouse and engage their child in a playful context, but mothers achieved a greater synchrony with their child. Disorganized attachment to either mother or father is linked with a lack of synchrony in dyadic interaction. Findings are in contrast with prevailing theory, suggesting that despite gender-related differences in parental playful behaviors, dyadic synchrony is equally important in both mother- and father-child relationships for the development of organized social and affectional bonds. PMID:25798498

  2. Nonverbal Synchrony in Social Interactions of Patients with Schizophrenia Indicates Socio-Communicative Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Kupper, Zeno; Ramseyer, Fabian; Hoffmann, Holger; Tschacher, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Background Disordered interpersonal communication can be a serious problem in schizophrenia. Recent advances in computer-based measures allow reliable and objective quantification of nonverbal behavior. Research using these novel measures has shown that objective amounts of body and head movement in patients with schizophrenia during social interactions are closely related to the symptom profiles of these patients. In addition to and above mere amounts of movement, the degree of synchrony, or imitation, between patients and normal interactants may be indicative of core deficits underlying various problems in domains related to interpersonal communication, such as symptoms, social competence, and social functioning. Methods Nonverbal synchrony was assessed objectively using Motion Energy Analysis (MEA) in 378 brief, videotaped role-play scenes involving 27 stabilized outpatients diagnosed with paranoid-type schizophrenia. Results Low nonverbal synchrony was indicative of symptoms, low social competence, impaired social functioning, and low self-evaluation of competence. These relationships remained largely significant when correcting for the amounts of patients‘ movement. When patients showed reduced imitation of their interactants’ movements, negative symptoms were likely to be prominent. Conversely, positive symptoms were more prominent in patients when their interaction partners’ imitation of their movements was reduced. Conclusions Nonverbal synchrony can be an objective and sensitive indicator of the severity of patients’ problems. Furthermore, quantitative analysis of nonverbal synchrony may provide novel insights into specific relationships between symptoms, cognition, and core communicative problems in schizophrenia. PMID:26716444

  3. Audio-visual synchrony and feature-selective attention co-amplify early visual processing.

    PubMed

    Keitel, Christian; Müller, Matthias M

    2016-05-01

    Our brain relies on neural mechanisms of selective attention and converging sensory processing to efficiently cope with rich and unceasing multisensory inputs. One prominent assumption holds that audio-visual synchrony can act as a strong attractor for spatial attention. Here, we tested for a similar effect of audio-visual synchrony on feature-selective attention. We presented two superimposed Gabor patches that differed in colour and orientation. On each trial, participants were cued to selectively attend to one of the two patches. Over time, spatial frequencies of both patches varied sinusoidally at distinct rates (3.14 and 3.63 Hz), giving rise to pulse-like percepts. A simultaneously presented pure tone carried a frequency modulation at the pulse rate of one of the two visual stimuli to introduce audio-visual synchrony. Pulsed stimulation elicited distinct time-locked oscillatory electrophysiological brain responses. These steady-state responses were quantified in the spectral domain to examine individual stimulus processing under conditions of synchronous versus asynchronous tone presentation and when respective stimuli were attended versus unattended. We found that both, attending to the colour of a stimulus and its synchrony with the tone, enhanced its processing. Moreover, both gain effects combined linearly for attended in-sync stimuli. Our results suggest that audio-visual synchrony can attract attention to specific stimulus features when stimuli overlap in space. PMID:26226930

  4. Population synchrony of a native fish across three Laurentian Great Lakes: Evaluating the effects of dispersal and climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunnell, D.B.; Adams, J.V.; Gorman, O.T.; Madenjian, C.P.; Riley, S.C.; Roseman, E.F.; Schaeffer, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Climate and dispersal are the two most commonly cited mechanisms to explain spatial synchrony among time series of animal populations, and climate is typically most important for fishes. Using data from 1978-2006, we quantified the spatial synchrony in recruitment and population catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) for bloater (Coregonus hoyi) populations across lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron. In this natural field experiment, climate was highly synchronous across lakes but the likelihood of dispersal between lakes differed. When data from all lakes were pooled, modified correlograms revealed spatial synchrony to occur up to 800 km for long-term (data not detrended) trends and up to 600 km for short-term (data detrended by the annual rate of change) trends. This large spatial synchrony more than doubles the scale previously observed in freshwater fish populations, and exceeds the scale found in most marine or estuarine populations. When analyzing the data separately for within- and between-lake pairs, spatial synchrony was always observed within lakes, up to 400 or 600 km. Conversely, between-lake synchrony did not occur among short-term trends, and for long-term trends, the scale of synchrony was highly variable. For recruit CPUE, synchrony occurred up to 600 km between both lakes Michigan and Huron (where dispersal was most likely) and lakes Michigan and Superior (where dispersal was least likely), but failed to occur between lakes Huron and Superior (where dispersal likelihood was intermediate). When considering the scale of putative bloater dispersal and genetic information from previous studies, we concluded that dispersal was likely underlying within-lake synchrony but climate was more likely underlying between-lake synchrony. The broad scale of synchrony in Great Lakes bloater populations increases their probability of extirpation, a timely message for fishery managers given current low levels of bloater abundance. ?? Springer-Verlag 2009.

  5. Climate change-related regime shifts have altered spatial synchrony of plankton dynamics in the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Defriez, Emma J; Sheppard, Lawrence W; Reid, Philip C; Reuman, Daniel C

    2016-06-01

    During the 1980s, the North Sea plankton community underwent a well-documented ecosystem regime shift, including both spatial changes (northward species range shifts) and temporal changes (increases in the total abundances of warmer water species). This regime shift has been attributed to climate change. Plankton provide a link between climate and higher trophic-level organisms, which can forage on large spatial and temporal scales. It is therefore important to understand not only whether climate change affects purely spatial or temporal aspects of plankton dynamics, but also whether it affects spatiotemporal aspects such as metapopulation synchrony. If plankton synchrony is altered, higher trophic-level feeding patterns may be modified. A second motivation for investigating changes in synchrony is that the possibility of such alterations has been examined for few organisms, in spite of the fact that synchrony is ubiquitous and of major importance in ecology. This study uses correlation coefficients and spectral analysis to investigate whether synchrony changed between the periods 1959-1980 and 1989-2010. Twenty-three plankton taxa, sea surface temperature (SST), and wind speed were examined. Results revealed that synchrony in SST and plankton was altered. Changes were idiosyncratic, and were not explained by changes in abundance. Changes in the synchrony of Calanus helgolandicus and Para-pseudocalanus spp appeared to be driven by changes in SST synchrony. This study is one of few to document alterations of synchrony and climate-change impacts on synchrony. We discuss why climate-change impacts on synchrony may well be more common and consequential than previously recognized. PMID:26810148

  6. Climate change-related regime shifts have altered spatial synchrony of plankton dynamics in the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Defriez, Emma J; Sheppard, Lawrence W; Reid, Philip C; Reuman, Daniel C

    2016-06-01

    During the 1980s, the North Sea plankton community underwent a well-documented ecosystem regime shift, including both spatial changes (northward species range shifts) and temporal changes (increases in the total abundances of warmer water species). This regime shift has been attributed to climate change. Plankton provide a link between climate and higher trophic-level organisms, which can forage on large spatial and temporal scales. It is therefore important to understand not only whether climate change affects purely spatial or temporal aspects of plankton dynamics, but also whether it affects spatiotemporal aspects such as metapopulation synchrony. If plankton synchrony is altered, higher trophic-level feeding patterns may be modified. A second motivation for investigating changes in synchrony is that the possibility of such alterations has been examined for few organisms, in spite of the fact that synchrony is ubiquitous and of major importance in ecology. This study uses correlation coefficients and spectral analysis to investigate whether synchrony changed between the periods 1959-1980 and 1989-2010. Twenty-three plankton taxa, sea surface temperature (SST), and wind speed were examined. Results revealed that synchrony in SST and plankton was altered. Changes were idiosyncratic, and were not explained by changes in abundance. Changes in the synchrony of Calanus helgolandicus and Para-pseudocalanus spp appeared to be driven by changes in SST synchrony. This study is one of few to document alterations of synchrony and climate-change impacts on synchrony. We discuss why climate-change impacts on synchrony may well be more common and consequential than previously recognized.

  7. Synchrony in dynamics of giant kelp forests is driven by both local recruitment and regional environmental controls.

    PubMed

    Cavanaugh, Kyle C; Kendall, Bruce E; Siegel, David A; Reed, Daniel C; Alberto, Filipe; Assis, Jorge

    2013-02-01

    Populations of many species display spatially synchronous fluctuations in abundance. Synchrony is most commonly attributed to three processes: factors that influence recruitment (e.g., dispersal, early survival), large-scale environmental variability, and spatially autocorrelated trophic interactions. However it is often difficult to link population synchrony to a specific dominant process, particularly when multiple synchronizing forces are operating. We utilized a new satellite-based data set of giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) canopy biomass to examine population synchrony in southern California kelp forests on spatial scales ranging from 50 m to 300 km and temporal scales ranging from 1 to 11 years. We examined the relationship between synchrony and distance for adult kelp populations, kelp recruits, sea urchin abundance (a major grazer of kelp), and environmental variables known to influence kelp population dynamics. Population synchrony in giant kelp decreased with distance between populations: an initial rapid exponential decrease between 50 m and 1.3 km was followed by a second, large-scale decrease between distances of 1.3 km and 172 km. The 50-m to 1.3-km spatial scale corresponded to the scales of synchrony in the abundance of sea urchins and young kelp recruits, suggesting that local drivers of predation and recruitment influence small-scale synchrony in kelp populations. The spatial correlation patterns of environmental variables, particularly wave height, were similar to the synchrony-distance relationship of kelp populations from 1.3 km to 172 km, suggesting that regional environmental variability, i.e., the Moran effect, was the dominant process affecting synchrony at larger spatial scales. This two-step pattern in the relationship between kelp biomass synchrony and distance was apparent in each of the 11 years of our study. Our results highlight the potential for synthesizing approaches from both landscape and population ecology in order to

  8. Synchrony, connectivity, and functional similarity in auditory midbrain local circuits.

    PubMed

    Atencio, Craig A; Shen, Victor; Schreiner, Christoph E

    2016-10-29

    The central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) contains a laminar structure that functions as an organizing substrate of ascending inputs and local processing. While topographic distributions of ICC response parameters within and across laminae have been reported, the functional micro-organization of the ICC is less well understood. For pairs of neighboring ICC neurons, we examined the nature of functional connectivity and receptive field preferences to gain a better understanding of the structure and function of local circuits. By recording from pairs of adjacent neurons and presenting pure-tone and dynamic broad-band stimulation, we estimated functional connectivity and local differences in frequency response areas (FRAs), spectrotemporal receptive fields (STRFs), nonlinear input/output functions, and single-spike information. From the cross-covariance functions we identified putative unidirectional as well as bidirectional excitatory/inhibitory interactions. STRFs of neighboring neurons strongly conserve best frequency, and moderately agree in STRF similarity, bandwidth, temporal response type, best modulation frequency, nonlinearity structure, and degree of information processing. Excitatory connectivity was stronger and temporally more precise than for inhibitory connections. Neither connection strength nor degree of synchrony correlated with receptive field parameters. The functional similarity of local pairs of ICC neurons was substantially less than for local pairs in the granular layers of primary auditory cortex (AI). These results imply that while the ICC is an obligatory nexus of ascending information, local neurons are comparatively weakly connected and exhibit considerable receptive field variability, potentially reflecting the heterogeneity of converging inputs to ICC functional zones. PMID:27544405

  9. Out-of-synchrony speech entrainment in developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Molinaro, Nicola; Lizarazu, Mikel; Lallier, Marie; Bourguignon, Mathieu; Carreiras, Manuel

    2016-08-01

    Developmental dyslexia is a reading disorder often characterized by reduced awareness of speech units. Whether the neural source of this phonological disorder in dyslexic readers results from the malfunctioning of the primary auditory system or damaged feedback communication between higher-order phonological regions (i.e., left inferior frontal regions) and the auditory cortex is still under dispute. Here we recorded magnetoencephalographic (MEG) signals from 20 dyslexic readers and 20 age-matched controls while they were listening to ∼10-s-long spoken sentences. Compared to controls, dyslexic readers had (1) an impaired neural entrainment to speech in the delta band (0.5-1 Hz); (2) a reduced delta synchronization in both the right auditory cortex and the left inferior frontal gyrus; and (3) an impaired feedforward functional coupling between neural oscillations in the right auditory cortex and the left inferior frontal regions. This shows that during speech listening, individuals with developmental dyslexia present reduced neural synchrony to low-frequency speech oscillations in primary auditory regions that hinders higher-order speech processing steps. The present findings, thus, strengthen proposals assuming that improper low-frequency acoustic entrainment affects speech sampling. This low speech-brain synchronization has the strong potential to cause severe consequences for both phonological and reading skills. Interestingly, the reduced speech-brain synchronization in dyslexic readers compared to normal readers (and its higher-order consequences across the speech processing network) appears preserved through the development from childhood to adulthood. Thus, the evaluation of speech-brain synchronization could possibly serve as a diagnostic tool for early detection of children at risk of dyslexia. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2767-2783, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Out-of-synchrony speech entrainment in developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Molinaro, Nicola; Lizarazu, Mikel; Lallier, Marie; Bourguignon, Mathieu; Carreiras, Manuel

    2016-08-01

    Developmental dyslexia is a reading disorder often characterized by reduced awareness of speech units. Whether the neural source of this phonological disorder in dyslexic readers results from the malfunctioning of the primary auditory system or damaged feedback communication between higher-order phonological regions (i.e., left inferior frontal regions) and the auditory cortex is still under dispute. Here we recorded magnetoencephalographic (MEG) signals from 20 dyslexic readers and 20 age-matched controls while they were listening to ∼10-s-long spoken sentences. Compared to controls, dyslexic readers had (1) an impaired neural entrainment to speech in the delta band (0.5-1 Hz); (2) a reduced delta synchronization in both the right auditory cortex and the left inferior frontal gyrus; and (3) an impaired feedforward functional coupling between neural oscillations in the right auditory cortex and the left inferior frontal regions. This shows that during speech listening, individuals with developmental dyslexia present reduced neural synchrony to low-frequency speech oscillations in primary auditory regions that hinders higher-order speech processing steps. The present findings, thus, strengthen proposals assuming that improper low-frequency acoustic entrainment affects speech sampling. This low speech-brain synchronization has the strong potential to cause severe consequences for both phonological and reading skills. Interestingly, the reduced speech-brain synchronization in dyslexic readers compared to normal readers (and its higher-order consequences across the speech processing network) appears preserved through the development from childhood to adulthood. Thus, the evaluation of speech-brain synchronization could possibly serve as a diagnostic tool for early detection of children at risk of dyslexia. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2767-2783, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27061643

  11. Perceived synchrony for realistic and dynamic audiovisual events.

    PubMed

    Eg, Ragnhild; Behne, Dawn M

    2015-01-01

    In well-controlled laboratory experiments, researchers have found that humans can perceive delays between auditory and visual signals as short as 20 ms. Conversely, other experiments have shown that humans can tolerate audiovisual asynchrony that exceeds 200 ms. This seeming contradiction in human temporal sensitivity can be attributed to a number of factors such as experimental approaches and precedence of the asynchronous signals, along with the nature, duration, location, complexity and repetitiveness of the audiovisual stimuli, and even individual differences. In order to better understand how temporal integration of audiovisual events occurs in the real world, we need to close the gap between the experimental setting and the complex setting of everyday life. With this work, we aimed to contribute one brick to the bridge that will close this gap. We compared perceived synchrony for long-running and eventful audiovisual sequences to shorter sequences that contain a single audiovisual event, for three types of content: action, music, and speech. The resulting windows of temporal integration showed that participants were better at detecting asynchrony for the longer stimuli, possibly because the long-running sequences contain multiple corresponding events that offer audiovisual timing cues. Moreover, the points of subjective simultaneity differ between content types, suggesting that the nature of a visual scene could influence the temporal perception of events. An expected outcome from this type of experiment was the rich variation among participants' distributions and the derived points of subjective simultaneity. Hence, the designs of similar experiments call for more participants than traditional psychophysical studies. Heeding this caution, we conclude that existing theories on multisensory perception are ready to be tested on more natural and representative stimuli.

  12. Perceived synchrony for realistic and dynamic audiovisual events

    PubMed Central

    Eg, Ragnhild; Behne, Dawn M.

    2015-01-01

    In well-controlled laboratory experiments, researchers have found that humans can perceive delays between auditory and visual signals as short as 20 ms. Conversely, other experiments have shown that humans can tolerate audiovisual asynchrony that exceeds 200 ms. This seeming contradiction in human temporal sensitivity can be attributed to a number of factors such as experimental approaches and precedence of the asynchronous signals, along with the nature, duration, location, complexity and repetitiveness of the audiovisual stimuli, and even individual differences. In order to better understand how temporal integration of audiovisual events occurs in the real world, we need to close the gap between the experimental setting and the complex setting of everyday life. With this work, we aimed to contribute one brick to the bridge that will close this gap. We compared perceived synchrony for long-running and eventful audiovisual sequences to shorter sequences that contain a single audiovisual event, for three types of content: action, music, and speech. The resulting windows of temporal integration showed that participants were better at detecting asynchrony for the longer stimuli, possibly because the long-running sequences contain multiple corresponding events that offer audiovisual timing cues. Moreover, the points of subjective simultaneity differ between content types, suggesting that the nature of a visual scene could influence the temporal perception of events. An expected outcome from this type of experiment was the rich variation among participants' distributions and the derived points of subjective simultaneity. Hence, the designs of similar experiments call for more participants than traditional psychophysical studies. Heeding this caution, we conclude that existing theories on multisensory perception are ready to be tested on more natural and representative stimuli. PMID:26082738

  13. Perceived synchrony for realistic and dynamic audiovisual events.

    PubMed

    Eg, Ragnhild; Behne, Dawn M

    2015-01-01

    In well-controlled laboratory experiments, researchers have found that humans can perceive delays between auditory and visual signals as short as 20 ms. Conversely, other experiments have shown that humans can tolerate audiovisual asynchrony that exceeds 200 ms. This seeming contradiction in human temporal sensitivity can be attributed to a number of factors such as experimental approaches and precedence of the asynchronous signals, along with the nature, duration, location, complexity and repetitiveness of the audiovisual stimuli, and even individual differences. In order to better understand how temporal integration of audiovisual events occurs in the real world, we need to close the gap between the experimental setting and the complex setting of everyday life. With this work, we aimed to contribute one brick to the bridge that will close this gap. We compared perceived synchrony for long-running and eventful audiovisual sequences to shorter sequences that contain a single audiovisual event, for three types of content: action, music, and speech. The resulting windows of temporal integration showed that participants were better at detecting asynchrony for the longer stimuli, possibly because the long-running sequences contain multiple corresponding events that offer audiovisual timing cues. Moreover, the points of subjective simultaneity differ between content types, suggesting that the nature of a visual scene could influence the temporal perception of events. An expected outcome from this type of experiment was the rich variation among participants' distributions and the derived points of subjective simultaneity. Hence, the designs of similar experiments call for more participants than traditional psychophysical studies. Heeding this caution, we conclude that existing theories on multisensory perception are ready to be tested on more natural and representative stimuli. PMID:26082738

  14. A Robust Computational Method for Coupled Liquid-liquid Phase Separation and Gas-particle Partitioning Predictions of Multicomponent Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuend, A.; Di Stefano, A.

    2014-12-01

    Providing efficient and reliable model predictions for the partitioning of atmospheric aerosol components between different phases (gas, liquids, solids) is a challenging problem. The partitioning of water, various semivolatile organic components, inorganic acids, bases, and salts, depends simultaneously on the chemical properties and interaction effects among all constituents of a gas + aerosol system. The effects of hygroscopic particle growth on the water contents and physical states of potentially two or more liquid and/or solid aerosol phases in turn may significantly affect multiphase chemistry, the direct effect of aerosols on climate, and the ability of specific particles to act as cloud condensation or ice nuclei. Considering the presence of a liquid-liquid phase separation in aerosol particles, which typically leads to one phase being enriched in rather hydrophobic compounds and the other phase enriched in water and dissolved electrolytes, adds a high degree of complexity to the goal of predicting the gas-particle partitioning of all components. Coupled gas-particle partitioning and phase separation methods are required to correctly account for the phase behaviour of aerosols exposed to varying environmental conditions, such as changes to relative humidity. We present new theoretical insights and a substantially improved algorithm for the reliable prediction of gas-particle partitioning at thermodynamic equilibrium based on the Aerosol Inorganic-Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients (AIOMFAC) model. We introduce a new approach for the accurate prediction of the phase distribution of multiple inorganic ions between two liquid phases, constrained by charge balance, and the coupling of the liquid-liquid equilibrium model to a robust gas-particle partitioning algorithm. Such coupled models are useful for exploring the range of environmental conditions leading to complete or incomplete miscibility of aerosol constituents which will affect

  15. Active Drumming Experience Increases Infants’ Sensitivity to Audiovisual Synchrony during Observed Drumming Actions

    PubMed Central

    Timmers, Renee; Hunnius, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the role of active experience on sensitivity to multisensory synchrony in six-month-old infants in a musical context. In the first of two experiments, we trained infants to produce a novel multimodal effect (i.e., a drum beat) and assessed the effects of this training, relative to no training, on their later perception of the synchrony between audio and visual presentation of the drumming action. In a second experiment, we then contrasted this active experience with the observation of drumming in order to test whether observation of the audiovisual effect was as effective for sensitivity to multimodal synchrony as active experience. Our results indicated that active experience provided a unique benefit above and beyond observational experience, providing insights on the embodied roots of (early) music perception and cognition. PMID:26111226

  16. Active Drumming Experience Increases Infants' Sensitivity to Audiovisual Synchrony during Observed Drumming Actions.

    PubMed

    Gerson, Sarah A; Schiavio, Andrea; Timmers, Renee; Hunnius, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the role of active experience on sensitivity to multisensory synchrony in six-month-old infants in a musical context. In the first of two experiments, we trained infants to produce a novel multimodal effect (i.e., a drum beat) and assessed the effects of this training, relative to no training, on their later perception of the synchrony between audio and visual presentation of the drumming action. In a second experiment, we then contrasted this active experience with the observation of drumming in order to test whether observation of the audiovisual effect was as effective for sensitivity to multimodal synchrony as active experience. Our results indicated that active experience provided a unique benefit above and beyond observational experience, providing insights on the embodied roots of (early) music perception and cognition. PMID:26111226

  17. Impaired prefrontal gamma band synchrony in autism spectrum disorders during gaze cueing.

    PubMed

    Richard, Annette E; Lajiness-O'Neill, Renee R; Bowyer, Susan M

    2013-11-13

    Orienting to eye gaze is a vital social skill that is absent or developmentally delayed in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Neural synchrony in the gamma frequency band is believed to be involved in perceptual and cognitive functions such as eye-gaze processing, and has been found to be abnormal in ASD. The current study used magnetoencephalography to measure neural synchrony in the gamma frequency band in neurotypicals (n=8) and individuals with ASD (n=10) while performing a directional eye-gaze processing task. Results support impaired generation of neural synchrony in the gamma frequency band during eye-gaze processing in ASD. Impaired gamma oscillatory activity in the prefrontal cortex may be associated with impairments in social cognitive functions such as eye-gaze processing in ASD.

  18. Sensory connection, interest/attention and gamma synchrony in autism or autism, brain connections and preoccupation.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Wendy

    2013-03-01

    Does motivational interest increase gamma synchrony across neuronal networking to enable computation of related sensory inputs that might lead to greater social understanding in autism spectrum conditions (ASC)? Meaning, is it possible/likely that in autism because individuals process one aspect of sensory input at any one time (therefore missing the wider picture in general) when they are motivated/interested or attending to particular stimuli their attention window is widened due to increased gamma synchrony and they might be enabled to connect in ways that do not occur when they are not motivated? This is my current research question. If gamma synchrony is helping with the binding of information from collective sensory inputs, in ASC, when and only if the individual is motivated, then this has huge potential for how learning might be encouraged for individuals with an ASC.

  19. Phenological synchrony of bird migration with tree flowering at desert riparian stopover sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellermann, Jherime L.; Van Riper, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Small-bodied songbirds replenish fat reserves during migration at stopover sites where they continually encounter novel and often unpredictable environmental conditions. The ability to select and utilize high quality habitats is critical to survival and fitness. Vegetation phenology is closely linked with emergence of insect prey and may provide valid cues of food availability for stopover habitat selection. Climate change is disrupting phenological synchrony across trophic levels with negative impacts on bird populations. However, whether synchrony or mismatch indicates historic or disrupted systems remains unclear. Many Neotropical migratory songbirds of western North America must cross arid regions where drought conditions related to climate change and human water use are expected to increase. We studied migrant abundance and the diversity (niche breadth) and proportional use of vegetation species as foraging substrates and their synchrony with vegetation flowering during spring migration along the lower Colorado River in the Sonoran Desert of the U.S. and Mexico.

  20. INTERSPECIFIC SYNCHRONY AMONG FOLIAGE-FEEDING FOREST LAPIDOPTERA SPECIES AND THE ROLE OF GENERALIST PREDATORS AS POSSIBLE SYNCHRONIZING AGENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    While synchrony among geographically disjunct populations of the same species has received considerable recent attention, much less is known about synchrony between sympatric populations of two or more species. We analyzed time series of the abundance of ten species of spring fol...

  1. What Iconic Gesture Fragments Reveal about Gesture-Speech Integration: When Synchrony Is Lost, Memory Can Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obermeier, Christian; Holle, Henning; Gunter, Thomas C.

    2011-01-01

    The present series of experiments explores several issues related to gesture-speech integration and synchrony during sentence processing. To be able to more precisely manipulate gesture-speech synchrony, we used gesture fragments instead of complete gestures, thereby avoiding the usual long temporal overlap of gestures with their coexpressive…

  2. The Structure of Parent-Child Dyadic Synchrony in Toddlerhood and Children's Communication Competence and Self-Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Eric W.; Cremeens, Penny R.; Colwell, Malinda J.; Caldera, Yvonne M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to examine parent-child synchrony and its link to children's communicative competence and self-control. Data were collected from 80 families with toddler age children (41 girls, 39 boys) during a laboratory assessment. Five components of parent-child dyadic synchrony were assessed during a semi-structured…

  3. Theoretical prediction of phase relations among aqueous solutions and minerals: Salton Sea geothermal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Dennis K.; Norton, Denis L.

    1981-09-01

    Thermodynamic calculations of compositional relations among aqueous solutions and minerals in the system Na2O-K2O-CaO-MgO-Fe2O3 Al2O3-SiO2-H2O-CO2 HCl at pressures and temperatures corresponding to liquid-vapor equilibrium of H2O permit quantitative description and interpretation of phase relations among rock forming minerals and aqueous solutions in magma-hydrothermal systems. The extensive data base on the Salton Sea geothermal system provides an exemplary case for predicting the chemical characteristics of geothermal fluids associated with metasomatic mineral zones observed in deep drillhole samples. Near the Elmore No. 1 well aqueous species activity ratios of {aNa+}/{aH+} and {aK+}/{aH+} vary several tenths of a log unit with increasing depth and temperature from ∼ 0.6 km and ∼250°C to ∼ 2.2 km and ∼350°C, whereas {aCa2+}/{a2H+} decreases ∼ 2 orders of magnitude for a comparable range in depth and temperature. The fugacity of CO2 gas is ∼1.5-6 bars at ≲ 310°C. Calculated values of aSio2(aq), {aNa+}/{aK+}, {aCa2+}/{aMg2+} and fCO2(g), in the fluid phase coexisting with observed mineralogic phase relations are in remarkably close agreement with measured solute concentrations in geothermal fluids produced from deep drillholes near the Salton Sea. Hydrolysis reactions representing observed phase relations and written with alkali and alkaline earth cations as products have negative standard molal enthalpies (ΔH0P,T,r) and volumes (ΔV0P,T,r) of reactions; consequently, {aNa+}/{aH+}, {aK+}/{aH+}, {aCa2+}/{a2H+}, and {aMg2+}/{a2H+} decrease with increasing temperature at constant pressure, but increase with increasing pressure at constant temperature. An approximate linear relationship exists among these activity ratios and the reciprocal of absolute temperatures because ΔH0P,T,r varies only slightly with increasing temperature at ≲ 250 to 300°C. However, at ≳300°C, ΔH0P,T,r and ΔV0P,T,R decrease dramatically as a consequence of extrema in

  4. Not That Heart-Stopping After All: Visuo-Cardiac Synchrony Does Not Boost Self-Face Attribution

    PubMed Central

    Porciello, Giuseppina; Daum, Moritz M.; Menghini, Cristina; Brugger, Peter; Lenggenhager, Bigna

    2016-01-01

    Recent experimental evidence and theoretical models suggest that an integration of exteroceptive and interoceptive signals underlies several key aspects of the bodily self. While it has been shown that self-attribution of both the hand and the full-body are altered by conflicting extero-exteroceptive (e.g. visuo-tactile) and extero-interoceptive (e.g. visuo-cardiac) information, no study has thus far investigated whether self-attribution of the face might be altered by visuo-cardiac stimulation similarly to visuo-tactile stimulation. In three independent groups of participants we presented ambiguous (i.e. morphed with a stranger's face) self-faces flashing synchronously or asynchronously with the participants’ heartbeat. We then measured the subjective percentages of self-face attribution of morphed stimuli. To control for a potential effect of visuo-cardiac synchrony on familiarity, a task assessing the attribution of a familiar face was introduced. Moreover, different durations of visuo-cardiac flashing and different degrees of asynchronicity were used. Based on previous studies showing that synchronous visuo-cardiac stimulation generally increases self-attribution of the full-body and the hand, and that synchronous visuo-tactile stimulation increases self-face attribution, we predicted higher self-face attribution during the synchronous visuo-cardiac flashing of the morphed stimuli. In contrast to this hypothesis, the results showed no difference between synchronous and asynchronous stimulation on self-face attribution in any of the three studies. We thus conclude that visuo-cardiac synchrony does not boost self-attribution of the face as it does that of hand and full-body. PMID:27541587

  5. Long-range synchrony in the gamma band: role in music perception.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, J; Petsche, H; Pereda, E

    2001-08-15

    Synchronization seems to be a central mechanism for neuronal information processing within and between multiple brain areas. Furthermore, synchronization in the gamma band has been shown to play an important role in higher cognitive functions, especially by binding the necessary spatial and temporal information in different cortical areas to build a coherent perception. Specific task-induced (evoked) gamma oscillations have often been taken as an indication of synchrony, but the presence of long-range synchrony cannot be inferred from spectral power in the gamma range. We studied the usefulness of a relatively new measure, called similarity index to detect asymmetric interdependency between two brain regions. Spontaneous EEG from two groups-musicians and non-musicians-were recorded during several states: listening to music, listening to text, and at rest (eyes closed and eyes open). While listening to music, degrees of the gamma band synchrony over distributed cortical areas were found to be significantly higher in musicians than non-musicians. Yet no differences between these two groups were found at resting conditions and while listening to a neutral text. In contrast to the degree of long-range synchrony, spectral power in the gamma band was higher in non-musicians. The degree of spatial synchrony, a measure of signal complexity based on eigen-decomposition method, was also significantly increased in musicians while listening to music. As compared with non-musicians, the finding of increased long-range synchrony in musicians independent of spectral power is interpreted as a manifestation of a more advanced musical memory of musicians in binding together several features of the intrinsic complexity of music in a dynamical way. PMID:11487656

  6. A grand canonical genetic algorithm for the prediction of multi-component phase diagrams and testing of empirical potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipton, William W.; Hennig, Richard G.

    2013-12-01

    We present an evolutionary algorithm which predicts stable atomic structures and phase diagrams by searching the energy landscape of empirical and ab initio Hamiltonians. Composition and geometrical degrees of freedom may be varied simultaneously. We show that this method utilizes information from favorable local structure at one composition to predict that at others, achieving far greater efficiency of phase diagram prediction than a method which relies on sampling compositions individually. We detail this and a number of other efficiency-improving techniques implemented in the genetic algorithm for structure prediction code that is now publicly available. We test the efficiency of the software by searching the ternary Zr-Cu-Al system using an empirical embedded-atom model potential. In addition to testing the algorithm, we also evaluate the accuracy of the potential itself. We find that the potential stabilizes several correct ternary phases, while a few of the predicted ground states are unphysical. Our results suggest that genetic algorithm searches can be used to improve the methodology of empirical potential design.

  7. A grand canonical genetic algorithm for the prediction of multi-component phase diagrams and testing of empirical potentials.

    PubMed

    Tipton, William W; Hennig, Richard G

    2013-12-11

    We present an evolutionary algorithm which predicts stable atomic structures and phase diagrams by searching the energy landscape of empirical and ab initio Hamiltonians. Composition and geometrical degrees of freedom may be varied simultaneously. We show that this method utilizes information from favorable local structure at one composition to predict that at others, achieving far greater efficiency of phase diagram prediction than a method which relies on sampling compositions individually. We detail this and a number of other efficiency-improving techniques implemented in the genetic algorithm for structure prediction code that is now publicly available. We test the efficiency of the software by searching the ternary Zr-Cu-Al system using an empirical embedded-atom model potential. In addition to testing the algorithm, we also evaluate the accuracy of the potential itself. We find that the potential stabilizes several correct ternary phases, while a few of the predicted ground states are unphysical. Our results suggest that genetic algorithm searches can be used to improve the methodology of empirical potential design. PMID:24184679

  8. Self-recognition in the perception of actions performed in synchrony with music.

    PubMed

    Sevdalis, Vassilis; Keller, Peter E

    2009-07-01

    This study investigated self-recognition in point-light displays depicting actions performed in synchrony with music. Participants were recorded executing three different actions (dancing, walking, and clapping) and were subsequently required to identify the agent (self versus other) from point-light displays with or without the accompanying music. Results indicate that while recognition accuracy was better than chance for all actions, it was best for the relatively complex dance actions. The presence of music did not affect accuracy, suggesting that self-recognition was based on information about personal movement kinematics rather than individual differences in synchrony between movements and music. PMID:19673830

  9. Synchrony in human, mouse and bacterial cell cultures--a comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmstetter, Charles E.; Thornton, Maureen; Romero, Ana; Eward, K. Leigh

    2003-01-01

    Growth characteristics of synchronous human MOLT-4, human U-937 and mouse L1210 cultures produced with a new minimally-disturbing technology were compared to each other and to synchronous Escherichia coli B/r. Based on measurements of cell concentrations during synchronous growth, synchrony persisted in similar fashion for all cells. Cell size and DNA distributions in the mammalian cultures also progressed synchronously and reproducibly for multiple cell cycles. The results demonstrate that unambiguous multi-cycle synchrony, critical for verifying the absence of significant growth imbalances induced by the synchronization procedure, is feasible with these cell lines, and possibly others.

  10. Persistence of cell division synchrony in Spirogyra insignis (Gamophyceae): membrane proteoglycans transmitting synchronizing information throughout generations.

    PubMed

    Costas, E; Lopez Rodas, V

    1991-01-01

    Spirogyra insignis shows a long-term persistence of cell division synchrony in the absence of the synchronizing Zeitgeber, so that at least six generations are involved in the process. This tentatively suggests that a mechanism of transmission throughout generations of synchronizing information could maintain this synchrony. Apparently, a vital part of the molecular basis of this mechanism is a membrane proteoglycan complex. This complex could obtain temporal information from a synchronizing Zeitgeber and be transmitted to the progeny by distribution of plasma membrane between daughter cells.

  11. Significance of vapor phase chemical reactions on CVD rates predicted by chemically frozen and local thermochemical equilibrium boundary layer theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, Suleyman A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper investigates the role played by vapor-phase chemical reactions on CVD rates by comparing the results of two extreme theories developed to predict CVD mass transport rates in the absence of interfacial kinetic barrier: one based on chemically frozen boundary layer and the other based on local thermochemical equilibrium. Both theories consider laminar convective-diffusion boundary layers at high Reynolds numbers and include thermal (Soret) diffusion and variable property effects. As an example, Na2SO4 deposition was studied. It was found that gas phase reactions have no important role on Na2SO4 deposition rates and on the predictions of the theories. The implications of the predictions of the two theories to other CVD systems are discussed.

  12. Life prediction methodology for ceramic components of advanced heat engines. Phase 1: Volume 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cuccio, J.C.; Brehm, P.; Fang, H.T.

    1995-03-01

    Emphasis of this program is to develop and demonstrate ceramics life prediction methods, including fast fracture, stress rupture, creep, oxidation, and nondestructive evaluation. Significant advancements were made in these methods and their predictive capabilities successfully demonstrated.

  13. Phase locked neural activity in the human brainstem predicts preference for musical consonance

    PubMed Central

    Bones, Oliver; Hopkins, Kathryn; Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Plack, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    When musical notes are combined to make a chord, the closeness of fit of the combined spectrum to a single harmonic series (the ‘harmonicity’ of the chord) predicts the perceived consonance (how pleasant and stable the chord sounds; McDermott, Lehr, & Oxenham, 2010). The distinction between consonance and dissonance is central to Western musical form. Harmonicity is represented in the temporal firing patterns of populations of brainstem neurons. The current study investigates the role of brainstem temporal coding of harmonicity in the perception of consonance. Individual preference for consonant over dissonant chords was measured using a rating scale for pairs of simultaneous notes. In order to investigate the effects of cochlear interactions, notes were presented in two ways: both notes to both ears or each note to different ears. The electrophysiological frequency following response (FFR), reflecting sustained neural activity in the brainstem synchronised to the stimulus, was also measured. When both notes were presented to both ears the perceptual distinction between consonant and dissonant chords was stronger than when the notes were presented to different ears. In the condition in which both notes were presented to the both ears additional low-frequency components, corresponding to difference tones resulting from nonlinear cochlear processing, were observable in the FFR effectively enhancing the neural harmonicity of consonant chords but not dissonant chords. Suppressing the cochlear envelope component of the FFR also suppressed the additional frequency components. This suggests that, in the case of consonant chords, difference tones generated by interactions between notes in the cochlea enhance the perception of consonance. Furthermore, individuals with a greater distinction between consonant and dissonant chords in the FFR to individual harmonics had a stronger preference for consonant over dissonant chords. Overall, the results provide compelling

  14. Prolonged QT interval at onset of acute myocardial infarction in predicting early phase ventricular tachycardia

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.J.; Crampton, R.S.; Gibson, R.S.; Stebbins, P.T.; Waldman, M.T.; Beller, G.A.

    1981-07-01

    The prospectively assessed time course of changes in ventricular repolarization during acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is reported in 32 patients admitted 2.0 +/- 1.8 (SD) hours after AMI onset. The initial corrected QT interval (QTc) upon hospitalization was longer in the 14 patients developing ventricular tachycardia (VT) within the first 48 hours as compared to QTc in the eight patients with frequent ventricular premature beats (VPBs) and to QTc in the 10 patients with infrequent VPBs. By the fifth day after AMI onset, the QTc shortened significantly only in the VT group, suggesting a greater initial abnormality of repolarization in these patients. All 32 patients had coronary angiography, radionuclide ventriculography, and myocardial perfusion scintigraphy before hospital discharge. Significant discriminating factors related to early phase VT in AMI included initially longer QT and QTc intervals, faster heart rate, higher peak serum levels of creatine kinase, acute anterior infarction, angiographically documented proximal stenosis of the left anterior descending coronary artery, and scintigraphic evidence of hypoperfusion of the interventricular septum. Prior infarction, angina pectoris, hypertension, multivessel coronary artery disease, and depressed left ventricular ejection fraction did not provide discrimination among the three different ventricular arrhythmia AMI groups. Researchers conclude that (1) the QT interval is frequently prolonged early in AMI, (2) the initial transiently prolonged ventricular repolarization facilitates and predicts complex ventricular tachyarrhythmias within the first 48 hours of AMI, (3) jeopardized blood supply to the interventricular septum frequently coexists, and (4) therapeutic enhancement of rapid recovery of the ventricular repolarization process merits investigation for prevention of VT in AMI.

  15. The effect of low light intensity on the maintenance of circadian synchrony in human subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winget, C. M.; Lyman, J.; Beljan, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    The light-intensity threshold for humans is not known. In past space flights owing to power restrictions, light intensities have been minimal and reported to be as low as 15 ft. c. This study was conducted to determine whether the light (L)/dark (D) environment of 16L : 8D at the relatively low light intensity of 15 ft. c. was adequate for the maintenance of circadian synchrony in human subjects. Six healthy male subjects aged 20-23 years were exposed for 21 days to a 16L : 8D photoperiod. During the first 7 days the light intensity was 100 ft. c.; it was reduced to 15 ft. c. during the next 7 days and increased again to 100 ft. c. during the last 7 days of the study. Rectal temperature (RT) and heart rate (HR) were recorded continuously throughout the 21 days of the study. In the 100 ft. c. 16L : 8D the RT and HR rhythms remained stable and circadian throughout. When the light intensity was decreased to 15 ft. c. the periodicity of the HR rhythm was significantly decreased and this rhythm showed marked instability. In contrast the period of the RT rhythm did not change but a consistent phase delay occurred due to a delay in the lights-on associated rise in RT. These divergent effects on these two rhythms in internal desynchronization and performance decrement during the 15 ft. c. exposure. The data emphasize the need for establishing accurately the minimal lighting requirements for the maintenance of circadian rhythms of humans in confined environments.

  16. Gradient retention prediction of acid-base analytes in reversed phase liquid chromatography: a simplified approach for acetonitrile-water mobile phases.

    PubMed

    Andrés, Axel; Rosés, Martí; Bosch, Elisabeth

    2014-11-28

    In previous work, a two-parameter model to predict chromatographic retention of ionizable analytes in gradient mode was proposed. However, the procedure required some previous experimental work to get a suitable description of the pKa change with the mobile phase composition. In the present study this previous experimental work has been simplified. The analyte pKa values have been calculated through equations whose coefficients vary depending on their functional group. Forced by this new approach, other simplifications regarding the retention of the totally neutral and totally ionized species also had to be performed. After the simplifications were applied, new prediction values were obtained and compared with the previously acquired experimental data. The simplified model gave pretty good predictions while saving a significant amount of time and resources.

  17. Numerical Predictions of Wind Turbine Power and Aerodynamic Loads for the NREL Phase II and IV Combined Experiment Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duque, Earl P. N.; Johnson, Wayne; vanDam, C. P.; Chao, David D.; Cortes, Regina; Yee, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Accurate, reliable and robust numerical predictions of wind turbine rotor power remain a challenge to the wind energy industry. The literature reports various methods that compare predictions to experiments. The methods vary from Blade Element Momentum Theory (BEM), Vortex Lattice (VL), to variants of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RaNS). The BEM and VL methods consistently show discrepancies in predicting rotor power at higher wind speeds mainly due to inadequacies with inboard stall and stall delay models. The RaNS methodologies show promise in predicting blade stall. However, inaccurate rotor vortex wake convection, boundary layer turbulence modeling and grid resolution has limited their accuracy. In addition, the inherently unsteady stalled flow conditions become computationally expensive for even the best endowed research labs. Although numerical power predictions have been compared to experiment. The availability of good wind turbine data sufficient for code validation experimental data that has been extracted from the IEA Annex XIV download site for the NREL Combined Experiment phase II and phase IV rotor. In addition, the comparisons will show data that has been further reduced into steady wind and zero yaw conditions suitable for comparisons to "steady wind" rotor power predictions. In summary, the paper will present and discuss the capabilities and limitations of the three numerical methods and make available a database of experimental data suitable to help other numerical methods practitioners validate their own work.

  18. Women's interest in visual sexual stimuli varies with menstrual cycle phase at first exposure and predicts later interest.

    PubMed

    Wallen, Kim; Rupp, Heather A

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated whether women's interest in visual sexual stimuli varied with their hormonal state. Viewing times of 30 women, 15 normal cycling (NC) and 15 oral contracepting (OC), to sexually explicit photos were measured at three different times. NC women were tested during their menstrual, periovulatory, and luteal phases, and OC women were tested at equivalent temporal intervals. Subjects viewed stimuli as long as desired, thus viewing time measured subject interest. Subjective ratings of stimulus sexual attractiveness were obtained on each test. There was no overall relationship between menstrual cycle phase and viewing time. However the participant's menstrual cycle phase during first exposure to sexual stimuli predicted subsequent interest in sexual stimuli during the next two tests. NC women who first viewed stimuli during their periovulatory phase looked longer at the sexual stimuli across all sessions than did women first tested in their luteal phase. OC women first exposed to the sexual stimuli during menstruation looked longer at the stimuli across all sessions than did OC women first exposed at other test phases. Neither current test phase nor initial cycle phase influenced subjective ratings. Women had increased interest in sexual stimuli across all sessions if first exposed to sexual stimuli when endogenous estrogens were most likely highest. These data suggest that women's interest in visual sexual stimuli is modulated by hormones such that the hormonal condition at first exposure possibly determines the stimuli's emotional valence, markedly affecting subsequent interest in sexual stimuli. PMID:20034495

  19. Coherence, phase differences, phase shift, and phase lock in EEG/ERP analyses.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) coherence is a mixture of phase locking interrupted by phase shifts in the spontaneous EEG. Average reference, Laplacian transforms, and independent component (ICA) reconstruction of time series can distort physiologically generated phase differences and invalidate the computation of coherence and phase differences as well as in the computation of directed coherence and phase reset. Time domain measures of phase shift and phase lock are less prone to artifact and are independent of volume conduction. Cross-frequency synchrony in the surface EEG and in Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) provides insights into dynamic functions of the brain.

  20. Influence of the choice of gas-phase mechanism on predictions of key gaseous pollutants during the AQMEII phase-2 intercomparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knote, Christoph; Tuccella, Paolo; Curci, Gabriele; Emmons, Louisa; Orlando, John J.; Madronich, Sasha; Baró, Rocio; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro; Luecken, Deborah; Hogrefe, Christian; Forkel, Renate; Werhahn, Johannes; Hirtl, Marcus; Pérez, Juan L.; San José, Roberto; Giordano, Lea; Brunner, Dominik; Yahya, Khairunnisa; Zhang, Yang

    2015-08-01

    The formulations of tropospheric gas-phase chemistry ("mechanisms") used in the regional-scale chemistry-transport models participating in the Air Quality Modelling Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) Phase 2 are intercompared by the means of box model studies. Simulations were conducted under idealized meteorological conditions, and the results are representative of mean boundary layer concentrations. Three sets of meteorological conditions - winter, spring/autumn and summer - were used to capture the annual variability, similar to the 3-D model simulations in AQMEII Phase 2. We also employed the same emissions input data used in the 3-D model intercomparison, and sample from these datasets employing different strategies to evaluate mechanism performance under a realistic range of pollution conditions. Box model simulations using the different mechanisms are conducted with tight constraints on all relevant processes and boundary conditions (photolysis, temperature, entrainment, etc.) to ensure that differences in predicted concentrations of pollutants can be attributed to differences in the formulation of gas-phase chemistry. The results are then compared with each other (but not to measurements), leading to an understanding of mechanism-specific biases compared to the multi-model mean. Our results allow us to quantify the uncertainty in predictions of a given compound in the 3-D simulations introduced by the choice of gas-phase mechanisms, to determine mechanism-specific biases under certain pollution conditions, and to identify (or rule out) the gas-phase mechanism as the cause of an observed discrepancy in 3-D model predictions. We find that the predictions of the median diurnal cycle of O3 over a set of emission conditions representing a network of station observations is within 4 ppbv (5%) across the different mechanisms. This variability is found to be very similar on both continents. There are considerably larger differences in predicted

  1. The prediction of bacteria type and culture growth phase by an electronic nose with a multi-layer perceptron network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, J. W.; Craven, M.; Dow, C.; Hines, E. L.

    1998-01-01

    An investigation into the use of an electronic nose to predict the class and growth phase of two potentially pathogenic micro-organisms, Eschericha coli ( E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus), has been performed. In order to do this we have developed an automated system to sample, with a high degree of reproducibility, the head space of bacterial cultures grown in a standard nutrient medium. Head spaces have been examined by using an array of six different metal oxide semiconducting gas sensors and classified by a multi-layer perceptron (MLP) with a back-propagation (BP) learning algorithm. The performance of 36 different pre-processing algorithms has been studied on the basis of nine different sensor parameters and four different normalization techniques. The best MLP was found to classify successfully 100% of the unknown S. aureus samples and 92% of the unknown E. coli samples, on the basis of a set of 360 training vectors and 360 test vectors taken from the lag, log and stationary growth phases. The real growth phase of the bacteria was determined from optical cell counts and was predicted from the head space samples with an accuracy of 81%. We conclude that these results show considerable promise in that the correct prediction of the type and growth phase of pathogenic bacteria may help both in the more rapid treatment of bacterial infections and in the more efficient testing of new anti-biotic drugs.

  2. Theoretical predictions of novel superconducting phases of BaGe3 stable at atmospheric and high pressures.

    PubMed

    Zurek, Eva; Yao, Yansun

    2015-03-16

    A series of new superconducting binary silicides and germanides have recently been synthesized under high-pressure high-temperature conditions. A representative member of this group, BaGe3, was theoretically investigated using evolutionary structure searches coupled with structural analogies in the pressure range from 1 atm to 250 GPa, where three new phases were discovered. At 1 atm, in addition to the synthesized P63/mmc phase, we predicted two new phases, I4/mmm and Amm2, to be dynamically stable. The Amm2 structure comprises Ge clusters and triangular prisms intercalated with Ba and Ge atoms, a unique structural motif unknown to this group. The I4/mmm structure has been previously synthesized in binary silicides and is calculated to be thermodynamically stable in BaGe3 between 15.6 and 35.4 GPa. Above 35.4 GPa, two new phases of P6̅m2 and R3̅m symmetry become the global minima and remain so up to the highest pressure considered. These two phases have very similar enthalpies, and both feature layers of double Kagome nets of Ge intercalated with Ba-Ge layers. The predicted phases are suggested to be metallic with itinerant electrons and to be potentially superconducting from the considerable electron-phonon coupling strength. Density functional perturbation calculations combined with the Allen-Dynes-modified McMillan formula were used to estimate the superconducting critical temperatures (Tc) for these new phases, which, with slight pressure variations, are comparable to the experimental Tc measured for the P63/mmc phase.

  3. Stiffness predictions of carbon nanotube reinforced two and three-phase polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neer, Eric

    Carbon nanotubes are a relatively new area of research which has gained significant attention in published literature. One reason for this interest is their use in multi-phase composites, specifically where they can enhance traditional polymer matrices. Many authors have attempted to adapt conventional micromechanical analyses reserved for microfibers to the nano scale. A review of these works is presented. In depth analysis is provided on one of these two phase (nanotube and matrix) models, the Anumandla-Gibson model, originally published in 2006. A discussion of its strengths and sensitivities is given, with numerical data to support the conclusions. It is extended to three-phase composites through the use of classical laminated plate theory. A literature survey is conducted to gather published two and three-phase experimental results for comparison. Two phase experimental results agree well with the present model, whereas three phase data was limited, but initial comparisons were promising.

  4. Seismic Prediction While Drilling (SPWD): Seismic exploration ahead of the drill bit using phased array sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaksch, Katrin; Giese, Rüdiger; Kopf, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    In the case of drilling for deep reservoirs previous exploration is indispensable. In recent years the focus shifted more on geological structures like small layers or hydrothermal fault systems. Beside 2D- or 3D-seismics from the surface and seismic measurements like Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP) or Seismic While Drilling (SWD) within a borehole these methods cannot always resolute this structures. The resolution is worsen the deeper and smaller the sought-after structures are. So, potential horizons like small layers in oil exploration or fault zones usable for geothermal energy production could be failed or not identified while drilling. The application of a device to explore the geology with a high resolution ahead of the drill bit in direction of drilling would be of high importance. Such a device would allow adjusting the drilling path according to the real geology and would minimize the risk of discovery and hence the costs for drilling. Within the project SPWD a device for seismic exploration ahead of the drill bit will be developed. This device should allow the seismic exploration to predict areas about 50 to 100 meters ahead of the drill bit with a resolution of one meter. At the GFZ a first prototype consisting of different units for seismic sources, receivers and data loggers has been designed and manufactured. As seismic sources four standard magnetostrictive actuators and as receivers four 3-component-geophones are used. Every unit, actuator or geophone, can be rotated in steps of 15° around the longitudinal axis of the prototype to test different measurement configurations. The SPWD prototype emits signal frequencies of about 500 up to 5000 Hz which are significant higher than in VSP and SWD. An increased radiation of seismic wave energy in the direction of the borehole axis allows the view in areas to be drilled. Therefore, every actuator must be controlled independently of each other regarding to amplitude and phase of the source signal to

  5. Analytical predictions for vibration phase shifts along fluid-conveying pipes due to Coriolis forces and imperfections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel; Dahl, Jonas

    2010-07-01

    Resonant vibrations of a fluid-conveying pipe are investigated, with special consideration to axial shifts in vibration phase accompanying fluid flow and various imperfections. This is relevant for understanding elastic wave propagation in general, and for the design and trouble-shooting of phase-shift measuring devices such as Coriolis mass flowmeters in particular. Small imperfections related to elastic and dissipative support conditions are specifically addressed, but the suggested approach is readily applicable to other kinds of imperfection, e.g. non-uniform stiffness or mass, non-proportional damping, weak nonlinearity, and flow pulsation. A multiple time scaling perturbation analysis is employed for a simple model of an imperfect fluid-conveying pipe. This leads to simple analytical expressions for the approximate prediction of phase shift, providing direct insight into which imperfections affect phase shift, and in which manner. The analytical predictions are tested against results obtained by pure numerical analysis using a Galerkin expansion, showing very good agreement. For small imperfections the analytical predictions are thus comparable in accuracy to numerical simulation, but provide much more insight. This may aid in creating practically useful hypotheses that hold more generally for real systems of complex geometry, e.g. that asymmetry or non-proportionality in axial distribution of damping will induce phase shifts in a manner similar to that of fluid flow, while the symmetric part of damping as well as non-uniformity in mass or stiffness do not affect phase shift. The validity of such hypotheses can be tested using detailed fluid-structure interaction computer models or laboratory experiments.

  6. Predicting Pattern Tooling and Casting Dimensions for Investment Casting - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S

    2005-09-01

    The investment casting process allows the production of complex-shape parts and close dimensional tolerances. One of the most important phases in the investment casting process is the design of the pattern die. Pattern dies are used to create wax patterns by injecting wax into dies. The wax patterns are used to create a ceramic shell by the application of a series of ceramic coatings, and the alloy is cast into the dewaxed shell mold (Fig. 1.1). However, the complexity of shape and the close dimensional tolerances required in the final casting make it difficult to determine tooling dimensions. The final linear dimension of the casting depends on the cumulative effects of the linear expansions or contractions in each step of the investment casting process (Fig. 1.2). In most cases, the mold geometry or cores restrict the shrinkage of the pattern or the cast part, and the final casting dimensions may be affected by time-dependent processes such as viscoelastic deformation of the wax, and viscoplastic creep and plastic deformations of the shell and alloy. The pattern die is often reworked several times to produce castings whose dimensions are within acceptable tolerances. To date, investment casting technology has been based on hands-on training and experience. Technical literature is limited to experimental, phenomenological studies aimed at obtaining empirical correlations for quick and easy application in industry. The goal of this project was to predict casting dimensions for investment castings in order to meet blueprint nominal during the first casting run. Several interactions have to be considered in a coupled manner to determine the shrinkage factors: these are the die-wax, wax-shell, and shell-alloy interactions (as illustrated in Fig. 1.3). In this work, the deformations of the die-wax and shell-alloy systems were considered in a coupled manner, while the coupled deformation of the wax-shell system was not considered. Future work is needed in order to

  7. Analysis on the Oversize Blast Furnace Desulfurization and a Sulfide Capacity Prediction Model Based on Congregated Electron Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhenyang, Wang; Jianliang, Zhang; Gang, An; Zhengjian, Liu; Zhengming, Cheng; Junjie, Huang; Jingwei, Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Through analyzed and regressed the actual productive desulfurization data from the oversize blast furnace (5500 m3) in north China, the relationship between the sulfur distribution parameters and the slag composition in actual production situation was investigated. As the slag and hot metal phases have their own balance sulfur content or sulfur partial pressure in gas phase, respectively, the non-equilibrium of sulfur among gas, slag, and metal phases leads to the transmission and distribution of sulfur. Combined with sulfur transmission reactions between gas, slag and metal phases, C/CO pairs equilibrium, and Wagner model, the measured sulfide capacity can be acquired using sulfur distribution ratio, sulfur activity coefficient, and oxygen activity in hot metal. Based on the theory of congregated electron phase, a new sulfide capacity prediction model (CEPM) has been developed, which has a good liner relationship with the measured sulfide capacity. Thus, using the burden structure for BF, the ironmaking slag composition can be obtained simply and can be used to reliably predict the ironmaking slag desulfurization ability a few hours later after charging under a certain temperature by CEPM.

  8. Prediction of the adaptability of Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E to a second phase of a solvent for economically sound two-phase biotransformations.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Grit; Kabelitz, Nadja; Zehnsdorf, Andreas; Miltner, Anja; Lippold, Holger; Meyer, Daniel; Schmid, Andreas; Heipieper, Hermann J

    2005-11-01

    The strain Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E was tested for its ability to tolerate second phases of different alkanols for their use as solvents in two-liquid-phase biotransformations. Although 1-decanol showed an about 10-fold higher toxicity to the cells than 1-octanol, the cells were able to adapt completely to 1-decanol only and could not be adapted in order to grow stably in the presence of a second phase of 1-octanol. The main explanation for this observation can be seen in the higher water and membrane solubility of 1-octanol. The hydrophobicity (log P) of a substance correlates with a certain partitioning of that compound into the membrane. Combining the log P value with the water solubility, the maximum membrane concentration of a compound can be calculated. With this simple calculation, it is possible to predict the property of an organic chemical for its potential applicability as a solvent for two-liquid-phase biotransformations with solvent-tolerant P. putida strains. Only compounds that show a maximum membrane concentration of less than 400 mM, such as 1-decanol, seem to be tolerated by these bacterial strains when applied in supersaturating concentrations to the medium. Taking into consideration that a solvent for a two-liquid-phase system should possess partitioning properties for potential substrates and products of a fine chemical synthesis, it can be seen that 1-decanol is a suitable solvent for such biotransformation processes. This was also demonstrated in shake cultures, where increasing amounts of a second phase of 1-decanol led to bacteria tolerating higher concentrations of the model substrate 3-nitrotoluene. Transferring this example to a 5-liter-scale bioreactor with 10% (vol/vol) 1-decanol, the amount of 3-nitrotoluene tolerated by the cells is up to 200-fold higher than in pure aqueous medium. The system demonstrates the usefulness of two-phase biotransformations utilizing solvent-tolerant bacteria.

  9. Prediction of the zeta potentials and ionic descriptors of a silica hydride stationary phase with mobile phases of different pH and ionic strength.

    PubMed

    Kulsing, Chadin; Yang, Yuanzhong; Matyska, Maria T; Pesek, Joseph J; Boysen, Reinhard I; Hearn, Milton T W

    2015-02-15

    In this study, the zeta potentials of a silica hydride stationary phase (Diamond Hydride™) in the presence of different water-acetonitrile mixtures (from 0-80% (v/v) acetonitrile) of different ionic strengths (from 0-40mM) and pH values (from pH 3.0-7.0) have been investigated. Debye-Hückel theory was applied to explain the effect of changes in the pH and ionic strength of these aqueous media on the negative zeta potential of this stationary phase. The experimental zeta potentials of the Diamond Hydride™ particles as a function of acetonitrile content up to 50% (v/v) correlated (R(2)=0.998) with the predicted zeta potential values based on this established theory, when the values of the dissociation constant of all related species, as well as viscosity, dielectric constant and refractive index of the aqueous medium were taken into consideration. Further, the retention behavior of basic, acidic and neutral analytes was investigated under mobile phase conditions of higher pH and lower ionic strength. Under these conditions, the Diamond Hydride™ stationary phase surface became more negative, as assessed from the increasingly more negative zeta potentials, resulting in the ion exchange characteristics becoming more dominant and the basic analytes showing increasing retention. Ionic descriptors were derived from these chromatographic experiments based on the assumption that linear solvation energy relationships prevail. The results were compared with predicted ionic descriptors based on the different calculated zeta potential values resulting in an overall correlation of R(2)=0.888. These studies provide fundamental insights into the impact on the separation performance of changes in the zeta potential of the Diamond Hydride™ surface with the results relevant to other silica hydride and, potentially, to other types of stationary phase materials. PMID:25622609

  10. Prediction of the zeta potentials and ionic descriptors of a silica hydride stationary phase with mobile phases of different pH and ionic strength.

    PubMed

    Kulsing, Chadin; Yang, Yuanzhong; Matyska, Maria T; Pesek, Joseph J; Boysen, Reinhard I; Hearn, Milton T W

    2015-02-15

    In this study, the zeta potentials of a silica hydride stationary phase (Diamond Hydride™) in the presence of different water-acetonitrile mixtures (from 0-80% (v/v) acetonitrile) of different ionic strengths (from 0-40mM) and pH values (from pH 3.0-7.0) have been investigated. Debye-Hückel theory was applied to explain the effect of changes in the pH and ionic strength of these aqueous media on the negative zeta potential of this stationary phase. The experimental zeta potentials of the Diamond Hydride™ particles as a function of acetonitrile content up to 50% (v/v) correlated (R(2)=0.998) with the predicted zeta potential values based on this established theory, when the values of the dissociation constant of all related species, as well as viscosity, dielectric constant and refractive index of the aqueous medium were taken into consideration. Further, the retention behavior of basic, acidic and neutral analytes was investigated under mobile phase conditions of higher pH and lower ionic strength. Under these conditions, the Diamond Hydride™ stationary phase surface became more negative, as assessed from the increasingly more negative zeta potentials, resulting in the ion exchange characteristics becoming more dominant and the basic analytes showing increasing retention. Ionic descriptors were derived from these chromatographic experiments based on the assumption that linear solvation energy relationships prevail. The results were compared with predicted ionic descriptors based on the different calculated zeta potential values resulting in an overall correlation of R(2)=0.888. These studies provide fundamental insights into the impact on the separation performance of changes in the zeta potential of the Diamond Hydride™ surface with the results relevant to other silica hydride and, potentially, to other types of stationary phase materials.

  11. Synchrony and Specificity in the Maternal and the Paternal Brain: Relations to Oxytocin and Vasopressin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atzil, Shir; Hendler, Talma; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; Winetraub, Yonatan; Feldman, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research on the neurobiology of parenting has defined "biobehavioral synchrony," the coordination of biological and behavioral responses between parent and child, as a central process underpinning mammalian bond formation. Bi-parental rearing, typically observed in monogamous species, is similarly thought to draw on mechanisms of…

  12. MicroRNA-276 promotes egg-hatching synchrony by up-regulating brm in locusts.

    PubMed

    He, Jing; Chen, Qianquan; Wei, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Feng; Yang, Meiling; Hao, Shuguang; Guo, Xiaojiao; Chen, Dahua; Kang, Le

    2016-01-19

    Developmental synchrony, the basis of uniform swarming, migration, and sexual maturation, is an important strategy for social animals to adapt to variable environments. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying developmental synchrony are largely unexplored. The migratory locust exhibits polyphenism between gregarious and solitarious individuals, with the former displaying more synchronous sexual maturation and migration than the latter. Here, we found that the egg-hatching time of gregarious locusts was more uniform compared with solitarious locusts and that microRNA-276 (miR-276) was expressed significantly higher in both ovaries and eggs of gregarious locusts than in solitarious locusts. Interestingly, inhibiting miR-276 in gregarious females and overexpressing it in solitarious females, respectively, caused more heterochronic and synchronous hatching of progeny eggs. Moreover, miR-276 directly targeted a transcription coactivator gene, brahma (brm), resulting in its up-regulation. Knockdown of brm not only resulted in asynchronous egg hatching in gregarious locusts but also impaired the miR-276-induced synchronous egg hatching in solitarious locusts. Mechanistically, miR-276 mediated brm activation in a manner that depended on the secondary structure of brm, namely, a stem-loop around the binding site of miR-276. Collectively, our results unravel a mechanism by which miR-276 enhances brm expression to promote developmental synchrony and provide insight into regulation of developmental homeostasis and population sustaining that are closely related to biological synchrony. PMID:26729868

  13. Auditory Stream Segregation and the Perception of Across-Frequency Synchrony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micheyl, Christophe; Hunter, Cynthia; Oxenham, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the extent to which sequential auditory grouping affects the perception of temporal synchrony. In Experiment 1, listeners discriminated between 2 pairs of asynchronous "target" tones at different frequencies, A and B, in which the B tone either led or lagged. Thresholds were markedly higher when the target tones were temporally…

  14. REGIONAL DYNAMICS OF WETLAND-BREEDING FROGS AND TOADS: TURNOVER AND SYNCHRONY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used data from a statewide frog monitoring network to investigate population turnover and synchrony in eight wetland-breeding species. We found that subpopulations at many sites turn over frequently, with breeding choruses absent or undetectable in most years. Frequencies of d...

  15. Breeding synchrony and extrapair fertilizations in two populations of red-winged blackbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westaeat, D.F.; Gray, E.M.

    1998-01-01

    We tested the relationship between synchrony of breeding and the frequency of extrapair fertilizations (EPFs) in two populations of red-winged blackbirds known to differ in female extrapair behavior. We found no association between the number of simultaneously fertilizable females (temporal neighbors) and EPF rate in either population, although a significant difference between populations in the direction of this relationship (positive where females initiated extrapair copulations and negative where males initiated them) suggested a modest difference in the influence of synchrony. Males losing offspring to EPFs tended to have more fertilizable females at that time than the actual sires in some analyses but not in others. We also tested several assumptions underlying two competing hypotheses for the effects of synchrony. We found no evidence that females pursued extrapair copulations more often when other females were synchronous. Rather, females were more likely to gain EPFs with extrapair males whose social mates were not yet building their nests. Synchrony also did not consistently affect male pursuit of extrapair copulations or achievement of EPFs. These results suggest that timing of breeding has some effects on extrapair activity, but that those effects are both relatively weak and influenced by other factors that vary between years or populations.

  16. Physical and Relational Aggression in Young Children: The Role of Mother-Child Interactional Synchrony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose, Holly N.; Menna, Rosanne

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between the quality of parent-child interactions, specifically interactional synchrony (IS), and physical and relational aggression in young children. Seventy-three children (3-6 years; 44 males, 29 females) and their mothers participated in this study. The children's level of aggression was assessed through…

  17. MicroRNA-276 promotes egg-hatching synchrony by up-regulating brm in locusts

    PubMed Central

    He, Jing; Chen, Qianquan; Wei, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Feng; Yang, Meiling; Hao, Shuguang; Guo, Xiaojiao; Chen, Dahua; Kang, Le

    2016-01-01

    Developmental synchrony, the basis of uniform swarming, migration, and sexual maturation, is an important strategy for social animals to adapt to variable environments. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying developmental synchrony are largely unexplored. The migratory locust exhibits polyphenism between gregarious and solitarious individuals, with the former displaying more synchronous sexual maturation and migration than the latter. Here, we found that the egg-hatching time of gregarious locusts was more uniform compared with solitarious locusts and that microRNA-276 (miR-276) was expressed significantly higher in both ovaries and eggs of gregarious locusts than in solitarious locusts. Interestingly, inhibiting miR-276 in gregarious females and overexpressing it in solitarious females, respectively, caused more heterochronic and synchronous hatching of progeny eggs. Moreover, miR-276 directly targeted a transcription coactivator gene, brahma (brm), resulting in its up-regulation. Knockdown of brm not only resulted in asynchronous egg hatching in gregarious locusts but also impaired the miR-276–induced synchronous egg hatching in solitarious locusts. Mechanistically, miR-276 mediated brm activation in a manner that depended on the secondary structure of brm, namely, a stem-loop around the binding site of miR-276. Collectively, our results unravel a mechanism by which miR-276 enhances brm expression to promote developmental synchrony and provide insight into regulation of developmental homeostasis and population sustaining that are closely related to biological synchrony. PMID:26729868

  18. The Critical Role of Temporal Synchrony in the Salience of Intersensory Redundancy during Prenatal Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaime, Mark; Bahrick, Lorraine; Lickliter, Robert

    2010-01-01

    We explored the amount and timing of temporal synchrony necessary to facilitate prenatal perceptual learning using an animal model, the bobwhite quail. Quail embryos were exposed to various audiovisual combinations of a bobwhite maternal call paired with patterned light during the late stages of prenatal development and were tested postnatally for…

  19. Isolating the perceptual from the social: tapping in shared space results in improved synchrony.

    PubMed

    Wu, David W-L; Chapman, Craig S; Walker, Esther; Bischof, Walter F; Kingstone, Alan

    2013-10-01

    Current theory suggests that interpersonal synchrony is an important social behavior in that it not only serves as a form of "social glue," but it also arises automatically in a social context. Theorists suggest potential mechanisms for interpersonal synchrony, ranging from a "low-level" social-perceptual system account to a "high-level" social-motivational explanation. Past studies that suggest synchrony can be influenced by social factors do not discriminate between these accounts. The current investigation seeks to isolate the effect of the high-level social system on interpersonal synchrony by investigating the effects of spatial proximity on unintentional coordinated tapping between two naïve participants. Dyads performed a synchronization-continuation task either in the same room, in different rooms, or in different rooms but with the ability to hear each other tap. Participant taps were represented by a box that flashed on the monitor to control visual information across all three conditions. Same-room dyads had increased coordination over different-room dyads, whereas dyads that shared audio but were in different rooms showed an intermediate level of coordination. The present study demonstrates that shared space, independent of perceptual differences in stimuli, can increase unintentional coordinated tapping. PMID:23750971

  20. Population Fluctuations and Synchrony of Grassland Butterflies in Relation to Species Traits

    PubMed Central

    Franzén, Markus; Nilsson, Sven G.; Johansson, Victor; Ranius, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Population fluctuations and synchrony influence population persistence; species with larger fluctuations and more synchronised population fluctuations face higher extinction risks. Here, we analyse the effect of diet specialisation, mobility, length of the flight period, and distance to the northern edge of the species’ distribution in relation to between-year population fluctuations and synchrony of butterfly species. All butterfly species associated with grasslands were surveyed over five successive years at 19 grassland sites in a forest-dominated landscape (50 km2) in southern Sweden. At both the local and regional level, we found larger population fluctuations in species with longer flight periods. Population fluctuations were more synchronous among localities in diet specialists. Species with a long flight period might move more to track nectar resources compared to species with shorter flight period, and if nectar sources vary widely between years and localities it may explain that population fluctuations increase with increasing flight length. Diet generalists can use different resources (in this case host plants) at different localities and this can explain the lower synchrony in population fluctuations among generalist species. Higher degree of synchrony is one possible explanation for the higher extinction risks that have been observed for more specialised species. Therefore, diet specialists are more often threatened and require more conservation efforts than generalists. PMID:24205169

  1. Gaze behavior when learning to link sequential action phases in a manual task.

    PubMed

    Säfström, Daniel; Johansson, Roland S; Flanagan, J Randall

    2014-04-02

    Most manual tasks comprise a sequence of action phases. Skill acquisition in such tasks involves a transition from reactive control, whereby motor commands for the next phase are triggered by sensory events signaling completion of the current phase, to predictive control, whereby commands for the next phase are launched in anticipation of these events. Here we investigated gaze behavior associated with such learning. Participants moved a cursor to successively acquire visual targets, as quickly as possible, by actively keeping the cursor within the target zone (hold phase) for a required duration, before moving to the next target (transport phase). Distinct visual and auditory events marked completion of each phase and, with learning, the launching of the transport phase shifted from being reactively to predictively controlled. Initially, gaze was directed to the current target throughout the hold phase, allowing visual feedback control of the cursor position, and shifted to the next target in synchrony with the cursor. However, with learning, two distinct gaze behaviors emerged. Gaze either shifted to the next target well before the end of the hold phase, facilitating planning of the forthcoming cursor movement, or shifted to the next target after the cursor, enabling cursor exits to be monitored in central vision. These results suggest that, with learning, gaze behavior changes to support evolving task demands, and that people distribute different gaze behaviors across repetitions of the task.

  2. Modeling and Predicting Cancer from ToxCast Phase I Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ToxCast program is generating a diverse collection of in vitro cell free and cell based HTS data to be used for predictive modeling of in vivo toxicity. We are using this in vitro data, plus corresponding in vivo data from ToxRefDB, to develop models for prediction and priori...

  3. Functional connectivity between prefrontal cortex and striatum estimated by phase locking value.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Pan, Xiaochuan; Wang, Rubin; Sakagami, Masamichi

    2016-06-01

    The interplay between the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and striatum has an important role in cognitive processes. To investigate interactive functions between the two areas in reward processing, we recorded local field potentials (LFPs) simultaneously from the two areas of two monkeys performing a reward prediction task (large reward vs small reward). The power of the LFPs was calculated in three frequency bands: the beta band (15-29 Hz), the low gamma band (30-49 Hz), and the high gamma band (50-100 Hz). We found that both the PFC and striatum encoded the reward information in the beta band. The reward information was also found in the high gamma band in the PFC, not in the striatum. We further calculated the phase-locking value (PLV) between two LFP signals to measure the phase synchrony between the PFC and striatum. It was found that significant differences occurred between PLVs in different task periods and in different frequency bands. The PLVs in small reward condition were significant higher than that in large reward condition in the beta band. In contrast, the PLVs in the high gamma band were stronger in large reward trials than in small trials. These results suggested that the functional connectivity between the PFC and striatum depended on the task periods and reward conditions. The beta synchrony between the PFC and striatum may regulate behavioral outputs of the monkeys in the small reward condition.

  4. Dissecting geographic variation in population synchrony using the common vole in central Europe as a test bed.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Ana R; Bjørnstad, Ottar N; Tkadlec, Emil

    2016-01-01

    Spatial synchrony of population fluctuations is ubiquitous in nature. Theoretical models suggest that correlated environmental stochasticity, dispersal, and trophic interactions are important promoters of synchrony in nature to leave characteristic signatures of distance-dependent decays in synchrony. Recent refinements of this theory have clarified how distance-decay curves may steepen if local dynamics are governed by different density-dependent feedbacks and how synchrony should vary regionally if the importance and correlation of environmental stochasticity is location-specific. We analysed spatiotemporal data for the common vole, Microtus arvalis from 49 districts in the Czech Republic to examine the pattern of population synchrony between 2000 and 2014. By extending the nonparametric covariation function, we develop a quantitative method that allows a dissection of the effects of distance and additional variables such as altitude on synchrony. To examine the pattern of local synchrony, we apply the noncentered local-indicators of spatial association (ncLISA) which highlights areas with different degrees of synchrony than expected by the region-wide average. Additionally, in order to understand the obtained pattern of local spatial correlations, we have regressed LISA results against the proportion of forest in each district. The common vole abundances fluctuated strongly and exhibited synchronous dynamics with the typical tendency for a decline of synchrony with increasing distance but, not with altitude. The correlation between the neighbor districts decreases as the proportion of forest increases. Forested areas are suboptimum habitats and are strongly avoided by common voles. The investigation of spatiotemporal dynamics in animal populations is a key issue in ecology. Although the majority of studies are focused on testing hypotheses about which mechanisms are involved in shaping this dynamics it is crucial to understand the sources of variation involved

  5. Sixty Hertz Neurostimulation Amplifies Subthalamic Neural Synchrony in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Blumenfeld, Zack; Velisar, Anca; Miller Koop, Mandy; Hill, Bruce C.; Shreve, Lauren A.; Quinn, Emma J.; Kilbane, Camilla; Yu, Hong; Henderson, Jaimie M.; Brontë-Stewart, Helen

    2015-01-01

    High frequency subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) improves the cardinal motor signs of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and attenuates STN alpha/beta band neural synchrony in a voltage-dependent manner. While there is a growing interest in the behavioral effects of lower frequency (60 Hz) DBS, little is known about its effect on STN neural synchrony. Here we demonstrate for the first time that during intra-operative 60 Hz STN DBS, one or more bands of resting state neural synchrony were amplified in the STN in PD. We recorded intra-operative STN resting state local field potentials (LFPs) from twenty-eight STNs in seventeen PD subjects after placement of the DBS lead (model 3389, Medtronic, Inc.) before and during three randomized neurostimulation sets (130 Hz/1.35V, 130 Hz/2V, 60 Hz/2V). During 130 Hz/2V DBS, baseline (no DBS) STN alpha (8 – 12 Hz) and beta (13 – 35 Hz) band power decreased (N=14, P < 0.001 for both), whereas during 60 Hz/2V DBS, alpha band and peak frequency power increased (P = 0.012, P = 0.007, respectively). The effect of 60 Hz/2V DBS opposed that of power-equivalent (130 Hz/1.35V) DBS (alpha: P < 0.001, beta: P = 0.006). These results show that intra-operative 60 Hz STN DBS amplified whereas 130 Hz STN DBS attenuated resting state neural synchrony in PD; the effects were frequency-specific. We demonstrate that neurostimulation may be useful as a tool to selectively modulate resting state resonant bands of neural synchrony and to investigate its influence on motor and non-motor behaviors in PD and other neuropsychiatric diseases. PMID:25807463

  6. Kinetic Study to Predict Sigma Phase Formation in Duplex Stainless Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, Daniella Caluscio; Magnabosco, Rodrigo

    2016-04-01

    This work presents an improved kinetic study of sigma phase formation during isothermal aging between 973 K and 1223 K (700 °C and 950 °C), based on Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (K-J-M-A) model, established from volume fraction of sigma phase determined in backscattered electron images over polished surfaces of aged samples. The kinetic study shows a change in the main mechanism of sigma formation between 973 K and 1173 K (700 °C and 900 °C), from a nucleation-governed stage to a diffusion-controlled growth-coarsening stage, confirmed by a double inclination in K-J-M-A plots and microstructural observations. A single inclination in K-J-M-A plots was observed for the 1223 K (950 °C) aging temperature, showing that kinetic behavior in this temperature is only related to diffusion-controlled growth of sigma phase. The estimated activation energies for the nucleation of sigma phase are close to the molybdenum diffusion in ferrite, probably the controlling mechanism of sigma phase nucleation. The proposed time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram shows a "double c curve" configuration, probably associated to the presence of chi-phase formed between 973 K and 1073 K (700 °C and 800 °C), which acts as heterogeneous nuclei for sigma phase formation in low aging temperatures.

  7. Retention prediction of highly polar ionizable solutes under gradient conditions on a mixed-mode reversed-phase and weak anion-exchange stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Balkatzopoulou, P; Fasoula, S; Gika, H; Nikitas, P; Pappa-Louisi, A

    2015-05-29

    In the present work the retention of three highly polar and ionizable solutes - uric acid, nicotinic acid and ascorbic acid - was investigated on a mixed-mode reversed-phase and weak anion-exchange (RP/WAX) stationary phase in buffered aqueous acetonitrile (ACN) mobile phases. A U-shaped retention behavior was observed for all solutes with respect to the eluent organic modifier content studied in a range of 5-95% (v/v). This retention behavior clearly demonstrates the presence of a HILIC-type retention mechanism at ACN-rich hydro-organic eluents and an RP-like retention at aqueous-rich hydro-organic eluents. Hence, this column should be promising for application under both RP and HILIC gradient elution modes. For this reason, a series of programmed elution runs were carried out with increasing (RP) and decreasing (HILIC) organic solvent concentration in the mobile phase. This dual gradient process was successfully modeled by two retention models exhibiting a quadratic or a cubic dependence of the logarithm of the solute retention factor (lnk) upon the organic modifier volume fraction (φ). It was found that both models produced by gradient retention data allow the prediction of solute retention times for both types of programmed elution on the mixed-mode column. Four, in the case of the quadratic model, or five, in the case of the cubic model, initial HILIC- and RP-type gradient runs gave satisfactory retention predictions of any similar kind elution program, even with different flow rate, with an overall error of only 2.5 or 1.7%, respectively.

  8. The role of microstructure and phase distribution in the failure mechanisms and life prediction model for PSZ coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sisson, R. D., Jr.; Sone, Ichiro; Biederman, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    Partially Stabilized Zirconia (PSZ) may become widely used for Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC). Failure of these coatings can occur due to thermal fatigue in oxidizing atmospheres. The failure is due to the strains that develop due to thermal gradients, differences in thermal expansion coefficients, and oxidation of the bond coating. The role of microstructure and the cubic, tetragonal, and monoclinic phase distribution in the strain development and subsequent failure will be discussed. An X-ray diffraction technique for accurate determination of the fraction of each phase in PSZ will be applied to understanding the phase transformations and strain development. These results will be discussed in terms of developing a model for life prediction in PSZ coatings during thermal cycling.

  9. Prediction of A2 to B2 Phase Transition in the High Entropy Alloy Mo-Nb-Ta-W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huhn, William; Widom, Michael

    2014-03-01

    In this talk we show that an effective Hamiltonian fit with first principles calculations predicts an order/disorder transition occurs in the high entropy alloy Mo-Nb-Ta-W. Using the Alloy Theoretic Automated Toolset, we find T=0K enthalpies of formation for all binaries containing Mo, Nb, Ta, and W, and in particular we find the stable structures for binaries at equiatomic concentrations are close in energy to the associated B2 structure, suggesting that at intermediate temperatures a B2 phase is stabilized in Mo-Nb-Ta-W. Our ``hybrid Monte Carlo/molecular dynamics'' results for the Mo-Nb-Ta-W system are analyzed to identify certain preferred chemical bonding types. A mean field free energy model incorporating nearest neighbor bonds will be presented, allowing us to predict the mechanism of the order/disorder transition. We find the temperature evolution of the system is driven by strong Mo-Ta bonding. Comparison of the free energy model and our MC/MD results suggest the existence of additional low-temperature phase transitions in the system likely ending with phase segregation into binary phases. We would like to thank DOD-DTRA for funding this research under contract number DTRA-11-1-0064.

  10. Analytic solution to verify code predictions of two-phase flow in a boiling water reactor core channel

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K.F.; Olson, C.A.

    1983-09-01

    One reliable method that can be used to verify the solution scheme of a computer code is to compare the code prediction to a simplified problem for which an analytic solution can be derived. An analytic solution for the axial pressure drop as a function of the flow was obtained for the simplified problem of homogeneous equilibrium two-phase flow in a vertical, heated channel with a cosine axial heat flux shape. This analytic solution was then used to verify the predictions of the CONDOR computer code, which is used to evaluate the thermal-hydraulic performance of boiling water reactors. The results show excellent agreement between the analytic solution and CONDOR prediction.

  11. Analytic solution to verify code predictions of two-phase flow in a boiling water reactor core channel. [CONDOR code

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K.F.; Olson, C.A.

    1983-09-01

    One reliable method that can be used to verify the solution scheme of a computer code is to compare the code prediction to a simplified problem for which an analytic solution can be derived. An analytic solution for the axial pressure drop as a function of the flow was obtained for the simplified problem of homogeneous equilibrium two-phase flow in a vertical, heated channel with a cosine axial heat flux shape. This analytic solution was then used to verify the predictions of the CONDOR computer code, which is used to evaluate the thermal-hydraulic performance of boiling water reactors. The results show excellent agreement between the analytic solution and CONDOR prediction.

  12. Evolution of natural gas composition: Predictive multi-phase reaction-transport modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Ortoleva, P.J.; Chang, K.A.; Maxwell, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    A computational modeling approach is used to investigate reaction and transport processes affecting natural gas composition over geological time. Three basic stages are integrated -- gas generation from organic solids or liquids, interactions during source rock expulsion to the reservoir and reactions within the reservoir. Multi-phase dynamics is handled by solving the fully coupled problem of phase-to-phase transfer, intra-phase organic and inorganic reactions and redox and other reactions between fluid phase molecules and minerals. Effects of capillarity and relative permeability are accounted for. Correlations will be determined between gas composition, temperature history, the mineralogy of rocks with which the gas was in contact and the composition of source organic phases. Questions of H{sub 2}S scavenging by oxidizing minerals and the production or removal of CO{sub 2} are focused upon. Our three spatial dimensional, reaction-transport simulation approach has great promise for testing general concepts and as a practical tool for the exploration and production of natural gas.

  13. Prediction of interdiffusion microstructure for high temperature coatings and domain structures/piezoelectric property at ferroelectric morphotropic phase boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Xiaoqin

    Phase field method is a powerful tool to simulate microstructure evolution and is widely used in nearly all fields of materials science. In this work, we apply the phase field approach coupled with thermodynamic models to simulate microstructural evolution and study the composition-microstructure-property relationship for high temperature coatings and ferroelectric materials at morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). The study on high temperature coatings in this work focuses on the fundamentals of interdiffusion microstructure maps as well as a special interdiffusion microstructure containing the so called type n boundaries. An inderdiffusion microstructure map (IMM) is a two dimensional diagram showing how interdiffusion microstructure varies when one end alloy composition (the base material) is fixed while the other (the coating material) is varied across a region of the phase diagram for dual alloys. It can thus predict the relationship between interdiffusion microstructure and initial alloy compositions and have importance to coating design. The fundamentals for constructing IMMs for dual-alloy systems are established based on the current phase field simulations as well as previous works, which includes the topology of IMM as well as three mechanisms of microstructure type change on an IMM. These fundamentals should be followed when constructing IMMs for a real alloy system. With regards to type n boundaries, which are defined as interface boundaries at which n phases changing on crossing them, the characterestics of type n boundaries and the condition for the formation of type n boundaries are explored in the current work. For n≥3, type n boundaries are expected to be infrequent because the diffusion paths of them have to pass through a special feature which is defined as a feature that cannot be intersected by a random line. However, our simulations found that under the right conditions, such boundaries can occur and even if the initial alloy composition varies

  14. Predictions for the Majorana CP violation phases in the neutrino mixing matrix and neutrinoless double beta decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girardi, I.; Petcov, S. T.; Titov, A. V.

    2016-10-01

    We obtain predictions for the Majorana phases α21 / 2 and α31 / 2 of the 3 × 3 unitary neutrino mixing matrix U = Ue† Uν, Ue and Uν being the 3 × 3 unitary matrices resulting from the diagonalisation of the charged lepton and neutrino Majorana mass matrices, respectively. We focus on forms of Ue and Uν permitting to express α21 / 2 and α31 / 2 in terms of the Dirac phase δ and the three neutrino mixing angles of the standard parametrisation of U, and the angles and the two Majorana-like phases ξ21 / 2 and ξ31 / 2 present, in general, in Uν. The concrete forms of Uν considered are fixed by, or associated with, symmetries (tri-bimaximal, bimaximal, etc.), so that the angles in Uν are fixed. For each of these forms and forms of Ue that allow to reproduce the measured values of the three neutrino mixing angles θ12, θ23 and θ13, we derive predictions for phase differences (α21 / 2 -ξ21 / 2), (α31 / 2 -ξ31 / 2), etc., which are completely determined by the values of the mixing angles. We show that the requirement of generalised CP invariance of the neutrino Majorana mass term implies ξ21 = 0 or π and ξ31 = 0 or π. For these values of ξ21 and ξ31 and the best fit values of θ12, θ23 and θ13, we present predictions for the effective Majorana mass in neutrinoless double beta decay for both neutrino mass spectra with normal and inverted ordering.

  15. Chromatographic models to predict the elution of ionizable analytes by organic modifier gradient in reversed phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Andrés, Axel; Téllez, Adolfo; Rosés, Martí; Bosch, Elisabeth

    2012-07-20

    The retention of an ionizable analyte under RP-HPLC organic modifier gradient elution is strongly affected by its ionization degree which, in turn, depends on its pK(a) and on the pH of the mobile phase. The values of both parameters change depending on the mobile phase composition and thus retention becomes a parameter quite difficult to predict, particularly when working in gradient mode. In this work, an equation describing the retention of ionizable analytes has been combined with three different models of different complexity, developed for gradient elution of neutral compounds (1, 2, or 3 fitting parameters), in order to predict retention of compounds with acid-base properties with particular buffers. All models have been tested under 16 different gradient patterns (4 linear gradients, 4 concave gradients, 4 convex gradients and 4 combinations between them) for the prediction of the retention time of 12 acid-base compounds (pK(a) values from 4 to 9) in 3 different buffered mobile phases (pH 5, pH 7 and pH 9) with acetonitrile as organic modifier. The agreement between the experimental and calculated retention times is good for all models. The best results are obtained through the model that depends on three parameters and the accuracy of the two-parameter model is slightly lower but very acceptable too. On the other hand, the predictions performed with the one-parameter model are the less accurate, but good enough to become a valid model taking into account that it requires very little experimental work.

  16. The closed spiracle phase of discontinuous gas exchange predicts diving duration in the grasshopper Paracinema tricolor.

    PubMed

    Gudowska, Agnieszka; Boardman, Leigh; Terblanche, John S

    2016-08-15

    The discontinuous gas exchange (DGE) pattern of respiration shown by many arthropods includes periods of spiracle closure (C-phase) and is largely thought to serve as a physiological adaptation to restrict water loss in terrestrial environments. One major challenge to this hypothesis is to explain the presence of DGE in insects in moist environments. Here, we show a novel ecological correlate of the C-phase, namely, diving behaviour in mesic Paracinema tricolor grasshoppers. Notably, maximal dive duration is positively correlated with C-phase length, even after accounting for mass scaling and absolute metabolic rate. Here, we propose that an additional advantage of DGE may be conferred by allowing the tracheal system to act as a sealed underwater oxygen reservoir. Spiracle closure may facilitate underwater submersion, which, in turn, may contribute to predator avoidance, the survival of accidental immersion or periodic flooding and the exploitation of underwater resources. PMID:27296045

  17. Genetic algorithm prediction of crystal structure of metastable Si-IX phase

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Manh Cuong; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Yangang; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2013-12-14

    We performed genetic algorithm search for the atomic structure of the long Lime unsolved Si-IX phase. We found two new structures with space groups of P4(2)/m and P-4, respectively, which have lattice parameters in excellent agreement with the experimental data. The phonon calculations showed that the P4(2)/m structure exhibits a soft phonon mode, while the P-4 structure is dynamically stable. Our calculation also showed that the P-4 structure is a meta-stable structure in a pressure range from 0 to 40 GPa, The Si-IX phase could be a mixed phase consisting of the P4(2)/m and the P-4 structures. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Magnetic BiMn-α phase synthesis prediction: First-principles calculation, thermodynamic modeling and nonequilibrium chemical partitioning

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhou, S. H.; Liu, C.; Yao, Y. X.; Du, Y.; Zhang, L. J.; Wang, C. -Z.; Ho, K. -M.; Kramer, M. J.

    2016-04-29

    BiMn-α is promising permanent magnet. Due to its peritectic formation feature, there is a synthetic challenge to produce single BiMn-α phase. The objective of this study is to assess driving force for crystalline phase pathways under far-from-equilibrium conditions. First-principles calculations with Hubbard U correction are performed to provide a robust description of the thermodynamic behavior. The energetics associated with various degrees of the chemical partitioning are quantified to predict temperature, magnetic field, and time dependence of the phase selection. By assessing the phase transformation under the influence of the chemical partitioning, temperatures, and cooling rate from our calculations, we suggestmore » that it is possible to synthesize the magnetic BiMn-α compound in a congruent manner by rapid solidification. The external magnetic field enhances the stability of the BiMn-α phase. In conclusion, the compositions of the initial compounds from these highly driven liquids can be far from equilibrium.« less

  19. Spike phase synchronization in delayed-coupled neural networks: Uniform vs. non-uniform transmission delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalili, Mahdi

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we investigated phase synchronization in delayed dynamical networks. Non-identical spiking Hindmarsh-Rose neurons were considered as individual dynamical systems and coupled through a number of network structures such as scale-free, Erdős-Rényi, and modular. The individual neurons were coupled through excitatory chemical synapses with uniform or distributed time delays. The profile of spike phase synchrony was different when the delay was uniform across the edges as compared to the case when it was distributed, i.e., different delays for the edges. When an identical transmission delay was considered, a quasi-periodic pattern was observed in the spike phase synchrony. There were specific values of delay where the phase synchronization reached to its peaks. The behavior of the phase synchronization in the networks with non-uniform delays was different with the former case, where the phase synchrony decreased as distributed delays introduced to the networks.

  20. Improved peptide elution time prediction for reversed-phase liquid chromatography-MS by incorporating peptide sequence information

    SciTech Connect

    Petritis, Konstantinos; Kangas, Lars J.; Yan, Bo; Monroe, Matthew E.; Strittmatter, Eric F.; Qian, Weijun; Adkins, Joshua N.; Moore, Ronald J.; Xu, Ying; Lipton, Mary S.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.

    2006-07-15

    We describe an improved artificial neural network (ANN)-based method for predicting peptide retention times in reversed phase liquid chromatography. In addition to the peptide amino acid composition, this study investigated several other peptide descriptors to improve the predictive capability, such as peptide length, sequence, hydrophobicity and hydrophobic moment, and nearest neighbor amino acid, as well as peptide predicted structural configurations (i.e., helix, sheet, coil). An ANN architecture that consisted of 1052 input nodes, 24 hidden nodes, and 1 output node was used to fully consider the amino acid residue sequence in each peptide. The network was trained using {approx}345,000 non-redundant peptides identified from a total of 12,059 LC-MS/MS analyses of more than 20 different organisms, and the predictive capability of the model was tested using 1303 confidently identified peptides that were not included in the training set. The model demonstrated an average elution time precision of {approx}1.5% and was able to distinguish among isomeric peptides based upon the inclusion of peptide sequence information. The prediction power represents a significant improvement over our earlier report (Petritis et al., Anal. Chem. 2003, 75, 1039-1048) and other previously reported models.

  1. Titanium α -ω phase transformation pathway and a predicted metastable structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarkevich, N. A.; Johnson, D. D.

    2016-01-01

    As titanium is a highly utilized metal for structural lightweighting, its phases, transformation pathways (transition states), and structures have scientific and industrial importance. Using a proper solid-state nudged elastic band method employing two climbing images combined with density functional theory DFT + U methods for accurate energetics, we detail the pressure-induced α (ductile) to ω (brittle) transformation at the coexistence pressure. We find two transition states along the minimal-enthalpy path and discover a metastable body-centered orthorhombic structure, with stable phonons, a lower density than the end-point phases, and decreasing stability with increasing pressure.

  2. Titanium α-ω phase transformation pathway and a predicted metastable structure

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zarkevich, Nickolai A.; Johnson, Duane D.

    2016-01-15

    A titanium is a highly utilized metal for structural lightweighting and its phases, transformation pathways (transition states), and structures have scientific and industrial importance. Using a proper solid-state nudged elastic band method employing two climbing images combined with density functional theory DFT + U methods for accurate energetics, we detail the pressure-induced α (ductile) to ω (brittle) transformation at the coexistence pressure. We also find two transition states along the minimal-enthalpy path and discover a metastable body-centered orthorhombic structure, with stable phonons, a lower density than the end-point phases, and decreasing stability with increasing pressure.

  3. Gas and grain chemical composition in cold cores as predicted by the Nautilus three-phase model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruaud, Maxime; Wakelam, Valentine; Hersant, Franck

    2016-07-01

    We present an extended version of the two-phase gas-grain code NAUTILUS to the three-phase modelling of gas and grain chemistry of cold cores. In this model, both the mantle and the surface are considered as chemically active. We also take into account the competition among reaction, diffusion and evaporation. The model predictions are confronted to ice observations in the envelope of low-mass and massive young stellar objects as well as towards background stars. Modelled gas-phase abundances are compared to species observed towards TMC-1 (CP) and L134N dark clouds. We find that our model successfully reproduces the observed ice species. It is found that the reaction-diffusion competition strongly enhances reactions with barriers and more specifically reactions with H2, which is abundant on grains. This finding highlights the importance having a good approach to determine the abundance of H2 on grains. Consequently, it is found that the major N-bearing species on grains go from NH3 to N2 and HCN when the reaction-diffusion competition is taken into account. In the gas phase and before a few 105 yr, we find that the three-phase model does not have a strong impact on the observed species compared to the two-phase model. After this time, the computed abundances dramatically decrease due to the strong accretion on dust, which is not counterbalanced by the desorption less efficient than in the two-phase model. This strongly constrains the chemical age of cold cores to be of the order of few 105 yr.

  4. A comparison of methods to predict solid phase heats of formation of molecular energetic salts.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Edward F C; Rice, Betsy M

    2009-01-01

    In this study a variety of methods were used to compute the energies for lattice enthalpies and gas phase heats of formation of the ionic constituents used in Born-Fajans-Haber cycles to produce solid phase heats of formation of molecular ionic energetic crystals. Several quantum mechanically based or empirical approaches to calculate either the heat of formation of the ionic constituents in the gas phase (deltaH(o)f(g)) or the lattice enthalpy (deltaH(o)Lattice) were evaluated. Solid phase heats of formation calculated from combinations of deltaH(o)f(g) and deltaH(o)Lattice determined through various approaches are compared with experimental values for a series of molecular energetic salts with 1:1, 2:1 and 2:2 charge ratios. Recommendations for combinations of deltaH(o)f(g) and deltaH(o)Lattice to produce best agreement with experiment are given, along with suggestions for improvements of the methods.

  5. Evaluation and prediction of long-term environmental effects of nonmetallic materials, second phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Changes in the functional properties of a number of nonmetallic materials were evaluated experimentally as a function of simulated space environments and to use such data to develop models for accelerated test methods useful for predicting such behavioral changes. The effects of changed particle irradiations on candidate space materials are evaluated.

  6. Improvement of Quench Factor Analysis in Phase and Hardness Prediction of a Quenched Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kianezhad, M.; Sajjadi, S. A.

    2013-05-01

    The accurate prediction of alloys' properties introduced by heat treatment has been considered by many researchers. The advantages of such predictions are reduction of test trails and materials' consumption as well as time and energy saving. One of the most important methods to predict hardness in quenched steel parts is Quench Factor Analysis (QFA). Classical QFA is based on the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) equation. In this study, a modified form of the QFA based on the work by Rometsch et al. is compared with the classical QFA, and they are applied to prediction of hardness of steels. For this purpose, samples of CK60 steel were utilized as raw material. They were austenitized at 1103 K (830 °C). After quenching in different environments, they were cut and their hardness was determined. In addition, the hardness values of the samples were fitted using the classical and modified equations for the quench factor analysis and the results were compared. Results showed a significant improvement in fitted values of the hardness and proved the higher efficiency of the new method.

  7. Predicting impact of multi-paths on phase change in map-based vehicular ad hoc networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmes, Mark; Lemieux, George; Sonnenberg, Jerome; Chester, David B.

    2014-05-01

    Dynamic Spectrum Access, which through its ability to adapt the operating frequency of a radio, is widely believed to be a solution to the limited spectrum problem. Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) can extend high capacity mobile communications over large areas where fixed and tethered-mobile systems are not available. In one use case with high potential impact cognitive radio employs spectrum sensing to facilitate identification of allocated frequencies not currently accessed by their primary users. Primary users own the rights to radiate at a specific frequency and geographic location, secondary users opportunistically attempt to radiate at a specific frequency when the primary user is not using it. We quantify optimal signal detection in map based cognitive radio networks with multiple rapidly varying phase changes and multiple orthogonal signals. Doppler shift occurs due to reflection, scattering, and rapid vehicle movement. Path propagation as well as vehicle movement produces either constructive or destructive interference with the incident wave. Our signal detection algorithms can assist the Doppler spread compensation algorithm by deciding how many phase changes in signals are present in a selected band of interest. Additionally we can populate a spatial radio environment map (REM) database with known information that can be leveraged in an ad hoc network to facilitate Dynamic Spectrum Access. We show how topography can help predict the impact of multi-paths on phase change, as well as about the prediction from dense traffic areas. Utilization of high resolution geospatial data layers in RF propagation analysis is directly applicable.

  8. Factors Predicting the Effects of Hybrid Assistive Limb Robot Suit during the Acute Phase of Central Nervous System Injury

    PubMed Central

    CHIHARA, Hideo; TAKAGI, Yasushi; NISHINO, Kazunari; YOSHIDA, Kazumichi; ARAKAWA, Yoshiki; KIKUCHI, Takayuki; TAKENOBU, Yohei; MIYAMOTO, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    To improve the activities of daily living of patients with injury to the central nervous system, physical therapy starting from the acute phase of the injury is important. Recently, the efficacy of physical therapy using a hybrid assistive limb (HAL) robot suit was reported. However, individual differences exist in the effects of HAL. We investigated factors predicting the effects of HAL in 15 patients at our institution with central nervous system injury, primarily due to stroke, who underwent training using HAL during the acute phase. Patients were classified as either “with HAL suitability” or “without HAL suitability” based on scores from 10-m walking speed, gait, satisfaction, and pain. In both groups, Brunnstrom stage before HAL intervention, Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA), stroke impairment assessment set (SIAS), and functional independence measure (FIM) were evaluated. Although motor function items did not differ significantly, FIM cognitive function items (P = 0.036), visuospatial perception items on SIAS (P = 0.0277), and pain items on SIAS (P = 0.0122) differed significantly between groups. These results indicated that training using HAL does not involve pain in patients with central nervous system injury during the acute phase, and exhibits positive effects in patients without pain and with high communication ability and visuospatial perception function. When conducting HAL intervention, incorporating functional assessment scores (FIM and SIAS), including peripheral items, may be useful to predict the suitability of HAL. PMID:26538291

  9. Factors Predicting the Effects of Hybrid Assistive Limb Robot Suit during the Acute Phase of Central Nervous System Injury.

    PubMed

    Chihara, Hideo; Takagi, Yasushi; Nishino, Kazunari; Yoshida, Kazumichi; Arakawa, Yoshiki; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Takenobu, Yohei; Miyamoto, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    To improve the activities of daily living of patients with injury to the central nervous system, physical therapy starting from the acute phase of the injury is important. Recently, the efficacy of physical therapy using a hybrid assistive limb (HAL) robot suit was reported. However, individual differences exist in the effects of HAL. We investigated factors predicting the effects of HAL in 15 patients at our institution with central nervous system injury, primarily due to stroke, who underwent training using HAL during the acute phase. Patients were classified as either "with HAL suitability" or "without HAL suitability" based on scores from 10-m walking speed, gait, satisfaction, and pain. In both groups, Brunnstrom stage before HAL intervention, Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA), stroke impairment assessment set (SIAS), and functional independence measure (FIM) were evaluated. Although motor function items did not differ significantly, FIM cognitive function items (P = 0.036), visuospatial perception items on SIAS (P = 0.0277), and pain items on SIAS (P = 0.0122) differed significantly between groups. These results indicated that training using HAL does not involve pain in patients with central nervous system injury during the acute phase, and exhibits positive effects in patients without pain and with high communication ability and visuospatial perception function. When conducting HAL intervention, incorporating functional assessment scores (FIM and SIAS), including peripheral items, may be useful to predict the suitability of HAL.

  10. Predicting hypothetical willingness to participate (WTP) in a future phase III HIV vaccine trial among high-risk adolescents.

    PubMed

    Giocos, Georgina; Kagee, Ashraf; Swartz, Leslie

    2008-11-01

    The present study sought to determine whether the Theory of Planned Behaviour predicted stated hypothetical willingness to participate (WTP) in future Phase III HIV vaccine trials among South African adolescents. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses showed that The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) significantly predicted WTP. Of all the predictors, Subjective norms significantly predicted WTP (OR = 1.19, 95% C.I. = 1.06-1.34). A stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed that Subjective Norms (OR = 1.19, 95% C.I. = 1.07-1.34) and Attitude towards participation in an HIV vaccine trial (OR = 1.32, 95% C.I. = 1.00-1.74) were significant predictors of WTP. The addition of Knowledge of HIV vaccines and HIV vaccine trials, Perceived self-risk of HIV infection, Health-promoting behaviours and Attitudes towards HIV/AIDS yielded non-significant results. These findings provide support for the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and suggest that psychosocial factors may play an important role in WTP in Phase III HIV vaccine trials among adolescents.

  11. Optimizing color fidelity for display devices using contour phase predictive coding for text, graphics, and video content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebowsky, Fritz

    2013-02-01

    High-end monitors and TVs based on LCD technology continue to increase their native display resolution to 4k2k and beyond. Subsequently, uncompressed pixel data transmission becomes costly when transmitting over cable or wireless communication channels. For motion video content, spatial preprocessing from YCbCr 444 to YCbCr 420 is widely accepted. However, due to spatial low pass filtering in horizontal and vertical direction, quality and readability of small text and graphics content is heavily compromised when color contrast is high in chrominance channels. On the other hand, straight forward YCbCr 444 compression based on mathematical error coding schemes quite often lacks optimal adaptation to visually significant image content. Therefore, we present the idea of detecting synthetic small text fonts and fine graphics and applying contour phase predictive coding for improved text and graphics rendering at the decoder side. Using a predictive parametric (text) contour model and transmitting correlated phase information in vector format across all three color channels combined with foreground/background color vectors of a local color map promises to overcome weaknesses in compression schemes that process luminance and chrominance channels separately. The residual error of the predictive model is being minimized more easily since the decoder is an integral part of the encoder. A comparative analysis based on some competitive solutions highlights the effectiveness of our approach, discusses current limitations with regard to high quality color rendering, and identifies remaining visual artifacts.

  12. Trophic matches in Northern Alaska: Existing synchrony among climate, vegetation, arthropods and migratory songbirds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boelman, N.; Gough, L.; Wingfield, J. C.; Team Bird

    2011-12-01

    Climate change in the Arctic is altering patterns of seasonality while also altering the composition and structure of vegetation. In contrast to plants, energy balance, and carbon and nitrogen cycling, the responses of animal populations to these changes have been drastically understudied in the Alaskan interior and much of the Arctic. Investigations are therefore needed to better understand trophic dynamics involving vertebrates under current conditions, and to predict how this group may be impacted by both the direct and indirect effects of changing seasonality and vegetation cover. This is particularly important for migratory animals that breed annually on the arctic tundra because they provide a direct connection between the rapidly changing arctic environment and their more southern staging and over-wintering habitats. In a five year observational study, we are exploring how both shifts towards earlier spring snow melt and the ongoing increase in regional deciduous shrub dominance may affect migratory songbird communities that depend on the tundra for food and shelter during their breeding season. Here we present early results from sites in northern Alaska that differ in shrub height and abundance that reveal: (1) strong existing synchrony among the timing of spring snow melt, spring air temperatures, vegetation phenology, arthropod phenology and the timing of breeding stages of migratory songbirds, and; (2) significant differences in the types and abundance of vegetative and arthropod food sources, as well as environmental and biophysical micro-habitat conditions, between non-shrub dominated tundra plots and deciduous shrub dominated tundra. The arrival time of migratory songbirds on the tundra, and thus the onset of their breeding cycle, is cued by day length, while snow melt, plant growth and arthropod emergence are temperature sensitive. We therefore hypothesize that warmer spring time temperatures could cause a mismatch between the arrival time and onset

  13. MTDATA and the Prediction of Phase Equilibria in Oxide Systems: 30 Years of Industrial Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gisby, John; Taskinen, Pekka; Pihlasalo, Jouni; Li, Zushu; Tyrer, Mark; Pearce, Jonathan; Avarmaa, Katri; Björklund, Peter; Davies, Hugh; Korpi, Mikko; Martin, Susan; Pesonen, Lauri; Robinson, Jim

    2016-09-01

    This paper gives an introduction to MTDATA, Phase Equilibrium Software from the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), and describes the latest advances in the development of a comprehensive database of thermodynamic parameters to underpin calculations of phase equilibria in large oxide, sulfide, and fluoride systems of industrial interest. The database, MTOX, has been developed over a period of thirty years based upon modeling work at NPL and funded by industrial partners in a project co-ordinated by Mineral Industry Research Organisation. Applications drawn from the fields of modern copper scrap smelting, high-temperature behavior of basic oxygen steelmaking slags, flash smelting of nickel, electric furnace smelting of ilmenite, and production of pure TiO2 via a low-temperature molten salt route are discussed along with calculations to assess the impact of impurities on the uncertainty of fixed points used to realize the SI unit of temperature, the kelvin.

  14. Deleterious Phase Formation in Next- Generation Nickel-Base Superalloys Predicted

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritzert, Frank J.

    1999-01-01

    Nickel- (Ni-) base superalloy single crystals represent the state-of-the-art for turbine engine airfoil applications because they offer the best balance of properties under the high operating temperatures required for efficient engine operation. Current trends in alloy design take advantage of improved creep rupture strength with the addition of higher levels of refractory elements. In particular, the addition of significantly higher levels of rhenium in third-generation superalloys is key for both microstructural stability and creep rupture strength. Although refractories provide strength benefits, alloys tend to be unstable when their refractory content is high because of topologically close-packed (TCP) phases. The formation of these phases in sufficient amount is detrimental to the performance of these alloys because of their brittle nature and because they deplete the Nirich matrix of potent solid-solution strengthening elements.

  15. Phase velocity and attenuation predictions of waves in cancellous bone using an iterative effective medium approximation.

    PubMed

    Potsika, Vassiliki T; Protopappas, Vasilios C; Vavva, Maria G; Polyzos, Demosthenes; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I

    2013-01-01

    The quantitative determination of wave dispersion and attenuation in bone is an open research area as the factors responsible for ultrasound absorption and scattering in composite biological tissues have not been completely explained. In this study, we use the iterative effective medium approximation (IEMA) proposed in [1] so as to calculate phase velocity and attenuation in media with properties similar to those of cancellous bones. Calculations are performed for a frequency range of 0.4-0.8 MHz and for different inclusions' volume concentrations and sizes. Our numerical results are compared with previous experimental findings so as to assess the effectiveness of IEMA. It was made clear that attenuation and phase velocity estimations could provide supplementary information for cancellous bone characterization. PMID:24111396

  16. Incorporating oximeter analyses to investigate synchronies in heart rate while teaching and learning about race

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amat, Arnau; Zapata, Corinna; Alexakos, Konstantinos; Pride, Leah D.; Paylor-Smith, Christian; Hernandez, Matthew

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we look closely at two events selected through event-oriented inquiry that were part of a classroom presentation on race. The first event was a provocative discussion about Mark Twain's (Pudd'nhead Wilson, Harper, New York, 1899) and passing for being White. The other was a discussion on the use of the N-word. Grounded in authentic inquiry, we use ethnographic narrative, cogenerative dialogues, and video and oximeter data analyses as part of a multi-ontological approach for studying emotions. Statistical analysis of oximeter data shows statistically significant heart rate synchrony among two of the coteachers during their presentations, providing evidence of emotional synchrony, resonance, and social and emotional contagion.

  17. The "conscious pilot"-dendritic synchrony moves through the brain to mediate consciousness.

    PubMed

    Hameroff, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive brain functions including sensory processing and control of behavior are understood as "neurocomputation" in axonal-dendritic synaptic networks of "integrate-and-fire" neurons. Cognitive neurocomputation with consciousness is accompanied by 30- to 90-Hz gamma synchrony electroencephalography (EEG), and non-conscious neurocomputation is not. Gamma synchrony EEG derives largely from neuronal groups linked by dendritic-dendritic gap junctions, forming transient syncytia ("dendritic webs") in input/integration layers oriented sideways to axonal-dendritic neurocomputational flow. As gap junctions open and close, a gamma-synchronized dendritic web can rapidly change topology and move through the brain as a spatiotemporal envelope performing collective integration and volitional choices correlating with consciousness. The "conscious pilot" is a metaphorical description for a mobile gamma-synchronized dendritic web as vehicle for a conscious agent/pilot which experiences and assumes control of otherwise non-conscious auto-pilot neurocomputation. PMID:19669425

  18. Incorporating oximeter analyses to investigate synchronies in heart rate while teaching and learning about race

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amat, Arnau; Zapata, Corinna; Alexakos, Konstantinos; Pride, Leah D.; Paylor-Smith, Christian; Hernandez, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we look closely at two events selected through event-oriented inquiry that were part of a classroom presentation on race. The first event was a provocative discussion about Mark Twain's ( Pudd'nhead Wilson, Harper, New York, 1899) and passing for being White. The other was a discussion on the use of the N-word. Grounded in authentic inquiry, we use ethnographic narrative, cogenerative dialogues, and video and oximeter data analyses as part of a multi-ontological approach for studying emotions. Statistical analysis of oximeter data shows statistically significant heart rate synchrony among two of the coteachers during their presentations, providing evidence of emotional synchrony, resonance, and social and emotional contagion.

  19. An Eight Month Randomized Controlled Exercise Intervention Alters Resting State Synchrony in Overweight Children

    PubMed Central

    Krafft, Cynthia E.; Pierce, Jordan E.; Schwarz, Nicolette F.; Chi, Lingxi; Weinberger, Abby L.; Schaeffer, David J.; Rodrigue, Amanda L.; Camchong, Jazmin; Allison, Jerry D.; Yanasak, Nathan E.; Liu, Tianming; Davis, Catherine L.; McDowell, Jennifer E.

    2014-01-01

    Children with low aerobic fitness have altered brain function compared to higher-fit children. This study examined the effect of an 8-month exercise intervention on resting state synchrony. Twenty-two sedentary, overweight (body mass index ≥ 85th percentile) children 8–11 years old were randomly assigned to one of two after-school programs: aerobic exercise (n=13) or sedentary attention control (n=9). Before and after the 8-month programs, all subjects participated in resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. Independent components analysis identified several networks, with four chosen for between-group analysis: salience, default mode, cognitive control, and motor networks. The default mode, cognitive control, and motor networks showed more spatial refinement over time in the exercise group compared to controls. The motor network showed increased synchrony in the exercise group with the right medial frontal gyrus compared to controls. Exercise behavior may enhance brain development in children. PMID:24096138

  20. Auditory Stream Segregation and the Perception of Across-Frequency Synchrony

    PubMed Central

    Micheyl, Christophe; Hunter, Cynthia; Oxenham, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the extent to which sequential auditory grouping affects the perception of temporal synchrony. In Experiment 1, listeners discriminated between 2 pairs of asynchronous “target” tones at different frequencies, A and B, in which the B tone either led or lagged. Thresholds were markedly higher when the target tones were temporally surrounded by “captor tones” at the A frequency than when the captor tones were absent or at a remote frequency. Experiment 2 extended these findings to asynchrony detection, revealing that the perception of synchrony, one of the most potent cues for simultaneous auditory grouping, is not immune to competing effects of sequential grouping. Experiment 3 examined the influence of ear separation on the interactions between sequential and simultaneous grouping cues. The results showed that, although ear separation could facilitate perceptual segregation and impair asynchrony detection, it did not prevent the perceptual integration of simultaneous sounds. PMID:20695716

  1. Diurnal Preference Predicts Phase Differences in Expression of Human Peripheral Circadian Clock Genes

    PubMed Central

    Ferrante, Andrew; Gellerman, David; Ay, Ahmet; Woods, Kerri Pruitt; Filipowicz, Allan Michael; Jain, Kriti; Bearden, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Background: Circadian rhythms play an integral role in human behavior, physiology and health. Individual differences in daily rhythms (chronotypes) can affect individual sleep-wake cycles, activity patterns and behavioral choices. Diurnal preference, the tendency towards morningness or eveningness among individuals, has been associated with interpersonal variation in circadian clock-related output measures, including body temperature, melatonin levels and clock gene mRNA in blood, oral mucosa, and dermal fibroblast cell cultures. Methods: Here we report gene expression data from two principal clock genes sampled from hair follicle cells, a peripheral circadian clock. Hair follicle cells from fourteen individuals of extreme morning or evening chronotype were sampled at three time points. RNA was extracted and quantitative PCR assays were used to measure mRNA expression patterns of two clock genes, Per3 and Nr1d2. Results: We found significant differences in clock gene expression over time between chronotype groups, independent of gender or age of participants. Extreme evening chronotypes have a delay in phase of circadian clock gene oscillation relative to extreme morning types. Variation in the molecular clockwork of chronotype groups represents nearly three-hour phase differences (Per3: 2.61 hours; Nr1d2: 3.08 hours, both: 2.86) in circadian oscillations of these clock genes. Conclusions: The measurement of gene expression from hair follicles at three time points allows for a direct, efficient method of estimating phase shifts of a peripheral circadian clock in real-life conditions. The robust phase differences in temporal expression of clock genes associated with diurnal preferences provide the framework for further studies of the molecular mechanisms and gene-by-environment interactions underlying chronotype-specific behavioral phenomena, including social jetlag. PMID:27103930

  2. Navier-Stokes and Comprehensive Analysis Performance Predictions of the NREL Phase VI Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duque, Earl P. N.; Burklund, Michael D.; Johnson, Wayne

    2003-01-01

    A vortex lattice code, CAMRAD II, and a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stoke code, OVERFLOW-D2, were used to predict the aerodynamic performance of a two-bladed horizontal axis wind turbine. All computations were compared with experimental data that was collected at the NASA Ames Research Center 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel. Computations were performed for both axial as well as yawed operating conditions. Various stall delay models and dynamics stall models were used by the CAMRAD II code. Comparisons between the experimental data and computed aerodynamic loads show that the OVERFLOW-D2 code can accurately predict the power and spanwise loading of a wind turbine rotor.

  3. Predicting and Mitigating Corrosion Related Damage in Geothermal Facilities, Phase-I

    SciTech Connect

    M. Shirmohamadi; S. Bratt; J. Ridgely

    2000-08-25

    Corrosion related damage (CRD) is probably the most important and costly damage mechanism for components operating in geothermal fields. This problem is further complicated as steam chemistry in such fields changes continuously with season, time, and load. Unfortunately, such changes are not predictable. The problem is further complicated in the area where early condensate (first moisture) forms. The chemistry of these first droplets is significantly different from that of built steam and this, again, cannot be predicted with reasonable accuracy. Therefore, a formidable challenge facing the geothermal field operators remains in knowing the chemistry of the condensate and, more importantly, how it affects specific field equipment such as rotor, piping, valves, etc. This project showed that testing in such an environment is feasible and concluded that continuous monitoring of steam conditions is needed to detect and prevent conditions leading to CRD of components. This project also developed tools and techniques for continuous monitoring of corrosion potential and detection of pitting events.

  4. Prediction of novel phase of silicon and Si-Ge alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Qingyang; Chai, Changchun; Wei, Qun; Yang, Yintang; Yang, Qi; Chen, Pengyuan; Xing, Mengjiang; Zhang, Junqin; Yao, Ronghui

    2016-01-01

    The structural, thermodynamic, elastic, anisotropic and electronic properties of P2221-Si have been studied using first-principles calculations. The elastic constants are satisfied with mechanical stability criteria. The mechanical anisotropy is predicted by anisotropic constants Poisson's ratio, shear modulus, Young's modulus and three dimensional curved surface of Young's modulus. These results show that P2221-Si and Si-Ge alloys are anisotropic. The sound velocities in different directions and Debye temperature for P2221-Si and Si-Ge alloys are also predicted. Electronic structure study shows that P2221-Si is an indirect semiconductor with band gap of 0.90 eV. In addition, the band structures of Si-Ge alloys are investigated in this paper. Finally, we also calculate the thermodynamics properties and obtained the relationships between thermal parameters and temperature.

  5. Predicted Geology of the Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley Phase II Drilling Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-04-20

    Pahute Mesa–Oasis Valley (PM-OV) Phase II drilling will occur within an area that encompasses approximately 117 square kilometers (45 square miles) near the center of the Phase I PM-OV hydrostratigraphic framework model area. The majority of the investigation area lies within dissected volcanic terrain between Pahute Mesa on the north and Timber Mountain on the south. This area consists of a complex distribution of volcanic tuff and lava of generally rhyolitic composition erupted from nearby calderas and related vents. Several large buried volcanic structural features control the distribution of volcanic units in the investigation area. The Area 20 caldera, including its structural margin and associated caldera collapse collar, underlies the northeastern portion of the investigation area. The southern half of the investigation area lies within the northwestern portion of the Timber Mountain caldera complex, including portions of the caldera moat and resurgent dome. Another significant structural feature in the area is the west-northwest-trending Northern Timber Mountain moat structural zone, which bisects the northern portion of the investigation area and forms a structural bench. The proposed wells of the UGTA Phase II drilling initiative can be grouped into four generalized volcanic structural domains based on the stratigraphic distribution and structural position of the volcanic rocks in the upper 1,000 meters (3,300 feet) of the crust, a depth that represents the approximate planned total depths of the proposed wells.

  6. Correlation of FEA Prediction And Experiments On Dual-Phase Steel Automotive Rails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, C.; Chen, X. M.; Lim, T.; Chang, T.; Xiao, P.; Liu, S.-D.

    2007-05-01

    The North American Auto/Steel Partnership (A/SP) High-Strength Steel Forming Project Team has been studying the impact of advanced high-strength steels on stamping of structural components. Tooling was built to evaluate the effect of different grades of dual-phase steels on rail type stampings. The formed panels were laser scanned and the amount of springback was measured against the design intention. FEA simulation of the forming process was carried out to validate the numerical modeling techniques in the large and complex dual-phase steel stampings. The materials used in the study were Dual-Phase (DP) Steels DP600, DP780 and DP980. The FEA solver used was LS-Dyna version 971. The simulation results were correlated with the measurement data under various forming conditions including forming methods, trimming, binder and pad pressures. Reasonably good correlations were obtained across different grades of steels in terms of flange opening angles, wall opening angles, twist angles and dimensional deviations.

  7. Thermodynamic analysis of fuels in gas phase: ethanol, gasoline and ethanol - gasoline predicted by DFT method.

    PubMed

    Neto, A F G; Lopes, F S; Carvalho, E V; Huda, M N; Neto, A M J C; Machado, N T

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study using density functional theory to calculate thermodynamics properties of major molecules compounds at gas phase of fuels like gasoline, ethanol, and gasoline-ethanol mixture in thermal equilibrium on temperature range up to 1500 K. We simulated a composition of gasoline mixture with ethanol for a thorough study of thermal energy, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy, entropy, heat capacity at constant pressure with respect to temperature in order to study the influence caused by ethanol as an additive to gasoline. We used semi-empirical computational methods as well in order to know the efficiency of other methods to simulate fuels through this methodology. In addition, the ethanol influence through the changes in percentage fractions of chemical energy released in combustion reaction and the variations on thermal properties for autoignition temperatures of fuels was analyzed. We verified how ethanol reduces the chemical energy released by gasoline combustion and how at low temperatures the gas phase fuels in thermal equilibrium have similar thermodynamic behavior. Theoretical results were compared with experimental data, when available, and showed agreement. Graphical Abstract Thermodynamic analysis of fuels in gas phase.

  8. The phase of ongoing EEG oscillations predicts the amplitude of peri-saccadic mislocalization

    PubMed Central

    McLelland, Douglas; Lavergne, Louisa; VanRullen, Rufin

    2016-01-01

    Our constant eye movements mean that updating processes, such as saccadic remapping, are essential for the maintenance of a stable spatial representation of the world around us. It has been proposed that, rather than continually update a full spatiotopic map, only the location of a few key objects is updated, suggesting that the process is linked to attention. At the same time, mounting evidence links attention to oscillatory neuronal processes. We therefore hypothesized that updating processes should themselves show oscillatory characteristics, inherited from underlying attentional processes. To test this, we carried out a combined psychophysics and EEG experiment in human participants, using a saccadic mislocalization task as a behaviourally measureable proxy for spatial updating, and simultaneously recording 64-channel EEG. We then used a time-frequency analysis to test for a correlation between oscillation phase and perceptual outcome. We found a significant phase-dependence of mislocalization in a time-frequency region from around 400 ms prior to saccade initiation and peaking at around 7 Hz, principally apparent over occipital electrodes. Thus the degree of perceived mislocalization is correlated with the phase of a theta-frequency oscillation prior to saccade onset. We conclude that spatial updating processes are indeed linked to rhythmic processes in the brain. PMID:27403937

  9. Theoretical predictions of volatile bearing phases and volatile resources in some carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganguly, Jibamitra; Saxena, Surendra K.

    1989-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites are usually believed to be the primary constituents of near-Earth asteroids and Phobos and Diemos, and are potential resources of fuels which may be exploited for future planetary missions. The nature and abundances are calculated of the major volatile bearing and other phases, including the vapor phase that should form in C1 and C2 type carbonaceous chondrites as functions of pressure and temperature. The results suggest that talc, antigorite plus or minus magnesite are the major volatile bearing phases and are stable below 400 C at 1 bar in these chondritic compositions. Simulated heating of a kilogram of C2 chondrite at fixed bulk composition between 400 and 800 C at 1 bar yields about 135 gm of volatile, which is made primarily of H2O, H2, CH4, CO2 and CO. The relative abundances of these volatile species change as functions of temperature, and on a molar basis, H2 becomes the most dominant species above 500 C. In contrast, Cl chondrites yield about 306 gm of volatile under the same condition, which consist almost completely of 60 wt percent H2O and 40 wt percent CO2. Preliminary kinetic considerations suggest that equilibrium dehydration of hydrous phyllosilicates should be attainable within a few hours at 600 C. These results provide the framework for further analyses of the volatile and economic resource potentials of carbonaceous chondrites.

  10. PTCH1 expression at diagnosis predicts imatinib failure in chronic myeloid leukaemia patients in chronic phase.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Dominguez, Juan M; Grinfeld, Jacob; Alikian, Mary; Marin, David; Reid, Alistair; Daghistani, Mustafa; Hedgley, Corinne; O'Brien, Stephen; Clark, Richard E; Apperley, Jane; Foroni, Letizia; Gerrard, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    The tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) imatinib has revolutionized the management of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). However, around 25% of patients fail to sustain an adequate response. We sought to identify gene-expression biomarkers that could be used to predict imatinib response. The expression of 29 genes, previously implicated in CML pathogenesis, were measured by TaqMan Low Density Array in 73 CML patient samples. Patients were divided into low and high expression for each gene and imatinib failure (IF), probability of achieving CCyR, progression free survival and CML related OS were compared by Kaplan-Meier and log-rank. Results were validated in a second cohort of 56 patients, with a further technical validation using custom gene-expression assays in a conventional RT-qPCR in a sub-cohort of 37 patients. Patients with low PTCH1 expression showed a worse clinical response for all variables in all cohorts. PTCH1 was the most significant predictor in the multivariate analysis compared with Sokal, age and EUTOS. PTCH1 expression assay showed the adequate sensitivity, specificity and predictive values to predict for IF. Given the different treatments available for CML, measuring PTCH1 expression at diagnosis may help establish who will benefit best from imatinib and who is better selected for second generation TKI. PMID:25250944

  11. Prediction of performance of two-phase flow nozzle and liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic (LMMHD) generator for no slip condition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabris, G.; Back, L.

    1992-01-01

    Two-phase LMMHD energy conversion systems have potentially significant advantages over conventional systems such as higher thermal efficiency and substantial simplicity with lower capital and maintenance costs. Maintenance of low velocity slip is of importance for achieving high generator efficiency. A bubbly flow pattern ensures very low velocity slip. The full governing equations have been written out, and a computer prediction code has been developed to analyze performance of a two-phase flow LMMHD generator and nozzle under conditions of no slip. Three different shapes of a LMMHD generator have been investigated. Electrical power outputs are in the 20 kW range. Generator efficiency exceeds 71 percent at an average void fraction of about 70 percent. This is an appreciable performance for a short generator without insulating vanes for minimizing electrical losses in the end regions.

  12. Approximate emergent synchrony in spatially coupled spiking neurons with discrete interaction.

    PubMed

    Supèr, Hans; Romeo, August

    2014-11-01

    Models for perceptual grouping and contour integration are presented. Connection weights depend on distances and angle differences, while neurons evolve following a spiking dynamics (Izhikevich's model in most of the considered cases). Although the studied synapses depend on discrete three-valued functions, simulations display the emergence of approximate synchrony, making these cognitive tasks possible. Noise effects are examined, and the possibility of achieving similar results with a different neuron model is discussed.

  13. Endocardial versus epicardial electrical synchrony during LV free-wall pacing

    PubMed Central

    Faris, Owen P.; Evans, Frank J.; Dick, Alexander J.; Raman, Venkatesh K.; Ennis, Daniel B.; Kass, David A.; McVeigh, Elliot R.

    2007-01-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy has been most typically achieved by biventricular stimulation. However, left ventricular (LV) free-wall pacing appears equally effective in acute and chronic clinical studies. Recent data suggest electrical synchrony measured epicardially is not required to yield effective mechanical synchronization, whereas endocardial mapping data suggest synchrony (fusion with intrinsic conduction) is important. To better understand this disparity, we simultaneously mapped both endocardial and epicardial electrical activation during LV free-wall pacing at varying atrioventricular delays (AV delay 0–150 ms) in six normal dogs with the use of a 64-electrode LV endocardial basket and a 128-electrode epicardial sock. The transition from dyssynchronous LV-paced activation to synchronous RA-paced activation was studied by constructing activation time maps for both endo- and epicardial surfaces as a function of increasing AV delay. The AV delay at the transition from dyssynchronous to synchronous activation was defined as the transition delay (AVt). AVt was variable among experiments, in the range of 44–93 ms on the epicardium and 47–105 ms on the endocardium. Differences in endo- and epicardial AVt were smaller (−17 to +12 ms) and not significant on average (−5.0 ± 5.2 ms). In no instance was the transition to synchrony complete on one surface without substantial concurrent transition on the other surface. We conclude that both epicardial and endocardial synchrony due to fusion of native with ventricular stimulation occur nearly concurrently. Assessment of electrical epicardial delay, as often used clinically during cardiac resynchronization therapy lead placement, should provide adequate assessment of stimulation delay for inner wall layers as well. PMID:12855422

  14. Whole body and muscle energy metabolism in preruminant calves: effects of nutrient synchrony and physical activity.

    PubMed

    van den Borne, Joost J G C; Hocquette, Jean-François; Verstegen, Martin W A; Gerrits, Walter J J

    2007-04-01

    The effects of asynchronous availability of amino acids and glucose on muscle composition and enzyme activities in skeletal muscle were studied in preruminant calves. It was hypothesized that decreased oxidative enzyme activities in muscle would explain a decreased whole body heat production with decreasing nutrient synchrony. Preruminant calves were assigned to one of six degrees of nutrient synchrony, step-wise separating the intake of protein and lactose over the two daily meals. Calves at the most synchronous treatment received two identical meals daily. At the most asynchronous treatment, 85% of the daily protein and 20% of the daily lactose supply were fed in one meal and the remainder in the other meal. Daily intakes of all dietary ingredients were identical for all treatments. Oxidative enzyme activities and fat content increased with decreasing nutrient synchrony in M. Rectus Abdominis (RA), but not in M. Semitendinosus. Cytochrome-c-oxidase activity was positively correlated with fat content in RA (r 0.49; P < 0.01). Oxidative enzyme activities in both muscles were not correlated with average daily heat production, but citrate synthase activity in RA was positively correlated (P < 0.01) with the circadian amplitude (r 0.53) and maximum (r 0.61) of heat production associated with physical activity. In conclusion, this study indicates that muscle energy stores are regulated by nutrient synchrony. The lack of correlation between muscle oxidative enzyme activities and average daily heat production was in contrast with findings in human subjects. Therefore, oxidative enzyme activity in muscle should not be used as an indicator for whole body heat production in growing calves.

  15. Prediction of two-phase pressure drop in heat exchanger for mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardhapurkar, P. M.; Atrey, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    The overall efficiency of a mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson (MR J-T) cryocooler is governed by the performance of the recuperative heat exchanger. In the heat exchanger, the hot stream of the mixed refrigerant undergoes condensation at high pressure while the cold stream gets evaporated at low pressure. The pressure drop in the low pressure stream is crucial since it directly influences the achievable refrigeration temperature. However, experimental and theoretical studies related to two-phase pressure drop in mixtures at cryogenic temperatures, are limited. Therefore, the design of an efficient MR J-T cryocooler is a challenging task due to the lack of predictive tools. In the present work, the existing empirical correlations, which are commonly used for the prediction of pressure drop in the case of pure refrigerants, evaporating at near ambient conditions, are assessed for the mixed refrigerants. Experiments are carried out to measure the overall pressure drop in the evaporating cold stream of the tube-in-tube helically coiled heat exchanger. The predicted frictional pressure drop in the heat exchanger is compared with the experimental data. The suggested empirical correlations can be used to predict the hydraulic performance of the heat exchanger.

  16. Solid phase evolution in the Biosphere 2 hillslope experiment as predicted by modeling of hydrologic and geochemical fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Dontsova, K.; Steefel, C.I.; Desilets, S.; Thompson, A.; Chorover, J.

    2009-07-15

    A reactive transport geochemical modeling study was conducted to help predict the mineral transformations occurring over a ten year time-scale that are expected to impact soil hydraulic properties in the Biosphere 2 (B2) synthetic hillslope experiment. The modeling sought to predict the rate and extent of weathering of a granular basalt (selected for hillslope construction) as a function of climatic drivers, and to assess the feedback effects of such weathering processes on the hydraulic properties of the hillslope. Flow vectors were imported from HYDRUS into a reactive transport code, CrunchFlow2007, which was then used to model mineral weathering coupled to reactive solute transport. Associated particle size evolution was translated into changes in saturated hydraulic conductivity using Rosetta software. We found that flow characteristics, including velocity and saturation, strongly influenced the predicted extent of incongruent mineral weathering and neo-phase precipitation on the hillslope. Results were also highly sensitive to specific surface areas of the soil media, consistent with surface reaction controls on dissolution. Effects of fluid flow on weathering resulted in significant differences in the prediction of soil particle size distributions, which should feedback to alter hillslope hydraulic conductivities.

  17. Predicting net cross-shore total load transport: A phase-averaging, quasi-steady approach incorporating undertow contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu-hai

    2016-10-01

    Wave shapes that induce velocity skewness and acceleration asymmetry are usually responsible for onshore sediment transport, whereas undertow and bottom slope effect normally contribute to offshore sediment transport. By incorporating these counteracting driving forces in a phase-averaged manner, the theoretically-based quasi-steady formula of Wang (2007) is modified to predict the magnitude and direction of net cross-shore total load transport under the coaction of wave and current. The predictions show an excellent agreement with the measurement data on medium and fine sand collected by Dohmen-Janssen and Hanes (2002) and Schretlen (2012) in a full-scale wave flume at the Coastal Research Centre in Hannover, Germany. The modified formula can predict the net onshore transport of fine sand in sheet flows. In particular, it can predict the net offshore transport of medium sand in rippled beds through enlarged bed roughness, as well as the net offshore transport of fine-to-coarse sand in sheet flows with the aid of a new criterion to judge the occurrence of net offshore transport.

  18. Aberrant synchrony in the somatosensory cortices predicts motor performance errors in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Kurz, Max J; Heinrichs-Graham, Elizabeth; Arpin, David J; Becker, Katherine M; Wilson, Tony W

    2014-02-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) results from a perinatal brain injury that often results in sensory impairments and greater errors in motor performance. Although these impairments have been well catalogued, the relationship between sensory processing networks and errors in motor performance has not been well explored. Children with CP and typically developing age-matched controls participated in this investigation. We used high-density magnetoencephalography to measure event-related oscillatory changes in the somatosensory cortices following tactile stimulation to the bottom of the foot. In addition, we quantified the amount of variability or errors in the isometric ankle joint torques as these children attempted to match a target. Our results showed that neural populations in the somatosensory cortices of children with CP were desynchronized by the tactile stimulus, whereas those of typically developing children were clearly synchronized. Such desynchronization suggests that children with CP were unable to fully integrate the external stimulus into ongoing sensorimotor computations. Our results also indicated that children with CP had a greater amount of errors in their motor output when they attempted to match the target force, and this amount of error was negatively correlated with the degree of synchronization present in the somatosensory cortices. These results are the first to show that the motor performance errors of children with CP are linked with neural synchronization within the somatosensory cortices.

  19. Predicting Sibling Relations over Time: Synchrony between Maternal Management Styles and Sibling Relationship Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Nina; Aquan-Assee, Jasmin; Bukowski, William M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether maternal behavior at Time 1 would be associated with sibling interaction at Time 2, and whether the quality of sibling interactions would be associated. Found that both mothers and children influenced the quality of sibling relationships over time. (SD)

  20. Environmental forcing shapes regional house mosquito synchrony in a warming temperate island.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Luis Fernando; Higa, Yukiko; Lee, Su Hyun; Jeong, Ji Yeon; Heo, Sang Taek; Kim, Miok; Minakawa, Noboru; Lee, Keun Hwa

    2013-08-01

    Seasonal changes in the abundance of exothermic organisms can be expected with climate change if warmer temperatures can induce changes in their phenology. Given the increased time for ectothermic organism development at lower temperatures, we asked whether population dynamics of the house mosquito, Culex pipiens s.l. (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae), in Jeju-do (South Korea), an island with a gradient of warming temperatures from north to south, showed differences in sensitivity to changes in temperature along the warming gradient. In addition, we asked whether synchrony, that is, the degree of concerted fluctuations in mosquito abundance across locations, was affected by the temperature gradient. We found the association of mosquito abundance with temperature to be delayed by 2 wk in the north when compared with the south. The abundance across all our sampling locations had a flat synchrony profile that could reflect impacts of rainfall and average temperature on the average of all our samples. Finally, our results showed that population synchrony across space can emerge even when abundance is differentially impacted by an exogenous factor across an environmental gradient.

  1. Collective Efficacy in Sports and Physical Activities: Perceived Emotional Synchrony and Shared Flow.

    PubMed

    Zumeta, Larraitz N; Oriol, Xavier; Telletxea, Saioa; Amutio, Alberto; Basabe, Nekane

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study analyzes the relationship between collective efficacy and two psychosocial processes involved in collective sport-physical activities. It argues that in-group identification and fusion with the group will affect collective efficacy (CE). A sample of 276 university students answered different scales regarding their participation in collective physical and sport activities. Multiple-mediation analyses showed that shared flow and perceived emotional synchrony mediate the relationship between in-group identification and CE, whereas the relationship between identity fusion and CE was only mediated by perceived emotional synchrony. Results suggest that both psychosocial processes explain the positive effects of in-group identification and identity fusion with the group in collective efficacy. Specifically, the role of perceived emotional synchrony in explaining the positive effects of participation in collective sport-physical activities is underlined. In sum, this study highlights the utility of collective actions and social identities to explain the psychosocial processes related to collective efficacy in physical and sports activities. Finally, practical implications are discussed.

  2. Temporal dynamics of musical emotions examined through intersubject synchrony of brain activity.

    PubMed

    Trost, Wiebke; Frühholz, Sascha; Cochrane, Tom; Cojan, Yann; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2015-12-01

    To study emotional reactions to music, it is important to consider the temporal dynamics of both affective responses and underlying brain activity. Here, we investigated emotions induced by music using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a data-driven approach based on intersubject correlations (ISC). This method allowed us to identify moments in the music that produced similar brain activity (i.e. synchrony) among listeners under relatively natural listening conditions. Continuous ratings of subjective pleasantness and arousal elicited by the music were also obtained for the music outside of the scanner. Our results reveal synchronous activations in left amygdala, left insula and right caudate nucleus that were associated with higher arousal, whereas positive valence ratings correlated with decreases in amygdala and caudate activity. Additional analyses showed that synchronous amygdala responses were driven by energy-related features in the music such as root mean square and dissonance, while synchrony in insula was additionally sensitive to acoustic event density. Intersubject synchrony also occurred in the left nucleus accumbens, a region critically implicated in reward processing. Our study demonstrates the feasibility and usefulness of an approach based on ISC to explore the temporal dynamics of music perception and emotion in naturalistic conditions.

  3. Collective Efficacy in Sports and Physical Activities: Perceived Emotional Synchrony and Shared Flow

    PubMed Central

    Zumeta, Larraitz N.; Oriol, Xavier; Telletxea, Saioa; Amutio, Alberto; Basabe, Nekane

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study analyzes the relationship between collective efficacy and two psychosocial processes involved in collective sport-physical activities. It argues that in-group identification and fusion with the group will affect collective efficacy (CE). A sample of 276 university students answered different scales regarding their participation in collective physical and sport activities. Multiple-mediation analyses showed that shared flow and perceived emotional synchrony mediate the relationship between in-group identification and CE, whereas the relationship between identity fusion and CE was only mediated by perceived emotional synchrony. Results suggest that both psychosocial processes explain the positive effects of in-group identification and identity fusion with the group in collective efficacy. Specifically, the role of perceived emotional synchrony in explaining the positive effects of participation in collective sport-physical activities is underlined. In sum, this study highlights the utility of collective actions and social identities to explain the psychosocial processes related to collective efficacy in physical and sports activities. Finally, practical implications are discussed. PMID:26779077

  4. Rhythms and blues: modulation of oscillatory synchrony and the mechanism of action of antidepressant treatments

    PubMed Central

    Leuchter, Andrew F.; Hunter, Aimee M.; Krantz, David E.; Cook, Ian A.

    2015-01-01

    Treatments for major depressive disorder (MDD) act at different hierarchical levels of biological complexity, ranging from the individual synapse to the brain as a whole. Theories of antidepressant medication action traditionally have focused on the level of cell-to-cell interaction and synaptic neurotransmission. However, recent evidence suggests that modulation of synchronized electrical activity in neuronal networks is a common effect of antidepressant treatments, including not only medications, but also neuromodulatory treatments such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. Synchronization of oscillatory network activity in particular frequency bands has been proposed to underlie neurodevelopmental and learning processes, and also may be important in the mechanism of action of antidepressant treatments. Here, we review current research on the relationship between neuroplasticity and oscillatory synchrony, which suggests that oscillatory synchrony may help mediate neuroplastic changes related to neurodevelopment, learning, and memory, as well as medication and neuromodulatory treatment for MDD. We hypothesize that medication and neuromodulation treatments may have related effects on the rate and pattern of neuronal firing, and that these effects underlie antidepressant efficacy. Elucidating the mechanisms through which oscillatory synchrony may be related to neuroplasticity could lead to enhanced treatment strategies for MDD. PMID:25809789

  5. Finding synchrony in the desynchronized EEG: the history and interpretation of gamma rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Omar J.; Cash, Sydney S.

    2013-01-01

    Neocortical gamma (30–80 Hz) rhythms correlate with attention, movement and perception and are often disrupted in neurological and psychiatric disorders. Gamma primarily occurs during alert brain states characterized by the so-called “desynchronized” EEG. Is this because gamma rhythms are devoid of synchrony? In this review we take a historical approach to answering this question. Richard Caton and Adolf Beck were the first to report the rhythmic voltage fluctuations in the animal brain. They were limited by the poor amplification of their early galvanometers. Thus when they presented light or other stimuli, they observed a disappearance of the large resting oscillations. Several groups have since shown that visual stimuli lead to low amplitude gamma rhythms and that groups of neurons in the visual cortices fire together during individual gamma cycles. This synchronous firing can more strongly drive downstream neurons. We discuss how gamma-band synchrony can support ongoing communication between brain regions, and highlight an important fact: there is at least local neuronal synchrony during gamma rhythms. Thus, it is best to refer to the low amplitude, high frequency EEG as an “activated”, not “desynchronized”, EEG. PMID:23964210

  6. Rhythms and blues: modulation of oscillatory synchrony and the mechanism of action of antidepressant treatments.

    PubMed

    Leuchter, Andrew F; Hunter, Aimee M; Krantz, David E; Cook, Ian A

    2015-05-01

    Treatments for major depressive disorder (MDD) act at different hierarchical levels of biological complexity, ranging from the individual synapse to the brain as a whole. Theories of antidepressant medication action traditionally have focused on the level of cell-to-cell interaction and synaptic neurotransmission. However, recent evidence suggests that modulation of synchronized electrical activity in neuronal networks is a common effect of antidepressant treatments, including not only medications, but also neuromodulatory treatments such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. Synchronization of oscillatory network activity in particular frequency bands has been proposed to underlie neurodevelopmental and learning processes, and also may be important in the mechanism of action of antidepressant treatments. Here, we review current research on the relationship between neuroplasticity and oscillatory synchrony, which suggests that oscillatory synchrony may help mediate neuroplastic changes related to neurodevelopment, learning, and memory, as well as medication and neuromodulatory treatment for MDD. We hypothesize that medication and neuromodulation treatments may have related effects on the rate and pattern of neuronal firing, and that these effects underlie antidepressant efficacy. Elucidating the mechanisms through which oscillatory synchrony may be related to neuroplasticity could lead to enhanced treatment strategies for MDD.

  7. Body Movement Synchrony in Psychotherapeutic Counseling: A Study Using the Video-Based Quantification Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaoka, Chika; Komori, Masashi

    Body movement synchrony (i. e. rhythmic synchronization between the body movements of interacting partners) has been described by subjective impressions of skilled counselors and has been considered to reflect the depth of the client-counselor relationship. This study analyzed temporal changes in body movement synchrony through a video analysis of client-counselor dialogues in counseling sessions. Four 50-minute psychotherapeutic counseling sessions were analyzed, including two negatively evaluated sessions (low evaluation groups) and two positively evaluated sessions (high evaluation groups). In addition, two 50-minute ordinary advice sessions between two high school teachers and the clients in the high rating group were analyzed. All sessions represent role-playing. The intensity of the participants' body movement was measured using a video-based system. Temporal change of body movement synchrony was analyzed using moving correlations of the intensity between the two time series. The results revealed (1) A consistent temporal pattern among the four counseling cases, though the moving correlation coefficients were higher for the high evaluation group than the low evaluation group and (2) Different temporal patterns for the counseling and advice sessions even when the clients were the same. These results were discussed from the perspective of the quality of client-counselor relationship.

  8. Regional-scale climate-variability synchrony of cholera epidemics in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Constantin de Magny, Guillaume; Guégan, Jean-François; Petit, Michel; Cazelles, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    Background The relationship between cholera and climate was explored in Africa, the continent with the most reported cases, by analyzing monthly 20-year cholera time series for five coastal adjoining West African countries: Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Togo, Benin and Nigeria. Methods We used wavelet analyses and derived methods because these are useful mathematical tools to provide information on the evolution of the periodic component over time and allow quantification of non-stationary associations between time series. Results The temporal variability of cholera incidence exhibits an interannual component, and a significant synchrony in cholera epidemics is highlighted at the end of the 1980's. This observed synchrony across countries, even if transient through time, is also coherent with both the local variability of rainfall and the global climate variability quantified by the Indian Oscillation Index. Conclusion Results of this study suggest that large and regional scale climate variability influence both the temporal dynamics and the spatial synchrony of cholera epidemics in human populations in the Gulf of Guinea, as has been described for two other tropical regions of the world, western South America and Bangladesh. PMID:17371602

  9. Temporal dynamics of musical emotions examined through intersubject synchrony of brain activity.

    PubMed

    Trost, Wiebke; Frühholz, Sascha; Cochrane, Tom; Cojan, Yann; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2015-12-01

    To study emotional reactions to music, it is important to consider the temporal dynamics of both affective responses and underlying brain activity. Here, we investigated emotions induced by music using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a data-driven approach based on intersubject correlations (ISC). This method allowed us to identify moments in the music that produced similar brain activity (i.e. synchrony) among listeners under relatively natural listening conditions. Continuous ratings of subjective pleasantness and arousal elicited by the music were also obtained for the music outside of the scanner. Our results reveal synchronous activations in left amygdala, left insula and right caudate nucleus that were associated with higher arousal, whereas positive valence ratings correlated with decreases in amygdala and caudate activity. Additional analyses showed that synchronous amygdala responses were driven by energy-related features in the music such as root mean square and dissonance, while synchrony in insula was additionally sensitive to acoustic event density. Intersubject synchrony also occurred in the left nucleus accumbens, a region critically implicated in reward processing. Our study demonstrates the feasibility and usefulness of an approach based on ISC to explore the temporal dynamics of music perception and emotion in naturalistic conditions. PMID:25994970

  10. Neural synchrony indexes impaired motor slowing after errors and novelty following white matter damage.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Jan R; Ullsperger, Markus; Obrig, Hellmuth; Villringer, Arno; Quinque, Eva; Schroeter, Matthias L; Bretschneider, Katharina J; Arelin, Katrin; Roggenhofer, Elisabeth; Frisch, Stefan; Klein, Tilmann A

    2016-02-01

    In humans, action errors and perceptual novelty elicit activity in a shared frontostriatal brain network, allowing them to adapt their ongoing behavior to such unexpected action outcomes. Healthy and pathologic aging reduces the integrity of white matter pathways that connect individual hubs of such networks and can impair the associated cognitive functions. Here, we investigated whether structural disconnection within this network because of small-vessel disease impairs the neural processes that subserve motor slowing after errors and novelty (post-error slowing, PES; post-novel slowing, PNS). Participants with intact frontostriatal circuitry showed increased right-lateralized beta-band (12-24 Hz) synchrony between frontocentral and frontolateral electrode sites in the electroencephalogram after errors and novelty, indexing increased neural communication. Importantly, this synchrony correlated with PES and PNS across participants. Furthermore, such synchrony was reduced in participants with frontostriatal white matter damage, in line with reduced PES and PNS. The results demonstrate that behavioral change after errors and novelty result from coordinated neural activity across a frontostriatal brain network and that such cognitive control is impaired by reduced white matter integrity.

  11. Computational study of synchrony in fields and microclusters of ephaptically coupled neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hilbert, Lennart; Quail, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal hypersynchrony is implicated in epilepsy and other diseases. The low-frequency, spatially averaged electric fields from many thousands of neurons have been shown to promote synchrony. It remains unclear whether highly transient, spatially localized electric fields from single action potentials (ephaptic coupling) significantly affect spike timing of neighboring cells and in consequence, population synchrony. In this study, we simulated the extracellular potentials and the resulting coupling between neurons in the NEURON environment and generalized their connection rules to create an oscillator network model of a sheet of ephaptically coupled neurons. With the use of both models, we explained several aspects of epileptiform behavior not previously modeled by synaptically coupled networks. Importantly, reduction of neuron spacing induced synchronization via single-spike ephaptic coupling, agreeing with seizure suppression seen clinically and in vitro via extracellular volume adjustment. Further reduction of neuron spacing yielded locally synchronized clusters, providing a mechanism for recent in vitro observations of localized neuronal synchrony in the absence of synaptic and gap-junction coupling. PMID:25673735

  12. Agency over a phantom limb and electromyographic activity on the stump depend on visuomotor synchrony: a case study.

    PubMed

    Imaizumi, Shu; Asai, Tomohisa; Kanayama, Noriaki; Kawamura, Mitsuru; Koyama, Shinichi

    2014-01-01

    Most patients, post-amputation, report the experience of a phantom limb. Some even sense voluntary movements when viewing a mirror image of the intact limb superimposed onto the phantom limb. While delayed visual feedback of an action is known to reduce a sense of agency, the effect of delayed visual feedback on phantom motor sensation (i.e., sense of controlling a phantom limb) has not been examined. Using a video-projection system, we examined the effect of delayed visual feedback on phantom motor sensation in an upper-limb amputee (male; left upper-limb amputation). He was instructed to view mirrored video images of his intact hand clasping and unclasping during a phantom limb movement. He then rated the intensity of the phantom motor sensation. Three types of hand movement images were presented as follows: synchronous, asynchronous with a 250-ms delay, and asynchronous with a 500-ms delay. Results showed that phantom motor sensation decreased when the image was delayed by 250 and 500 ms. However, when we instructed the patient to adjust the phase of phantom limb movement to that of the image with a 500-ms delay, phantom motor sensation increased. There was also a positive correlation between intensity of phantom motor sensation and electromyographic (EMG) activity on deltoids at the patient's stump. These results suggest that phantom motor sensation and EMG activity on the stump depend on visuomotor synchrony and top-down effects.

  13. Agency over a phantom limb and electromyographic activity on the stump depend on visuomotor synchrony: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Imaizumi, Shu; Asai, Tomohisa; Kanayama, Noriaki; Kawamura, Mitsuru; Koyama, Shinichi

    2014-01-01

    Most patients, post-amputation, report the experience of a phantom limb. Some even sense voluntary movements when viewing a mirror image of the intact limb superimposed onto the phantom limb. While delayed visual feedback of an action is known to reduce a sense of agency, the effect of delayed visual feedback on phantom motor sensation (i.e., sense of controlling a phantom limb) has not been examined. Using a video-projection system, we examined the effect of delayed visual feedback on phantom motor sensation in an upper-limb amputee (male; left upper-limb amputation). He was instructed to view mirrored video images of his intact hand clasping and unclasping during a phantom limb movement. He then rated the intensity of the phantom motor sensation. Three types of hand movement images were presented as follows: synchronous, asynchronous with a 250-ms delay, and asynchronous with a 500-ms delay. Results showed that phantom motor sensation decreased when the image was delayed by 250 and 500 ms. However, when we instructed the patient to adjust the phase of phantom limb movement to that of the image with a 500-ms delay, phantom motor sensation increased. There was also a positive correlation between intensity of phantom motor sensation and electromyographic (EMG) activity on deltoids at the patient’s stump. These results suggest that phantom motor sensation and EMG activity on the stump depend on visuomotor synchrony and top-down effects. PMID:25120449

  14. No Evidence for Threat-Induced Spatial Prioritization of Somatosensory Stimulation during Pain Control Using a Synchrony Judgment Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Van Damme, Stefaan

    2016-01-01

    Topical research efforts on attention to pain often take a critical look at the modulatory role of top-down factors. For instance, it has been shown that the fearful expectation of pain at a location of the body directs attention towards that body part. In addition, motivated attempts to control this pain were found to modulate this prioritization effect. Such studies have often used a temporal order judgment task, requiring participants to judge the order in which two stimuli are presented by indicating which one they perceived first. As this constitutes a forced-choice response format, such studies may be subject to response bias. The aim of the current study was to address this concern. We used a ternary synchrony judgment paradigm, in which participants judged the order in which two somatosensory stimuli occurred. Critically, participants now also had the option to give a ‘simultaneous’ response when they did not perceive a difference. This way we eliminated the need for guessing, and thus reduced the risk of response bias. One location was threatened with the possibility of pain in half of the trials, as predicted by an auditory cue. Additionally, half of the participants (pain control group) were encouraged to avoid pain stimuli by executing a quick button press. The other half (comparison group) performed a similar action, albeit unrelated to the occurrence of pain. Our data did not support threat-induced spatial prioritization, nor did we find evidence that pain control attempts influenced attention in any way. PMID:27270456

  15. Hot Deformation Behavior and Flow Stress Prediction of TC4-DT Alloy in Single-Phase Region and Dual-Phase Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianglin; Zeng, Weidong; Zhu, Yanchun; Yu, Hanqing; Zhao, Yongqing

    2015-05-01

    Isothermal compression tests of TC4-DT titanium alloy at the deformation temperature ranging from 1181 to 1341 K covering α + β phase field and β-phase field, the strain rate ranging from 0.01 to 10.0 s-1 and the height reduction of 70% were conducted on a Gleeble-3500 thermo-mechanical simulator. The experimental true stress-true strain data were employed to develop the strain-compensated Arrhenius-type flow stress model and artificial neural network (ANN) model; the predictability of two models was quantified in terms of correlation coefficient ( R) and average absolute relative error (AARE). The R and AARE for the Arrhenius-type flow stress model were 0.9952 and 5.78%, which were poorer linear relation and more deviation than 0.9997 and 1.04% for the feed-forward back-propagation ANN model, respectively. The results indicated that the trained ANN model was more efficient and accurate in predicting the flow behavior for TC4-DT titanium alloy at elevated temperature deformation than the strain-compensated Arrhenius-type constitutive equations. The constitutive relationship compensating strain could track the experimental data across the whole hot working domain other than that at high strain rates (≥1 s-1). The microstructure analysis illustrated that the deformation mechanisms existed at low strain rates (≤0.1 s-1), where dynamic recrystallization occurred, were far different from that at high strain rates (≥1 s-1) that presented bands of flow localization and cracking along grain boundary.

  16. First principles prediction of the gas-phase precursors for AlN sublimation growth.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanxin; Brenner, Donald W

    2004-02-20

    Using a new, parameter-free first principles strategy for modeling sublimation growth, we show that while Al and N2 dominate gas concentrations in AlN sublimation growth chambers under typical growth conditions, N2 is undersaturated with respect to the crystal and therefore cannot be a growth precursor. Instead, our calculations predict that the nitrogen-containing precursors are Al(n)N (n=2,3,4), in stark contrast to assumptions used in all previous modeling studies of this system.

  17. First Principles Prediction of the Gas-Phase Precursors for AlN Sublimation Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanxin; Brenner, Donald W.

    2004-02-01

    Using a new, parameter-free first principles strategy for modeling sublimation growth, we show that while Al and N2 dominate gas concentrations in AlN sublimation growth chambers under typical growth conditions, N2 is undersaturated with respect to the crystal and therefore cannot be a growth precursor. Instead, our calculations predict that the nitrogen-containing precursors are AlnN (n=2,3,4), in stark contrast to assumptions used in all previous modeling studies of this system.

  18. Prediction of SFL Interruption Performance from the Results of Arc Simulation during High-Current Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong-Chul; Lee, Won-Ho; Kim, Woun-Jea

    2015-09-01

    The design and development procedures of SF6 gas circuit breakers are still largely based on trial and error through testing although the development costs go higher every year. The computation cannot cover the testing satisfactorily because all the real processes arc not taken into account. But the knowledge of the arc behavior and the prediction of the thermal-flow inside the interrupters by numerical simulations are more useful than those by experiments due to the difficulties to obtain physical quantities experimentally and the reduction of computational costs in recent years. In this paper, in order to get further information into the interruption process of a SF6 self-blast interrupter, which is based on a combination of thermal expansion and the arc rotation principle, gas flow simulations with a CFD-arc modeling are performed during the whole switching process such as high-current period, pre-current zero period, and current-zero period. Through the complete work, the pressure-rise and the ramp of the pressure inside the chamber before current zero as well as the post-arc current after current zero should be a good criterion to predict the short-line fault interruption performance of interrupters.

  19. Application of remote sensing for prediction and detection of thermal pollution, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veziroglu, T. N.; Lee, S. S.

    1975-01-01

    The development of a predictive mathematical model for thermal pollution in connection with remote sensing measurements was continued. A rigid-lid model has been developed and its application to far-field study has been completed. The velocity and temperature fields have been computed for different atmospheric conditions and for different boundary currents produced by tidal effects. In connection with the theoretical work, six experimental studies of the two sites in question (Biscayne Bay site and Hutchinson Island site) have been carried out. The temperature fields obtained during the tests at the Biscayne Bay site have been compared with the predictions of the rigid-lid model and these results are encouraging. The rigid-lid model is also being applied to near-field study. Preliminary results for a simple case have been obtained and execution of more realistic cases has been initiated. The development of a free-surface model also been initiated. The governing equations have been formulated and the computer programs have been written.

  20. Adoption of community-based cardiac rehabilitation programs and physical activity following phase III cardiac rehabilitation in Scotland: a prospective and predictive study.

    PubMed

    Sniehotta, Falko F; Gorski, Charlotta; Araujo-Soares, Vera

    2010-09-01

    Little is known about levels of physical activity and attendance at phase IV community-based Cardiac Rehabilitation (CR) programs following completion of exercise-focussed, hospital-based phase III CR. This study aims to test, compare and combine the predictive utility of the Common-Sense Self-Regulation Model (CS-SRM) and the extended Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) with action planning for two rehabilitation behaviours: physical activity and phase IV CR attendance. Individuals diagnosed with coronary heart disease (n = 103) completed baseline measures of illness perceptions, intentions, perceived behavioural control (PBC), action planning and past physical activity in the last week of a phase III CR program, and 95 participants completed follow-up measures of physical activity and attended phase IV CR (objectively confirmed) 2 months later. Only one predictor (PBC/cyclical timeline) significantly predicted levels and change of physical activity. While illness perceptions were not predictive of phase IV CR attendance, the extended TPB model showed good predictive power with action planning and intention as the most powerful predictors. Amongst participants who planned when and where to attend phase IV CR at the end of phase III rehabilitation, 65.9% subsequently attended a phase IV CR program compared to only 18.5% of those who had not made a plan. This study adds to our understanding of cardiac rehabilitation behaviour after completion of health service delivered programs. Comparing theoretical models and rehabilitation behaviours contributes to the development of behaviour theory.

  1. Effects of no-reflow phenomenon on ventricular systolic synchrony in patients with acute anterior myocardial infarction after percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Le; Liu, Gang; Liu, Jun; Zheng, Mingqi; Li, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of no-reflow phenomenon on ventricular systolic synchrony via myocardial blush grades (MBGs) in patients with acute anterior myocardial infarction after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patients and methods All patients were divided into two groups and assessed by MBGs. To observe the parameters of the left ventricular function and left ventricular systolic synchrony, equilibrium radionuclide angiography was performed 1 week after PCI and repeated 6 months after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Measurement data were compared and analyzed by the Student’s t-test, and the count data were evaluated by the χ2 test. A multivariate regression analysis was performed to assess the contribution of confounding factors. Results A total of 100 patients were enrolled in this study: 26 in the no-reflow and 74 in the reflow group. There was no significant difference in terms of age, sex, hypertension history, diabetes history, hyperlipidemia history, and smoking history between the two groups. However, the incidence rate of heart failure with Killip’s grade ≥2 in the no-reflow group was significantly higher than that in the reflow group (38.46% vs 18.92%, P<0.05). Six months after the AMI-PCI, the left ventricular ejection fraction, peak ejection rate, and peak filling rate in the no-reflow group were significantly lower than those in the reflow group (t=2.21, 2.29, and 2.03, P<0.05 for all comparisons), but the values of the time to peak ejection rate, time to peak filling rate, phase shift, full width at half maximum, and peak phase standard deviation were all higher (t=2.41, 2.46, 2.00, 2.55, and 2.49, P<0.05 for all comparisons), and the incidence rate of major adverse cardiac events in the no-reflow group was also more elevated than that in the reflow group (53.85% vs 8.11%, χ2=34.49, P<0.001). Conclusion The no-reflow phenomenon identified by MBGs reflects the no-reperfusion status in the

  2. New high-pressure phase of Fe3S predicted from first-principles calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, T.; Tsuchiya, T.

    2010-12-01

    It has long been recognized that the Earth's outer core must contain a significant amount of light elements, candidates for which have included hydrogen, carbon, silicon, sulfur and oxygen. High-P,T experiments (Jephcoat and Olson, 1987; Mao et al., 1998; Fiquet et al., 2001;Uchida et al., 2001) extended this argument to the inner core on the basis of the equation of state analysis of the hexagonal-closed-pack (hcp) form of pure iron, which concluded that it still has 4-5% excess density compared to the inner core values, although significant extrapolations were usually applied. At present, one of the most popular light-element candidates is sulfur. Therefore, it is crucial to determine the melting behavior of the Fe-FeS binary under core conditions, before models of core formation can be developed. The Fe-FeS binary was known to form a eutectic at low pressures (Usselman, 1975). Sherman (1995), however, suggested the stabilization of an intermediate iron sulfide compound Fe3S with AuCu3 form theoretically, and then Fei et al. (1997) found in the high-P,T experiments that Fe3S2 forms over 14 GPa, and Fe3S and Fe2S further form over 21 GPa (Fei et al., 2000). Fe3S, which is the most iron-rich sulfide compound known to exist, has a tetragonal cell isostructural with the Fe3P structure (space group No.82, Z = 8) and no phase transition has so far been identified up to 80 GPa (Seagle et al., 2006) and even at over 200 GPa (Kuwayama private comm.). These are supportive of an ab initio investigation (Martin et al., 2004), which found that the Fe3P structure is the most stable among fcc, LaF3, YF3 and Fe3P postulations. In this study, we explored higher-pressure phases of Fe3S using first-principles calculations. Comparing enthalpies among candidate structures, we found a new structure which is more stable than the Fe3P structure at the inner core pressures. In our presentation, we will make a detailed report with respect to the new stable structure and discuss phase

  3. Predicted band structures of III-V semiconductors in the wurtzite phase

    SciTech Connect

    De, A.; Pryor, Craig E.

    2010-04-15

    While non-nitride III-V semiconductors typically have a zinc-blende structure, they may also form wurtzite crystals under pressure or when grown as nanowhiskers. This makes electronic structure calculation difficult since the band structures of wurtzite III-V semiconductors are poorly characterized. We have calculated the electronic band structure for nine III-V semiconductors in the wurtzite phase using transferable empirical pseudopotentials including spin-orbit coupling. We find that all the materials have direct gaps. Our results differ significantly from earlier ab initio calculations, and where experimental results are available (InP, InAs, and GaAs) our calculated band gaps are in good agreement. We tabulate energies, effective masses, and linear and cubic Dresselhaus zero-field spin-splitting coefficients for the zone-center states. The large zero-field spin-splitting coefficients we find may facilitate the development of spin-based devices.

  4. Radar Differential Phase Signatures of Ice Orientation for the Prediction of Lightning Initiation and Cessation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carey, L.D.; Petersen, W.A.; Deierling, W.

    2009-01-01

    other co-polar back-scattering radar measurements like differential reflectivity (Z(sub dr)) typically measured by operational dual-polarimetric radars are not sensitive to these changes in ice crystal orientation. However, prior research has demonstrated that oriented ice crystals cause significant propagation effects that can be routinely measured by most dual-polarimetric radars from X-band (3 cm) to S-band (10 cm) wavelengths using the differential propagation phase shift (often just called differential phase, phi(sub dp)) or its range derivative, the specific differential phase (K(sub dp)). Advantages of the differential phase include independence from absolute or relative power calibration, attenuation, differential attenuation and relative insensitivity to ground clutter and partial beam occultation effects (as long as the signal remains above noise). In research mode, these sorts of techniques have been used to anticipate initial cloud electrification, lightning initiation, and cessation. In this study, we develop a simplified model of ice crystal size, shape, orientation, dielectric, and associated radar scattering and propagation effects in order to simulate various idealized scenarios of ice crystals responding to a hypothetical electric field and their dual-polarimetric radar signatures leading up to lightning initiation and particularly cessation. The sensitivity of the K(sub dp) ice orientation signature to various ice properties and radar wavelength will be explored. Since K(sub dp) is proportional to frequency in the Rayleigh- Gans scattering regime, the ice orientation signatures should be more obvious at higher (lower) frequencies (wavelengths). As a result, simulations at radar wavelengths from 10 cm down to 1 cm (Ka-band) will be conducted. Resonance effects will be considered using the T-matrix method. Since most K(sub dp) Vbased observations have been shown at S-band, we will present ice orientation signatures from C-band (UAH/NASA ARMOR) and X

  5. Theoretical study of phase transition, surface tension, and nucleation rate predictions for argon.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Di; Zeng, Ming; Mi, Jianguo; Zhong, Chongli

    2011-01-13

    In this work, a weighted density functional theory has been used to study the equilibrium and metastable processes for argon. In the theoretical approach, the two- and three-body interactions of the fluid molecules are considered simultaneously, and the renormalization group transformation is applied to address the long-range fluctuations inside the critical region. The global phase equilibria, planar and curvature-dependent surface tensions, critical radius, and nucleation rates of argon are investigated systematically. The results are in good agreement with the experimental data. Meanwhile, this work applies a methodology for calculating the curved surface tension in local supersaturated environments, showing that the Tolman length is negligible far from the critical region. Near the critical point, however, the Tolman length becomes positive and appears to diverge.

  6. Prediction of aerobic and anaerobic capacities of elite cyclists from changes in lactate during isocapnic buffering phase.

    PubMed

    Hasanli, Mohsen; Nikooie, Rohollah; Aveseh, Malihe; Mohammad, Fashi

    2015-02-01

    This study predicted aerobic and anaerobic capacities using relative changes of arterial blood lactate during the isocapnic buffering phase (relative [La]ISBP). Fourteen male professional cyclists (sprint-trained [n = 6] and endurance [n = 8]) performed 2 exercise sessions to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer; 1 incremental standard test to determine the isocapnic buffering phase, buffering capacities, and relative [La]ISBP and 1 supramaximal exercise test to determine maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD). The time between Lactate threshold (LT) and respiratory compensatory threshold (RCT) was considered to be the isocapnic buffering phase. Total buffering capacity was calculated as Δ[La]·ΔpH. Bicarbonate buffering was calculated as Δ[HCO3]·ΔpH, and the difference between -Δ[La]·ΔpH and Δ[HCO3]·ΔpH was considered as nonbicarbonate buffering. The lactate concentration for LT (p ≤ 0.05) and RCT (p ≤ 0.05), and relative [La]ISBP (p < 0.01) were significantly lower for endurance cyclists than for sprint-trained cyclists. A significant difference was found for bicarbonate buffering capacity between groups (p < 0.01). A significant correlation was found between relative [La]ISBP with (Equation is included in full-text article.)(r = -0.71, p ≤ 0.05) and MAOD (r = 0.73, p < 0.01). Relative [La]ISBP was useful for predicting aerobic power (R = 51%) and anaerobic capacity (R = 53%). These results demonstrated that relative [La]ISBP is an important variable in intermediary metabolism and in addition to (Equation is included in full-text article.)and LT is recommended for better evaluation of performance of athletes who show nearly equal contributions from the aerobic and anaerobic energy systems during exercise.

  7. Predicting Phase Diagram of the CaCl2-H2O Binary System from the BET Adsorption Isotherm

    SciTech Connect

    Ally, Moonis Raza

    2008-01-01

    A recent publication in Fluid Phase Equilibria by Zeng (Zeng, Zhou et al. 2007) claimed remarkable accuracy in predicting the solubility of CaCl2-H2O solutions with the Brunaruer-Emett-Teller (BET) model parameters. Their approach necessarily requires prior knowledge of equilibrium water vapor pressures above saturated solutions as a function of temperature for the hydrates of CaCl2 that exist under those conditions. However, the intrinsic BET model does not require prior knowledge of such solubility data that the approach of (Zeng, Zhou et al. 2007) is dependent upon. This paper highlights the differences between the two approaches and covers a much wider range of compositions and temperatures than is done by (Zeng, Zhou et al. 2007). The statistical mechanical description of multilayer adsorption culminating in the BET adsorption isotherm for aqueous electrolytes as developed by Ally and Braunstein (Ally and Braunstein 1993) is used to predict the liquidus behavior of CaCl2-H2O across the entire composition range (from the melting point of pure water to the melting point of anhydrous calcium chloride), including possible metastable crystalline phases. The method requires as input the two BET parameters r, the statistically averaged number of adsorption sites and ε, the energy of adsorption of water in excess of the energy of condensation of pure water. Usually it suffices to keep r and ε constant, typically evaluated at 298.15 K, but in the case of CaCl2-H2O, it is found that both r and ε must be considered temperature dependent in order to predict the liquidus curve, eutectic and peritectic points with reasonable accuracy over the large temperature and compositional range for this binary system.

  8. Predicting PAH bioaccumulation and toxicity in earthworms exposed to manufactured gas plant soils with solid-phase microextraction

    SciTech Connect

    Michiel T.O. Jonker; Stephan A. van der Heijden; Joseph P. Kreitinger; Steven B. Hawthorne

    2007-11-01

    Soils from former manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites are often heavily contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Current risk assessment methods that rely on total PAH concentrations likely overstate adverse effects of such soils since bioavailability is ignored. In this study, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was applied to estimate bioavailable PAH concentrations and toxicity in earthworms exposed to 15 MGP soils. In addition, PAH sorption to all soils (K{sub oc} values) was determined. The results showed a several orders of magnitude variation in K{sub oc} values, demonstrating that generic organic carbon-normalized sorption coefficients will typically be over-conservative at MGP sites. SPME-predicted bioaccumulation generally was within a factor of 10 of measured bioaccumulation (in earthworm bioassays), in contrast to current risk assessment model estimates that over predicted bioaccumulation 10-10,000 times. Furthermore, on the basis of estimated total body residues of narcotic PAHs, SPME correctly predicted worm mortality observed during bioassays in the majority of cases. For MGP sites where current risk assessment procedures indicate concerns, SPME thus provides a useful tool for performing a refined, site-specific assessment. 35 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Assessing the predictive value of the rodent neurofunctional assessment for commonly reported adverse events in phase I clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Mead, Andy N; Amouzadeh, Hamid R; Chapman, Kathryn; Ewart, Lorna; Giarola, Alessandra; Jackson, Samuel J; Jarvis, Philip; Jordaan, Pierre; Redfern, Will; Traebert, Martin; Valentin, Jean-Pierre; Vargas, Hugo M

    2016-10-01

    Central Nervous System (CNS)-related safety concerns are major contributors to delays and failure during the development of new candidate drugs (CDs). CNS-related safety data on 141 small molecule CDs from five pharmaceutical companies were analyzed to identify the concordance between rodent multi-parameter neurofunctional assessments (Functional Observational Battery: FOB, or Irwin test: IT) and the five most common adverse events (AEs) in Phase I clinical trials, namely headache, nausea, dizziness, fatigue/somnolence and pain. In the context of this analysis, the FOB/IT did not predict the occurrence of these particular AEs in man. For AEs such as headache, nausea, dizziness and pain the results are perhaps unsurprising, as the FOB/IT were not originally designed to predict these AEs. More unexpected was that the FOB/IT are not adequate for predicting 'somnolence/fatigue' nonclinically. In drug development, these five most prevalent AEs are rarely responsible for delaying or stopping further progression of CDs. More serious AEs that might stop CD development occurred at too low an incidence rate in our clinical dataset to enable translational analysis.

  10. Quantitative Vapor-phase IR Intensities and DFT Computations to Predict Absolute IR Spectra based on Molecular Structure: I. Alkanes

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Stephen D.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Sharpe, Steven W.; Yavelak, Veronica; Oats, R. P.; Brauer, Carolyn S.

    2013-11-13

    Recently recorded quantitative IR spectra of a variety of gas-phase alkanes are shown to have integrated intensities in both the C-H stretching and C-H bending regions that depend linearly on the molecular size, i.e. the number of C-H bonds. This result is well predicted from CH4 to C15H32 by DFT computations of IR spectra at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level of DFT theory. A simple model predicting the absolute IR band intensities of alkanes based only on structural formula is proposed: For the C-H stretching band near 2930 cm-1 this is given by (in km/mol): CH¬_str = (34±3)*CH – (41±60) where CH is number of C-H bonds in the alkane. The linearity is explained in terms of coordinated motion of methylene groups rather than the summed intensities of autonomous -CH2- units. The effect of alkyl chain length on the intensity of a C-H bending mode is explored and interpreted in terms of conformer distribution. The relative intensity contribution of a methyl mode compared to the total C-H stretch intensity is shown to be linear in the number of terminal methyl groups in the alkane, and can be used to predict quantitative spectra a priori based on structure alone.

  11. Impact of Gas-Phase Mechanisms on Weather Research Forecasting Model with Chemistry (WRF/Chem) Predictions: Mechanism Implementation and Comparative Evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gas-phase mechanisms provide important oxidant and gaseous precursors for secondary aerosol formation. Different gas-phase mechanisms may lead to different predictions of gases, aerosols, and aerosol direct and indirect effects. In this study, WRF/Chem-MADRID simulations are cond...

  12. Thermodynamic Prediction of Compositional Phases Confirmed by Transmission Electron Microscopy on Tantalum-Based Alloy Weldments

    SciTech Connect

    Moddeman, William E.; Birkbeck, Janine C.; Barklay, Chadwick D.; Kramer, Daniel P.; Miller, Roger G.; Allard, Lawrence F.

    2007-01-30

    Tantalum alloys have been used by the U.S. Department of Energy as structural alloys for radioisotope based thermal to electrical power systems since the 1960s. Tantalum alloys are attractive for high temperature structural applications due to their high melting point, excellent formability, good thermal conductivity, good ductility (even at low temperatures), corrosion resistance, and weldability. Tantalum alloys have demonstrated sufficient high-temperature toughness to survive prolonged exposure to the radioisotope power-system working environment. Typically, the fabrication of power systems requires the welding of various components including the structural members made of tantalum alloys. Issues such as thermodynamics, lattice structure, weld pool dynamics, material purity and contamination, and welding atmosphere purity all potentially confound the understanding of the differences between the weldment properties of the different tantalum-based alloys. The objective of this paper is to outline the thermodynamically favorable material phases in tantalum alloys, with and without small amounts of hafnium, during and following solidification, based on the results derived from the FactSage(c) Integrated Thermodynamic Databank. In addition, Transition Electron Microscopy (TEM) data will show for the first time, the changes occurring in the HfC before and after welding, and the data will elucidate the role HfC plays in pinning grain boundaries.

  13. Maximal strength on different resistance training rowing exercises predicts start phase performance in elite kayakers.

    PubMed

    Ualí, Ismael; Herrero, Azael J; Garatachea, Nuria; Marín, Pedro J; Alvear-Ordenes, Ildefonso; García-López, David

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship existing between maximum strength values in 2 common resistance training row exercises (bilateral bench pull [BBP] and one-arm cable row [OACR]) and short sprint performance in elite kayakers. Ten junior kayakers (5 women and 5 men) were tested on different days for 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and maximal voluntary isometric contraction in both exercises. Moreover, a 12-m sprint kayak was performed in a dew pond to record split times (2, 5, and 10 m), peak velocity, distance completed considering the first 8 strokes, and mean acceleration induced by right blade and left blade strokes. No differences (p > 0.05) were observed when right and left arms were compared in sprint testing or strength testing variables. Maximal strength values in BBP and OACR were significantly correlated with short sprint performance variables, showing the bilateral exercise with slightly stronger correlation coefficients than the unilateral seated row. Moreover, the relationship between strength testing and sprint testing variables is stronger when maximal force is measured through a dynamic approach (1RM) in comparison with an isometric approach. In conclusion, maximal strength in BBP and OACR is a good predictor of the start phase performance in elite sprint kayakers, mainly the 1RM value in BBP.

  14. Patient-specific QA using 4D Monte Carlo phase space predictions and EPID dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, I. A.; Atwal, P.; Lobo, J.; Lucido, J.; McCurdy, B. M. C.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this review is to outline a solution for patient-specific QA of VMAT, IMRT, and other complex treatment delivery techniques. This solution has been developed in direct response to clinical needs, in order to allow our institution to offer VMAT to all patients who could potentially benefit from this advanced technique. To date, over 2500 VMAT patient plans and approximately 1000 IMRT patient plans have been verified by this method in Vancouver, while 40 other institutions worldwide have expressed interest in, or are already at various stages of implementing, this process. The addition of EPID in vivo dosimetry (i.e. data acquired during the patient treatment) and associated Monte Carlo predictions amounts to introducing a 'measurement component' in this QA process, which is currently mandated by the regulatory framework in some European countries, or for billing purposes in the USA. The fully automated, patient-specific, Monte Carlo based QA process described here is fast, maximally efficient in terms of departmental resources, and capable of simulating any plan in a single run, regardless of its complexity.

  15. Molecular dynamics of single-particle impacts predicts phase diagrams for large scale pattern formation.

    PubMed

    Norris, Scott A; Samela, Juha; Bukonte, Laura; Backman, Marie; Djurabekova, Flyura; Nordlund, Kai; Madi, Charbel S; Brenner, Michael P; Aziz, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Energetic particle irradiation can cause surface ultra-smoothening, self-organized nanoscale pattern formation or degradation of the structural integrity of nuclear reactor components. A fundamental understanding of the mechanisms governing the selection among these outcomes has been elusive. Here we predict the mechanism governing the transition from pattern formation to flatness using only parameter-free molecular dynamics simulations of single-ion impacts as input into a multiscale analysis, obtaining good agreement with experiment. Our results overturn the paradigm attributing these phenomena to the removal of target atoms via sputter erosion: the mechanism dominating both stability and instability is the impact-induced redistribution of target atoms that are not sputtered away, with erosive effects being essentially irrelevant. We discuss the potential implications for the formation of a mysterious nanoscale topography, leading to surface degradation, of tungsten plasma-facing fusion reactor walls. Consideration of impact-induced redistribution processes may lead to a new design criterion for stability under irradiation.

  16. Detection of neural correlates of self-paced motor activity using empirical mode decomposition phase locking analysis.

    PubMed

    Sweeney-Reed, Catherine Marie; Nasuto, Slawomir Jaroslaw

    2009-10-30

    Transient episodes of synchronisation of neuronal activity in particular frequency ranges are thought to underlie cognition. Empirical mode decomposition phase locking (EMDPL) analysis is a method for determining the frequency and timing of phase synchrony that is adaptive to intrinsic oscillations within data, alleviating the need for arbitrary bandpass filter cut-off selection. It is extended here to address the choice of reference electrode and removal of spurious synchrony resulting from volume conduction. Spline Laplacian transformation and independent component analysis (ICA) are performed as pre-processing steps, and preservation of phase synchrony between synthetic signals, combined using a simple forward model, is demonstrated. The method is contrasted with use of bandpass filtering following the same pre-processing steps, and filter cut-offs are shown to influence synchrony detection markedly. Furthermore, an approach to the assessment of multiple EEG trials using the method is introduced, and the assessment of statistical significance of phase locking episodes is extended to render it adaptive to local phase synchrony levels. EMDPL is validated in the analysis of real EEG data, during finger tapping. The time course of event-related (de)synchronisation (ERD/ERS) is shown to differ from that of longer range phase locking episodes, implying different roles for these different types of synchronisation. It is suggested that the increase in phase locking which occurs just prior to movement, coinciding with a reduction in power (or ERD) may result from selection of the neural assembly relevant to the particular movement. PMID:19643135

  17. Quantitative prediction of gas-phase 15N and 31P nuclear magnetic shielding constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochnow, Eric; Auer, Alexander A.

    2010-02-01

    High-level ab initio benchmark calculations of the N15 and P31 NMR chemical shielding constants for a representative set of molecules are presented. The computations have been carried out at the Hartree-Fock self-consistent field (HF-SCF), density functional theory (DFT) (B-P86 and B3-LYP), second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD), and CCSD augmented by a perturbative treatment of triple excitations [CCSD(T)] level of theory using basis sets of triple zeta quality or better. The influence of the geometry, the treatment of electron correlation, as well as basis set and zero-point vibrational effects on the shielding constants are discussed and the results are compared to gas-phase experimental shifts. As for the first time a study using high-level post-HF methods is carried out for a second-row element, we also propose a family of basis sets suitable for the computation of P31 shielding constants. The mean deviations observed for N15 and P31 are 0.9 [CCSD(T)/13s9p4d3f] and -3.3 ppm [CCSD(T)/15s12p4d3f2g], respectively, when corrected for zero-point vibrational effects. Results obtained at the DFT level of theory are of comparable accuracy to MP2 for N15 and of comparable accuracy to HF-SCF for P31. However, they are not improved by inclusion of zero-point vibrational effects. The PN molecule is an especially interesting case with exceptionally large electron correlation effects on shielding constants beyond MP2 which, therefore, represents an excellent example for further benchmark studies.

  18. Prediction of novel hard phases of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}: First-principles calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Lin; Hu, Meng; Wang, Qianqian; Xu, Bo; Yu, Dongli; Liu, Zhongyuan; He, Julong

    2015-08-15

    Exploration of novel hard metastable phases of silicon nitride was performed using a recently developed particle-swarm optimization method within the CALYPSO software package. Three potential hard metastable phases of t-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, m-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, and o-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} were predicted. These phases are mechanically and dynamically stable at ambient pressure based on their elastic constants and phonon dispersions. t-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and m-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} exhibit lower energies than γ-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} at pressures below 2.5 GPa and 2.9 GPa, respectively, which promise that the formers could be obtained by quenching from γ-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. o-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} is a better high-pressure metastable phase than CaTi{sub 2}O{sub 4}-type Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} proposed by Tatsumi et al. and it can come from the transition of γ-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} under 198 GPa. The theoretical band gaps of t-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, m-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, and o-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} at ambient pressure were 3.15 eV, 3.90 eV, and 3.36 eV, respectively. At ambient pressure, the Vickers hardness values of t-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} (32.6 GPa), m-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} (31.5 GPa), and o-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} (36.1 GPa) are comparable to β-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and γ-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. With the pressure increasing, t-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, m-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, and o-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} will change from the brittle to ductile state at about 15.7 GPa, 7.3 GPa and 28.9 GPa, respectively. - Graphical abstract: This figure shows the crystal structures of three Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} predicted in this manuscript, and left to right: t-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, m-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and o-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. - Highlights: • We explored three metastable phases of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} — t-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, m-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, and o-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. • The enthalpies of t and m- are much lower than that of γ at ambient pressure. • ois one further high pressure phase than γ. • o-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} is the most hardest phase in Si

  19. Linking Self-Incompatibility, Dichogamy, and Flowering Synchrony in Two Euphorbia Species: Alternative Mechanisms for Avoiding Self-Fertilization?

    PubMed Central

    Narbona, Eduardo; Ortiz, Pedro L.; Arista, Montserrat

    2011-01-01

    Background Plant species have several mechanisms to avoid selfing such as dichogamy or a self-incompatibility response. Dichogamy in a single flower may reduce autogamy but, to avoid geitonogamy, plants must show flowering synchronization among all their flowers (i.e. synchronous dichogamy). It is hypothesized that one species would not simultaneously show synchronous dichogamy and self-incompatibility because they are redundant mechanisms to reduce selfing; however, this has not been accurately assessed. Methodology/Principal Findings This expectation was tested over two years in two natural populations of the closely related Mediterranean spurges Euphorbia boetica and E. nicaeensis, which completely avoid autogamy by protogyny at the cyathia level. Both spurges showed a high population synchrony (Z<79), and their inflorescences flower synchronously. In E. nicaeensis, there was no overlap among the cyathia in anthesis of successive inflorescence levels and the overlap between sexual phases of cyathia of the same inflorescence level was uncommon (4–16%). In contrast, E. boetica showed a high overlap among consecutive inflorescence levels (74–93%) and between sexual phases of cyathia of the same inflorescence level (48–80%). The flowering pattern of both spurges was consistent in the two populations and over the two successive years. A hand-pollination experiment demonstrated that E. nicaeensis was strictly self-compatible whereas E. boetica was partially self-incompatible. Conclusions/Significance We propose that the complex pattern of synchronized protogyny in E. nicaeensis prevents geitonogamous crosses and, consequently, avoids selfing and inbreeding depression. In E. boetica, a high probability of geitonogamous crosses may occur but, alternatively, this plant escapes selfing through a self-incompatibility response. We posit that synchronous dichogamy and physiological self-incompatibility do not co-occur in the same species because each process is

  20. Spatial and temporal variation of seasonal synchrony in the deep-sea shrimp Aristeus antennatus in the Western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo, Manuel; Rueda, Lucía; Molinero, Juan Carlos; Guijarro, Beatriz; Massutí, Enric

    2015-08-01

    Resolving drivers of spatial synchrony in marine species is fundamental for the management and conservation of deep-sea ecosystems. Here we examine an 11-year data set of monthly catches per unit of effort (CPUE) of the red-shrimp Aristeus antennatus. These data comprise 16 locations of two population subunits in the Western Mediterranean, the Catalan coast and the Balearic archipelago. The analysis of their seasonal covariation and its space-time structure showed small-scale geographical segregation of locations linked with the seasonal fluctuations of CPUE. Results further revealed that seasonal synchrony dominates at short spatial scales (ca. 50 km), while asynchrony prevails are broader spatial scales (ca. 200-300 km). This spatial pattern, however, varied