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Sample records for phase transformation temperature

  1. Phase transformation strengthening of high-temperature superalloys

    PubMed Central

    Smith, T. M.; Esser, B. D.; Antolin, N.; Carlsson, A.; Williams, R. E. A.; Wessman, A.; Hanlon, T.; Fraser, H. L.; Windl, W.; McComb, D. W.; Mills, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Decades of research has been focused on improving the high-temperature properties of nickel-based superalloys, an essential class of materials used in the hot section of jet turbine engines, allowing increased engine efficiency and reduced CO2 emissions. Here we introduce a new ‘phase-transformation strengthening' mechanism that resists high-temperature creep deformation in nickel-based superalloys, where specific alloying elements inhibit the deleterious deformation mode of nanotwinning at temperatures above 700 °C. Ultra-high-resolution structure and composition analysis via scanning transmission electron microscopy, combined with density functional theory calculations, reveals that a superalloy with higher concentrations of the elements titanium, tantalum and niobium encourage a shear-induced solid-state transformation from the γ′ to η phase along stacking faults in γ′ precipitates, which would normally be the precursors of deformation twins. This nanoscale η phase creates a low-energy structure that inhibits thickening of stacking faults into twins, leading to significant improvement in creep properties. PMID:27874007

  2. Phase transformation strengthening of high-temperature superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, T. M.; Esser, B. D.; Antolin, N.; Carlsson, A.; Williams, R. E. A.; Wessman, A.; Hanlon, T.; Fraser, H. L.; Windl, W.; McComb, D. W.; Mills, M. J.

    2016-11-01

    Decades of research has been focused on improving the high-temperature properties of nickel-based superalloys, an essential class of materials used in the hot section of jet turbine engines, allowing increased engine efficiency and reduced CO2 emissions. Here we introduce a new `phase-transformation strengthening' mechanism that resists high-temperature creep deformation in nickel-based superalloys, where specific alloying elements inhibit the deleterious deformation mode of nanotwinning at temperatures above 700 °C. Ultra-high-resolution structure and composition analysis via scanning transmission electron microscopy, combined with density functional theory calculations, reveals that a superalloy with higher concentrations of the elements titanium, tantalum and niobium encourage a shear-induced solid-state transformation from the γ' to η phase along stacking faults in γ' precipitates, which would normally be the precursors of deformation twins. This nanoscale η phase creates a low-energy structure that inhibits thickening of stacking faults into twins, leading to significant improvement in creep properties.

  3. Solidification Processing and Phase Transformations in Ordered High Temperature Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-20

    transformation from cubic to hexagonal and ends with a transformation, from c2 to Orthorhombic phase. During these stages a complex domain structure is formed...arrangement of rotational domains of the 6 ower symmetry orthorhombic phase. [he Crystal Structure of the Ti2AINb Orthorhombic Phase - The results of a... orthorhombic phase in the Ti-Al-Nb system (Paper #7). The structure is ýmcmn (HgNa or Cd 3Er) with a=0.6089 nm, b=0.9569 nm, and c= 0.4667 rnm. Ti(Nb) fills

  4. Chemically and temperature-induced phase transformations of metal vanadates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patridge, Christopher James

    different individual beta'-Cu xV2O5 nanowires vary widely. Using scanning transmission X-ray microspectroscopy of individual beta'-CuxV2O 5 nanowires, correlations appear to exist between MIT characteristics and the markedly different orbital hybridization of vanadium and oxygen at the O K and V L absorption edges. These comprehensive nanostructure studies hint at the possibility of approaching the incredibly important realm of single-domain measurements which are needed to understand and exploit the intrinsic physical properties of materials. In addition to the bronze MIT studies, the classical MIT material vanadium dioxide, VO2, also shows new properties when scaling down to nanoscale dimensions as well as incorporation of substitutional dopants such as tungsten. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of the dopant local structure suggests an increased symmetry and depairing of V4+-V 4+, which is critical for transition to the lower temperature insulating phase thereby super-cooling the metallic phase to temperatures as low as 254 K. Mechanistic insight and structural changes associated with the intercalation of Li+ are key aspects in understanding and designing useful secondary Li ion batteries. In similarity to the MxV2O 5 studies, another metal vanadate, Ag2VO2PO 4, undergoes phase transformations due to introduction of Li and the vacancy of Ag ions. Employing a comprehensive study on Ag2VO 2PO4 using X-ray absorption spectroscopy, information about chemical state changes and rehybridization of frontier orbitals allows for a more precise understanding of how the material discharges, what, if any, intermediate phases exist during the process, and provides evidence for the posited structural stability at high depths of discharge.

  5. Temperature dependent phase transformation in nano sized magnesium ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumangala T., P.; Mahender, C.; Venkataramani, N.; Prasad, Shiva

    2015-06-01

    The phase transformation in nanosized stoichiometric magnesium ferrite is being discussed. It was shown by TGA/DSC that there exist two reactions (shown by exothermic peaks) in nano sized magnesium ferrite when synthesized by sol gel combustion synthesis. First one of these reactions resulted in the precipitation of α-Fe2O3 and a resultant spinel. The second reaction resulted in stoichiometric spinel from this two phase system.

  6. Transformation temperatures of martensite in beta phase nickel aluminide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, J. L.; Hehemann, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    Resistivity and thermal arrest measurements determined that the compositional dependence of Ms (martensite state) temperatures for NiAl martensite was linear between 60 and 69 atomic percent nickel, with Ms = 124 Ni - 7410 K. Resistivity and surface relief experiments indicated the presence of thermoelastic martensite for selected alloys. Some aspects of the transformation were studied by hot stage microscopy and related to the behavior observed for alloys exhibiting the shape-memory effect.

  7. Transformation temperatures of martensite in beta-phase nickel aluminide.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, J. L.; Hehemann, R. F.

    1973-01-01

    Resistivity and thermal arrest measurements determined that the compositional dependence of M sub s temperatures for NiAl martensite was linear between 60 and 69 at. % Ni, with M sub s = (124 Ni - 7410)K. Resistivity and surface relief experiments for selected alloys indicated the presence of thermoelastic martensite. Some aspects of the transformation were studied by hot-stage microscopy and related to the behavior observed for alloys exhibiting the shape-memory effect.

  8. Low-temperature solid-state phase transformations in 2H silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Will, H. A.; Powell, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Single crystals of 2H SiC were observed to undergo phase transformations at temperatures as low as 400 C. Some 2H crystals transformed to a structure with one-dimensional disorder along the crystal c axis. Others transformed to a faulted cubic/6H structure. The transformation is time and temperature dependent and is greatly enhanced by dislocations. Observations indicate that the transformation takes place by means of a slip process perpendicular to the c axis. Cubic SiC crystals were observed to undergo a solid state transformation above 1400 C.

  9. Interplay between diffusive and displacive phase transformations: time-temperature-transformation diagrams and microstructures.

    PubMed

    Bouville, Mathieu; Ahluwalia, Rajeev

    2006-08-04

    Materials which can undergo extremely fast displacive transformations as well as very slow diffusive transformations are studied using a Ginzburg-Landau framework. This simple model captures the essential physics behind microstructure formation and time-temperature-transformation diagrams in alloys such as steels. It also predicts the formation of mixed microstructures by an interplay between diffusive and displacive mechanisms. The intrinsic volume changes associated with the transformations stabilize mixed microstructures such as martensite-retained austenite (responsible for the existence of a martensite finish temperature) and martensite-pearlite.

  10. Pressure and Temperature effects on the High Pressure Phase Transformation in Zirconium

    SciTech Connect

    Escobedo-Diaz, Juan P.; Cerreta, Ellen K.; Brown, Donald W.; Trujillo, Carl P.; Rigg, Paulo A.; Bronkhorst, Curt A.; Addessio, Francis L.; Lookman, Turab

    2012-06-20

    At high pressure zirconium is known to undergo a phase transformation from the hexagonal close packed (HCP) alpha phase ({alpha}) to the simple hexagonal omega phase ({omega}). Under conditions of shock loading, the high-pressure omega phase is retained upon release. However, the hysteresis in this transformation is not well represented by equilibrium phase diagrams. For this reason, the influence of peak shock pressure and temperature on the retention of omega phase in Zr is explored in this study. In situ VISAR measurements along with post-mortem metallographic and neutron diffraction characterization of soft recovered specimens have been utilized to quantify the volume fraction of retained omega phase, morphology of the shocked alpha and omega phases, and qualitatively understand the kinetics of this transformation. This understanding of the role of peak shock stress will be utilized to address physics to be encoded in our present macro-scale models.

  11. In-situ High Temperature Phase Transformations in Ceramics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-28

    in high temperature combustion environments leads to accelerated oxidation of Si-based ceramics and composites, such as silicon carbide ( SiC ) fiber...have been achieved in silicon carbide reinforced with continuous, graphite-coated, silicon carbide fibers. The graphite acts as a debonding layer...reinforced SiC ceramic matrix composites (SiCf/ SiC CMCs) and monolithic silicon nitride (Si3N4), and severely limits their application in gas

  12. Temperature-induced phase transformation of Fe1-xNix alloys: molecular-dynamics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sak-Saracino, Emilia; Urbassek, Herbert M.

    2015-07-01

    Using molecular-dynamics simulation, we study the temperature induced bcc/fcc phase transformation of random Fe1-xNix alloys in the concentration range of x ≤ 40 at%. The Meyer-Entel potential describes faithfully the decrease of the transition temperature with increasing Ni concentration. The austenite transformation proceeds by homogeneous nucleation and results in a fine-grained poly-crystalline structure. The transformation follows the Nishiyama-Wassermann orientation relationship. The martensite phase nucleates at the grain boundaries (heterogeneous nucleation). Even for the largest crystallite studied (2.75 × 105 atoms) the back-transformation results in a single-crystalline grain containing only a small amount of defects. The morphological changes in the transformed material show no significant dependence on Ni content.

  13. Phase transformations in amorphous fullerite C60 under high pressure and high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, P. A.; Blanter, M. S.; Brazhkin, V. V.; Somenkov, V. A.; Filonenko, V. P.

    2015-08-01

    First phase transformations of amorphous fullerite C60 at high temperatures (up to 1800 K) and high pressures (up to 8 GPa) have been investigated and compared with the previous studies on the crystalline fullerite. The study was conducted using neutron diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The amorphous fullerite was obtained by ball-milling. We have shown that under thermobaric treatment no crystallization of amorphous fullerite into С60 molecular modification is observed, and it transforms into amorphous-like or crystalline graphite. A kinetic diagram of phase transformation of amorphous fullerite in temperature-pressure coordinates was constructed for the first time. Unlike in crystalline fullerite, no crystalline polymerized phases were formed under thermobaric treatment on amorphous fullerite. We found that amorphous fullerite turned out to be less resistant to thermobaric treatment, and amorphous-like or crystalline graphite were formed at lower temperatures than in crystalline fullerite.

  14. Phase transformations in the Zn-Al eutectoid alloy after quenching from the high temperature triclinic beta phase

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval-Jimenez, A.; Torres-Villasenor, G.

    2010-11-15

    Ribbons of the Zn-Al eutectoid alloy obtained by melt-spinning, were heat treated at 350 deg. C during 30 min in a free atmosphere furnace, and then quenched in liquid nitrogen. The temperature correspond to {beta} phase zone, which has a triclinic crystalline structure [1, 2]. Some evidence, obtained by X-ray diffraction, show that the structures present in the just quenched material are both close-packed hexagonal ({eta}-phase) and rhombohedral (R-phase). X-ray diffractograms taken in the same ribbons after annealed 500 h at room temperature, show that the R phase its transform to {alpha} and {eta} phases.

  15. Phase transformation of oxide film in zirconium alloy in high temperature hydrogenated water

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Taeho; Kim, Jongjin; Choi, Kyoung Joon; Yoo, Seung Chang; Kim, Seung Hyun; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2015-07-23

    The effect of the variation of the dissolved hydrogen concentration on the oxide phase transformation under high-temperature hydrogenated water conditions was investigated using in situ Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectrum in 50 cm(3)/kg of dissolved hydrogen concentration indicated the formation of monoclinic and tetragonal zirconium oxide at the water-substrate interface. As the dissolved hydrogen concentration decreased to 30 cm(3)/kg, the Raman peaks corresponding to the zirconium oxide phase changed, indicating an oxide phase transformation. And, the results of SEM and TEM analyses were compared with those of in situ analyses obtained for the oxide structure formed on the zirconium alloy.

  16. Temperature-dependent mechanical deformation of silicon at the nanoscale: Phase transformation versus defect propagation

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran, M. S. R. N. Tran, T. T.; Smillie, L. A.; Subianto, D.; Williams, J. S.; Bradby, J. E.; Haberl, B.

    2015-05-28

    This study uses high-temperature nanoindentation coupled with in situ electrical measurements to investigate the temperature dependence (25–200 °C) of the phase transformation behavior of diamond cubic (dc) silicon at the nanoscale. Along with in situ indentation and electrical data, ex situ characterizations, such as Raman and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, have been used to reveal the indentation-induced deformation mechanisms. We find that phase transformation and defect propagation within the crystal lattice are not mutually exclusive deformation processes at elevated temperature. Both can occur at temperatures up to 150 °C but to different extents, depending on the temperature and loading conditions. For nanoindentation, we observe that phase transformation is dominant below 100 °C but that deformation by twinning along (111) planes dominates at 150 °C and 200 °C. This work, therefore, provides clear insight into the temperature dependent deformation mechanisms in dc-Si at the nanoscale and helps to clarify previous inconsistencies in the literature.

  17. Evidence for the temperature dependence of phase transformation behavior of silicon at nanoscale

    SciTech Connect

    Mangalampalli S. R. N. Kiran; Tran, Tuan; Smillie, Lachlan; Haberl, Bianca; Subianto, D.; Williams, James S.; Bradby, Jodie E.

    2015-05-27

    This study uses the in-situ high-temperature nanoindentation coupled with electrical measurements to investigate the temperature dependence (25 to 200 C) of the phase transformation behavior of crystalline silicon (dc-Si) at the nanoscale. Along with in-situ indentation and electrical data, ex-situ characterizations such as Raman and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) have been used to reveal the dominant mode of deformation under the indenter. In contrast to the previous studies, the dominant mode of deformation under the nanoindenter at elevated temperatures is not the dc-Si to metallic phase ( -Sn) transformation. Instead, XTEM images from 150 C indents reveal that the dominant mode of deformation is twinning along {111} planes. While the in-situ high-temperature electrical measurements show an increase in the current due to metallic phase formation up to 125 C, it is absent 150 C, revealing that the formation of the metallic phase is negligible in this regime. Thus, this work provides clear insight into the temperature dependent deformation mechanisms in dc-Si at the nanoscale.

  18. Evidence for the temperature dependence of phase transformation behavior of silicon at nanoscale

    DOE PAGES

    Mangalampalli S. R. N. Kiran; Tran, Tuan; Smillie, Lachlan; ...

    2015-05-27

    This study uses the in-situ high-temperature nanoindentation coupled with electrical measurements to investigate the temperature dependence (25 to 200 C) of the phase transformation behavior of crystalline silicon (dc-Si) at the nanoscale. Along with in-situ indentation and electrical data, ex-situ characterizations such as Raman and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) have been used to reveal the dominant mode of deformation under the indenter. In contrast to the previous studies, the dominant mode of deformation under the nanoindenter at elevated temperatures is not the dc-Si to metallic phase ( -Sn) transformation. Instead, XTEM images from 150 C indents reveal that themore » dominant mode of deformation is twinning along {111} planes. While the in-situ high-temperature electrical measurements show an increase in the current due to metallic phase formation up to 125 C, it is absent 150 C, revealing that the formation of the metallic phase is negligible in this regime. Thus, this work provides clear insight into the temperature dependent deformation mechanisms in dc-Si at the nanoscale.« less

  19. In-situ Phase Transformation and Deformation of Iron at High Pressure andTemperature

    SciTech Connect

    Miyagi, Lowell; Kunz, Martin; Knight, Jason; Nasiatka, James; Voltolini, Marco; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf

    2008-07-01

    With a membrane based mechanism to allow for pressure change of a sample in aradial diffraction diamond anvil cell (rDAC) and simultaneous infra-red laser heating, itis now possible to investigate texture changes during deformation and phasetransformations over a wide range of temperature-pressure conditions. The device isused to study bcc (alpha), fcc (gamma) and hcp (epislon) iron. In bcc iron, room temperature compression generates a texture characterized by (100) and (111) poles parallel to the compression direction. During the deformation induced phase transformation to hcp iron, a subset of orientations are favored to transform to the hcp structure first and generate a texture of (01-10) at high angles to the compression direction. Upon further deformation, the remaining grains transform, resulting in a texture that obeys the Burgers relationship of (110)bcc // (0001)hcp. This is in contrast to high temperature results that indicate that texture is developed through dominant pyramidal {2-1-12}<2-1-13> and basal (0001)-{2-1-10} slip based on polycrystal plasticity modeling. We also observe that the high temperature fcc phase develops a 110 texture typical for fcc metals deformed in compression.

  20. Machining and Phase Transformation Response of Room-Temperature Austenitic NiTi Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaynak, Yusuf

    2014-09-01

    This experimental work reports the results of a study addressing tool wear, surface topography, and x-ray diffraction analysis for the finish cutting process of room-temperature austenitic NiTi alloy. Turning operation of NiTi alloy was conducted under dry, minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) and cryogenic cooling conditions at various cutting speeds. Findings revealed that cryogenic machining substantially reduced tool wear and improved surface topography and quality of the finished parts in comparison with the other two approaches. Phase transformation on the surface of work material was not observed after dry and MQL machining, but B19' martensite phase was found on the surface of cryogenically machined samples.

  1. Effect of calcination temperature on phase transformation of HfO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, S. K.; Kaur, Charanpreet; Kaur, Ramneek; Kaur, Jagdish

    2015-08-28

    Oxides nanomaterials exhibit unique physical, chemical and structural properties and motivated a big research that focus in the integration of these materials for various optoelectronic device applications. In present work, hafnium oxide (HfO{sub 2}) nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesized using precipitation method. Hafnium tetrachloride and sodium hydroxide has been used as starting precursors. Prepared oxide material has been characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The phase transformation from amorphous to monoclinic is observed with the increase in calcination temperature from 500 °C and 800 °C. In FTIR spectra, the characteristic bands at ν ∼ 758.53 and 509.57 cm{sup −1} reveals the monoclinic phase of prepared HfO{sub 2} NPs. UV-Vis spectroscopy shows an absorption peak at 204 nm and the bandgap calculated is 6.07 eV.

  2. Pressure, temperature, and electric field dependence of phase transformations in niobium modified 95/5 lead zirconate titanate

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Wen D.; Carlos Valadez, J.; Gallagher, John A.; Jo, Hwan R.; Lynch, Christopher S.; Sahul, Raffi; Hackenberger, Wes

    2015-06-28

    Ceramic niobium modified 95/5 lead zirconate-lead titanate (PZT) undergoes a pressure induced ferroelectric to antiferroelectric phase transformation accompanied by an elimination of polarization and a volume reduction. Electric field and temperature drive the reverse transformation from the antiferroelectric to ferroelectric phase. The phase transformation was monitored under pressure, temperature, and electric field loading. Pressures and temperatures were varied in discrete steps from 0 MPa to 500 MPa and 25 °C to 125 °C, respectively. Cyclic bipolar electric fields were applied with peak amplitudes of up to 6 MV m{sup −1} at each pressure and temperature combination. The resulting electric displacement–electric field hysteresis loops were open “D” shaped at low pressure, characteristic of soft ferroelectric PZT. Just below the phase transformation pressure, the hysteresis loops took on an “S” shape, which split into a double hysteresis loop just above the phase transformation pressure. Far above the phase transformation pressure, when the applied electric field is insufficient to drive an antiferroelectric to ferroelectric phase transformation, the hysteresis loops collapse to linear dielectric behavior. Phase stability maps were generated from the experimental data at each of the temperature steps and used to form a three dimensional pressure–temperature–electric field phase diagram.

  3. Effects of oxygen and/or nitrogen on phase transformations above the monotectoid temperature in NbZr alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakai, K.; Kinoshita, C.; Kitajima, S.

    1981-05-01

    Effects of small amounts of oxygen and/or nitrogen on the NbZr phase diagram and the kinetics of phase transformations have been examined by use of optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and electron-probe micro-analysis. Hcp α phase and two bcc phases, βNb, and βZr' are observed near specimen surfaces annealed in vacua at temperatures above the monotectoid temperature and outside the monotectoid loop in Rogers and Atkins' phase diagram. The kinetics of the phase transformation from homogeneous β phase to (βNb + βZr) follows the kinetics of an Ostwald ripening reaction and the reaction rate is reduced by oxygen and/or nitrogen. The conclusion is that oxygen and/or nitrogen have direct effects on the kinetics of phase transformation as well as phase stability in NbZr alloys.

  4. Nanoscale conductive niobium oxides made through low temperature phase transformation for electrocatalyst support

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, K; Li, YF; Yan, LT; Xing, YC

    2014-01-01

    We report an effective approach to synthesize nanoscale Nb2O5 coated on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and transform it at low temperatures to the conductive form of NbO2. The latter, when used as a Pt electrocatalyst support, shows significant enhancement in catalyst activity and durability in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Direct phase transformation of Nb2O5 to NbO2 often requires temperatures above 1000 degrees C. Here we show that this can be achieved at a much lower temperature (e.g. 700 degrees C) if the niobium oxide is first activated with carbon. Low temperature processing allows retaining nanostructures of the oxide without sintering, keeping its high surface areas needed for being a catalyst support. We further show that Pt supported on the conductive oxides on CNTs has two times higher mass activity for the ORR than on bare CNTs. The electrochemical stability of Pt was also outstanding, with only ca. 5% loss in electrochemical surface areas and insignificant reduction in half-wave potential in ORR after 5000 potential cycles.

  5. Tensile Residual Stress Mitigation Using Low Temperature Phase Transformation Filler Wire in Welded Armor Plates

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Zhili; Bunn, Jeffrey R; Tzelepis, Demetrios A; Payzant, E Andrew; Yu, Xinghua

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) has been a persistent issue in welding of high-strength steels. Mitigating residual stresses is one of the most efficient ways to control HIC. The current study develops a proactive in-process weld residual stress mitigation technique, which manipulates the thermal expansion and contraction sequence in the weldments during welding process. When the steel weld is cooled after welding, martensitic transformation will occur at a temperature below 400 C. Volume expansion in the weld due to the martensitic transformation will reduce tensile stresses in the weld and heat affected zone and in some cases produce compressive residual stresses in the weld. Based on this concept, a customized filler wire which undergoes a martensitic phase transformation during cooling was developed. The new filler wire shows significant improvement in terms of reducing the tendency of HIC in high strength steels. Bulk residual stress mapping using neutron diffraction revealed reduced tensile and compressive residual stresses in the welds made by the new filler wire.

  6. Phase Transformations During the Low-Temperature Nitriding of AISI 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jing; Gu, Tan; Qiu, Shaoyu; Wang, Jun; Xiong, Ji; Fan, Hongyuan

    2015-02-01

    Liquid nitriding of type AISI 2205 duplex stainless steel was conducted at 723 K (450 °C), using one type of novel low-temperature liquid chemical thermo-treatment. The transformation of the nitrided surface microstructure was systematically studied. Experimental results revealed that a nitrided layer formed on the sample surface with the thickness ranging from 3 to 28 μm, depending on nitriding time. After the 2205 duplex stainless steel was subjected to liquid nitriding 723 K (450 °C) for less than 8 hours, the pre-existing ferrite region on the surface transformed into the expanded austenite (S phase) by the infusion of nitrogen atoms, most of which stay in the interstitial sites. Generally, the dominant phase of the nitrided layer was the expanded austenite. When the nitriding time prolonged up to 16 hours, some pre-existing ferrite in expanded austenite was decomposed and ɛ-nitride precipitated subsequently. When the treatment time went up to 40 hours, large amount of ɛ-nitride and CrN precipitates were observed in the pre-existing ferritic region in the expanded austenite. Furthermore, many nitrides precipitated from the pre-austenite region. Acicular nitride was identified by transmission electron microscopy. The thickness of the nitrided layer increased with increasing nitriding time. The growth of the nitrided layer is mainly due to nitrogen diffusion in accordance with the expected parabolic rate law. Liquid nitriding effectively increased the surface hardness of 2205 duplex stainless steel by a factor of 3.

  7. Effect of yttrium on martensite-austenite phase transformation temperatures and high temperature oxidation kinetics of Ti-Ni-Hf high-temperature shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeoung Han; Kim, Kyong Min; Yeom, Jong Taek; Young, Sung

    2016-03-01

    The effect of yttrium (< 5.5 at%) on the martensite-austenite phase transformation temperatures, microstructural evolution, and hot workability of Ti-Ni-Hf high-temperature shape memory alloys is investigated. For these purposes, differential scanning calorimetry, hot compression, and thermo-gravimetric tests are conducted. The phase transformation temperatures are not noticeably influenced by the addition of yttrium up to 4.5 at%. Furthermore, the hot workability is not significantly affected by the yttrium addition up to 1.0 at%. However, when the amount of yttrium addition exceeds 1.0 at%, the hot workability deteriorates significantly. In contrast, remarkable improvement in the high temperature oxidation resistance due to the yttrium addition is demonstrated. The total thickness of the oxide layers is substantially thinner in the Y-added specimen. In particular, the thickness of (Ti,Hf) oxide layer is reduced from 200 µm to 120 µm by the addition of 0.3 at% Y.

  8. Low-temperature Phase and Morphology Transformations in Noble Metal Nanocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    O Malis; C Byard; D Mott; B Wanjala; R Loukrakpam; J Luo; C Zhong

    2011-12-31

    In situ real-time x-ray diffraction was used to study temperature-induced structural changes of 1-5 nm Au, Pt, and AuPt nanocatalysts supported on silicon substrates. Synchrotron-based x-ray diffraction indicates that the as-synthesized Au and Au{sub 64}Pt{sub 36} nanoparticles have a non-crystalline structure, while the Pt nanoparticles have the expected cubic structure. The nanoparticles undergo dramatic structural changes at temperatures as low as 120 C. During low-temperature annealing, the Au and AuPt nanoparticles first melt and then immediately coalesce to form 4-5 nm crystalline structures. The Pt nanoparticles also aggregate but with limited intermediate melting. The detailed mechanisms of nucleation and growth, though, are quite different for the three types of nanoparticles. Most interestingly, solidification of high-density AuPt nanoparticles involves an unusual transient morphological transformation that affects only the surface of the particles. AuPt nanoparticles on silicon undergo partial phase segregation only upon annealing at extremely high temperatures (800 C).

  9. Mechanism of the gamma-beta phase transformation of Mg2SiO4 at high temperature and pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubie, D. C.; Brearley, A. J.

    1990-01-01

    The results of experiments on the phase transformation of Mg2SiO4 olivine at 15 GPa pressure in a multianvil cell are reported. At this pressure and a temperature of 900 C, early formed metastable gamma-spinel transforms partially to the beta-phase. The observed microstructures, which are similar to those in shocked meteorites, show that the gamma-to-beta transformation can occur either by diffusion-controlled growth or by a martensitic mechanism, depending on how far the pressure-temperature conditions deviate from their values at phase equilibrium. The results suggest that the diffusion-controlled mechanism is most likely to operate at the beta/gamma phase boundary in the mantle, but martensitic beta-to-gamma transformation might occur in subduction zones and could reduce the shear strength of the subducting slab.

  10. Phase Transformation Behavior at Low Temperature in Hydrothermal Treatment of Stable and Unstable Titania Sol

    PubMed

    So; Park; Kim; Moon

    1997-07-15

    Nanosize titania sol was prepared from titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) and conditions for the formation of stable sol were identified. As the H+/TTIP mole ratio decreased and H2O/TTIP mole ratio increased, stable sol was likely to be formed. The size and crystallinity remained unchanged after hydrothermal treatment of the stable sol at between 160 and 240°C. However, hydrothermal treatment of unstable sol produced rod-like particles and crystallinity of particles was changed from anatase to rutile. This difference in phase transformation at low hydrothermal treatment temperature was likely to be caused by the fact that stable sol remained to be stable even after hydrothermal treatment, while unstable sol had a tendency to be aggregated.

  11. Phase Transformations and Metallization of Magnesium Oxide at High Pressure and Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McWilliams, R. Stewart; Spaulding, Dylan K.; Eggert, Jon H.; Celliers, Peter M.; Hicks, Damien G.; Smith, Raymond F.; Collins, Gilbert W.; Jeanloz, Raymond

    2012-12-01

    Magnesium oxide (MgO) is representative of the rocky materials comprising the mantles of terrestrial planets, such that its properties at high temperatures and pressures reflect the nature of planetary interiors. Shock-compression experiments on MgO to pressures of 1.4 terapascals (TPa) reveal a sequence of two phase transformations: from B1 (sodium chloride) to B2 (cesium chloride) crystal structures above 0.36 TPa, and from electrically insulating solid to metallic liquid above 0.60 TPa. The transitions exhibit large latent heats that are likely to affect the structure and evolution of super-Earths. Together with data on other oxide liquids, we conclude that magmas deep inside terrestrial planets can be electrically conductive, enabling magnetic field-producing dynamo action within oxide-rich regions and blurring the distinction between planetary mantles and cores.

  12. Low temperature phase transformations in the metallic phases of iron and stony-iron meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, K. B.; Williams, D. B.; Goldstein, J. I.

    1988-03-01

    The nickel content and the structure of kamacite and decomposed taenite (clear taenite 1, CT-1; the cloudy zone, CZ; and clear taenite 2, CT-2) in the metallic phases of meteorites were determined using X-ray microanalysis techniques in the AEM. The kamacite near the CT-1 interface was found to contain about 4 wt pct Ni. The CT-1 structure contains 51.4-45.6 wt pct Ni; it is ordered FeNi with the L1(0) superstructure. The CZ structure consists of two phases: a globular phase (ordered FeNi containing 50.9 wt pct Ni) and a surrounding honeycomb martensitic phase containing 11.7 wt pct Ni. The CT-2 was found in all of the iron meteorite groups studied and in the pallasites, but not in the mesosiderites. Based on the preliminary evidence, this region is believed to be ordered Fe3Ni. Possible mechanisms for the decomposition of taenite are discussed.

  13. Low temperature phase transformations in the metallic phases of iron and stony-iron meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuter, K. B.; Williams, D. B.; Goldstein, J. I.

    1988-01-01

    The nickel content and the structure of kamacite and decomposed taenite (clear taenite 1, CT-1; the cloudy zone, CZ; and clear taenite 2, CT-2) in the metallic phases of meteorites were determined using X-ray microanalysis techniques in the AEM. The kamacite near the CT-1 interface was found to contain about 4 wt pct Ni. The CT-1 structure contains 51.4-45.6 wt pct Ni; it is ordered FeNi with the L1(0) superstructure. The CZ structure consists of two phases: a globular phase (ordered FeNi containing 50.9 wt pct Ni) and a surrounding honeycomb martensitic phase containing 11.7 wt pct Ni. The CT-2 was found in all of the iron meteorite groups studied and in the pallasites, but not in the mesosiderites. Based on the preliminary evidence, this region is believed to be ordered Fe3Ni. Possible mechanisms for the decomposition of taenite are discussed.

  14. Phase Transformation and Creep Behavior in Ti50Pd30Ni20 High Temperature Shape Memory Alloy in Compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Parikshith K.; Desai, Uri; Monroe, James; Lagoudas, Dimitris C.; Karaman, Ibrahim; Noebe, Ron; Bigelow, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    The creep behavior and the phase transformation of Ti50Pd30Ni20 High Temperature Shape Memory Alloy (HTSMA) is investigated by standard creep tests and thermomechanical tests. Ingots of the alloy are induction melted, extruded at high temperature, from which cylindrical specimens are cut and surface polished. A custom high temperature test setup is assembled to conduct the thermomechanical tests. Following preliminary monotonic tests, standard creep tests and thermally induced phase transformation tests are conducted on the specimen. The creep test results suggest that over the operating temperatures and stresses of this alloy, the microstructural mechanisms responsible for creep change. At lower stresses and temperatures, the primary creep mechanism is a mixture of dislocation glide and dislocation creep. As the stress and temperature increase, the mechanism shifts to predominantly dislocation creep. If the operational stress or temperature is raised even further, the mechanism shifts to diffusion creep. The thermally induced phase transformation tests show that actuator performance can be affected by rate independent irrecoverable strain (transformation induced plasticity + retained martensite) as well as creep. The rate of heating and cooling can adversely impact the actuators performance. While the rate independent irrecoverable strain is readily apparent early in the actuators life, viscoplastic strain continues to accumulate over the lifespan of the HTSMA. Thus, in order to get full actuation out of the HTSMA, the heating and cooling rates must be sufficiently high enough to avoid creep.

  15. Solidification processing and phase transformations in ordered high temperature alloys. Final report, 30 March 1990-30 September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Boettinger, W.J.; Bendersky, L.A.; Kattner, U.R.

    1993-01-20

    Useful high temperature alloys generally have microstructures consisting of more than one phase. Multiphase microstructures are necessary to develop acceptable toughness and creep strength in high temperature intermetallic alloy matrices. The optimum microstructures must be developed by a careful selection of processing path that includes both solidification and solid state heat treatment. Research has been conducted on the rapid solidification of selected intermetallic alloys and on the phase transformation paths that occur during cooling, primarily in the Ti-Al-Nb system. This report describes research performed in the Metallurgy Division at NIST under DARPA order 7469 between 1/1/89 and 12/31/92. Various research tasks were completed and the results have been published or have been submitted for publication.... Intermetallics, Ti-Al-Nb Alloys, Phase Diagrams, Phase Transformations, Ti-Al-Ta Alloys, MoSi2 Alloys.

  16. Low-temperature phase transformations in 4-cyano-4‧-pentyl-biphenyl (5CB) filled by multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebovka, N.; Melnyk, V.; Mamunya, Ye.; Klishevich, G.; Goncharuk, A.; Pivovarova, N.

    2013-08-01

    The effects of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (NTs) on low-temperature phase transformations in 5CB were studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), low-temperature photoluminescence and measurements of electrical conductivity. The concentration of NTs was varied within 0-1 wt% The experimental data, obtained for pure 5CB by DSC and measurements of photoluminescence in the heating mode, evidenced the presence of two crystallization processes at T≈229 K and T≈262 K, which correspond to C1a→C1b, and C1b→C2 phase transformations. Increase of temperature T from 10 K tо 229 K provoked the red shift of photoluminescence spectral band that was explained by flattening of 5CB molecule conformation. Moreover, the photoluminescence data allow to conclude that crystallization at T≈229 K results in conformation transition to non-planar 5CB structure characteristic to ideal crystal. The non-planar conformations were dominating in nematic phase, i.e., at T>297 K. Electrical conductivity data for 5CB-NT composites revealed supplementary anomaly inside the stable crystalline phase C2, identified earlier in the temperature range 229-296.8 K. It can reflect the influence of phase transformation of 5CB in interfacial layers on the transport of charge carriers between NTs.

  17. Deformation and Phase Transformation Processes in Polycrystalline NiTi and NiTiHf High Temperature Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benafan, Othmane

    2012-01-01

    The deformation and transformation mechanisms of polycrystalline Ni49.9Ti50.1 and Ni50.3Ti29.7Hf20 (in at.%) shape memory alloys were investigated by combined experimental and modeling efforts aided by an in situ neutron diffraction technique at stress and temperature. The thermomechanical response of the low temperature martensite, the high temperature austenite phases, and changes between these two states during thermomechanical cycling were probed and reported. In the cubic austenite phase, stress-induced martensite, deformation twinning and slip processes were observed which helped in constructing a deformation map that contained the limits over which each of the identified mechanisms was dominant. Deformation of the monoclinic martensitic phase was also investigated where the microstructural changes (texture, lattice strains, and phase fractions) during room-temperature deformation and subsequent thermal cycling were compared to the bulk macroscopic response. When cycling between these two phases, the evolution of inelastic strains, along with the shape setting procedures were examined and used for the optimization of the transformation properties as a function of deformation levels and temperatures. Finally, this work was extended to the development of multiaxial capabilities at elevated temperatures for the in situ neutron diffraction measurements of shape memory alloys on the VULCAN Diffractometer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  18. X-ray diffraction study of the t-to-m phase transformation in 12-mol%-ceria-doped zirconia at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, H.Y. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1994-09-01

    The t-to-m phase transformation in a 12-mol%-ceria-doped zirconia to subzero temperatures was studied in situ by XRD with a cryogenic sample stage. It was found that the t-to-m transformation continuously proceeded to 30 vol% as the temperature decreased to 125 K, when a burstlike transformation suddenly occurred with a transformation to 75 vol%. A preferred orientation of the ([bar 1]11)[sub m] plane parallel to the surface during the preburst transformation and XRD line broadening of both m and t phases after the burst were observed. The preburst transformation, which has not been revealed by previous dilatometry studies, is explained as surface martensitic transformation. This surface transformation occurs at higher temperature than the burstlike transformation due to less matrix constraint and the higher probability of nucleation.

  19. Research on change of phase transformation temperatures and electrical resistance triggered by heat treatment of alloy from Cu-Mn system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakaya, N.; Aldirmaz, E.

    2016-05-01

    This paper is aimed at studying influence of various heat treatments on transformation temperatures and electrical resistance properties of alloys from binary Cu-Mn system. It was noticed that with an increase in sample's grain size, transformation temperatures also increased. The activation energies of samples were calculated according to Kissinger and Augis-Bennett. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis measurements were used to investigate phase transformations and kinetic parameters. The electrical values of resistance of alloy were investigated at different temperatures. The resistance as a function of quenching temperature showed a decrease. Depending on quenching techniques, Cu-Mn alloy can display different product phases such as parent phase and precipitation.

  20. Phase transformation and long-term service of high-temperature martensitic chromium steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalashnikov, I. S.; Tarasenko, L.; Acselrad, O.; Pereira, L. C.; Shalkevich, A.; Soboleva, G.

    2000-02-01

    Martensitic high Cr (10 - 16%) steels alloyed with Ni (Co), Mo, W, V, and N are widely used in constructions subjected to cyclic loads at temperatures up to 600 degrees Celsius, in general after quenching from 1100 - 1150 degrees Celsius followed by tempering at 650 - 690 degrees Celsius. Due to long term service exposure at high temperatures, different microstructural changes take place, such as second-phases precipitation, formation of low-angle grain boundaries, as well as internal damage caused by cyclic loads and creep. Specific phase diagrams are presented that can be used to define time periods for reliable operation of parts with given composition, based on the time required for the appearance of second phase particles known to be detrimental to mechanical strength and performance. Restoring thermal treatments to be applied after long time exposure at service conditions, aiming at increasing service life, are also presented and discussed. The combined use of the diagrams and the restoring treatment ensures prediction of a reliable service-life period for components made of these steels.

  1. Phase transformation and long-term service of high-temperature martensitic chromium steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalashnikov, I. S.; Tarasenko, L.; Acselrad, O.; Pereira, L. C.; Shalkevich, A.; Soboleva, G.

    2001-02-01

    Martensitic high Cr (10 - 16%) steels alloyed with Ni (Co), Mo, W, V, and N are widely used in constructions subjected to cyclic loads at temperatures up to 600 degrees Celsius, in general after quenching from 1100 - 1150 degrees Celsius followed by tempering at 650 - 690 degrees Celsius. Due to long term service exposure at high temperatures, different microstructural changes take place, such as second-phases precipitation, formation of low-angle grain boundaries, as well as internal damage caused by cyclic loads and creep. Specific phase diagrams are presented that can be used to define time periods for reliable operation of parts with given composition, based on the time required for the appearance of second phase particles known to be detrimental to mechanical strength and performance. Restoring thermal treatments to be applied after long time exposure at service conditions, aiming at increasing service life, are also presented and discussed. The combined use of the diagrams and the restoring treatment ensures prediction of a reliable service-life period for components made of these steels.

  2. The effects of salinity and temperature on phase transformation of copper-laden sludge.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ching-Hong; Shih, Kaimin; Hu, Ching-Yao; Lo, Shang-Lien; Li, Nien-Hsun; Cheng, Yi-Ting

    2013-01-15

    To stabilize the copper and aluminum ions in simulated sludge, a series of sintering processes were conducted to transform Cu/Al precipitation into spinel structure, CuAl(2)O(4). The results indicated that the large amount of salt content in the simulated sludge would hinder the formation of crystalline CuAl(2)O(4) generated from the incorporation of CuO and Al(2)O(3), even after the sintering process at 1200 °C. Opposite to the amorphous CuAl(2)O(4), the crystalline CuAl(2)O(4) can be formed in the sintering process at 700-1100 °C for 3 h with the desalinating procedure. According to the theory of free energy, the experimental data and references, the best formation temperature of CuAl(2)O(4) was determined at 900-1000 °C. As the temperature rose to 1200 °C, CuAlO(2) was formed with the dissociation of CuAl(2)O(4). The XPS analysis also showed that the binding energy of copper species in the simulated sludge was switched from 933.8 eV for Cu(II) to 932.8 eV for Cu(I) with the variation of temperature. In this system, the leaching concentration of copper and aluminum ions from sintered simulated sludge was decreased with ascending temperature and reached the lowest level at 1000 °C. Furthermore, the descending tendency coincided with the formation tendency of spinel structure and the diminishing of copper oxide.

  3. Equations of State and Phase Transformation of Depleted Uranium DU-238 by High Pressure-Temperature Diffraction Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao,Y.; Zhang, J.; Brown, D.; Korzekwa, D.; Hixson, R.

    2007-01-01

    We have conducted in situ high-pressure diffraction experiments on depleted uranium (DU-238) at pressures up to 8.5 GPa and temperatures up to 1123 K. From the pressure (P)-volume (V)-temperature (T) measurements, thermoelastic parameters were derived for a-uranium based on a modified high-T Birch-Murnaghan equation of state and a thermal-pressure approach. With the pressure derivative of the bulk modulus K0' fixed at 4.0, we obtained ambient bulk modulus K0=117(2) GPa, temperature derivative of bulk modulus at constant pressure ({partial_derivative}K/{partial_derivative}T)P=-3.4(4)x10-2 GPa/K and at constant volume ({partial_derivative}K/{partial_derivative}T)v=-1.1(6)x10-2 GPa/K, volumetric thermal expansivity aT=a+bT, with a=1.2({+-}0.4)x10-5 K-1 and b=8.0({+-}0.7)x10-8 K-2, and the pressure derivative of thermal expansion ({partial_derivative}a/{partial_derivative}P)T=-2.5(5)x10-6 GPa-1 K-1. Within the experimental errors, the ambient bulk modulus and volumetric thermal expansion derived from this work are in good agreement with previous experimental results, whereas all other thermoelastic parameters represent the first determinations for the a phase of uranium. We also studied the a- phase transformation and obtained a phase boundary described by T (in K)=1032+7.4P (in GPa). Although the -phase uranium cannot be pressure quenched to ambient conditions, it was observed to be stable upon cooling from 1123 to 300 K at pressures of 7-8 GPa. These observations indicate that pressure, in addition to the commonly utilized alloying techniques, provides an alternative route for stabilizing the {gamma}-uranium at room temperature.

  4. Temperature-mediated phase transformation, pore geometry and pore hysteresis transformation of borohydride derived in-born porous zirconium hydroxide nanopowders

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Nadiya B.; Nayak, Bibhuti B.

    2016-01-01

    Development of in-born porous nature of zirconium hydroxide nanopowders through a facile hydrogen (H2) gas-bubbles assisted borohydride synthesis route using sodium borohydride (NaBH4) and novel information on the temperature-mediated phase transformation, pore geometry as well as pore hysteresis transformation of in-born porous zirconium hydroxide nanopowders with the help of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) isotherm and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images are the main theme of this research work. Without any surfactants or pore forming agents, the borohydride derived amorphous nature of porous powders was stable up to 500 °C and then the seed crystals start to develop within the loose amorphous matrix and trapping the inter-particulate voids, which led to develop the porous nature of tetragonal zirconium oxide at 600 °C and further sustain this porous nature as well as tetragonal phase of zirconium oxide up to 800 °C. The novel hydrogen (H2) gas-bubbles assisted borohydride synthesis route led to develop thermally stable porous zirconium hydroxide/oxide nanopowders with an adequate pore size, pore volume, and surface area and thus these porous materials are further suggested for promising use in different areas of applications. PMID:27198738

  5. Phase transformation of lithium tungsten bronzes, Li {sub x}WO{sub 3}, at room temperature ambient conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, K.R.; Ruescher, C.H. . E-mail: C.ruescher@mineralogie.uni-hannover.de; Gesing, Th.M.; Hussain, A.

    2007-04-12

    Samples of Li {sub x}WO{sub 3} with x = 0.05-0.7 were synthesized at 700 deg. C for 7 days using appropriate amounts of Li{sub 2}WO{sub 4}, WO{sub 3} and WO{sub 2} in evacuated sealed silica tubes. The products reveal different phases of perovskite tungsten bronze (PTB). An interesting phenomenon observed for the PTB phases is the gradual change in colours when they are exposed at room temperature ambient conditions (in air). This effect has been investigated using X-ray powder diffraction, infrared absorption and optical reflectivity methods for the powdered samples before and after 30 and 90 days in air. The spectra of the samples with x = 0.25-0.5 are dominated by a peak with maximum around 16,000 cm{sup -1} in the Kubelka Munk spectra which is related to the cubic Li {sub x}WO{sub 3} phase. The peak intensity increases with increasing x. After 30 days of exposure in air this peak disappeared for x < 0.5 samples due to a diffusion of Li from Li {sub x}WO{sub 3}. X-ray and IR data show a gradual transformation into the lower symmetric phases (PTB{sub cubic} {sup {yields}} PTB{sub tetragonal} {sup {yields}} PTB{sub orthorhombic} {sup {yields}} PTB{sub monoclinic}). The results suggest that Li is attracted by O{sub 2} to the surface forming Li{sub 2}O which further reacts with H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} in air. The in air altered samples regain their original colour when reheated at 500 deg. C in vacuum.

  6. Low-temperature solid state synthesis and in situ phase transformation to prepare nearly pure cBN.

    PubMed

    Lian, Gang; Zhang, Xiao; Tan, Miao; Zhang, Shunjie; Cui, Deliang; Wang, Qilong

    2011-07-14

    Cubic boron nitride (cBN) is synthesized by a low-temperature solid state synthesis and in situ phase transformation route with NH(4)BF(4), B, NaBH(4) and KBH(4) as the boron sources and NaN(3) as the nitrogen source. Furthermore, two new strategies are developed, i.e., applying pressure on the reactants during the reaction process and introducing the structural induction effect. These results reveal that the relative contents of cBN are greatly increased by applying these new strategies. Finally, almost pure cBN (∼90%) crystals are obtained by reacting NH(4)BF(4) and NaN(3) at 250 °C and 450 MPa for 24 h, with NaF as the structural induction material. The heterogeneous nucleation mechanism can commendably illuminate the structure induction effect of NaF with face center cubic structure. In addition, the induction effect results in the cBN nanocrystals presenting obvious oriented growth of {111} planes.

  7. Stability of crystalline solids—II: Application to temperature-induced martensitic phase transformations in a bi-atomic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Ryan S.; Shaw, John A.; Triantafyllidis, Nicolas

    2006-01-01

    This paper applies the stability theory of crystalline solids presented in the companion paper (Part I) to the study of martensitic transformations found in shape memory alloys (SMA's). The focus here is on temperature-induced martensitic transformations of bi-atomic crystals under stress-free loading conditions. A set of temperature-dependent atomic potentials and a multilattice description are employed to derive the energy density of a prototypical SMA ( B2 cubic austenite crystal). The bifurcation and stability behavior are then investigated with respect to two stability criteria (Cauchy-Born (CB) and phonon). Using a 4-lattice description five different equilibrium crystal structures are predicted: B2 cubic, L10 tetragonal, B19 orthorhombic, Cmmm orthorhombic, and B19' monoclinic. For our chosen model only the B2 and B19 equilibrium paths have stable segments which satisfy both the CB- and phonon-stability criteria. These stable segments overlap in temperature indicating the possibility of a hysteretic temperature-induced proper martensitic transformation. The B2 and B19 crystal structures are common in SMA's and therefore the simulated jump in the deformation gradient at a temperature for which both crystals are stable is compared to experimental values for NiTi, AuCd, and CuAlNi. Good agreement is found for the two SMA's which have cubic to orthorhombic transformations (AuCd and CuAlNi).

  8. Solid-solid phase transformation via internal stress-induced virtual melting, significantly below the melting temperature. Application to HMX energetic crystal.

    PubMed

    Levitas, Valery I; Henson, Bryan F; Smilowitz, Laura B; Asay, Blaine W

    2006-05-25

    We theoretically predict a new phenomenon, namely, that a solid-solid phase transformation (PT) with a large transformation strain can occur via internal stress-induced virtual melting along the interface at temperatures significantly (more than 100 K) below the melting temperature. We show that the energy of elastic stresses, induced by transformation strain, increases the driving force for melting and reduces the melting temperature. Immediately after melting, stresses relax and the unstable melt solidifies. Fast solidification in a thin layer leads to nanoscale cracking which does not affect the thermodynamics or kinetics of the solid-solid transformation. Thus, virtual melting represents a new mechanism of solid-solid PT, stress relaxation, and loss of coherence at a moving solid-solid interface. It also removes the athermal interface friction and deletes the thermomechanical memory of preceding cycles of the direct-reverse transformation. It is also found that nonhydrostatic compressive internal stresses promote melting in contrast to hydrostatic pressure. Sixteen theoretical predictions are in qualitative and quantitative agreement with experiments conducted on the PTs in the energetic crystal HMX. In particular, (a) the energy of internal stresses is sufficient to reduce the melting temperature from 551 to 430 K for the delta phase during the beta --> delta PT and from 520 to 400 K for the beta phase during the delta --> beta PT; (b) predicted activation energies for direct and reverse PTs coincide with corresponding melting energies of the beta and delta phases and with the experimental values; (c) the temperature dependence of the rate constant is determined by the heat of fusion, for both direct and reverse PTs; results b and c are obtained both for overall kinetics and for interface propagation; (d) considerable nanocracking, homogeneously distributed in the transformed material, accompanies the PT, as predicted by theory; (e) the nanocracking does not

  9. Method of forming high density oxide pellets by hot pressing at 50$sup 0$ to 100$sup 0$C above the cubic to monoclinic phase transformation temperature

    DOEpatents

    Pasto, A.E.

    1975-08-01

    A process for low temperature sintering of rare earth and actinide oxides which have a cubic to monoclinic transformation is described. The process involves hot pressing a powder compact at a temperature just above the transformation temperature. (auth)

  10. Study of the {beta}-{alpha} phase transformations of a Ti-64 sheet induced from a high-temperature {beta} state and a high-temperature {alpha} + {beta} state

    SciTech Connect

    Moustahfid, H.; Gey, N.; Humbert, M.; Philippe, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    The room-temperature {alpha} textures of Ti-64 sheets, inherited from the {beta}-{alpha} phase transformation of high-temperature {beta} textures of the material in the {beta} and {alpha} + {beta} fields, respectively, have been studied. The corresponding high-temperature {beta} textures were also determined by a method developed in their laboratory. The knowledge of the high-temperature {beta} textures allows discussions of the variant selections through transformation modeling. As a result, a variant selection occurs in the presence of the stable {alpha} grains of the {alpha} + {beta} field.

  11. Temperature variations at nano-scale level in phase transformed nanocrystalline NiTi shape memory alloys adjacent to graphene layers.

    PubMed

    Amini, Abbas; Cheng, Chun; Naebe, Minoo; Church, Jeffrey S; Hameed, Nishar; Asgari, Alireza; Will, Frank

    2013-07-21

    The detection and control of the temperature variation at the nano-scale level of thermo-mechanical materials during a compression process have been challenging issues. In this paper, an empirical method is proposed to predict the temperature at the nano-scale level during the solid-state phase transition phenomenon in NiTi shape memory alloys. Isothermal data was used as a reference to determine the temperature change at different loading rates. The temperature of the phase transformed zone underneath the tip increased by ∼3 to 40 °C as the loading rate increased. The temperature approached a constant with further increase in indentation depth. A few layers of graphene were used to enhance the cooling process at different loading rates. Due to the presence of graphene layers the temperature beneath the tip decreased by a further ∼3 to 10 °C depending on the loading rate. Compared with highly polished NiTi, deeper indentation depths were also observed during the solid-state phase transition, especially at the rate dependent zones. Larger superelastic deformations confirmed that the latent heat transfer through the deposited graphene layers allowed a larger phase transition volume and, therefore, more stress relaxation and penetration depth.

  12. Reduction of the C54-TiSi2 phase transformation temperature using refractory metal ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, R. W.; Miles, G. L.; Knotts, T. A.; Rakowski, D. W.; Clevenger, L. A.; Harper, J. M. E.; D'Heurle, F. M.; Cabral, C., Jr.

    1995-12-01

    We report that the ion implantation of a small dose of Mo into a silicon substrate before the deposition of a thin film of Ti lowers the temperature required to form the commercially important low resistivity C54-TiSi2 phase by 100-150 °C. A lesser improvement is obtained with W implantation. In addition, a sharp reduction in the dependence of C54 formation on the geometrical size of the silicided structure is observed. The enhancement in C54 formation observed with the ion implantation of Mo is not explained by ion mixing of the Ti/Si interface or implant-induced damage. Rather, it is attributed to an enhanced nucleation of C54-TiSi2 out of the precursor high resistance C49-TiSi2 phase.

  13. Phase Transformations in Confined Nanosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Shield, Jeffrey E.; Belashchenko, Kirill

    2014-04-29

    This project discovered that non-equilibrium structures, including chemically ordered structures not observed in bulk systems, form in isolated nanoscale systems. Further, a generalized model was developed that effectively explained the suppression of equilibrium phase transformations. This thermodynamic model considered the free energy decrease associated with the phase transformation was less than the increase in energy associated with the formation of an interphase interface, therefore inhibiting the phase transformation. A critical diameter exists where the system transitions to bulk behavior, and a generalized equation was formulated that successfully predicted this transition in the Fe-Au system. This provided and explains a new route to novel structures not possible in bulk systems. The structural characterization was accomplished using transmission electron microscopy in collaboration with Matthew Kramer of Ames Laboratory. The PI and graduate student visited Ames Laboratory several times a year to conduct the experiments.

  14. Thermochromic VO2 thin films: solution-based processing, improved optical properties, and lowered phase transformation temperature.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zongtao; Gao, Yanfeng; Chen, Zhang; Du, Jing; Cao, Chuanxiang; Kang, Litao; Luo, Hongjie

    2010-07-06

    This paper describes a solution-phase synthesis of high-quality vanadium dioxide thermochromic thin films. The films obtained showed excellent visible transparency and a large change in transmittance at near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths before and after the metal-insulator phase transition (MIPT). For a 59 nm thick single-layer VO(2) thin film, the integral values of visible transmittance (T(int)) for metallic (M) and semiconductive (S) states were 54.1% and 49.1%, respectively, while the NIR switching efficiencies (DeltaT) were as high as 50% at 2000 nm. Thinner films can provide much higher transmittance of visible light, but they suffer from an attenuation of the switching efficiency in the near-infrared region. By varying the film thickness, ultrahigh T(int) values of 75.2% and 75.7% for the M and S states, respectively, were obtained, while the DeltaT at 2000 nm remained high. These results represent the best data for VO(2) to date. Thicker films in an optimized range can give enhanced NIR switching efficiencies and excellent NIR blocking abilities; in a particularly impressive experiment, one film provided near-zero NIR transmittance in the switched state. The thickness-dependent performance suggests that VO(2) will be of great use in the objective-specific applications. The reflectance and emissivity at the wavelength range of 2.5-25 microm before and after the MIPT were dependent on the film thickness; large contrasts were observed for relatively thick films. This work also showed that the MIPT temperature can be reduced simply by selecting the annealing temperature that induces local nonstoichiometry; a MIPT temperature as low as 42.7 degrees C was obtained by annealing the film at 440 degrees C. These properties (the high visible transmittance, the large change in infrared transmittance, and the near room-temperature MIPT) suggest that the current method is a landmark in the development of this interesting material toward applications in energy-saving smart

  15. In situ variable temperature X-ray diffraction studies on the transformations of nano-precursors to La-Ni-O phases

    SciTech Connect

    Weng Xiaole; Knowles, Jonathan C.; Abrahams, Isaac; Wu Zhongbiao; Darr, Jawwad A.

    2011-07-15

    In situ variable temperature XRD (VT-XRD) measurements on the transformation of nano-precursors to La-Ni-O phases are presented. Experimental results showed that LaNiO{sub 3} and La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4} phases were formed at ca. 700 deg. C via the reaction of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} and NiO (from the initial nano-precursors), where a relatively low temperature of 700 deg. C was found for the synthesis of La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4}. The formation of La{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}O{sub 7} at higher temperature (up to 1150 deg.C) appeared to proceed through a further reaction of La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4} with unreacted NiO, whilst the formation of La{sub 4}Ni{sub 3}O{sub 10} (at 1075 deg. C) proceeded via a further decomposition of LaNiO{sub 3}. Although phase pure La{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}O{sub 7} and La{sub 4}Ni{sub 3}O{sub 10} were not directly obtained under the processing conditions herein, the results of this study allow for a better understanding of formation pathways, particularly for the higher order La-Ni-O phases. - Graphical abstract: In situ variable temperature XRD showing the phase formation pathway of La{sub n+1}Ni{sub n}O{sub 3n+1} at evaluated temperatures. Highlights: > In situ VT-XRD was utilized to study the pathways for La{sub n+1}Ni{sub n}O{sub 3n+1} formations. > LaNiO{sub 3} and La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4} phases were formed via the reaction of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} and NiO, respectively. > La{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}O{sub 7} phase was formed via further reaction of La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4} phase with unreacted NiO. > La{sub 4}Ni{sub 3}O{sub 10} phase was formed via further decomposition of LaNiO{sub 3} phase.

  16. The Kinetics of Phase Transformation in Welds

    SciTech Connect

    Elmer, J W; Wong, J; Palmer, T

    2002-02-06

    The fundamentals of welding-induced phase transformations in metals and alloys are being investigated using a combination of advanced synchrotron based experimental methods and modem computational science tools. In-situ experimental methods have been developed using a spatially resolved x-ray probe to enable direct observations of phase transformations under the real non- isothermal conditions experienced during welding. These experimental techniques represent a major step forward in the understanding of phase transformations that occur during welding, and are now being used to aid in the development of models to predict microstructural evolution under the severe temperature gradients, high peak temperatures and rapid thermal fluctuations characteristic of welds. Titanium alloys, stainless steels and plain carbon steels are currently under investigation, and the phase transformation data being obtained here cannot be predicted or measured using conventional metallurgical approaches. Two principal synchrotron-based techniques have been developed and refined for in-situ investigations of phase transformation dynamics in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) and fusion zone (FZ) of welds: Spatially Resolved X-Ray Diffraction (SRXRD) and Time Resolved X-Ray Diffraction (TRXRD). Both techniques provide real-time observations of phases that exist during welding, and both have been developed at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) using a high flux wiggler beam line. The SRXRD technique enables direct observations of the phases existing in the HAZ of quasi-stationary moving arc welds, and is used to map the HAZ phases by sequentially jogging the weld with respect to the x-ray beam while taking x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns at each new location. These spatially resolved XRD patterns are collected in linear traverses perpendicular to the direction of weld travel. The XRD data contained in multiple traverses is later compiled to produce an areal map of the phases

  17. Bio-inspired synthesis of titania with polyamine induced morphology and phase transformation at room-temperature: insight into the role of the protonated amino group.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yong; Hao, Bo; Wang, Xiaobo; Chen, Ge

    2013-09-14

    Poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAAH), a mimic of biopolyamines, was used to induce the mineralization of titania at room-temperature, hollow spheres with a mixed phase (anatase and rutile) were obtained, and the fine anatase and rutile nanocrystals were observed mixing at the sub-10 nm scale on the hollow spheres. The structural information about the precipitated titania gained by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed a distinct dependence of the polymorph and morphology of the titania precipitates on the molecular structure of the polyamines and titanium precursors. Moreover, we have observed the phase transformation from anatase to rutile in the formation process of hollow spheres, and it was suggested that the protonated amino groups on PAAH played key roles in the transformation of both polymorphs and morphologies of titania. Additionally, poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA), a long chain quaternary ammonium polymer, was used as another catalytic template for the synthesis of titania, which also led to a hollow structure with a mixture of anatase and TiO2-B.

  18. Transformation of BCC and B2 High Temperature Phases to HCP and Orthorhombic Structures in the Ti-Al-Nb System. Part I: Microstructural Predictions Based on a Subgroup Relation Between Phases

    PubMed Central

    Bendersky, L. A.; Roytburd, A.; Boettinger, W. J.

    1993-01-01

    Possible paths for the constant composition coherent transformation of BCC or B2 high temperature phases to low temperature HCP or Orthorhombic phases in the Ti-Al-Nb system are analyzed using a sequence of ciystallographic structural relationships developed from subgroup symmetry relations. Symmetry elements lost in each step of the sequence determine the possibilities for variants of the low symmetry phase and domains that can be present in the microstructure. The orientation of interdomain interfaces is determined by requiring the existence of a strain-free interface between the domains. Polydomain structures are also determined that minimize elastic energy. Microstructural predictions are made for comparison to experimental results given by Benderslcy and Boettinger [J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 98, 585 (1993)]. PMID:28053487

  19. Sustained arc temperature: better marker for phase transformation of carbon black to multiwalled carbon nanotubes in arc discharge method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, Neha; Sharma, N. N.

    2016-10-01

    The present study investigates the role of temperature in the formation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes from carbon black using arc discharge technique. Carbon black has been used as precursor to synthesize carbon nanotubes in argon atmosphere. The arc current has been varied from 25 to 40 A in order to study the morphological changes in carbon black as it gets converted to multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). We observed formation of MWCNTs at an arc current of 25 A; however the recorded temperature data suggested correlation of sustained arc temperature with the nanotube formation rather than the magnitude of current in its absoluteness. Interesting to note is that reported current magnitude in published literature are very high (>40 A) for conversion of carbon black but the present investigation shows that it is possible to convert the carbon black to MWCNTs even at lower current values in case the arc temperature is stabilized and sustained for longer period. Detailed investigations suggested that a sustained stable critical temperature of 1400 °C-1600 °C is essential for the growth of nanotubes and an unstable arc causing temperature fluctuation from critical temperature value yields very low or no MWCNTs.

  20. Coal transformation under high-temperature catagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Melenevsky, V.N.; Sokol, E.V.; Fomin, A.N.

    2006-07-01

    In this paper we consider products of natural pyrolysis of lignite, which resulted from the high-temperature spontaneous combustion of spoil heaps of the Chelyabinsk coal basin. These products were studied by pyrolysis, element and petrographic analyses, chromatomass spectrometry, and X-ray diffraction method. We have established that under reducing conditions, the degree of pyrogenic coal transformation and the composition of pyrolysis products vary greatly, from graphite-like phases to bitumens, and depend on the temperature and degree of the system openness.

  1. Phase Transformations in Cast Duplex Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yoon-Jun

    2004-01-01

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS) constitute both ferrite and austenite as a matrix. Such a microstructure confers a high corrosion resistance with favorable mechanical properties. However, intermetallic phases such as σ and χ can also form during casting or high-temperature processing and can degrade the properties of the DSS. This research was initiated to develop time-temperature-transformation (TTT) and continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagrams of two types of cast duplex stainless steels, CD3MN (Fe-22Cr-5Ni-Mo-N) and CD3MWCuN (Fe-25Cr-7Ni-Mo-W-Cu-N), in order to understand the time and temperature ranges for intermetallic phase formation. The alloys were heat treated isothermally or under controlled cooling conditions and then characterized using conventional metallographic methods that included tint etching, and also using electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS). The kinetics of intermetallic-phase (σ + χ) formation were analyzed using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (MA) equation in the case of isothermal transformations and a modified form of this equation in the case of continuous cooling transformations. The rate of intermetallic-phase formation was found to be much faster in CD3MWCuN than CD3MN due mainly to differences in the major alloying contents such as Cr, Ni and Mo. To examine in more detail the effects of these elements of the phase stabilities; a series of eight steel castings was designed with the Cr, Ni and Mo contents systematically varied with respect to the nominal composition of CD3MN. The effects of varying the contents of alloying additions on the formation of intermetallic phases were also studied computationally using the commercial thermodynamic software package, Thermo-Calc. In general, σ was stabilized with increasing Cr addition and χ by increasing Mo addition. However, a delicate balance among Ni and other minor elements such as N and Si also exists. Phase equilibria in DSS can be affected by

  2. Crystal Level Continuum Modeling of Phase Transformations: The (alpha) <--> (epsilon) Transformation in Iron

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, N R; Benson, D J; Becker, R; Bykov, Y; Caplan, M

    2004-10-18

    We present a crystal level model for thermo-mechanical deformation with phase transformation capabilities. The model is formulated to allow for large pressures (on the order of the elastic moduli) and makes use of a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient. Elastic and thermal lattice distortions are combined into a single lattice stretch to allow the model to be used in conjunction with general equation of state relationships. Phase transformations change the mass fractions of the material constituents. The driving force for phase transformations includes terms arising from mechanical work, from the temperature dependent chemical free energy change on transformation, and from interaction energy among the constituents. Deformation results from both these phase transformations and elasto-viscoplastic deformation of the constituents themselves. Simulation results are given for the {alpha} to {epsilon} phase transformation in iron. Results include simulations of shock induced transformation in single crystals and of compression of polycrystals. Results are compared to available experimental data.

  3. Phase Transformations and Microstructural Evolution: Part I

    DOE PAGES

    Clarke, Amy Jean

    2015-08-29

    The activities of the Phase Transformations Committee of the Materials Processing & Manufacturing Division (MPMD) of The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS) are oriented toward understanding the fundamental aspects of phase transformations. Emphasis is placed on the thermodynamic driving forces for phase transformations, the kinetics of nucleation and growth, interfacial structures and energies, transformation crystallography, surface reliefs, and, above all, the atomic mechanisms of phase transformations. Phase transformations and microstructural evolution are directly linked to materials processing, properties, and performance, including in extreme environments, of structural metal alloys. In this paper, aspects of phase transformations and microstructural evolution aremore » highlighted from the atomic to the microscopic scale for ferrous and non-ferrous alloys. Many papers from this issue are highlighted with small summaries of their scientific achievements given.« less

  4. Phase Transformations and Microstructural Evolution: Part II

    DOE PAGES

    Clarke, Amy Jean

    2015-10-30

    The activities of the Phase Transformations Committee of the Materials Processing & Manufacturing Division (MPMD) of The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS) are oriented toward understanding the fundamental aspects of phase transformations. Emphasis is placed on the thermodynamic driving forces for phase transformations, the kinetics of nucleation and growth, interfacial structures and energies, transformation crystallography, surface reliefs, and, above all, the atomic mechanisms of phase transformations. Phase transformations and microstructural evolution are directly linked to materials processing, properties, and performance. In this issue, aspects of liquid–solid and solid-state phase transformations and microstructural evolution are highlighted. Many papers in thismore » issue are highlighted by this paper, giving a brief summary of what they bring to the scientific community.« less

  5. Phase Transformations and Microstructural Evolution: Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, Amy Jean

    2015-10-30

    The activities of the Phase Transformations Committee of the Materials Processing & Manufacturing Division (MPMD) of The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS) are oriented toward understanding the fundamental aspects of phase transformations. Emphasis is placed on the thermodynamic driving forces for phase transformations, the kinetics of nucleation and growth, interfacial structures and energies, transformation crystallography, surface reliefs, and, above all, the atomic mechanisms of phase transformations. Phase transformations and microstructural evolution are directly linked to materials processing, properties, and performance. In this issue, aspects of liquid–solid and solid-state phase transformations and microstructural evolution are highlighted. Many papers in this issue are highlighted by this paper, giving a brief summary of what they bring to the scientific community.

  6. Phase Transformations and Microstructural Evolution: Part I

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, Amy Jean

    2015-08-29

    The activities of the Phase Transformations Committee of the Materials Processing & Manufacturing Division (MPMD) of The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS) are oriented toward understanding the fundamental aspects of phase transformations. Emphasis is placed on the thermodynamic driving forces for phase transformations, the kinetics of nucleation and growth, interfacial structures and energies, transformation crystallography, surface reliefs, and, above all, the atomic mechanisms of phase transformations. Phase transformations and microstructural evolution are directly linked to materials processing, properties, and performance, including in extreme environments, of structural metal alloys. In this paper, aspects of phase transformations and microstructural evolution are highlighted from the atomic to the microscopic scale for ferrous and non-ferrous alloys. Many papers from this issue are highlighted with small summaries of their scientific achievements given.

  7. Identification, structural characterization and transformations of the high-temperature Zn9-δSb7 phase in the Zn-Sb system.

    PubMed

    He, Allan; Svitlyk, Volodymyr; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Mozharivskyj, Yurij

    2015-12-28

    The Zn9-δSb7 phase has been identified via high-temperature powder diffraction studies. Zn9-δSb7 adopts two modifications: an α form stable between 514 °C and 539 °C and a Zn-poorer β form stable from 539 °C till its melting temperature of 581 °C. The Zn9-δSb7 structure was solved from the powder data using the simulated annealing approach. Both modifications adopt the same hexagonal structure (P6/mmm) but with slightly different lattice parameters. The α-to-β transformation is abrupt and first-order in nature. The Zn atoms occupy the tetrahedral holes created by Sb atoms. The ideal Zn9Sb7 composition can be explained by its tendency to adopt a charge balance configuration. Out of 7 Sb atoms, 3 Sb atoms form dimers (Sb(2-) ions) and 4 Sb atoms are isolated (Sb(3-) ions), which require 9 Zn(2+) cations for charge neutrality.

  8. Field dependence of temperature induced irreversible transformations of magnetic phases in Pr(0.5)Ca(0.5)Mn(0.975)Al(0.025)O(3) crystalline oxide.

    PubMed

    Lakhani, Archana; Kushwaha, Pallavi; Rawat, R; Kumar, Kranti; Banerjee, A; Chaddah, P

    2010-01-27

    Glass-like arrest has recently been reported in various magnetic materials. As in structural glasses, the kinetics of a first order transformation is arrested while retaining the higher entropy phase as a non-ergodic state. We show visual mesoscopic evidence of the irreversible transformation of the arrested antiferromagnetic-insulating phase in Pr(0.5)Ca(0.5)Mn(0.975)Al(0.025)O(3) to its equilibrium ferromagnetic-metallic phase with an isothermal increase of magnetic field, similar to its iso-field transformation on warming. The magnetic field dependence of the non-equilibrium to equilibrium transformation temperature is shown to be governed by Le Chatelier's principle.

  9. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Field dependence of temperature induced irreversible transformations of magnetic phases in Pr0.5Ca0.5Mn0.975Al0.025O3 crystalline oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakhani, Archana; Kushwaha, Pallavi; Rawat, R.; Kumar, Kranti; Banerjee, A.; Chaddah, P.

    2010-01-01

    Glass-like arrest has recently been reported in various magnetic materials. As in structural glasses, the kinetics of a first order transformation is arrested while retaining the higher entropy phase as a non-ergodic state. We show visual mesoscopic evidence of the irreversible transformation of the arrested antiferromagnetic-insulating phase in Pr0.5Ca0.5Mn0.975Al0.025O3 to its equilibrium ferromagnetic-metallic phase with an isothermal increase of magnetic field, similar to its iso-field transformation on warming. The magnetic field dependence of the non-equilibrium to equilibrium transformation temperature is shown to be governed by Le Chatelier's principle.

  10. Effect of aging on the phase transformation and mechanical behavior of Ti{sub 36}Ni{sub 49}Hf{sub 15} high temperature shape memory alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, X.L.; Zheng, Y.F.; Wang, Z.; Zhao, L.C.

    2000-01-31

    The TiNiHf alloys are newly developed as high temperature shape memory alloys with the high transformation temperatures and with lower cost in comparison with TiNiX (X = Pd, Pt) alloys. Until now, no results about the effects of aging at high temperature (above 953K) in the TiNiHf alloys are reported. The purpose of the present work is to investigate the microstructure, transformation temperature, mechanical properties and shape memory effects (SMEs) for Ti{sub 36}Ni{sub 49}Hf{sub 15} alloy aged at 973K for different hours by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques, electrical resistance-temperature measurement, bending and tensile tests.

  11. High-temperature superconducting transformer evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    DeSteese, J.G.; Dagle, J.E.; Dirks, J.A.

    1995-04-01

    The advancing development of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials is encouraging the evaluation of many practical applications. This paper summarizes a study that examined the future potential of HTS power transformers in the 30-MVA to 1000-MVA capacity range. Transformer performance was characterized on the basis of potentially achievable HTS materials capabilities and dominant transformer design parameters. Life-cycle costs were estimated and compared with those of conventional transformers to evaluate the economic viability and market potential of HTS designs. HTS transformers are projected to have both capital and energy cost advantages attributable to their ability to be intrinsically smaller and lighter than conventional transformers of comparable capacity.

  12. Thermodynamics of entropy-driven phase transformations.

    PubMed

    Radosz, A; Ostasiewicz, K; Magnuszewski, P; Damczyk, J; Radosiński, Ł; Kusmartsev, F V; Samson, J H; Mituś, A C; Pawlik, G

    2006-02-01

    Thermodynamic properties of one-dimensional lattice models exhibiting entropy-driven phase transformations are discussed in quantum and classical regimes. Motivated by the multistability of compounds exhibiting photoinduced phase transitions, we consider systems with asymmetric, double, and triple well on-site potential. One finds that among a variety of regimes, quantum versus classical, discrete versus continuum, a key feature is asymmetry distinguished as a "shift" type and "shape" type in limiting cases. The behavior of the specific heat indicates one phase transformation in a "shift" type and a sequence of two phase transformations in "shape"-type systems. Future analysis in higher dimensions should allow us to identify which of these entropy-driven phase transformations would evolve into phase transitions of the first order.

  13. Phase transformations in xerogels of mullite composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyatt, Mark J.; Bansal, Narottam P.

    1988-01-01

    Monophasic and diphasic xerogels have been prepared as precursors for mullite (3Al2O3-2SiO2). Monophasic xerogel was synthesized from tetraethyl orthosilicate and aluminum nitrate nanohydrate and the diphasic xerogel from colloidal suspension of silica and boehmite. The chemical and structural evolutions, as a function of thermal treatment, in these two types of sol-gel derived mullite precursor powders have been characterized by DTA, TGA, X-ray diffraction, SEM and infrared spectroscopy. Monophasic xerogel transforms to an Al-Si spinel from an amorphous structure at approximately 980 C. The spinel then changes into mullite on further heating. Diphasic xerogel forms mullite at approximately 1360 C. The components of the diphasic powder react independently up to the point of mullite formation. The transformation in the monophasic powder occurs rapidly and yields strongly crystalline mullite with no other phases present. The diphasic powder, however, transforms rather slowly and contains remnants of the starting materials (alpha-Al2O3, cristobalite) even after heating at high temperatures for long times (1600 C, 6 hr). The diphasic powder could be sintered to high density but not the monophasic powder in spite of its molecular level homogeneity.

  14. Phase transformations in xerogels of mullite composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyatt, Mark J.; Bansal, Narottam P.

    1990-01-01

    Monophasic and diphasic xerogels have been prepared as precursors for mullite (3Al203-2Si02). Monophasic xerogel was synthesized from tetraethyl orthosilicate and aluminum nitrate nanohydrate and the diphasic xerogel from colloidal suspension of silica and boehmite. The chemical and structural evolutions, as a function of thermal treatment, in these two types of sol-gel derived mullite precursor powders have been characterized by DTA, TGA, X-ray diffraction, SEM and infrared spectroscopy. Monophasic xerogel transforms to an Al-Si spinel from an amorphous structure at approximately 980 C. The spinel then changes into mullite on further heating. Diphasic xerogel forms mullite at approximately 1360 C. The components of the diphasic powder react independently up to the point of mullite formation. The transformation in the monophasic powder occurs rapidly and yields strongly crystalline mullite with no other phases present. The diphasic powder, however, transforms rather slowly and contains remnants of the starting materials (alpha-Al203, cristobalite) even after heating at high temperatures for long times (1600 C, 6 hr). The diphasic powder could be sintered to high density but not the monophasic powder in spite of its molecular level homogeneity.

  15. phase transformations in Titanium-Molybdenum-Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeckels, Herbert

    The present dissertation has investigated the effect of oxygen on the ω and α phase stability in metastable Ti-Mo β titanium alloys using thermal analysis, hardness measurements, electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. Single crystal x-ray diffraction has shown that oxygen atoms are located in the tetrahedral interstitial lattice sites in the rapidly cooled bcc Ti crystal structure, interfering directly with the reversible displacive formation of ω, with this transformation involving collapse of the bcc lattice along β. Subsequent thermal exposure of reversible ω, as occurring during slower cooling, heating, and aging, prompts short range diffusion and the formation of chemical altered irreversible ω. X-ray diffraction particle size analysis based on the Warren-Averbach approach has shown that the continued irreversible ω phase evolves in four stages during isothermal aging, initial growth followed by size stabilization, coarsening, and dissolution. The latter stages of ω evolution are controlled by elastic residual stresses surrounding these particles. Ultimate stress relaxation is based on secondary formation and growth, promoting coarsening and dissolution of ω. All of the aforementioned stages can be accelerated by increasing both the oxygen content and isothermal aging temperature. The hardness response parallels this evolution and is dependent upon the ω and α phase evolution. The initial hardness increase is due to the growth of ω. The hardness plateau is based on stabilized ω size and fine α precipitation. The overaging hardness response is due to continuous secondary α formation and growth combined with ω coarsening and dissolution. Hardness increases with increasing interstitial content as a result of solid solution strengthening and α particle refinement. Isochronal and isothermal thermal analysis has shown that increasing oxygen content promotes the α phase formation thereby increasing the ω instability. Grain boundary and

  16. Reversible metal-hydride phase transformation in epitaxial films.

    PubMed

    Roytburd, Alexander L; Boyerinas, Brad M; Bruck, Hugh A

    2015-03-11

    Metal-hydride phase transformations in solids commonly proceed with hysteresis. The extrinsic component of hysteresis is the result of the dissipation of energy of internal stress due to plastic deformation and fracture. It can be mitigated on the nanoscale, where plastic deformation and fracture are suppressed and the transformation proceeds through formation and evolution of coherent phases. However, the phase coherency introduces intrinsic thermodynamic hysteresis, preventing reversible transformation. In this paper, it is shown that thermodynamic hysteresis of coherent metal-hydride transformation can be eliminated in epitaxial film due to substrate constraint. Film-substrate interaction leads to formation of heterophase polydomain nanostructure with variable phase fraction which can change reversibly by varying temperature in a closed system or chemical potential in an open system.

  17. Reversible metal-hydride phase transformation in epitaxial films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roytburd, Alexander L.; Boyerinas, Brad M.; Bruck, Hugh A.

    2015-03-01

    Metal-hydride phase transformations in solids commonly proceed with hysteresis. The extrinsic component of hysteresis is the result of the dissipation of energy of internal stress due to plastic deformation and fracture. It can be mitigated on the nanoscale, where plastic deformation and fracture are suppressed and the transformation proceeds through formation and evolution of coherent phases. However, the phase coherency introduces intrinsic thermodynamic hysteresis, preventing reversible transformation. In this paper, it is shown that thermodynamic hysteresis of coherent metal-hydride transformation can be eliminated in epitaxial film due to substrate constraint. Film-substrate interaction leads to formation of heterophase polydomain nanostructure with variable phase fraction which can change reversibly by varying temperature in a closed system or chemical potential in an open system.

  18. Transformation of the corundum structure upon high-temperature reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan'ko, A. Ja.; Rom, M. A.; Sidelnikova, N. S.; Nizhankovskiy, S. V.; Budnikov, A. T.; Grin', L. A.; Kaltaev, Kh. Sh-O.

    2008-12-01

    This paper reports on the results of investigations into the transformation of the corundum structure upon reducing annealing at high temperatures in the range from 1700 to 2050°C. It is established that the reduction results in the transformation of corundum into new phases with a lower oxygen content, including the phase with a spinel structure. These structures are assumed to be stabilized by anion vacancies. A model of the crystal structure of the spinel phase is proposed. This model provides an adequate description of the compound obtained in the experiment.

  19. Atomic Structure and Phase Transformations in Pu Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, A J; Cynn, H; Blobaum, K M; Wall, M A; Moore, K T; Evans, W J; Farber, D L; Jeffries, J R; Massalski, T B

    2008-04-28

    Plutonium and plutonium-based alloys containing Al or Ga exhibit numerous phases with crystal structures ranging from simple monoclinic to face-centered cubic. Only recently, however, has there been increased convergence in the actinides community on the details of the equilibrium form of the phase diagrams. Practically speaking, while the phase diagrams that represent the stability of the fcc {delta}-phase field at room temperature are generally applicable, it is also recognized that Pu and its alloys are never truly in thermodynamic equilibrium because of self-irradiation effects, primarily from the alpha decay of Pu isotopes. This article covers past and current research on several properties of Pu and Pu-(Al or Ga) alloys and their connections to the crystal structure and the microstructure. We review the consequences of radioactive decay, the recent advances in understanding the electronic structure, the current research on phase transformations and their relations to phase diagrams and phase stability, the nature of the isothermal martensitic {delta} {yields} {alpha}{prime} transformation, and the pressure-induced transformations in the {delta}-phase alloys. New data are also presented on the structures and phase transformations observed in these materials following the application of pressure, including the formation of transition phases.

  20. Phase transformation and stabilization of a high strength austenite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, S.; Huang, D.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation of the phase transformation and the austenite stabilization in a high strength austenite has been made. An Fe-29Ni-4.3Ti austenite age-hardened by gamma-prime (Ni3Ti) precipitates showed a further increase of strength after martensitic and reverse martensitic phase transformations. The stability of ausaged austenite as well as ausaged and transformation-strengthened austenite was improved significantly through an isothermal treatment at 500 C. The Ms temperature of the strengthened austenite was restored to nearly that of annealed austenite while the austenite was hardened to R(C) 41 through precipitation and phase transformations. The observed austenite stabilization is attributed to the formation of GP zones or short-range order of less than about 10A in size.

  1. Phase Transformation in Tantalum under Extreme Laser Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, C.-H.; Hahn, E. N.; Remington, B. A.; Maddox, B. R.; Bringa, E. M.; Meyers, M. A.

    2015-10-01

    The structural and mechanical response of metals is intimately connected to phase transformations. For instance, the product of a phase transformation (martensite) is responsible for the extraordinary range of strength and toughness of steel, making it a versatile and important structural material. Although abundant in metals and alloys, the discovery of new phase transformations is not currently a common event and often requires a mix of experimentation, predictive computations, and luck. High-energy pulsed lasers enable the exploration of extreme pressures and temperatures, where such discoveries may lie. The formation of a hexagonal (omega) phase was observed in recovered monocrystalline body-centered cubic tantalum of four crystallographic orientations subjected to an extreme regime of pressure, temperature, and strain-rate. This was accomplished using high-energy pulsed lasers. The omega phase and twinning were identified by transmission electron microscopy at 70 GPa (determined by a corresponding VISAR experiment). It is proposed that the shear stresses generated by the uniaxial strain state of shock compression play an essential role in the transformation. Molecular dynamics simulations show the transformation of small nodules from body-centered cubic to a hexagonal close-packed structure under the same stress state (pressure and shear).

  2. Phase transformation in tantalum under extreme laser deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, C. -H.; Hahn, E. N.; Remington, B. A.; Maddox, B. R.; Bringa, E. M.; Meyers, M. A.

    2015-10-19

    The structural and mechanical response of metals is intimately connected to phase transformations. For instance, the product of a phase transformation (martensite) is responsible for the extraordinary range of strength and toughness of steel, making it a versatile and important structural material. Although abundant in metals and alloys, the discovery of new phase transformations is not currently a common event and often requires a mix of experimentation, predictive computations, and luck. High-energy pulsed lasers enable the exploration of extreme pressures and temperatures, where such discoveries may lie. The formation of a hexagonal (omega) phase was observed in recovered monocrystalline body-centered cubic tantalum of four crystallographic orientations subjected to an extreme regime of pressure, temperature, and strain-rate. This was accomplished using high-energy pulsed lasers. The omega phase and twinning were identified by transmission electron microscopy at 70 GPa (determined by a corresponding VISAR experiment). It is proposed that the shear stresses generated by the uniaxial strain state of shock compression play an essential role in the transformation. In conclusion, molecular dynamics simulations show the transformation of small nodules from body-centered cubic to a hexagonal close-packed structure under the same stress state (pressure and shear).

  3. Phase transformation in tantalum under extreme laser deformation

    DOE PAGES

    Lu, C. -H.; Hahn, E. N.; Remington, B. A.; ...

    2015-10-19

    The structural and mechanical response of metals is intimately connected to phase transformations. For instance, the product of a phase transformation (martensite) is responsible for the extraordinary range of strength and toughness of steel, making it a versatile and important structural material. Although abundant in metals and alloys, the discovery of new phase transformations is not currently a common event and often requires a mix of experimentation, predictive computations, and luck. High-energy pulsed lasers enable the exploration of extreme pressures and temperatures, where such discoveries may lie. The formation of a hexagonal (omega) phase was observed in recovered monocrystalline body-centeredmore » cubic tantalum of four crystallographic orientations subjected to an extreme regime of pressure, temperature, and strain-rate. This was accomplished using high-energy pulsed lasers. The omega phase and twinning were identified by transmission electron microscopy at 70 GPa (determined by a corresponding VISAR experiment). It is proposed that the shear stresses generated by the uniaxial strain state of shock compression play an essential role in the transformation. In conclusion, molecular dynamics simulations show the transformation of small nodules from body-centered cubic to a hexagonal close-packed structure under the same stress state (pressure and shear).« less

  4. Phase Transformation in Tantalum under Extreme Laser Deformation.

    PubMed

    Lu, C-H; Hahn, E N; Remington, B A; Maddox, B R; Bringa, E M; Meyers, M A

    2015-10-19

    The structural and mechanical response of metals is intimately connected to phase transformations. For instance, the product of a phase transformation (martensite) is responsible for the extraordinary range of strength and toughness of steel, making it a versatile and important structural material. Although abundant in metals and alloys, the discovery of new phase transformations is not currently a common event and often requires a mix of experimentation, predictive computations, and luck. High-energy pulsed lasers enable the exploration of extreme pressures and temperatures, where such discoveries may lie. The formation of a hexagonal (omega) phase was observed in recovered monocrystalline body-centered cubic tantalum of four crystallographic orientations subjected to an extreme regime of pressure, temperature, and strain-rate. This was accomplished using high-energy pulsed lasers. The omega phase and twinning were identified by transmission electron microscopy at 70 GPa (determined by a corresponding VISAR experiment). It is proposed that the shear stresses generated by the uniaxial strain state of shock compression play an essential role in the transformation. Molecular dynamics simulations show the transformation of small nodules from body-centered cubic to a hexagonal close-packed structure under the same stress state (pressure and shear).

  5. Phase transformation of zirconia ceramics by hydrothermal degradation.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Yohei; Uo, Motohiro; Wang, Yongming; Kono, Sayaka; Ohnuki, Somei; Watari, Fumio

    2011-01-01

    Zirconia has found wide application in dentistry because of its high mechanical strength and superior esthetic properties. However, zirconia degradation caused by phase transformation occurring in a hydrothermal environment is of concern. In the present study, phase transformation and microstructure of tetragonal zirconia polycrystal partially stabilized with yttrium oxide (Y-TZP) and alumina-toughened zirconia (ATZ) sintered at different temperatures were estimated. On grazing angle X-ray diffraction analysis, ATZ showed less phase transformation to the monoclinic phase during hydrothermal treatment and this transformation appeared to occur within a few micrometers below the surface. At a higher sintering temperature the monoclinic phase content of ATZ was found to be lesser than that of Y-TZP, indicating that the alumina in ATZ was effective in suppressing hydrothermal degradation. Examination by transmission electron microscopy and studying of electron backscatter diffraction patterns indicated that grain growth in ATZ was slightly suppressed compared with that in Y-TZP at higher sintering temperatures. The present study demonstrated the effect of adding alumina to zirconia for suppressing hydrothermal degradation and studied the effect of this addition on grain growth in zirconia.

  6. Magnetostructural phase transformations in Tb 1-x Mn 2

    DOE PAGES

    Zou, Junding; Paudyal, Durga; Liu, Jing; ...

    2015-01-16

    Magnetism and phase transformations in non-stoichiometric Tb1-xMn2 (x = 0.056, 0.039) have been studied as functions of temperature and magnetic field using magnetization, heat capacity, and X-ray powder diffraction measurements. Lowering the temperature, the compounds sequentially order ferrimagnetically and antiferromagnetically, and finally, exhibit spin reorientation transitions. Moreover, these structural distortions from room temperature cubic to low temperature rhombohedral structures occur at TN, and are accompanied by large volume changes reaching ~-1.27% and -1.42%, respectively. First principles electronic structure calculations confirm the phase transformation from the ferrimagnetic cubic structure to the antiferromagnetic rhombohedral structure in TbMn2.

  7. Measurement of the temperature coefficient of ratio transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Matthew E.; Gammon, Robert W.; Shaumeyer, J. N.

    1993-01-01

    We have measured the temperature coefficient of the output of several ratio transformers at ratios near 0.500,000 using an ac bridge and a dual-phase, lock-in amplifier. The two orthogonal output components were each resolved to +/- ppb of the bridge drive signal. The results for three commercial ratio transformers between 20 and 50 C range from 0.5 to 100 ppb/K for the signal component in phase with the bridge drive, and from 4 to 300 ppb/K for the quadrature component.

  8. A diffuse interface approach to phase transformation via virtual melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momeni, Kasra

    This work represents development of the first phase field models and detailed study solid-solid transformations via intermediate melting within nanometer size interface. Such phase transformations can occur in different materials, including HMX energetic crystals, PbTiO3 nanowires, complex pharmaceutical substances, electronic and geological materials, as well as colloidal, and superhard materials. A thermodynamically consistent phase field model for three phases is developed using two polar order parameters. It includes the effect of energy and width of solid-solid and solid-melt interfaces, interaction between two solid-melt interfaces, temperature, mechanics, and interface stresses. The derived thermodynamic potential satisfies all the equilibrium and stability conditions for homogeneous phases. The HMX energetic crystal is used as the model material and numerical simulations are performed using COMSOL and Cystorm high performance computing facility. Depending on parameters, the intermediate melt may appear and disappear by continuous or discontinuous barrierless disordering or via critical nucleus due to thermal fluctuations. The intermediate melt may appear during heating and persist during cooling at temperatures well below what it follows from sharp-interface approach. For some parameters when intermediate melt is expected, it does not form, producing an intermediate melt free gap. Elastic energy promotes barrierless intermediate melt formation in terms of an increasing degree of disordering, interface velocity, and width of intermediate melt. Drastic reduction (by a factor of 16) of the energy of the critical nuclei of the intermediate melt within the solid-solid interface caused by mechanics is captured. Interfacial stresses surprisingly increase nucleation temperature for the intermediate melt. Interfacial stresses alter the kinetics of phase transformation, resulting in formation of new interfacial phases and drifting of a thermally activated spontaneous

  9. Free energy functionals for efficient phase field crystal modeling of structural phase transformations.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Michael; Provatas, Nikolas; Rottler, Jörg

    2010-07-23

    The phase field crystal (PFC) method is a promising technique for modeling materials with atomic resolution on mesoscopic time scales. While numerically more efficient than classical density functional theory (CDFT), its single mode free energy limits the complexity of structural transformations that can be simulated. We introduce a new PFC model inspired by CDFT, which uses a systematic construction of two-particle correlation functions that allows for a broad class of structural transformations. Our approach considers planar spacings, lattice symmetries, planar atomic densities, and atomic vibrational amplitudes in the unit cell, and parameterizes temperature and anisotropic surface energies. The power of our approach is demonstrated by two examples of structural phase transformations.

  10. Phase transformations in multiferroic Bi{sub 1−x}La{sub x}Fe{sub 1−y}Ti{sub y}O{sub 3} ceramics probed by temperature dependent Raman scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, L. P.; Zhang, X. L.; Zhang, J. Z.; Hu, Z. G. Chu, J. H.; Zhang, L. L.; Yu, J.

    2014-10-28

    Optical phonons and phase transitions of Bi{sub 1−x}La{sub x}Fe{sub 1−y}Ti{sub y}O{sub 3} (BLFTO, 0.02 ≤ x ≤ 0.12, 0.01 ≤ y ≤ 0.08) ceramics have been investigated by Raman scattering in the temperature range from 80 to 680 K. Four phase transitions around 140, 205, 570, and 640 K can be observed. The Raman modes are sensitive to the spin reorientation around 140 and 205 K, owing to the strong magnon-phonon coupling. The transformation around 570 K is a structural transition from rhombohedral to orthorhombic phase due to an external pressure induced by the chemical substitution. The anomalies of the phonon frequencies near Néel temperature T{sub N} have been discussed in the light of the multiferroicity. Moreover, it was found that the structural transition temperature and T{sub N} of BLFTO ceramics decrease towards room temperature with increasing doping composition as a result of size mismatch between substitution and host cations.

  11. Shock Condition Forensics and Cryptic Phase Transformations from Crystallographic Orientation Relationships in Zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timms, N. E.; Erickson, T. M.; Cavosie, A. J.; Pearce, M. A.; Reddy, S. M.; Zanetti, M.; Tohver, E.; Schmieder, M.; Nemchin, A. A.; Wittmann, A.

    2016-08-01

    We present an approach to constrain pressure and temperature conditions during impact events involving identification of cryptic histories of phase transformations from orientation relationships in shocked zircon, linked to new P-T phase diagrams.

  12. Role of valence electrons in phase transformation kinetics of thallium and its dilute alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, R.; Ahmed, S.

    1991-01-01

    The kinetics of the phase transformation of thallium and its dilute alloys were investigated using XRD and calorimetry. Pure thallium exhibits a beta(bcc) to alpha(hcp) phase transformation on cooling at 508 K. With alloying additions, the crystal structure for each phase does not change, although the size of the unit cell increases. The enthalpy and the temperature of phase transformation of each alloy have been determined. The chemical free energy change associated with the phase transformation of each alloy was calculated. The valence electrons make an outstanding contribution to the chemical free energy change required for the phase change.

  13. The HCP To BCC Phase Transformation in Ti Characterized by Nanosecond Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, G; LaGrange, T; King, W; Colvin, J; Ziegler, A; Browning, N; Kleinschmidt, H; Bostanjoglo, O

    2005-06-21

    The general class of martensitic phase transformations occurs by a rapid lattice-distortive mechanism, where kinetics and morphology of the transformation are dominated by the strain energy. Since transformation is diffusionless, phase fronts propagate through a crystal with great speed that can approach the speed of sound. We have observed a particular example of this class of phase transformation, the hexagonal close packed (HCP) to body centered cubic (BCC) transformation in titanium that is driven by a rapid increase in temperature. We have used a novel nanosecond electron microscope (the dynamic transmission electron microscope, DTEM) to acquire diffraction and imaging information on the transformation, which is driven in-situ by nanosecond laser irradiation. Using nanosecond exposure times that are possible in the DTEM, data can be collected about the transient events in these fast transformations. We have identified the phase transformation with diffraction patterns and correlated the time of the phase transformation with calculated conditions in the sample.

  14. Phase transformations of siderite ore by the thermomagnetic analysis data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomar, V. P.; Dudchenko, N. O.; Brik, A. B.

    2017-02-01

    Thermal decomposition of Bakal siderite ore (that consists of magnesium siderite and ankerite traces) was investigated by thermomagnetic analysis. Thermomagnetic analysis was carried-out using laboratory-built facility that allows automatic registration of sample magnetization with the temperature (heating/cooling rate was 65°/min, maximum temperature 650 °C) at low- and high-oxygen content. Curie temperature gradually decreases with each next cycles of heating/cooling at low-oxygen content. Curie temperature decrease after 2nd cycle of heating/cooling at high-oxygen content and do not change with next cycles. Final Curie temperature for both modes was 320 °C. Saturation magnetization of obtained samples increases up to 20 Am2/kg. The final product of phase transformation at both modes was magnesioferrite. It was shown that intermediate phase of thermal decomposition of Bakal siderite ore was magnesiowustite.

  15. Phase transformations in some hafnium-tantalum-titanium-zirconium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Ohriner, E.K.; Kapoor, D.

    1997-11-01

    Phase transformations in hafnium alloys are of interest as a means of achieving a material which exhibits flow softening and high localized strains during deformation at high strain rates. Hafnium transforms from a body-centered-cubic beta phase to a hexagonal alpha phase upon cooling below 1749{degrees}C. Hafnium-based alloys containing up to 17.5% Ti, up to 17.5% Ta, and up to 7.3% Zr by weight were button-arc melted and, in some cases, hot extruded to obtain a refined grain size. A number of alloys were shown to have beta solvus temperatures in the range of 1100 to 1300{degrees}C and showed evidence of a shear transformation upon water quenching. The Vickers microhardness of the quenched materials are typically above 350 HV as compared to 300 HV or less for materials with an alpha plus beta structure. Quenching dilatometry indicates a martensite start temperature of about 750{degrees}C for the Hf-7.5 Ta-10 Ti-1 Zr alloy and 800{degrees}C or more for the Hf-7.5 Ta-7.5 Ti-1 Zr alloy. Tensile tests at 1 s{sup {minus}1} strain rate show a constant ultimate tensile strength for temperatures up to 600{degrees}C for the above two alloys and a rapid decrease in strength with a further increase in temperature.

  16. Materials Science and Technology, Volume 5, Phase Transformations in Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haasen, Peter

    1996-12-01

    This volume covers phase transformations, a general phenomenon central to understanding the behavior of materials and to creating high-performance materials. From the Contents: Pelton: Thermodynamics and Phase Diagrams of Materials. Murch: Diffusion in Crystalline Solids. Binder: Statistical Theories of Phase Transitions/Spinodal Decomposition. Wagner/Kampmann: Homogeneous Second Phase Precipitation. Purdy: Transformations Involving Interfacial Diffusion. Delaey: Diffusionless Transformations. Ruoff: High Pressure Phase Transformations. Pitsch/Inden: Atomic Ordering. Müller- Krumbhaar/Kurz: Solidification.

  17. Hydrogen storage and phase transformations in Mg-Pd nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callini, E.; Pasquini, L.; Rude, L. H.; Nielsen, T. K.; Jensen, T. R.; Bonetti, E.

    2010-10-01

    Microstructure refinement and synergic coupling among different phases are currently explored strategies to improve the hydrogen storage properties of traditional materials. In this work, we apply a combination of these methods and synthesize Mg-Pd composite nanoparticles by inert gas condensation of Mg vapors followed by vacuum evaporation of Pd clusters. Irreversible formation of the Mg6Pd intermetallic phase takes place upon vacuum annealing, resulting in Mg/Mg6Pd composite nanoparticles. Their hydrogen storage properties are investigated and connected to the undergoing phase transformations by gas-volumetric techniques and in situ synchrotron radiation powder x-ray diffraction. Mg6Pd transforms reversibly into different Mg-Pd intermetallic compounds upon hydrogen absorption, depending on temperature and pressure. In particular, at 573 K and 1 MPa hydrogen pressure, the metal-hydride transition leads to the formation of Mg3Pd and Mg5Pd2 phases. By increasing the pressure to 5 MPa, the Pd-richer MgPd intermetallic is obtained. Upon hydrogen desorption, the Mg6Pd phase is reversibly recovered. These phase transformations result in a specific hydrogen storage capacity associated with Mg-Pd intermetallics, which attain the maximum value of 3.96 wt % for MgPd and influence both the thermodynamics and kinetics of hydrogen sorption in the composite nanoparticles.

  18. High-temperature transformations of Cu-rich hydrotalcites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, S.; Rives, V.; Knözinger, H.

    2004-01-01

    Cu M(II)Al ternary hydrotalcites ( M(II) = Ni, Co and Mg) with a (Cu+ M(II))/Al atomic ratio of 3.0 and Cu/ M(II) atomic ratio of 5.0 were synthesized by coprecipitation under low supersaturation. Powder X-ray diffraction of the as-synthesized samples showed a pattern characteristic of hydrotalcite-like (HT-like) structure (JCPDS: 41-1428). Thermal analyses of these samples showed four stages of weight loss/heat change when recorded in nitrogen. Analysis of the evolved gases characterized the nature of these transformations. The thermoanalytical effects differed significantly especially for the high-temperature transformations, when the treatment was performed in oxygen. In situ powder X-ray diffraction of the samples was carried out to elucidate the phase evolution of these compounds. Surprisingly formation of CuO was noted at temperatures around 200°C well below the destruction of the layered network. The nature of the resulting phases varied with both the nature of the co-bivalent metal ion and the heating atmosphere. FT-IR spectroscopy confirmed the retention of carbonate ions at higher temperatures (above 700°C), although the concentration of carbonate anion (most likely unidentate) varied with the calcination temperature. The crystallinity of CuO increased significantly above 600°C, probably through dissociation of copper oxycarbonate. Significant differences in the thermal transformation temperatures (for the third and the fourth transformations) of these samples containing different co-bivalent metal ions were not observed. This suggests that an association of the co-bivalent metal ions and/or trivalent metal ion in this phase is unlikely. A plausible thermal evolution scheme of these hydrotalcites is proposed.

  19. Polymorphic Phase Transformation in the 3-Bromo- trans-cinnamic Acid System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Shinbyoung; Harris, Kenneth D. M.; Kariuki, Benson M.; Zin, Dimple M. S.

    2001-01-01

    3-Bromo-trans-cinnamic acid (3-BrCA) exists as two crystalline polymorphic forms (designated as β and γ phases). A polymorphic phase transformation from the γ phase to the β phase has been investigated using ex situ powder X-ray diffraction, in situ high-temperature optical microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. The transformation occurs at an observable rate at temperatures above about 100°C. A reverse transformation on subsequently cooling the β phase is not observed. Thermodynamic aspects of the polymorphic 3-BrCA system are discussed, together with kinetic aspects of the transformation from the γ phase to the β phase. The structural properties of the β phase (reported previously) and the γ phase (determined in this work from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data) are in accord with the α/β/γ structural classification of trans-cinnamic acid derivatives.

  20. Phase field modeling of tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation in zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamivand, Mahmood

    Zirconia based ceramics are strong, hard, inert, and smooth, with low thermal conductivity and good biocompatibility. Such properties made zirconia ceramics an ideal material for different applications form thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) to biomedicine applications like femoral implants and dental bridges. However, this unusual versatility of excellent properties would be mediated by the metastable tetragonal (or cubic) transformation to the stable monoclinic phase after a certain exposure at service temperatures. This transformation from tetragonal to monoclinic, known as LTD (low temperature degradation) in biomedical application, proceeds by propagation of martensite, which corresponds to transformation twinning. As such, tetragonal to monoclinic transformation is highly sensitive to mechanical and chemomechanical stresses. It is known in fact that this transformation is the source of the fracture toughening in stabilized zirconia as it occurs at the stress concentration regions ahead of the crack tip. This dissertation is an attempt to provide a kinetic-based model for tetragonal to monoclinic transformation in zirconia. We used the phase field technique to capture the temporal and spatial evolution of monoclinic phase. In addition to morphological patterns, we were able to calculate the developed internal stresses during tetragonal to monoclinic transformation. The model was started form the two dimensional single crystal then was expanded to the two dimensional polycrystalline and finally to the three dimensional single crystal. The model is able to predict the most physical properties associated with tetragonal to monoclinic transformation in zirconia including: morphological patterns, transformation toughening, shape memory effect, pseudoelasticity, surface uplift, and variants impingement. The model was benched marked with several experimental works. The good agreements between simulation results and experimental data, make the model a reliable tool for

  1. Domain walls in ω-phase transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanati, Mahdi; Saxena, Avadh

    1998-11-01

    The β-phase (body-centered cubic: b.c.c.) to ω-phase transformation in certain elements (e.g. Zr) and alloys (e.g. ZrNb) is induced either by quenching or application of pressure. The ω-phase is a metastable state and usually coexists with the β-matrix in the form of small particles. To study the formation of domain walls in these materials we have extended the Landau model of Cook for the ω-phase transition by including a spatial gradient (Ginzburg) term of the scalar order parameter. In general, the Landau free energy is an asymmetric double-well potential. From the variational derivative of the total free energy we obtain a static equilibrium condition. By solving this equation for different physical parameters and boundary conditions, we obtained different quasi-one-dimensional soliton-like solutions. These solutions correspond to three different types of domain walls between the ω-phase and the β-matrix. In addition, we obtained soliton lattice (domain wall array) solutions, calculated their formation energy and the asymptotic interaction between the solitons.

  2. Phase amplitude conformal symmetry in Fourier transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwata, S.

    2015-04-01

    For the Fourier transform ℑ : L2(R) → L2(R) of a complex-valued even or odd function ψ, it is found that the amplitude invariance |ℑψ| = |ψ| leads to a phase invariance or inversion as arg(ℑψ) = ±argψ + θ (θ = constant). The converse holds unless arg ψ = constant. The condition |ψ| = |ℑψ| is required in dealing with, for example, the minimum uncertainty relation between position and momentum. Without the evenness or oddness of ψ, |ℑψ| = |ψ| does not necessarily imply arg(ℑψ) = ±argψ + θ, nor is the converse.

  3. Transition temperature of martensitic transformations in hafnia and zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xuhui; Demkov, A. A.

    2008-03-01

    Transition metal oxides find applications in ceramics, catalysis and semiconductor technology. In particular, hafnium dioxide or hafnia will succeed silica as a gate dielectric in advanced transistors. However, thermodynamic properties of thin hafnia films are not well understood, despite their technological importance. We use density functional theory to investigate the tetragonal to monoclinic phase transition in hafnia and zirconia. We find that unlike the case of the cubic to tetragonal transition, this phase transition is not driven by a soft mode. We use transition state theory to identify the minimum energy path (MEP) employing first principle calculations for hafnia and zirconia, sow that both transformations are martensitic, and obtain the transition barriers. Martensitic transformations include both the internal coordinate transformation and deformation of the cell lattice vectors (``strain and shuffle''), therefore the potential energy surface and MEP are function not only of the internal atomic coordinates but also of the unit cell lattice vectors. Considering the simplest case of uniform strain the transition temperatures we then relate the barrier height to the transition temperature. As a self-consistency check, assuming the equality of thermodynamics potentials of the tetragonal and monoclinic phases during the transition, and using the difference in the internal energy calculated from first principles we estimate the entropy change associated with the transition which is found in good agreement with that calculated form the phonon spectra.

  4. Phase transformation and growth of hygroscopic aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, I.N.

    1995-09-01

    Ambient aerosols frequently contain large portions of hygroscopic inorganic salts such as chlorides, nitrates, and sulfates in either pure or mixed forms. Such inorganic salt aerosols exhibit the properties of deliquescence and efflorescence in air. The phase transformation from a solid particle to a saline droplet usually occurs spontaneously when the relative humidity of the atmosphere reaches a level specific to the chemical composition of the aerosol particle. Conversely, when the relative humidity decreases and becomes low enough, the saline droplet will evaporate and suddenly crystallize, expelling all its water content. The phase transformation and growth of aerosols play an important role in many atmospheric processes affecting air quality, visibility degradation, and climate changes. In this chapter, an exposition of the underlying thermodynamic principles is given, and recent advances in experimental methods utilizing single-particle levitation are discussed. In addition, pertinent and available thermodynamic data, which are needed for predicting the deliquescence properties of single and multi-component aerosols, are compiled. This chapter is useful to research scientists who are either interested in pursuing further studies of aerosol thermodynamics, or required to model the dynamic behavior of hygroscopic aerosols in a humid environment.

  5. Martensitic transformation and phase diagram in ternary Co-V-Ga Heusler alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiao; Nagashima, Akihide; Nagasako, Makoto; Omori, Toshihiro; Kanomata, Takeshi; Kainuma, Ryosuke

    2017-03-01

    We report the martensitic transformation behavior in Co-V-Ga Heusler alloys. Thermoanalysis and thermomagnetization measurements were conducted to observe the martensitic transformation. By using a transmission electron microscope and an in situ X-ray diffractometer, martensitic transformation was found to occur from the L21 Heusler parent phase to the D022 martensite phase. Phase diagrams were determined for two pseudo-binary sections where martensitic transformation was detected. Magnetic properties, including the Curie temperatures and spontaneous magnetization of the parent phase, were also investigated. The magnetic properties showing behaviors different from those of NiMn-based alloys were found.

  6. Microstructural formation in Ti alloys: In-situ characterization of phase transformation kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aeby-Gautier, E.; Bruneseaux, F.; da Costa Teixeira, J.; Appolaire, B.; Geandier, G.; Denis, S.

    2007-02-01

    The prediction of microstructure during processing needs to characterize the phase transformation occurring during the thermal treatments and their kinetics. In-situ high-energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction experiments performed during temperature variations allow the characterization of the phase evolution. For some transformation conditions, the continuous recording of diffraction diagrams evidences clearly intermediate phases. The quantitative analysis of the diffraction diagrams gives the transformation kinetics of each phase as well as their cell parameters. Transformation kinetics obtained by this method are compared to results obtained by electrical resistivity.

  7. Rapid Solidification and Phase Transformations in Additive Manufactured Materials

    DOE PAGES

    Asle Zaeem, Mohsen; Clarke, Amy Jean

    2016-01-14

    Within the past few years, additive manufacturing (AM) has emerged as a promising manufacturing technique to enable the production of complex engineering structures with high efficiency and accuracy. Among the important factors establishing AM as a sustainable manufacturing process is the ability to control the microstructures and properties of AM products. In most AM processes, such as laser sintering (LS), laser melting (LM), and laser metal deposition (LMD), rapid solidification and high-temperature phase transformations play primary roles in determining nano- and microstructures, and consequently the mechanical and other properties of AM products. This topic of JOM is dedicated to summarizingmore » the current research efforts in the area of rapid solidification and phase transformations in additively manufactured materials. Finally, a brief summary follows below of 10 journal articles in this topic.« less

  8. Rapid Solidification and Phase Transformations in Additive Manufactured Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Asle Zaeem, Mohsen; Clarke, Amy Jean

    2016-01-14

    Within the past few years, additive manufacturing (AM) has emerged as a promising manufacturing technique to enable the production of complex engineering structures with high efficiency and accuracy. Among the important factors establishing AM as a sustainable manufacturing process is the ability to control the microstructures and properties of AM products. In most AM processes, such as laser sintering (LS), laser melting (LM), and laser metal deposition (LMD), rapid solidification and high-temperature phase transformations play primary roles in determining nano- and microstructures, and consequently the mechanical and other properties of AM products. This topic of JOM is dedicated to summarizing the current research efforts in the area of rapid solidification and phase transformations in additively manufactured materials. Finally, a brief summary follows below of 10 journal articles in this topic.

  9. Novel microporous zirconium silicate (K{sub 2}ZrSi{sub 3}O{sub 9}.2H{sub 2}O) from high temperature phase transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, Artur; Lin Zhi; Soares, Maria R.; Rocha, Joao

    2010-12-15

    A new microporous zirconosilicate K{sub 2}ZrSi{sub 3}O{sub 9}.2H{sub 2}O (AV-15) has been prepared by high-temperature phase transformation at 910 {sup o}C. Its structure has been determined ab initio from powder X-ray diffraction data. The unit cell is orthorhombic, space group C222{sub 1} (no. 20), Z=4 with cell dimensions: a=8.105(3), b=10.684(5), c=12.030(5) A, V=1041.76(7) A{sup 3}. The framework connection of AV-15 is essentially the same as the previously reported sodium stannosilicate AV-10 while the locations of potassium and water molecules in the former are quite different from those of the sodium and water molecules in AV-10. In AV-10 sodium and water molecules form a sinucoidal chain, while potassium and water molecules build up a linear chain in AV-15. The water molecules in AV-15 are lost on heating with a typical zeolitic behaviour. SEM shows that the particle sizes and habits of AV-15 and parent umbite material are the same. The {sup 29}Si MAS NMR spectrum of AV-15 displays two resonances at ca. -89.4 and -90.1 ppm in a 1:2 intensity ratio. Thermogravimetry analysis confirms the existence of water in this material. -- Graphical abstract: A new microporous zirconosilicate has been prepared by high temperature phase transformation at 910 {sup o}C. Its structure has been determined ab initio from powder X-ray diffraction data. The water molecules in this material are lost below 125 {sup o}C in a way typical of zeolites and molecular sieves. Display Omitted

  10. Phase Change Fabrics Control Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Originally featured in Spinoff in 1997, Outlast Technologies Inc. (formerly Gateway Technologies Inc.) has built its entire product line on microencapsulated phase change materials, developed in Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Johnson Space Center after initial development for the U.S. Air Force. The Boulder, Colorado-based company acquired the exclusive patent rights and now integrates these materials into textiles or onto finished apparel, providing temperature regulation in bedding materials and a full line of apparel for both ordinary and extreme conditions.

  11. Phase transformations in ion-irradiated silicides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewett, C. A.; Lau, S. S.; Suni, I.; Hung, L. S.

    1985-01-01

    The present investigation has three objectives. The first is concerned with the phase transformation of CoSi2 under ion implantation and the subsequent crystallization characteristics during annealing, taking into account epitaxial and nonepitaxial recrystallization behavior. The second objective is related to a study of the general trend of implantation-induced damage and crystallization behavior for a number of commonly used silicides. The last objective involves a comparison of the recrystallization behavior of cosputtered refractory silicides with that of the ion-implanted silicides. It was found that epitaxial regrowth of ion-irradiated CoSi2 occurred for samples with an epitaxial seed left at the Si/CoSi2 interface. A structural investigation of CoSi2 involving transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that after high-dose implantation CoSi2 is amorphous.

  12. Phase transformation and growth of hygroscopic aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, I.N.

    1999-11-01

    Ambient aerosols play an important role in many atmospheric processes affecting air quality, visibility degradation, and climatic changes as well. Both natural and anthropogenic sources contribute to the formation of ambient aerosols, which are composed mostly of sulfates, nitrates, and chlorides in either pure or mixed forms. These inorganic salt aerosols are hygroscopic by nature and exhibit the properties of deliquescence and efflorescence in humid air. For pure inorganic salt particles with diameter larger than 0.1 micron, the phase transformation from a solid particle to a saline droplet occurs only when the relative humidity in the surrounding atmosphere reaches a certain critical level corresponding to the water activity of the saturated solution. The droplet size or mass in equilibrium with relative humidity can be calculated in a straightforward manner from thermodynamic considerations. For aqueous droplets 0.1 micron or smaller, the surface curvature effect on vapor pressure becomes important and the Kelvin equation must be used.

  13. Effect of the Temperature and Duration of Aging on Structural and Phase Transformations in Steel 08Kh18N10T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, V. V.; Kangezova, E. A.

    2016-11-01

    The influence of long holds (500 - 10,000 h) at a temperature of 450 - 750°C on the structure and properties of steel 08Kh18N10T used for furnace coil pipes in devices for hydrofining of diesel fuel is studied. Metallographic (light and electron microscopy) and x-ray diffraction analyses are performed; mechanical properties of the steel are determined.

  14. Two-phase transformation of lepidocrocite to maghemite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekkers, M. J.; Gapeev, A. K.; Gendler, T. S.; Gribov, S. K.; Shcherbakov, V. P.

    2003-04-01

    A detailed investigation of CRM acquired at different stages of the transformation lepidocrocite -> maghemite -> hematite is carried out. Apparently, at least two-stage lepidocrocite maghemite transformation was revealed from: a) the two-peak Ms(T) curve; b) the observation of constricted hysteresis loops appearing after annealing fresh lepidocrocite samples at elevated temperatures; c) continuous monitoring (for 500 hrs) of CRM acquisition at elevated temperatures. For the latter two sets of CRM acquisition experiments at 12 temperatures from 175C to 550C in the presence of 0.1 mT magnetic field were performed: 1) with fine dispersed natural lepidocrocite grains in a kaolin matrix (about 1 volume % of lepidocrocite), 2) for lepidocrocite peaces 3x3x3 mm in size. In both cases the CRM was detected already at 175C after 1 day of annealing. Note that this temperature is lower than the temperature of the TGA peak of the lepidocrocite -> maghemite transformation. Mossbauer spectra obtained from the peaces after annealing at 225C during 6 and 14 hours, respectively, revealed significantly different patterns. Unexpectadly, fine dispersed maghemite grains formed due the lepidocrocite dehydration in the first peace (6 hrs of annealing) occurred to be more ordered than those of from the second peace. The samples are subjected to the X-ray analysis in an attempt to clarify the observed difference. The observed phenomena can be explained by the two-phase conception of the transformation lepidocrocite -> maghemite. First the precipitation of small superparamagnetic particles of maghemite takes place growing with time. Second, these grains coalesce with each other resulting in appearance of the antiphase boundaries decreasing the susceptibility, slowing down the process of CRM acquisition and generating the constricted hysteresis loops. The work is supported by INTAS 99-1273.

  15. Special phase transformation and crystal growth pathways observed in nanoparticles†

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Benjamin; Zhang, Hengzhong; Huang, Feng; Finnegan, Michael P; Waychunas, Glenn A; Banfield, Jillian F

    2003-01-01

    Phase transformation and crystal growth in nanoparticles may happen via mechanisms distinct from those in bulk materials. We combine experimental studies of as-synthesized and hydrothermally coarsened titania (TiO2) and zinc sulfide (ZnS) with thermodynamic analysis, kinetic modeling and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, synchrotron X-ray absorption and scattering, and UV-vis spectroscopy. At low temperatures, phase transformation in titania nanoparticles occurs predominantly via interface nucleation at particle–particle contacts. Coarsening and crystal growth of titania nanoparticles can be described using the Smoluchowski equation. Oriented attachment-based crystal growth was common in both hydrothermal solutions and under dry conditions. MD simulations predict large structural perturbations within very fine particles, and are consistent with experimental results showing that ligand binding and change in aggregation state can cause phase transformation without particle coarsening. Such phenomena affect surface reactivity, thus may have important roles in geochemical cycling.

  16. Phase transformations and vibrational properties of coronene under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiao-Miao; Zhang, Jiang; Berlie, Adam; Qin, Zhen-Xing; Huang, Qiao-Wei; Jiang, Shan; Zhang, Jian-Bo; Tang, Ling-Yun; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Chao; Zhong, Guo-Hua; Lin, Hai-Qing; Chen, Xiao-Jia

    2013-10-01

    Both the vibrational and structural properties of coronene have been investigated upon compression up to 30.5 GPa at room temperature by a combination of Raman scattering and synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements. The spectroscopic and crystallographic results demonstrate that two pressure-induced structural phase transitions take place at 1.5 GPa and 12.2 GPa where the high-pressure phases are identified as monoclinic and orthorhombic crystal structures with space groups of P2/m and Pmmm, respectively. A kink in the slope of the cell parameters as a function of pressure is associated with the disappearance of several internal Raman modes, which suggests the existence of structural distortions or reorganizations at approximately 6.0 GPa. Above 17.1 GPa, almost no evidence of crystallinity can be observed, indicating a possible transformation of coronene into an amorphous phase.

  17. Three-Dimensional Numerical Model Considering Phase Transformation in Friction Stir Welding of Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hoon-Hwe; Kim, Dong-Wan; Hong, Sung-Tae; Jeong, Yong-Ha; Lee, Keunho; Cho, Yi-Gil; Kang, Suk Hoon; Han, Heung Nam

    2015-12-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) thermo-mechanical model is developed considering the phase transformation occurring during the friction stir welding (FSW) of steel, and the simulated result is compared with both the measured temperature distribution during FSW and the microstructural changes after FSW. The austenite grain size (AGS) decreases significantly because of the frictional heat and severe plastic deformation generated during FSW, and the decreased AGS accelerates the diffusional phase transformation during FSW. The ferrite phase, one of the diffusional phases, is developed mainly in mild steel, whereas the bainite phase transformation occurs significantly in high-strength steel with large hardenability. Additionally, transformation-induced heat is observed mainly in the stir zone during FSW. The measured temperature distribution and phase fraction agree fairly well with the predicted data.

  18. High Temperature Measurements Of Martensitic transformations Using Digital Holography

    SciTech Connect

    Thiesing, Benjamin; Mann, Christopher J; Dryepondt, Sebastien N

    2013-01-01

    During thermal cycling of nickel-aluminum-platinum (NiAlPt) and single crystal Fe-15Cr-15Ni alloys, the structural changes associated with the martensite to austenite phase transformation were measured using dual-wavelength digital holography. Real-time in-situ measurements reveal the formation of striations within the NiPtAl alloy at 70 C and the FeCrNi alloy at 520 C. The results demonstrate that digital holography is an effective technique for acquiring non-contact, high precision information of the surface evolution of alloys at high temperatures.

  19. High temperature measurements of martensitic transformations using digital holography.

    PubMed

    Thiesing, Benjamin P; Mann, Christopher J; Dryepondt, Sebastien

    2013-07-01

    During thermal cycling of nickel-aluminum-platinum (NiAlPt) and single crystal iron-chromium-nickel (FeCrNi) alloys, the structural changes associated with the martensite to austenite phase transformation were measured using dual-wavelength digital holography. Real-time in situ measurements reveal the formation of striations within the NiAlPt alloy at 70°C and the FeCrNi alloy at 520°C. The results demonstrate that digital holography is an effective technique for acquiring noncontact, high precision information of the surface evolution of alloys at high temperatures.

  20. Phase-field modeling of shock-induced α- γ phase transformation of RDX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahul, -; de, Suvranu

    2015-06-01

    A thermodynamically consistent continuum phase field model has been developed to investigate the role of shock-induced α- γ phase transition in the sensitivity of RDX. Dislocations and phase transformations are distinguished and modeled within a crystal plasticity framework. The Landau potential is derived for the finite elastic deformation analysis. The response of the shock loaded RDX crystal is obtained by solving the continuum momentum equation along with phase evolution equation using a Helmholtz free energy functional, which consists of elastic potential energy and local interfacial energy that follows from the Cahn-Hilliard formalism. We observe that the orientations for which there is a resolved shear stress along the slip direction, the material absorbs large shear strain through plastic deformation, allowing it to be less sensitive as less mechanical work is available for temperature rise. Therefore, plastic slip should be associated with greater shear relaxation and, hence, decreased sensitivity. For elastic orientations, large shear stress arises from steric hindrance that may provides much more mechanical work to increase the temperature and hence more sensitive to detonation. Our simulations suggest that the α- γ phase transformation in RDX may be associated with the increased temperature rise and hence the shock sensitivity. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of this work through Office of Naval Research (ONR) Grants N000140810462 and N000141210527 with Dr. Clifford Bedford as the cognizant Program Manager.

  1. Phase transformations and thermodynamics of aluminum-based metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Changhua (Michael)

    This thesis examines the thermodynamics and associated kinetics and phase transformations of the glass forming Al-Ni-Gd and Al-Fe-Gd systems. In order to fully understand the unique glass forming ability (GFA) of Al-based metallic glasses, the ternary Al-Fe-Gd and Al-Ni-Gd systems in their Al-rich corners were examined experimentally to assist in a thermodynamic assessment. The solid-state phase equilibria are determined using XRD and TEM-EDS techniques. While this work basically confirms the solid-state equilibria in Al-Fe-Gd reported previously, the ternary phase in Al-Ni-Gd system has been identified to be Al15Ni3Gd2 rather than Al16Ni 3Gd reported in the literature. DTA analysis of 24 alloys in the Al-Fe-Gd system and 42 alloys in the Al-Ni-Gd system have yielded critical temperatures pertaining to the solid-liquid transition. Based on these data and information from the literature, a self-consistent thermodynamic database for these systems has been developed using the CALPHAD technique. Parameters describing the Gibbs free energy for various phases of the Al-Gd, Al-Fe-Gd and Al-Ni-Gd systems are manually optimized in this study. Once constructed, the database is used to calculate driving forces for nucleation of crystalline phases which can qualitatively explain the phase formation sequence during crystallization at low temperatures. It was also confirmed that alloy compositions with the lowest Gibbs free energy difference between the equilibrium state and undercooled liquid state exhibit better GFA than other chemistries. Based on 250°C isothermal devitrification phase transformations of 17 Al-Ni-Gd alloys, a phase formation sequence map is constructed. Fcc-Al nanocrystals are formed first in most of the alloys studied, but eutectic crystallization of a metastable phase and fcc-Al is also observed. Addition of Al or Ni promotes fcc-Al phase formation, while increasing Gd suppresses it. The continuous heating DSC scans revealed that crystallization in Al

  2. Enhanced densification of white cast iron powders by cyclic phase transformations under stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruano, Oscar A.; Wadsworth, Jeffrey; Sherby, Oleg D.

    1982-03-01

    It is shown that densification of white cast iron powders under stress can be enhanced by multiple phase transformations through thermal cycling. This enhancement occurs by accelerated creep flow during phase changes (transformation superplasticity). The approximate stress range where transformation-assisted densification can occur is shown to be between 1.7 MPa (250 psi) and 34.5 MPa (5000 psi). Below 1.7 MPa insufficient strain occurs during phase transformation to cause significant densification even after many transformation cycles. Above 34.5 MPa, densification occurs principally by normal slip creep. Transformation warm pressing of white cast iron powders leads to dense compacts at low pressures and short times. In addition, because the transformation temperature is low, the ultrafine structures existing in the original powders are retained in the densified compacts.

  3. Fundamental Development on Utilizing the R-phase Transformation in NiTi Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiebin; Kustov, Sergey; Verlinden, Bert; Van Humbeeck, Jan

    2015-06-01

    In near equiatomic NiTi alloys, the reversible thermoelastic transformation between B2-structured austenite phase and the R-phase is attracting increasing interest for practical applications. However, the following two issues limit the widespread utilization of the R-phase transformation: (1) there is no effective approach to control the R-phase transformation temperatures; (2) it is not easy to largely separate the temperature domain of the R-phase and the B19' martensite phase transformation, especially in the presence of an external force. This article reviews concisely the work of the present authors on solving the above two problems. The effect of grain size on the aging microstructure and related transformation behavior is first discussed. Inspired by these findings, an approach to solve the above two problems has been developed by introducing nanoscaled Ni4Ti3 precipitates in the samples with micron-sized grains. The performance of alloys associated with the R-phase transformation, which shows controllable transformation temperatures, is summarized.

  4. High temperature co-axial winding transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divan, Deepakraj M.; Novotny, Donald W.

    1993-01-01

    The analysis and design of co-axial winding transformers is presented. The design equations are derived and the different design approaches are discussed. One of the most important features of co-axial winding transformers is the fact that the leakage inductance is well controlled and can be made low. This is not the case in conventional winding transformers. In addition, the power density of co-axial winding transformers is higher than conventional ones. Hence, using co-axial winding transformers in a certain converter topology improves the power density of the converter. The design methodology used in meeting the proposed specifications of the co-axial winding transformer specifications are presented and discussed. The final transformer design was constructed in the lab. Co-axial winding transformers proved to be a good choice for high power density and high frequency applications. They have a more predictable performance compared with conventional transformers. In addition, the leakage inductance of the transformer can be controlled easily to suit a specific application. For space applications, one major concern is the extraction of heat from power apparatus to prevent excessive heating and hence damaging of these units. Because of the vacuum environment, the only way to extract heat is by using a cold plate. One advantage of co-axial winding transformers is that the surface area available to extract heat from is very large compared to conventional transformers. This stems from the unique structure of the co-axial transformer where the whole core surface area is exposed and can be utilized for cooling effectively. This is a crucial issue here since most of the losses are core losses.

  5. Phase Transformation in Silica-Coated FePt Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colak, Levent; Hadjipanayis, George

    2009-03-01

    The A1 to L10 phase transformation has been examined in silica-coated FePt particles. The nanoparticles were synthesized by reduction of platinum acetylacetonate (Pt (acac) 2) followed by thermal decomposition of iron pentacarbonyl (Fe(CO)5) in the presence of oleic acid (OA) and oleyl amine (OY) as surfactants at low temperature ^[1]. The monodispersed FePt nanoparticles, with a size of 5.8 nm were then coated with silica (SiO2) shells ^[2] . The thickness of the silica shell could be controlled between 7.5-25 nm. The coated particles were subjected to thermal processing at 800 C for various amounts of times. No significant sintering was observed up to 2 hours of annealing for the shell thickness of 15.0 nm. In some silica-coated samples an increase in the particle size was observed after annealing. Selected Area Diffraction analysis and magnetic measurements showed the development of ordered L10 structure. Coercivity values up to 15 kOe at 7K are obtained. The phase transformation is currently being examined in other samples annealed at different times and temperatures and the results will be reported.1.Levent Colak and George C. Hadjipanayis, Nanotechnology 19 (2008) 235703.2.M. Aslam, L. Fu, S. Li, Vinayak P. Dravid, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 290 (2005) 444--449.

  6. Nanoscale heat transfer and phase transformation surrounding intensely heated nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasikumar, Kiran

    Over the last decade there has been significant ongoing research to use nanoparticles for hyperthermia-based destruction of cancer cells. In this regard, the investigation of highly non-equilibrium thermal systems created by ultrafast laser excitation is a particularly challenging and important aspect of nanoscale heat transfer. It has been observed experimentally that noble metal nanoparticles, illuminated by radiation at the plasmon resonance wavelength, can act as localized heat sources at nanometer-length scales. Achieving biological response by delivering heat via nanoscale heat sources has also been demonstrated. However, an understanding of the thermal transport at these scales and associated phase transformations is lacking. A striking observation made in several laser-heating experiments is that embedded metal nanoparticles heated to extreme temperatures may even melt without an associated boiling of the surrounding fluid. This unusual phase stability is not well understood and designing experiments to understand the physics of this phenomenon is a challenging task. In this thesis, we will resort to molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, which offer a powerful tool to investigate this phenomenon, without assumptions underlying continuum-level model formulations. We present the results from a series of steady state and transient non-equilibrium MD simulations performed on an intensely heated nanoparticle immersed in a model liquid. For small nanoparticles (1-10 nm in diameter) we observe a stable liquid phase near the nanoparticle surface, which can be at a temperature well above the boiling point. Furthermore, we report the existence of a critical nanoparticle size (4 nm in diameter) below which we do not observe formation of vapor even when local fluid temperatures exceed the critical temperature. Instead, we report the existence of a stable fluid region with a density much larger than that of the vapor phase. We explain this stability in terms of the

  7. Phase-field-crystal methodology for modeling of structural transformations.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Michael; Rottler, Jörg; Provatas, Nikolas

    2011-03-01

    We introduce and characterize free-energy functionals for modeling of solids with different crystallographic symmetries within the phase-field-crystal methodology. The excess free energy responsible for the emergence of periodic phases is inspired by classical density-functional theory, but uses only a minimal description for the modes of the direct correlation function to preserve computational efficiency. We provide a detailed prescription for controlling the crystal structure and introduce parameters for changing temperature and surface energies, so that phase transformations between body-centered-cubic (bcc), face-centered-cubic (fcc), hexagonal-close-packed (hcp), and simple-cubic (sc) lattices can be studied. To illustrate the versatility of our free-energy functional, we compute the phase diagram for fcc-bcc-liquid coexistence in the temperature-density plane. We also demonstrate that our model can be extended to include hcp symmetry by dynamically simulating hcp-liquid coexistence from a seeded crystal nucleus. We further quantify the dependence of the elastic constants on the model control parameters in two and three dimensions, showing how the degree of elastic anisotropy can be tuned from the shape of the direct correlation functions.

  8. Fundamental Mechanisms Driving the Amorphous to Crystalline Phase Transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, B W; Browning, N D; Santala, M K; LaGrange, T; Gilmer, G H; Masiel, D J; Campbell, G H; Raoux, S; Topuria, T; Meister, S; Cui, Y

    2011-01-04

    -stabilized metastable rock salt structure. Each transformation takes {approx}10-100 ns, and the cycle can be driven repeatedly a very large number of times with a nanosecond laser such as the DTEM's sample drive laser. These materials are widely used in optical storage devices such as rewritable CDs and DVDs, and they are also applied in a novel solid state memory technology - phase change memory (PCM). PCM has the potential to produce nonvolatile memory systems with high speed, extreme density, and very low power requirements. For PCM applications several materials properties are of great importance: the resistivities of both phases, the crystallization temperature, the melting point, the crystallization speed, reversibility (number of phase-transformation cycles without degradation) and stability against crystallization at elevated temperature. For a viable technology, all these properties need to have good scaling behavior, as dimensions of the memory cells will shrink with every generation. In this LDRD project, we used the unique single-shot nanosecond in situ experimentation capabilities of the DTEM to watch these transformations in GST on the time and length scales most relevant for device applications. Interpretation of the results was performed in conjunction with atomistic and finite-element computations. Samples were provided by collaborators at IBM and Stanford University. We observed, and measured the kinetics of, the amorphous-crystalline and melting-solidification transitions in uniform thin-film samples. Above a certain threshold, the crystal nucleation rate was found to be enormously high (with many nuclei appearing per cubic {micro}m even after nanosecond-scale incubation times), in agreement with atomistic simulation and consistent with an extremely low nucleation barrier. We developed data reduction techniques based on principal component analysis (PCA), revealing the complex, multi-dimensional evolution of the material while suppressing noise and irrelevant

  9. In-Situ Phase Mapping and Direct Observations of Phase Transformations During Arc Welding of 1045 Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Elmer, J; Palmer, T

    2005-09-13

    In-situ Spatially Resolved X-Ray Diffraction (SRXRD) experiments were performed during gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding of AISI 1045 C-Mn steel. Ferrite ({alpha}) and austenite ({gamma}) phases were identified and quantified in the weld heat-affected zone (HAZ) from the real time x-ray diffraction data. The results were compiled along with weld temperatures calculated using a coupled thermal fluids weld model to create a phase map of the HAZ. This map shows the {alpha} {yields} {gamma} transformation taking place during weld heating and the reverse {gamma} {yields} {alpha} transformation taking place during weld cooling. Superheating is required to complete the {alpha} {yields} {gamma} phase transformation, and the amount of superheat above the A3 temperature was shown to vary with distance from the centerline of the weld. Superheat values as high as 250 C above the A3 temperature were observed at heating rates of 80 C/s. The SRXRD experiments also revealed details about the {gamma} phase not observable by conventional techniques, showing that {gamma} is present with two distinct lattice parameters as a result of inhomogeneous distribution of carbon and manganese in the starting pearlitic/ferritic microstructure. During cooling, the reverse {gamma} {yields} {alpha} phase transformation was shown to depend on the HAZ location. In the fine grained region of the HAZ, at distances greater than 2 mm from the fusion line, the {gamma} {yields} {alpha} transformation begins near the A3 temperature and ends near the A1 temperature. In this region of the HAZ where the cooling rates are below 40 C/s, the transformation occurs by nucleation and growth of pearlite. For HAZ locations closer to the fusion line, undercoolings of 200 C or more below the A1 temperature are required to complete the {gamma} {yields} {alpha} transformation. In this region of the HAZ, grain growth coupled with cooling rates in excess of 50 C/s causes the transformation to occur by a bainitic mechanism.

  10. Phase transformations in an ascending adiabatic mixed-phase cloud volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinsky, M.; Khain, A.; Korolev, A.

    2015-04-01

    Regimes of liquid-ice coexistence that may form in an adiabatic parcel ascending at constant velocity at freezing temperatures are investigated. Four zones with different microphysical structures succeeding one another along the vertical direction have been established. On the basis of a novel balance equation, analytical expressions are derived to determine the conditions specific for each of these zones. In particular, the necessary and sufficient conditions for formation of liquid water phase within an ascending parcel containing only ice particles are determined. The results are compared to findings reported in earlier studies. The role of the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen mechanism in the phase transformation is analyzed. The dependence of the phase relaxation time on height in the four zones is investigated on the basis of a novel analytical expression. The results obtained in the study can be instrumental for analysis and interpretation of observed mixed-phase clouds.

  11. Phase and structural transformations in magnetorheological suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iskakova, L. Yu.; Romanchuk, A. P.; Zubarev, A. Yu.

    2006-07-01

    Particle condensation in magnetorheological suspensions (MRS) under external magnetic field is studied theoretically. It is shown that the bulk condensation of particles into dense phases is preceded by the formation of fairly long chain aggregates. Phase transition occurs as a condensation of such chains due to their magnetic interaction. In thin layers of MRS, placed into the normal magnetic field, scenario of the phase transition differs essentially from that in infinite volumes of these systems. Equilibrium state of the system after the phase transition corresponds to the formation of ensemble of discrete domains of the dense phase rather than to separation into two massive phases as it takes place in infinite media.

  12. Atomic structure and pressure-induced phase transformations in a phase-change alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ming

    Phase-change materials exist in at least two phases under the ambient condition. One is the amorphous state and another is crystalline phase. These two phases have vastly different physical properties, such as electrical conductivity, optical reflectivity, mass density, thermal conductivity, etc. The distinct physical properties and the fast transformation between amorphous and crystalline phases render these materials the ability to store information. For example, the DVD and the Blue-ray discs take advantage of the optical reflectivity contrast, and the newly developed solid-state memories make use of the large conductivity difference. In addition, both the amorphous and crystalline phases in phase-change memories (PCMs) are very stable at room temperature, and they are easy to be scaled up in the production of devices with large storage density. All these features make phase-change materials the ideal candidates for the next-generation memories. Despite of the fast development of these new memory materials in industry, many fundamental physics problems underlying these interesting materials are still not fully resolved. This thesis is aiming at solving some of the key issues in phase-change materials. Most of phase-change materials are composed of Ge-Sb-Te constituents. Among all these Ge-Sb-Te based materials, Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) has the best performance and has been frequently studied as a prototypical phase-change material. The first and foremost issue is the structure of the two functioning phases. In this thesis, we investigate the unique atomic structure and bonding nature of amorphous GST (a-GST) and crystalline GST ( c-GST), using ab initio tools and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. Their local structures and bonding scenarios are then analyzed using electronic structure calculations. In order to gain insight into the fast phase transformation mechanism, we also carried out a series of high-pressure experiments on GST. Several new polymorphs and their

  13. TIME-TEMPERATURE-TRANSFORMATION (TTT) DIAGRAMS FOR FUTURE WASTE COMPOSITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Billings, A.; Edwards, T.

    2010-07-08

    As a part of the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms defined by the Department of Energy - Office of Environmental Management, the waste form stability must be determined for each of the projected high-level waste (HLW) types at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Specifically, WAPS 1.4.1 requires the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) to be defined and time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagrams to be developed. The T{sub g} of a glass is an indicator of the approximate temperature where the supercooled liquid converts to a solid on cooling or conversely, where the solid begins to behave as a viscoelastic solid on heating. A TTT diagram identifies the crystalline phases that can form as a function of time and temperature for a given waste type or more specifically, the borosilicate glass waste form. In order to assess durability, the Product Consistency Test (PCT) was used and the durability results compared to the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass. The measurement of glass transition temperature and the development of TTT diagrams have already been performed for the seven Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) projected compositions as defined in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP) and in SRNL-STI-2009-00025. Additional phase transformation information exists for other projected compositions, but overall these compositions did not cover composition regions estimated for future waste processing. To develop TTT diagrams for future waste types, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) fabricated two caches of glass from reagent grade oxides to simulate glass compositions which would be likely processed with and without Al dissolution. These were used for glass transition temperature measurement and TTT diagram development. The glass transition temperatures of both glasses were measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and were recorded to be 448 C and 452 C. Using the previous TTT diagrams as

  14. Low Temperature Phase Instability of the Gamma Phase in SnIn Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, S; Yanar, C; Schwartz, A J; Massalski, T B; Laughlin, D E

    2005-08-19

    The Sn-rich side of the Sn-In phase diagram has been investigated at temperatures ranging from 77 to 500 K by using X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, and magnetization measurements. It is confirmed that the {beta}-Sn(In)-phase can remain as a metastable phase down to 77 K within the composition range of 86.3-94 at% of Sn. An isothermal displacive (martensitic) transition of the {gamma} phase to the metastable {beta} phase is suggested as the mechanism of the transformation.

  15. Anomalous plasticity in defect-mediated phase transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghimire, Punam; Ravelo, R.; Germann, T. C.

    2014-03-01

    Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of shocked wave propagation in metallic single crystals exhibit high elastic limits and are ideally suited for investigating the role defect nucleation and multiplication play on the kinetics of phase transformations. Here we report on the morphology and kinetics of shocked-induced phase transformations in Aluminum single crystals. The atomic interactions were modeled utilizing various embedded atom method (EAM) models of Aluminum, with most models exhibiting an artificial fcc -->bcc phase transformation in the 25-30 GPa range. For cases where plastic deformation precedes the phase transformation, anomalous defect structures atypical of plastic deformation in bcc lattices nucleate early on but anneal out with time. In all cases, the defect-mediated phase transitions proceed at faster rates than defect-free ones. Part of this work supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under AFOSR Award No. FA9550-12-1-0476.

  16. Development of an interatomic potential for the simulation of defects, plasticity, and phase transformations in titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendelev, M. I.; Underwood, T. L.; Ackland, G. J.

    2016-10-01

    New interatomic potentials describing defects, plasticity, and high temperature phase transitions for Ti are presented. Fitting the martensitic hcp-bcc phase transformation temperature requires an efficient and accurate method to determine it. We apply a molecular dynamics method based on determination of the melting temperature of competing solid phases, and Gibbs-Helmholtz integration, and a lattice-switch Monte Carlo method: these agree on the hcp-bcc transformation temperatures to within 2 K. We were able to develop embedded atom potentials which give a good fit to either low or high temperature data, but not both. The first developed potential (Ti1) reproduces the hcp-bcc transformation and melting temperatures and is suitable for the simulation of phase transitions and bcc Ti. Two other potentials (Ti2 and Ti3) correctly describe defect properties and can be used to simulate plasticity or radiation damage in hcp Ti. The fact that a single embedded atom method potential cannot describe both low and high temperature phases may be attributed to neglect of electronic degrees of freedom, notably bcc has a much higher electronic entropy. A temperature-dependent potential obtained from the combination of potentials Ti1 and Ti2 may be used to simulate Ti properties at any temperature.

  17. Development of an interatomic potential for the simulation of defects, plasticity, and phase transformations in titanium.

    PubMed

    Mendelev, M I; Underwood, T L; Ackland, G J

    2016-10-21

    New interatomic potentials describing defects, plasticity, and high temperature phase transitions for Ti are presented. Fitting the martensitic hcp-bcc phase transformation temperature requires an efficient and accurate method to determine it. We apply a molecular dynamics method based on determination of the melting temperature of competing solid phases, and Gibbs-Helmholtz integration, and a lattice-switch Monte Carlo method: these agree on the hcp-bcc transformation temperatures to within 2 K. We were able to develop embedded atom potentials which give a good fit to either low or high temperature data, but not both. The first developed potential (Ti1) reproduces the hcp-bcc transformation and melting temperatures and is suitable for the simulation of phase transitions and bcc Ti. Two other potentials (Ti2 and Ti3) correctly describe defect properties and can be used to simulate plasticity or radiation damage in hcp Ti. The fact that a single embedded atom method potential cannot describe both low and high temperature phases may be attributed to neglect of electronic degrees of freedom, notably bcc has a much higher electronic entropy. A temperature-dependent potential obtained from the combination of potentials Ti1 and Ti2 may be used to simulate Ti properties at any temperature.

  18. Development of an interatomic potential for the simulation of defects, plasticity, and phase transformations in titanium

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelev, M. I.; Underwood, T. L.; Ackland, G. J.

    2016-10-17

    New interatomic potentials describing defects, plasticity, and high temperature phase transitions for Ti are presented. Fitting the martensitic hcp-bcc phase transformation temperature requires an efficient and accurate method to determine it. We apply a molecular dynamics method based on determination of the melting temperature of competing solid phases, and Gibbs-Helmholtz integration, and a lattice-switch Monte Carlo method: these agree on the hcp-bcc transformation temperatures to within 2 K. We were able to develop embedded atom potentials which give a good fit to either low or high temperature data, but not both. The first developed potential (Ti1) reproduces the hcp-bcc transformation and melting temperatures and is suitable for the simulation of phase transitions and bcc Ti. Two other potentials (Ti2 and Ti3) correctly describe defect properties and can be used to simulate plasticity or radiation damage in hcp Ti. The fact that a single embedded atom method potential cannot describe both low and high temperature phases may be attributed to neglect of electronic degrees of freedom, notably bcc has a much higher electronic entropy. As a result, a temperature-dependent potential obtained from the combination of potentials Ti1 and Ti2 may be used to simulate Ti properties at any temperature.

  19. Effect of hydrogen on the structure of quenched orthorhombic titanium aluminide-based alloy and phase transformations during subsequent heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadzhieva, O. G.; Illarionov, A. G.; Popov, A. A.; Grib, S. V.

    2013-06-01

    The effect of hydrogen on structure formation and changes in the volume fractions of phases in an alloy based on orthorhombic titanium aluminide ( O phase) alloy upon its quenching is studied. X-ray diffraction analysis is used to determine the lattice parameters of phases. It has been shown that hydrogen is dissolved mainly in the β0 phase. Differential thermal analysis is used to determine stages and temperature ranges of phase transformations during heating; it was found that introduced hydrogen shifts the β0 → O and reverse O → β0 transformations into the low-temperature range; the enthalpies of transformation are calculated.

  20. Non-gauge phase transformations in quantum transition amplitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiss, H. R.

    1993-01-01

    The prescription for introducing a gauge transformation into a quantum transition amplitude, nominally well known, contains an ambiguous feature. It is presumed by some authors that an appropriate transformation of the phase of a wave function will generate the associated gauge transformation. It is shown that this is a necessary but not sufficient step. Examples from the literature are cited to show the consequences of the failure of this procedure. One must distinguish between true gauge transformations and unitary transformations within a fixed gauge.

  1. Zig-zag twins and helical phase transformations.

    PubMed

    Ganor, Yaniv; Dumitrică, Traian; Feng, Fan; James, Richard D

    2016-04-28

    We demonstrate the large bending deformation induced by an array of permanent magnets (applied field ∼0.02 T) designed to minimize poles in the bent state of the crystal. Planar cantilevers of NiMnGa (5M modulated martensite) ferromagnetic shape memory alloy deform into an arched shape according to theory, with a zig-zag microstructure that complies with the kinematic and magnetic compatibility between adjacent twin variants. A general theory of bent and twisted states is given, applicable to both twinning and austenite/martensite transformations. Some of these configurations achieve order-of-magnitude amplification of rotation and axial strain. We investigate also atomistic analogues of these bent and twisted configurations with perfect interfaces between phases. These mechanisms of large deformation, induced by small magnetic fields or temperature changes, have potential application to the development of new actuation technologies for micro-robotic systems.

  2. Hydrogen-Induced Phase Transformations: a Base for a New Sphere of the Science of Metals (an Analytical Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goltsov, V. A.

    2017-03-01

    Data on the phase transformations induced in metals by hydrogen are generalized and analyzed. It is suggested to classify hydrogen-induced phase transformations on the basis of allowance for the temperature dependence of the parameters of diffusion of substitutional and interstitial (hydrogen) atoms like in the classical science of metals. A pioneer classification of hydrogen-induced phase transformations by this method is developed.

  3. Conductor requirements for high-temperature superconducting utility power transformers

    SciTech Connect

    Pleva, E. F.; Mehrotra, V.; Schwenterly, S W

    2010-01-01

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) coated conductors in utility power transformers must satisfy a set of operating requirements that are driven by two major considerations-HTS transformers must be economically competitive with conventional units, and the conductor must be robust enough to be used in a commercial manufacturing environment. The transformer design and manufacturing process will be described in order to highlight the various requirements that it imposes on the HTS conductor. Spreadsheet estimates of HTS transformer costs allow estimates of the conductor cost required for an HTS transformer to be competitive with a similarly performing conventional unit.

  4. Effects of phase transformation of steam-water relative permeabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, A.K.

    1986-03-01

    A combined theoretical and experimental study of steam-water relative permeabilities (RPs) was carried out. First, an experimental study of two-phase concurrent flow of steam and water was conducted and a set of RP curves was obtained. These curves were compared with semi-empirical and experimental results obtained by other investigators for two-phase, two-component flow (oil/gas; gas/water; gas/oil). It was found that while the wetting phase RPs were in good agreement, RPs for the steam phase were considerably higher than the non-wetting phase RPs in two-component systems. This enhancement of steam RP is attributed to phase transformation effects at the pore level in flow channels. The effects of phase transformation were studied theoretically. This study indicates that there are two separate mechanisms by which phase transformation affects RP curves: (1) Phase transformation is converging-diverging flow channels can cause an enhancement of steam phase RP. In a channel dominated by steam a fraction of the flowing steam condenses upstream from the constriction, depositing its latent heat of condensation. This heat is conducted through the solid grains around the pore throat, and evaporation takes place downstream from it. Therefore, for a given bulk flow quality; a smaller fraction of steam actually flows through the throat segments. This pore-level effect manifests itself as relative permeability enhancement on a macroscopic level; and (2) phase transformation along the interface of a stagnant phase and the phase flowing around it controls the irreducible phase saturation. Therefore, the irreducible phase saturation in steam-water flow will depend, among other factors, on the boundary conditions of the flow.

  5. White Layer Formation Due to Phase Transformation to Orthogonal machine of AISI 1045 Annealed Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Sangil; Melkote, Shreyes N; Haluska, Dr. Michael S; Watkins, Thomas R

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly believed that the white layer formed during machining of steels is caused primarily by a thermally induced phase transformation resulting from rapid heating and quenching. As a result, it is often assumed that if the temperature at the tool flank-workpiece interface exceeds the nominal phase transformation temperature for the steel, a white layer forms. However, no attempt has been made to actually measure the temperatures produced at the tool flank-workpiece interface and correlate it with microstructural evidence of phase transformation. This paper aims to address these limitations through suitably designed experiments and analysis. Orthogonal machining tests were performed on AISI 1045 annealed steel at different cutting speeds and tool flank wear. During machining, temperature measurements at the tool flank-workpiece interface were made using an exposed thermocouple technique. Metallographic studies of the machined sub-surface and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were performed to determine the presence and depth of white layer, and the presence of the retained austenite phase in the machined surface layer, respectively. Analysis of the data shows that the white layer can form due to phase transformation at temperatures below the nominal austenitization temperature of the steel. Possible causes of this result are presented.

  6. Indentation-induced structural phase transformations of semiconductor materials and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khayyat, Maha; Sosa, Norma; Chaudhri, M. Munawar; Cavendish laboratory, University of Cambridge Team; T. J. Watson Research Center, IBM Collaboration

    During hardness indentation materials are subjected to highly localized pressures. These pressures may cause a complete change of the crystal structure of the material within the indented zone. Such structural phase transformations were observed within Vickers indentations made at room temperature in single crystals and amorphous films of Si and Ge. However, when indentations were made at 77 K in Si and Ge, no phase transitions were observed in either. Measurements were also taken from indentations made in silicon single crystals at different temperatures namely 263, 243, 235 and 206 K, and they showed a strong correlation of phase transformation with temperature. It was suggested that during room temperature indentations there is a significant temperature rise approximately to 760 K, which may assist phase transformation. Raman spectroscopy was used as an ex-situ tool monitoring phase transformations in semiconductor materials. In-situ electrical characterizations of indentation-induced metallization in single crystals of silicon were performed using two- and four-contact measurements. The previous work has led to a technique relates to semiconductor device manufacturing, including solar cells, which is a method for controlling the removal of a surface layer from a base substrate utilizing low-temperature. KACST is acknowledged for support.

  7. Reflectance Changes during Shock-induced Phase Transformations in Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, G. D.; Turley, W. D.; Veeser, L. R.; Jensen, B. J.; Rigg, P. A.

    2010-06-01

    In performing shock wave experiments to study the characteristics of metals at high pressures, wave profiles (i.e., velocity measurements of the surface of the sample) are an established and useful way to study phase transformations. For example, a sudden change in the velocity or its slope can occur when the phase transformation induces a large volume change leading to a change in particle velocity. Allowing the shock to release into a transparent window that is in contact with the sample surface allows the study of conditions away from the shock Hugoniot. However, in cases where the wave profile is not definitive an additional phase-transformation diagnostic would be useful. Changes in the electronic structure of the atoms in the crystal offer opportunities to develop new phase-change diagnostics. We have studied optical reflectance changes for several phase transformations to see whether reflectance changes might be a generally applicable phase-transformation diagnostic. Shocks were produced by direct contact with explosives or with impacts from guns. Optical wavelengths for the reflectance measurements ranged from 355 to 700 nm. We studied samples of tin, iron, gallium, and cerium as each passed through a phase transformation during shock loading and, if observable, a reversion upon unloading. For solid-solid phase changes in tin and iron we saw small changes in the surface scattering characteristics, perhaps from voids or rough areas frozen into the surface of the sample as it transformed to a new crystal structure. For melt in gallium and cerium we saw changes in the wavelength dependence of the reflectance, and we surmise that these changes may result from changes in the crystal electronic structure. It appears that reflectance measurements can be a significant part of a larger suite of diagnostics to search for difficult-to-detect phase transformations.

  8. Influence of Rapid Thermal Ramp Rate on Phase Transformation of Titanium Silicides

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Glenn; Hu, Yao, Zhi; Smith, Paul Martin; Tay, Sing Pin; Thakur, Randhir; Yang, Jiting

    1999-05-03

    ULSI technology requires low resistance, stable silicides formed on small geometry lines. Titanium disilicide (TiSiz), which is the most widely used silicide for ULSI applications, exists in two crystallographic phases: the high resistance, metastable C49 phase and the low resistance, stable C54 phase. The major issue with TiSiz is the increasing thermal budget required to transform the C49 phase into the low resistance C54 phase as linewiths decrease below 0.25 pm. Annealing above 900"C to obtain this transformation often results in thermal degradation, so it is desirable to reduce the transformation temperature. The transformation temperature has been shown to be a fi.mction of many factors including microstructure, grain size, and impurities. In this paper we report an investig+ion of rapid thermal silicidation of titanium films (250, 400, and 600 A) on single crystalline silicon at temperatures from 300 to 1000"C. The ramp rates for these experiments are 5, 30, 70, and 200oC/s. The transformation temperature decreases as the ramp rate increases and as the initial film thickness increases. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to analyze the resultant film microstructure. The ramp rate influence on Ti silicidation is also investigated on polycrystalline Si lines with widths ranging from 0.27 to 3.0 pm.

  9. Synthesis of general polarization transformers. A geometric phase approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhandari, Rajendra

    1989-07-01

    Using a generalized form of Jordan's formulation of the geometric phase problem it is shown that a single gadget capable of realising an arbitrary element of the polarization transformation group SU (2) can be constructed using two half-wave plates and two quarter-wave plates. For special transformations, simpler, practical gadgets are proposed.

  10. Typical Phases of Transformative Learning: A Practice-Based Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nohl, Arnd-Michael

    2015-01-01

    Empirical models of transformative learning offer important insights into the core characteristics of this concept. Whereas previous analyses were limited to specific social groups or topical terrains, this article empirically typifies the phases of transformative learning on the basis of a comparative analysis of various social groups and topical…

  11. Edge Detection in Digital Images Using Dispersive Phase Stretch Transform

    PubMed Central

    Asghari, Mohammad H.; Jalali, Bahram

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new computational approach to edge detection and its application to biomedical images. Our digital algorithm transforms the image by emulating the propagation of light through a physical medium with specific warped diffractive property. We show that the output phase of the transform reveals transitions in image intensity and can be used for edge detection. PMID:25878656

  12. Texture Evolution and Phase Transformation in Titanium Investigated by In-Situ Neutron Diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Dong; Stoica, Alexandru Dan; An, Ke; Yang, Ling; Bei, Hongbin; Mills, Rebecca A; Skorpenske, Harley David; Wang, Xun-Li

    2011-01-01

    We report in-situ neutron diffraction studies of texture evolution and the (hcp) (bcc) phase transformation in commercially pure cold-drawn titanium upon continuous heating and cooling, complemented by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements. We show that the recrystallization of the phase at elevated temperature enhanced the preexisting fiber texture, which eventually facilitated the nucleation and growth of the phase favored by the Burgers orientation relationship, i.e., {0001} //{110} . More strikingly, upon completion of the transformation, the {110} texture (or preferred orientation) in was eliminated immediately by the rapid grain growth of intergranular allotriomorphs. This resulted in the loss of the original -texture when Ti was transformed back to from to upon subsequent cooling, distinct from the known texture memory effect for rolling textures in titanium. Our present work provides useful experimental results for understanding the mechanisms of texture evolution and phase transformation in titanium and its alloys and, by and large, low-symmetry alloys such as zirconium.

  13. Macroscopic behavior of a bar undergoing the paraelectric-ferroelectric phase transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qing

    1993-10-01

    R ECENT WORK of the author has developed a continuum model for the paraelectric—ferroelectric phase transformation. The present paper describes the detailed implications of this model when it has been supplemented with constitutive information pertaining to the phase transformation. An explicit Helmholtz potential has been constructed to characterize a hypothetical crystal capable of undergoing the paraelectric-ferroelectric phase transformation under the influence of applied electric fields or thermomechanical loads. The hysteretic macroscopic behavior associated with the phase transformation, induced by variation of temperature, application of electric fields and mechanical loads, has been studied. Some of the predictions have been compared qualitatively with experimental observations. The entire analysis is carried out within a one-dimensional setting.

  14. Molecular dynamics simulation of the martensitic phase transformation in NiAl alloys.

    PubMed

    Pun, G P Purja; Mishin, Y

    2010-10-06

    Using molecular dynamics simulations with an embedded-atom interatomic potential, we study the effect of chemical composition and uniaxial mechanical stresses on the martensitic phase transformation in Ni-rich NiAl alloys. The martensitic phase has a tetragonal crystal structure and can contain multiple twins arranged in domains and plates. The transformation is reversible and is characterized by a significant temperature hysteresis. The magnitude of the hysteresis depends on the chemical composition and stress. We show that applied compressive and tensile stresses reduce and can even eliminate the hysteresis. Crystalline defects such as free surfaces, dislocations and anti-phase boundaries reduce the martensitic transformation temperature and affect the microstructure of the martensite. Their effect can be explained by heterogeneous nucleation of the new phase in defected regions.

  15. Model of High Temperature Phase Transitions in Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, E. S.

    2016-04-01

    On the basis of the assumption of the electron density fluctuation at the band degradation, a calculation parameter (the radius R) of the half-width of the probability distribution over the coordinate R is identified at the level of the maximum electron density fluctuation (at a maximum of the Gaussian function). Based on an analysis of the crystallization process and high polymorphic transformations bcc → fcc, the reasons for the formation of bcc, fcc, hexagonal, and tetragonal structures from the liquid phase, as well as for the high temperature bcc → hcp transition in the solid phase are established using the calculated parameter (the radius R) in the solid and liquid phases.

  16. X-ray diffraction studies of phase transformations in heavy-metal fluoride glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, N. P.; Doremus, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    Powder X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry studies of the crystallization properties of five ZrF4-based glass compositions have indicated that the crystalline phase in Zr-Ba-La-Pb fluoride glass is beta-BaZrF6; no such identification of crystal phases was obtainable, however, for the other glasses. Reversible polymorphic phase transformations occur in Zr-Ba-La-Li and Zr-Ba-La-Na fluoride glasses, upon heating to higher temperatures.

  17. Positive phase space transformation incompatible with classical physics.

    PubMed

    Son, Wonmin; Kofler, Johannes; Kim, M S; Vedral, Vlatko; Brukner, Caslav

    2009-03-20

    Bell conjectured that a positive Wigner function does not allow violation of the inequalities imposed by local hidden variable theories. A requirement for this conjecture is "when phase space measurements are performed." We introduce the theory-independent concept of "operationally local transformations" which refers to the change of the switch on a local measurement apparatus. We show that two separated parties, performing only phase space measurements on a composite quantum system with a positive Wigner function and performing only operationally local transformations that preserve this positivity, can nonetheless violate Bell's inequality. Such operationally local transformations are realized using entangled ancillae.

  18. Phase transformations in SrAl2Si2O8 glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Charles H., III; Bansal, Narottam P.

    1992-01-01

    Bulk glass of SrAl2Si2O8 composition crystallized at temperatures below 1000 C into hexacelsian, a hexagonal phase which undergoes a reversible, rapid transformation to an orthorhombic phase at 758 C, and at higher temperatures crystallized as celsian, a monoclinic phase. The glass transition temperature and crystallization onset temperature were determined to be 883 C and 1086 C, respectively, from DSC at a heating rate of 20 C/min. Thermal expansion of the various phases and density and bend strengths of cold isostatically pressed glass powder bars, sintered at various temperatures, were measured. The kinetics of the hexacelsian-to-celsian transformation for SrAl2Si2O8 were studied. Hexacelsian flakes were isothermally heat treated at temperatures from 1025-1200 C for various times. Avrami plots were determined by quantitatively measuring the amount of monoclinic celsian formed at various times using x ray diffraction. The Avrami constant was determined to be 1.1, suggesting a diffusionless, one dimensional transformation mechanism. The activation energy was determined from an Arrhenius plot of 1n k vs. 1/T to be 125 kilocal/mole. This value is consistent with a mechanism which transforms the layered hexacelsian structure to a three dimensional framework celsian structure and involves the breaking of Si-O bonds.

  19. Complexion-mediated martensitic phase transformation in Titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Tasan, C. C.; Lai, M. J.; Dippel, A.-C.; Raabe, D.

    2017-02-01

    The most efficient way to tune microstructures and mechanical properties of metallic alloys lies in designing and using athermal phase transformations. Examples are shape memory alloys and high strength steels, which together stand for 1,500 million tons annual production. In these materials, martensite formation and mechanical twinning are tuned via composition adjustment for realizing complex microstructures and beneficial mechanical properties. Here we report a new phase transformation that has the potential to widen the application window of Ti alloys, the most important structural material in aerospace design, by nanostructuring them via complexion-mediated transformation. This is a reversible martensitic transformation mechanism that leads to a final nanolaminate structure of α'' (orthorhombic) martensite bounded with planar complexions of athermal ω (a-ω, hexagonal). Both phases are crystallographically related to the parent β (BCC) matrix. As expected from a planar complexion, the a-ω is stable only at the hetero-interface.

  20. Complexion-mediated martensitic phase transformation in Titanium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Tasan, C C; Lai, M J; Dippel, A-C; Raabe, D

    2017-02-01

    The most efficient way to tune microstructures and mechanical properties of metallic alloys lies in designing and using athermal phase transformations. Examples are shape memory alloys and high strength steels, which together stand for 1,500 million tons annual production. In these materials, martensite formation and mechanical twinning are tuned via composition adjustment for realizing complex microstructures and beneficial mechanical properties. Here we report a new phase transformation that has the potential to widen the application window of Ti alloys, the most important structural material in aerospace design, by nanostructuring them via complexion-mediated transformation. This is a reversible martensitic transformation mechanism that leads to a final nanolaminate structure of α″ (orthorhombic) martensite bounded with planar complexions of athermal ω (a-ω, hexagonal). Both phases are crystallographically related to the parent β (BCC) matrix. As expected from a planar complexion, the a-ω is stable only at the hetero-interface.

  1. Chemically Induced Phase Transformation in Austenite by Focused Ion Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basa, Adina; Thaulow, Christian; Barnoush, Afrooz

    2013-11-01

    A highly stable austenite phase in a super duplex stainless steel was subjected to a combination of different gallium ion doses at different acceleration voltages. It was shown that contrary to what is expected, an austenite to ferrite phase transformation occurred within the focused ion beam (FIB) milled regions. Chemical analysis of the FIB milled region proved that the gallium implantation preceded the FIB milling. High resolution electron backscatter diffraction analysis also showed that the phase transformation was not followed by the typical shear and plastic deformation expected from the martensitic transformation. On the basis of these observations, it was concluded that the change in the chemical composition of the austenite and the local increase in gallium, which is a ferrite stabilizer, results in the local selective transformation of austenite to ferrite.

  2. Complexion-mediated martensitic phase transformation in Titanium

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, J.; Tasan, C. C.; Lai, M. J.; Dippel, A. -C.; Raabe, D.

    2017-01-01

    The most efficient way to tune microstructures and mechanical properties of metallic alloys lies in designing and using athermal phase transformations. Examples are shape memory alloys and high strength steels, which together stand for 1,500 million tons annual production. In these materials, martensite formation and mechanical twinning are tuned via composition adjustment for realizing complex microstructures and beneficial mechanical properties. Here we report a new phase transformation that has the potential to widen the application window of Ti alloys, the most important structural material in aerospace design, by nanostructuring them via complexion-mediated transformation. This is a reversible martensitic transformation mechanism that leads to a final nanolaminate structure of α″ (orthorhombic) martensite bounded with planar complexions of athermal ω (a–ω, hexagonal). Both phases are crystallographically related to the parent β (BCC) matrix. As expected from a planar complexion, the a–ω is stable only at the hetero-interface. PMID:28145484

  3. Phase equilibria and solid state transformations in niobium-rich niobium-titanium-aluminum intermetallic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Keith John

    The phase equilibria and solid state transformations within seven Nb-rich Nb-Ti-Al alloys were investigated. The alloys ranged in composition between 15 and 40 at.% Al with Nb:Ti ratios of 1.5:1 to 4:1. Examination of the as-cast microstructures revealed that all alloys solidified from the beta phase field, with subsequent solid-state transformations occurring within four of the alloys during cooling. The range of primary beta phase solidification was determined to extend beyond the limits of previous liquidus projections. The high temperature beta phase field was verified in each alloy through quenching experiments. The beta phase exhibited B2 ordering at room temperature with the order-disorder transition temperatures increasing with Ti concentration. The site occupancy preferences within the beta phase were evaluated through the ALCHEMI technique, which determined that Ti substitution occurred for Nb on Nb sublattice sites with the degree of sublattice partitioning found to depend upon alloy composition. The phase equilibria and transformations that occurred within the alloys were explored over a complete range of temperatures, with experimental isotherms produced at 1400, 1100, 900 and 700°C. Formation of metastable O-Ti 2AlNb plates occurred within the 15 at.% Al alloys at 700°C, instead of the delta-Nb3Al phase due to the slow diffusion growth kinetics of the delta phase below 900°C. A new phase with a body centered tetragonal structure belonging to the I41/amd space group was discovered in the Nb-24Ti-40Al alloy below 1100°C. This phase formed as lamella with the gamma-TiAl phase from the beta solid solution at 900 and 700°C, and was also present following treatments at 1100 + 900, 1100 + 700°C and within material oil quenched from elevated temperatures. No correlation existed between this phase and either the r-TiAl2 phase, which also has the I41/amd structure, or the gamma1 phase, which was not observed within this work. The formation of a metastable

  4. A new phase transformation path from nanodiamond to new-diamond via an intermediate carbon onion.

    PubMed

    Xiao, J; Li, J L; Liu, P; Yang, G W

    2014-12-21

    The investigation of carbon allotropes such as graphite, diamond, fullerenes, nanotubes and carbon onions and mechanisms that underlie their mutual phase transformation is a long-standing problem of great fundamental importance. New diamond (n-diamond) is a novel metastable phase of carbon with a face-centered cubic structure; it is called "new diamond" because many reflections in its electron diffraction pattern are similar to those of diamond. However, producing n-diamond from raw carbon materials has so far been challenging due to n-diamond's higher formation energy than that of diamond. Here, we, for the first time, demonstrate a new phase transformation path from nanodiamond to n-diamond via an intermediate carbon onion in the unique process of laser ablation in water, and establish that water plays a crucial role in the formation of n-diamond. When a laser irradiates colloidal suspensions of nanodiamonds at ambient pressure and room temperature, nanodiamonds are first transformed into carbon onions serving as an intermediate phase, and sequentially carbon onions are transformed into n-diamonds driven by the laser-induced high temperature and high pressure from the carbon onion as a nanoscaled temperature and pressure cell upon the process of laser irradiation in a liquid. This phase transformation not only provides new insight into the physical mechanism involved, but also offers one suitable opportunity for breaking controllable pathways between n-diamond and carbon allotropes such as diamond and carbon onions.

  5. Nucleation, kinetics and morphology of displacive phase transformations in iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suiker, A. S. J.; Thijsse, B. J.

    2013-11-01

    An extensive, systematic molecular dynamics (MD) study is performed for analysing the nucleation, kinetics and morphology characteristics of thermally-induced, displacive phase transformations from face-centred cubic (fcc) to body-centred cubic (bcc) iron. At the atomic level these transformation characteristics are influenced by a number of factors, including (i) the appearance of free surfaces, (ii) the initial presence of fcc-bcc grain boundaries, (iii) the existence of point defects (i.e., atomic vacancies) near a grain boundary, (iv) the initial thermal velocities of the atoms, and (v) the specific interatomic potential used. Other MD studies that capture the overall transformation behaviour of iron well have often underestimated or ignored the influence by these factors on the transformation response, with the risk of putting the accuracy, generality and physical explanation of the MD results on loose grounds. The present research illustrates the relative contribution of each of the above factors by means of a detailed comparison study for three different interatomic potentials. The accuracy of the interatomic potentials is established by validating for the fcc and bcc phases the calculated elastic moduli, cohesive energy, vacancy formation energy and interfacial energy against experimental and ab initio data reported in the literature. The importance of calibrating material data of both the stable bcc phase and the metastable fcc phase - instead of the stable bcc phase only - is demonstrated. The numerical results call for general caution when interpreting phenomena that start close to instability points and therefore are sensitive to small disturbances; a large spread in the overall transformation time is found under different initial thermal velocities, interfacial lattice incoherence, boundary conditions (free vs. periodic), and interatomic potentials, where for completely transformed atomic systems the discrepancy between the maximum and minimum

  6. Development of an interatomic potential for the simulation of defects, plasticity, and phase transformations in titanium

    DOE PAGES

    Mendelev, M. I.; Underwood, T. L.; Ackland, G. J.

    2016-10-17

    New interatomic potentials describing defects, plasticity, and high temperature phase transitions for Ti are presented. Fitting the martensitic hcp-bcc phase transformation temperature requires an efficient and accurate method to determine it. We apply a molecular dynamics method based on determination of the melting temperature of competing solid phases, and Gibbs-Helmholtz integration, and a lattice-switch Monte Carlo method: these agree on the hcp-bcc transformation temperatures to within 2 K. We were able to develop embedded atom potentials which give a good fit to either low or high temperature data, but not both. The first developed potential (Ti1) reproduces the hcp-bcc transformationmore » and melting temperatures and is suitable for the simulation of phase transitions and bcc Ti. Two other potentials (Ti2 and Ti3) correctly describe defect properties and can be used to simulate plasticity or radiation damage in hcp Ti. The fact that a single embedded atom method potential cannot describe both low and high temperature phases may be attributed to neglect of electronic degrees of freedom, notably bcc has a much higher electronic entropy. As a result, a temperature-dependent potential obtained from the combination of potentials Ti1 and Ti2 may be used to simulate Ti properties at any temperature.« less

  7. Effect of uni- and biaxial strain on phase transformations in Fe thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sak-Saracino, Emilia; Urbassek, Herbert M.

    2016-01-01

    Using molecular-dynamics simulation, we study the phase transformations in Fe thin films induced by uni- and biaxial strain. Both the austenitic transformation of a body-centered cubic (bcc) film at the equilibrium temperature of the face-centered cubic (fcc)-bcc transformation and the martensitic transformation of an undercooled fcc film are studied. We demonstrate that different strain states (uni- or biaxial) induce different nucleation kinetics of the new phase and hence different microstructures evolve. For the case of the austenitic transformation, the direction of the applied strain selects the orientation of the nucleated grains of the new phase; the application of biaxial strain leads to a symmetric twinned structure. For the martensitic transformation, the influence of the strain state is even more pronounced, in that it can either inhibit the transformation, induce the homogeneous nucleation of a fine-dispersed array of the new phase resulting in a single-crystalline final state, or lead to the more conventional mechanism of heterogeneous nucleation of grains at the free surfaces, which grow and result in a poly-crystalline microstructure of the transformed material.

  8. Kinetics of Propagating Phase Transformation in Compressed Bismuth

    SciTech Connect

    Bastea, M; Bastea, S; Emig, J; Springer, P; Reisman, D

    2004-08-18

    The authors observed dynamically driven phase transitions in isentropically compressed bismuth. By changing the stress loading conditions they explored two distinct cases one in which the experimental signature of the phase transformation corresponds to phase-boundary crossings initiated at both sample interfaces, and another in which the experimental trace is due to a single advancing transformation front in the bulk of the material. They introduce a coupled kinetics-hydrodynamics model that for this second case enables them, under suitable simplifying assumptions, to directly extract characteristic transition times from the experimental measurements.

  9. Efficient multiscale phase unwrapping methodology with modulo wavelet transform.

    PubMed

    Blinder, David; Ottevaere, Heidi; Munteanu, Adrian; Schelkens, Peter

    2016-10-03

    Many robust phase unwrapping algorithms are computationally very time-consuming, making them impractical for handling large datasets or real-time applications. In this paper, we propose a generic framework using a novel wavelet transform that can be combined with many types of phase unwrapping algorithms. By inserting reversible modulo operators in the wavelet transform, the number of coefficients that need to be unwrapped is significantly reduced, which results in large computational gains. The algorithm is tested on various types of wrapped phase imagery, reporting speedup factors of up to 500. The source code of the algorithm is publicly available.

  10. Nanoscale Transforming Mineral Phases in Fresh Nacre.

    PubMed

    DeVol, Ross T; Sun, Chang-Yu; Marcus, Matthew A; Coppersmith, Susan N; Myneni, Satish C B; Gilbert, Pupa U P A

    2015-10-21

    Nacre, or mother-of-pearl, the iridescent inner layer of many mollusk shells, is a biomineral lamellar composite of aragonite (CaCO3) and organic sheets. Biomineralization frequently occurs via transient amorphous precursor phases, crystallizing into the final stable biomineral. In nacre, despite extensive attempts, amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) precursors have remained elusive. They were inferred from non-nacre-forming larval shells, or from a residue of amorphous material surrounding mature gastropod nacre tablets, and have only once been observed in bivalve nacre. Here we present the first direct observation of ACC precursors to nacre formation, obtained from the growth front of nacre in gastropod shells from red abalone (Haliotis rufescens), using synchrotron spectromicroscopy. Surprisingly, the abalone nacre data show the same ACC phases that are precursors to calcite (CaCO3) formation in sea urchin spicules, and not proto-aragonite or poorly crystalline aragonite (pAra), as expected for aragonitic nacre. In contrast, we find pAra in coral.

  11. Low-temperature criticality of martensitic transformations of Cu nanoprecipitates in α-Fe.

    PubMed

    Erhart, Paul; Sadigh, Babak

    2013-07-12

    Nanoprecipitates form during nucleation of multiphase equilibria in phase segregating multicomponent systems. In spite of their ubiquity, their size-dependent physical chemistry, in particular, at the boundary between phases with incompatible topologies, is still rather arcane. Here, we use extensive atomistic simulations to map out the size-temperature phase diagram of Cu nanoprecipitates in α-Fe. The growing precipitates undergo martensitic transformations from the body-centered cubic (bcc) phase to multiply twinned 9R structures. At high temperatures, the transitions exhibit strong first-order character and prominent hysteresis. Upon cooling, the discontinuities become less pronounced and the transitions occur at ever smaller cluster sizes. Below 300 K, the hysteresis vanishes while the transition remains discontinuous with a finite but diminishing latent heat. This unusual size-temperature phase diagram results from the entropy generated by the soft modes of the bcc-Cu phase, which are stabilized through confinement by the α-Fe lattice.

  12. α-Phase transformation kinetics of U – 8 wt% Mo established by in situ neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Garlea, Elena; Steiner, M. A.; Calhoun, C. A.; Klein, R. W.; An, K.; Agnew, S. R.

    2016-05-08

    The α-phase transformation kinetics of as-cast U - 8 wt% Mo below the eutectoid temperature have been established by in situ neutron diffraction. α-phase weight fraction data acquired through Rietveld refinement at five different isothermal hold temperatures can be modeled accurately utilizing a simple Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov impingement-based theory, and the results are validated by a corresponding evolution in the γ-phase lattice parameter during transformation that follows Vegard’s law. Neutron diffraction data is used to produce a detailed Time-Temperature-Transformation diagram that improves upon inconsistencies in the current literature, exhibiting a minimum transformation start time of 40 min at temperatures between 500 °C and 510 °C. Lastly, the transformation kinetics of U – 8 wt% Mo can vary significantly from as-cast conditions after extensive heat treatments, due to homogenization of the typical dendritic microstructure which possesses non-negligible solute segregation.

  13. Partially transformed relaxor ferroelectric single crystals with distributed phase transformation behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, John A.

    2015-11-01

    Relaxor ferroelectric single crystals such as PMN-PT and PIN-PMN-PT undergo field driven phase transformations when electrically or mechanically loaded in crystallographic directions that provide a positive driving force for the transformation. The observed behavior in certain compositions is a phase transformation distributed over a range of fields without a distinct forward or reverse coercive field. This work focuses on the material behavior that is observed when the crystals are loaded sufficiently to drive a partial transformation and then unloaded, as might occur when driving a transducer to achieve high power levels. Distributed transformations have been modeled using a normal distribution of transformation thresholds. A set of experiments was conducted to characterize the hysteresis loops that occur with the partial transformations. In this work the normal distribution model is extended to include the partial transformations that occur when the field is reversed before the transformation is complete. The resulting hysteresis loops produced by the model are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  14. Phase field approach to martensitic phase transformations with large strains and interface stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitas, Valery I.

    2014-10-01

    Thermodynamically consistent phase field theory for multivariant martensitic transformations, which includes large strains and interface stresses, is developed. Theory is formulated in a way that some geometrically nonlinear terms do not disappear in the geometrically linear limit, which in particular allowed us to introduce the expression for the interface stresses consistent with the sharp interface approach. Namely, for the propagating nonequilibrium interface, a structural part of the interface Cauchy stresses reduces to a biaxial tension with the magnitude equal to the temperature-dependent interface energy. Additional elastic and viscous contributions to the interface stresses do not require separate constitutive equations and are determined by solution of the coupled system of phase field and mechanics equations. Ginzburg-Landau equations are derived for the evolution of the order parameters and temperature evolution equation. Boundary conditions for the order parameters include variation of the surface energy during phase transformation. Because elastic energy is defined per unit volume of unloaded (intermediate) configuration, additional contributions to the Ginzburg-Landau equations and the expression for entropy appear, which are important even for small strains. A complete system of equations for fifth- and sixth-degree polynomials in terms of the order parameters is presented in the reference and actual configurations. An analytical solution for the propagating interface and critical martensitic nucleus which includes distribution of components of interface stresses has been found for the sixth-degree polynomial. This required resolving a fundamental problem in the interface and surface science: how to define the Gibbsian dividing surface, i.e., the sharp interface equivalent to the finite-width interface. An unexpected, simple solution was found utilizing the principle of static equivalence. In fact, even two equations for determination of the

  15. Dynamic model of a three-phase power transformer

    SciTech Connect

    Dolinar, D.; Pihler, J.; Grcar, B. . Faculty of Technical Sciences)

    1993-10-01

    An adequate mathematical model of a three-phase power transformer is one of the important elements in the programs for the computer analysis of power system transients. Featured in this paper is the simulation model of a three-phase, three-limb core-type power transformer. Non-linear effects of saturation, hysteresis and eddy currents are considered. Two ways of creating major and minor hysteresis loops are presented. The transformer model, described by a system of time dependent differential equations, is solved by an efficient numerical algorithm. The behavior of the transformer model during switching-in and fault transients, as well as other types of transients, has been tested. The computed transient waveforms are compared with the measured ones of there exists very close agreement between them.

  16. Interaction between phase transformations and dislocations at the nanoscale. Part 1. General phase field approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitas, Valery I.; Javanbakht, Mahdi

    2015-09-01

    Thermodynamically consistent, three-dimensional (3D) phase field approach (PFA) for coupled multivariant martensitic transformations (PTs), including cyclic PTs, variant-variant transformations (i.e., twinning), and dislocation evolution is developed at large strains. One of our key points is in the justification of the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient into elastic, transformational, and plastic parts. The plastic part includes four mechanisms: dislocation motion in martensite along slip systems of martensite and slip systems of austenite inherited during PT and dislocation motion in austenite along slip systems of austenite and slip systems of martensite inherited during reverse PT. The plastic part of the velocity gradient for all these mechanisms is defined in the crystal lattice of the austenite utilizing just slip systems of austenite and inherited slip systems of martensite, and just two corresponding types of order parameters. The explicit expressions for the Helmholtz free energy and the transformation and plastic deformation gradients are presented to satisfy the formulated conditions related to homogeneous thermodynamic equilibrium states of crystal lattice and their instabilities. In particular, they result in a constant (i.e., stress- and temperature-independent) transformation deformation gradient and Burgers vectors. Thermodynamic treatment resulted in the determination of the driving forces for change of the order parameters for PTs and dislocations. It also determined the boundary conditions for the order parameters that include a variation of the surface energy during PT and exit of dislocations. Ginzburg-Landau equations for dislocations include variation of properties during PTs, which in turn produces additional contributions from dislocations to the Ginzburg-Landau equations for PTs. A complete system of coupled PFA and mechanics equations is presented. A similar theory can be developed for PFA to dislocations and other

  17. Phase equilibria and transformations in the Ti-Al-Nb system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishurda, Joseph Constantine

    The phase equilibria and transformations in the Nb-Ti-Al system in the vicinity of the Sigma phase field have been examined with respect to the Liquidus Surface (Phase 1), the Phase Equilibria and Equilibrium Transformations (Phase II), and the Phase Transformations, Mechanisms and Kinetics (Phase III). Eight alloy compositions were produced by arc melting. The alloys were characterized by differential thermal analysis, metallography, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (BSEI), electron probe microanalysis and transmission electron microscopy. The liquidus examination shed new light on previous microstructural interpretations, opening up new possibilities for microstructural development and control of multiphase alloys. Differential thermal analysis has identified the existence of a beta to sigma + gamma transformation in an alloy where it was not previously thought to exist. The results differed from the calculated diagram by higher titanium solubility in the sigma and delta phases than predicted at lower temperatures and a lower solubility of alpha2 and gamma. The high temperature betao transforms to gamma + sigma in a eutectoid fashion resulting in a desirable lamellar structure of sigma and gamma. The existence of a new body centered tetragonal crystal structure ao = 5.11A and co 28.12A with a point group symmetry of P4/mmm, at 700°C was discovered. A plethel section was found for the sigma + beta two phase alloys. A betao + O + sigma three phase field passes through the alloys between 981 and 1000°C. The plethel section at the transformation has an eutectoid characteristic, however, the nature of the transformation changes to a peritectoid. At temperatures below 970°C, the first transformation to occur is the decomposition of the metastable betao phase to an intermediate metastable phase O'. Reasonable values for Q were obtained, applicable to the diffusion limited region of the TTT-curve. The microstructure evolution of the sigma + beta

  18. Interaction between phase transformations and dislocations at the nanoscale. Part 2: Phase field simulation examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javanbakht, Mahdi; Levitas, Valery I.

    2015-09-01

    The complete system of phase field equations for coupled martensitic phase transformations (PTs), dislocation evolution, and mechanics at large strains is presented. Finite element method (FEM) is utilized to solve this system for two important problems. The first one is related to the simulation of shear strain-induced PT at the evolving dislocation pile-ups in a nanosized bicrystal. Plasticity plays a dual part in the interaction with PT. Dislocation pile-ups produce strong stress tensor concentrators that lead to barrierless martensite (M) nucleation. On the other hand, plasticity in the transforming grain relaxes these stress concentrators suppressing PT. The final stationary M morphology is governed by the local thermodynamic equilibrium, either at the interfaces or in terms of stresses averaged over the martensitic region or the entire grain. This is very surprising because of strong heterogeneity of stress fields and is in contrast to previous statements that phase equilibrium conditions do not enter the description of strain-induced PTs. The second problem is devoted to martensitic plate propagation through a bicrystal during temperature-induced PT. For elastic growth (without dislocations) and a large thermal driving force, a complex transformation path with plate branching and direct and reverse PTs is observed, which still ends with the same stationary nanostructure as for a smaller driving force and a traditional transformation path. Sharp grain boundary arrests plate growth at a relatively small driving force, exhibiting an athermal friction. For elastoplastic growth, the generation of dislocations produces athermal friction and arrests the plate below some critical driving force, leading to a morphological transition from plate to lath M. The width of the martensitic plate increases in comparison with elastic growth due to internal stress relaxation. Plate growth is accompanied by the nucleation of dislocations within M and remaining in M, the

  19. ISOTHERMAL PHASE TRANSFORMATION CYCLING IN STEEL BY APPLICATION OF A HIGH MAGNETIC FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Ludtka, Gerard Michael; Jaramillo, Roger A; Ludtka, Gail Mackiewicz-; Kisner, Roger A; Wilgen, John B

    2007-01-01

    A phase transformation reversal via the application and removal of a large magnetic field was investigated. Because a large magnetic field can alter the phase equilibrium between paramagnetic austenite and ferromagnetic ferrite, volume fractions for each phase constituent can be modified at constant temperature by changing the magnetic field strength. In this research elevated temperature isothermal hold experiments were performed for 5160 steel. During the isothermal hold, the magnetic field was cycled between 0 and 30 Tesla. As companion experiments, temperature cycling and isothermal holds were performed without magnetic fields. The resulting microstructures were examined using optical and SEM metallography. These microstructures indicate that a portion of the microstructure experiences isothermal transformation cycling between austenite and ferrite due to the application and removal of the 30T (Tesla) magnetic field.

  20. Relativistic Random Phase Approximation At Finite Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, Y. F.; Paar, N.; Vretenar, D.; Meng, J.

    2009-08-26

    The fully self-consistent finite temperature relativistic random phase approximation (FTRRPA) has been established in the single-nucleon basis of the temperature dependent Dirac-Hartree model (FTDH) based on effective Lagrangian with density dependent meson-nucleon couplings. Illustrative calculations in the FTRRPA framework show the evolution of multipole responses of {sup 132}Sn with temperature. With increased temperature, in both monopole and dipole strength distributions additional transitions appear in the low energy region due to the new opened particle-particle and hole-hole transition channels.

  1. Phase transformations in steels: Processing, microstructure, and performance

    DOE PAGES

    Gibbs, Paul J.

    2014-04-03

    In this study, contemporary steel research is revealing new processing avenues to tailor microstructure and properties that, until recently, were only imaginable. Much of the technological versatility facilitating this development is provided by the understanding and utilization of the complex phase transformation sequences available in ferrous alloys. Today we have the opportunity to explore the diverse phenomena displayed by steels with specialized analytical and experimental tools. Advances in multi-scale characterization techniques provide a fresh perspective into microstructural relationships at the macro- and micro-scale, enabling a fundamental understanding of the role of phase transformations during processing and subsequent deformation.

  2. Structure, phase transformations, mechanical characteristics, and cold resistance of low-carbon martensitic steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozvonin, V. A.; Shatsov, A. A.; Ryaposov, I. V.; Zakirova, M. G.; Generalova, K. N.

    2016-08-01

    Temper-resistant low-carbon Cr-Mn-Ni-Mo-V-Nb steels with concentrations of carbon of 0.15 and 0.27 wt % have been studied. It has been shown that, upon quenching, various morphological types of the α phase can be formed. The structure of the steels is stable in the course of heating below critical temperatures and remains a lath-type structure in the intercritical temperature range. Specific features of structural and phase transformations, as well as the dependence of the mechanical characteristics of the steels, on the tempering temperature have been determined.

  3. Thermodynamic Modeling and Experimental Study of Phase Transformations in Alloys Based on γ-TiAl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, A. V.; Sokolovskii, V. S.; Salishchev, G. A.; Belov, N. A.; Nochovnaya, N. A.

    2016-09-01

    Thermo-Calc software is used to model the composition diagram for alloys based on γ-TiAl of the systems Ti - Al - Mo - (4 - 10) at.% Nb and Ti - Al - Nb - X ( X is Cr, Mo, V). The effect of alloying on critical points and sequence of phase transformations is established. Changes in phase composition in relation to alloy TNM-B1 temperature are analyzed using a polythermal section of the Ti - Al - Nb - Mo system.

  4. Strain-rate-induced bcc-to-hcp phase transformation of Fe nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hongxian; Yu, Tao; Fang, Wei; Yin, Fuxing; Faraz Khan, Dil

    2016-12-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulation method, the plastic deformation mechanism of Fe nanowires is studied by applying uniaxial tension along the [110] direction. The simulation result shows that the bcc-to-hcp martensitic phase transformation mechanism controls the plastic deformation of the nanowires at high strain rate or low temperature; however, the plastic deformation mechanism will transform into a dislocation nucleation mechanism at low strain rate and higher temperature. Furthermore, the underlying cause of why the bcc-to-hcp martensitic phase transition mechanism is related to high strain rate and low temperature is also carefully studied. Based on the present study, a strain rate-temperature plastic deformation map for Fe nanowires has been proposed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51571082) and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2015M580191).

  5. Magnetostructural phase transformations in Tb 1-x Mn 2

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Junding; Paudyal, Durga; Liu, Jing; Mudryk, Yaroslav; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Gschneidner, Karl A.

    2015-01-16

    Magnetism and phase transformations in non-stoichiometric Tb1-xMn2 (x = 0.056, 0.039) have been studied as functions of temperature and magnetic field using magnetization, heat capacity, and X-ray powder diffraction measurements. Lowering the temperature, the compounds sequentially order ferrimagnetically and antiferromagnetically, and finally, exhibit spin reorientation transitions. Moreover, these structural distortions from room temperature cubic to low temperature rhombohedral structures occur at TN, and are accompanied by large volume changes reaching ~-1.27% and -1.42%, respectively. First principles electronic structure calculations confirm the phase transformation from the ferrimagnetic cubic structure to the antiferromagnetic rhombohedral structure in TbMn2.

  6. Phase and structural transformations in the alloy on the basis of the orthorhombic titanium aluminide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, A. A.; Illarionov, A. G.; Grib, S. V.; Demakov, S. L.; Karabanalov, M. S.; Elkina, O. A.

    2008-10-01

    Phase and structural transformations in the Ti-24.3 Al-24.8 Nb-1.0 Zr-1.4 V-0.6 Mo-0.3 Si (at %) alloy that take place during heating in the temperature range of 700 1050°C have been investigated. The temperature ranges of existence of the O + β, O + β + α2, β + α2, and β phase fields have been established. A scheme of the relationships between the volume fractions of the O, β, and α2 phases depending on the temperature of heating of the alloy have been investigated. The formation of an ordered incommensurate ω ( V ω) phase has been revealed in the alloy during quenching from 900°C. The existence of a correlation between the hardness properties and changes in the phase composition and morphology of particles precipitating in the alloy has been shown.

  7. Phase transformations during the growth of paracetamol crystals from the vapor phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, A. P.; Rubets, V. P.; Antipov, V. V.; Bordei, N. S.

    2014-07-01

    Phase transformations during the growth of paracetamol crystals from the vapor phase are studied by differential scanning calorimetry. It is found that the vapor-crystal phase transition is actually a superposition of two phase transitions: a first-order phase transition with variable density and a second-order phase transition with variable ordering. The latter, being a diffuse phase transition, results in the formation of a new, "pretransition," phase irreversibly spent in the course of the transition, which ends in the appearance of orthorhombic crystals. X-ray diffraction data and micrograph are presented.

  8. Pressure-induced structural phase transformations in silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Poswal, H K; Garg, Nandini; Sharma, Surinder M; Busetto, E; Sikka, S K; Gundiah, Gautam; Deepak, F L; Rao, C N R

    2005-05-01

    High-pressure structural behavior of silicon nanowires is investigated up to approximately 22 GPa using angle dispersive X-ray diffraction measurements. Silicon nanowires transform from the cubic to the beta-tin phase at 7.5-10.5 GPa, to the Imma phase at approximately 14 GPa, and to the primitive hexagonal structure at approximately 16.2 GPa. On complete release of pressure, it transforms to the metastable R8 phase. The observed sequence of phase transitions is the same as that of bulk silicon. Though the X-ray diffraction experiments do not reveal any size effect, the pressure dependence of Raman modes shows that the behavior of nanowires is in between that of the bulk crystal and porous Si.

  9. Phase Transformation of Calcium Phosphates by Electrodeposition and Heat Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Wei-Jen; Wang, Moo-Chin; Chang, Kuo-Ming; Wang, Cheng-Li; Wang, Szu-Hao; Li, Wang-Long; Huang, Hong-Hsin

    2010-12-01

    The effect of heat treatment on the calcium phosphate deposited on Ti-6Al-4V substrate using an electrolytic process is investigated. The calcium phosphate was deposited in a 0.04 M Ca(H2PO4)2·H2O (MCPM) solution on a Ti-6Al-4V substrate at 333 K (60 °C), 10 V, and 80 Torr for 1 hour, and calcined at various temperatures for 4 hours. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results demonstrate that the phases are dicalcium phosphate (CaHPO4, DCPD) and hydroxyapatile [Ca(PO4)6 (OH)2, HAP] for the as-deposited samples. When the deposited sample was calcined at 873 K (600 °C) for 4 hours, the XRD results show that the transformation of DCPD to HAP occurs. Moreover, HAP converts to β-TCP, CPP, and CaO. For the sample calcined at 1073 K (800 °C) for 4 hours, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrograph reveals that the crack of the calcined sample propagates with a width of about 3 μm. This result is due to HAP becoming decomposed and converting to β-TCP, CPP, CaO, and H2O. The vaporization of H2O within the calcined sample promotes the crack propagation and growth.

  10. Strain-Temperature-Transformation (STT) Diagram for Soft Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shoubo; Xiong, Wentao; Wang, Xiaorong

    Soft materials comprise a variety of physical states that are easily deformed by shear stains or thermal fluctuations. They include suspensions, colloids, polymers, foams, gels, liquid crystals, and a number of biological materials. In this contribution, a generalized strain-temperature-transformation (STT) diagram for many soft materials is presented in which the physical states encountered are related to the strain and temperature changes. The boundary defined for the solid-to-liquid transformation in the STT diagram displays a surprising Z-shaped curve. We discuss this feature with respect to the physical nature of materials.

  11. Phase Transformation Study in Nb-Mo Microalloyed Steels Using Dilatometry and EBSD Quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isasti, Nerea; Jorge-Badiola, Denis; Taheri, Mitra L.; Uranga, Pello

    2013-08-01

    A complete microstructural characterization and phase transformation analysis has been performed for several Nb and Nb-Mo microalloyed low-carbon steels using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and dilatometry tests. Compression thermomechanical schedules were designed resulting in the undeformed and deformed austenite structures before final transformation. The effects of microalloying additions and accumulated deformation were analyzed after CCT diagram development and microstructural quantification. The resulting microstructures ranged from polygonal ferrite and pearlite at slow cooling ranges, to a combination of quasipolygonal ferrite and granular ferrite for intermediate cooling rates, and finally, to bainitic ferrite with martensite for fast cooling rates. The addition of Mo promotes a shift in the CCT diagrams to lower transformation start temperatures. When the amount of Nb is increased, CCT diagrams show little variations for transformations from the undeformed austenite and higher initial transformation temperatures in the transformations from the deformed austenite. This different behavior is due to the effect of niobium on strain accumulation in austenite and its subsequent acceleration of transformation kinetics. This article shows the complex interactions between chemical composition, deformation, and the phases formed, as well as their effect on microstructural unit sizes and homogeneity.

  12. Low-pressure phase transformation from rhombohedral to cubic BN: Experiment and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitas, Valery I.; Shvedov, Leonid K.

    2002-03-01

    An irreversible phase transformation (PT) from the rhombohedral phase of boron nitride rBN to cubic cBN was recently recorded at the surprisingly low pressure of 5.6 GPa at room temperature. In this paper, a very nontrivial and unexpected explanation of this phenomenon is found, based on our criterion for the PT in plastic materials and approximate solution of corresponding plastic problems. It is found that due to orientational plastic instability and rotational softening in rBN and the higher yield stress of cBN, stresses grow drastically in the transforming region during the PT (despite a volume decrease by a factor of 1.53). This allows the fulfillment of the PT criterion which takes into account the whole stress history during the transformation process. It appears that the above experimental phenomenon is connected to the mechanical behavior of the system of transforming particles+surrounding materials at the millimeter scale.

  13. Structural-Phase Transformations of CuZn Alloy Under Thermal-Impact Cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potekaev, A. I.; Chaplygina, A. A.; Kulagina, V. V.; Chaplygin, P. A.; Starostenkov, M. D.; Grinkevich, L. S.

    2017-02-01

    Using the Monte Carlo method, special features of structural - phase transformations in β-brass are investigated during thermal impact using thermal cycling as an example (a number of successive order - disorder and disorder - order phase transitions in the course of several heating - cooling cycles). It is shown that a unique hysteresis is observed after every heating and cooling cycle, whose presence indicates irreversibility of the processes, which suggests a difference in the structural - phase states both in the heating and cooling stages. A conclusion is drawn that the structural - phase transformations in the heating and cooling stages occur within different temperature intervals, where the thermodynamic stimuli of one or the other structural - phase state are low. This is also demonstrated both in the plots of configurational energy, long- and short-range order parameter, atomic structure variations, and structural - phase state distributions. Simultaneously, there coexist ordered and disordered phases and a certain collection of superstructure domains. This implies the presence of low - stability states in the vicinity of the order - disorder phase transition. The results of investigations demonstrate that the structural - phase transitions within two successive heating and cooling cycles at the same temperature are different in both stages. These changes, though not revolutionary, occur in every cycle and decrease with the increasing cycle number. In fact, the system undergoes training with a tendency towards a certain sequence of structural - phase states.

  14. In-situ characterization of transformation plasticity during an isothermal austenite-to-bainite phase transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Holzweissig, M.J.; Canadinc, D.; Maier, H.J.

    2012-03-15

    This paper elucidates the stress-induced variant selection process during the isothermal austenite-to-bainite phase transformation in a tool steel. Specifically, a thorough set of experiments combining electron backscatter diffraction and in-situ digital image correlation (DIC) was carried out to establish the role of superimposed stress level on the evolution of transformation plasticity (TP) strains. The important finding is that TP increases concomitant with the superimposed stress level, and strain localization accompanies phase transformation at all stress levels considered. Furthermore, TP strain distribution within the whole material becomes more homogeneous with increasing stress, such that fewer bainitic variants are selected to grow under higher stresses, yielding a more homogeneous strain distribution. In particular, the bainitic variants oriented along [101] and [201] directions are favored to grow parallel to the loading axis and are associated with large TP strains. Overall, this very first in-situ DIC investigation of the austenite-to-bainite phase transformation in steels evidences the clear relationship between the superimposed stress level, variant selection, and evolution of TP strains. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Local variations of strain were observed by DIC throughout the phase transformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study clearly established the role of the stress-induced variant selection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Variant selection is a key parameter that governs distortion.

  15. Anomalous compression behavior of germanium during phase transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Xiaozhi; Tan, Dayong; Ren, Xiangting; Yang, Wenge E-mail: duanweihe@scu.edu.cn; He, Duanwei E-mail: duanweihe@scu.edu.cn; Mao, Ho-Kwang

    2015-04-27

    In this article, we present the abnormal compression and plastic behavior of germanium during the pressure-induced cubic diamond to β-tin structure transition. Between 8.6 GPa and 13.8 GPa, in which pressure range both phases are co-existing, first softening and followed by hardening for both phases were observed via synchrotron x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. These unusual behaviors can be interpreted as the volume misfit between different phases. Following Eshelby, the strain energy density reaches the maximum in the middle of the transition zone, where the switch happens from softening to hardening. Insight into these mechanical properties during phase transformation is relevant for the understanding of plasticity and compressibility of crystal materials when different phases coexist during a phase transition.

  16. Ion irradiation-induced diffusion in bixbyite-fluorite related oxides: Dislocations and phase transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolly, Gaboriaud; Fabien, Paumier; Bertrand, Lacroix

    2014-05-01

    Ion-irradiation induced diffusion and the phase transformation of a bixbyite-fluorite related rare earth oxide thin films are studied. This work is focused on yttrium sesquioxide, Y2O3, thin films deposited on Si (1 0 0) substrates using the ion beam sputtering technique (IBS). As-deposited samples were annealed ant then irradiated at cryogenic temperature (80 K) with 260 keV Xe2+ at different fluences. The irradiated thin oxide films are characterized by X-ray diffraction. A cubic to monoclinic phase transformation was observed. Analysis of this phenomenon is done in terms of residual stresses. Stress measurements as a function of irradiation fluences were realised using the XRD-sin2ψ method. Stress evolution and kinetic of the phase transformation are compared and leads to the role-played by the nucleation of point and extended defects.

  17. Bainite transformation temperatures in high-silicon steels

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, L.C.

    1999-04-01

    The bainite transformation temperatures of eight high-silicon steels were determined metallographically. The bainite start (B{sub s}) temperatures, which define the highest temperature at which bainite can form, all lay below the T{sub 0} loci, where ferrite and austenite of the same chemical compositions have identical free energy. The established method of calculating B{sub s} temperatures gave reasonable agreement with the experimental results. Careful study of the isothermally reacted samples revealed that Widmanstaetten ferrite and bainite could both be observed, even at the beginning of the transformation, at around the B{sub s} temperature. On the other hand, the lower bainite start (LB{sub s}) temperatures of these steels were found to be very close to the martensite start (M{sub s}) temperatures. Silicon is considered to be responsible for depressing the LB{sub s} temperature by retarding the formation of cementite. The coformation of upper and lower bainite near the LB{sub s} temperature is also confirmed. The results indicate that the displacive formation mechanism of bainite is sustainable.

  18. The Binary Temperature-Composition Phase Diagram

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Philip C.; Reeves, James H.; Messina, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The equations for the liquid and gas lines in the binary temperature-composition phase diagram are derived by approximating that delta(H)[subscript vap] of the two liquids are equal. It is shown that within this approximation, the resulting equations are not too difficult to present in an undergraduate physical chemistry lecture.

  19. Study of phase transformations in CMSX-6 and CMSX-8 superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczotok, Agnieszka; Wierzbicka-Miernik, Anna

    2014-09-01

    Nickel-based superalloys are extensively used mainly in the aircraft and aeronautic industry, particularly in the hottest parts of engines or turbo-reactors. The phase reactions occurring in these heat-resistant materials play a crucial role in many aspects of the processing and service of the highly alloyed materials. Cast Ni-based superalloys are obtained in a complex way and their structure is complicated. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique was applied for determination of temperature ranges of the phase transformations occurring in the CMSX-6 and CMSX-8 superalloys during heating/cooling processes. Thermophysical properties, including temperatures of the phase transformation, are the critical input parameters in mathematical models of solidification and casting of metallic materials. The literature data concerning phase transformations and performance of the heat treatment for CMSX-6 and CMSX-8 are incomplete and ambiguous. DSC results accompanied by scanning electron microscopy characterization of microstructure of CMSX-6 and CMSX-8 superalloy was applied. The present study will improve the understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of phase transformations of single-crystal nickel-based superalloys.

  20. In situ phase transformation of Laves phase from Chi-phase in Mo-containing Fe–Cr–Ni alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Tan, L.; Yang, Y.

    2015-11-01

    For an in situ phase transformation of the Chi (χ) phase to the Laves phase we observed in a Fe–Cr–Ni–Mo model alloy. The morphology, composition, and crystal structure of the χ and Laves phases, and their orientation relationship with the matrix austenite phase were investigated. The resulted Laves phase has larger lattice mismatch with the matrix phase than the χ phase, leading to the increase of local strain fields and the formation of dislocations. Moreover, this finding is helpful to understand the precipitation behavior of the intermetallic phases in the Mo-containing austenitic stainless steels.

  1. Microstructural Evidence for Conditioning-dependent (delta) -> (alpha)' Transformations in Retained (delta)-phase Pu-Ga

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffries, J R; Blobaum, K M; Wall, M A; Schwartz, A J

    2008-06-16

    The retained {delta} phase of a Pu-1.9 at.% Ga alloy is metastable with respect to the martensitic {delta} {yields} {alpha}{prime} transformation that occurs at low temperatures. This transformation has been shown to proceed by means of an isothermal martensitic mode, but the kinetics of the transformation are atypical. The transformation exhibits a 'double-C' in a time-temperature-transformation diagram, wherein there exist two temperatures where a given amount of transformation occurs in a minimum amount of time. The cause of the double-C kinetics remains uncertain, eliciting proposals of multiple mechanisms, multiple paths, or different morphologies as possible origins. Recently, a 'conditioning' treatment was found to affect the {delta} {yields} {alpha}{prime} transformation, but the underlying mechanism by which the conditioning treatment influences the transformation has not yet been resolved. In this study, microstructural characterization as a function of temperature, time, and conditioning has been employed to illuminate the role of conditioning in the {delta} {yields} {alpha}{prime} transformation. Conditioning is found to enhance transformation in the upper-C and to enable transformation in the lower-C. The data garnered from these experiments suggest that conditioning is intimately linked to nucleation processes and of little consequence to the growth and morphology of the {alpha}{prime} product phase.

  2. Enhanced reversibility and unusual microstructure of a phase-transforming material.

    PubMed

    Song, Yintao; Chen, Xian; Dabade, Vivekanand; Shield, Thomas W; James, Richard D

    2013-10-03

    Materials undergoing reversible solid-to-solid martensitic phase transformations are desirable for applications in medical sensors and actuators, eco-friendly refrigerators and energy conversion devices. The ability to pass back and forth through the phase transformation many times without degradation of properties (termed 'reversibility') is critical for these applications. Materials tuned to satisfy a certain geometric compatibility condition have been shown to exhibit high reversibility, measured by low hysteresis and small migration of transformation temperature under cycling. Recently, stronger compatibility conditions called the 'cofactor conditions' have been proposed theoretically to achieve even better reversibility. Here we report the enhanced reversibility and unusual microstructure of the first martensitic material, Zn45Au30Cu25, that closely satisfies the cofactor conditions. We observe four striking properties of this material. (1) Despite a transformation strain of 8%, the transformation temperature shifts less than 0.5 °C after more than 16,000 thermal cycles. For comparison, the transformation temperature of the ubiquitous NiTi alloy shifts up to 20 °C in the first 20 cycles. (2) The hysteresis remains approximately 2 °C during this cycling. For comparison, the hysteresis of the NiTi alloy is up to 70 °C (refs 9, 12). (3) The alloy exhibits an unusual riverine microstructure of martensite not seen in other martensites. (4) Unlike that of typical polycrystal martensites, its microstructure changes drastically in consecutive transformation cycles, whereas macroscopic properties such as transformation temperature and latent heat are nearly reproducible. These results promise a concrete strategy for seeking ultra-reliable martensitic materials.

  3. Iterative-Transform Phase Retrieval Using Adaptive Diversity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Bruce H.

    2007-01-01

    A phase-diverse iterative-transform phase-retrieval algorithm enables high spatial-frequency, high-dynamic-range, image-based wavefront sensing. [The terms phase-diverse, phase retrieval, image-based, and wavefront sensing are defined in the first of the two immediately preceding articles, Broadband Phase Retrieval for Image-Based Wavefront Sensing (GSC-14899-1).] As described below, no prior phase-retrieval algorithm has offered both high dynamic range and the capability to recover high spatial-frequency components. Each of the previously developed image-based phase-retrieval techniques can be classified into one of two categories: iterative transform or parametric. Among the modifications of the original iterative-transform approach has been the introduction of a defocus diversity function (also defined in the cited companion article). Modifications of the original parametric approach have included minimizing alternative objective functions as well as implementing a variety of nonlinear optimization methods. The iterative-transform approach offers the advantage of ability to recover low, middle, and high spatial frequencies, but has disadvantage of having a limited dynamic range to one wavelength or less. In contrast, parametric phase retrieval offers the advantage of high dynamic range, but is poorly suited for recovering higher spatial frequency aberrations. The present phase-diverse iterative transform phase-retrieval algorithm offers both the high-spatial-frequency capability of the iterative-transform approach and the high dynamic range of parametric phase-recovery techniques. In implementation, this is a focus-diverse iterative-transform phaseretrieval algorithm that incorporates an adaptive diversity function, which makes it possible to avoid phase unwrapping while preserving high-spatial-frequency recovery. The algorithm includes an inner and an outer loop (see figure). An initial estimate of phase is used to start the algorithm on the inner loop, wherein

  4. Nanowire growth by an electron beam induced massive phase transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Sood, Shantanu; Kisslinger, Kim; Gouma, Perena

    2014-11-15

    Tungsten trioxide nanowires of a high aspect ratio have been synthesized in-situ in a TEM under an electron beam of current density 14A/cm² due to a massive polymorphic reaction. Sol-gel processed pseudocubic phase nanocrystals of tungsten trioxide were seen to rapidly transform to one dimensional monoclinic phase configurations, and this reaction was independent of the substrate on which the material was deposited. The mechanism of the self-catalyzed polymorphic transition and accompanying radical shape change is a typical characteristic of metastable to stable phase transformations in nanostructured polymorphic metal oxides. A heuristic model is used to confirm the metastable to stable growth mechanism. The findings are important to the control electron beam deposition of nanowires for functional applications starting from colloidal precursors.

  5. Nanowire growth by an electron beam induced massive phase transformation

    DOE PAGES

    Sood, Shantanu; Kisslinger, Kim; Gouma, Perena

    2014-11-15

    Tungsten trioxide nanowires of a high aspect ratio have been synthesized in-situ in a TEM under an electron beam of current density 14A/cm² due to a massive polymorphic reaction. Sol-gel processed pseudocubic phase nanocrystals of tungsten trioxide were seen to rapidly transform to one dimensional monoclinic phase configurations, and this reaction was independent of the substrate on which the material was deposited. The mechanism of the self-catalyzed polymorphic transition and accompanying radical shape change is a typical characteristic of metastable to stable phase transformations in nanostructured polymorphic metal oxides. A heuristic model is used to confirm the metastable to stablemore » growth mechanism. The findings are important to the control electron beam deposition of nanowires for functional applications starting from colloidal precursors.« less

  6. Reconstructing solute-induced phase transformations within individual nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Tarun C; Baldi, Andrea; Koh, Ai Leen; Sinclair, Robert; Dionne, Jennifer A

    2016-07-01

    Strain and defects can significantly impact the performance of functional nanomaterials. This effect is well exemplified by energy storage systems, in which structural changes such as volume expansion and defect generation govern the phase transformations associated with charging and discharging. The rational design of next-generation storage materials therefore depends crucially on understanding the correlation between the structure of individual nanoparticles and their solute uptake and release. Here, we experimentally reconstruct the spatial distribution of hydride phases within individual palladium nanocrystals during hydrogen absorption, using a combination of electron spectroscopy, dark-field imaging, and electron diffraction in an environmental transmission electron microscope. We show that single-crystalline cubes and pyramids exhibit a uniform hydrogen distribution at equilibrium, whereas multiply twinned icosahedra exclude hydrogen from regions of high compressive strains. Our technique offers unprecedented insight into nanoscale phase transformations in reactive environments and can be extended to a variety of functional nanomaterials.

  7. Natural transformation and phase variation modulation in Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Heather L; Richardson, Anthony R; Stojiljkovic, Igor

    2004-05-01

    Neisseria meningitidis has evolved the ability to control the expression-state of numerous genes by phase variation. It has been proposed that the process aids this human pathogen in coping with the diversity of microenvironments and host immune systems. Therefore, increased frequencies of phase variation may augment the organism's adaptability and virulence. In this study, we found that DNA derived from various neisserial co-colonizers of the human nasopharynx increased N. meningitidis switching frequencies, indicating that heterologous neisserial DNA modulates phase variation in a transformation-dependent manner. In order to determine whether the effect of heterologous DNA was specific to the Hb receptor, HmbR, we constructed a Universal Rates of Switching cassette (UROS). With this cassette, we demonstrated that heterologous DNA positively affects phase variation throughout the meningococcal genome, as UROS phase variation frequencies were also increased in the presence of neisserial DNA. Overexpressing components of the neisserial mismatch repair system partially alleviated DNA-induced changes in phase variation frequencies, thus implicating mismatch repair titration as a cause of these transformation-dependent increases in switching. The DNA-dependent effect on phase variation was transient and may serve as a mechanism for meningococcal genetic variability that avoids the fitness costs encountered by global mutators.

  8. Solid-gaseous phase transformation of elemental contaminants during the gasification of biomass.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ying; Ameh, Abiba; Lei, Mei; Duan, Lunbo; Longhurst, Philip

    2016-09-01

    Disposal of plant biomass removed from heavy metal contaminated land via gasification achieves significant volume reduction and can recover energy. However, these biomass often contain high concentrations of heavy metals leading to hot-corrosion of gasification facilities and toxic gaseous emissions. Therefore, it is of significant interest to gain a further understanding of the solid-gas phase transition of metal(loid)s during gasification. Detailed elemental analyses (C, H, O, N and key metal/metalloid elements) were performed on five plant species collected from a contaminated site. Using multi-phase equilibria modelling software (MTDATA), the analytical data allows modelling of the solid/gas transformation of metal(loid)s during gasification. Thermodynamic modelling based on chemical equilibrium calculations was carried out in this study to predict the fate of metal(loid) elements during typical gasification conditions and to show how these are influenced by metal(loid) composition in the biomass and operational conditions. As, Cd, Zn and Pb tend to transform to their gaseous forms at relatively low temperatures (<1000°C). Ni, Cu, Mn and Co converts to gaseous forms within the typical gasification temperature range of 1000-1200°C. Whereas Cr, Al, Fe and Mg remain in solid phase at higher temperatures (>1200°C). Simulation of pressurised gasification conditions shows that higher pressures increase the temperature at which solid-to-gaseous phase transformations takes place.

  9. Influence of phase transformation on the permanent-magnetic properties of Fe-Pt based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brück, E.; Xiao, Q. F.; Thang, P. D.; Toonen, M. J.; de Boer, F. R.; Buschow, K. H. J.

    2001-07-01

    We have studied the effect of the atomic disorder-order transformation on remanence enhancement and coercivity in Fe-Pt-based materials by isothermal annealing at temperatures well below the transformation point. We also investigated the effect of the annealing temperature and the effect of various types of additives. The relative amount of the low-temperature hard-magnetic face-centered-tetragonal (FCT) phase precipitated in the high-temperature magnetically soft face-centered-cubic (FCC) phase was determined by means of X-ray diffraction. As a function of annealing time and annealing temperature, particle size and relative amount of the FCT phase increased at the cost of the FCC phase. These changes were followed by means of magnetic measurements. We observed a continuous increase in coercivity with increasing annealing time, eventually reaching a maximum. The Kneller-Hawig model was used to explain the occurrence of remanence enhancement and the continuously changing degree of exchange coupling between the magnetically soft and hard phase. The suitability of Fe-Pt based alloys in dental applications is discussed.

  10. Phase transformation of the A15 metastable phase of Fe-Cr thin films prepared by ion-beam sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Khoury, W.; Eymery, J.-P.; Goudeau, Ph.

    2007-08-01

    Thermal stability of metastable A15 Fe-Cr phase is investigated through the study of its magnetic and structural properties. This phase presents very interesting mechanical properties suggesting that A15-structured films might be of great interest for tribological applications when considering the hardness H over Young's modulus E ratio i.e., a description in terms of "elastic strain to failure" for wear resistance. Indeed, H is multiplied by a factor 2 with respect to the value measured for the bulk cubic centered α phase whereas E remains identical. Then, an improvement by a factor 8 of resistance to plastic deformation may be expected since predictive models stand that this quantity is proportional to the H3/E2 ratio. However, heating problems due to sliding during tribological tests may lead to structural transformation in the film and then a loose of mechanical performance. The formation and the stability of the A15 cubic structure (δ phase) in centered-cubic refractory metals are generally attributed to the presence of oxygen atoms in the unit cell. For equiatomic Fe-Cr thin films elaborated by physical vapor deposition techniques, residual oxygen atoms present in the deposition chamber would be absorbed during the deposition process. In this work, the δ-phase transformation has been studied ex situ in the temperature range 400-650 °C; structural changes have been accurately investigated thanks to the combination of x-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy techniques. Thin films were deposited onto quartz substrates and then annealed ex situ under secondary vacuum. From 400 °C, a "structural relaxation" occurring in the δ phase precedes and accompanies the beginning of the phase transformation. Finally, the partially ordered metastable δ-phase transforms into a stable α-phase presenting the precipitation phenomenon at temperature above 550 °C and the presence of a τ-carbide phase is clearly visible from 600 °C. The δ-phase transformation is

  11. Complex Transformations between Bicontinuous Cubic and Cylinder Phases in a Polystyrene-block-Poly(ethylene oxide) Diblock Copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lei; Sun, Lu; Ge, Qing; Quirk, Roderic P.; Cheng, Stephen Z. D.; Hsiao, Benjamin S.; Sics, Igors; Avila-Orta, Carlos

    2004-03-01

    Complex phase transformations between bicontinuous cubic and hexagonal cylinder (Hex) phases in a polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) diblock copolymer were investigated using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), rheology, and polarized light microscope (PLM). The sample exhibited a typical double gyroid (G) phase, together with a minority plumbers nightmare (P) phase which was only ˜6 vol.% as calculated from the SAXS scattering intensities for each phase. These two bicontinuous cubic phases had the same unit cell dimensions. Under a large-amplitude reciprocating shear, the bicontinuous cubic sample transformed into a single-crystal Hex phase. Annealing this sample at 150 ^oC for 40 min, the Hex phase partially transformed into well-oriented G and P twin structures, as evidenced by two-dimensional synchrotron SAXS experiments. Epitaxial phase transformation relationships between the Hex/G and Hex/P phases were identified. The phase transformations were further confirmed by rheology study and PLM observations. The P phase was metastable with respect to the G phase, and it disappeared when the sample was heated above the order-disorder transition temperature and annealed at 150 ^oC. The mechanism of the Hex arrow G transformation was investigated by TEM. Generally, in a hexagonal cell, three cylinders evolved into left-handed helices, while the other three formed right-handed helices. An intermediate five-fold junction was speculated to facilitate the phase transformation. The Hex -> G phase transformation was observed to follow a nucleation and growth mechanism, and the phase transition zone was less than one unit cell.

  12. Mutual transformation between crystalline phases in silicon after treatment in a planetary mill: HRTEM studies.

    PubMed

    Kulnitskiy, Boris; Annenkov, Mikhail; Perezhogin, Igor; Popov, Mikhail; Ovsyannikov, Danila; Blank, Vladimir

    2016-10-01

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) studies of silicon after treatment in a planetary mill have been performed. It is shown that along with the initial phase of silicon, Si-I, the sample also contains some high-pressure phases: Si-III (Kasper phase) and Si-IV (lonsdaleite). We studied the orientation relationship between the particles of different phases, finding that there are, in general, two mechanisms of formation of Si-IV: (1) through the stacking faults formation; (2) through the transformation first to the Kasper phase (Si-III), and then from the Kasper phase to Si-IV. Estimations of temperature and pressure conditions in the planetary ball mill made previously are in accordance with the conditions of formation of the above-mentioned phases.

  13. Martensitic transformation in ZrO 2-based ceramics at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.-F.; Hong, C.-S.; Li, Y.-Y.; Zhang, Z.

    The microstructural changes associated with the tetragonal to monoclinic martensitic transformation at cryogenic temperatures in sintered CeO2-ZrO2 ceramics containing 15.5-16.5 mol% CeO2 have been studied by means of TEM observations. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that the stress-induced martensitic phase increases with decreases in both temperature and CeO2 content. The effects of martensitic morphologies, anti-phase boundaries (APBs) and various dislocation features on mechanical properties are also discussed in the paper.

  14. Effect of field driven phase transformations on the loss tangent of relaxor ferroelectric single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, John A.; Liu, Tieqi; Lynch, Christopher S.

    2013-02-01

    The effect of a bias stress induced phase transformation on the large field dielectric loss in [001] cut and poled single crystal stack actuators of (1 - x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-xPT, x = 32) was experimentally characterized. Dielectric loss was observed to increase with compressive preload and electric field amplitude. The dielectric loss was determined by measuring the area within electric displacement vs. electric field hysteresis loops and the measured area was expressed in terms of an effective loss tangent. This approach matches the measured area within the hysteresis loop to an equivalent area ellipse in which the electric displacement lags the electric field by an amount, delta, under sinusoidal loading. The results collapse the measured loss as a function of bias stress and electric field amplitude reasonably close to a single curve. The measured dielectric loss behavior was attributed to the compressive stress preload driving a partial phase transformation from rhombohedral to orthorhombic and the electric field driving the reverse phase transformation from the stress induced orthorhombic phase to the zero stress rhombohedral phase. When the compressive bias stress partially or fully drives this phase transformation, the dielectric loss under unipolar electric field loading increases. This work is focused on quasi-static measurements. The large field dielectric loss is anticipated to be a function of frequency and temperature.

  15. A new phase transformation path from nanodiamond to new-diamond via an intermediate carbon onion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, J.; Li, J. L.; Liu, P.; Yang, G. W.

    2014-11-01

    The investigation of carbon allotropes such as graphite, diamond, fullerenes, nanotubes and carbon onions and mechanisms that underlie their mutual phase transformation is a long-standing problem of great fundamental importance. New diamond (n-diamond) is a novel metastable phase of carbon with a face-centered cubic structure; it is called ``new diamond'' because many reflections in its electron diffraction pattern are similar to those of diamond. However, producing n-diamond from raw carbon materials has so far been challenging due to n-diamond's higher formation energy than that of diamond. Here, we, for the first time, demonstrate a new phase transformation path from nanodiamond to n-diamond via an intermediate carbon onion in the unique process of laser ablation in water, and establish that water plays a crucial role in the formation of n-diamond. When a laser irradiates colloidal suspensions of nanodiamonds at ambient pressure and room temperature, nanodiamonds are first transformed into carbon onions serving as an intermediate phase, and sequentially carbon onions are transformed into n-diamonds driven by the laser-induced high temperature and high pressure from the carbon onion as a nanoscaled temperature and pressure cell upon the process of laser irradiation in a liquid. This phase transformation not only provides new insight into the physical mechanism involved, but also offers one suitable opportunity for breaking controllable pathways between n-diamond and carbon allotropes such as diamond and carbon onions.The investigation of carbon allotropes such as graphite, diamond, fullerenes, nanotubes and carbon onions and mechanisms that underlie their mutual phase transformation is a long-standing problem of great fundamental importance. New diamond (n-diamond) is a novel metastable phase of carbon with a face-centered cubic structure; it is called ``new diamond'' because many reflections in its electron diffraction pattern are similar to those of diamond

  16. Numerical estimation of phase transformations in solid state during Yb:YAG laser heating of steel sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Kubiak, Marcin Piekarska, Wiesława; Domański, Tomasz; Saternus, Zbigniew; Stano, Sebastian

    2015-03-10

    This work concerns the numerical modeling of heat transfer and phase transformations in solid state occurring during the Yb:YAG laser beam heating process. The temperature field is obtained by the numerical solution into transient heat transfer equation with convective term. The laser beam heat source model is developed using the Kriging interpolation method with experimental measurements of Yb:YAG laser beam profile taken into account. Phase transformations are calculated on the basis of Johnson - Mehl - Avrami (JMA) and Koistinen - Marburger (KM) kinetics models as well as continuous heating transformation (CHT) and continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams for S355 steel. On the basis of developed numerical algorithms 3D computer simulations are performed in order to predict temperature history and phase transformations in Yb:YAG laser heating process.

  17. In situ study of the goethite-hematite phase transformation by real time synchrotron powder diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Gualtieri, A.F.; Venturelli, P.

    1999-05-01

    The temperature induced goethite-hematite phase transformation that occurs at about 250 C was studied using in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction with a capillary Debye-Scherrer geometry and a translating image plate system (TIPS). This is the first time the goethite-hematite transformation has been investigated in real time. The sample was a pure, synthetic, stoichiometric goethite with 2 {micro}m long needle-shaped crystals. The microstructural characterization showed that the sample was well crystallized. The Rietveld refinement of 30 powder patterns extracted from the image in the range 25--800 C demonstrates that an intermediate phase with non-stoichiometric composition (protohematite) forms after the decomposition of goethite. The cell parameter b of goethite dramatically decreased during the phase transformation while a and c instead continued to increase. Protohematite is iron-deficient and retains residual hydrolysis for charge balance. With temperature protohematite progressively transforms into hematite. Empty layers (pores) are consequently formed about the hematite clusters. The distribution of iron vacancies was modeled in the powder patterns with stacking faults that were simulated using anisotropic broadening coefficients of the pseudo-Voigt profile function. Its disappearance with temperature was effectively followed with a decrease of the density of stacking faults.

  18. Crystallization kinetics and phase transformations in aluminum ion-implanted electrospun TiO2 nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albetran, H.; Low, I. M.

    2016-12-01

    Electrospun TiO2 nanofibers were implanted with aluminum ions, and their crystallization kinetics, phase transformations, and activation energies were investigated from 25 to 900 °C by in situ high-temperature synchrotron radiation diffraction. The amorphous non-implanted and Al ion-implanted TiO2 nanofibers transformed to crystalline anatase at 600 °C and to rutile at 700 °C. The TiO2 phase transformation of the Al ion-implanted material was accelerated relative to non-implanted sample. Compared with non-implanted nanofibers, the Al-implanted materials yielded a decreased activation energies from 69(17) to 29(2) kJ/mol for amorphous-to-anatase transformation and from 112(15) to 129(5) kJ/mol for anatase-to-rutile transformation. A substitution of smaller Al ions for Ti in the TiO2 crystal structure results in accelerated titania phase transformation and a concomitant reduction in the activation energies.

  19. Critical kinetic control of non-stoichiometric intermediate phase transformation for efficient perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Yaoguang; Venkatesan, Swaminathan; Guo, Rui; Wang, Yanan; Bao, Jiming; Li, Wenzhi; Fan, Zhiyong; Yao, Yan

    2016-06-01

    Organometal trihalide perovskites (OTP) have attracted significant attention as a low-cost and high-efficiency solar cell material. Due to the strong coordination between lead iodide (PbI2) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent, a non-stoichiometric intermediate phase of MA2Pb3I8(DMSO)2 (MA = CH3NH3+) usually forms in the one-step deposition method that plays a critical role in attaining high power conversion efficiency. However, the kinetic understanding of how the non-stoichiometric intermediate phase transforms during thermal annealing is currently absent. In this work, we investigated such a phase transformation and provided a clear picture of three phase transition pathways as a function of annealing conditions. The interdiffusion of MAI and DMSO varies strongly with the annealing temperature and time, thus determining the final film composition and morphology. A surprising finding reveals that the best performing cells contain ~18% of the non-stoichiometric intermediate phase, instead of pure phase OTP. The presence of such an intermediate phase enables smooth surface morphology and enhances the charge carrier lifetime. Our results highlight the importance of the intermediate phase growth kinetics that could lead to large-scale production of efficient solution processed perovskite solar cells.Organometal trihalide perovskites (OTP) have attracted significant attention as a low-cost and high-efficiency solar cell material. Due to the strong coordination between lead iodide (PbI2) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent, a non-stoichiometric intermediate phase of MA2Pb3I8(DMSO)2 (MA = CH3NH3+) usually forms in the one-step deposition method that plays a critical role in attaining high power conversion efficiency. However, the kinetic understanding of how the non-stoichiometric intermediate phase transforms during thermal annealing is currently absent. In this work, we investigated such a phase transformation and provided a clear picture of three phase transition

  20. Calcium carbonate phase transformations during the carbonation reaction of calcium heavy alkylbenzene sulfonate overbased nanodetergents preparation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhaocong; Xiao, Shan; Chen, Feng; Chen, Dongzhong; Fang, Jianglin; Zhao, Min

    2011-07-01

    The preparation and application of overbased nanodetergents with excess alkaline calcium carbonate is a good example of nanotechnology in practice. The phase transformation of calcium carbonate is of extensive concern since CaCO(3) serves both as an important industrial filling material and as the most abundant biomineral in nature. Industrially valuable overbased nanodetergents have been prepared based on calcium salts of heavy alkylbenzene sulfonate by a one-step process under ambient pressure, the carbonation reaction has been monitored by the instantaneous temperature changes and total base number (TBN). A number of analytical techniques such as TGA, DLS, SLS, TEM, FTIR, and XRD have been utilized to explore the carbonation reaction process and phase transformation mechanism of calcium carbonate. An enhanced understanding on the phase transformation of calcium carbonate involved in calcium sulfonate nanodetergents has been achieved and it has been unambiguously demonstrated that amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) transforms into the vaterite polymorph rather than calcite, which would be of crucial importance for the preparation and quality control of lubricant additives and greases. Our results also show that a certain amount of residual Ca(OH)(2) prevents the phase transformation from ACC to crystalline polymorphs. Moreover, a vaterite nanodetergent has been prepared for the first time with low viscosity, high base number, and uniform particle size, nevertheless a notable improvement on its thermal stability is required for potential applications.

  1. Phase transformation during silica cluster impact on crystal silicon substrate studied by molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ruling; Luo, Jianbin; Guo, Dan; Lu, Xinchun

    2008-07-01

    The process of a silica cluster impact on a crystal silicon substrate is studied by molecular dynamics simulation. At the impact loading stage, crystal silicon of the impact zone transforms to a locally ordered molten with increasing the local temperature and pressure of the impact zone. And then the transient molten forms amorphous silicon directly as the local temperature and pressure decrease at the impact unloading stage. Moreover, the phase behavior between the locally ordered molten and amorphous silicon exhibits the reversible structural transition. The transient molten contains not only lots of four-fold atom but also many three- and five-fold atoms. And the five-fold atom is similar to the mixture structure of semi-Si-II and semi-bct5-Si. The structure transformation between five- and four-fold atoms is affected by both pressure and temperature. The structure transformation between three- and four-fold atoms is affected mostly by temperature. The direct structure transformation between five- and three-fold atoms is not observed. Finally, these five- and three-fold atoms are also different from the usual five- and three-fold deficient atoms of amorphous silicon. In addition, according to the change of coordination number of atoms the impact process is divided into six stages: elastic, plastic, hysteresis, phase regressive, adhesion and cooling stages.

  2. Experimental evidence of α → β phase transformation in SiC quantum dots and their size-dependent luminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Xiaoxiao; Dai, Dejian; Fan, Baolu; Fan, Jiyang

    2014-11-10

    Phase transformation can occur among different SiC polytypes under extreme conditions such as high pressure or temperature. It remains unknown whether phase transformation can occur under normal conditions. We demonstrate that the α → β phase transformation can occur at ambient temperature and pressure in nanoscale SiC. The microstructural characterization and light absorption and emission spectroscopy demonstrate the occurrence of this phase transformation. It is found that the quantum-confinement luminescence dominates in larger SiC quantum dots (QDs) and the surface-defect luminescence dominates in ultrasmall SiC QDs. The rare phenomenon of multiple-phonon-assisted light absorption is observed in the SiC QDs.

  3. Crystalline phase transformation of colloidal cadmium sulfide nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghali, M.; Eissa, A. M.; Mosaad, M. M.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we give a microscopic view concerning influence of the growth conditions on the physical properties of nanocrystals (NCs) thin films made of CdS, prepared using chemical bath deposition CBD technique. We show a crystalline phase transformation of CdS NCs from hexagonal wurtzite (W) structure to cubic zincblende (ZB) when the growth conditions change, particularly the solution pH values. This effect was confirmed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), optical absorption and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The optical absorption spectra allow calculation of the bandgap value, Eg, where significant increase ˜200 meV in the CdS bandgap when transforming from Hexagonal to Cubic phase was found.

  4. Dynamic Response of High Temperature Uranium Phases

    SciTech Connect

    Zaretsky, E.; Herrmann, B.; Shvarts, D.

    2006-07-28

    Unalloyed uranium and uranium-0.78 wt%Ti alloy were studied in planar impact experiments with initial sample temperature ranging from 27 to 860 degree sign C. The velocity of the free surface of the samples was monitored by VISAR. It was found that the dynamic compressive strength of both the materials undergoes two-fold increase in the narrow temperature interval corresponding to the domain of beta-phase of uranium. The increase is followed by abrupt, factor of 3-4, strength drop when the initial state of the tested material is gamma-uranium. Such strength behavior explains the uranium susceptibility to adiabatic shear banding. The spall strength of both the alloys is characterized by similar temperature variations. The strength mechanism (phonon viscosity) acting in gamma-phase of pure uranium seems inherited from its alpha-structure while the strength of beta-uranium is controlled by high resistance to shearing characteristic for material having the structure of intermetallic sigma-phase.

  5. On phase transformation behavior of porous Shape Memory Alloys.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bingfei; Dui, Guansuo; Zhu, Yuping

    2012-01-01

    This paper is concerned on the phase transformation mechanism of porous Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs). A unit-cell model is adopted to establish the constitutive relation for porous SMAs, the stress distributions, the phase distributions and the martensitic volume fractions for the model are then derived under both pure hydrostatic stress and uniaxial compression. Further, an example for the uniaxial response under compression for a porous Ni-Ti SMA material considering hydrostatic stress is supplied. Good agreement between the theoretical prediction of the proposed model and published experimental data is observed.

  6. 2D Hilbert transform for phase retrieval of speckle fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorsky, M. P.; Ryabyi, P. A.; Ivanskyi, D. I.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents principal approaches to diagnosing the structure forming skeleton of the complex optical field. An analysis of optical field singularity algorithms depending on intensity discretization and image resolution has been carried out. An optimal approach is chosen, which allows to bring much closer the solution of the phase problem of localization speckle-field special points. The use of a "window" 2D Hilbert transform for reconstruction of the phase distribution of the intensity of a speckle field is proposed. It is shown that the advantage of this approach consists in the invariance of a phase map to a change of the position of the kernel of transformation and in a possibility to reconstruct the structure-forming elements of the skeleton of an optical field, including singular points and saddle points. We demonstrate the possibility to reconstruct the equi-phase lines within a narrow confidence interval, and introduce an additional algorithm for solving the phase problem for random 2D intensity distributions.

  7. Phase transformation of Ho[subscript 2]O[subscript 3] at high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Sheng; Liu, Jing; Li, Xiaodong; Bai, Ligang; Xiao, Wansheng; Zhang, Yufeng; Lin, Chuanlong; Li, Yanchun; Tang, Lingyun

    2012-01-20

    The structural stability of cubic Ho{sub 2}O{sub 3} under high pressure has been investigated by angle-dispersive x-ray diffraction (ADXD) in a diamond anvil cell up to 63.0 GPa at room temperature. The diffraction data reveal two structural transformations on compression. The structural transformation from a cubic to a monoclinic structure starts at 8.9 GPa and is complete at 16.3 GPa with an {approx}8.1% volume collapse. A hexagonal phase begins to appear at {approx}14.8 GPa and becomes dominant at 26.4 GPa. This high-pressure hexagonal phase with a small amount of retained monoclinic phase is stable up to the highest pressure of 63.0 GPa in this study. After release of pressure, the hexagonal phase transforms to a monoclinic structure. A third-order Birch-Murnaghan fit yields zero pressure bulk moduli (B{sub 0}) of 206(3), 200(7) and 204(19) GPa and their pressure derivatives (B'{sub 0}) of 4.8(4), 2.1(4), 3.8(5) for the cubic, monoclinic and hexagonal phases, respectively. Comparing with other rare-earth sesquioxides, it is suggested that the transition pressure from cubic to monoclinic phase, as well as the bulk modulus of the cubic phase, increases with the decreasing of the cation radius of rare-earth sesquioxides.

  8. Automation of the temperature elevation test in transformers with insulating oil.

    PubMed

    Vicente, José Manuel Esteves; Rezek, Angelo José Junqueira; de Almeida, Antonio Tadeu Lyrio; Guimarães, Carlos Alberto Mohallem

    2008-01-01

    The automation of the temperature elevation test is outlined here for both the oil temperature elevation and the determination of the winding temperature elevation. While automating this test it is necessary to use four thermometers, one three-phase wattmeter, a motorized voltage variator and a Kelvin bridge to measure the resistance. All the equipments must communicate with a microcomputer, which will have the test program implemented. The system to be outlined here was initially implemented in the laboratory and, due to the good results achieved, is already in use in some transformer manufacturing plants.

  9. Application of phase coherent transform to cloud clutter suppression

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, L.C.

    1994-11-15

    This paper describes a tracking algorithm using frame-to-frame correlation with frequency domain clutter suppression. Clutter suppression was mechanized via a `Phase Coherent Transform` (PCT) approach. This approach was applied to explore the feasibility of tracking a post-boost rocket from a low earth orbit satellite with real cloud background data. Simulation results show that the PCT/correlation tracking algorithm can perform satisfactorily at signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) as low as 5 or 7 dB.

  10. Phase transformation induced resistive switching behavior in Al/Cu2Se/Pt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Shania; Kim, Kihwan; Hur, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Deok-kee

    2017-04-01

    The phase transformation induced resistive switching behavior of an Al/Cu2Se/Pt device was studied. While the device did not demonstrate any resistive switching behavior at room temperature, it exhibited resistive switching behavior at 125 °C, near the transition temperature of copper(I) selenide (Cu2Se) (137 °C), where Cu2Se is known to transform from the monoclinic to superionic phase. The increase in ionic conductivity and structural variations (from ordered to disordered structure) associated with phase transformation were observed to be responsible for the origin of the switching behavior and increase in the on/off resistance ratio near the transition temperature. Thermodynamic calculations showed that a reduction in Gibb’s free energy of nucleation and an increase in the migration speed of the Cu ion associated with the ionic conductivity and order to disorder the transition of the Cu2Se at the transition temperature were the important factors responsible for the reduction in the SET voltages at 155 °C.

  11. Rapidly reversible redox transformation in nanophase manganese oxides at room temperature triggered by changes in hydration

    PubMed Central

    Birkner, Nancy; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Chemisorption of water onto anhydrous nanophase manganese oxide surfaces promotes rapidly reversible redox phase changes as confirmed by calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and titration for manganese average oxidation state. Surface reduction of bixbyite (Mn2O3) to hausmannite (Mn3O4) occurs in nanoparticles under conditions where no such reactions are seen or expected on grounds of bulk thermodynamics in coarse-grained materials. Additionally, transformation does not occur on nanosurfaces passivated by at least 2% coverage of what is likely an amorphous manganese oxide layer. The transformation is due to thermodynamic control arising from differences in surface energies of the two phases (Mn2O3 and Mn3O4) under wet and dry conditions. Such reversible and rapid transformation near room temperature may affect the behavior of manganese oxides in technological applications and in geologic and environmental settings. PMID:24733903

  12. Phase transformation of PZST-86/14-5-2Nb ceramic under quasi-static loading conditions.

    SciTech Connect

    Broome, Scott Thomas; Scofield, Timothy W.; Montgomery, Stephen Tedford; Bauer, Stephen J.; Hofer, John H.

    2010-02-01

    Specimens of poled and unpoled PZST ceramic were tested under hydrostatic loading conditions at temperatures of -55, 25, and 75 C. The objective of this experimental study was to obtain the electro-mechanical properties of the ceramic and the criteria of FE (Ferroelectric) to AFE (Antiferroelectric) phase transformations of the PZST ceramic to aid grain-scale modeling efforts in developing and testing realistic response models for use in simulation codes. As seen in previous studies, the poled ceramic from PZST undergoes anisotropic deformation during the transition from a FE to an AFE phase at -55 C. Warmer temperature tests exhibit anisotropic deformation in both the FE and AFE phase. The phase transformation is permanent at -55 C for all ceramics tests, whereas the transformation can be completely reversed at 25 and 75 C. The change in the phase transformation pressures at different temperatures were practically identical for both unpoled and poled PZST specimens. Bulk modulus for both poled and unpoled material was lowest in the FE phase, intermediate in the transition phase, and highest in the AFE phase. Additionally, bulk modulus varies with temperature in that PZST is stiffer as temperature decreases. Results from one poled-biased test for PZST and four poled-biased tests from PNZT 95/5-2Nb are presented. A bias of 1kV did not show noticeable differences in phase transformation pressure for the PZST material. However, with PNZT 95/5-2Nb phase transformation pressure increased with increasing voltage bias up to 4.5kV.

  13. Phase stretch transform for super-resolution localization microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ilovitsh, Tali; Jalali, Bahram; Asghari, Mohammad H.; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2016-01-01

    Super-resolution localization microscopy has revolutionized the observation of living structures at the cellular scale, by achieving a spatial resolution that is improved by more than an order of magnitude compared to the diffraction limit. These methods localize single events from isolated sources in repeated cycles in order to achieve super-resolution. The requirement for sparse distribution of simultaneously activated sources in the field of view dictates the acquisition of thousands of frames in order to construct the full super-resolution image. As a result, these methods have slow temporal resolution which is a major limitation when investigating live-cell dynamics. In this paper we present the use of a phase stretch transform for high-density super-resolution localization microscopy. This is a nonlinear frequency dependent transform that emulates the propagation of light through a physical medium with a specific warped diffractive property and applies a 2D phase function to the image in the frequency domain. By choosing properly the transform parameters and the phase kernel profile, the point spread function of each emitter can be sharpened and narrowed. This enables the localization of overlapping emitters, thus allowing a higher density of activated emitters as well as shorter data collection acquisition rates. The method is validated by numerical simulations and by experimental data obtained using a microtubule sample. PMID:27867725

  14. Phase transformation-induced tetragonal FeCo nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Gong, Maogang; Kirkeminde, Alec; Wuttig, Manfred; Ren, Shenqiang

    2014-11-12

    Tetragonal FeCo nanostructures are becoming particularly attractive because of their high magnetocrystalline anisotropy and magnetization achievable without rare-earth elements, . Yet, controlling their metastable structure, size and stoichiometry is a challenging task. In this study, we demonstrate AuCu templated FeCo shell growth followed by thermally induced phase transformation of AuCu core from face-centered cubic to L10 structure, which triggers the FeCo shell to transform from the body-centered cubic structure to a body-centered tetragonal phase. High coercivity, 846 Oe, and saturation magnetization, 221 emu/g, are achieved in this tetragonal FeCo structure. Beyond a critical FeCo shell thickness, confirmed experimentally and by lattice mismatch calculations, the FeCo shell relaxes. The shell thickness and stoichiometry dictate the magnetic characteristics of the tetragonal FeCo shell. This study provides a general route to utilize phase transformation to fabricate high performance metastable nanomagnets, which could open up their green energy applications.

  15. Evaluation of colour space transformation suitability to optical temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemba, A.; Fornalik-Wajs, E.

    2016-09-01

    All optical measurement methods base on the image analysis and relation between the measured parameter and some image features. In Digital Particle Image Thermometry (DPIT), such relation represents a function between the temperature and particles’ colour (i.a. Thermochromic Liquid Crystals). For the quantitative data acquisition the “colour” information is necessary, therefore the colour spaces based on hue H are used. Due to the big number of numerical operations needed in the analysis, the choice of colour space transformation is significant due to the accuracy and computational time. In this paper commonly applied RGB to HSI colour spaces’ transformations were compared and evaluation of their suitability to temperature measurement was performed. Time of obtaining the final results was considered as the main criterion. Appropriate calculations were conducted and presented.

  16. Phase Transformation Behavior of Porous TiNi Alloys Produced by Powder Metallurgy Using Magnesium as a Space Holder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydoğmuş, Tarik; Bor, Elif Tarhan; Bor, Şakir

    2011-09-01

    Porous TiNi alloys with porosities in the range of 51 to 73 pct were prepared successfully applying a new powder metallurgy fabrication route in which magnesium was used as a space holder, resulting in either single austenite phase or a mixture of austenite and martensite phases dictated by the composition of the starting powders, but entirely free from secondary brittle intermetallics, oxides, nitrides, and carbonitrides. Since transformation temperatures are very sensitive to composition, deformation, and oxidation, for the first time, transformation temperatures of porous TiNi alloys were investigated using chemically homogeneous specimens in as-sintered and aged conditions eliminating secondary phase, contamination, and deformation effects. It was found that the porosity content of the foams has no influence on the phase transformation temperatures both in as-sintered and aged conditions, while deformation, oxidation, and aging treatment are severely influential.

  17. Structural and dynamical transformations between neighboring dense microemulsion phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotlarchyk, M.; Sheu, E. Y.; Capel, M.

    1992-07-01

    A small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) study of dense AOT-water-decane microemulsions [AOT denotes sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate] was undertaken in order to delineate clearly the phase behavior and corresponding structural transitions for AOT-plus-water volume fractions ranging from φ=0.60 to 0.95. Spectra were collected for temperatures between T=3 and 65 °C. The resulting T-vs-φ phase diagram indicates three distinct structural domains when the water-to-AOT molar ratio is fixed at W=40.8, namely, the previously investigated L2 droplet phase, a high-temperature Lα lamellar phase, and a low-temperature L3 phase consisting of randomly connected lamellar sheets. A significantly wide coexistence region accompanies the droplet-to-lamellar phase transition, which is demonstrated to be first order. For W between 15 and 40, an analysis of the lamellar structure using a one-dimensional paracrystal model produces a Hosemann g factor indicative of an approximately constant variation in the lamellar spacing of about 8%. The SAXS study was supplemented by dielectric-relaxation, shear-viscosity, and quasielastic light-scattering measurements in order to substantiate the observed phase transitions and further our understanding of the structural and dynamical properties of the L3 phase. It was found that the L3 phase exhibits Newtonian behavior up to a shear rate of 790 s-1, in contradiction to previous theoretical considerations. The phase exhibits two distinct relaxation modes. A relaxation time of ~1 ms characterizes the Brownian motion of a single lamellar sheet, while the motion of the entire interconnected sheet assembly has a relaxation time on the order of 1 s.

  18. Structure and thermoelastic martensitic transformations in ternary Ni-Ti-Hf alloys with a high-temperature shape memory effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushin, V. G.; Kuranova, N. N.; Pushin, A. V.; Uksusnikov, A. N.; Kourov, N. I.

    2016-07-01

    The effect of alloying by 12-20 at % Hf on the structure, the phase composition, and the thermoelastic martensitic transformations in ternary alloys of the quasi-binary NiTi-NiHf section is studied by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron diffraction, and X-ray diffraction. The electrical resistivity is measured at various temperatures to determine the critical transformation temperatures. The data on phase composition are used to plot a full diagram for the high-temperature thermoelastic B2 ↔ B19' martensitic transformations, which occur in the temperature range 320-600 K when the hafnium content increases from 12 to 20 at %. The lattice parameters of the B2 and B19' phases are measured, and the microstructure of the B19' martensite is analyzed.

  19. Time-temperature-transformation diagrams with more than one nose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Michael C.

    1992-01-01

    The structures of time-temperature-transformation diagrams of glasses which crystallize the combined homogeneous and heterogeneous crystallization mechanisms are examined. Considerations are given to the factors which might produce more than one extremum in such diagrams. Specific nucleation and growth models are used, and the influence of the parameters which appear in the nucleation and growth rate expressions upon the structure of the diagrams is evaluated.

  20. In Situ Observation of Phase Transformation and Structure Evolution of a 12 pct Cr Ferritic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Changjiang; Guo, Yuanyi; Li, Kefeng; Sun, Fengmei; Han, Qingyou; Zhai, Qijie

    2012-10-01

    This work focuses on an in situ observation of phase transformation of a 12 pct Cr ferritic stainless steel using high-temperature laser scanning confocal microscopy. α→ γ→ δ phase transformation temperatures are determined to be approximately 1073 K and 1423 K (800 °C and 1150 °C), respectively. The onset of phase transformation is found to occur at grain boundaries. When the temperature is beyond 1518 K (1245 °C), the grain growth rate suddenly becomes very high, and the grain growth is related to the self-organizing of adjacent grains. δ→ γ phase transformation has been mostly restrained when cooling rates are in the range of 22.4 K/s to 13.3 K/s (22.4 °C/s to 13.3 °C/s) except for at grain boundaries. Martensitic phase transformation, rather than γ→ α phase transformation, occurs when the cooling rates are in the range of 8.5 K/s to 2.2 K/s (8.5 °C/s to 2.2 °C/s). The starting temperature of martensitic phase transformation is approximately 697 K to 728 K (424 °C to 455 °C) for specimens heated to 1373 K (1100 °C) ( i.e., γ phase field), which is 50 K to 100 K (50 °C to 100 °C) higher than that of specimens heated to 1723 K (1450 °C) ( i.e., δ phase field). Many bulges remain on the surfaces of the specimen heated to 1723 K (1450 °C), and their formation mechanism is analyzed.

  1. Transformation of Hume-Rothery phases under the action of high pressure torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straumal, B. B.; Kilmametov, A. R.; Kucheev, Yu. O.; Kolesnikova, K. I.; Korneva, A.; Zieba, P.; Baretzky, B.

    2014-11-01

    It has been revealed experimentally that high-pressure torsion induces phase transformations of certain Hume-Rothery phases (electron compounds) to others. High-pressure torsion induces the ξ → δ + ɛ reaction in copper-tin alloys with the appearance of the δ + ɛ phase mixture as after long-term annealing in the temperature range T eff = 350-589°C. The mass transfer rate driven by high-pressure torsion is 14-18 orders of magnitude higher than the rate of conventional thermal diffusion at the processing temperature T HPT. This phenomenon can be explained by an increased concentration of defects (in particular, vacancies) in the steady state under high-pressure torsion, which is equivalent to an increase in the temperature.

  2. Transformation between spin-Peierls and incommensurate fluctuating phases of Sc-doped TiOCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian; Wölfel, Alexander; Bykov, Maxim; Schönleber, Andreas; van Smaalen, Sander; Kremer, Reinhard K.; Williamson, Hailey L.

    2014-07-01

    Single crystals of ScxTi1-xOCl(x=0.005) have been grown by the vapor phase transport technique. Specific heat measurements prove the absence of phase transitions for 4-200 K. Instead, an excess entropy is observed over a range of temperatures that encompasses the incommensurate phase transition at 90 K and the spin-Peierls transition at 67 K of pure TiOCl. Temperature-dependent x-ray diffraction on ScxTi1-xOCl gives broadened diffraction maxima at incommensurate positions between Tc1=61.5(3) and ˜90 K, and at commensurate positions below 61.5 K. These results are interpreted as due to the presence of an incommensurate phase without long-range order at intermediate temperatures, and of a highly disturbed commensurate phase without long-range order at low temperatures. The commensurate phase is attributed to a fluctuating spin-Peierls state on an orthorhombic lattice. The monoclinic symmetry and local structure of the fluctuations are equal to the symmetry and structure of the ordered spin-Peierls state of TiOCl. A novel feature of ScxTi1-xOCl(x =0.005) is a transformation from one fluctuating phase (the incommensurate phase at intermediate temperatures) to another fluctuating phase (the spin-Peierls-like phase). This transformation is not a phase transition occurring at a critical temperature, but it proceeds gradually over a temperature range of ˜10 K wide. The destruction of long-range order requires much lower levels of doping in TiOCl than in other low-dimensional electronic crystals, like the canonical spin-Peierls compound CuGeO3. An explanation for the higher sensitivity to doping has not been found, but it is noticed that it may be the result of an increased two-dimensional character of the doped magnetic system. The observed fluctuating states with long correlation lengths are reminiscent of Kosterlitz-Thouless-type phases in two-dimensional systems.

  3. Effects of Quenching Media on Phase Transformation Characteristics and Hardness of Cu-Al-Ni-Co Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saud, Safaa N.; Hamzah, E.; Abubakar, T.; Farahany, S.; Bakhsheshi-Rad, H. R.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the investigation on the effects of various thermal treatments and quenching media on the phase transformation behaviour of Cu-Al-Ni-Co shape memory alloys (SMAs). The transformation temperatures were determined using a differential scanning calorimeter. The variation of cooling rates had a consequential effect on the phase transformation characteristics of the Cu-Al-Ni-Co SMAs. Nevertheless, the transformation temperature peaks were varied in terms of location as well as heat flow. The results indicated that there was an improvement in transformation temperatures whenever ice water was used as quenching medium. It was also observed that the forward transformation temperatures were higher than the reverse transformation. It was verified that the required heat for the transformation of martensite into austenite was more than the transformation of austenite into martensite. Moreover, thermodynamic parameters, such as enthalpy and entropy, tended to decrease and increase as a result of the changes in the cooling rates of each medium. To clarify the variations of the structures and properties of Cu-Al-Ni-Co SMA quenched samples, x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and Vickers hardness were used.

  4. Martensitic transformation between competing phases in Ti-Ta alloys: a solid-state nudged elastic band study.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Tanmoy; Rogal, Jutta; Drautz, Ralf

    2015-03-25

    A combined density functional theory and solid-state nudged elastic band study is presented to investigate the martensitic transformation between β → (α″, ω) phases in the Ti-Ta system. The minimum energy paths along the transformation are calculated and the transformation mechanisms as well as relative stabilities of the different phases are discussed for various compositions. The analysis of the transformation paths is complemented by calculations of phonon spectra to determine the dynamical stability of the β, α″, and ω phase. Our theoretical results confirm the experimental findings that with increasing Ta concentration there is a competition between the destabilisation of the α″ and ω phase and the stabilisation of the high-temperature β phase.

  5. Transformation behavior of Ni-Mn-Ga in the low-temperature limit.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Landazábal, J I; Recarte, V; Sánchez-Alarcos, V; Chernenko, V A; Barandiarán, J M; Lázpita, P; Rodriguez Fernández, J; Righi, L

    2012-07-11

    The magnetic, magnetocaloric and thermal characteristics have been studied in a Ni(50.3)Mn(20.8)Ga(27.6)V(1.3) ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) transforming martensitically at around 40 K. The alloy shows first a transformation from austenite to an intermediate phase and then a partial transformation to an orthorhombic martensite, all the phases being ferromagnetically ordered. The thermomagnetization dependences enabled observation of the magnetocaloric effect in the vicinity of the martensitic transformation (MT). The Debye temperature and the density of states at the Fermi level are equal to θ(D) = (276 ± 4) K and 1.3 states/atom eV , respectively, and scarcely dependent on the magnetic field. The MT exhibited by Ni-Mn-Ga FSMAs at very low temperatures is distinctive in the sense that it is accompanied by a hardly detectable entropy change as a sign of a small driving force. The enhanced stability of the cubic phase and the low driving force of the MT stem from the reduced density of states near the Fermi level.

  6. EXAFS measurement of iron bcc-to-hcp phase transformation in nanosecond-laser shocks.

    PubMed

    Yaakobi, B; Boehly, T R; Meyerhofer, D D; Collins, T J B; Remington, B A; Allen, P G; Pollaine, S M; Lorenzana, H E; Eggert, J H

    2005-08-12

    Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements have demonstrated the phase transformation from body-centered-cubic (bcc) to hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) iron due to nanosecond, laser-generated shocks. The EXAFS spectra are also used to determine the compression and temperature in the shocked iron, which are consistent with hydrodynamic simulations and with the compression inferred from velocity interferometry. This is a direct, atomic-level, and in situ proof of shock-induced transformation in iron, as opposed to the previous indirect proof based on shock-wave splitting.

  7. Precipitation phase transformation in nanocrystalline Fe-Mo alloys.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Subhajit; Bansal, Chandrahaas

    2004-01-01

    Precipitation phase transformation was studied in nanocrystalline Fe-rich Fe-Mo alloys with the use of X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Alloys up to 5 at% Mo in Fe were synthesized by mechanical alloying and formed in alpha phase bcc solid solutions with average grain sizes in the range of 10-13 nm. The precipitation transformation (alpha-->alpha + lambda) was found to proceed via a Mo clustering that was correlated with the size of the nanograins. This was understood in terms of the Gibbs Thomson effect with a concept of negative surface energy contribution to the Gibbs free energy of mixing in a nanocrystalline alloy with positive internal energy of mixing. This contribution increased the stability of the solid solution for nanosized grains, and the Mo precipitation started once the grains grew beyond a critical size. We argue that the Mo precipitation takes place in the grain boundary regions, and the Mo-rich lambda phase also precipitates directly in the grain boundary regions, in contrast to the microcrystalline alloys, where the Mo clusters formed within the grains and were first dissolved in the Fe matrix before the lambda phase was formed.

  8. Anisotropic kinetics of solid phase transition from first principles: alpha-omega phase transformation of Zr.

    PubMed

    Guan, Shu-Hui; Liu, Zhi-Pan

    2016-02-14

    Structural inhomogeneity is ubiquitous in solid crystals and plays critical roles in phase nucleation and propagation. Here, we develop a heterogeneous solid-solid phase transition theory for predicting the prevailing heterophase junctions, the metastable states governing microstructure evolution in solids. Using this theory and first-principles pathway sampling simulation, we determine two types of heterophase junctions pertaining to metal α-ω phase transition at different pressures and predict the reversibility of transformation only at low pressures, i.e. below 7 GPa. The low-pressure transformation is dominated by displacive Martensitic mechanism, while the high-pressure one is controlled by the reconstructive mechanism. The mechanism of α-ω phase transition is thus highly pressure-sensitive, for which the traditional homogeneous model fails to explain the experimental observations. The results provide the first atomic-level evidence on the coexistence of two different solid phase transition mechanisms in one system.

  9. Experimental and computational investigation of the effect of phase transformation on fracture parameters of an SMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghgouyan, Behrouz; Shafaghi, Nima; Aydıner, C. Can; Anlas, Gunay

    2016-07-01

    A comprehensive, multi-method experimental characterization of fracture is conducted on shape memory alloy NiTi that exhibits superelasticity due to austenite-to-martensite stress induced phase transformation. This characterization includes (i) load-based measurement of critical stress intensity factor (K max) using ASTM standard E399, (ii) measurement of crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) per ASTM standard E1290, (iii) the digital image correlation (DIC) characterization of the transformation zone as well as the displacement-field based measurement of K max from the DIC data. Samples have also been tested at T = 100 °C to suppress the martensitic transformation to investigate transformation toughening. The experimental investigation is complemented with finite element (FE) analysis that uses Auricchio-Taylor-Lubliner constitutive model. A direct observation with DIC revealed a small scale transformation (K-dominance). K max of the transforming material is higher than that of the transformation-suppressed material tested at 100 °C, suggesting transformation toughening. At 100 °C, the material becomes quite brittle with a very small crack-tip plastic zone when the transformation mechanism is blocked. By measures of critical CTOD, the gap widens even more between the superelastic and transformation-suppressed cases, particularly because of the side effect that, in this very interesting material, material modulus increases with temperature. Evaluating the transformation zone from the DIC strains with reference to the uniaxial stress-strain curve, an equivalent strain form is proposed in conjunction with the plane stress FE prediction.

  10. Crystal-amorphous transformation via defect-templating in phase-change materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nukala, Pavan

    Phase-change materials (PCM) such as GeTe and Ge-Sb-Te alloys are potential candidates for non-volatile memory applications, because they can reversibly and rapidly transform between a crystalline phase and an amorphous phase with medium-range order. Traditionally, crystal-amorphous transformation in these materials has been carried out via melt-quench pathway, where the crystalline phase is heated beyond its melting point by the rising edge of an electric pulse, and the melt phase is quenched by the falling edge into a glassy phase. Formation of an intermediate melt phase in this transformation pathway requires usage of large switching current densities, resulting in energy wastage, and device degradation issues. Furthermore, melt-quench pathway is a brute force strategy of amorphizing PCM, and does not utilize the peculiar structural properties in crystalline phase. It will be beneficial from a device perspective that crystal-amorphous transformation is carried out via subtler solid-state pathways. Single-crystalline nanowire phase-change memory, owing to its lateral geometry and large volumes of active material, offers a platform to construct a crystal-amorphous transformation pathway via gradually increasing disorder in the crystalline phase, and study it. Using in situ transmission electron microscopy on GeTe and Ge2Sb2Te5 systems, we showed that the application of an electric pulse (heat-shock) creates dislocations in the PCM that migrate with the hole-wind force, and interact with the already existing ferroelectric boundaries in case of GeTe, changing their nature. We adapted novel tools such as optical second harmonic generation polarimety to carefully study these defect interactions. These defects accumulate at a region of local inhomogeneity, and upon addition of defects beyond a critical limit to that region via electrical pulsing, an amorphous phase "nucleates". We also studied the effect of defect dynamics on carrier transport using temperature

  11. THERMODYNAMICS AND KINETICS OF PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS IN PLUTONIUM ALLOYS - PART I

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, P A; Kaufman, L; Liu, Z; Zhou, S

    2004-08-18

    In this report we investigate order, stability, and phase transformations for a series of actinide-based alloys. The statics and kinetics of precipitation and ordering in this class of alloys are modeled with a scheme that couples fundamental information on the alloy energetics obtained from experimental and assessed thermo-chemical data to the CALPHAD approach commonly used in industry for designing alloys with engineering specificity with the help of the Thermo-Calc software application. The CALPHAD approach is applied to the study of the equilibrium thermodynamic properties of Pu-based alloys, Pu-X, where X=Al, Fe, Ga. The assessment of the equilibrium phase diagrams in the whole range of alloy composition has been performed with the PARROT module of the Thermo-Calc application software. Predictions are made on the low temperature and Pu-rich side of the phase diagrams of Pu-Ga and Pu-Al for which controversy has been noted in the past. The validity of the assessed thermo-chemical database will be discussed by comparing predicted heats of transformation for pure Pu with measured values from differential scanning calorimetry analysis. An overall picture for the stability properties of Pu-Ga and Pu-Al that reconciles the results of past studies carried out on these alloys is proposed. Results on phase stability in the ternary Fe-Ga-Pu and Al-Fe-Pu alloys are discussed. The information collected in this study is then used to model metastability, long-term stability and aging for this class of alloys by coupling Thermo-Calc with DICTRA, a series of modules that allow the analysis of DIffusion Controlled TRAnsformations. Kinetics information is then summarized in so-called TTT (temperature-time-transformations) diagrams for the most relevant phases of actinide alloys. Specifically, results are presented on kinetics of phase transformations associated with the eutectoid-phase decomposition reaction occurring at low temperature, and with the martensitic transformation

  12. Texture evolution during nitinol martensite detwinning and phase transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, S.; Schaffer, J. E.; Ren, Y.

    2013-12-09

    Nitinol has been widely used to make medical devices for years due to its unique shape memory and superelastic properties. However, the texture of the nitinol wires has been largely ignored due to inherent complexity. In this study, in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction has been carried out during uniaxial tensile testing to investigate the texture evolution of the nitinol wires during martensite detwinning, variant reorientation, and phase transformation. It was found that the thermal martensitic nitinol wire comprised primarily an axial (1{sup ¯}20), (120), and (102)-fiber texture. Detwinning initially converted the (120) and (102) fibers to the (1{sup ¯}20) fiber and progressed to a (1{sup ¯}30)-fiber texture by rigid body rotation. At strains above 10%, the (1{sup ¯}30)-fiber was shifted to the (110) fiber by (21{sup ¯}0) deformation twinning. The austenitic wire exhibited an axial (334)-fiber, which transformed to the near-(1{sup ¯}30) martensite texture after the stress-induced phase transformation.

  13. Texture evolution during nitinol martensite detwinning and phase transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, S.; Schaffer, J. E.; Ren, Y.; Yu, C.

    2013-12-01

    Nitinol has been widely used to make medical devices for years due to its unique shape memory and superelastic properties. However, the texture of the nitinol wires has been largely ignored due to inherent complexity. In this study, in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction has been carried out during uniaxial tensile testing to investigate the texture evolution of the nitinol wires during martensite detwinning, variant reorientation, and phase transformation. It was found that the thermal martensitic nitinol wire comprised primarily an axial (1¯20), (120), and (102)-fiber texture. Detwinning initially converted the (120) and (102) fibers to the (1¯20) fiber and progressed to a (1¯30)-fiber texture by rigid body rotation. At strains above 10%, the (1¯30)-fiber was shifted to the (110) fiber by (21¯0) deformation twinning. The austenitic wire exhibited an axial (334)-fiber, which transformed to the near-(1¯30) martensite texture after the stress-induced phase transformation.

  14. Mechanochemical spinodal decomposition: a phenomenological theory of phase transformations in multi-component, crystalline solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudraraju, Shiva; van der Ven, Anton; Garikipati, Krishna

    2016-06-01

    We present a phenomenological treatment of diffusion-driven martensitic phase transformations in multi-component crystalline solids that arise from non-convex free energies in mechanical and chemical variables. The treatment describes diffusional phase transformations that are accompanied by symmetry-breaking structural changes of the crystal unit cell and reveals the importance of a mechanochemical spinodal, defined as the region in strain-composition space, where the free-energy density function is non-convex. The approach is relevant to phase transformations wherein the structural order parameters can be expressed as linear combinations of strains relative to a high-symmetry reference crystal. The governing equations describing mechanochemical spinodal decomposition are variationally derived from a free-energy density function that accounts for interfacial energy via gradients of the rapidly varying strain and composition fields. A robust computational framework for treating the coupled, higher-order diffusion and nonlinear strain gradient elasticity problems is presented. Because the local strains in an inhomogeneous, transforming microstructure can be finite, the elasticity problem must account for geometric nonlinearity. An evaluation of available experimental phase diagrams and first-principles free energies suggests that mechanochemical spinodal decomposition should occur in metal hydrides such as ZrH2-2c. The rich physics that ensues is explored in several numerical examples in two and three dimensions, and the relevance of the mechanism is discussed in the context of important electrode materials for Li-ion batteries and high-temperature ceramics.

  15. Nonequilibrium phase transformations in bcc titanium and niobium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, Kevin James

    The major goal throughout this entire study was to find a bulk beta-titanium amorphous system. In this case, the feasibility of bulk amorphization by destabilizing the crystalline phase in bcc titanium alloys is developed. The binary Ti-Cr system was previously reported, by others, to undergo spontaneous vitrification. This work was later proven to be irreproducible by several other groups. With the proper alloying additions to the Ti-Cr system, the resultant bcc matrix is extremely unstable, however, the formation of alpha, o, and intermetallics is inhibited. Powders of the complex system Ti65Cr13Cu 16Mn4Fe2 transform to a fully amorphous structure after just 3 to 4 hours of mechanical milling. In bulk, this system forms nanoscale disordered regions, totaling 20 to 30% of the microstructure, upon annealing of the metastable bcc phase. The phase separation, beta → beta + beta' accompanies this transformation and induces strain into the matrix. Analytical high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is used to characterize the decomposition behavior by obtaining physical measurements of the microstructure and chemistry, and to determine the mechanism of the phase separation. High resolution and analytical TEM data map the development of successive chromium rich (copper poor) and chromium poor (copper rich) regions formed in <100> directions during heat treatment. This reaction is shown to occur by spinodal decomposition. A known bcc, binary spinodal decomposition system, Nb-Zr, was chosen as a reference system to verify the spinodal mechanism in the 5-component titanium system and to validate the use of analytical TEM to characterize spinodal decomposition. The Ti-Cr system is also investigated for comparison with the complex Ti-Cr-Cu-Mn-Fe system and to resolve some of the issues presented during the earlier spontaneous vitrification studies. Finally, a combination of high resolution TEM and chemical analysis is utilized to differentiate between the

  16. Phase transformation upon cooling path in Ca2SiO4: Possible geological implication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yun-Ting; Kung, Jennifer; Hsu, Han

    2016-04-01

    At the contact metamorphism zone two different Ca2SiO4 phases can be found; calcio-olivine (γ phase) and larnite (β phase). In-situ experiments illustrated the existence of five various polymorphs in Ca2SiO4, i.e., α, α'H, α'L, β and γ. The path of phase transformation and the transformation temperatures are shown as follows. γ → α'L(700° C) → α'H(1100° C) → α (1450° C) α'L → β (680° C) → γ (500° C) Experiments showed that the phase transitions at lower temperature is not reversible and seemed to be complicated; β phase is only stable from 500° C to 680° C upon cooling. To understand the possible mechanism of the β phase being metastable at room temperature, atmosphere condition, we were motivated to investigate the route of phase transition in Ca2SiO4 in different thermal process. Powder samples were synthesized by the solid-state reaction. Pure reagent oxides CaCO3 and SiO2 were mixed in 2:1 stoichiometric mole. Two control factors were designated in the experiments; the sintering temperature of starting materials and the cooling path. The sintering temperature was set within the range of stable phase field of α'L phase (˜900° C) and α'H phase (1300° C). The cooling process was designed in three different routes: 1) the quenched procedure from sintering temperature with rate of 900° C/min and 1300° C/min, 2) the furnace cooling procedure, 3) set a slow cooling rate (0.265 ° C/min). The products were examined for the crystal structure by X-ray powder diffraction. First-principle calculation was also applied to investigate the thermodynamic properties of α'H, β and γ phases. A major finding in this study showed that the γ phase presented in the final product when the sintering temperature was set at the stable field of α'H phase; on the other hand, the β phase would present when the sintering temperature was set within the field of α'L phase. It was noted that the existing phase in the product would be modified by the

  17. High-temperature superconducting transformer performance, cost, and market evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Dirks, J.A.; Dagle, J.E.; DeSteese, J.G.; Huber, H.D.; Smith, S.A.; Currie, J.W.; Merrick, S.B.; Williams, T.A.

    1993-09-01

    Recent laboratory breakthroughs in high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials have stimulated both the scientific community and general public with questions regarding how these materials can be used in practical applications. While there are obvious benefits from using HTS materials (most notably the potential for reduced energy losses in the conductors), a number of issues (such as overall system energy losses, cost, and reliability) may limit applications of HTS equipment, even if the well known materials problems are solved. This study examined the future application potential of HTS materials to power transformers. This study effort was part of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD) research program, Superconductivity Technology for Electric Power Systems (STEPS). The study took a systems perspective to gain insights to help guide DOE in managing research designed to realize the vision of HTS applications. Specific objectives of the study were as follows: to develop an understanding of the fundamental HTS transformer design issues that can provide guidance for developing practical devices of interest to the electric utility industry; to identify electric utility requirements for HTS transformers and to evaluate the potential for developing a commercial market; to evaluate the market potential and national benefits for HTS transformers that could be achieved by a successful HTS development program; to develop an integrated systems analysis framework, which can be used to support R&D planning by DOE, by identifying how various HTS materials characteristics impact the performance, cost, and national benefits of the HTS application.

  18. Influence of water concentrations on the phase transformation of a model surfactant/co-surfactant/water system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunkad, Raju; Srivastava, Arpita; Debnath, Ananya

    2017-02-01

    The influence of water concentrations on phase transformations of a surfactant/co-surfactant/water system is investigated by using all atom molecular dynamics simulations. At higher water concentrations, where surfactant (behenyl trimethyl ammonium chloride, BTMAC) to co-surfactant (stearyl alcohol, SA) ratio is fixed, BTMAC and SA self-assemble into spherical micelles, which transform into strongly interdigitated one dimensional rippled lamellar phases upon decreasing water concentrations. Fragmentation or fusions of spherical micelles of different sizes are evident from the radial distribution functions at different temperatures. However, at lower water concentrations rippled lamellar phase transforms into an LβI phase upon heating. Our simulations reveal that the concentrations of water can influence available space around the head groups which couple with critical thickness to accommodate the packing fraction required for respective phases. This directs towards obtaining a controlling factor to design desired phases important for industrial and medical applications in the future.

  19. Correlating Hardness Retention and Phase Transformations of Al and Mg Cast Alloys for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprzak, W.; Czerwinski, F.; Niewczas, M.; Chen, D. L.

    2015-03-01

    The methodology based on correlating hardness and phase transformations was developed and applied to determine the maximum temperature of hardness retention of selected Al-based and Mg-based alloys for aerospace applications. The Al alloys: A356, F357, and C355 experienced 34-66% reduction of the initial hardness, in comparison to 4-22% hardness reduction observed in Mg alloys: QE22A, EV31A, ZE41A, and WE43B after the same annealing to 450 °C. For Al alloys the hardness reduction showed a steep transition between 220 and 238 °C. In contrast, Mg alloys showed a gradual hardness decrease occurring at somewhat higher temperatures between 238 and 250 °C. The hardness data were correlated with corresponding phase transformation kinetics examined by dilatometer and electrical resistivity measurements. Although Mg alloys preserved hardness to higher temperatures, their room temperature tensile strength and hardness were lower than Al alloys. The experimental methodology used in the present studies appears to be very useful in evaluating the softening temperature of commercial Al- and Mg-based alloys, permitting to assess their suitability for high-temperature applications.

  20. Dynamics of Structural Transformations between Lamellar and Inverse Bicontinuous Cubic Lyotropic Phases

    SciTech Connect

    Conn, Charlotte E.; Ces, Oscar; Mulet, Xavier; Seddon, John M.; Templer, Richard H.; Finet, Stephanie; Winter, Roland

    2006-03-17

    The liquid crystalline lamellar (L{sub {alpha}}) to double-diamond inverse bicontinuous cubic (Q{sub II}{sup D}) phase transition for the amphiphile monoelaidin in excess water exhibits a remarkable sequence of structural transformations for pressure or temperature jumps. Our data imply that the transition dynamics depends on a coupling between changes in molecular shape and the geometrical and topological constraints of domain size. We propose a qualitative model for this coupling based on theories of membrane fusion via stalks and existing knowledge of the structure and energetics of bicontinuous cubic phases.

  1. Two-dimensional phase transformation probed by second harmonic generation: Oscillatory transformation of the K/Al(111) system

    SciTech Connect

    Ying, Z.C.; Plummer, E.W. |

    1995-12-31

    The technique of optical second harmonic generation is used to study phase transformations at two-dimensional surfaces and interfaces. Examples are given to illustrate that changes in surface symmetry, adsorption configuration, and electronic structure can be detected by this nonlinear optical technique. An oscillatory phase transformation of potassium adsorbed atoms on Al(111) probed by second harmonic generation is analyzed in detail.

  2. A comparison of dilatometry and in-situ neutron diffraction in tracking bulk phase transformations in a martensitic stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Christien, F.; Telling, M.T.F.; Knight, K.S.

    2013-08-15

    Phase transformations in the 17-4PH martensitic stainless steel have been studied using different in-situ techniques, including dilatometry and high resolution neutron diffraction. Neutron diffraction patterns were quantitatively processed using the Rietveld refinement method, allowing the determination of the temperature-dependence of martensite (α′, bcc) and austenite (γ, fcc) phase fractions and lattice parameters on heating to 1000 °C and then cooling to room temperature. It is demonstrated in this work that dilatometry doesn't permit an accurate determination of the end temperature (Ac3) of the α′ → γ transformation which occurs upon heating to high temperature. The analysis of neutron diffraction data has shown that the respective volumes of the two phases become very close to each other at high temperature, thus making the dilatometric technique almost insensitive in that temperature range. However, there is a very good agreement between neutron diffraction and dilatometry at lower temperature. The martensitic transformation occurring upon cooling has been analysed using the Koistinen–Marburger equation. The thermal expansion coefficients of the two phases have been determined in addition. A comparison of the results obtained in this work with data from literature is presented. - Highlights: • Martensite is still present at very high temperature (> 930 °C) upon heating. • The end of austenitisation cannot be accurately monitored by dilatometry. • The martensite and austenite volumes become similar at high temperature (> ∼ 850 °C)

  3. Two-phase visualization at cryogenic temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousset, Bernard; Chatain, Denis; Beysens, Daniel; Jager, Bernard

    2001-05-01

    This paper presents two different applications for two-phase visualization at low temperature. In the first application, a CCD video camera located inside vacuum is directly supported by the Pyrex pipe containing a two-phase superfluid flow. In the case of slightly positive slopes in which the flow is co-current but ascending, two different flow patterns have been seen, stratified and intermittent, depending on the vapor mass flow. Experimental investigations from stratified to intermittent flow have been made visually and compared to a code derived from the Taitler/Dukler model. The second application concerns phase transition of hydrogen near critical point (33 K) in zero gravity. The experiments have been performed in a cryostat equipped with a 10 T superconducting coil allowing the gravity compensation for hydrogen. Images of the condensation cell are shifted to the top of the cryostat with a specific cryogenic endoscope because CCD cameras do not work in high magnetic fields. The sample was enlightened with diffuse or parallel (coherent) light using a second endoscope. Images obtained in this apparatus are similar with those obtained in space.

  4. Large-strain cyclic response and martensitic transformation of austenitic stainless steel at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamasaki, H.; Nakano, T.; Ishimaru, E.; Yoshida, F.

    2016-08-01

    Cyclic tension-compression tests were carried out for austenitic stainless steel (SUS304) at elevated temperatures. The significant Bauschinger effect was found in the obtained stress-strain curve. In addition, stagnation of deformation induced martensitic transformation was observed just after stress reversal until the equivalent stress reached the maximum value in the course of experiment. The constitutive model for SUS304 at room temperature was developed, in which homogenized stress of SUS304 was expressed by the weighed summation of stresses of austenite and martensite phases. The calculated stress-strain curves and predicted martensite volume fraction were well correlated with those experimental results.

  5. Study of phase transformation and crystal structure for 1D carbon-modified titania ribbons

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Lihui Zhang, Fang; Li, Jinxia

    2014-02-15

    One-dimensional hydrogen titanate ribbons were successfully prepared with hydrothermal reaction in a highly basic solution. A series of one-dimensional carbon-modified TiO{sub 2} ribbons were prepared via calcination of the mixture of hydrogen titanate ribbons and sucrose solution under N{sub 2} flow at different temperatures. The phase transformation process of hydrogen titanate ribbons was investigated by in-situ X-ray diffraction at various temperatures. Besides, one-dimensional carbon-modified TiO{sub 2} ribbons calcined at different temperatures were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption isotherms, diffuse reflectance ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, and so on. Carbon-modified TiO{sub 2} ribbons showed one-dimensional ribbon crystal structure and various crystal phases of TiO{sub 2}. After being modified with carbon, a layer of uniform carbon film was coated on the surface of TiO{sub 2} ribbons, which improved their adsorption capacity for methyl orange as a model organic pollutant. One-dimensional carbon-modified TiO{sub 2} ribbons also exhibited enhanced visible-light absorbance with the increase of calcination temperatures. - Highlights: • The synthesis of 1D carbon-modified TiO{sub 2} ribbons. • The phase transformation of 1D carbon-modified TiO{sub 2} ribbons. • 1D carbon-modified TiO{sub 2} exhibites enhanced visible-light absorbance.

  6. A New, More Stable Polymorphic Form of Otilonium Bromide: Solubility, Crystal Structure, and Phase Transformation.

    PubMed

    Vega, Daniel R; Halac, Emilia; Segovia, Luciano; Baggio, Ricardo

    2016-10-01

    A new polymorphic form of otilonium bromide is presented (Form I), and a thorough analysis of its crystal and molecular structure is performed. The compound suffers a temperature-driven first-order phase transition at about 396 K, which transforms it into the polymorph reported by Dapporto P and Sega A (Acta Cryst. 1986;C42:474-478) (Form II). Through thermal analysis and solubility experiments the relative stability of both crystal modifications were determined, confirming that at room temperature this new Form I is the more stable one, Form II existing just in a metastable state.

  7. Proposed Giaever transformer to probe the pseudogap phase of cuprates.

    SciTech Connect

    Levchenko, A.; Norman, M. R.

    2011-03-01

    We develop a theory of the rectification effect in a double-layer system where both layers are superconductors or one of the layers is a normal metal. The Coulomb interaction is assumed to provide the dominant coupling between the layers. We find that superconducting fluctuations strongly enhance the drag conductivity, with rectification most pronounced when both layers are superconductors. In view of their distinct dependence on temperature near T{sub c} and layer separation, drag measurements based on a Giaever transformer could distinguish whether rectification occurs due to fluctuating pairs or inductively coupled fluctuating vortices.

  8. Statistical Thermodynamics of Phase Transformations in Lithium Alanates with Release of Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaginaichenko, S. Yu.; Matysina, Z. A.; Shchur, D. V.; Pomytkin, A. P.; Gabdullin, M. T.; Zaritskii, D. A.

    2017-02-01

    Based on the molecular and kinetic concepts, the paper presents the theory of phase transformations in lithium alanates with the release of hydrogen. The calculations are given for free energies of phases and their dependences on pressure, temperature, hydrogen concentration, and energy parameters are determined. The equations are derived for the thermodynamically-equilibrium states which determine the Pressure-Temperature-Concentration diagram and estimate the energy parameters with the use of experimental results taken from the literature. The investigation of the detected temperature/concentration dependence in crystals shows the impossibility of a complete hydrogen release from alanates. The paper contains isotherm and isopleth plots. A possibility is established for the hysteresis effect. A comparison is given to the theoretical and experimental results.

  9. Phase Transformation of VO2 Nanoparticles Assisted by Microwave Heating

    PubMed Central

    Sikong, Lek.

    2014-01-01

    The microwave assisted synthesis nowadays attracts a great deal of attention. Monoclinic phase VO2 (M) was prepared from NH4VO3 and H2C2O4 · 2H2O by a rapid microwave assisted technique. The synthesis parameters, microwave irradiation time, microwave power, and calcinations temperature were systematically varied and their influences on the structure and morphology were evaluated. The microwave power level has been carried out in range 180–600 W. TEM analysis demonstrated nanosized samples. The structural and morphological properties were measured using XRD, TEM, and thermal analyses. The variations of vanadium phase led to thermochromic properties. PMID:24688438

  10. Effect of phase transformation on optical and dielectric properties of pulsed laser deposited ZnTiO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Praveen K.; Salim, Mohammad; Kaur, Davinder

    2016-04-01

    Zinc titanate (ZnTiO3) ceramics were prepared by conventional solid state reaction method using ZnO and TiO2 in a molar ratio of 1:1 with optimized parameters. It was found that the sample sintered at 800 °C for 12 h exhibit single hexagonal phase of ZnTiO3. ZnTiO3 thin film have been deposited on ITO coated glass substrate using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique employing a KrF laser source (λ = 248 nm). In present work, the effect of substrate temperature, which leads to transformation of hexagonal phase to cubic phase, has been studied. The XRD pattern revealed that pure hexagonal phase of ZnTiO3 appear upto 400 °C and more increment in substrate temperature leads to transformation of hexagonal phase to cubic phase. We have observed the blue shift in absorption edge at lower temperature. When the substrate temperature increases from 300 to 400 °C the band gap decreases due to strong hexagonal phase, but more increment in substrate temperature increases the band gap causes by change of phase from hexagonal to cubic. The dielectric constant of ZnTiO3 thin film increases as the substrate temperature increases due to the enhancement in crystallinity and improved morphology.

  11. Transformation toughened ceramics for the heavy duty diesel engine technology program, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musikant, S.; Samanta, S. C.; Architetto, P.; Feingold, E.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this program is to develop an insulating structural ceramic for application in a heavy duty adiabatic diesel engine. The approach is to employ transformation toughening (TT) by additions of zirconia-hafnia solid solution (ZHSS). The feasibility of using ZHSS as a toughening agent in mullite and alumina has been demonstrated in Phase 1 of this work. Based on Phase 1 results, a decision was made to concentrate the Phase 2 effort on process optimization of the TT mullite. A strong factor in that decision was the low thermal conductivity and high thermal shock resistance of the mullite. Results of the Phase 2 effort indicate that optimum toughening of mullite by additions of ZHSS is difficult to achieve due to apparent sensitivity to morphology. The 48 ksi room temperature modulus-of-rupture (MOR) achieved in selected specimens is approximately 50% of the original strength target. The MOR deteriorated to 34 ksi at 800 C.

  12. Phase Transformation of Nano-sized ZrO2 upon Thermal Annealing and Intense Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Fengyuan; Zhang, Jiaming; Huang, Mengbing; Namavar, Fereydoon; Ewing, Rodney C.; Lian, Jie

    2011-03-25

    The phase stability and microstructure evolution of zirconia nanofilms on Si substrates prepared by ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) upon thermal annealing and intensive radiation have been studied by in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ex situ X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. For as-prepared amorphous-dominant ZrO2 thin films, a phase transformation sequence of amorphous-to-tetragonal and tetragonal-to-monoclinic has been identified upon increasing annealing temperature from 500, 850, to 1000 °C. This phase transformation sequence varying with annealing temperature is accompanied by concomitant grain growth from ~5 to ~50 nm, consistent with the grain-size-controlled phase stability as a result of total energy crossover among different zirconia polymorphs. Upon ion bombardments of 350 KeV O+ and 1 MeV Kr2+ at room temperature, a monoclinic-to-tetragonal phase transformation was observed in the monoclinic-dominant ZrO2. This monoclinic-to-tetragonal phase transformation may be attributed to the oxygen vacancy accumulation in ZrO2 upon irradiation. Furthermore, both 1 MeV Kr2+ and 350 KeV O+ bombardments on the amorphous-dominant ZrO2 lead to an amorphous-to-tetragonal phase transformation as a result of radiation-induced recrystallization process. Thermodynamically metastable tetragonal ZrO2 phase can be stabilized at room temperature under intensive radiation by relatively low-energy ion bombardments. These results suggest a method of combining both thermal annealing and ion beam technique for controlling ZrO2 phase stability and thus tailoring materials properties for many engineering applications including actinide host matrix for advanced nuclear energy systems.

  13. Effect of structural phase transformation in FeGaO{sub 3} on its magnetic and ferroelectric properties

    SciTech Connect

    Lone, A. G. Bhowmik, R. N.

    2015-06-24

    We investigate the structural phase transformation from orthorhombic to rhombohedral structure in FeGaO{sub 3} by adopting a combined effect of mechanical alloying/milling and solid state sintering techniques. The structural phase formation of the FeGaO{sub 3} compound has been characterized by X-ray diffraction pattern. Mechanical milling played a significant role on the stabilization of rhombohedral phase in FeGaO{sub 3}, where as high temperature sintering stabilized the system in orthorhombic phase. A considerable difference has been observed in magnetic and ferroelectric properties of the system in two phases. The system in rhombohedral (R-3c) phase exhibited better ferromagnetic and of ferroelectric properties at room temperature in comparison to orthorhombic (Pc2{sub 1}n) phase. The rhombohedral phase appears to be good for developing metal doped hematite system for spintronics applications and in that process mechanical milling played an important role.

  14. In situ observation of quasimelting of diamond and reversible graphite-diamond phase transformations.

    PubMed

    Huang, J Y

    2007-08-01

    Because of technique difficulties in achieving the extreme high-pressure and high-temperature (HPHT) simultaneously, direct observation of the structures of carbon at extreme HPHT conditions has not been possible. Banhart and Ajayan discovered remarkably that carbon onions can act as nanoscopic pressure cells to generate high pressures. By heating carbon onions to approximately 700 degrees C and under electron beam irradiation, the graphite-to-diamond transformation was observed in situ by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). However, the highest achievable temperature in a TEM heating holder is less than 1000 degrees C. Here we report that, by using carbon nanotubes as heaters and carbon onions as high-pressure cells, temperatures higher than 2000 degrees C and pressures higher than 40 GPa were achieved simultaneously in carbon onions. At such HPHT conditions and facilitated by electron beam irradiation, the diamond formed in the carbon onion cores frequently changed its shape, size, orientation, and internal structure and moved like a fluid, implying that it was in a quasimelting state. The fluctuation between the solid phase of diamond and the fluid/amorphous phase of diamond-like carbon, and the changes of the shape, size, and orientation of the solid diamond, were attributed to the dynamic crystallization of diamond crystal from the quasimolten state and the dynamic graphite-diamond phase transformations. Our discovery offers unprecedented opportunities to studying the nanostructures of carbon at extreme conditions in situ and at an atomic scale.

  15. Phase transformation considerations during process development and manufacture of solid oral dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Geoff G Z; Law, Devalina; Schmitt, Eric A; Qiu, Yihong

    2004-02-23

    The quality and performance of a solid oral dosage form depends on the choice of the solid phase, the formulation design, and the manufacturing process. The potential for process-induced solid phase transformations must be evaluated during design and development of formulations and manufacturing processes. This article briefly reviews the basic principles of polymorphism, defines the classes of phase transformation and the underlying transformation mechanisms, and discusses respective kinetic factors. The potential phase transformations associated with common unit operations employed in manufacturing solid oral dosage forms are highlighted. Specific examples are given to illustrate the importance of solid phases, and process-induced phase transitions in formulation and process development.

  16. Phase transformation dependence on initial plastic deformation mode in Si via nanoindentation

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Sherman; Haberl, Bianca; Williams, James S.; Bradby, Jodie E.

    2016-09-30

    Silicon in its diamond-cubic phase is known to phase transform to a technologically interesting mixture of the body-centred cubic and rhombohedral phases under nanoindentation pressure. In this study, we demonstrate that during plastic deformation the sample can traverse two distinct pathways, one that initially nucleates a phase transformation while the other initially nucleates crystalline defects. These two pathways remain distinct even after sufficient pressure is applied such that both deformation mechanisms are present within the sample. Here, it is further shown that the indents that initially nucleate a phase transformation generate larger, more uniform volumes of the phase transformed material than indents that initially nucleate crystalline defects.

  17. Ultrasonic Observations of Elasticity Changes Across Phase Transformations in MgSiO3 Pyroxenes

    SciTech Connect

    Kung,J.; Li, B.; Liebermann, R.

    2006-01-01

    Using ultrasonic interferometry in conjunction with synchrotron X-radiation techniques in a high-pressure, multi-anvil apparatus, the elastic behavior of MgSiO{sub 3} pyroxene has been continuously monitored as the specimens undergo phase transformations from the orthoenstatite (OEN) to the high-pressure clinoenstatite phase (HP-CEN) and from HP-CEN to the low-pressure clinoenstatite phase (LP-CEN). In the former case, elastic softening and amplitude attenuation is observed for both compresssional (P) and shear (S) waves when the pressure exceeds 9 GPa at room temperature, which we suggest is associated with a transition to a metastable phase intermediate between OEN and HP-CEN. In the latter case, both P and S wave velocities decrease rapidly as the back-transformation from HP-CEN to LP-CEN occurs on decrease of pressure below 4 GPa at room temperature; this is accompanied by an increase in attenuation of the P waves in the specimen, but not the S waves.

  18. Metastable mantle phase transformations and deep earthquakes in subducting oceanic lithosphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, S.H.; Stein, S.; Okal, E.A.; Rubie, David C.

    1996-01-01

    should cease at depths near 700 km, because the seismogenic phase transformations in the slab are completed or can no longer occur. Substantial metastability is expected only in old, cold slabs, consistent with the observed restriction of deep earthquakes to those settings. Earthquakes should be restricted to the cold cores of slabs, as in any model in which the seismicity is temperature controlled, via the distribution of metastability. However, the geometries of recent large deep earthquakes pose a challenge for any such models. Transformational faulting may give insight into why deep shocks lack appreciable aftershocks and why their source characteristics, including focal mechanisms indicating localized shear failure rather than implosive deformation, are so similar to those of shallow earthquakes. Finally, metastable phase changes in slabs would produce an internal source of stress in addition to those due to the weight of the sinking slab. Such internal stresses may explain the occurrence of earthquakes in portions of lithosphere which have foundered to the bottom of the transition zone and/or are detached from subducting slabs. Metastability in downgoing slabs could have considerable geodynamic significance. Metastable wedges would reduce the negative buoyancy of slabs, decrease the driving force for subduction, and influence the state of stress in slabs. Heat released by metastable phase changes would raise temperatures within slabs and facilitate the transformation of spinel to the lower mantle mineral assemblage, causing slabs to equilibrate more rapidly with the ambient mantle and thus contribute to the cessation of deep seismicity. Because wedge formation should occur only for fast subducting slabs, it may act as a "parachute" and contribute to regulating plate speeds. Wedge formation would also have consequences for mantle evolution because the density of a slab stagnated near the bottom of the transition zone would increase as it heats up and the wedge tra

  19. Phase equilibrium modeling for high temperature metallization on GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, M. A.; Davison, J. E.; Smith, S. R.

    1991-01-01

    Recent trends in performance specifications and functional requirements have brought about the need for high temperature metallization technology to be developed for survivable DOD space systems and to enhance solar cell reliability. The temperature constitution phase diagrams of selected binary and ternary systems were reviewed to determine the temperature and type of phase transformation present in the alloy systems. Of paramount interest are the liquid-solid and solid-solid transformations. Data are being utilized to aid in the selection of electrical contact materials to gallium arsenide solar cells. Published data on the phase diagrams for binary systems is readily available. However, information for ternary systems is limited. A computer model is being developed which will enable the phase equilibrium predictions for ternary systems where experimental data is lacking.

  20. Electric-field-induced paraelectric to ferroelectric phase transformation in prototypical polycrystalline BaTiO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhiyang; Hinterstein, Manuel; Daniels, John E.; Webber, Kyle G.; Hudspeth, Jessica M.

    2014-10-20

    An electric-field-induced paraelectric cubic to ferroelectric tetragonal phase transformation has been directly observed in prototypical polycrystalline BaTiO{sub 3} at temperatures above the Curie point (T{sub C}) using in situ high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The transformation persisted to a maximum temperature of 4 °C above T{sub C}. The nature of the observed field-induced transformation and the resulting development of domain texture within the induced phase were dependent on the proximity to the transition temperature, corresponding well to previous macroscopic measurements. The transition electric field increased with increasing temperature above T{sub C}, while the magnitude of the resultant tetragonal domain texture at the maximum electric field (4 kV mm{sup −1}) decreased at higher temperatures. These results provide insights into the phase transformation behavior of a prototypical ferroelectric and have important implications for the development of future large-strain phase-change actuator materials.

  1. Ab Initio Simulations of Temperature Dependent Phase Stability and Martensitic Transitions in NiTi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskins, Justin B.; Thompson, Alexander E.; Lawson, John W.

    2016-01-01

    For NiTi based alloys, the shape memory effect is governed by a transition from a low-temperature martensite phase to a high-temperature austenite phase. Despite considerable experimental and computational work, basic questions regarding the stability of the phases and the martensitic phase transition remain unclear even for the simple case of binary, equiatomic NiTi. We perform ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to describe the temperature-dependent behavior of NiTi and resolve several of these outstanding issues. Structural correlation functions and finite temperature phonon spectra are evaluated to determine phase stability. In particular, we show that finite temperature, entropic effects stabilize the experimentally observed martensite (B19') and austenite (B2) phases while destabilizing the theoretically predicted (B33) phase. Free energy computations based on ab initio thermodynamic integration confirm these results and permit estimates of the transition temperature between the phases. In addition to the martensitic phase transition, we predict a new transition between the B33 and B19' phases. The role of defects in suppressing these phase transformations is discussed.

  2. On Inclusion-Matrix Interfacial Stresses in Composites Containing Phase-Transforming Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yun-Che; Ko, Chi-Ching

    2010-05-01

    Recent development in composites containing phase-transforming particles, such as vanadium dioxide or barium titanate, reveals the overall stiffness and viscoelastic damping of the composites may be unbounded. Negative stiffness is induced from phase transformation predicted by the Landau phase transformation theory. Although this unbounded phenomenon is theoretically supported with the composite homogenization theory, detailed stress analyses of the composites are still lacking. In this work, we analyze the two-dimensional plane stress elasticity problem of a square plate containing a circular inclusion, under the assumption that the Young's modulus of the inclusion is negative. Assumption of negative stiffness is a priori in the present analysis. A static loading condition is adopted to estimate the effective modulus of the composites by the ratio of applied stress to averaged strain on the loading edges. It is found that the interfacial stresses between the circular inclusion and matrix increase dramatically when the negative stiffness is so tuned that overall stiffness is unbounded. Furthermore, it is found that stress distributions in the inclusion are not uniform, contrary to Eshelby's theorem, which states, for two-phase, infinite composites, the inclusion's stress distribution is uniform when the shape of the inclusion has higher symmetry than an ellipse. The rationale for this nonuniform stress distributions is due to nonlocal effects induced from negative stiffness.

  3. Phase-field modeling of the beta to omega phase transformation in Zr–Nb alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Yeddu, Hemantha Kumar; Lookman, Turab

    2015-05-01

    A three-dimensional elastoplastic phase-field model is developed, using the Finite Element Method (FEM), for modeling the athermal beta to omega phase transformation in Zr–Nb alloys by including plastic deformation and strain hardening of the material. The microstructure evolution during athermal transformation as well as under different stress states, e.g. uni-axial tensile and compressive, bi-axial tensile and compressive, shear and tri-axial loadings, is studied. The effects of plasticity, stress states and the stress loading direction on the microstructure evolution as well as on the mechanical properties are studied. The input data corresponding to a Zr – 8 at.% Nb alloy are acquired from experimental studies as well as by using the CALPHAD method. Our simulations show that the four different omega variants grow as ellipsoidal shaped particles. Our results show that due to stress relaxation, the athermal phase transformation occurs slightly more readily in the presence of plasticity compared to that in its absence. The evolution of omega phase is different under different stress states, which leads to the differences in the mechanical properties of the material. The variant selection mechanism, i.e. formation of different variants under different stress loading directions, is also nicely captured by our model.

  4. Phase-field modeling of the beta to omega phase transformation in Zr–Nb alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Yeddu, Hemantha Kumar; Lookman, Turab

    2015-05-01

    A three-dimensional elastoplastic phase-field model is developed, using the Finite Element Method (FEM), for modeling the athermal beta to omega phase transformation in Zr–Nb alloys by including plastic deformation and strain hardening of the material. The microstructure evolution during athermal transformation as well as under different stress states, e.g. uni-axial tensile and compressive, bi-axial tensile and compressive, shear and tri-axial loadings, is studied. The effects of plasticity, stress states and the stress loading direction on the microstructure evolution as well as on the mechanical properties are studied. The input data corresponding to a Zr – 8 at.% Nb alloy aremore » acquired from experimental studies as well as by using the CALPHAD method. Our simulations show that the four different omega variants grow as ellipsoidal shaped particles. Our results show that due to stress relaxation, the athermal phase transformation occurs slightly more readily in the presence of plasticity compared to that in its absence. The evolution of omega phase is different under different stress states, which leads to the differences in the mechanical properties of the material. The variant selection mechanism, i.e. formation of different variants under different stress loading directions, is also nicely captured by our model.« less

  5. [Raman characterization of rutile phase transitions under high-pressure and high-temperature].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wan-Sheng; Zhang, Hong; Tan, Da-Yong; Weng, Ke-Nan; Li, Yan-Chun; Luo, Chong-Ju; Liu, Jing; Xie, Hong-Sen

    2007-07-01

    The pressure-induced phase transition of rutile-structured TiO2 was investigated by in-situ Raman spectrum method in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell (DAC). The experiment was conducted at 35 GPa under quasihydrostatic conditions using argon as medium. At room temperature, the rutile-type TiO2 begins to transform to baddeleyite-type phase at 13.4 GPa and completes at 21 GPa, and this new high-pressure structure retains up to 35 GPa, the upmost pressure used in this study. At the pressure of 29.4 GPa the sample of baddeleyite-type TiO2 was heated by an YAG laser to about 1 000-1500 degrees C, and then the baddeleyite phase transformed to a Pbca phase. The Pbca phase was heated again at 35.0 GPa and it was still stable. The sample then began to be decompressed, and the Pbca phase of TiO2 transformed to baddeleyite structure at 26.3 GPa, which stayed stable to 11.4 GPa. The formation of Pbca phase from baddeleyite phase needs the condition of high temperature, it transforms back to badde-leyite structure completely at pressure of a little below that on its formation, which suggests the boundary of the two phases can be determined at about 28 GPa. At 7. 6 GPa, and the Raman spectrum shows the characteristics of the mixture of two phases of baddeleyite-type and alpha-PbO2-type, which indicates that the baddeleyite phase transforms to alpha-PbO2 phase at about 7 GPa. The alpha-PbO2-type TiO2 is metastable under ambient condition.

  6. Phase transformation and phonon anomalies in Ni{sub 2}MnGa

    SciTech Connect

    Zheludev, A.; Shapiro, S.M.; Wochner, P.; Schwartz, A.; Wall, M.; Tanner, L.E.

    1995-07-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering experiments and transmission electron microscopy have been used to study a single crystal of the Ni{sub 2}MnGa shape memory Hustler alloy in a wide temperature range covering the parent phase (T>T{sub 1}=265 K), a recently discovered pemartensitic (T{sub 1}T>T{sub M}) and martensitic (Tphase regions. A temperature-dependent anomaly in the TA{sub 2} phonon dispersion in the parent phase was observed and related to the phase transformations. The premartensitic phase involves a transverse modulation of the parent cubic structure with a simple periodicity of 1/3 [110]. The approximately tetragonal lattice of the low-temperature martensite is distorted by transverse modulations with incommensurate wave vectors [{zeta}M {zeta}M {sup 0}] and [{sup 2}{zeta}M {sup 2}{zeta}M {sup 0}], {zeta}M {approx}0.43. The observed phenomena are attributed to electron-phonon interactions and anharmonic effects.

  7. Kinetics of phase transformation in glass forming systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Chandra S.

    1994-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to (1) develop computer models for realistic simulations of nucleation and crystal growth in glasses, which would also have the flexibility to accomodate the different variables related to sample characteristics and experimental conditions, and (2) design and perform nucleation and crystallization experiments using calorimetric measurements, such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) to verify these models. The variables related to sample characteristics mentioned in (1) above include size of the glass particles, nucleating agents, and the relative concentration of the surface and internal nuclei. A change in any of these variables changes the mode of the transformation (crystallization) kinetics. A variation in experimental conditions includes isothermal and nonisothermal DSC/DTA measurements. This research would lead to develop improved, more realistic methods for analysis of the DSC/DTA peak profiles to determine the kinetic parameters for nucleation and crystal growth as well as to assess the relative merits and demerits of the thermoanalytical models presently used to study the phase transformation in glasses.

  8. Phase transformation and thermoelectric properties of bismuth-telluride nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsin, Cheng-Lun; Wingert, Matthew; Huang, Chun-Wei; Guo, Hua; Shih, Ten-Jen; Suh, Joonki; Wang, Kevin; Wu, Junqiao; Wu, Wen-Wei; Chen, Renkun

    2013-05-01

    Thermoelectric materials have attracted much attention due to the current interest in energy conversion and recent advancements in nano-engineering. A simple approach to synthesize BiTe and Bi2Te3 micro/nanowires was developed by combining solution chemistry reactions and catalyst-free vapor-solid growth. A pathway to transform the as-grown BiTe nanostructures into Bi2Te3 can be identified through the Bi-Te phase diagram. Structural characterization of these products was identified using standard microscopy practices. Meanwhile, thermoelectric properties of individual Bi-Te compound micro/nanowires were determined by the suspended microdevice technique. This approach provides an applicable route to synthesize advanced high performance thermoelectric materials in quantities and can be used for a wide range of low-dimensional structures.Thermoelectric materials have attracted much attention due to the current interest in energy conversion and recent advancements in nano-engineering. A simple approach to synthesize BiTe and Bi2Te3 micro/nanowires was developed by combining solution chemistry reactions and catalyst-free vapor-solid growth. A pathway to transform the as-grown BiTe nanostructures into Bi2Te3 can be identified through the Bi-Te phase diagram. Structural characterization of these products was identified using standard microscopy practices. Meanwhile, thermoelectric properties of individual Bi-Te compound micro/nanowires were determined by the suspended microdevice technique. This approach provides an applicable route to synthesize advanced high performance thermoelectric materials in quantities and can be used for a wide range of low-dimensional structures. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00876b

  9. A new type of Cu-Al-Ta shape memory alloy with high martensitic transformation temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. P.; Su, Y.; Y Yang, S.; Shi, Z.; Liu, X. J.

    2014-02-01

    In this study, a new type of Cu-Al-Ta (Cu86Al12Ta2 wt%) shape memory alloy with high martensitic transformation temperature is explored. The microstructure, reversible martensitic transformation and shape memory properties are investigated by means of optical microscopy, back-scattered electron, electron probe microanalysis, x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and tensile tests. It is proposed that Cu86Al12Ta2 alloy consists of a mixture of primarily {\\beta }_{1}^{\\prime} martensite and a little {\\gamma }_{1}^{\\prime} martensite and some different precipitates. The tiny thin-striped Ta2(Al,Cu)3 precipitate is predominant in the as-quenched condition, whereas the particle-shaped Cu(Al, Ta) precipitate is dominant after hot-rolling. Additionally, the dendritic-shaped γ1(Cu9Al4) phase begins to appear after hot-rolling, but it disappears when the sample is re-quenched. All studied samples have reversible martensitic transformation temperatures higher than 450 ° C. The results show that two-step martensitic transformation behavior is observed for Cu86Al12Ta2 alloy in all three different conditions due to the transformations between ({\\beta }_{1}^{\\prime}+{\\gamma }_{1}^{\\prime}) martensites and the austenite parent phase. The results further show that the recovery ratios are almost 100% when the pre-strains are ≤2.5%, then they gradually decrease with further increase of the pre-strains. The shape memory effects clearly increase as a result of increase of the pre-strains, up to a maximum value of 3.2%.

  10. Analysis of temperature rise for piezoelectric transformer using finite-element method.

    PubMed

    Joo, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Chang-Hwan; Rho, Jong-Seok; Jung, Hyun-Kyo

    2006-08-01

    Analysis of heat problem and temperature field of a piezoelectric transformer, operated at steady-state conditions, is described. The resonance frequency of the transformer is calculated from impedance and electrical gain analysis using a finite-element method. Mechanical displacement and electric potential of the transformer at the calculated resonance frequency are used to calculate the loss distribution of the transformer. Temperature distribution using discretized heat transfer equation is calculated from the obtained losses of the transformer. Properties of the piezoelectric material, dependent on the temperature field, are measured to recalculate the losses, temperature distribution, and new resonance characteristics of the transformer. Iterative method is adopted to recalculate the losses and resonance frequency due to the changes of the material constants from temperature increase. Computed temperature distributions and new resonance characteristics of the transformer at steady-state temperature are verified by comparison with experimental results.

  11. Structural transformations in Pb/Si(111) phases induced by C₆₀ adsorption.

    PubMed

    Matetskiy, A V; Bondarenko, L V; Gruznev, D V; Zotov, A V; Saranin, A A; Tringides, M C

    2013-10-02

    Structural transformations at the Pb/Si(111) surface occurring upon C₆₀ adsorption onto Pb/Si(111)1 × 1 phase at room temperature and Pb/Si(111)[Formula: see text] at low temperatures between 30 and 210 K, have been studied using scanning tunneling microscopy and low-energy electron diffraction observations. Typically, C₆₀ fullerenes agglomerate into random molecular islands nucleated at the surface defects. C₆₀ island formation is accompanied by expelling Pb atoms to the surrounding surface area where more dense Pb/Si(111) phases form. Productivity of C₆₀-induced expelling of Pb atoms is controlled by surface defects and is suppressed dramatically when regular ('crystalline') C₆₀ islands self-assemble at the defect-free Pb/Si(111) surface. When Pb atoms are ejected by the random C₆₀ islands, extended structural transformations involving reordering of numerous Pb atoms are fully completed at the surface within the shortest possible time (a few dozen seconds) to reapproach and image the surface after C₆₀ deposition. Estimations show that the observed transformations cannot be controlled by random walk diffusion of Pb adatoms, which implies a highly correlated motion of the Pb atom displacements within the layer.

  12. Kinetics of hexacelsian to celsian phase transformation in SrAl2Si2O8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Drummond, Charles H., III

    1992-01-01

    The kinetics of hexacelsian to celsian phase transformation in SrAl2Si2O8 have been investigated. Phase pure hexacelsian was prepared by heat treatment of glass flakes at 990 C for 10 h. Bulk hexacelsian was isothermally heat treated at 1026, 1050, 1100, 1152, and 1200 C for various times. The amounts of monoclinic celsian formed were determined using quantitative X-ray diffraction. Values of reaction rate constant, k, at various temperatures were evaluated from the Avrami equation. The Avrami parameter was determined to be 1.1, suggesting a diffusionless, one-dimensional transformation mechanism. From the temperature dependence of k, the activation energy for this reaction was evaluated to be 527 plus or minus 50 kJ/mole (126 plus or minus 12 kcal/mole). This value is consistent with a mechanism involving the transformation of the layered hexacelsian structure to a three-dimensional network celsian structure which necessitates breaking of the strongest bonds, the Si-O bonds.

  13. Controllable Phase Transformation and Mid-infrared Emission from Er3+-Doped Hexagonal-/Cubic-NaYF4 Nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dandan; Chen, Dongdan; He, Huilin; Pan, Qiwen; Xiao, Quanlan; Qiu, Jianrong; Dong, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    The morphology of hexagonal phase NaYF4:Er3+ nanorods synthesized by hydrothermal method changed greatly after a continuing calcination, along with a phase transformation to cubic phase. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra indicated that mid-infrared (MIR) emission was obtained in both hexagonal and cubic phase NaYF4:Er3+ nanocrystals for the first time. And the MIR emission of NaYF4:Er3+ nanocrystals enhanced remarkably at higher calcination temperature. To prevent uncontrollable morphology from phase transformation, the cubic phase NaYF4:Er3+ nanospheres with an average size of ~100 nm were prepared via a co-precipitation method directly. In contrast, the results showed better morphology and size of cubic phase NaYF4:Er3+ nanocrystals have realized when calcined at different temperatures. And PL spectra demonstrated a more intense MIR emission in the cubic phase NaYF4:Er3+ nanocrystals with an increasing temperature. Besides, the MIR emission peak of Er3+ ions had an obvious splitting in cubic phase NaYF4. Therefore, cubic phase NaYF4:Er3+ nanospheres with more excellent MIR luminescent properties seems to provide a new material for nanocrystal-glass composites, which is expected to open a broad new field for the realization of MIR lasers gain medium. PMID:27453150

  14. α-Phase transformation kinetics of U – 8 wt% Mo established by in situ neutron diffraction

    DOE PAGES

    Garlea, Elena; Steiner, M. A.; Calhoun, C. A.; ...

    2016-05-08

    The α-phase transformation kinetics of as-cast U - 8 wt% Mo below the eutectoid temperature have been established by in situ neutron diffraction. α-phase weight fraction data acquired through Rietveld refinement at five different isothermal hold temperatures can be modeled accurately utilizing a simple Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov impingement-based theory, and the results are validated by a corresponding evolution in the γ-phase lattice parameter during transformation that follows Vegard’s law. Neutron diffraction data is used to produce a detailed Time-Temperature-Transformation diagram that improves upon inconsistencies in the current literature, exhibiting a minimum transformation start time of 40 min at temperatures between 500 °Cmore » and 510 °C. Lastly, the transformation kinetics of U – 8 wt% Mo can vary significantly from as-cast conditions after extensive heat treatments, due to homogenization of the typical dendritic microstructure which possesses non-negligible solute segregation.« less

  15. Superplasticity in silicon nitride through the α to β phase transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossignol, Fabrice; Roussel, Tanguy; Besson, Jean-Louis; Goursat, Paul; Lespade, Pierre

    1995-02-01

    Superplasticity is observed in silicon for temperatures ranging between 1500 and 1600 ^{circ}C in damage resistant materials with a submicron grain size. The microstructure evolves rapidly in the temperature range. This study shows that it is an advantage to start with an α-Si{3}N{4} rich ceramic in order to derive benefit from both the equiaxed α-grain shape and the transient liquid phase that forms during deformation at an intermediate stage of the αtoβ transformation. The kinetics of this transformation is analyzed and direct correlation is made with the deformation curves (elongation > 80%). La superplasticité du nitrure de silicium se manifeste entre 1500 et 1600 ^{circ}C pour des matériaux à grains submicroniques présentant une bonne résistance à l'endommagement. Dans ce domaine de température la microstructure évolue rapidement. Cette étude montre qu'il est avantageux de partir d'une céramique principalement constituée de la phase α-Si{3}N{4} afin de bénéficier de la forme équiaxe des grains α ainsi que la phase liquide transitoire qui se forme au cours de la déformation durant le processus de transformation αtoβ. La cinétique de cette transformation est anlysée et son incidence sur les courbes de déformation à chaud (allongement > 80%) est mise en évidence.

  16. Membrane lipid phase transitions and phase organization studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ruthven N A H; McElhaney, Ronald N

    2013-10-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is a powerful yet relatively inexpensive and convenient technique for studying the structure and organization of membrane lipids in their various polymorphic phases. This spectroscopic technique yields information about the conformation and dynamics of all regions of the lipid molecule simultaneously without the necessity of introducing extrinsic probes. In this review, we summarize some relatively recent FTIR spectroscopic studies of the structure and organization primarily of fully hydrated phospholipids in their biologically relevant lamellar crystalline, gel and liquid-crystalline phases, and show that interconversions between these bilayer phases can be accurately monitored by this technique. We also briefly discuss how the structure and organization of potentially biologically relevant nonlamellar micellar or reversed hexagonal lipid phases can be studied and how phase transitions between lamellar and nonlamellar phases, or between various nonlamellar phases, can be followed as well. In addition, we discuss the potential for FTIR spectroscopy to yield fairly high resolution structural information about phospholipid packing in lamellar crystalline or gel phases. Finally, we show that many, but not all of these FTIR approaches can also yield valuable information about lipid-protein interactions in membrane protein- or peptide-containing lipid membrane bilayer model or even in biological membranes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: FTIR in membrane proteins and peptide studies.

  17. Dynamically driven phase transformations in heterogeneous materials. II. Applications including damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plohr, JeeYeon N.; Clements, B. E.; Addessio, F. L.

    2006-12-01

    A model, developed for heterogeneous materials undergoing dynamically driven phase transformations in its constituents, has been extended to include the evolution of damage. Damage is described by two mechanisms: interfacial debonding between the constituents and brittle failure micro-crack growth within the constituents. The analysis is applied to silicon carbide-titanium (SiC-Ti) unidirectional metal matrix composites that undergo the following phenomena: Ti has a yield stress of approximately 0.5 GPa and above a pressure of about 2 GPa undergoes a solid-solid phase transformation. The inelastic work from plastic dissipation contributes to the temperature and pressure rise in the Ti. SiC behaves elastically below a critical stress, above which it is damaged by microcrack growth. Finally, under tensile loading, the interface between Ti and SiC debonds according to an interfacial decohesion law. Each process is first examined independently in order to understand how its characteristic behavior is manifested in the stress-strain response of the composite. The complex interplay between loading states, viscoplasticity, damage, and solid-solid phase transformations is then studied at both the micromechanics and macromechanics levels.

  18. The Effect of Hardenability Variation on Phase Transformation of Spiral Bevel Gear in Quenching Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yingtao; Shi, Wankai; Yang, Lin; Gu, Zhifei; Li, Zhichao

    2016-07-01

    The hardenability of gear steel is dependent on the composition of alloying elements and is one of important criteria to assess process of phase transformation. The variation of hardenability has to be considered in control of the microstructures and distortion during gear quenching. In this paper, the quantitative effect of hardenability has been investigated on phase transformations of spiral bevel gears in die quenching. The hardenability deviation of 22CrMoH steel was assessed by using Jominy test. The dilatometry experiments were conducted to build phase transformation kinetic models for steels with low and high hardenability, respectively. The complete die quenching process of spiral bevel gear was modeled to reveal the significant difference on microstructures and temperature history with variation of hardenability. The final microstructures of the gear are martensite in surface layer after quenching process. There are bainite inside the gear tooth and the mixture of bainite and ferrite inside gear for the gear with low hardenability. The microstructure is bainite inside the gear with high hardenability.

  19. Volume and Mass Estimation of Three-Phase High Power Transformers for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimnach, Greg L.

    2004-01-01

    Spacecraft historically have had sub-1kW(sub e), electrical requirements for GN&C, science, and communications: Galileo at 600W(sub e), and Cassini at 900W(sub e), for example. Because most missions have had the same order of magnitude power requirements, the Power Distribution Systems (PDS) use existing, space-qualified technology and are DC. As science payload and mission duration requirements increase, however, the required electrical power increases. Subsequently, this requires a change from a passive energy conversion (solar arrays and batteries) to dynamic (alternator, solar dynamic, etc.), because dynamic conversion has higher thermal and conversion efficiencies, has higher power densities, and scales more readily to higher power levels. Furthermore, increased power requirements and physical distribution lengths are best served with high-voltage, multi-phase AC to maintain distribution efficiency and minimize voltage drops. The generated AC-voltage must be stepped-up (or down) to interface with various subsystems or electrical hardware. Part of the trade-space design for AC distribution systems is volume and mass estimation of high-power transformers. The volume and mass are functions of the power rating, operating frequency, the ambient and allowable temperature rise, the types and amount of heat transfer available, the core material and shape, the required flux density in a core, the maximum current density, etc. McLyman has tabulated the performance of a number of transformers cores and derived a "cookbook" methodology to determine the volume of transformers, whereas Schawrze had derived an empirical method to estimate the mass of single-phase transformers. Based on the work of McLyman and Schwarze, it is the intent herein to derive an empirical solution to the volume and mass estimation of three-phase, laminated EI-core power transformers, having radiated and conducted heat transfer mechanisms available. Estimation of the mounting hardware, connectors

  20. Distortion induced band gap and phase transformation in Tix Ag(1 - x) O2 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathpal, Mohan Chandra; Tripathi, Anand Kumar; Kumar, Promod; Agrahari, Vivek; Singh, Manish Kumar; Agarwal, Arvind

    2014-10-01

    The polymorphic crystallization and optical properties of Ag-doped TiO2 nanoparticles have been investigated. Sol-gel method has been used to prepare anatase, rutile, and the anatase-rutile mixed phase of TiO2 nanoparticles by Ag doping on Ti(4+) sites. The doped TiO2 nanoparticles exhibit different phase of TiO2 for the different concentration of dopants. The Ag-doping affects the luminescence and morphological properties of TiO2 nanoparticles. The anatase to rutile phase transformation temperature (ART) has reduced significantly. The Ag doping in TiO2 lattice gives a large red shift for a particular concentration of Ag dopants.

  1. Phase-Transformation-Induced Extra Thermal Expansion Behavior of (SrxBa1-x)TiO3/Cu Composite.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Jie; Wang, Lidong; Li, Shouwei; Yin, Benke; Liu, Xiangli; Fei, Wei-Dong

    2016-06-03

    The properties of metal matrix composites (MMCs) can be optimized effectively through adjusting the type or the volume fraction of reinforcement. Generally, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of MMCs can be reduced by increasing the volume fraction of the reinforcement with lower CTE than metal matrix. However, it is great challenge to fabricate low CTE MMCs with low reinforcement volume fraction because of the limitation of reinforcement CTEs. SrxBa1-xTiO3 (SBT) powder presents negative thermal expansion behavior during the phase transformation from tetragonal to cubic phase. Here, we demonstrate that the phase transformation of SBT can be utilized to reduce and design the thermal expansion properties of SBT particle-reinforced Cu (SBT/Cu) composite, and ultralow CTE can be obtained in SBT/Cu composite. The X-ray diffraction analysis on heating indicates that the temperature range of phase transformation is extended greatly, therefore, the low CTE can be achieved within wide temperature range. Landau-Devonshire theory study on the phase transformation behaviors of SBT particles in the composite indicates that thermal mismatch stress significantly affects the Curie temperature of SBT particles and the CTE of the composite. The results given in the present study provide a new approach to design the MMCs with low CTE.

  2. Transformation of two-line ferrihydrite to goethite and hematite as a function of pH and temperature.

    PubMed

    Das, Soumya; Hendry, M Jim; Essilfie-Dughan, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Under oxic aqueous conditions, two-line ferrihydrite gradually transforms to more thermodynamically stable and more crystalline phases, such as goethite and hematite. This temperature- and pH-dependent transformation can play an important role in the sequestration of metals and metalloids adsorbed onto ferrihydrite. A comprehensive assessment of the crystallization of two-line ferrihydrite with respect to temperature (25, 50, 75, and 100 °C) and pH (2, 7, and 10) as a function of reaction time (minutes to months) was conducted via batch experiments. Pure and transformed phases were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The rate of transformation of two-line ferrihydrite to hematite increased with increasing temperature at all pHs studied and followed first-order reaction kinetics. XRD and XANES showed simultaneous formation of goethite and hematite at 50 and 75 °C at pH 10, with hematite being the dominant product at all pHs and temperatures. With extended reaction time, hematite increased while goethite decreased, and goethite reaches a minimum after 7 days. Observations suggest two-line ferrihydrite transforms to hematite via a two-stage crystallization process, with goethite being intermediary. The findings of this study can be used to estimate rates of crystallization of pure two-line ferrihydrite over the broad range of temperatures and pH found in nature.

  3. Grain boundary enrichment in the FePt polymorphic A1 to L1(0) phase transformation.

    PubMed

    Torres, K L; Thompson, G B

    2009-04-01

    A series of Fe(54+/-1)Pt(46+/-1) thin films have been sputter-deposited and annealed at various times and temperatures to facilitate the A1 to L1(0) polymorphic phase transformation. The annealing times span one minute to tens of minutes over temperatures of 300-800 degrees C. The films were characterized by X-ray and electron diffraction and atom probe tomography. This time-temperature regime provides 'snap-shots' into the compositional segregation evolution at the grain boundaries during the polymorphic phase transformation. The as-deposited A1 phase showed a preferential segregation of Pt to the grain boundaries. The reduction of Pt enrichment at the boundaries was observed for all L1(0) ordered films.

  4. Effects of Stoichiometry on Transformation Temperatures and Actuator-Type Performance of NiTiPd and NiTiPdX High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigelow, Glen S.; Gaydosh, Darrell; Garg, Anita; Padula, Santo A., II; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2007-01-01

    High-temperature shape memory NiTiPd and NiTiPdX (X=Au, Pt, Hf) alloys were produced with titanium equivalent (Ti+Hf) compositions of 50.5, 50.0, 49.5, and 49.0 at.%. Thermo-mechanical testing in compression was used to evaluate the transformation temperatures, transformation strain, work output, and permanent deformation behavior of each alloy to study the effects of quaternary alloying and stoichiometry on high-temperature shape memory alloy behavior. Microstructural evaluation showed the presence of second phases for all alloy compositions. No load transformation temperatures in the stoichiometric alloys were relatively unchanged by Au and Pt substitutions, while the substitution of Hf for Ti causes a drop in transformation temperatures. The NiTiPd, NiTiPdAu and NiTiPdHf alloys exhibited transformation temperatures that were highest in the Ti-rich compositions, slightly lower at stoichiometry, and significantly reduced when the Ti equivalent composition was less than 50 at.%. For the NiTiPdPt alloy, transformation temperatures were highest for the Ti-rich compositions, lowest at stoichiometry, and slightly higher in the Ni-rich composition. When thermally cycled under constant stresses of up to 300 MPa, all of the alloys had transformation strains, and therefore work outputs, which increased with increasing stress. In each series of alloys, the transformation strain and thus work output was highest for stoichiometric or Ti-rich compositions while permanent strain associated with the constant-load thermal cycling was lowest for alloys with Ni-equivalent-rich compositions. Based on these results, basic rules for optimizing the composition of NiTiPd alloys for actuator performance will be discussed.

  5. Evaluation of the high temperature texture of the [Beta] phase of a TA6V sample from the individual orientations of grains of the low temperature [alpha] phase

    SciTech Connect

    Humbert, M.; Moustahfid, H.; Wagner, F.; Philippe, M.J. )

    1994-02-01

    The texture of the low temperature state is an important state is an important parameter, which is greatly involved in the plastic deformation of polycrystals. In this schema, the first step is to determine the texture of the high temperature state, using various high temperature processes. Unfortunately, the direct determination of the texture of the high temperature phase is not easy and sometimes impossible. This contribution describes an indirect method of determination of this [beta] texture, based on the fact that a grain of the high temperature [beta] phase transforms into different [alpha] plates during the phase transformation, where the [alpha] plate orientation is correlated with the orientation of the former [beta] grain. The determination of the orientation of the parent [beta] grain is possible, provided that the boundaries of the parent [beta] grain are clear, the number of different plate orientations sufficient, and that a strict orientation relation between the [alpha] and [beta] lattices exists. Using this method, the authors have obtained the texture of the [beta] phase of an alloy of TA6V from the determination of the orientations of a population of parent [beta] grains, the orientation of a given [beta] grain, deduced by correlating the orientations of the corresponding [alpha] plates measured by E.B.S.P.

  6. TRANSFORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    LACKS,S.A.

    2003-10-09

    Transformation, which alters the genetic makeup of an individual, is a concept that intrigues the human imagination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae such transformation was first demonstrated. Perhaps our fascination with genetics derived from our ancestors observing their own progeny, with its retention and assortment of parental traits, but such interest must have been accelerated after the dawn of agriculture. It was in pea plants that Gregor Mendel in the late 1800s examined inherited traits and found them to be determined by physical elements, or genes, passed from parents to progeny. In our day, the material basis of these genetic determinants was revealed to be DNA by the lowly bacteria, in particular, the pneumococcus. For this species, transformation by free DNA is a sexual process that enables cells to sport new combinations of genes and traits. Genetic transformation of the type found in S. pneumoniae occurs naturally in many species of bacteria (70), but, initially only a few other transformable species were found, namely, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Bacillus subtilis (96). Natural transformation, which requires a set of genes evolved for the purpose, contrasts with artificial transformation, which is accomplished by shocking cells either electrically, as in electroporation, or by ionic and temperature shifts. Although such artificial treatments can introduce very small amounts of DNA into virtually any type of cell, the amounts introduced by natural transformation are a million-fold greater, and S. pneumoniae can take up as much as 10% of its cellular DNA content (40).

  7. On the Concordance of Static High Pressure Phase Transformation Data on Minerals With Shock Wave Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Carli, P. S.; El Goresy, A.; Xie, Z.; Sharp, T. G.

    2006-12-01

    About 50 years ago, shock wave researchers were confounded by the apparent rapidity of shock-induced phase transformations and invoked special mechanisms as an explanation. Some workers speculatively interpret shock wave data as indicative of very rapid reconstructive phase transformations of minerals at modest temperatures. The belief that kinetic effects are negligible has justified the use of microsecond duration shock recovery experiments to interpret much longer duration shock effects in terrestrial impact craters and in meteorites. Here we summarize the extensive evidence that phase transformations under shock compression are governed by the same kinetics as phase transitions under static compression. Hugoniot measurements on quartz and feldspars have been interpreted as indicating phase transitions to dense phases at pressures near 35 GPa. Release adiabat measurements imply that these phases persist on release of pressure down to about 7 GPa, below which there is expansion to a final density appropriate to a glass. Microsecond-duration shock recovery experiments support this interpretation; a low density amorphous phase (diaplectic glass) is recovered. A similar effect is observed in static compression experiments conducted at room temperature at a lower pressure, 12-15 GPa. The pressure difference is a kinetic effect; the transition requires higher shock pressures (implying higher shock temperatures) to run to completion on a microsecond time scale. Direct evidence for kinetic effects on the tectosilicate transformation is found in studies of naturally shocked meteorites that contain melt veins. When the melt veins solidify under pressure, the resultant mineralogy together with vein cooling calculations constrains the shock pressure-time history. In some samples, in which the shock pressure is constrained by vein mineralogy to a range of 17-25 Gpa, one may observe the presence of diaplectic glass in only near-vein regions heated by conduction from the vein

  8. A comparative first-principles study of martensitic phase transformations in TiPd2 and TiPd

    SciTech Connect

    Krcmar, Maja; Morris, James R

    2014-01-01

    Martensitic phase transformations in TiPd2 and TiPd alloys are studied employing density-functional, first-principles calculations. We examine the transformation of tetragonal C11b TiPd2 to the low-temperature orthorhombic phase (C11b oI6), and the transformation of cubic B2 TiPd under orthorhombic (B2 B19) and subsequent monoclinic transformations (B19 B19 ) as the system is cooled. To evaluate the transition temperature for TiPd2 we employ a theoretical approach based on a phenomenological Landau theory of the structural phase transition and a mean-field approximation for the free energy, utilizing first-principles calculations to obtain the deformation energy as a function of strains and to deduce parameters for constructing the free energy. The predicted transition temperature for the TiPd2 C11b oI6 transition temperature is in good agreement with reported experimental results. To investigate the TiPd B2 B19 transformation, we employ both the Cauchy-Born rule and a soft-mode- based approach, and elucidate on the importance of coupling of lattice distortion and atomic displacements (i.e., shuffling) in the formation of the final structure. The estimated B2 B19 transition temperature for TiPd system agrees well with the experimental results. We also find that there exists a very small but finite (0.0005 eV/atom) energy barrier of B19 TiPd under monoclinic deformation for B19 B19 structural phase transformation.

  9. Electronic correlations determine the phase stability of iron up to the melting temperature

    PubMed Central

    Leonov, I.; Poteryaev, A. I.; Gornostyrev, Yu. N.; Lichtenstein, A. I.; Katsnelson, M. I.; Anisimov, V. I.; Vollhardt, D.

    2014-01-01

    We present theoretical results on the high-temperature phase stability and phonon spectra of paramagnetic bcc iron which explicitly take into account many-body effects. Several peculiarities, including a pronounced softening of the [110] transverse (T1) mode and a dynamical instability of the bcc lattice in harmonic approximation are identified. We relate these features to the α-to-γ and γ-to-δ phase transformations in iron. The high-temperature bcc phase is found to be highly anharmonic and appears to be stabilized by the lattice entropy. PMID:24998330

  10. Phase Transformation of U3O8 and Enhanced Structural Stability at Extreme Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fuxiang; Lang, Maik; Ewing, Rodney

    2013-06-01

    A powder sample of β-U3O8 was pressurized at room temperature up to 37.5 GPa with a symmetric diamond anvil cell. XRD patterns clearly indicated that a phase transition occurred between 3-11 GPa. The high-pressure phase is a fluorite-like structure. The fluorite-like structure is stable up to 37.5 GPa. The high-pressure phase was then laser heated to over 1700 K in the diamond anvil cell at high pressure conditions. No phase transition was found at high pressure/ temperature conditions, and the fluorite-like structure of U3O8 is even fully quenchable. The lattice parameter of the fluorite-like high-pressure phase is 5.425 Å at ambient conditions, which is smaller than that of the stoichiometric UO2. Previous experiments have shown that the stoichiometric uranium dioxide (UO2) is not stable at high pressure conditions and starts to transform to a cotunnite structure at ~30 GPa. When heating the sample at high pressure, the critical transtion pressure is greatly reduced. However, the fluorite-like high-pressure phase of U3O8 is very stable at high pressure/high temperature conditions. The enhanced phase stability is believed to be related to the presence of extra oxygen (or U vacancies) in the structure. This work was supported by Materials Science of Actinides, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Award No. DE-SC0001089.

  11. Nanoalloying and phase transformations during thermal treatment of physical mixtures of Pd and Cu nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Mukundan, Vineetha; Yin, Jun; Joseph, Pharrah; Luo, Jin; Shan, Shiyao; Zakharov, Dmitri N; Zhong, Chuan-Jian; Malis, Oana

    2014-01-01

    Nanoscale alloying and phase transformations in physical mixtures of Pd and Cu ultrafine nanoparticles are investigated in real time with in situ synchrotron-based x-ray diffraction complemented by ex situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The combination of metal–support interaction and reactive/non-reactive environment was found to determine the thermal evolution and ultimate structure of this binary system. At 300 °C, the nanoparticles supported on silica and carbon black intermix to form a chemically ordered CsCl-type (B2) alloy phase. The B2 phase transforms into a disordered fcc alloy at higher temperature (> 450 °C). The alloy nanoparticles supported on silica and carbon black are homogeneous in volume, but evidence was found of Pd surface enrichment. In sharp contrast, when supported on alumina, the two metals segregated at 300 °C to produce almost pure fcc Cu and Pd phases. Upon further annealing of the mixture on alumina above 600 °C, the two metals interdiffused, forming two distinct disordered alloys of compositions 30% and 90% Pd. The annealing atmosphere also plays a major role in the structural evolution of these bimetallic nanoparticles. The nanoparticles annealed in forming gas are larger than the nanoparticles annealing in helium due to reduction of the surface oxides that promotes coalescence and sintering. PMID:27877663

  12. Dynamic observation of phase transformation behaviors in indium(III) selenide nanowire based phase change memory.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Ting; Huang, Chun-Wei; Chen, Jui-Yuan; Ting, Yi-Hsin; Lu, Kuo-Chang; Chueh, Yu-Lun; Wu, Wen-Wei

    2014-09-23

    Phase change random access memory (PCRAM) has been extensively investigated for its potential applications in next-generation nonvolatile memory. In this study, indium(III) selenide (In2Se3) was selected due to its high resistivity ratio and lower programming current. Au/In2Se3-nanowire/Au phase change memory devices were fabricated and measured systematically in an in situ transmission electron microscope to perform a RESET/SET process under pulsed and dc voltage swept mode, respectively. During the switching, we observed the dynamic evolution of the phase transformation process. The switching behavior resulted from crystalline/amorphous change and revealed that a long pulse width would induce the amorphous or polycrystalline state by different pulse amplitudes, supporting the improvement of the writing speed, retention, and endurance of PCRAM.

  13. Collective Atomic Displacements during Complex Phase Boundary Migration in Solid-Solid Phase Transformations.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Juliana; Harjunmaa, Ari; Terrell, Rye; Drautz, Ralf; Henkelman, Graeme; Rogal, Jutta

    2016-01-22

    The A15 to bcc phase transition is simulated at the atomic scale based on an interatomic potential for molybdenum. The migration of the phase boundary proceeds via long-range collective displacements of entire groups of atoms across the interface. To capture the kinetics of these complex atomic rearrangements over extended time scales we use the adaptive kinetic Monte Carlo approach. An effective barrier of 0.5 eV is determined for the formation of each new bcc layer. This barrier is not associated with any particular atomistic process that governs the dynamics of the phase boundary migration. Instead, the effective layer transformation barrier represents a collective property of the complex potential energy surface.

  14. Phase transformations and the spectral reflectance of solid sulfur - Can metastable sulfur allotropes exist on Io?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Julianne I.; Nash, Douglas B.

    1991-01-01

    Laboratory investigations have been conducted on the effects of variations in sulfur sample histories on their solid-state transformation rate and the corresponding spectral variation of freshly frozen sulfur. The temporal variations in question may be due to differences in the amount and type of metastable allotropes present in the sulfur after solidification, as well as to the physics of the phase-transformation process itself. The results obtained are pertinent to the physical behavior and spectral variation of such freshly solidified sulfur as may exist on the Jupiter moon Io; this would initially solidify into a glassy solid or monoclinic crystalline lattice, then approach ambient dayside temperatures. Laboratory results imply that the monoclinic or polymeric allotropes can in these circumstances be maintained, and will take years to convert to the stable orthorhombic crystalline form.

  15. A flow-through hydrothermal cell for in situ neutron diffraction studies of phase transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, Brian; Tenailleau, Christophe; Nogthai, Yung; Studer, Andrew; Brugger, Joël; Pring, Allan

    2006-11-01

    A flow-through hydrothermal cell for the in situ neutron diffraction study of crystallisation and phase transitions has been developed. It can be used for kinetic studies on materials that exhibit structural transformations under hydrothermal conditions. It is specifically designed for use on the medium-resolution powder diffractometer (MRPD) at ANSTO, Lucas Heights, Sydney. But it is planned to adapt the design for the Polaris beamline at ISIS and the new high-intensity powder diffractometer (Wombat) at the new Australian reactor Opal. The cell will operate in a flow-through mode over the temperature range from 25-300 °C and up to pressures of 100 bar. The first results of a successful transformation of pentlandite (Fe,Ni) 9S 8 to violarite (Fe,Ni) 3S 4 under mild conditions (pH∼4) at 120 °C and 3 bar using in situ neutron diffraction measurements are presented.

  16. Nutrient transformation during aerobic composting of pig manure with biochar prepared at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Li, Ronghua; Wang, Quan; Zhang, Zengqiang; Zhang, Guangjie; Li, Zhonghong; Wang, Li; Zheng, Jianzhong

    2015-01-01

    The effects of the corn stalk charred biomass (CB) prepared at different pyrolysis temperatures as additives on nutrient transformation during aerobic composting of pig manure were investigated. The results showed that the addition of CB carbonized at different temperatures to pig manure compost significantly influenced the compost temperature, moisture, pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter degradation, total nitrogen, [Formula: see text] and NH3 variations during composting. Compared with control and adding CB charred at lower temperature treatments, the addition of CB prepared over 700°C resulted in higher pH (over 9.2) and NH3 emission and lower potherb mustard seed germination index value during the thermophilic phase. Peak temperatures of composts appeared at 7 days for control and 11 days for CB added treatments. During 90 days composting, the organic matter degradation could be increased over 14.8-29.6% after adding of CB in the compost mixture. The introduction of CB in pig manure could prolong the thermophilic phase, inhibit moisture reduce, facilitate the organic matter decomposition, reduce diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) extractable Zn and Cu contents in pig manure composts and increase ryegrass growth. The study indicated that the corn stalk CB prepared around 500°C was a suitable additive in pig manure composting.

  17. Three-dimensional phase transformation by impedance-matched dielectric slabs and generation of hollow beams based on transformation optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Shuaisai; Tang, Zhixiang; Shu, Weixing

    2016-10-01

    We propose a three-dimensional (3D) phase transformation method by an impedance-matched dielectric slab and apply it to generating hollow beams. We first employ transformation optics to establish a method for the transformation between two arbitrary 3D wavefronts through a flat dielectric and impedance-matched material. Then the method is used to convert a solid beam into a hollow beam with desired wavefront. By tuning the transformation surface, different hollow beams can be produced. The results are further validated by 3D finite-difference time-domain simulations.

  18. Texture of primary recrystallization on nonoriented electrical steel sheet with phase transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Kumano, T.; Kubota, T.; Takahashi, N.

    1995-08-01

    The magnetic properties of nonoriented (NO) electrical steel sheet are commonly improved if the texture of their products possesses cube texture e.g., {l_brace}100{r_brace} <0vw>, ``goss texture`` i.e., {l_brace}110{r_brace}<011>, and less {l_brace}222{r_brace} texture. Industrially ``cube type`` has not been obtained, but ``goss texture`` has been. In a greater or lesser degree, {l_brace}222{r_brace} texture exists. To improve ``goss texture`` and reduce {l_brace}222{r_brace} texture, the grain size of the material prior to cold rolling should be larger. When the grain size before cold rolling is larger, during primary recrystallization, ``goss texture`` is enriched, {l_brace}222{r_brace} texture is decreased, and the grain grows so easily that higher induction and lower core loss can be obtained. This does not depend on the presence of phase transformation. In case of NO steel with phase transformation, heat treatment before cold rolling has been done below the austenite transition temperature (Ac{sub 1}) in order to prevent the fine grain size caused by {alpha} {yields} {gamma}(+{alpha}) {yields} {alpha} transformation. By using material that was heated over Ac{sub 1} and cooled with changing cool rates, this study describes (a) the relationship between textures before cold rolling and the texture of the final product, and (b) the development of the magnetic properties.

  19. Synthesis of iron oxide nanorods via chemical scavenging and phase transformations of intermediates at ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, Ruchi; Mehra, Anurag; Thaokar, Rochish

    2017-01-01

    Chemically induced shape transformations of isotropic seeds, comprised of iron oxyhydroxides and iron oxide borate into nanorods, is reported. Transient growth studies show that the nanorods are formed via phase transformation and aggregation of various metastable species. Addition of tetra- methyl-ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) to the in situ synthesized seeds ensures a typical reaction pathway that favors formation of magnetite (Fe 3 O 4) via the steps of chemical etching, phase transformation of intermediates, and crystal consolidation. Whereas, with addition of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), either magnetite (Fe 3 O 4) or a mixture of ( γ-Fe 2 O 3 + α-FeOOH) is obtained. The shape with both the additives is always that of nanorods. When the seeds treated with TMAH were aged in an ultrasonication bath, rods with almost twice the length and diameter (length = 2800 nm, diameter = 345 nm) are obtained as compared to the sample aged without ultrasonication (length = 1535 nm, diameter = 172 nm). The morphology of nanostructures depending upon other experimental conditions such as, aging the sample at 60 ∘C, seeds synthesized under ultrasonication/ stirring or externally added are also examined and discussed in detail. All the samples show high coercivity and strong ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature and should be promising candidates as ferro-fluids for various applications.

  20. Magnetic and structural phase transitions in erbium at low temperatures and high pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Sarah A.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Wenger, Lowell E.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2012-02-07

    Electrical resistance and crystal structure measurements have been carried out on polycrystalline erbium (Er) at temperatures down to 10 K and pressures up to 20 GPa. An abrupt change in the slope of the resistance is observed with decreasing temperature below 84 K, which is associated with the c-axis modulated (CAM) antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering of the Er moments. With increasing pressure the temperature of the resistance slope change and the corresponding AFM ordering temperature decrease until vanishing above 10.6 GPa. The disappearance of the slope change in the resistance occurs at similar pressures where the hcp structural phase of Er is transformed to a nine-layer {alpha}-Sm structural phase, as confirmed by our high-pressure synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies. These results suggest that the disappearance in the AFM ordering of Er moments is strongly correlated to the structural phase transition at high pressures and low temperatures.

  1. A phase-field approach to nonequilibrium phase transformations in elastic solids via an intermediate phase (melt) allowing for interface stresses.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Kasra; Levitas, Valery I

    2016-04-28

    A phase-field approach for phase transformations (PTs) between three different phases at nonequilibrium temperatures is developed. It includes advanced mechanics, thermodynamically consistent interfacial stresses, and interface interactions. A thermodynamic Landau-Ginzburg potential developed in terms of polar order parameters satisfies the desired instability and equilibrium conditions for homogeneous phases. The interfacial stresses were introduced with some terms from large-strain formulation even though the small-strain assumption was utilized. The developed model is applied to study the PTs between two solid phases via a highly disordered intermediate phase (IP) or an intermediate melt (IM) hundreds of degrees below the melting temperature. In particular, the β ↔ δ PTs in HMX energetic crystals via IM are analyzed. The effects of various parameters (temperature, ratios of widths and energies of solid-solid (SS) to solid-melt (SM) interfaces, elastic energy, and interfacial stresses) on the formation, stability, and structure of the IM within a propagating SS interface are studied. Interfacial and elastic stresses within a SS interphase and their relaxation and redistribution with the appearance of a partial or complete IM are analyzed. The energy and structure of the critical nucleus (CN) of the IM are studied as well. In particular, the interfacial stresses increase the aspect-ratio of the CN. Although including elastic energy can drastically reduce the energy of the CN of the IM, the activation energy of the CN of the IM within the SS interface increases when interfacial tension is taken into account. The developed thermodynamic potential can also be modified to model other multiphase physical phenomena, such as multi-variant martensitic PTs, grain boundary and surface-induced pre-melting and PTs, as well as developing phase diagrams for IPs.

  2. Dependency of working temperature and equivalent constant of concentric disk-type piezoelectric transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, I.-Mu; Lai, Yi-Ying; Wu, Wen-Jong; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents the effect of equivalent constant and output power on working temperature of concentric disk-type piezoelectric transformer. To analyze the energy loss in the piezoelectric transformer, the equivalent circuit model was built. Losses in the piezoelectric transformer are considered generally having two different parts: dielectric loss and mechanical loss. First of all, a measurement circuit based on an impedance analyzer was built. Then, the circuit simulation software PSIM was employed to verify the experimental results obtained. Secondly, according to the experimental results, temperature and input voltage are the two factors which influenced the energy loss in a piezoelectric transformer. As the input voltage and temperature increased, the energy loss rises, as well. In addition, when the input voltage is low, the temperature becomes the main influencing factor for energy loss of the piezoelectric transformer. On the other hand, when the input voltage is high, the main factor for energy loss of the piezoelectric transformer is the input voltage other than the temperature. Furthermore, the control loop that dealt with the energy loss of the piezoelectric transformer was proposed. At different temperatures, the variations of losses of the piezoelectric transformer are presented in this paper. Finally, the dielectric loss and mechanical loss are combined to analyze the losses within piezoelectric transformers. Then, the relationship between the output power of the piezoelectric transformer and the temperature was revealed. The result showed that as the temperature increased, the output power decreased.

  3. Fe-Solid Phase Transformations Under Highly Basic Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Qafoku, Nik; Qafoku, Odeta; Ainsworth, Calvin C.; Dohnalkova, Alice; McKinley, Susan G.

    2007-09-01

    Hyperalkaline and saline radioactive waste fluids with elevated temperatures from S-SX high-level waste tank farm at Hanford, WA accidentally leaked into sediments beneath the tanks, initiating a series of geochemical processes and reactions whose significance and extent was unknown. Among the most important processes was the dissolution of soil minerals and precipitation of stable secondary phases. The objective of this investigation was to study the release of Fe into the aqueous phase upon dissolution of Fe-bearing soil minerals, and the subsequent formation of Fe rich precipitates. Batch reactors were used to conduct experiments at 50 0C using solutions similar in composition to the waste fluids. Results clearly showed that, similarly to Si and Al, Fe was released from the dissolution of soil minerals (most likely phyllosilicates such as biotite, smectite, and chlorite). The extent of Fe release increased with base concentration and decreased with Al concentration in the contacting solution. The maximum apparent rate of Fe release (0.566 × 10-13 mol m-2 s-1) was measured in the treatment with no Al and a concentration of 4.32 mol L-1 NaOH in the contacting solution. Results from electron microscopy indicated that while Si and Al precipitated together to form feldspathoids in the groups of cancrinite and/or sodalite, Fe precipitation followed a different pathway leading to the formation of hematite and goethite. The newly formed Fe oxy-hydroxides may increase the sorption capacity of the sediments, promote surface mediated reactions such as precipitation and heterogeneous redox reactions, and affect the phase distribution of contaminant and radionuclides.

  4. Hydrogen-induced morphotropic phase transformation of single-crystalline vanadium dioxide nanobeams.

    PubMed

    Hong, Woong-Ki; Park, Jong Bae; Yoon, Jongwon; Kim, Bong-Joong; Sohn, Jung Inn; Lee, Young Boo; Bae, Tae-Sung; Chang, Sung-Jin; Huh, Yun Suk; Son, Byoungchul; Stach, Eric A; Lee, Takhee; Welland, Mark E

    2013-04-10

    We report a morphotropic phase transformation in vanadium dioxide (VO2) nanobeams annealed in a high-pressure hydrogen gas, which leads to the stabilization of metallic phases. Structural analyses show that the annealed VO2 nanobeams are hexagonal-close-packed structures with roughened surfaces at room temperature, unlike as-grown VO2 nanobeams with the monoclinic structure and with clean surfaces. Quantitative chemical examination reveals that the hydrogen significantly reduces oxygen in the nanobeams with characteristic nonlinear reduction kinetics which depend on the annealing time. Surprisingly, the work function and the electrical resistance of the reduced nanobeams follow a similar trend to the compositional variation due mainly to the oxygen-deficiency-related defects formed at the roughened surfaces. The electronic transport characteristics indicate that the reduced nanobeams are metallic over a large range of temperatures (room temperature to 383 K). Our results demonstrate the interplay between oxygen deficiency and structural/electronic phase transitions, with implications for engineering electronic properties in vanadium oxide systems.

  5. Structures, Phase Transformations, and Dielectric Properties of BiTaO4 Ceramics.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Di; Fan, Xiao-Qin; Jin, Xiao-Wei; He, Duan-Wei; Chen, Guo-Hua

    2016-11-21

    Low (α)- and high-temperature (β) forms of BiTaO4 have attracted much attention due to their dielectric and photocatalytic properties. In the present work, a third form, the so-called HP-BiTaO4, was synthesized at high temperature and pressure. The phase evolution, phase transformations, and dielectric properties of α- and β-BiTaO4 and HP-BiTaO4 ceramics are studied in detail. β-BiTaO4 ceramics densified at 1300 °C with the microwave permittivity εr ≈ 53, the microwave quality factor Qf ≈ 12070 GHz, and the temperature coefficient of resonant frequency τf ≈ -200 ppm/°C. HP-BiTaO4 ceramics were synthesized at 5 GPa and 1300 °C followed by annealing at 600 °C. In contrast with the α phase, HP-BiTaO4 exhibited εr ≈ 195 at 1 kHz to 10 MHz, accompanied by a low dielectric loss of ∼0.004. The relation between structure and dielectric properties is discussed in the context of Shannon's additive rule and bond theory.

  6. Phase change based cooling for high burst mode heat loads with temperature regulation above the phase change temperature

    DOEpatents

    The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy

    2009-12-15

    An apparatus and method for transferring thermal energy from a heat load is disclosed. In particular, use of a phase change material and specific flow designs enables cooling with temperature regulation well above the fusion temperature of the phase change material for medium and high heat loads from devices operated intermittently (in burst mode). Exemplary heat loads include burst mode lasers and laser diodes, flight avionics, and high power space instruments. Thermal energy is transferred from the heat load to liquid phase change material from a phase change material reservoir. The liquid phase change material is split into two flows. Thermal energy is transferred from the first flow via a phase change material heat sink. The second flow bypasses the phase change material heat sink and joins with liquid phase change material exiting from the phase change material heat sink. The combined liquid phase change material is returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. The ratio of bypass flow to flow into the phase change material heat sink can be varied to adjust the temperature of the liquid phase change material returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. Varying the flowrate and temperature of the liquid phase change material presented to the heat load determines the magnitude of thermal energy transferred from the heat load.

  7. Fatigue properties of a metastable beta-type titanium alloy with reversible phase transformation.

    PubMed

    Li, S J; Cui, T C; Hao, Y L; Yang, R

    2008-03-01

    Due to recent concern about allergic and toxic effects of Ni ions released from TiNi alloy into human body, much attention has been focused on the development of new Ni-free, metastable beta-type biomedical titanium alloys with a reversible phase transformation between the beta phase and the alpha'' martensite. This study investigates the effect of the stress-induced alpha'' martensite on the mechanical and fatigue properties of Ti-24Nb-4Zr-7.6Sn (wt.%) alloy. The results show that the as-forged alloy has a low dynamic Young's modulus of 55GPa and a recoverable tensile strain of approximately 3%. Compared with Ti-6Al-4V ELI, the studied alloy has quite a high low-cycle fatigue strength because of the effective suppression of microplastic deformation by the reversible martensitic transformation. Due to the low critical stress required to induce the martensitic transformation, it has low fatigue endurance comparable to that of Ti-6Al-4V ELI. Cold rolling produces a beta+alpha'' two-phase microstructure that is characterized by regions of nano-size beta grains interspersed with coarse grains containing alpha'' martensite plates. Cold rolling increases fatigue endurance by approximately 50% while decreasing the Young's modulus to 49GPa along the rolling direction but increasing it to 68GPa along the transverse direction. Due to the effective suppression of the brittle isothermal omega phase, balanced properties of high strength, low Young's modulus and good ductility can be achieved through ageing treatment at intermediate temperature.

  8. Domain wall modeling of bcc to hcp reconstructive phase transformation in early transition metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanati, Mahdi; Saxena, A.; Lookman, T.

    2001-09-01

    The bcc (body-centered-cubic) phase to hcp (hexagonal-close-packed) phase transformation in certain elements and alloys is induced either by quenching or the application of pressure. Following the Burgers mechanism and through first-principles calculations we show that the bcc structure of Sc, Y, Ti, Zr, and Hf is unstable with respect to the shuffle of atoms rather than the shear. We therefore reduce the two-order-parameter (two-OP) Ginzburg-Landau (GL) free energy to an effective free energy in the shuffle OP. From the phonon dispersion experiments and the change of entropy at transition temperature we found the GL free energy coefficients for Ti and Zr. By using this information we obtain the domain wall width and energy for Ti and Zr.

  9. Stress-induced phase transformation and pseudo-elastic/pseudo-plastic recovery in intermetallic Ni-Al nanowires.

    PubMed

    Sutrakar, Vijay Kumar; Mahapatra, D Roy

    2009-07-22

    Extensive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed in a B2-NiAl nanowire using an embedded atom method (EAM) potential. We show a stress induced [Formula: see text]-centered-tetragonal (BCT) phase transformation and a novel temperature and cross-section dependent pseudo-elastic/pseudo-plastic recovery from such an unstable BCT phase with a recoverable strain of approximately 30% as compared to 5-8% in polycrystalline materials. Such a temperature and cross-section dependent pseudo-elastic/pseudo-plastic strain recovery can be useful in various interesting applications of shape memory and strain sensing in nanoscale devices. Effects of size, temperature, and strain rate on the structural and mechanical properties have also been analyzed in detail. For a given size of the nanowire the yield stress of both the B2 and the BCT phases is found to decrease with increasing temperature, whereas for a given temperature and strain rate the yield stress of both the B2 and the BCT phase is found to increase with increase in the cross-sectional dimensions of the nanowire. A constant elastic modulus of approximately 80 GPa of the B2 phase is observed in the temperature range of 200-500 K for nanowires of cross-sectional dimensions in the range of 17.22-28.712 A, whereas the elastic modulus of the BCT phase shows a decreasing trend with an increase in the temperature.

  10. Transformation twinning of Ni-Mn-Ga characterized with temperature-controlled atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Reinhold, Matthew; Watson, Chad; Knowlton, William B; Müllner, Peter

    2010-06-01

    The magnetomechanical properties of ferromagnetic shape memory alloy Ni-Mn-Ga single crystals depend strongly on the twin microstructure, which can be modified through thermomagnetomechanical training. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and magnetic force microscopy (MFM) were used to characterize the evolution of twin microstructures during thermomechanical training of a Ni-Mn-Ga single crystal. Experiments were performed in the martensite phase at 25 degrees C and in the austenite phase at 55 degrees C. Two distinct twinning surface reliefs were observed at room temperature. At elevated temperature (55 degrees C), the surface relief of one twinning mode disappeared while the other relief remained unchanged. When cooled back to 25 degrees C, the twin surface relief recovered. The relief persisting at elevated temperature specifies the positions of twin boundaries that were present when the sample was polished prior to surface characterization. AFM and MFM following thermomechanical treatment provide a nondestructive method to identify the crystallographic orientation of each twin and of each twin boundary plane. Temperature dependent AFM and MFM experiments reveal the twinning history thereby establishing the technique as a unique predictive tool for revealing the path of the martensitic and reverse transformations of magnetic shape memory alloys.

  11. Low-temperature transformation and electronic structure of (Ni 1-xCo x) 2MnGa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Yoichi; Kodera, Kazushi; Yoshimura, Satoru; Asano, Hidefumi; Matsui, Masaaki

    2007-03-01

    Low-temperature structural transformation of (Ni 1-xCo x) 2MnGa was investigated experimentally and theoretically. Magnetization measurement as a function of temperature in the low magnetic field revealed that the transformation temperature T1 disappeared for x⩾0.2. The band calculation predicted that the stabilization of austenite L2 1 phase occurred for x>0.3, which was in rough agreement with the experimental result. Furthermore, the instability of austenite phase was discussed from the viewpoint of Hume-Rothery regime and the prediction was in good agreement with the results. It was concluded that the Galanakis curve was a good prediction for half-metal Heusler alloy and a new Heusler alloy was proposed for 1.0>x⩾0.7.

  12. Cluster Variation Method as a Theoretical Tool for the Study of Phase Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohri, Tetsuo

    2017-02-01

    Cluster variation method (CVM) has been widely employed to calculate alloy phase diagrams. The atomistic feature of the CVM is consistent with first-principles electronic structure calculations, and the combination of CVM with electronic structure calculation enables one to formulate free energy from the first-principles. CVM free energy conveys affluent information of a given system, and the second-order derivative traces the stability locus against configurational fluctuation. The kinetic extension of the CVM is the path probability method (PPM) which is utilized to calculate transformation and relaxation kinetics associated with the temperature change. Hence, the CVM and PPM are coherent methods to perform a synthetic study from initial non-equilibrium to final equilibrium states. By utilizing CVM free energy as a homogeneous free energy density term, one can calculate the time evolution of ordered domains within the phase field method. Finally, continuous displacement cluster variation method (CDCVM) is discussed as the recent development of CVM. CDCVM is capable of introducing the local lattice displacement into the free energy. Moreover, it is shown that CDCVM can be extended to study collective atomic displacements leading to displacive phase transformation.

  13. Phase transformation and microstructural evolution of nanostructured oxides and nitrides under ion irradiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Fengyuan

    Material design at the nanometer scale is an effective strategy for developing advanced materails with enhanced radiation tolerance for advanced nuclear energy systems as high densities of surfaces and interfaces of the nanostructured materials may behave as effective sinks for defect recovery. However, nanostructured materials may not be intrinsically radiation tolerant, and the interplay among the factors of crystal size, temperature, chemical composition, surface energy and radiation conditions may eventually determine material radiation behaviors. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the radiation effects of nanostructured materials and the underlying physics for the design of advanced nanostructured nuclear materials. The main objective of this doctoral thesis is to study the behavior of nanostructured oxides and nitrides used as fuel matrix and waste forms under extreme radiation conditions with the focus of phase transformation, microstructural evolution and damage mechanisms. Radiation experiments were performed using energetic ion beam techniques to simulate radiation damage resulting from energetic neutrons, alpha-decay events and fission fragments, and various experimental approaches were employed to characterize materials’ microstructural evolution and phase stability upon intense radiation environments including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Thermal annealing experiments indicated that nanostructured ZrO2 phase stability is strongly affected by the grain size. Radiation results on nanostructured ZrO2 indicated that thermodynamically unstable or metastable high temperature phases can be induced by energetic beam irradiation at room temperature. Various phase transformation among different polymorphs of monoclinic, tetragonal and amorphous states can be induced, and different mechanisms are responsible for structural transformations including oxygen vacancies accumulation upon displacive

  14. PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS IN METALS AND ALLOYS (SELECTED ARTICLES),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Contents: Stabilization of reverse martensite transformation under the influence of intraphase work hardening; and Structural changes during decomposition of supersaturated solid solution of tungsten in cobalt.

  15. Phase transformation of calcium phenyl phosphate in calcium hydroxyapatite

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Hidekazu . E-mail: hidekazu@riko.shimane-u.ac.jp; Ibaraki, Koshiro; Uemura, Masao; Hino, Ryozi; Kandori, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Tatsuo

    2007-07-03

    Calcium phenyl phosphate (CaPP) was synthesized from a mixture of Ca(OH){sub 2} and phenyl phosphate (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}PO{sub 4}H{sub 2}) in an aqueous media. XRD pattern of CaPP exhibited five diffraction peaks at 2{theta} = 6.6, 13.3, 20.0, 26.8 and 33.7{sup o}. The d-spacing ratio of these peaks was ca. 1:1/2:1/3:1/4:1/5. The molar ratios of Ca/P and phenyl/P of CaPP were 1.0 and 0.92, respectively, and the chemical formula of the material was expressed as (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}PO{sub 4}){sub 0.92}(HPO{sub 4}){sub 0.08}Ca.1.3H{sub 2}O, similar to that of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (CaHPO{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O: DCPD). These results allowed us to infer that CaPP is composed of a multilayer alternating bilayer of phenyl groups of the phosphates and DCPD-like phase. The structure of the material was essentially not altered after aging at pH 9.0-11.0 and 85 deg. C in an aqueous media. While, after aging at pH {<=}8.0, the diffraction peaks of CaPP were suddenly weakened and disappeared at pH 7.0. Besides, new peaks due to calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}: Hap) appeared and their intensity was strengthened with decreasing the solution pH. TEM observation revealed that the Hap particles formed at pH 6.0 are fibrous with ca. 1.5 {mu}m in length and ca. 0.2 {mu}m in width. From these results, it is presumed that the layered CaPP was dissolved, hydrolyzed and reprecipitated to fibrous Hap particles at pH {<=}8.0 and 85 deg. C in aqueous media. This phase transformation of CaPP in Hap resembled to the formation mechanism of Hap in animal organism.

  16. A comparative first-principles study of martensitic phase transformations in TiPd2 and TiPd intermetallics.

    PubMed

    Krcmar, M; Morris, James R

    2014-04-02

    Martensitic phase transformations in TiPd2 and TiPd alloys are studied employing density-functional, first-principles calculations. We examine the transformation of tetragonal C11b TiPd2 to the low-temperature orthorhombic phase (C11b → oI6), and the transformation of cubic B2 TiPd under orthorhombic (B2→B19) and subsequent monoclinic transformations (B19→B19') as the system is cooled. We employ a theoretical approach based on a phenomenological Landau theory of the structural phase transitions and a mean-field approximation for the free energy, utilizing first-principles calculations to obtain the deformation energy as a function of strains and to deduce parameters for constructing the free energy. The predicted transition temperature for the TiPd2 C11b → oI6 transition is in good agreement with reported experimental results. To investigate the TiPd B2→B19 transformation, we employ both the Cauchy-Born rule and a soft-mode-based approach, and elucidate the importance of the coupling between lattice distortion and atomic displacements (i.e. shuffling) in the formation of the final structure. The calculated B2→B19 transition temperature for TiPd alloy agrees well with the experimental results. We also find that there exists a very small but finite (0.0005 eV/atom) energy barrier of B19 TiPd under monoclinic deformation for B19→B19' structural phase transformation.

  17. Pressure-Temperature Phase Diagram of Vanadium Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yabin; Zhang, Shuai; Ke, Feng; Ko, Changhyun; Lee, Sangwook; Liu, Kai; Chen, Bin; Ager, Joel W; Jeanloz, Raymond; Eyert, Volker; Wu, Junqiao

    2017-03-08

    The complexity of strongly correlated electron physics in vanadium dioxide is exemplified as its rich phase diagrams of all kinds, which in turn shed light on the mechanisms behind its various phase transitions. In this work, we map out the hydrostatic pressure-temperature phase diagram of vanadium dioxide nanobeams by independently varying pressure and temperature with a diamond anvil cell. In addition to the well-known insulating M1 (monoclinic) and metallic R (tetragonal) phases, the diagram identifies the existence at high pressures of the insulating M1' (monoclinic, more conductive than M1) phase and two metallic phases of X (monoclinic) and O (orthorhombic, at high temperature only). Systematic optical and electrical measurements combined with density functional calculations allow us to delineate their phase boundaries as well as reveal some basic features of the transitions.

  18. Solid-state synthesis and phase transformations in Ni/Fe films: Structural and magnetic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myagkov, V. G.; Zhigalov, V. C.; Bykova, L. E.; Bondarenko, G. N.

    2006-10-01

    We have used X-ray diffraction, volume magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant and resistance measurements to study solid-state synthesis in Ni(0 0 1)/Fe(0 0 1), Ni/Fe(0 0 1) and Ni/Fe thin films with the atomic ratio between Fe and Ni of 1:1 (1Fe:1Ni), and 3:1 (3Fe:1Ni). We have found that the formation of Ni 3Fe and NiFe phases in the 1Fe:1Ni films takes place at temperatures ˜620 and ˜720 K, correspondingly. In the case of the 3Fe:1Ni films the solid-state synthesis starts with Ni 3Fe and NiFe phase formation at the same temperatures as for the 1Fe:1Ni films. The increasing of annealing temperature above 820 K leads to the nucleation of a paramagnetic γpar phase at the FeNi/Fe interface. The final products of solid-state synthesis in the Ni(0 0 1)/Fe(0 0 1) thin films are crystallites which consist of the epitaxially intergrown NiFe and γpar phases according to the [1 0 0](0 0 1)NiFe||[1 0 0](0 0 1) γpar orientation relationship. The crystalline perfection and epitaxial growth of the (NiFe+ γpar) crystallites on the MgO(0 0 1) surface allow to distinguish (0 0 2) γpar and (0 0 2)NiFe X-ray peaks (the cell parameters are: a( γpar)=0.3600±0.0005 nm and a(NiFe)=0.3578±0.0005 nm, correspondingly). At low temperatures the paramagnetic γpar phase undergoes the martensite γ→α' phase transition which can be hindered by thermal and epitaxial strains and epitaxial clamping with a MgO substrate. On the basis of the studies of the thin-film solid-state synthesis we predict the existence of two novel structural phase transformations at the temperatures of about 720 and 820 K for alloys of the invar region of the Fe-Ni system.

  19. Quantitative interferometric microscopy with two dimensional Hilbert transform based phase retrieval method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shouyu; Yan, Keding; Xue, Liang

    2017-01-01

    In order to obtain high contrast images and detailed descriptions of label free samples, quantitative interferometric microscopy combining with phase retrieval is designed to obtain sample phase distributions from fringes. As accuracy and efficiency of recovered phases are affected by phase retrieval methods, thus approaches owning higher precision and faster processing speed are still in demand. Here, two dimensional Hilbert transform based phase retrieval method is adopted in cellular phase imaging, it not only reserves more sample specifics compared to classical fast Fourier transform based method, but also overcomes disadvantages of traditional algorithm according to Hilbert transform which is a one dimensional processing causing phase ambiguities. Both simulations and experiments are provided, proving the proposed phase retrieval approach can acquire quantitative sample phases with high accuracy and fast speed.

  20. High pressure–low temperature phase diagram of barium: Simplicity versus complexity

    SciTech Connect

    Desgreniers, Serge; Tse, John S.; Matsuoka, Takahiro; Ohishi, Yasuo

    2015-11-30

    Barium holds a distinctive position among all elements studied upon densification. Indeed, it was the first example shown to violate the long-standing notion that high compression of simple metals should preserve or yield close-packed structures. From modest pressure conditions at room temperature, barium transforms at higher pressures from its simple structures to the extraordinarily complex atomic arrangements of the incommensurate and self-hosting Ba-IV phases. By a detailed mapping of the pressure/temperature structures of barium, we demonstrate the existence of another crystalline arrangement of barium, Ba-VI, at low temperature and high pressure. The simple structure of Ba-VI is unlike that of complex Ba-IV, the phase encountered in a similar pressure range at room temperature. First-principles calculations predict Ba-VI to be stable at high pressure and superconductive. The results illustrate the complexity of the low temperature-high pressure phase diagram of barium and the significant effect of temperature on structural phase transformations.

  1. Near-equilibrium polymorphic phase transformations in Praseodymium under dynamic compression

    SciTech Connect

    Bastea, M; Reisman, D

    2007-02-12

    We report the first experimental observation of sequential, multiple polymorphic phase transformations occurring in Praseodymium dynamically compressed using a ramp wave. The experiments also display the signatures of reverse transformations occuring upon pressure release and reveal the presence of small hysteresys loops. The results are in very good agreement with equilibrium hydrodynamic calculations performed using a thermodynamically consistent, multi-phase equation of state for Praseodymium, suggesting a near-equilibrium transformation behavior.

  2. Phase field simulations of plastic strain-induced phase transformations under high pressure and large shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javanbakht, Mahdi; Levitas, Valery I.

    2016-12-01

    Pressure and shear strain-induced phase transformations (PTs) in a nanograined bicrystal at the evolving dislocations pile-up have been studied utilizing a phase field approach (PFA). The complete system of PFA equations for coupled martensitic PT, dislocation evolution, and mechanics at large strains is presented and solved using the finite element method (FEM). The nucleation pressure for the high-pressure phase (HPP) under hydrostatic conditions near a single dislocation was determined to be 15.9 GPa. Under shear, a dislocation pile-up that appears in the left grain creates strong stress concentration near its tip and significantly increases the local thermodynamic driving force for PT, which causes nucleation of HPP even at zero pressure. At pressures of 1.59 and 5 GPa and shear, a major part of a grain transforms to HPP. When dislocations are considered in the transforming grain as well, they relax stresses and lead to a slightly smaller stationary HPP region than without dislocations. However, they strongly suppress nucleation of HPP and require larger shear. Unexpectedly, the stationary HPP morphology is governed by the simplest thermodynamic equilibrium conditions, which do not contain contributions from plasticity and surface energy. These equilibrium conditions are fulfilled either for the majority of points of phase interfaces or (approximately) in terms of stresses averaged over the HPP region or for the entire grain, despite the strong heterogeneity of stress fields. The major part of the driving force for PT in the stationary state is due to deviatoric stresses rather than pressure. While the least number of dislocations in a pile-up to nucleate HPP linearly decreases with increasing applied pressure, the least corresponding shear strain depends on pressure nonmonotonously. Surprisingly, the ratio of kinetic coefficients for PT and dislocations affect the stationary solution and the nanostructure. Consequently, there are multiple stationary solutions

  3. Study of the magnetic properties, structure, and phase transformation in the alloys of the Co-Al-W system

    SciTech Connect

    Davidov, D. I. Stepanova, N. N. Kazantseva, N. V. Rigmant, M. B. Shishkin, D. A.

    2015-10-27

    An experimental study of phase transformations in the system of Co-Al-W in the concentration area of the intermetallic compound Co{sub 3}(Al, W) is presented. The structure and phase composition of the Co–9 at % Al–X at % W (X = 4.5, 6.8, 8.5, 10, 12.5) alloys in depending on the tungsten content are analyzed. The Curie temperature and magnetic properties of the alloys with the different phase composition are determined.

  4. Stripe phases in high-temperature superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Emery, V. J.; Kivelson, S. A.; Tranquada, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    Stripe phases are predicted and observed to occur in a class of strongly correlated materials describable as doped antiferromagnets, of which the copper-oxide superconductors are the most prominent representatives. The existence of stripe correlations necessitates the development of new principles for describing charge transport and especially superconductivity in these materials. PMID:10430848

  5. Stripe Phases in High-Temperature Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emery, V. J.; Kivelson, S. A.; Tranquada, J. M.

    1999-08-01

    Stripe phases are predicted and observed to occur in a class of strongly correlated materials describable as doped antiferromagnets, of which the copper-oxide superconductors are the most prominent representatives. The existence of stripe correlations necessitates the development of new principles for describing charge transport and especially superconductivity in these materials.

  6. Stripe phases in high-temperature superconductors.

    PubMed

    Emery, V J; Kivelson, S A; Tranquada, J M

    1999-08-03

    Stripe phases are predicted and observed to occur in a class of strongly correlated materials describable as doped antiferromagnets, of which the copper-oxide superconductors are the most prominent representatives. The existence of stripe correlations necessitates the development of new principles for describing charge transport and especially superconductivity in these materials.

  7. Phase diagram of the Y–Y{sub 2}Se{sub 3} system, enthalpies of phase transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, O.V.; Kharitontsev, V.B.; Polkovnikov, A.A.; Elyshev, A.V.; Andreev, P.O.

    2015-10-15

    A phase diagram for the Y–Y{sub 2}Se{sub 3} system has been constructed in which the YSe and Y{sub 2}Se{sub 3} phases melt congruently. The daltonide type YSe phase (ST Y{sub 0,75}Se, a=1.1393 nm, melting point=2380 K, H=2200 MPa) forms a double-sided solid solution from 49–50–53 at% Se. In the 50–53 at% Se range, the unit cell parameter increases to 1.1500 nm, the microhardness increases to 4100 MPa and electrical resistivity increases from 0.018 to 0.114 Ω m. These changes are caused by the dominating influx of newly formed structural cationic vacancies arising from the selenium anions that are surplus for the 1:1 Y:Se stoichiometry. The full-valence Y{sub 2}Se{sub 3} composition exists as a low-temperature modification of ε-Y{sub 2}Se{sub 3} (ST Sc{sub 2}S{sub 3}, a=1.145 nm, b=0.818 nm, c=2.438 nm, melting point=1780 K, ∆fusion enthalpy=4±0.4 J/g) and transforms into a modification of ξ-Y{sub 2}Se{sub 3} that does not undergo fixing by thermo-hardening. The eutectic melting point between the YSe and Y{sub 2}Se{sub 3} phases is 1625±5 K, with a eutectic composition that is assumed to be 57.5 at% Se and have an enthalpy of fusion of 43±4.3 J/g. The eutectic for the Y and YSe phases appears at a temperature of 1600 K and 5 at% Se. - Highlights: • Phase equilibria in the Y–Y{sub 2}Se{sub 3} system from 1000 K to melt were studies. • High-temperature polymorphic transition for Y{sub 2}Se{sub 3} were observed. • Singular points in solid solutions areas for YSe and Y{sub 2}Se{sub 3} were found.

  8. Phase diagram of ammonium perchlorate: Raman spectroscopic constrains at high pressures and temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2016-06-01

    We present the pressure-temperature (PT) induced physical and chemical transformations in ammonium perchlorates (APs) up to 50 GPa and 450 °C, using diamond anvil cells and confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy, which provide new constraints for the phase diagram of AP. The results show spectral evidences for three new polymorphs (III, IV, and VI) of AP, in addition to two previously known phases (I and II), at various PT conditions with varying degrees of hydrogen bonding and lack of strong spectral evidence for previously known high-temperature cubic phase (phase V). Upon further heating, AP chemically decomposes to N2, N2O, and H2O. The present phase diagram is, therefore, in sharp contrast to the previous one, underscoring a rich polymorphism, a large stability field for solids, and a replacement of the melt with a decomposition line.

  9. Observation of continuous and reversible bcc-fcc phase transformation in Ag/V multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Q. M.; Liu, X.-Y.; Misra, A.

    2011-03-14

    A continuous and reversible bcc-fcc phase transformation via a rotation of bcc(110) or fcc(111) planes is observed in the Bain orientation relationship in a sputter deposited V/Ag multilayers using high resolution transmission electron microscopy and analyzed using molecular dynamics simulations. As a result of the continuous phase transformation, an intermediate bct phase connecting the bcc and fcc phases coexists, giving rise to the Bain path. The periodic displacement of atoms occurs in every two adjacent Ag and V layers. The alternating shear stress created by misfit strain is responsible for generating such transformation.

  10. Compensating temperature-induced ultrasonic phase and amplitude changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Peng; Hay, Thomas R.; Greve, David W.; Junker, Warren R.; Oppenheim, Irving J.

    2016-04-01

    In ultrasonic structural health monitoring (SHM), environmental and operational conditions, especially temperature, can significantly affect the propagation of ultrasonic waves and thus degrade damage detection. Typically, temperature effects are compensated using optimal baseline selection (OBS) or optimal signal stretch (OSS). The OSS method achieves compensation by adjusting phase shifts caused by temperature, but it does not fully compensate phase shifts and it does not compensate for accompanying signal amplitude changes. In this paper, we develop a new temperature compensation strategy to address both phase shifts and amplitude changes. In this strategy, OSS is first used to compensate some of the phase shifts and to quantify the temperature effects by stretching factors. Based on stretching factors, empirical adjusting factors for a damage indicator are then applied to compensate for the temperature induced remaining phase shifts and amplitude changes. The empirical adjusting factors can be trained from baseline data with temperature variations in the absence of incremental damage. We applied this temperature compensation approach to detect volume loss in a thick wall aluminum tube with multiple damage levels and temperature variations. Our specimen is a thick-walled short tube, with dimensions closely comparable to the outlet region of a frac iron elbow where flow-induced erosion produces the volume loss that governs the service life of that component, and our experimental sequence simulates the erosion process by removing material in small damage steps. Our results show that damage detection is greatly improved when this new temperature compensation strategy, termed modified-OSS, is implemented.

  11. Triaxial-Stress-Induced Homogeneous Hysteresis-Free First-Order Phase Transformations with Stable Intermediate Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitas, Valery I.; Chen, Hao; Xiong, Liming

    2017-01-01

    Starting with thermodynamic predictions and following with molecular dynamics simulations, special triaxial compression-tension states were found for which the stresses for the instability of the crystal lattice of silicon (Si) are the same for direct and reverse phase transformations (PTs) between semiconducting Si I and metallic Si II phases. This leads to unique homogeneous and hysteresis-free first-order PTs, for which each intermediate crystal lattice along the transformation path is in indifferent thermodynamic equilibrium and can be arrested and studied by fixing the strain in one direction. By approaching these stress states, a traditional two-phase system continuously transforms to homogenous intermediate phases. Zero hysteresis and homogeneous transformations are the optimal property for various PT applications, which drastically reduce damage and energy dissipation.

  12. Triaxial-Stress-Induced Homogeneous Hysteresis-Free First-Order Phase Transformations with Stable Intermediate Phases.

    PubMed

    Levitas, Valery I; Chen, Hao; Xiong, Liming

    2017-01-13

    Starting with thermodynamic predictions and following with molecular dynamics simulations, special triaxial compression-tension states were found for which the stresses for the instability of the crystal lattice of silicon (Si) are the same for direct and reverse phase transformations (PTs) between semiconducting Si I and metallic Si II phases. This leads to unique homogeneous and hysteresis-free first-order PTs, for which each intermediate crystal lattice along the transformation path is in indifferent thermodynamic equilibrium and can be arrested and studied by fixing the strain in one direction. By approaching these stress states, a traditional two-phase system continuously transforms to homogenous intermediate phases. Zero hysteresis and homogeneous transformations are the optimal property for various PT applications, which drastically reduce damage and energy dissipation.

  13. Metastable phases in the aluminum-germanium alloy system: Synthesis by mechanical alloying and pressure induced transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Yvon, Pascal

    1994-01-01

    Al and Ge form a simple equilibrium eutectic with limited mutual solubility and no intermetallic intermediate phases. We used a regular solution approach to model effects of pressure on Al-Ge. Effects of pressure are to extend solubility of Ge in Al, to displace the eutectic composition towards the Ge rich side, and to slightly decrease the eutectic temperature. We designed thermobaric treatments to induce crystal-to-glass transformations in fine grain mixtures of Al and Ge. We used Merrill-Bassett diamond anvil cells to perform experiments at high pressures. We built an x-ray apparatus to determine the structure of alloys at pressure and from cryogenic temperatures to 400C. Two-phase Al-Ge samples with fine microstructures were prepared by splat-quenching and mechanical alloying. We observed a crystal-to-glass transformation at about 80 kbar. The amorphous phase formed was metastable at ambient temperature after pressure release. This was confirmed by TEM. The amorphous phase obtained by pressurization was found to have a liquid-like structure and was metallic. In the TEM samples we also observed the presence of a second amorphous phase formed upon release of the pressure. This second phase had a tetrahedrally-bonded continuous random network structure, similar to that of semi-conducting amorphous germanium.

  14. Isothermal kinetic of phase transformation and mixed electrical conductivity in Bi{sub 3}NbO{sub 7}

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.P.; Corbel, G.; Kodjikian, S.; Fang, Q.F.; Lacorre, P. . E-mail: Philippe.Lacorre@univ-lemans.fr

    2006-11-15

    Bismuth niobate (Bi{sub 3}NbO{sub 7}) exists under two crystallographic modifications, a tetragonal (type-III) phase between 800 and 900 deg. C, and a pseudocubic (type-II) phase above and below this thermal range. The quenching at room temperature of pseudocubic type-II phase made it possible to carry out a detailed study of the transformation kinetics of this metastable type-II phase to the stable type-III phase, using isothermal in situ X-ray diffraction. The obtained Avrami exponent and activation energy for the transition are around 2.5 and 3.25 eV, respectively. The value of the Avrami exponent is consistent with a three-dimensional diffusion-controlled transformation with constant nucleation rate. Investigations of electrical properties using AC impedance spectroscopy and Wagner polarization method show that the tetragonal phase exhibits higher ionic and electronic conductivities than those of the pseudocubic form. Such a deviation is likely to originate from different distributions of cations/electronic-lone-pairs and oxygen vacancies. - Graphical abstract: The metastable type-II form of Bi{sub 3}NbO{sub 7}, whose phase transformation kinetics to type-III form is studied in isothermal conditions, is shown to have a larger volume and a lower anionic (and electronic) conductivity than the type-III form of thisorite-type bismuth niobate.

  15. Phase transformation dependence on initial plastic deformation mode in Si via nanoindentation

    DOE PAGES

    Wong, Sherman; Haberl, Bianca; Williams, James S.; ...

    2016-09-30

    Silicon in its diamond-cubic phase is known to phase transform to a technologically interesting mixture of the body-centred cubic and rhombohedral phases under nanoindentation pressure. In this study, we demonstrate that during plastic deformation the sample can traverse two distinct pathways, one that initially nucleates a phase transformation while the other initially nucleates crystalline defects. These two pathways remain distinct even after sufficient pressure is applied such that both deformation mechanisms are present within the sample. Here, it is further shown that the indents that initially nucleate a phase transformation generate larger, more uniform volumes of the phase transformed materialmore » than indents that initially nucleate crystalline defects.« less

  16. In Situ TEM Nanoindentation Studies on Stress-Induced Phase Transformations in Metallic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Wang, H.; Zhang, X.

    2015-11-30

    Though abundant phase transformations are in general thermally driven processes, there are many examples wherein stresses can induce phase transformations. We applied numerous in situ techniques, such as in situ x-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction in order to reveal phase transformations. Recently, an in situ nanoindentation technique coupled with transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the capability to directly correlating stresses with phase transformations and microstructural evolutions at a submicron length scale. We briefly review in situ studies on stress-induced diffusional and diffusionless phase transformations in amorphous CuZrAl alloy and NiFeGa shape memory alloy. Moreover, in the amorphous CuZrAl, in situ nanoindentation studies show that the nucleation of nanocrystals (a diffusional process) occurs at ultra-low stresses manifested by a prominent stress drop. In the NiFeGa shape memory alloy, two distinctive types of martensitic (diffusionless) phase transformations accompanied by stress plateaus are observed, including a reversible gradual phase transformation at low stress levels, and an irreversible abrupt phase transition at higher stress levels.

  17. In Situ TEM Nanoindentation Studies on Stress-Induced Phase Transformations in Metallic Materials

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Y.; Wang, H.; Zhang, X.

    2015-11-30

    Though abundant phase transformations are in general thermally driven processes, there are many examples wherein stresses can induce phase transformations. We applied numerous in situ techniques, such as in situ x-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction in order to reveal phase transformations. Recently, an in situ nanoindentation technique coupled with transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the capability to directly correlating stresses with phase transformations and microstructural evolutions at a submicron length scale. We briefly review in situ studies on stress-induced diffusional and diffusionless phase transformations in amorphous CuZrAl alloy and NiFeGa shape memory alloy. Moreover, in the amorphous CuZrAl, in situ nanoindentationmore » studies show that the nucleation of nanocrystals (a diffusional process) occurs at ultra-low stresses manifested by a prominent stress drop. In the NiFeGa shape memory alloy, two distinctive types of martensitic (diffusionless) phase transformations accompanied by stress plateaus are observed, including a reversible gradual phase transformation at low stress levels, and an irreversible abrupt phase transition at higher stress levels.« less

  18. Synthesis of new Diamond-like B-C Phases under High Pressure and Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Ming, L. C.; Zinin, P. V.; Sharma, S. K.

    2014-04-22

    A cubic BC3 (c-BC3) phase was synthesized by direct transformation from graphitic phases at a pressure of 39 GPa and temperature of 2200 K in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell (DAC). A combination of x-ray diffraction (XRD), electron diffraction (ED), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging, and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) measurements lead us to conclude that the obtained phase is hetero-nano-diamond, c-BC3. The EELS measurements show that the atoms inside the cubic structure are bonded by sp3 bonds.

  19. High Temperature Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage Applications: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, J.; Glatzmaier, G. C.; Starace, A.; Turchi, C.; Ortega, J.

    2011-08-01

    To store thermal energy, sensible and latent heat storage materials are widely used. Latent heat thermal energy storage (TES) systems using phase change materials (PCM) are useful because of their ability to charge and discharge a large amount of heat from a small mass at constant temperature during a phase transformation. Molten salt PCM candidates for cascaded PCMs were evaluated for the temperatures near 320 degrees C, 350 degrees C, and 380 degrees C. These temperatures were selected to fill the 300 degrees C to 400 degrees C operating range typical for parabolic trough systems, that is, as one might employ in three-PCM cascaded thermal storage. Based on the results, the best candidate for temperatures near 320 degrees C was the molten salt KNO3-4.5wt%KCl. For the 350 degrees C and 380 degrees C temperatures, the evaluated molten salts are not good candidates because of the corrosiveness and the high vapor pressure of the chlorides.

  20. Isomorphism in Fluid Phase Diagrams: Kulinskii Transformations Related to the Acentric Factor

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Q; Herschbach, DR

    2013-10-31

    For a wide class of molecular fluids, the temperature-density phase diagrams exhibit two prominent generic properties: a nearly linear locus, termed the Zeno line, along which the compressibility factor, Z = P/rho RT = 1 (same as an ideal gas), and the widely arching border of the vapor-liquid coexistence region, termed the binodal curve, with gas and liquid branches meeting at the critical point. The Zeno and binodal loci have been known for more than a century, yet only during the past two decades were striking empirical correlations between them recognized. Recently, Kulinskii introduced a remarkably simple projective transformation, wherein the linearity of the Zeno line and its relation to the binodal curve are geometrical consequences of an approximate isomorphism of the fluid with a venerable theoretical model, the lattice gas (equivalent to the Ising spin model). Here we show the Kulinskii transformation is significantly improved in accuracy and scope by using as input, in place of the lattice gas, the original van der Waals equation or simulation results for the Lennard-Jones potential. Moreover, the key parameters in these transformations can be expressed in terms of the acentric factor, introduced by Pitzer to extend corresponding states.

  1. Temperature-insensitive phase-matched optical harmonic conversion crystal

    DOEpatents

    Barker, C.E.; Eimerl, D.; Velsko, S.P.; Roberts, D.

    1993-11-23

    Temperature-insensitive, phase-matched harmonic frequency conversion of laser light at a preferred wavelength of 1.064 microns can be achieved by use of a crystal of deuterated l-arginine phosphate. The crystal is cut and oriented so that the laser light propagates inside the crystal along one of several required directions, which correspond to a temperature-insensitive, phase-matching locus. The method of measuring and calculating the temperature-insensitive, phase-matching angles can be extended to other fundamental wavelengths and other crystal compositions. 12 figures.

  2. Temperature-insensitive phase-matched optical harmonic conversion crystal

    DOEpatents

    Barker, Charles E.; Eimerl, David; Velsko, Stephan P.; Roberts, David

    1993-01-01

    Temperature-insensitive, phase-matched harmomic frequency conversion of laser light at a preferred wavelength of 1.064 microns can be achieved by use of a crystal of deuterated l-arginine phosphate. The crystal is cut and oriented so that the laser light propagates inside the crystal along one of several required directions, which correspond to a temperature-insensitive, phase-matching locus. The method of measuring and calculating the temperature-insensitive, phase-matching angles can be extended to other fundamental wavelengths and other crystal compositions.

  3. Temperature selectivity in reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Dolan, John W

    2002-08-02

    Column temperature plays two important roles in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC): control of retention (k) and control of selectivity (a). While changes in retention as a function of temperature are ubiquitous, selectivity changes for any given solute pair are more pronounced for ionized samples and samples with more polar substituents. With many samples, column temperature can be selected in a manner that optimizes resolution. The selectivity effects observed for temperature changes in RP-HPLC generally are complementary to those observed for mobile phase strength changes, so it is often possible to improve resolution by simultaneous optimization of temperature and mobile phase percent organic or gradient steepness. Computer simulation is a powerful tool for such optimization experiments. This paper reviews the influence of temperature on chromatographic selectivity for RP-HPLC.

  4. Temperature-dependent indentation behavior of transformation-toughened zirconia-based ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tikare, Veena; Heuer, Arthur H.

    1991-01-01

    Indentation behavior of Ce-TZP, Y-TZP, and Mg-PSZ between room temperature and 1300 C was investigated. Hardness decreased with increasing temperature for all three materials, but indentation cracking increased with increasing temperature. The opposing temperature dependences are discussed in terms of dislocation and transformation plasticity.

  5. Thermal stability and phase transformations of martensitic Ti-Nb alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bönisch, Matthias; Calin, Mariana; Waitz, Thomas; Panigrahi, Ajit; Zehetbauer, Michael; Gebert, Annett; Skrotzki, Werner; Eckert, Jürgen

    2013-10-01

    Aiming at understanding the governing microstructural phenomena during heat treatments of Ni-free Ti-based shape memory materials for biomedical applications, a series of Ti-Nb alloys with Nb concentrations up to 29 wt% was produced by cold-crucible casting, followed by homogenization treatment and water quenching. Despite the large amount of literature available concerning the thermal stability and ageing behavior of Ti-Nb alloys, only few studies were performed dealing with the isochronal transformation behavior of initially martensitic Ti-Nb alloys. In this work, the formation of martensites (α‧ and α″) and their stability under different thermal processing conditions were investigated by a combination of x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, dilatometry and electron microscopy. The effect of Nb additions on the structural competition in correlation with stable and metastable phase diagrams was also studied. Alloys with 24 wt% Nb or less undergo a \\alpha '/\\alpha '' \\to \\alpha + \\beta \\to \\beta transformation sequence on heating from room temperature to 1155 K. In alloys containing >24 wt% Nb α″ martensitically reverts back to β0, which is highly unstable against chemical demixing by formation of isothermal ωiso. During slow cooling from the single phase β domain α precipitates and only very limited amounts of α″ martensite form.

  6. Thermal stability and phase transformations of martensitic Ti-Nb alloys.

    PubMed

    Bönisch, Matthias; Calin, Mariana; Waitz, Thomas; Panigrahi, Ajit; Zehetbauer, Michael; Gebert, Annett; Skrotzki, Werner; Eckert, Jürgen

    2013-10-01

    Aiming at understanding the governing microstructural phenomena during heat treatments of Ni-free Ti-based shape memory materials for biomedical applications, a series of Ti-Nb alloys with Nb concentrations up to 29 wt% was produced by cold-crucible casting, followed by homogenization treatment and water quenching. Despite the large amount of literature available concerning the thermal stability and ageing behavior of Ti-Nb alloys, only few studies were performed dealing with the isochronal transformation behavior of initially martensitic Ti-Nb alloys. In this work, the formation of martensites (α' and α″) and their stability under different thermal processing conditions were investigated by a combination of x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, dilatometry and electron microscopy. The effect of Nb additions on the structural competition in correlation with stable and metastable phase diagrams was also studied. Alloys with 24 wt% Nb or less undergo a [Formula: see text] transformation sequence on heating from room temperature to 1155 K. In alloys containing >24 wt% Nb α″ martensitically reverts back to β0, which is highly unstable against chemical demixing by formation of isothermal ωiso. During slow cooling from the single phase β domain α precipitates and only very limited amounts of α″ martensite form.

  7. Thermal stability and phase transformations of martensitic Ti–Nb alloys

    PubMed Central

    Bönisch, Matthias; Calin, Mariana; Waitz, Thomas; Panigrahi, Ajit; Zehetbauer, Michael; Gebert, Annett; Skrotzki, Werner; Eckert, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at understanding the governing microstructural phenomena during heat treatments of Ni-free Ti-based shape memory materials for biomedical applications, a series of Ti–Nb alloys with Nb concentrations up to 29 wt% was produced by cold-crucible casting, followed by homogenization treatment and water quenching. Despite the large amount of literature available concerning the thermal stability and ageing behavior of Ti–Nb alloys, only few studies were performed dealing with the isochronal transformation behavior of initially martensitic Ti–Nb alloys. In this work, the formation of martensites (α′ and α″) and their stability under different thermal processing conditions were investigated by a combination of x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, dilatometry and electron microscopy. The effect of Nb additions on the structural competition in correlation with stable and metastable phase diagrams was also studied. Alloys with 24 wt% Nb or less undergo a transformation sequence on heating from room temperature to 1155 K. In alloys containing >24 wt% Nb α″ martensitically reverts back to β0, which is highly unstable against chemical demixing by formation of isothermal ωiso. During slow cooling from the single phase β domain α precipitates and only very limited amounts of α″ martensite form. PMID:27877611

  8. Plasticity resulted from phase transformation for monolayer molybdenum disulfide film during nanoindentation simulations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weidong; Li, Longlong; Yang, Chenguang; Soler-Crespo, Rafael A; Meng, Zhaoxu; Li, Minglin; Zhang, Xu; Keten, Sinan; Espinosa, Horacio D

    2017-04-21

    Molecular dynamics simulations on nanoindentation of circular monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) film are carried out to elucidate the deformation and failure mechanisms. Typical force-deflection curves are obtained, and in-plane stiffness of MoS2 is extracted according to a continuum mechanics model. The measured in-plane stiffness of monolayer MoS2 is about 182 ± 14 N m(-1), corresponding to an effective Young's modulus of 280 ± 21 GPa. More interestingly, at a critical indentation depth, the loading force decreases sharply and then increases again. The loading-unloading-reloading processes at different initial unloading deflections are also conducted to explain the phenomenon. It is found that prior to the critical depth, the monolayer MoS2 film can return to the original state after completely unloading, while there is hysteresis when unloading after the critical depth and residual deformation exists after indenter fully retracted, indicating plasticity. This residual deformation is found to be caused by the changed lattice structure of the MoS2, i.e. a phase transformation. The critical pressure to induce the phase transformation is then calculated to be 36 ± 2 GPa, consistent with other studies. Finally, the influences of temperature, the diameter and indentation rate of MoS2 monolayer on the mechanical properties are also investigated.

  9. Performance analysis of energy conversion via caloric effects in first-order ferroic phase transformations.

    PubMed

    Song, Yintao

    2014-07-07

    A finite-time thermodynamic model of ferroic refrigerators and generators, based on first order phase transformation, is given. We use this model to evaluate a novel method of converting heat directly into electricity based on the martensitic phase transformation accompanied by an abrupt change in magnetic ordering recently discovered [Srivastava et al., Adv. Energy Mater., 2011, 1, 97]. In this paper, we study the efficiency and power output of this method. The formulas of efficiency and power output in terms of material constants, design parameters, and working conditions are derived. The Clausius-Clapeyron coefficient is shown to be important to the efficiency. The figure of merit, as a dimensionless parameter, of energy conversion using the new method is introduced. It is shown that, as the figure of merit goes to infinity, the efficiency approaches the Carnot efficiency. Thermodynamic cycles of the new energy conversion method are optimized for a maximum power output. The matching criteria between materials and working temperatures of such optimized cycles are derived. Using these criteria, one can choose the most suitable materials under given working conditions, or decide the best working conditions for available materials.

  10. Ion beam-induced amorphous-to-tetragonal phase transformation and grain growth of nanocrystalline zirconia

    SciTech Connect

    Lian, Jie; Zhang, Jiaming; Namavar, Fereydoon; Zhang, Yanwen; Lu, Fengyuan; Haider, Hani; Garvin, Kevin; Weber, William J.; Ewing, Rodney C.

    2009-05-26

    Nanocrystalline zirconia has recently attracted extensive research interest due to its unique mechanical, thermal and electrical properties as compared to bulk zirconia counterparts, and it is of particular importance to control the phase stability of different polymorphs (amorphous, cubic, tetragonal and monoclinic phases) at different size regimes. In this paper, we performed ion beam bombardments on bilayers (amorphous and cubic) of pure nano-zirconia using 1 MeV Kr2+ irradiation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis reveals that amorphous zirconia transforms to a tetragonal structure under irradiation at room temperature, suggesting that the tetragonal phase is more energetically favorable under these conditions. The final grain size of the tetragonal zirconia can be controlled by irradiation conditions. The irradiation-induced nanograins of tetragonal ZrO2 are stable at ambient conditions and maintain their physical integrity over a long period of time after irradiation. These results demonstrated that ion-beam modification methods provide the means to control the phase stability and structure of zirconia polymorphs.

  11. Ion beam-induced amorphous-to-tetragonal phase transformation and grain growth of nanocrystalline zirconia.

    PubMed

    Lian, Jie; Zhang, Jiaming; Namavar, Fereydoon; Zhang, Yanwen; Lu, Fengyuan; Haider, Hani; Garvin, Kevin; Weber, W J; Ewing, Rodney C

    2009-06-17

    Nanocrystalline zirconia has recently attracted extensive research interest due to its unique mechanical, thermal and electrical properties as compared with bulk zirconia counterparts, and it is of particular importance for controlling the phase stability of different polymorphs (amorphous, cubic, tetragonal and monoclinic phases) in different size regimes. In this work, we performed ion beam bombardments on bilayers (amorphous and cubic) of nano-zirconia using 1 MeV Kr2+ irradiation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis reveals that amorphous zirconia transforms to a tetragonal structure under irradiation at room temperature, suggesting that the tetragonal phase is more energetically favorable under these conditions. The final grain size of the tetragonal zirconia can be controlled by irradiation conditions. A slower kinetics in the grain growth from cubic nanocrystalline zirconia was found as compared with that for the tetragonal grains recrystallized from the amorphous layer. The radiation-induced nanograins of tetragonal ZrO2 are stable at ambient conditions and maintain their physical integrity over a long period of time after irradiation. These results demonstrated that ion beam methods provide the means to control the phase stability and structure of zirconia polymorphs.

  12. Dual phase transformation and resultant magnetic properties in Fe{sub 3}Pt thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiao, S. N.; Lee, H. Y.; Chen, S. K.; Liu, S. H.

    2012-04-01

    Fifty-nm-thick Fe{sub 75}Pt{sub 25} thin films have been made on glass substrates by rf magnetron sputtering at room temperature, and subsequently annealed at 300 -700 deg. C (T{sub a}) for 1 h. The as-deposited Fe{sub 3}Pt film exhibits high magnetization of 1530 emu/cm{sup 3} and a disordered bcc structure, confirmed by high-resolution synchrotron radiation x-ray diffractometry. First-phase transformation from the bcc to disorder fcc structure occurs for samples annealed at 300 deg. C. With increasing of T{sub a} up to 375 deg. C, the film displays a nearly disordered fcc phase with low magnetization of 1083 emu/cm{sup 3}. The fcc phase changes to ordered L1{sub 2} structure for samples with T{sub a} {>=} 400 deg. C. The highly ordered L1{sub 2} phase with magnetization of 1270 emu/cm{sup 3} and coercivity of 66 Oe was obtained in Fe{sub 3}Pt film at 700 deg. C-annealing.

  13. Dynamically driven phase transformations in heterogeneous materials. I. Theory and microstructure considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, B. E.; Plohr, JeeYeon N.; Addessio, F. L.

    2006-12-01

    A theoretical model recently developed for heterogeneous materials undergoing dynamically driven thermodynamic phase transitions [F. L. Addessio et al. J. Appl. Phys. 97, 083509 (2005)] has been extended to allow for complex material microstructures. The model is applied to silicon carbide—titanium (SiC-Ti) unidirectional metal matrix composites where the aligned SiC fibers are filler and Ti is the matrix. Ti is known to undergo a low pressure and temperature solid-solid first-order phase transition. The microstructural analysis uses the generalized method of cells, which partitions a representative volume element into subcells containing the SiC fibers and the Ti matrix. The thermomechanical analysis has been reformulated from the previous work. In the reformulation it is found that thermodynamic quantities are naturally expressed as mass fraction averages over the two coexisting phases while the mechanical quantities are expressed naturally as volume averages. Consequently, the thermomechanical reformulation merges the mass averages typically found in thermodynamics with the volume averages used for mechanical properties of composites. Simulations have been pursued to study the complex interplay between loading, microstructure, and the thermomechanical response of the system as it undergoes the solid-solid Ti phase transformation. This is done for several different representative volume elements. For different orientations of loads relative to the fiber axes, the effect of local microstructure on the macroscopic stress-strain and thermodynamic response of the SiC-Ti composite is investigated.

  14. Phase transformation and fluorescent enhancement of ErF3 at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wentao; Ren, Xiangting; Huang, Yanwei; Yu, Zhenhai; Mi, Zhongying; Tamura, Nobumichi; Li, Xiaodong; Peng, Fang; Wang, Lin

    2016-09-01

    Pressure-induced phase transformation and fluorescent properties of ErF3 were investigated here using in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence up to 32.1 GPa at room temperature. Results showed that ErF3 underwent a reversible pressure-induced phase transition from the β-YF3-type to the fluocerite LaF3-type at 9.8 GPa. The bulk moduli B0 for low- and high-pressure phases were determined to be 130 and 208 GPa, respectively. Photoluminescencent studies showed that new emission lines belonging to the transition of 2H11/2→4I15/2, 4S3/2→4I15/2, and 4F9/2→4I15/2 appeared during phase transition, suggesting pressure-induced electronic band splitting. Remarkably, significant pressure-induced enhancement of photoluminescence was observed, which was attributed to lattice distortion of the material under high pressure.

  15. An exploratory study of the viscoelasticity of phase-transforming material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Wang, Liping; Vaughan, Michael

    2009-05-01

    Attenuation and modulus dispersion are typically associated with shear stress and strain. Time-dependent volume changes accompanying pressure variations can give rise to bulk modulus attenuation and dispersion. Phase transformations in a two-phase region are candidates for such phenomena. Here we report laboratory data that are consistent with bulk modulus softening as pressure is cycled in a region of coexisting olivine and spinel. We use Fay70For30 olivine as our sample. Experiments are performed in a multi-anvil high-pressure apparatus (Deformation DIA) using synchrotron (NSLS) X-ray radiation as the probing tool. Pressure is up to 12 GPa and temperature is up to 1450 °C. Measurements were carried out within the binary loop where the olivine and spinel phases coexist. We apply a uniaxial oscillation stress onto the sample and Young's modulus and Q-1 are measured at frequencies of 0.1-0.01 Hz. Our results indicate that the sinusoidal force applied to the sample in olivine-ringwoodite region has much lower bulk modulus and higher Q-1 than in the single-phase regions. Our data are consistent with the diffusion controlled model of [Jackson, I., 2007. Physical origins of anelasticity and attenuation in rock, In: Price, G.D. (Ed.) Mineral Physics. Treatise On Geophysics. Elsevier], where the characteristic time decreases with decreasing strain.

  16. Temperature dependence of diffusivities, preliminary definition phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberger, Franz; Banish, R. Michael; Nadarajah, Arunan

    1993-01-01

    During the six months definition phase of the instrument development program, research personnel at the Center for Microgravity and Materials Research of the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) were to furnish all of the necessary labor, services, materials, and facilities necessary to provide science requirement definition, initiate hardware development activities, requirements and timetable for integration and experimental accommodation of the GAS payload into the Shuttle cargo bay and an updated ground-based research flight program proposal consistent with the NRA selection letter. These activities were to be accomplished in parallel and consistent with the necessary research and development work toward the accomplishment of the overall objectives of the selected proposal.

  17. Solution-mediated phase transformation: significance during dissolution and implications for bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Greco, Kristyn; Bogner, Robin

    2012-09-01

    Solubility improvement of poorly soluble drug compounds is a key approach to ensuring the successful development of many new drugs. Methods used to improve the solubility of drug compounds include forming a salt, cocrystal, or amorphous solid. These methods of improving solubility can often lead to a phenomenon called solution-mediated phase transformation, a phase change that is facilitated through exposure to solution. Solution-mediated phase transformation occurs in three steps: dissolution to create a supersaturated solution followed by nucleation of less soluble phase and the growth of that phase. When the growth of the less soluble phase occurs on the surface of the metastable solid, this phenomenon can cause a marked decrease in dissolution rate during in vitro dissolution evaluation, and ultimately in vivo. Therefore, transformation to a less soluble solid during dissolution is an important aspect to consider when evaluating approaches to increase the solubility of a poorly soluble drug. Identification of solution-mediated phase transformation during dissolution is reviewed for powder dissolution, rotating disk method, and channel flow-through apparatus. Types of solution-mediated phase transformation are described in this report, including those involving salts, polymorphs, amorphous solids, and cocrystals. Many experimental examples are provided. Evidence of potential solution-mediated phase transformation in vivo is discussed to better understand the relationship between in vitro dissolution evaluation and in vivo performance.

  18. Phase transformation in the alumina-titania system during flash sintering experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, S. K.; Lebrun, J. M.; Raj, R.

    2016-02-01

    We show that phase transformation in the alumina–titania system, which produces aluminum-titanate, follows an unusual trajectory during flash sintering. The experiments begin with mixed powders of alumina–titania and end in dense microstructures that are transformed into aluminum-titanate. The sintering and the phase transformation are separated in time, with the sintering occurs during Stage II, and phase transformation during Stage III of the flash sintering experiment. Stage III is the steady-state condition of flash activated state that is established under current control, while Stage II is the period of transition from voltage to current control. The extent of phase transformation increases with the current density and the hold time in Stage III.

  19. Comparison between thermochemical and phase stability data for the quartz-coesite-stishovite transformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, J. S.; Chipman, D. W.; Takahashi, T.

    1979-01-01

    Phase stability and elasticity data have been used to calculate the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy changes at 298 K and 1 bar associated with the quartz-coesite and coesite-stishovite transformations in the system SiO2. For the quartz-coesite transformation, these changes disagree by a factor of two or three with those obtained by calorimetric techniques. The phase boundary for this transformation appears to be well determined by experiment; the discrepancy, therefore, suggests that the calorimetric data for coesite are in error. Although the calorimetric and phase stability data for the coesite-stishovite transformation yield the same transition pressure at 298 K, the phase-boundary slopes disagree by a factor of two. At present, it is not possible to determine which of the data are in error. Thus serious inconsistencies exist in the thermodynamic data for the polymorphic transformations of silica.

  20. Mapping Phase Transformations in the Heat-Affected-Zone of Carbon Manganese Steel Welds using Spatially Resolved X-Ray Diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Elmer, J W; Wong, J; Ressler, T; Palmer, T A

    2001-12-04

    Spatially Resolved X-Ray Diffraction (SRXRD) was used to investigate phase transformations that occur in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of gas tungsten arc (GTA) welds in AISI 1005 carbon-manganese steel. In situ SRXRD experiments performed at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) probed the phases present in the HAZ during welding, and these real-time observations of the HAZ phases were used to construct a map of the phase transformations occurring in the HAZ. This map identified 5 principal phase regions between the liquid weld pool and the unaffected base metal for the carbon-manganese steel studied in this investigation. Regions of annealing, recrystallization, partial transformation and complete transformation to {alpha}-Fe, {gamma}-Fe, and {delta}-Fe phases were identified using SRXRD, and the experimental results were combined with a heat flow model of the weld to investigate transformation kinetics under both positive and negative temperature gradients in the HAZ. From the resulting phase transformation map, the kinetics of phase transformations that occur under the highly non-isothermal heating and cooling cycles produced during welding of steels can now be better understood and modeled.

  1. Phase transformation in Mn-doped titania hollow spheres and their biocompatibility studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, Himani; Konar, Suraj; Tantubay, Sangeeta; Mahto, Madhusudan Kr.; Pathak, Amita

    2015-11-01

    Mn-doped titania hollow nanospheres were prepared via sacrificial core templating method at room temperature, using carbon spheres as the sacrificial core and template. X-ray diffraction and thermal studies showed the phase transformation of titania from anatase to rutile at temperature as low as 550 °C, when the dopant (i.e., Mn) concentration was increased from 1 to 6 mol % (with respect to Ti). Fourier transform infra red spectroscopic studies have been carried out to determine the surface functional groups, while the spherical and hollow morphology of the titania nanostructures have been confirmed through scanning electron microscopic as well as transmission electron microscopic studies. The chemical composition of the samples has been determined through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies, while their magnetic properties have been studied using superconducting quantum interference device analysis. The biocompatibility and suitability of the nanospheres for intracellular applications has been tested through conventional MTT assay using MDA-MB 231 human breast cancer cell lines.

  2. Fourier transform demodulation of pixelated phase-masked interferograms.

    PubMed

    Servin, M; Estrada, J C; Medina, O

    2010-07-19

    Recently a new type of spatial phase shifting interferometer was proposed that uses a phase-mask over the camera's pixels. This new interferometer allows one to phase modulate each pixel independently by setting the angle of a linear polarizer built in contact over the camera's CCD. In this way neighbor pixels may have any desired (however fixed) phase shift without cross taking. The standard manufacturing of these interferometers uses a 2x2 array with phase-shifts of 0, pi/2, pi, and 3 pi/2 radians. This 2x2 array is tiled all over the video camera's CCD. In this paper we propose a new way to phase demodulate these phase-masked interferograms using the squeezing phase-shifting technique. A notable advantage of this squeezing technique is that it allows one the use of Fourier interferometry wiping out the detuning error that most phase shifting algorithms suffers. Finally we suggest the use of an alternative phase-mask to phase modulate the camera's pixels using a linear spatial carrier along a given axis.

  3. Shear-induced phase transition of nanocrystalline hexagonal boron nitride to wurtzitic structure at room temperature and lower pressure.

    PubMed

    Ji, Cheng; Levitas, Valery I; Zhu, Hongyang; Chaudhuri, Jharna; Marathe, Archis; Ma, Yanzhang

    2012-11-20

    Disordered structures of boron nitride (BN), graphite, boron carbide (BC), and boron carbon nitride (BCN) systems are considered important precursor materials for synthesis of superhard phases in these systems. However, phase transformation of such materials can be achieved only at extreme pressure-temperature conditions, which is irrelevant to industrial applications. Here, the phase transition from disordered nanocrystalline hexagonal (h)BN to superhard wurtzitic (w)BN was found at room temperature under a pressure of 6.7 GPa after applying large plastic shear in a rotational diamond anvil cell (RDAC) monitored by in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. However, under hydrostatic compression to 52.8 GPa, the same hBN sample did not transform to wBN but probably underwent a reversible transformation to a high-pressure disordered phase with closed-packed buckled layers. The current phase-transition pressure is the lowest among all reported direct-phase transitions from hBN to wBN at room temperature. Usually, large plastic straining leads to disordering and amorphization; here, in contrast, highly disordered hBN transformed to crystalline wBN. The mechanisms of strain-induced phase transformation and the reasons for such a low transformation pressure are discussed. Our results demonstrate a potential of low pressure-room temperature synthesis of superhard materials under plastic shear from disordered or amorphous precursors. They also open a pathway of phase transformation of nanocrystalline materials and materials with disordered and amorphous structures under extensive shear.

  4. Shear-induced phase transition of nanocrystalline hexagonal boron nitride to wurtzitic structure at room temperature and lower pressure

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Cheng; Levitas, Valery I.; Zhu, Hongyang; Chaudhuri, Jharna; Marathe, Archis; Ma, Yanzhang

    2012-01-01

    Disordered structures of boron nitride (BN), graphite, boron carbide (BC), and boron carbon nitride (BCN) systems are considered important precursor materials for synthesis of superhard phases in these systems. However, phase transformation of such materials can be achieved only at extreme pressure–temperature conditions, which is irrelevant to industrial applications. Here, the phase transition from disordered nanocrystalline hexagonal (h)BN to superhard wurtzitic (w)BN was found at room temperature under a pressure of 6.7 GPa after applying large plastic shear in a rotational diamond anvil cell (RDAC) monitored by in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. However, under hydrostatic compression to 52.8 GPa, the same hBN sample did not transform to wBN but probably underwent a reversible transformation to a high-pressure disordered phase with closed-packed buckled layers. The current phase-transition pressure is the lowest among all reported direct-phase transitions from hBN to wBN at room temperature. Usually, large plastic straining leads to disordering and amorphization; here, in contrast, highly disordered hBN transformed to crystalline wBN. The mechanisms of strain-induced phase transformation and the reasons for such a low transformation pressure are discussed. Our results demonstrate a potential of low pressure–room temperature synthesis of superhard materials under plastic shear from disordered or amorphous precursors. They also open a pathway of phase transformation of nanocrystalline materials and materials with disordered and amorphous structures under extensive shear. PMID:23129624

  5. Investigation on phase transformation mechanism of zeolite NaY under alkaline hydrothermal conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Peng Ding, Tian Liu, Liping Xiong, Guang

    2013-12-15

    The phase transformation mechanism of zeolite NaY under alkaline hydrothermal conditions was investigated by UV Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The results revealed that the products and transformation rate are dependent on the alkalinities. All of the starting and resulting zeolites are constructed with the 4-ring and 6-ring secondary building units. The products have lower Si/Al ratio, higher framework density and smaller pore size, which are more stable under alkaline hydrothermal condition. During the phase transformation the fragments of faujasite are formed, then the fragments combine to form different zeolites depending on basicity. Zeolite NaY crystals are consumed as the reservoir for the transformation products during the recrystallization process. For the first time, a 4-membered ring intermediate was found at the early stage of the recrystallization process. A cooperative interaction of liquid and solid phases is required for inducing the phase transformation. - Graphical Abstract: Phase transformation of NaY zeolite under alkaline hydrothermal condition is achieved by the cooperative interaction of the liquid and solid phases. A 4-membered ring species is an intermediate for recrystallization process. Highlights: • The products and transformation rate are dependent on the alkalinity. • A 4-membered ring species is an intermediate for recrystallization process. • A cooperative interaction of liquid and solid phases is required.

  6. Direct observation of martensitic phase-transformation dynamics in iron by 4D single-pulse electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Soon; Kwon, Oh-Hoon; Baskin, J Spencer; Barwick, Brett; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2009-11-01

    The in situ martensitic phase transformation of iron, a complex solid-state transition involving collective atomic displacement and interface movement, is studied in real time by means of four-dimensional (4D) electron microscopy. The iron nanofilm specimen is heated at a maximum rate of approximately 10(11) K/s by a single heating pulse, and the evolution of the phase transformation from body-centered cubic to face-centered cubic crystal structure is followed by means of single-pulse, selected-area diffraction and real-space imaging. Two distinct components are revealed in the evolution of the crystal structure. The first, on the nanosecond time scale, is a direct martensitic transformation, which proceeds in regions heated into the temperature range of stability of the fcc phase, 1185-1667 K. The second, on the microsecond time scale, represents an indirect process for the hottest central zone of laser heating, where the temperature is initially above 1667 K and cooling is the rate-determining step. The mechanism of the direct transformation involves two steps, that of (barrier-crossing) nucleation on the reported nanosecond time scale, followed by a rapid grain growth typically in approximately 100 ps for 10 nm crystallites.

  7. Phase image encryption in the fractional Hartley domain using Arnold transform and singular value decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Phool; Yadav, A. K.; Singh, Kehar

    2017-04-01

    A novel scheme for image encryption of phase images is proposed, using fractional Hartley transform followed by Arnold transform and singular value decomposition in the frequency domain. Since the plaintext is a phase image, the mask used in the spatial domain is a random amplitude mask. The proposed scheme has been validated for grayscale images and is sensitive to the encryption parameters such as the order of the Arnold transform and the fractional orders of the Hartley transform. We have also evaluated the scheme's resistance to the well-known noise and occlusion attacks.

  8. Experiment and Modeling of Simultaneous Creep, Plasticity and Transformation of High Temperature Shape Memory Alloys During Cyclic Actuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Parikshith K.; Desai, Uri; Chatzigeorgiou, George; Lagoudas, Dimitris C.; Monroe, James; Karaman, Ibrahim; Noebe, Ron; Bigelow, Glen

    2010-01-01

    The present work is focused on studying the cycling actuation behavior of HTSMAs undergoing simultaneous creep and transformation. For the thermomechanical testing, a high temperature test setup was assembled on a MTS frame with the capability to test up to temperatures of 600 C. Constant stress thermal cycling tests were conducted to establish the actuation characteristics and the phase diagram for the chosen HTSMA. Additionally, creep tests were conducted at constant stress levels at different test temperatures to characterize the creep behavior of the alloy over the operational range. A thermodynamic constitutive model is developed and extended to take into account a) the effect of multiple thermal cycling on the generation of plastic strains due to transformation (TRIP strains) and b) both primary and secondary creep effects. The model calibration is based on the test results. The creep tests and the uniaxial tests are used to identify the viscoplastic behavior of the material. The parameters for the SMA properties, regarding the transformation and transformation induced plastic strain evolutions, are obtained from the material phase diagram and the thermomechanical tests. The model is validated by predicting the material behavior at different thermomechanical test conditions.

  9. Fast 3D shape measurement using Fourier transform profilometry without phase unwrapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Kechen; Hu, Shaopeng; Wen, Xin; Yan, Yunhui

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a novel, simple, yet fast 3D shape measurement method using Fourier transform profilometry. Different from the conventional Fourier transform profilometry, this proposed method introduces the binocular stereo vision and employs two image pairs (i.e., original image pairs and fringe image pairs) to restructure 3D shape. In this proposed method, instead of phase unwrapping algorithm, a coarse disparity map is adopted as a constraint condition to realize phase matching using wrapped phase. Since the local phase matching and sub-pixel disparity refinement are proposed to obtain high measuring accuracy, high-quality phase is not required. The validity of the proposed method is verified by experiments.

  10. Characterization of the thermoelastic martensitic transformation in a NiTi alloy driven by temperature variation and external stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, K. F.; Lin, Z. C.; Fung, P. C. W.; Zhang, J. X.

    1997-08-01

    In order to test the concept of the physics of dissipation during first-order phase transitions in solids, we measured the internal friction (Q-1) and the relative shear modulus (μ) during a thermoelastic martensitic transformation in a NiTi alloy. We adopted two approaches: temperature variation and application of external stress. This investigation of internal friction was carried out with various vibration frequencies ω, temperature variation rates T˙, and strain variation rates ɛ˙. The index l (coupling factor between phase interface and oscillating stress) and index n (rate exponent for the effective phase transformation driving force) have been calculated from the experimental data for each case and the values of l and n are about the same in the two (doped) NiTi samples, irrespective of whether the phase transition is driven by a temperature variation or stress induced process. We compare the values of n and l for the NiTi samples with that of the other samples (VO2 ceramics and FeMn alloys), reinforcing the previous physical interpretations of these indices. We believe the indices n and l are indeed fingerprints of first-order phase transitions in solids.

  11. Visualization of anisotropic-isotropic phase transformation dynamics in battery electrode particles

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiajun; Karen Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen; Eng, Christopher; Shen, Qun; Wang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Anisotropy, or alternatively, isotropy of phase transformations extensively exist in a number of solid-state materials, with performance depending on the three-dimensional transformation features. Fundamental insights into internal chemical phase evolution allow manipulating materials with desired functionalities, and can be developed via real-time multi-dimensional imaging methods. Here, we report a five-dimensional imaging method to track phase transformation as a function of charging time in individual lithium iron phosphate battery cathode particles during delithiation. The electrochemically driven phase transformation is initially anisotropic with a preferred boundary migration direction, but becomes isotropic as delithiation proceeds further. We also observe the expected two-phase coexistence throughout the entire charging process. We expect this five-dimensional imaging method to be broadly applicable to problems in energy, materials, environmental and life sciences. PMID:27516044

  12. Visualization of anisotropic-isotropic phase transformation dynamics in battery electrode particles

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Jiajun; Karen Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen; Eng, Christopher; ...

    2016-08-12

    Anisotropy, or alternatively, isotropy of phase transformations extensively exist in a number of solid-state materials, with performance depending on the three-dimensional transformation features. Fundamental insights into internal chemical phase evolution allow manipulating materials with desired functionalities, and can be developed via real-time multi-dimensional imaging methods. In this paper, we report a five-dimensional imaging method to track phase transformation as a function of charging time in individual lithium iron phosphate battery cathode particles during delithiation. The electrochemically driven phase transformation is initially anisotropic with a preferred boundary migration direction, but becomes isotropic as delithiation proceeds further. We also observe the expectedmore » two-phase coexistence throughout the entire charging process. Finally, we expect this five-dimensional imaging method to be broadly applicable to problems in energy, materials, environmental and life sciences.« less

  13. Visualization of anisotropic-isotropic phase transformation dynamics in battery electrode particles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jiajun; Karen Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen; Eng, Christopher; Shen, Qun; Wang, Jun

    2016-08-12

    Anisotropy, or alternatively, isotropy of phase transformations extensively exist in a number of solid-state materials, with performance depending on the three-dimensional transformation features. Fundamental insights into internal chemical phase evolution allow manipulating materials with desired functionalities, and can be developed via real-time multi-dimensional imaging methods. In this paper, we report a five-dimensional imaging method to track phase transformation as a function of charging time in individual lithium iron phosphate battery cathode particles during delithiation. The electrochemically driven phase transformation is initially anisotropic with a preferred boundary migration direction, but becomes isotropic as delithiation proceeds further. We also observe the expected two-phase coexistence throughout the entire charging process. Finally, we expect this five-dimensional imaging method to be broadly applicable to problems in energy, materials, environmental and life sciences.

  14. Structural evolution of calcite at high temperatures: Phase V unveiled

    PubMed Central

    Ishizawa, Nobuo; Setoguchi, Hayato; Yanagisawa, Kazumichi

    2013-01-01

    The calcite form of calcium carbonate CaCO3 undergoes a reversible phase transition between Rc and Rm at ~1240 K under a CO2 atmosphere of ~0.4 MPa. The joint probability density function obtained from the single-crystal X-ray diffraction data revealed that the oxygen triangles of the CO3 group in the high temperature form (Phase V) do not sit still at specified positions in the space group Rm, but migrate along the undulated circular orbital about carbon. The present study also shows how the room temperature form (Phase I) develops into Phase V through an intermediate form (Phase IV) in the temperature range between ~985 K and ~1240 K. PMID:24084871

  15. Origin of Invariant Gel Melting Temperatures in the c-T Phase Diagram of an Organogel.

    PubMed

    Christ, Elliot; Blanc, Christophe; Al Ouahabi, Abdelaziz; Maurin, David; Le Parc, Rozenn; Bantignies, Jean-Louis; Guenet, Jean-Michel; Collin, Dominique; Mésini, Philippe J

    2016-05-17

    Binary c-T phase diagrams of organogelators in solvent are frequently simplified to two domains, gel and sol, even when the melting temperatures display two distinct regimes, an increase with T and a plateau. Herein, the c-T phase diagram of an organogelator in solvent is elucidated by rheology, DSC, optical microscopy, and transmitted light intensity measurements. We evidence a miscibility gap between the organogelator and the solvent above a threshold concentration, cL. In this domain the melting or the formation of the gel becomes a monotectic transformation, which explains why the corresponding temperatures are nonvariant above cL. As shown by further studies by variable temperature FTIR and NMR, different types of H-bonds drive both the liquid-liquid phase separation and the gelation.

  16. Phase changes of filled ice Ih methane hydrate under low temperature and high pressure.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Takehiko; Hirai, Hisako; Matsuoka, Takahiro; Ohishi, Yasuo; Yagi, Takehiko; Ohtake, Michika; Yamamoto, Yoshitaka; Nakano, Satoshi; Irifune, Tetsuo

    2013-09-14

    Low-temperature and high-pressure experiments were performed with filled ice Ih structure of methane hydrate under 2.0-77.0 GPa and 30-300 K using diamond anvil cells and a helium-refrigeration cryostat. In situ X-ray diffractometry revealed distinct changes in the compressibility of the axial ratios of the host framework with pressure. Raman spectroscopy showed a split in the C-H vibration modes of the guest methane molecules, which was previously explained by the orientational ordering of the guest molecules. The pressure and temperature conditions at the split of the vibration modes agreed well with those of the compressibility change. The results indicate the following: (i) the orientational ordering of the guest methane molecules from an orientationally disordered state occurred at high pressures and low temperatures; and (ii) this guest ordering led to anisotropic contraction in the host framework. Such guest orientational ordering and subsequent anisotropic contraction of the host framework were similar to that reported previously for filled ice Ic hydrogen hydrate. Since phases with different guest-ordering manners were regarded as different phases, existing regions of the guest disordered-phase and the guest ordered-phase were roughly estimated by the X-ray study. In addition, above the pressure of the guest-ordered phase, another high-pressure phase developed in the low-temperature region. The deuterated-water host samples were also examined, and the influence of isotopic effects on guest ordering and phase transformation was observed.

  17. Novel double phase transforming organogel based on β-cyclodextrin in 1,2-propylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenqi; Xing, Pengyao; Xin, Feifei; Hou, Yuehui; Sun, Tao; Hao, Jingcheng; Hao, Aiyou

    2012-11-01

    This paper describes a novel double phase transforming organogel (gel-sol-gel') composed of nontoxic β-cyclodextrin, potassium carbonate, and 1,2-propylene glycol. The gel-sol-gel' transforming processes are followed by a reversible gel-sol transforming process and an irreversible sol-gel' transforming process based on heating. The gel-sol-gel' transformation is accompanied by microstructure changes from nanospheres to nanorods. K(2)CO(3) plays a key role in associating supramolecular architectures of β-cyclodextrin into a three-dimensional network. This work may bring further applications in the areas of smart materials, drug delivery systems, and biomaterials.

  18. Thermodynamically consistent phase field theory of phase transformations with anisotropic interface energies and stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitas, Valery I.; Warren, James A.

    2015-10-01

    The main focus of this paper is to introduce, in a thermodynamically consistent manner, an anisotropic interface energy into a phase field theory for phase transformations. Here we use a small strain formulation for simplicity, but we retain some geometric nonlinearities, which are necessary for introducing correct interface stresses. Previous theories have assumed the free energy density (i.e., gradient energy) is an anisotropic function of the gradient of the order parameters in the current (deformed) state, which yields a nonsymmetric Cauchy stress tensor. This violates two fundamental principles: the angular momentum equation and the principle of material objectivity. Here, it is justified that for a noncontradictory theory the gradient energy must be an isotropic function of the gradient of the order parameters in the current state, which also depends anisotropically on the direction of the gradient of the order parameters in the reference state. A complete system of thermodynamically consistent equations is presented. We find that the main contribution to the Ginzburg-Landau equation resulting from small strains arises from the anisotropy of the interface energy, which was neglected before. The explicit expression for the free energy is justified. An analytical solution for the nonequilibrium interface and critical nucleus has been found and a parametric study is performed for orientation dependence of the interface energy and width as well as the distribution of interface stresses.

  19. Anomalous Size-Induced Crystalline to Amorphous Uphill Phase Transformation of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Mossaad, Christina; Starr, Matthew; Payzant, E Andrew; Howe, Jane Y; Riman, Richard E

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present paper was to produce nanoscale hydroxyapatite at room temperature under 10 nm through a simple method that requires no specialized equipment, surfactants, or additives. The Ca(C2H3O2)2-K3PO4-H2O synthesis system explored in previous literature was employed and the nanoscale powder product completely characterized through x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, BET nitrogen surface area adsorption, helium pycnometry, TGA and Karl Fisher titration. In accordance with other materials, it was found that hydroxyapatite under 5 nm produced by this chemistry undergoes an uphill phase transformation when left in dry storage over 5 months. Although it is possible to produce hydroxyapatite (and other materials) in this size range, it is imperative that care is taken through storage alterations to prevent any undesirable changes in structure or surface chemistry

  20. Influence of phase transformations on dynamical elastic modulus and anelasticity of beta Ti-Nb-Fe alloys for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Chaves, J M; Florêncio, O; Silva, P S; Marques, P W B; Afonso, C R M

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies in materials for biomedical applications have focused on β-titanium alloys that are highly biocompatible, free of toxic elements and with an elastic modulus close to that of human bone (10-40 GPa). Beta Ti-xNb-3Fe (x=10, 15, 20 and 25 wt%) alloys were obtained by rapid solidification and characterized by anelastic relaxation measurements at temperatures between 140 K and 770 K, using a free-decay elastometer, as well as analysis by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The observed stabilization of the β-phase with rising Nb content was linked to the strength of the relaxation peak around 570 K. The phase transformations detected in the anelastic relaxation spectra agreed with those observed in the DSC curves. However, the results from anelastic relaxation spectra provide more detailed information about the kinetics of phase transformations. At temperatures between 140 K and 300 K, there was an indication of a reversible transformation in the alloys studied. The elastic modulus measurements showed a hardening of the material, between 400 K and 620 K, related to the ω-phase precipitation. However, the starting temperature of ω-phase precipitation was clearly influenced by the Nb content, showing a shift to high temperature with increasing percentage of Nb. At temperatures above 620 K, a fall was observed in the dynamical elastic modulus, accompanied by a relaxation peak centered at 660 K, which was attributed to the growing α-phase arising from the ω-phase, which acts as a nucleation sites or from the decomposition of the metastable β-phase. XRD patterns confirmed the formation of β, α and ω phases after mechanical relaxation measurements. A predominant β phase with dendritic morphology was observed, which became more stable with 25 wt% Nb. The lowest elastic modulus was of 65 GPa obtained in the Ti-25Nb-3Fe alloy, representing a

  1. Nonequilibrium Phase Chemistry in High Temperature Structure Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, R.

    1991-01-01

    Titanium and nickel aluminides of nonequilibrium microstructures and in thin gauge thickness were identified, characterized and produced for potential high temperature applications. A high rate sputter deposition technique for rapid surveillance of the microstructures and nonequilibrium phase is demonstrated. Alloys with specific compositions were synthesized with extended solid solutions, stable dispersoids, and specific phase boundaries associated with different heat treatments. Phase stability and mechanical behavior of these nonequilibrium alloys were investigated and compared.

  2. Energy Harvesting Utilizing Stress Induced Phase Transformation in Ferroelectric Piezocrystals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-14

    of a phase change transducer configured as a Tonpilz transducer employing mechanical pre- stress, adjustable electronic pre-stress and a single...of another transducer 70 utilizing a Tonpilz configuration with a magnetostrictive pre-stress component 72. Magnetostrictive pre- stress component...entitled “Crystalline Relaxor-Ferroelectric Phase Transition Transducer .” STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0002] The invention described herein

  3. Phase transformation and deformation behavior of NiTi-Nb eutectic joined NiTi wires

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liqiang; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Lai-Chang; Chen, Liangyu; Lu, Weijie; Zhang, Di

    2016-01-01

    NiTi wires were brazed together via eutectic reaction between NiTi and Nb powder deposited at the wire contact region. Phase transformation and deformation behavior of the NiTi-Nb eutectic microstructure were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cyclic loading-unloading tests. Results show that R phase and B19′ martensite transformation are induced by plastic deformation. R phase transformation, which significantly contributes to superelasticity, preferentially occurs at the interfaces between NiTi and eutectic region. Round-shaped Nb-rich phase with rod-like and lamellar-type eutectics are observed in eutectic regions. These phases appear to affect the deformation behavior of the brazed NiTi-Nb region via five distinct stages in stress-strain curves: (I) R phase reorientation, (II) R phase transformation from parent phase, (III) elastic deformation of reoriented martensite accompanied by the plastic deformation of Nb-rich phase and lamellar NiTi-Nb eutectic, (IV) B19′ martensitic transformation, and (V) plastic deformation of the specimen. PMID:27049025

  4. Phase transformation and deformation behavior of NiTi-Nb eutectic joined NiTi wires.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liqiang; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Lai-Chang; Chen, Liangyu; Lu, Weijie; Zhang, Di

    2016-04-06

    NiTi wires were brazed together via eutectic reaction between NiTi and Nb powder deposited at the wire contact region. Phase transformation and deformation behavior of the NiTi-Nb eutectic microstructure were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cyclic loading-unloading tests. Results show that R phase and B19' martensite transformation are induced by plastic deformation. R phase transformation, which significantly contributes to superelasticity, preferentially occurs at the interfaces between NiTi and eutectic region. Round-shaped Nb-rich phase with rod-like and lamellar-type eutectics are observed in eutectic regions. These phases appear to affect the deformation behavior of the brazed NiTi-Nb region via five distinct stages in stress-strain curves: (I) R phase reorientation, (II) R phase transformation from parent phase, (III) elastic deformation of reoriented martensite accompanied by the plastic deformation of Nb-rich phase and lamellar NiTi-Nb eutectic, (IV) B19' martensitic transformation, and (V) plastic deformation of the specimen.

  5. Transient analyses using symmetrical component calculus in three-phase resistive and transformer-type SFCLs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Y. S.; Choi, H. S.; Jung, B. I.

    2010-11-01

    A transformer-type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) can control fault current by adjusting a turn's ratio of the primary and secondary windings. In addition, by inserting a neutral line into the secondary winding, the power burden of the superconducting elements can be evenly distributed. We compared the operating and transient characteristics of the three-phase resistive and transformer-type SFCLs in the balanced and unbalanced faults that occur in power systems. In transformer-type SFCLs, where the primary and secondary windings of each phase were connected to one iron core, flux was induced to each winding of the normal phases by the fault current of the fault phase, thus causing simultaneous quench between superconducting elements. In the three-phase power systems, however, when faults occurred in more than two phases, the flux from fault current of the fault phase affected the other normal phase, thus decreasing the reduction ratio of fault current. We confirmed, however, that the fault current was reduced by 70% relative to cases without SFCLs. The results of the analysis of the transient characteristics of the three-phase transformer-type SFCL through the symmetrical component calculus showed that in the case of triple line-to-ground fault, a difference between positive and negative phase currents was large enough to cause an increase in the phase angle (δ) between the generator creating the power and the motor acting as a load. Thus, we expect that the transient stability deteriorates.

  6. Confined martensitic phase transformation kinetics and lattice dynamics in Ni–Co–Fe–Ga shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Cong, Daoyong; Rule, Kirrily Clair; Li, Wen-Hsien; Lee, Chi-Hung; Zhang, Qinghua; Wang, Haoliang; Hao, Yulin; Wang, Yandong; Huang, E-Wen

    2016-09-02

    Here we describe insights into the phase transformation kinetics and lattice dynamics associated with the newly discovered confined martensitic transformation, which are of great significance to the in-depth understanding of the phase transformation behavior responsible for the rich new physical phenomena in shape memory alloys and could shed light on the design of novel multifunctional properties through tuning the confined martensitic transformation.

  7. The correlation of local deformation and stress-assisted local phase transformations in MMC foams

    SciTech Connect

    Berek, H.; Ballaschk, U.; Aneziris, C.G.; Losch, K.; Schladitz, K.

    2015-09-15

    Cellular structures are of growing interest for industry, and are of particular importance for lightweight applications. In this paper, a special case of metal matrix composite foams (MMCs) is investigated. The investigated foams are composed of austenitic steel exhibiting transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) and magnesia partially stabilized zirconia (Mg-PSZ). Both components exhibit martensitic phase transformation during deformation, thus generating the potential for improved mechanical properties such as strength, ductility, and energy absorption capability. The aim of these investigations was to show that stress-assisted phase transformations within the ceramic reinforcement correspond to strong local deformation, and to determine whether they can trigger martensitic phase transformations in the steel matrix. To this end, in situ interrupted compression experiments were performed in an X-ray computed tomography device (XCT). By using a recently developed registration algorithm, local deformation could be calculated and regions of interest could be defined. Corresponding cross sections were prepared and used to analyze the local phase composition by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The results show a strong correlation between local deformation and phase transformation. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • In situ compressive deformation on MMC foams was performed in an XCT. • Local deformation fields and their gradient amplitudes were estimated. • Cross sections were manufactured containing defined regions of interest. • Local EBSD phase analysis was performed. • Local deformation and local phase transformation are correlated.

  8. Uncovering the intrinsic size dependence of hydriding phase transformations in nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Bardhan, Rizia; Hedges, Lester O; Pint, Cary L; Javey, Ali; Whitelam, Stephen; Urban, Jeffrey J

    2013-10-01

    A quantitative understanding of nanocrystal phase transformations would enable more efficient energy conversion and catalysis, but has been hindered by difficulties in directly monitoring well-characterized nanoscale systems in reactive environments. We present a new in situ luminescence-based probe enabling direct quantification of nanocrystal phase transformations, applied here to the hydriding transformation of palladium nanocrystals. Our approach reveals the intrinsic kinetics and thermodynamics of nanocrystal phase transformations, eliminating complications of substrate strain, ligand effects and external signal transducers. Clear size-dependent trends emerge in nanocrystals long accepted to be bulk-like in behaviour. Statistical mechanical simulations show these trends to be a consequence of nanoconfinement of a thermally driven, first-order phase transition: near the phase boundary, critical nuclei of the new phase are comparable in size to the nanocrystal itself. Transformation rates are then unavoidably governed by nanocrystal dimensions. Our results provide a general framework for understanding how nanoconfinement fundamentally impacts broad classes of thermally driven solid-state phase transformations relevant to hydrogen storage, catalysis, batteries and fuel cells.

  9. High-Temperature Phase Change Materials (PCM) Candidates for Thermal Energy Storage (TES) Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, J. C.

    2011-09-01

    It is clearly understood that lower overall costs are a key factor to make renewable energy technologies competitive with traditional energy sources. Energy storage technology is one path to increase the value and reduce the cost of all renewable energy supplies. Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies have the ability to dispatch electrical output to match peak demand periods by employing thermal energy storage (TES). Energy storage technologies require efficient materials with high energy density. Latent heat TES systems using phase change material (PCM) are useful because of their ability to charge and discharge a large amount of heat from a small mass at constant temperature during a phase transformation like melting-solidification. PCM technology relies on the energy absorption/liberation of the latent heat during a physical transformation. The main objective of this report is to provide an assessment of molten salts and metallic alloys proposed as candidate PCMs for TES applications, particularly in solar parabolic trough electrical power plants at a temperature range from 300..deg..C to 500..deg.. C. The physical properties most relevant for PCMs service were reviewed from the candidate selection list. Some of the PCM candidates were characterized for: chemical stability with some container materials; phase change transformation temperatures; and latent heats.

  10. The structure, thermal properties and phase transformations of the cubic polymorph of magnesium tetrahydroborate.

    PubMed

    David, W I F; Callear, S K; Jones, M O; Aeberhard, P C; Culligan, S D; Pohl, A H; Johnson, S R; Ryan, K R; Parker, J E; Edwards, P P; Nuttall, C J; Amieiro-Fonseca, A

    2012-09-07

    The structure of the cubic polymorph of magnesium tetrahydroborate (γ-Mg(BH(4))(2)) has been determined in space group Ia3d from a structural database of the isoelectronic compound SiO(2); this has been corroborated by DFT calculations. The structure is found to concur with that recently determined by Filinchuk et al. (Y. Filinchuk, B. Richter, T. R. Jensen, V. Dmitriev, D. Chernyshov and H. Hagemann, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2011, DOI: 10.1002/anie.201100675). The phase transformations and subsequent decomposition of γ-Mg(BH(4))(2) on heating have been ascertained from variable-temperature synchrotron X-ray diffraction data combined with thermogravimetric and mass spectrometry measurements. At ~160 °C, conversion to a disordered variant of the β-Mg(BH(4))(2) phase (denoted as β') is observed along with a further unidentified polymorph. There is evidence of amorphous phases during decomposition but there is no direct crystallographic indication of the existence of Mg(B(12)H(12)) or other intermediate Mg-B-H compounds. MgH(2) and finally Mg are observed in the X-ray diffraction data after decomposition.

  11. Influence of ignition process on mineral phase transformation in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash: Implications for estimating loss-on-ignition (LOI).

    PubMed

    Mu, Yue; Saffarzadeh, Amirhomayoun; Shimaoka, Takayuki

    2017-01-01

    This research focused on the mineral phase transformation under varied ignition conditions with the objective of estimating loss-on-ignition (LOI) parameter in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash residues. LOI is commonly used to measure the volatile species, unburned carbon and moisture in the solid materials. There are criteria for LOI measurement in some research fields, while there is no standard protocol for LOI measurement in MSWI fly ash. Using thermogravimetry technique, the ignition condition candidates were proposed at 440/700/900°C for 1 and 2h. Based on X-ray diffractometry results, obvious mineral phase transformation occurred as a function of ignition temperature variation rather than ignition time. Until 440°C, only some minor phases disappeared comparing with the original state. Significant mineral phase transformations of major phases (Ca- and Cl-based minerals) occurred between 440 and 700°C. The mineral phase transformation and the occurrence of newly-formed phases were determined not only by the ignition condition but also by the content of the co-existing components. Mineral phase components rarely changed when ignition temperature rose from 700 to 900°C. Consequently, in order to prevent critical damages to the original mineralogical composition of fly ash, the lowest ignition temperature (440°C) for 2h was suggested as an ideal measurement condition of LOI in MSWI fly ash.

  12. Power Electronic Transformer based Three-Phase PWM AC Drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Kaushik

    A Transformer is used to provide galvanic isolation and to connect systems at different voltage levels. It is one of the largest and most expensive component in most of the high voltage and high power systems. Its size is inversely proportional to the operating frequency. The central idea behind a power electronic transformer (PET) also known as solid state transformer is to reduce the size of the transformer by increasing the frequency. Power electronic converters are used to change the frequency of operation. Steady reduction in the cost of the semiconductor switches and the advent of advanced magnetic materials with very low loss density and high saturation flux density implies economic viability and feasibility of a design with high power density. Application of PET is in generation of power from renewable energy sources, especially wind and solar. Other important application include grid tied inverters, UPS e.t.c. In this thesis non-resonant, single stage, bi-directional PET is considered. The main objective of this converter is to generate adjustable speed and magnitude pulse width modulated (PWM) ac waveforms from an ac or dc grid with a high frequency ac link. The windings of a high frequency transformer contains leakage inductance. Any switching transition of the power electronic converter connecting the inductive load and the transformer requires commutation of leakage energy. Commutation by passive means results in power loss, decrease in the frequency of operation, distortion in the output voltage waveform, reduction in reliability and power density. In this work a source based partially loss-less commutation of leakage energy has been proposed. This technique also results in partial soft-switching. A series of converters with novel PWM strategies have been proposed to minimize the frequency of leakage inductance commutation. These PETs achieve most of the important features of modern PWM ac drives including 1) Input power factor correction, 2) Common

  13. Stress-induced phase transformation in nanocrystalline UO2

    SciTech Connect

    Uberuaga, Blas Pedro; Desai, Tapan

    2009-01-01

    We report a stress-induced phase transfonnation in stoichiometric UO{sub 2} from fluorite to the {alpha}-PbO{sub 2} structure using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. MD simulations, performed on nanocrystalline microstructure under constant-stress tensile loading conditions, reveal a heterogeneous nucleation of the {alpha}-PbO{sub 2} phase at the grain boundaries followed by the growth of this phase towards the interior of the grain. The DFT calculations confinn the existence of the {alpha}-PbO{sub 2} structure, showing that it is energetically favored under tensile loading conditions.

  14. Phase Change Material Systems for High Temperature Heat Storage.

    PubMed

    Perraudin, David Y S; Binder, Selmar R; Rezaei, Ehsan; Ortonaa, Alberto; Haussener, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Efficient, cost effective, and stable high-temperature heat storage material systems are important in applications such as high-temperature industrial processes (metal processing, cement and glass manufacturing, etc.), or electricity storage using advanced adiabatic compressed air energy storage. Incorporating phase change media into heat storage systems provides an advantage of storing and releasing heat at nearly constant temperature, allowing steady and optimized operation of the downstream processes. The choice of, and compatibility of materials and encapsulation for the phase change section is crucial, as these must guarantee good and stable performance and long lifetime at low cost. Detailed knowledge of the material properties and stability, and the coupled heat transfer, phase change, and fluid flow are required to allow for performance and lifetime predictions. We present coupled experimental-numerical techniques allowing prediction of the long-term performance of a phase change material-based high-temperature heat storage system. The experimental investigations focus on determination of material properties (melting temperature, heat of fusion, etc.) and phase change material and encapsulation interaction (stability, interface reactions, etc.). The computational investigations focus on an understanding of the multi-mode heat transfer, fluid flow, and phase change processes in order to design the material system for enhanced performance. The importance of both the experimental and numerical approaches is highlighted and we give an example of how both approaches can be complementarily used for the investigation of long-term performance.

  15. Multiple-image encryption based on phase mask multiplexing in fractional Fourier transform domain.

    PubMed

    Liansheng, Sui; Meiting, Xin; Ailing, Tian

    2013-06-01

    A multiple-image encryption scheme is proposed based on the phase retrieval process and phase mask multiplexing in the fractional Fourier transform domain. First, each original gray-scale image is encoded into a phase only function by using the proposed phase retrieval process. Second, all the obtained phase functions are modulated into an interim, which is encrypted into the final ciphertext by using the fractional Fourier transform. From a plaintext image, a group of phase masks is generated in the encryption process. The corresponding decrypted image can be recovered from the ciphertext only with the correct phase mask group in the decryption process. Simulation results show that the proposed phase retrieval process has high convergence speed, and the encryption algorithm can avoid cross-talk; in addition, its encrypted capacity is considerably enhanced.

  16. Origins of asymmetric stress-strain response in phase transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Sehitoglu, H.; Gall, K.

    1997-12-31

    It has been determined that the transformation stress-strain behavior of CuZnAl and NiTi shape memory alloys is dependent on the applied stress state. The uniaxial compressive stress necessary to macroscopically trigger the transformation is approximately 34% (CuZnAl) and 26% (NiTi) larger than the required uniaxial tensile stress. For three dimensional stress states, the response of either alloy system is dependent on the directions of the dominant principal stresses along with the hydrostatic stress component of the stress state. The stress state effects are dominated by the favored growth and nucleation of more martensite plates in tension versus compression. The effect of different hydrostatic pressure levels between stress states on martensite plates volume change is considered small.

  17. Evidence of Lunar Phase Influence on Global Surface Air Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anyamba, Ebby; Susskind, Joel

    2000-01-01

    Intraseasonal oscillations appearing in a newly available 20-year record of satellite-derived surface air temperature are composited with respect to the lunar phase. Polar regions exhibit strong lunar phase modulation with higher temperatures occurs near full moon and lower temperatures at new moon, in agreement with previous studies. The polar response to the apparent lunar forcing is shown to be most robust in the winter months when solar influence is minimum. In addition, the response appears to be influenced by ENSO events. The highest mean temperature range between full moon and new moon in the polar region between 60 deg and 90 deg latitude was recorded in 1983, 1986/87, and 1990/91. Although the largest lunar phase signal is in the polar regions, there is a tendency for meridional equatorward progression of anomalies in both hemispheres so that the warning in the tropics occurs at the time of the new moon.

  18. Modeling the amorphous-to-crystalline phase transformation in network materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohary, K.; Burlakov, V. M.; Pettifor, D. G.

    2005-06-01

    We have developed a computationally efficient rate equation model to study transformations between amorphous and crystalline phases of network forming materials. Amorphous and crystalline phases are treated in terms of their atomic ring distributions. The transformation between the two phases is considered to be driven by the conversion of one set of rings into another, following the Wooten-Winer-Weaire bond-switching algorithm. Our rate equation model describes both the generation and collapse of amorphous regions in thin crystalline films, the processes crucial for phase-change data storage materials. It is found that the amorphous spot collapse is assisted by the motion of certain crystal facets.

  19. The use of 2D Hilbert transform for phase retrieval of speckle fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelsky, O. V.; Zenkova, C. Yu.; Riabyi, P. A.

    2016-12-01

    The use of a "window" 2D Hilbert transform for reconstruction of the phase distribution of remote objects is proposed. It is shown that the advantage of this approach consists in the invariance of a phase map to a change of the position of the kernel of transformation and in a possibility to reconstruct the structure-forming elements of the skeleton of an optical field, including singular points and saddle points. We demonstrate the possibility to reconstruct the equi-phase lines within a narrow confidence interval, and introduce a new algorithm for solving the phase problem for random 2D intensity distributions.

  20. Color image security system using double random-structured phase encoding in gyrator transform domain.

    PubMed

    Abuturab, Muhammad Rafiq

    2012-05-20

    A novel method for encoding color information based on a double random phase mask and a double structured phase mask in a gyrator transform domain is proposed. The amplitude transmittance of the Fresnel zone plate is used as structured phase-mask encoding. A color image is first segregated into red, green, and blue component images. Each of these component images are then independently encrypted using first a random phase mask placed at the image plane and transmitted through the first structured phase mask. They are then encoded by the first gyrator transform. The resulting information is again encrypted by a second random phase mask placed at the gyrator transform plane and transmitted through the second structured phase mask, and then encoded by the second gyrator transform. The system parameters of the structured phase mask and gyrator transform in each channel serve as additional encryption keys and enlarge the key space. The encryption process can be realized with an electro-optical hybrid system. The proposed system avoids problems arising from misalignment and benefits of a higher space-bandwidth product. Numerical simulations are presented to confirm the security, validity, and possibility of the proposed idea.

  1. Mesh-based phase contrast Fourier transform imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, Sajjad; Bashir, Sajid; MacDonald, C. A.; Petruccelli, Jonathan C.

    2017-04-01

    Traditional x-ray radiography is limited by low attenuation contrast in materials of low electron density. Phase contrast imaging offers the potential to improve the contrast between such materials, but due to the requirements on the spatial coherence of the x-ray beam, practical implementation of such systems with tabletop (i.e. non-synchrotron) sources has been limited. One phase imaging technique employs multiple fine-pitched gratings. However, the strict manufacturing tolerances and precise alignment requirements have limited the widespread adoption of grating-based techniques. In this work, we have investigated a recently developed technique that utilizes a single grid of much coarser pitch. Our system consisted of a low power 100 μm spot Mo source, a CCD with 22 μm pixel pitch, and either a focused mammography linear grid or a stainless steel woven mesh. Phase is extracted from a single image by windowing and comparing data localized about harmonics of the mesh in the Fourier domain. The effects on the diffraction phase contrast and scattering amplitude images of varying grid types and periods, and of varying the width of the window function used to separate the harmonics were investigated. Using the wire mesh, derivatives of the phase along two orthogonal directions were obtained and combined to form improved phase contrast images.

  2. Grid-Based Fourier Transform Phase Contrast Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, Sajjad

    Low contrast in x-ray attenuation imaging between different materials of low electron density is a limitation of traditional x-ray radiography. Phase contrast imaging offers the potential to improve the contrast between such materials, but due to the requirements on the spatial coherence of the x-ray beam, practical implementation of such systems with tabletop (i.e. non-synchrotron) sources has been limited. One recently developed phase imaging technique employs multiple fine-pitched gratings. However, the strict manufacturing tolerances and precise alignment requirements have limited the widespread adoption of grating-based techniques. In this work, we have investigated a technique recently demonstrated by Bennett et al. that utilizes a single grid of much coarser pitch. Our system consisted of a low power 100 microm spot Mo source, a CCD with 22 microm pixel pitch, and either a focused mammography linear grid or a stainless steel woven mesh. Phase is extracted from a single image by windowing and comparing data localized about harmonics of the grid in the Fourier domain. A Matlab code was written to perform the image processing. For the first time, the effects on the diffraction phase contrast and scattering amplitude images of varying grid types and periods, and of varying the window function type used to separate the harmonics, and the window widths, were investigated. Using the wire mesh, derivatives of the phase along two orthogonal directions were obtained and new methods investigated to form improved phase contrast images.

  3. In-situ Monitoring of Dynamic Phenomena during Solidification and Phase Transformation Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, Amy J.; Cooley, Jason C.; Morris, Christopher; Merrill, Frank E.; Hollander, Brian J; Mariam, Fesseha G; Patterson, Brian M.; Imhoff, Seth D.; Lee, Wah Keat; Fezzaa, Kamel; Deriy, Alex; Tucker, Tim J.; Clarke, Kester D.; Field, Robert D.; Thoma, Dan J.; Teter, David F.; Beard, Timothy V.; Hudson, Richard W.; Freibert, Franz J.; Korzekwa, Deniece R.; Farrow, Adam M.; Cross, Carl E.; Mihaila, Bogdan; Lookman, Turab; Hunter, Abigail; Choudhury, Samrat; Karma, Alain; Ott, Jr., Thomas J.; Barker, Martha R.; O'Neill, Finian; Hill, Joshua; Emigh, Megan G.

    2012-07-30

    The purpose of this project is to: (1) Directly observe phase transformations and microstructure evolution using proton (and synchrotron x-ray) radiography and tomography; (2) Constrain phase-field models for microstructure evolution; (3) Experimentally control microstructure evolution during processing to enable co-design; and (4) Advance toward the MaRIE vision. Understand microstructure evolution and chemical segregation during solidification {yields} solid-state transformations in Pu-Ga.

  4. Microstructural Formations and Phase Transformation Pathways in Hot Isostatically Pressed Tantalum Carbides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    REPORT Microstructural formations and phase transformation pathways in hot isostatically pressed tantalum carbides 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY...CLASSIFICATION OF: A series of XTa:(1 X)C (0.5 < X < 1) compositions have been fabricated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) of Ta and TaC powder blends...ANSI Std. Z39.18 - Microstructural formations and phase transformation pathways in hot isostatically pressed tantalum carbides Report Title ABSTRACT A

  5. Chiral phase transition in QED3 at finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Pei-Lin; Xiao, Hai-Xiao; Wei, Wei; Feng, Hong-Tao; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2016-12-01

    In the framework of Dyson-Schwinger equations, we employ two kinds of criteria (one kind is the chiral condensate, the other kind is thermodynamic quantities, such as the pressure, the entropy, and the specific heat) to investigate the nature of chiral phase transitions in QED3 for different fermion flavors. It is found that the chiral phase transitions in QED3 for different fermion flavors are all typical second-order phase transitions; the critical temperature and order of the chiral phase transition obtained from the chiral condensate and susceptibility are the same with that obtained by the thermodynamic quantities, which means that they are equivalent in describing the chiral phase transition; the critical temperature decreases as the number of fermion flavors increases and there is a boundary that separates the Tc-Nf plane into chiral symmetry breaking and restoration regions.

  6. High pressure phase transformations in yttrium and scandium: Relation to rare earths and actinides crystal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosshans, W. A.; Vohra, Y. K.; Holzapfel, W. B.

    1982-10-01

    The phase transformations in the 4d transition metal yttrium (Y) and the 3d transition metal scandium (Sc) have been studied under pressures up to 45 GPa by energy dispersive X-ray diffraction. The metal Y shows the complete rare earth crystal structure sequence i.e. hcp→Sm-type→dhcp→fcc with increasing pressure. This establishes experimentally the similarity of Y with heavy lanthanides, and that the rare earth crystal structure sequence is driven by s→d transfer without any significant contribution from 4f electrons. The metal Sc does not undergo the rare earth crystal structure sequence with pressure but shows above 20 GPa β-Neptunium (Np) structure (tetragonal, 4 atoms/cell). This structure remains stable up to the highest pressure of 45 GPa. The occurence of the high temperature β-Np structure in trivalent Sc combined with large thermal expansions of Np and plutonium (Pu) suggest that itinerant 5f electrons become localized at high temperature in Np and Pu close to melting. This Mott transition with temperature is similar to the one observed between Pu and americium (Am).

  7. Unraveling the composition dependence of the martensitic transformation temperature: A first-principles study of Ti-Ta alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Tanmoy; Rogal, Jutta; Drautz, Ralf

    2016-12-01

    The martensitic start temperature Ms is one of the key characteristics of shape memory materials. High-temperature shape memory alloys are a special class of materials where transformation temperatures between the martensite and austenite phase above 373 K are desirable. For the design of new high-temperature shape memory alloys it is therefore important to understand and predict the dependence of Ms on the composition of the material. Using density functional theory in combination with the quasiharmonic Debye model, we evaluate the different contributions to the free energy to determine the transition temperature T0 over a wide range of compositions in Ti-Ta alloys. Our approach provides physical insight into the various contributions that explain the strong composition dependence of Ms that is observed experimentally. Based on our calculations, we identify the relative phase stability at T =0 K and the vibrational entropy difference between the involved phases as critical parameters to predict changes in T0. We propose a simple, one-dimensional descriptor to estimate the transition temperature that can be used in the identification of new alloys suitable for high-temperature shape memory applications.

  8. Capillary gas chromatography with two new moderately high temperature phases.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollock, G. E.

    1972-01-01

    Gas chromatography test results are presented for two new moderately high-temperature phases of Dexsil 400-GC with free hydroxyl end groups (uncapped) and with end groups covered by trimethyl silyl groups (capped). The two Dexsil 400-GC phases were tested for their ability to resolve N-TFA-DL-(+)-2-butyl esters and n-butyl esters, as well as fatty acid methyl esters and hydrocarbon standards. Generally the more polar uncapped phase was superior to the capped phase in all separation comparisons, except for the hydrocarbons.

  9. Microstructure, Phase Transformations, and Properties of Hot-Extruded Ni-Rich NiTi Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekston, Z.; Zubko, M.; Prusik, K.; Stróż, D.

    2014-07-01

    Processing of NiTi shape memory alloys strongly influences their microstructure, phase transformations, mechanical, and shape memory properties. Hot forging, hot swaging, or hot rolling are efficient techniques for obtaining the desired shape, but during multiple operations the material must be heated and worked in the temperature range from 700 to 900 °C. During these processes, intense oxidation takes place. In order to reduce it, the hot-pack working is applied. The hot extrusion is more effective for reduction of ingot, billet, and rod diameters than hot forging, hot swaging, or hot rolling. Also, during hot extrusion the material surface undergoes considerably less oxidation. In the present work, results of the characterization by differential scanning calorimetry, low-temperature x-ray powder diffraction, and three-point bending and free recovery ASTM F2082-06 tests of the samples after hot direct extrusion and heat treatment are presented. The obtained alloy after hot direct extrusion exhibits desired shape memory effect. The phase transformations during cooling and heating cycle occur with the presence of the R phase. The range of the characteristic temperatures for the obtained material gives possibility for further medical applications. After annealing at 400 and 500 °C, the characteristic temperatures shift to higher values.

  10. Study of the {alpha}{yields}{beta} phase transformation of a Ti-6Al-4V sheet by means of texture change

    SciTech Connect

    Gey, N.; Humbert, M.; Moustahfid, H.

    2000-02-01

    Although a large number of studies on the {alpha}/{beta} phase transformation in titanium alloys have been reported, only a few works deal with the texture change observed during the {alpha}{yields}{beta} transformation during continuous heating. This is due to the difficulty to obtain information about the metallurgical state of the high temperature {beta} phase, which is not stable at room temperature. In pure titanium, the hcp {alpha} phase generally transforms into the bcc {beta} phase according to the Burgers relation with sometimes orientation variant selections. In the case of Ti-6Al-4V alloy, the transformation of the {alpha} phase is performed in the presence of a low volume fraction of {beta} phase which can influence the transformation mechanism. In the present paper, the {alpha}{yields}{beta} texture change of Ti-6Al-4V material is characterized using adapted methods. The resulting textures allows us to discuss the influence of the residual {beta} phase on the transition texture.

  11. Phase transformation of calcium oxalate dihydrate-monohydrate: Effects of relative humidity and new spectroscopic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, Claudia; Casati, Marco; Colombo, Chiara; Realini, Marco; Brambilla, Luigi; Zerbi, Giuseppe

    2014-07-01

    New data on vibrational properties of calcium oxalates and their controversial transformation mechanism are presented. We have focused on whewellite (CaC2O4·H2O) and weddellite [CaC2O4·(2 + x) H2O], the most common phases of calcium oxalate; these compounds occur in many organisms, in kidney stones and in particular kinds of films found on the surface of many works of art. Low temperature experiments carried out by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy have highlighted both the high structural order in the crystalline state of whewellite and the disordered distribution of the zeolitic water molecules in weddellite. The synthesised nanocrystals of weddellite have been kept under different hygrometric conditions in order to study, by X-ray powder diffraction, the role of “external” water molecules on their stability. Moreover, in order to identify the different kinds of water molecules, a re-investigation, supported by quantum chemical calculations, of the observed vibrational spectra (IR and Raman) of whewellite has been conducted.

  12. Kinetics of the structural transformations in a carbon fiber on its high-temperature treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Fedoseev, S.D.; Puchkov, S.V.

    1982-01-01

    On the basis of experimental results, a mathematical description is proposed of the two-stage process of structural transformations in a carbon fiber on its high-temperature treatment. A characteristic feature of the structural transformations was the change in the rate of propagation of a longitudinal ultrasonic wave. The effective activation energies of the process have been calculated.

  13. Amphiphilic phase-transforming catalysts for transesterification of triglycerides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawaratna, Gayan Ivantha

    Heterogeneous catalytic reactions that involve immiscible liquid-phase reactants are challenging to conduct due to limitations associated with mass transport. Nevertheless, there are numerous reactions such as esterification, transesterification, etherification, and hydrolysis where two immiscible liquid reactants (such as polar and non-polar liquids) need to be brought into contact with a catalyst. With the intention of alleviating mass transport issues associated with such systems but affording the ability to separate the catalyst once the reaction is complete, the overall goal of this study is geared toward developing a catalyst that has emulsification properties as well as the ability to phase-transfer (from liquid-phase to solid-phase) while the reaction is ongoing and evaluating the effectiveness of such a catalytic process in a practical reaction. To elucidate this concept, the transesterification reaction was selected. Metal-alkoxides that possess acidic and basic properties (to catalyze the reaction), amphiphilic properties (to stabilize the alcohol/oil emulsion) and that can undergo condensation polymerization when heated (to separate as a solid subsequent to the completion of the reaction) were used to test the concept. Studies included elucidating the effect of metal sites and alkoxide sites and their concentration effects on transesterification reaction, effect of various metal alkoxide groups on the phase stability of the reactant system, and kinetic effects of the reaction system. The studies revealed that several transition-metal alkoxides, especially, titanium and yttrium based, responded positively to this reaction system. These alkoxides were able to be added to the reaction medium in liquid phase and were able to stabilize the alcohol/oil system. The alkoxides were selective to the transesterification reaction giving a range of ester yields (depending on the catalyst used). It was also observed that transition-metal alkoxides were able to be

  14. Phase and structural transformations in U and U-Nb alloy upon severe deformation and heat treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuev, Yu. N.; Sagaradze, V. V.; Pecherkina, N. L.; Kabanova, I. I.; Svyatov, I. L.; Bondarchuk, S. V.; Belyaev, D. V.

    2013-12-01

    Transmission electron microscopy was used to analyze the twin and dislocation structure of samples of commercial uranium in the initial (undeformed) state and after severe deformation using explosive loading by plane and spherical waves of various intensity. It has been shown that an increase in the intensity of explosive loading by a plane wave leads, first, to an increase in the density of randomly distributed dislocations and twins and, then, to the development of polygonization processes with the formation of a subgrain structure of the α phase. Crystallographic analysis of the initial and deformation-induced twins in uranium has shown the presence of predominantly {130} twins of mixed type and, in singular cases, {172} and {176} twins of the second kind. It has been established that the retained spherical shells have a distinctly pronounced zonal structure, which contains information on the forward and reverse martensitic phase transformations of uranium (α ↔ β(γ) ↔ L, etc.) that occur under shock-wave loading by spherical waves. Conditions are determined for the manifestation of structural heredity in the U-6 wt % Nb alloy with recovery of the size and shape of grains of the initial high-temperature γ phase during the forward γ → α″ martensitic transformation upon cooling and during reverse α″ → γ transformation upon heating. Elimination of the structural heredity with significant grain refinement of the high-temperature γ phase occurs in the process of repeated quenching from 700°C after one type of preliminary treatments (cold deformation of α″ martensite, recrystallization of the deformed α″ phase, high-temperature aging of the initial α″ martensite, and eutectoid decomposition).

  15. Infrared study and phase transformation of the new lithium-diphenyl carbazide complex (LiDPC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Kabbany, F.; Taha, S.; Hafez, M.; Abdel Aziz, N. R.

    2015-07-01

    A complete IR investigation (400-4000 cm-1) of orthorhombic, amorphous DPC and crystalline LiDPC (at room temperature and 80 °C) is performed and new results are reported. Introducing lithium ions into diphenyl carbazide C13H14N4O forms a completely new complex associated with new properties. The IR spectroscopic analysis includes measurements and interpretation of the IR spectral band shape, intensities, and frequencies of the internal modes of vibrations. The principle modes of vibrations of amorphous DPC found to be 3445 cm-1, 3292 cm-1, 3052 cm-1, 1670 cm-1, 1602 cm-1, 1495 cm-1, 1305 cm-1, 1254 cm-1, 974 cm-1, and 577 cm-1 correspond to normal vibrations of Nsbnd H, Csbnd H, Nsbnd N, Cdbnd O and monosubstituted benzene. A marked change could be recorded for these modes of vibrations in the presence of Li+ ions. The results strongly confirm the formation of a metal-organic complex. Anomalous spectroscopic changes could be recorded in LiDPC spectra. A proposed Li+ position in LiDPC complex is proposed. X-ray diffraction analysis is used to find out the crystal structure and parameters of LiDPC complex. The results obtained show triclinic crystal structure with a = 5.6929 Å, b = 7.6378 Å, c = 17.8739 Å, α = 119.176°, β = 63.322°, γ = 85.378°. The results reveal the presence of an order-disorder phase transition in LiDPC complex at 60 °C. The transformation process is monitored by clear variations in the spectral shape, band intensities and new eight different modes appeared in the high temperature disordered phase. An energy model is suggested for the interpretation of such phase transition process.

  16. Quantum image encryption based on generalized Arnold transform and double random-phase encoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Nan Run; Hua, Tian Xiang; Gong, Li Hua; Pei, Dong Ju; Liao, Qing Hong

    2015-04-01

    A quantum realization of the generalized Arnold transform is designed. A novel quantum image encryption algorithm based on generalized Arnold transform and double random-phase encoding is proposed. The pixels are scrambled by the generalized Arnold transform, and the gray-level information of images is encoded by the double random-phase operations. The keys of the encryption algorithm include the independent parameters of coefficients matrix, iterative times and classical binary sequences, and thus, the key space is extremely large. Numerical simulations and theoretical analyses demonstrate that the proposed algorithm with good feasibility and effectiveness has lower computational complexity than its classical counterpart.

  17. Phase stability and magnetic behavior of hexagonal phase of N2-O2 system with kagome lattice under high pressure and low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akahama, Y.; Ishihara, D.; Yamashita, H.; Fujihisa, H.; Hirao, N.; Ohishi, Y.

    2016-08-01

    The pressure-temperature (P -T ) phase diagram of N2-O2 mixture with a composition of N2-48 mol % O2 has been investigated using x-ray diffraction and the phase stability of a hexagonal phase (space group: P 6 /mmm), with the kagome lattice examined under high-pressure and low-temperature conditions. While the phase appears as a low-temperature phase of the cubic phase (P m 3 n ) with the structure of γ -O2 or δ -N2 and is stable in a wide range of pressures and temperatures, it transforms to lower symmetry monoclinic or orthorhombic phases at lower temperature, accompanied with a distortion of the kagome lattice. Based on Rietveld refinements, the monoclinic and orthorhombic phases are found to be in the P 21/a and Cmmm space groups, respectively. In magnetization measurements, a magnetic transition is observed with a relatively large drop of magnetization, corresponding to the cubic-to-hexagonal phase transition. This suggests that the hexagonal phase has a certain magnetic ordered state that arises from the molecular magnetic moment of O2.

  18. Kinetics of phase transformations in glass forming systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Chandra S.

    1994-01-01

    A nucleation rate like curve for a glass can be determined from the functional dependence of the maximum height of its DTA crystallization peak, (delta T)(sub p), on the nucleation temperature, T(sub n). This nucleation rate curve provides information for the temperature range where nucleation for the glass can occur and the temperature where the nucleation rate is a maximum. However, this curve does not provide information for the nucleation rate, I, for the glass at different temperatures. A method for estimating I at different temperatures from (delta T)(sub p) was developed using a Li2O.2SiO2 (LS2) glass. Also, the dielectric constant (epsilon) and the loss factor (tan delta) of a glass-ceramic depend, in part, upon the amount of crystallinity which, in turn, depends upon the nucleation density in the starting glass. It is therefore expected that epsilon and tan delta should have a relationship with nucleation density and hence on the nucleation rate.

  19. Fundamental Studies of Phase Transformations and Mechanical Properties in the Heat Affected Zone of 10 wt% Nickel Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrick, Erin J.

    United States naval applications require the use of steels with high strength and resistance to fracture at low temperatures to provide good ballistic properties. In recent years, 10 wt% Ni steel has been developed with strength and toughness values exceeding those of steels currently used, and is now being considered as a candidate material to replace existing high-strength, low alloy steels. This steel has excellent toughness from the mechanically induced transformation of interlath austenite films to martensite. These austenite films are formed via a carefully developed quenching, lamellarizing, and tempering heat treatment. However, before 10 wt% Ni steel can be implemented for full-scale applications, the effects of the rapid heating and cooling rates associated with welding thermal cycles on phase transformations and mechanical properties must be understood. In this research, a fundamental understanding of phase transformations and mechanical properties in the heat-affected zone of fusion welds in 10 wt% Ni steel was developed through heating and cooling rate dilatometry experiments, gas tungsten arc welding, and simulation of gas metal arc welding. First, an investigation into the effects of heating and cooling rate on the phase transformations in 10 wt% Ni steel was performed. The Ac1 and Ac3 temperatures during heating were determined as a function of heating rate, and sluggish transformation during fast heating rates manifested itself as a high Ac3 temperature of 1050°C as opposed to a temperature of 850°C at slow heating rates. A continuous cooling transformation diagram produced for 10 wt% Ni steel reveals that martensite will form over a very wide range of cooling rates, which reflects a very high hardenability of this alloy. This is significant because the range of cooling rates for which the diagram was constructed over easily covers the range associated with fusion welding, so there would not be the need for precise control over the weld

  20. High-Pressure High-Temperature Phase Diagram of the Organic Crystal Paracetamol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Spencer; Montgomery, Jeffrey; Vohra, Yogesh

    High-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) Raman spectroscopy studies have been performed on the organic crystal paracetamol in a diamond anvil cell utilizing boron-doped diamond as heating anvil. The HPHT data obtained from boron-doped diamond heater is cross-checked with data obtained using a standard block heater diamond anvil cell. Isobaric measurements were conducted at pressures up to 8.5 GPa and temperature up to 520 K in a number of different experiments. Solid state phase transitions from monoclinic Form I --> orthorhombic Form II were observed at various pressures and temperatures as well as transitions from Form II --> unknown Form IV. The melting temperature for paracetamol was observed to increase with increasing pressures to 8.5 GPa. Our previous angle dispersive x-ray diffraction studies at the Advanced Photon Source has confirmed the existence of two unknown crystal structures Form IV and Form V of paracetamol at high pressure and ambient temperature. The phase transformation from Form II to Form IV occurs at ~8.5 GPa and from Form IV to Form V occurs at ~11 GPa at ambient temperature. Our new data is combined with the previous ambient temperature high-pressure Raman and X- ray diffraction data to create the first HPHT phase diagram of paracetamol. Doe-NNSA Carnegie DOE Alliance Center (CDAC) under Grant Number DE-NA0002006.

  1. Nonadiabaticity in the iron bcc to hcp phase transformation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Donald F; Carter, Emily A

    2008-03-14

    Iron is known to undergo a pressure-induced phase transition from the ferromagnetic (FM) body-centered-cubic (bcc) alpha-phase to the nonmagnetic (NM) hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) epsilon-phase, with a large observed pressure hysteresis whose origin is still a matter of debate. Long ago, Burgers [Physica (Amsterdam) 1, 561 (1934)] proposed an adiabatic pathway for bcc to hcp transitions involving crystal shear followed by atom shuffles. However, a quantum mechanics search in six-dimensional stress-strain space reveals a much lower energy path, where the crystal smoothly shears along the entire path while the atoms shuffle only near the transition state (TS). The energy profile for this phase transition path exhibits a cusp at the TS and closely follows bcc and hcp diabatic energy wells. Both the cusp and the overlap with diabatic energy surfaces are hallmarks of nonadiabaticity, analogous to, e.g., electron transfer (ET) reactions in liquids. Fluctuations in the positions of FM bcc iron atoms near the TS induce magnetic quenching (akin to solvent fluctuations inducing ET), which then promotes NM hcp iron formation (akin to solvent reorganization after ET). We propose that the nonadiabatic nature of this transition at the atomic scale may contribute to the observed pressure hysteresis.

  2. Phase relationships in Fe-Ni alloys at high pressures and temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Eugene; Bassett, William A.; Weathers, Maura S.

    1988-01-01

    Diffusionless phase transformations in Fe-Ni alloys with up to 35 wt pct Ni were studied using resistance-heated diamond anvil cells and synchrotron radiation. At temperatures up to 600 C and pressures up to 25 GPa, Fe-35 percent Ni showed only the face-centered cubic (fcc) phase while Fe-25 percent Ni and Fe-10 percent Ni showed the body-centered cubic (bcc) and hexagonal close-packed (hcp) phases in addition to the fcc phase. The phase relationships of these solid phases are topologically similar to those of pure iron. The triple point becomes lower in temperature, and the slope (dT/dP) of the fcc/hcp boundary decreased as Ni-content increases in the alloys. From these results it is inferred that Fe-Ni alloys in the earth's inner core might exist as two phases, fcc and hcp. The existence of these two phases could have played an important role in the separation of the inner and outer core.

  3. Micromechanics of transformation fields in ageing linear viscoelastic composites: effects of phase dissolution or precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honorio, Tulio

    2017-02-01

    Transformation fields, in an affine formulation characterizing mechanical behavior, describe a variety of physical phenomena regardless their origin. Different composites, notably geomaterials, present a viscoelastic behavior, which is, in some cases of industrial interest, ageing, i.e. it evolves independently with respect to time and loading time. Here, a general formulation of the micromechanics of prestressed or prestrained composites in Ageing Linear Viscoelasticity (ALV) is presented. Emphasis is put on the estimation of effective transformation fields in ALV. The result generalizes Ageing Linear Thermo- and Poro-Viscoelasticity and it can be used in approaches coping with a phase transformation. Additionally, the results are extended to the case of locally transforming materials due to non-coupled dissolution and/or precipitation of a given (elastic or viscoelastic) phase. The estimations of locally transforming composites can be made with respect to different morphologies. As an application, estimations of the coefficient of thermal expansion of a hydrating alite paste are presented.

  4. DUAL PHASE MEMBRANE FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE CO2 SEPARATION

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry Y.S. Lin

    2002-12-01

    This project is aimed at synthesis of a new inorganic dual-phase carbonate membrane for high temperature CO{sub 2} separation. Metal-carbonate dual-phase membranes were prepared by the direct infiltration method and the synthesis conditions were optimized. The dual-phase membranes are gas-tight with helium permeance about six orders of magnitude lower than that for the metal support. Efforts were made to test seals for permeation and separation experiments for dual-phase membrane at the intermediate temperature range (about 500 C) under oxidizing atmosphere. An effective new permeation cell with a metal seal was designed, fabricated and tested. The permeation setup provided leak-free sealing for the dual-phase membranes under the desired operation conditions. Though the reliable data showing high permeance for carbon dioxide with oxygen for the prepared metal-carbonate dual phase membrane has not been measured, the research efforts in improving membrane synthesis and setting up a new permeation cell with suitable seal have made it closer for one to demonstrate good dual-phase membranes for high temperature carbon dioxide separation. Research efforts were also directed towards preparation of a new ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membrane. Porous lanthanum cobaltite (LC) perovskite type oxide ceramic support with oxidation resistance better than the metal support and high electronic conductivity (1300-1500 S/cm in 400-600 C), was prepared and studied as an alternative support for the dual-phase carbonate membranes. The LC powder was found not reactive with the carbonate at 600 C. The porous LC disks have helium permeance and pore diameter smaller than the metal support but larger than the common {alpha}-alumina support. These results show promise to use the LC support for preparation of oxidation resistant dual-phase carbonate membranes.

  5. Phase Transformation of TiO{sub 2} from Anatase to Rutile by Thermal Annealing and Swift Heavy Ion Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Rath, H.; Dash, P.; Mishra, N. C.; Anand, S.; Mohapatra, M.; Som, T.; Singh, U. P.; Kanjilal, D.; Avasthi, D. K.

    2008-10-23

    In the present study, we probe into the phase transition from anatase to rutile in nanocrystalline thin films under thermal annealing and swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation. TiO{sub 2} thin films were prepared through chemical route using sol-gel and spin coating techniques on silicon (100) substrates. The structural studies of the annealed films were characterized by GAXRD and Raman spectroscopy. Though thermal annealing is known to cause transformation from anatase to rutile phase of TiO{sub 2} in a temperature interval of 700 to 900 C, in nanoparticle thin films, we found {approx}35 vol% of anatase still remains even after annealing at 1000 C. SHI irradiation by 200 MeV Ag ions on the other hand resulted in complete conversion to rutile phase at fluence of 3x10{sup 12} ions.cm{sup -2}. SHI induced thermal spike seems to be responsible for conversion of anatase to rutile phase.

  6. Are Karakoram temperatures out of phase compared to hemispheric trends?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asad, Fayaz; Zhu, Haifeng; Zhang, Hui; Liang, Eryuan; Muhammad, Sher; Farhan, Suhaib Bin; Hussain, Iqtidar; Wazir, Muhammad Atif; Ahmed, Moinuddin; Esper, Jan

    2016-07-01

    In contrast to a global retreating trend, glaciers in the Karakoram showed stability and/or mass gaining during the past decades. This "Karakoram Anomaly" has been assumed to result from an out-of-phase temperature trend compared to hemispheric scales. However, the short instrumental observations from the Karakoram valley bottoms do not support a quantitative assessment of long-term temperature trends in this high mountain area. Here, we presented a new April-July temperature reconstruction from the Karakoram region in northern Pakistan based on a high elevation (~3600 m a.s.l.) tree-ring chronology covering the past 438 years (AD 1575-2012). The reconstruction passes all statistical calibration and validation tests and represents 49 % of the temperature variance recorded over the 1955-2012 instrumental period. It shows a substantial warming accounting to about 1.12 °C since the mid-twentieth century, and 1.94 °C since the mid-nineteenth century, and agrees well with the Northern Hemisphere temperature reconstructions. These findings provide evidence that the Karakoram temperatures are in-phase, rather than out-of-phase, compared to hemispheric scales since the AD 1575. The synchronous temperature trends imply that the anomalous glacier behavior reported from the Karakoram may need further explanations beyond basic regional thermal anomaly.

  7. Effect of ball to powder ratio on the ZrO2 phase transformations during milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakeri, M.; Razavi, M.; Rahimipour, M. R.; Jamal Abbasi, B.

    Effect of milling time and ball to powder weight ratio (BPR) were investigated on the phase transformation of monoclinic zirconia during high energy ball milling. Degree of phase transformation was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and quantitative phase analysis (Rietveld refinement). Morphology and microstructure were monitored by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Higher milling time and BPR led to the more transformation, smaller mean grain size and larger strain. There was approximately 80% tetragonal zirconia in the 80 h milled powder with the BPR 25:1. A nanostructure powder with the mean grain size less than 10 nm was obtained in both BPRs that were in consistence with TEM images. Stress and strain inducing in the lattice of m-ZrO2 was proposed as the main mechanism of its transformation.

  8. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation of pressure-induced phase transformation in BeO

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Haiyan; Duan, G; Zu, X T; Weber, William J

    2011-01-01

    Ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) method has been used to study high pressure-induced phase transformation in BeO based on the local density approximation (LDA) and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). Both methods show that the wurtzite (WZ) and zinc blende (ZB) BeO transforms to the rocksalt (RS) structure smoothly at high pressure. The transition pressures obtained from the LDA method are about 40 GPa larger than the GGA result for both WZ {yields} RS and ZB {yields} RS phase transformations, and the phase transformation mechanisms revealed by the LDA and GGA methods are different. For WZ {yields} RS phase transformations both mechanisms obtained from the LDA and GGA methods are not comparable to the previous ab initio MD simulations of WZ BeO at 700 GPa based on the GGA method. It is suggested that the phase transformation mechanisms of BeO revealed by the ab initio MD simulations are affected remarkably by the exchange-correlation functional employed and the way of applying pressure.

  9. Finite size effects in phase transformation kinetics in thin films and surface layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vladimir I.; Trofimov, Ilya V.; Kim, Jong-Il

    2004-02-01

    In studies of phase transformation kinetics in thin films, e.g. crystallization of amorphous films, until recent time is widely used familiar Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (KJMA) statistical model of crystallization despite it is applicable only to an infinite medium. In this paper a model of transformation kinetics in thin films based on a concept of the survival probability for randomly chosen point during transformation process is presented. Two model versions: volume induced transformation (VIT) when the second-phase grains nucleate over a whole film volume and surface induced transformation (SIT) when they form on an interface with two nucleation mode: instantaneous nucleation at transformation onset and continuous one during all the process are studied. At VIT-process due to the finite film thickness effects the transformation profile has a maximum in a film middle, whereas that of the grains population reaches a minimum inhere, the grains density is always higher than in a volume material, and the thinner film the slower it transforms. The transformation kinetics in a thin film obeys a generalized KJMA equation with parameters depending on a film thickness and in limiting cases of extremely thin and thick film it reduces to classical KJMA equation for 2D- and 3D-system, respectively.

  10. New Phase Regions of Ir-Ru-Ti System with Eutectic-Peritectic Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutsyk, V.; Vorob'eva, V.

    2013-12-01

    Special surfaces, corresponding to phase transformation type changing, have been found and designed within six three-phase regions of the system Ti-Ir-Ru with a help of 3D computer model of its T-x-y diagram.

  11. Physical nature of the anomalies in the temperature dependence of the probability of the Mössbauer effect near phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorushkin, V. E.; Lotkov, A. I.; Anokhin, S. V.

    1991-11-01

    A mechanism for microstructural changes in the vicinity of phase transitions is proposed, which explains the anomaly in the temperature dependence of the Mössbauer effect in high temperature superconducting ceramics with 1-2-3 composition before the transition to the superconducting state, and in Ti(Ni, Fe) alloys before the martensite transformation into the R-phase.

  12. A uniaxial constitutive model for superelastic NiTi SMA including R-phase and martensite transformations and thermal effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbert, Guillaume; Saint-Sulpice, Luc; Arbab Chirani, Shabnam; Dieng, Lamine; Lecompte, Thibaut; Calloch, Sylvain; Pilvin, Philippe

    2017-02-01

    The well-known martensitic transformation is not always the unique solid-solid phase change in NiTi shape memory alloys (SMA). For this material, R-phase can occur from both austenite and martensite. In some applications, macroscopic strain of the material can be limited to 2%. In these cases, R-phase contribution can not be neglected anymore when compared with martensite. Furthermore, different thermomechanical couplings have to be taken into account to carefully predict strain rate effects and to better describe application conditions. In this paper, a new model taking into account various phase transformations with thermomechanical couplings is presented. This model is based on several transformation criteria. In most applications, SMA are used as wires, submitted to tensile-tensile loadings, in the superelasticity working range. Consequently, a uniaxial reduction of the model is presented for its simplicity. A thermodynamic framework is proposed. It enables to describe the internal variables evolution laws. The simple and fast identification process of model parameters is briefly presented. To verify the validity of the proposed model, simulation results are compared with experimental ones. The influences of testing temperature and strain amplitude on the material behavior is discussed. The damping capacity is also studied, using an energy-based criterion.

  13. Note: Low phase noise programmable phase-locked loop with high temperature stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michálek, Vojtěch; Procházka, Ivan

    2017-03-01

    The design and construction of low jitter programmable phase-locked loop with low temperature coefficient of phase are presented. It has been designed for demanding high precision timing applications, especially as a clock source for event timer with subpicosecond precision. The phase-locked loop itself has a jitter of few hundreds of femtoseconds. It produces square wave with programmable output frequency from 100 MHz to 500 MHz and programmable amplitude of 0.25 V to 1.2 V peak-to-peak, which is locked to 5 MHz or 10 MHz reference frequency common for disciplined oscillators and highly stable clocks such as hydrogen maser. Moreover, it comprises an on-board temperature compensated crystal oscillator for stand-alone usage. The device provides temperature coefficient of the phase lock of 0.9 ps/K near room temperature.

  14. Low temperature phase transition and crystal structure of CsMgPO{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Orlova, Maria; Khainakov, Sergey; Michailov, Dmitriy; Perfler, Lukas; Langes, Christoph; Kahlenberg, Volker; Orlova, Albina

    2015-01-15

    CsMgPO{sub 4} doped with radioisotopes is a promising compound for usage as a radioactive medical source. However, a low temperature phase transition at temperatures close to ambient conditions (∼−40 °C) was observed. Information about such kind of structural changes is important in order to understand whether it can cause any problem for medical use of this compound. The phase transition has been investigated in detail using synchrotron powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and DFT calculations. The structure undergoes a transformation from an orthorhombic modification, space group Pnma (RT phase) to a monoclinic polymorph, space group P2{sub 1}/n (LT phase). New LT modification adopts similar to RT but slightly distorted unit cell: a=9.58199(2) Å, b=8.95501(1) Å, c=5.50344(2) Å, β=90.68583(1)°, V=472.198(3) Å{sup 3}. CsMgPO{sub 4} belongs to the group of framework compounds and is made up of strictly alternating MgO{sub 4}- and PO{sub 4}-tetrahedra sharing vertices. The cesium counter cations are located in the resulting channel-like cavities. Upon the transformation a combined tilting of the tetrahedra is observed. A comparison with other phase transitions in ABW-type framework compounds is given. - Graphical abstract: Structural behavior of β-tridymite-type phosphate CsMgPO{sub 4}, considered as potential chemical form for radioactive Cs-source has been studied at near ambient temperatures. A phase transition at (∼−40 °C) has been found and investigated. It has been established that the known orthorhombic RT modification, space group Pnma, adopts a monoclinic cell with space group P2{sub 1}/n at low temperatures. In this paper, we present results of structural analysis of changes accompanying this phase transition and discuss its possible impact on the application properties. - Highlights: • β-Tridymite type phosphate CsMgPO{sub 4} undergoes so called translationengleiche phase transition of index 2 at −40 °C. • The structure

  15. Phase change material for temperature control and material storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessling, Jr., Francis C. (Inventor); Blackwood, James M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A phase change material comprising a mixture of water and deuterium oxide is described, wherein the mole fraction of deuterium oxide is selected so that the mixture has a selected phase change temperature within a range between 0.degree. C. and 4.degree. C. The mixture is placed in a container and used for passive storage and transport of biomaterials and other temperature sensitive materials. Gels, nucleating agents, freezing point depression materials and colorants may be added to enhance the characteristics of the mixture.

  16. Selectivity and temperature dependence of phase and phase transition in diblock copolymer solution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lingyun; Wang, Peng-Ye

    2011-04-01

    In order to study the effects of solvent selectivity and temperature on phase behavior and transition of diblock copolymer solution, self-consistent field theory is modified to incorporate the short-range interaction and non-local effects. Inhomogeneous free-energy density is shown to be dependent on solvent selectivity, temperature and copolymer concentration. Enthalpic quantity and entropic contributions are crucial to phase diagrams of diblock copolymer solution. Three selective strengths of solvent --weak, moderate and strong-- are chosen for comparison. For a weakly selective solvent, theoretical and experimental results illustrate the same variation tendency in the phase boundary of the order-disorder transition for a symmetric diblock of polystyrene and polyisoprene. Self-consistent field equations can be used to calculate the exact FCC-BCC structural phase transition temperatures in moderately and strongly selective solvents. Detailed comparison with the experimental phase diagrams including lamellar, cylindrical and spherical structures is presented.

  17. Development of coherent Raman measurements of temperature in condensed phases

    SciTech Connect

    Mcgrane, Shawn D; Dang, Nhan C; Bolme, Cindy A; Moore, David S

    2010-12-08

    We report theoretical considerations and preliminary data on various forms of coherent Raman spectroscopy that have been considered as candidates for measurement of temperature in condensed phase experiments with picosecond time resolution. Due to the inherent broadness and congestion of vibrational features in condensed phase solids, particularly at high temperatures and pressures, only approaches that rely on the ratio of anti-Stokes to Stokes spectral features are considered. Methods that rely on resolution of vibrational progressions, calibration of frequency shifts with temperature and pressure in reference experiments, or detailed comparison to calculation are inappropriate or impossible for our applications. In particular, we consider femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS), femtosecond/picosecond hybrid coherent Raman spectroscopy (multiplex CARS), and optical heterodyne detected femtosecond Raman induced Kerr Effect spectroscopy (OHD-FRIKES). We show that only FSRS has the ability to measure temperature via an anti-Stokes to Stokes ratio of peaks.

  18. High-speed phase-shifting interferometry using triangular prism for time-resolved temperature measurement.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Eita; Komiya, Atsuki; Okajima, Junnosuke; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Maruyama, Shigenao

    2015-07-10

    This study proposes a high-speed phase-shifting interferometer with an original optical prism. This phase-shifting interferometer consists of a polarizing Mach-Zehnder interferometer, an original optical prism, a high-speed camera, and an image-processing unit for a three-step phase-shifting technique. The key aspect of the application of the phase-shifting technique to high-speed experiments is an original prism, which is designed and developed specifically for a high-speed phase-shifting technique. The arbaa prism splits an incident beam into four output beams with different information. The interferometer was applied for quantitative visualization of transient heat transfer. In order to test the optical system for measuring high-speed phenomena, the temperature during heat conduction was measured around a heated thin tungsten wire (diameter of 5 μm) in water. The visualization area is approximately 90  μm×210  μm, and the spatial resolution is 3.5 μm at 300,000 fps of the maximum temporal resolution with a high-speed camera. The temperature fields around the heated wire were determined by converting phase-shifted data using the inverse Abel transform. Finally, the measured temperature distribution was compared with numerical calculations to validate the proposed system; a good agreement was obtained.

  19. Detection of indentation induced Fe-to-Afe phase transformation in lead zirconate titanate.

    SciTech Connect

    Baddorf, Arthur P.; Shin, Junsoo; Gogotsi, Yury G.; Buchheit, Thomas Edward; Watson, Chad Samuel; Kalinin, Sergei; Juliano, Thomas F.

    2005-08-01

    Instrumented indentation was combined with microscopy and spectroscopy analysis to investigate the local mechanically induced ferroelectric to anti-ferroelectric phase transformation of niobium-modified lead zirconate titanate 95/5. Indentation experiments to a depth of 2 {micro}m were performed using a Berkovich pyramidal three-sided diamond tip. Subsequent Raman spectroscopy and piezoelectric force microscopy revealed that indentation locally induced the ferroelectric to antiferroelectric phase transformation. Piezoelectric force microscopy demonstrated the ability to map the individual phases within and near indented regions on the niobium-modified lead zirconate titanate ceramics.

  20. Ultra-fast dynamic compression technique to study kinetics of phase transformations in Bismuth

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R F; Kane, J O; Eggert, J H; Saculla, M D; Jankowski, A F; Bastea, M; Hicks, D G; Collins, G W

    2007-12-28

    Pre-heated Bi was ramp compressed within 30 ns to a peak stress of {approx}11 GPa to explore structural phase transformation kinetics under dynamic loading conditions. Under these ultra-fast compression time-scales the equilibrium Bi I-II phase boundary is overpressurized by {Delta}P {approx} 0.8 GPa. {Delta}P is observed to increase logarithmically with strain rate, {var_epsilon}, above 10{sup 6} s{sup -1}. Estimates from a kinetics model predict that the Bi I phase is fully transformed within 3 ns.

  1. Phase Transformations in the High-Tc Superconducting Compounds, Ba2RCu3O7-δ (R = Nd, Sm, Gd, Y, Ho, and Er).

    PubMed

    Wong-Ng, W; Cook, L P; Su, H B; Vaudin, M D; Chiang, C K; Welch, D R; Fuller, E R; Yang, Z; Bennett, L H

    2006-01-01

    The phase transformation between the orthorhombic and tetragonal structures of six high-T c superconductors, Ba2RCu3O7- δ , where R = Nd, Sm, Gd, Y, Ho, and Er, and δ = 0 to 1, has been investigated using techniques of x-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis/thermogravimetric analysis (DTA/TGA) and electron diffraction. The transformation from the oxygen-rich orthorhombic phase to the oxygen-deficient tetragonal phase involves two orthorhombic phases. A superlattice cell caused by oxygen ordering, with a' = 2a, was observed for materials with smaller ionic radius (Y, Ho, and Er). For the larger lanthanide samples (Nd, Sm, and Gd), the a' = 2a type superlattice cell was not observed. The structural phase transition temperatures, oxygen stoichiometry and characteristics of the T c plateaus appear to correlate with the ionic radius, which varies based on the number of f electrons. Lanthanide elements with a smaller ionic radius stabilize the orthorhombic phase to higher temperatures and lower oxygen content. Also, the superconducting temperature is less sensitive to the oxygen content for materials with smaller ionic radius. The trend of dependence of the phase transformation temperature on ionic radius across the lanthanide series can be explained using a quasi-chemical approximation (QCA) whereby the strain effect plays an important role on the order-disorder transition due to the effect of oxygen content on the CuO chain sites.

  2. The backward phase flow and FBI-transform-based Eulerian Gaussian beams for the Schroedinger equation

    SciTech Connect

    Leung Shingyu; Qian Jianliang

    2010-11-20

    We propose the backward phase flow method to implement the Fourier-Bros-Iagolnitzer (FBI)-transform-based Eulerian Gaussian beam method for solving the Schroedinger equation in the semi-classical regime. The idea of Eulerian Gaussian beams has been first proposed in . In this paper we aim at two crucial computational issues of the Eulerian Gaussian beam method: how to carry out long-time beam propagation and how to compute beam ingredients rapidly in phase space. By virtue of the FBI transform, we address the first issue by introducing the reinitialization strategy into the Eulerian Gaussian beam framework. Essentially we reinitialize beam propagation by applying the FBI transform to wavefields at intermediate time steps when the beams become too wide. To address the second issue, inspired by the original phase flow method, we propose the backward phase flow method which allows us to compute beam ingredients rapidly. Numerical examples demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed algorithms.

  3. Phase transformation of Mg-calcite to aragonite in active-forming hot spring travertines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, Heather F.; Zhou, Wuzong; Guo, Li

    2015-08-01

    A travertine specimen collected from the western part of Yunnan Province of China was subjected to microstructural analysis by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. A new formation mechanism was proposed whereby polycrystalline rhombohedral particles of magnesium-containing calcite underwent a phase transformation into sheaf-like clusters of aragonite microrods. It is proposed that a high concentration of magnesium ions and embedded biological matter poisoned the growth of calcite and therefore instigated the phase transformation of the core of the rhombohedral calcite particles to an aragonite phase with a higher crystallinity. The single crystalline aragonite microrods with a higher density than the Mg-calcite nanocrystallites grew at the expense of the latter to generate sheaf-like clusters. This newly discovered formation mechanism is expected to enhance previous knowledge on this geologically important phase transformation from a morphology point of view.

  4. Phase synchronization based on a Dual-Tree Complex Wavelet Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Maria Teodora; Domingues, Margarete Oliveira; Macau, Elbert E. N.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, we show the applicability of our Discrete Complex Wavelet Approach (DCWA) to verify the phenomenon of phase synchronization transition in two coupled chaotic Lorenz systems. DCWA is based on the phase assignment from complex wavelet coefficients obtained by using a Dual-Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DT-CWT). We analyzed two coupled chaotic Lorenz systems, aiming to detect the transition from non-phase synchronization to phase synchronization. In addition, we check how good is the method in detecting periods of 2π phase-slips. In all experiments, DCWA is compared with classical phase detection methods such as the ones based on arctangent and Hilbert transform showing a much better performance.

  5. A simplification of the fractional Hartley transform applied to image security system in phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, Carlos J.; Vilardy, Juan M.; Perez, Ronal

    2017-01-01

    In this work we develop a new encryption system for encoded image in phase using the fractional Hartley transform (FrHT), truncation operations and random phase masks (RPMs). We introduce a simplification of the FrHT with the purpose of computing this transform in an efficient and fast way. The security of the encryption system is increased by using nonlinear operations, such as the phase encoding and the truncation operations. The image to encrypt (original image) is encoded in phase and the truncation operations applied in the encryption-decryption system are the amplitude and phase truncations. The encrypted image is protected by six keys, which are the two fractional orders of the FrHTs, the two RPMs and the two pseudorandom code images generated by the amplitude and phase truncation operations. All these keys have to be correct for a proper recovery of the original image in the decryption system. We present digital results that confirm our approach.

  6. Dual constant composition method and its application to studies of phase transformation and crystallization of mixed phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimpour, A.; Zhang, Jingwu; Nancollas, G. H.

    1991-08-01

    In a novel approach, a dual constant composition (DCC) technique has been developed for the investigation of concurrent dissolution and growth processes such as crystalline phase transformation, as well as growth of mixed crystalline phases. DCC utilizes two potentiostats and electrode sets to control simultaneous reactions in the same medium. The kinetics of concurrent dissolution or growth of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) and the growth of octacalcium phosphate (OCP) were studied.

  7. A Synthetic Quadrature Phase Detector/Demodulator for Fourier Transform Transform Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Joel

    2008-01-01

    A method is developed to demodulate (velocity correct) Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) data that is taken with an analog to digital converter that digitizes equally spaced in time. This method makes it possible to use simple low cost, high resolution audio digitizers to record high quality data without the need for an event timer or quadrature laser hardware, and makes it possible to use a metrology laser of any wavelength. The reduced parts count and simplicity implementation makes it an attractive alternative in space based applications when compared to previous methods such as the Brault algorithm.

  8. Effect of gas flow rates on the anatase-rutile transformation temperature of nanocrystalline TiO2 synthesised by chemical vapour synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Md Imteyaz; Bhattacharya, S S; Fasel, Claudia; Hahn, Horst

    2009-09-01

    Of the three crystallographic allotropes of nanocrystalline titania (rutile, anatase and brookite), anatase exhibits the greatest potential for a variety of applications, especially in the area of catalysis and sensors. However, with rutile being thermodynamically the most stable phase, anatase tends to transform into rutile on heating to temperatures in the range of 500 degrees C to 700 degrees C. Efforts made to stabilize the anatase phase at higher temperatures by doping with metal oxides suffer from the problems of having a large amorphous content on synthesis as well as the formation of secondary impurity phases on doping. Recent studies have suggested that the as-synthesised phase composition, crystallite size, initial surface area and processing conditions greatly influence the anatase to rutile transformation temperature. In this study nanocrystalline titania was synthesised in the anatase form bya chemical vapour synthesis (CVS) method using titanium tetra iso-propoxide (TTIP) as a precursor under varying flow rates of oxygen and helium. The anatase to rutile transformation was studied using high temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD) and simultaneous thermogravimetric analysis (STA), followed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was demonstrated that the anatase-rutile transformation temperatures were dependent on the oxygen to helium flow rate ratio during CVS and the results are presented and discussed.

  9. Ti-Nb-(Zr,Ta) superelastic alloys for medical implants: Thermomechanical processing, structure, phase transformations and functional properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinskiy, Sergey

    The aim of this project is to develop a new class of orthopaedic implant materials that combine the excellent biocompatibility of pure titanium with the outstanding biomechanical compatibility of Ti-Ni-based shape memory alloys. The most suitable candidates for such a role are Ti-Nb-Zr and Ti-Nb-Ta near-beta shape memory alloys. Since this class of materials was developed quite recently, the influence of thermomechanical treatment on their structure and functional properties has not as yet been the subject of any comprehensive study. Consequently, this project is focused on the interrelations between the composition, the microstructure and the functional properties of superelastic Ti-Nb-Zr and Ti-Nb-Ta alloys for biomedical application. The principal objective is to improve the functional properties of these alloys, more specifically their superelastic properties and fatigue resistance, through optimization of the alloys' composition and thermomechanical processing. It is shown in this thesis that the structure and functional properties of Ti-Nb-based shape memory alloys can be effectively controlled by thermomechanical processing including cold deformation with post-deformation annealing and ageing. It is also shown that the formation of nanosubgrain substructure leads to a significant improvement of superelasticity and fatigue resistance in these alloys. The influence of ageing on the ω-phase precipitation kinetics and, consequently, on the functional properties of Ti-Nb-Zr and Ti-Nb-Ta alloys is also observed. Based on the results obtained, optimized regimes of thermomechanical treatment resulting in a best combination of functional properties are recommended for each alloy, from the orthopaedic implant materials standpoint. An original tensile stage for a low-temperature chamber of an X-ray diffractometer is developed and used in this project. A unique low-temperature (-150...+100°C) comparative in situ X-ray study of the transformations' features and crystal

  10. Determining pressure-temperature phase diagrams of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldock, Robert J. N.; Pártay, Lívia B.; Bartók, Albert P.; Payne, Michael C.; Csányi, Gábor

    2016-05-01

    We extend the nested sampling algorithm to simulate materials under periodic boundary and constant pressure conditions, and show how it can be used to determine the complete equilibrium phase diagram for a given potential energy function, efficiently and in a highly automated fashion. The only inputs required are the composition and the desired pressure and temperature ranges, in particular, solid-solid phase transitions are recovered without any a priori knowledge about the structure of solid phases. We benchmark and showcase the algorithm on the periodic Lennard-Jones system, aluminum, and NiTi.

  11. Simultaneous probing of phase transformations in Ni-Ti thin film shape memory alloy by synchrotron radiation-based X-ray diffraction and electrical resistivity

    SciTech Connect

    Braz Fernandes, F.M.; Silva, R.J.C.

    2013-02-15

    Nickel–Titanium (Ni–Ti) thin film shape memory alloys (SMAs) have been widely projected as novel materials which can be utilized in microdevices. Characterization of their physical properties and its correlation with phase transformations has been a challenging issue. In the present study, X-ray beam diffraction has been utilized to obtain the structural information at different temperatures while cooling. Simultaneously, electrical resistivity (ER) was measured in the phase transformation temperature range. The variation of ER and integral area of the individual diffraction peaks of the different phases as a function of temperature have been compared. A mismatch between the conventional interpretation of ER variation and the results of the XRD data has been clearly identified. - Highlights: ► Phase transformation characterization of Ni–Ti thin film SMA has been carried out. ► Simultaneous monitoring of the XRD and ER with temperature is performed. ► The variation of ER and integral area of the diffraction peaks have been compared. ► A shift of the transformation temperatures obtained by two techniques is discussed.

  12. Action of temperature-sensitive mutants of myeloproliferative sarcoma virus suggests that fibroblast-transforming and hematopoietic transforming viral properties are related.

    PubMed

    Ostertag, W; Freshney, M; Vehmeyer, K; Jasmin, C; Rutter, G

    1984-01-01

    The myeloproliferative sarcoma virus is molecularly related to the Moloney sarcoma virus (Pragnell et al., J. Virol. 38:952-957, 1981), but causes both fibroblast transformation in vitro and leukemic changes--including spleen focus formation--in adult mice. The fibroblast transforming properties of myeloproliferative sarcoma virus were used to select viral temperature-sensitive mutants at 39.5 degrees C, the nonpermissive temperature. These mutants are temperature sensitive in the maintenance of the transformed state. This was also shown by cytoskeletal changes of the infected cells at permissive and nonpermissive temperatures. Viruses released from cells maintained at both the permissive and nonpermissive temperature are temperature sensitive in fibroblast transformation functions. All temperature-sensitive mutants show only a low reversion rate to wild-type transforming function. The myeloproliferative sarcoma virus temperature-sensitive mutants are inefficient in causing leukemic transformation (spleen enlargement, focus formation) in mice at the normal temperature. A method to maintain a low body temperature (33 to 34 degrees C) in mice is described. One temperature-sensitive mutant was checked at low body temperature and did not induce leukemia. These data thus indicate that the same or related viral functions are responsible for hematopoietic and fibroblast transformation.

  13. Action of temperature-sensitive mutants of myeloproliferative sarcoma virus suggests that fibroblast-transforming and hematopoietic transforming viral properties are related.

    PubMed Central

    Ostertag, W; Freshney, M; Vehmeyer, K; Jasmin, C; Rutter, G

    1984-01-01

    The myeloproliferative sarcoma virus is molecularly related to the Moloney sarcoma virus (Pragnell et al., J. Virol. 38:952-957, 1981), but causes both fibroblast transformation in vitro and leukemic changes--including spleen focus formation--in adult mice. The fibroblast transforming properties of myeloproliferative sarcoma virus were used to select viral temperature-sensitive mutants at 39.5 degrees C, the nonpermissive temperature. These mutants are temperature sensitive in the maintenance of the transformed state. This was also shown by cytoskeletal changes of the infected cells at permissive and nonpermissive temperatures. Viruses released from cells maintained at both the permissive and nonpermissive temperature are temperature sensitive in fibroblast transformation functions. All temperature-sensitive mutants show only a low reversion rate to wild-type transforming function. The myeloproliferative sarcoma virus temperature-sensitive mutants are inefficient in causing leukemic transformation (spleen enlargement, focus formation) in mice at the normal temperature. A method to maintain a low body temperature (33 to 34 degrees C) in mice is described. One temperature-sensitive mutant was checked at low body temperature and did not induce leukemia. These data thus indicate that the same or related viral functions are responsible for hematopoietic and fibroblast transformation. Images PMID:6537818

  14. Devil's vortex Fresnel lens phase masks on an asymmetric cryptosystem based on phase-truncation in gyrator wavelet transform domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Hukum

    2016-06-01

    An asymmetric scheme has been proposed for optical double images encryption in the gyrator wavelet transform (GWT) domain. Grayscale and binary images are encrypted separately using double random phase encoding (DRPE) in the GWT domain. Phase masks based on devil's vortex Fresnel Lens (DVFLs) and random phase masks (RPMs) are jointly used in spatial as well as in the Fourier plane. The images to be encrypted are first gyrator transformed and then single-level discrete wavelet transformed (DWT) to decompose LL , HL , LH and HH matrices of approximation, horizontal, vertical and diagonal coefficients. The resulting coefficients from the DWT are multiplied by other RPMs and the results are applied to inverse discrete wavelet transform (IDWT) for obtaining the encrypted images. The images are recovered from their corresponding encrypted images by using the correct parameters of the GWT, DVFL and its digital implementation has been performed using MATLAB 7.6.0 (R2008a). The mother wavelet family, DVFL and gyrator transform orders associated with the GWT are extra keys that cause difficulty to an attacker. Thus, the scheme is more secure as compared to conventional techniques. The efficacy of the proposed scheme is verified by computing mean-squared-error (MSE) between recovered and the original images. The sensitivity of the proposed scheme is verified with encryption parameters and noise attacks.

  15. Fractional Order Two-Temperature Dual-Phase-Lag Thermoelasticity with Variable Thermal Conductivity.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Sudip; Mallik, Sadek Hossain; Kanoria, M

    2014-01-01

    A new theory of two-temperature generalized thermoelasticity is constructed in the context of a new consideration of dual-phase-lag heat conduction with fractional orders. The theory is then adopted to study thermoelastic interaction in an isotropic homogenous semi-infinite generalized thermoelastic solids with variable thermal conductivity whose boundary is subjected to thermal and mechanical loading. The basic equations of the problem have been written in the form of a vector-matrix differential equation in the Laplace transform domain, which is then solved by using a state space approach. The inversion of Laplace transforms is computed numerically using the method of Fourier series expansion technique. The numerical estimates of the quantities of physical interest are obtained and depicted graphically. Some comparisons of the thermophysical quantities are shown in figures to study the effects of the variable thermal conductivity, temperature discrepancy, and the fractional order parameter.

  16. Fractional Order Two-Temperature Dual-Phase-Lag Thermoelasticity with Variable Thermal Conductivity

    PubMed Central

    Mallik, Sadek Hossain; Kanoria, M.

    2014-01-01

    A new theory of two-temperature generalized thermoelasticity is constructed in the context of a new consideration of dual-phase-lag heat conduction with fractional orders. The theory is then adopted to study thermoelastic interaction in an isotropic homogenous semi-infinite generalized thermoelastic solids with variable thermal conductivity whose boundary is subjected to thermal and mechanical loading. The basic equations of the problem have been written in the form of a vector-matrix differential equation in the Laplace transform domain, which is then solved by using a state space approach. The inversion of Laplace transforms is computed numerically using the method of Fourier series expansion technique. The numerical estimates of the quantities of physical interest are obtained and depicted graphically. Some comparisons of the thermophysical quantities are shown in figures to study the effects of the variable thermal conductivity, temperature discrepancy, and the fractional order parameter. PMID:27419210

  17. Thermodynamics of Manganese Oxides at Bulk and Nanoscale: Phase Formation, Transformation, Oxidation-Reduction, and Hydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkner, Nancy R.

    Natural manganese oxides are generally formed in surficial environments that are near ambient temperature and water-rich, and may be exposed to wet-dry cycles and a variety of adsorbate species that influence dramatically their level of hydration. Manganese oxide minerals are often poorly crystalline, nanophase, and hydrous. In the near-surface environment they are involved in processes that are important to life, such as water column oxygen cycling, biomineralization, and transport of minerals/nutrients through soils and water. These processes, often involving transformations among manganese oxide polymorphs, are governed by a complex interplay between thermodynamics and kinetics. Manganese oxides are also used in technology as catalysts, and for other applications. The major goal of this dissertation is to examine the energetics of bulk and nanophase manganese oxide phases as a function of particle size, composition, and surface hydration. Careful synthesis and characterization of manganese oxide phases with different surface areas provided samples for the study of enthalpies of formation by high temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry and of the energetics of water adsorption on their surfaces. These data provide a quantitative picture of phase stability and how it changes at the nanoscale. The surface energy of the hydrous surface of Mn3O4 is 0.96 +/- 0.08 J/m2, of Mn2O3 is 1.29 +/- 0.10 J/m2, and of MnO2 is 1.64 +/- 0.10 J/m2. The surface energy of the anhydrous surface of Mn3O4 is 1.62 +/- 0.08 J/m 2, of Mn2O3 is 1.77 +/- 0.10 J/m 2, and of MnO2 is 2.05 +/- 0.10 J/m2. Supporting preliminary findings (Navrotsky et al., 2010), the spinel phase (Mn3O4) has a lower surface energy (more stabilizing) than bixbyite, while the latter has a smaller surface energy than pyrolusite. These differences significantly change the positions in oxygen fugacity---temperature space of the redox couples Mn3O4-Mn2O 3 and Mn2O3-MnO2 favoring the lower surface enthalpy phase (the

  18. Finite element analysis of the tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation during oxidation of zirconium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platt, P.; Frankel, P.; Gass, M.; Howells, R.; Preuss, M.

    2014-11-01

    Corrosion is a key limiting factor in the degradation of zirconium alloys in light water reactors. Developing a mechanistic understanding of the corrosion process offers a route towards improving safety and efficiency as demand increases for higher burn-up of fuel. Oxides formed on zirconium alloys are composed of both monoclinic and meta-stable tetragonal phases, and are subject to a number of potential mechanical degradation mechanisms. The work presented investigates the link between the tetragonal to monoclinic oxide phase transformation and degradation of the protective character of the oxide layer. To achieve this, Abaqus finite element analysis of the oxide phase transformation has been carried out. Study of the change in transformation strain energy shows how relaxation of oxidation induced stress and fast fracture at the metal-oxide interface could destabilise the tetragonal phase. Central to this is the identification of the transformation variant most likely to form, and understanding why twinning of the transformed grain is likely to occur. Development of transformation strain tensors and analysis of the strain components allows some separation of dilatation and shear effects. Maximum principal stress is used as an indication of fracture in the surrounding oxide layer. Study of the stress distributions shows the way oxide fracture is likely to occur and the differing effects of dilatation and shape change. Comparison with literature provides qualitative validation of the finite element simulations.

  19. Understanding strain-induced phase transformations in BiFeO3 thin films

    DOE PAGES

    Dixit, Hemant; Beekman, Christianne; Schlepütz, Christian M.; ...

    2015-05-01

    Experiments demonstrate that under large epitaxial strain a coexisting striped phase emerges in BiFeO₃ thin films, which comprises a tetragonal-like (T´) and an intermediate S´ polymorph. It exhibits a relatively large piezoelectric response when switching between the coexisting phase and a uniform T´ phase. This strain-induced phase transformation is investigated through a synergistic combination of first-principles theory and experiments. The results show that the S´ phase is energetically very close to the T´ phase, but is structurally similar to the bulk rhombohedral (R) phase. By fully characterizing the intermediate S´ polymorph, it is demonstrated that the flat energy landscape resultingmore » in the absence of an energy barrier between the T´ and S´ phases fosters the above-mentioned reversible phase transformation. This ability to readily transform between the S´ and T´ polymorphs, which have very different octahedral rotation patterns and c/a ratios, is crucial to the enhanced piezoelectricity in strained BiFeO3 films. Additionally, a blueshift in the band gap when moving from R to S´ to T´ is observed. These results emphasize the importance of strain engineering for tuning electromechanical responses or, creating unique energy harvesting photonic structures, in oxide thin film architectures.« less

  20. Understanding strain-induced phase transformations in BiFeO3 thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Dixit, Hemant; Beekman, Christianne; Schlepütz, Christian M.; Siemons, Wolter; Yang, Yongsoo; Senabulya, Nancy; Clarke, Roy; Chi, Miaofang; Christen, Hans M.; Cooper, Valentino R.

    2015-05-01

    Experiments demonstrate that under large epitaxial strain a coexisting striped phase emerges in BiFeO₃ thin films, which comprises a tetragonal-like (T´) and an intermediate S´ polymorph. It exhibits a relatively large piezoelectric response when switching between the coexisting phase and a uniform T´ phase. This strain-induced phase transformation is investigated through a synergistic combination of first-principles theory and experiments. The results show that the S´ phase is energetically very close to the T´ phase, but is structurally similar to the bulk rhombohedral (R) phase. By fully characterizing the intermediate S´ polymorph, it is demonstrated that the flat energy landscape resulting in the absence of an energy barrier between the T´ and S´ phases fosters the above-mentioned reversible phase transformation. This ability to readily transform between the S´ and T´ polymorphs, which have very different octahedral rotation patterns and c/a ratios, is crucial to the enhanced piezoelectricity in strained BiFeO3 films. Additionally, a blueshift in the band gap when moving from R to S´ to T´ is observed. These results emphasize the importance of strain engineering for tuning electromechanical responses or, creating unique energy harvesting photonic structures, in oxide thin film architectures.

  1. Understanding Strain-Induced Phase Transformations in BiFeO3 Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Hemant; Beekman, Christianne; Schlepütz, Christian M; Siemons, Wolter; Yang, Yongsoo; Senabulya, Nancy; Clarke, Roy; Chi, Miaofang; Christen, Hans M; Cooper, Valentino R

    2015-08-01

    Experiments demonstrate that under large epitaxial strain a coexisting striped phase emerges in BiFeO3 thin films, which comprises a tetragonal-like (T') and an intermediate S' polymorph. It exhibits a relatively large piezoelectric response when switching between the coexisting phase and a uniform T' phase. This strain-induced phase transformation is investigated through a synergistic combination of first-principles theory and experiments. The results show that the S' phase is energetically very close to the T' phase, but is structurally similar to the bulk rhombohedral (R) phase. By fully characterizing the intermediate S' polymorph, it is demonstrated that the flat energy landscape resulting in the absence of an energy barrier between the T' and S' phases fosters the above-mentioned reversible phase transformation. This ability to readily transform between the S' and T' polymorphs, which have very different octahedral rotation patterns and c/a ratios, is crucial to the enhanced piezoelectricity in strained BiFeO3 films. Additionally, a blueshift in the band gap when moving from R to S' to T' is observed. These results emphasize the importance of strain engineering for tuning electromechanical responses or, creating unique energy harvesting photonic structures, in oxide thin film architectures.

  2. Phase transformations and phase relations in Ti{sub 50}Pd{sub (50-x)}TM{sub x} alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, A.J.; Sluiter, M.H.; Harmon, B.N.; Tanner, L.E.

    1994-07-15

    The effect of transition metal (TM) substitution for Pd in Ti{sub 5O}Pd{sub (50-x}TM{sub x} alloys with x between 5 and 37.5 at.% and TM = V, Cr, Mn and Fe are being characterized by transmission electron microscopy and First-Principles Alloy Theory modeling. The goal is to obtain detailed structural information related to the ternary phase relations and transformations that are necessary for effective shape-memory alloy development. Thus far, the authors have found that the tend to have pseudobinary eutectoid-like configurations with a terminal TiPd and a non-close-packed long period ordered structure type crystal structure) based on the stoichiometry Ti{sub 2}PdTM. The systems exhibit a conventional martensitic transformation, as well as a new type of displacive transformation that shear-modulates B2 to produce a periodically distorted, but non-close-packed metastable product phase.

  3. Phase Transformation from Smectic to Crystalline a-Form in Isotactic Polypropylene during Heating Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-Gang; Hsiao, Benjamin S.; Srinivas, Srivatsan

    2000-03-01

    The phase transformation during heating of a quenched smectic isotactic polypropylene (iPP) sample was followed by simultaneous small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) techniques with synchrotron radiation and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), respectively. DSC thermogram showed a small endotherm at ca. 61^oC (peak temp.) followed by an exotherm at ca. 96^oC (peak temp.). This exotherm represented the phase transformation from the smectic state to the crystal a-form, which began at 82^oC (onset temp.). The final melting endotherm of the monoclinic a-form occurred at 162^oC (peak temp.). The SAXS invariant after normalization by thermal expansion factor during heating process conformed the even of phase transformation from smectic state to monoclinic state due to the improved scattering contrast. The significant increase of long period (11 nm to 24 nm) and crystal thickness (8 nm to 18 nm) from the correlation function analysis during heating also indicated that melting and recrystallization processes occurred during the phase transformation. WAXD results provided the direct evident of phase transformation in the crystal lamellae, starting at 82^oC.

  4. Earth physics and phase transformations program: A concept and proposal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonavito, N. L.; Tanaka, T.

    1971-01-01

    A program to study the geophysical characteristics of the earth is presented as an integration of the different disciplines that constitute the earth sciences, through the foundation of a generalized geodynamic theory of earth physics. A program is considered for defining the physical constants of the earth's material which parametrize the hydrodynamic equation in the microscopic solid state behavior of the crystals of the lithosphere. In addition, in order to lay the foundation for a generalized theory in earth physics, specific research areas are considered, such as the nature of the kinetics of the phase transitions in mineral assemblages, the equilibrium thermodynamic properties of crystals which are major constituents of mineral assemblages, and the transport properties of pure crystals which are major constituents of mineral assemblages.

  5. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Phase Transformations in Hydrogen Storage Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ceder, Gerbrand; Marzari, Nicola

    2011-08-31

    The aim of this project is to develop and apply computational materials science tools to determine and predict critical properties of hydrogen storage materials. By better understanding the absorption/desorption mechanisms and characterizing their physical properties it is possible to explore and evaluate new directions for hydrogen storage materials. Particular emphasis is on the determination of the structure and thermodynamics of hydrogen storage materials, the investigation of microscopic mechanisms of hydrogen uptake and release in various materials and the role of catalysts in this process. As a team we have decided to focus on a single material, NaAlH{sub 4}, in order to fully be able to study the many aspects of hydrogen storage. We have focused on phase stability, mass transport and size-dependent reaction mechanisms in this material.

  6. On the melting temperatures of low-temperature phases of polymorphic metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohsaka, K.; Trinh, E. H.

    1992-01-01

    An improved analytical formula for determining the melting temperatures of the low-temperature phases of polymorphic metals is proposed which uses the specific heat differences at the equilibrium transition temperatures. The formula is solved by an iterative method, with no more than one iteration necessary to converge. The results obtained using the formula proposed here are generally in good agreement with the analytical solution.

  7. Preparation of zeolite ANA crystal from zeolite Y by in situ solid phase iso-structure transformation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Li, Xuguang; Xue, Zhiyuan; Dai, Linsen; Xie, Songhai; Li, Quanzhi

    2010-05-06

    A new method has been explored to synthesize zeolite ANA crystals with regular icositetrahedron in aqueous media via transformation of zeolite Y under the conditions of low temperature, short reaction time, and without organic template. The products are perfect, almost 100% crystals. The samples prepared at different crystallization stages are measured by XRD, TEM, and SEM to investigate the transformation mechanism from zeolite Y to zeolite ANA. It has been demonstrated for the first time that the mechanism of forming a zeolite ANA polycrystal with sphere or shell morphologies is the in situ solid phase iso-structure transformation (Is-SPIST) of zeolite Y. The Is-SPIST mechanism is also supported by the results of steam-induced crystallization experiments and other assistant means, including the same Si/Al ratio, the same weight, the same particle size, and the same morphology before and after transformation of zeolite Y to zeolite ANA. It is also observed that a spherical or shell ANA polycrystal is constructed via the reconstruction from its exterior to interior, to form an ANA single crystal with a solid or hollow icositetrahedron. The main driving force of the reconstruction is considered to be the grain boundary energy existing between polycrystalline grains. This process also obeys the mechanism of in situ solid phase reconstruction (Is-SPR). Furthermore, the size and morphology of the zeolite ANA single crystal can be modified by surfactants.

  8. Phase Transformations of Cobalt Oxides in CoxOy-ZnO Multipod Nanostructures via Combustion from Thermopower Waves.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang Yeol; Hwang, Hayoung; Choi, Wonjoon

    2015-09-01

    The study of combustion at the interfaces of materials and chemical fuels has led to developments in diverse fields such as materials chemistry and energy conversion. Recently, it has been suggested that thermopower waves can utilize chemical-thermal-electrical-energy conversion in hybrid structures comprising nanomaterials and combustible fuels to produce enhanced combustion waves with concomitant voltage generation. In this study, this is the first time that the direct phase transformation of Co-doped ZnO via instant combustion waves and its applications to thermopower waves is presented. It is demonstrated that the chemical combustion waves at the surfaces of Co3O4-ZnO multipod nanostructures (deep brown in color) enable direct phase transformations to newly formed CoO-ZnO(1-x) nanoparticles (olive green in color). The oxygen molecules are released from Co3O4-ZnO to CoO-ZnO(1-x) under high-temperature conditions in the reaction front regime in combustion, whereas the CoO-ZnO multipod nanoparticles do not undergo any transformations and thus do not experience any color change. This oxygen-release mechanism is applicable to thermopower waves, enhances the self-propagating combustion velocity, and forms lattice defects that interrupt the charge-carrier movements inside the nanostructures. The chemical transformation and corresponding energy transport observed in this study can contribute to diverse potential applications, including direct-combustion synthesis and energy conversion.

  9. Kinetics of hexacelsian-to-celsian phase transformation in SrAl2Si2O8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Drummond, Charles H., III

    1993-01-01

    The kinetics of hexacelsian to celsian phase transformation in SrAl2Si2O8 have been investigated. Phase pure hexacelsian was prepared by heat treatment of glass flakes at 990 C for 10 h. Bulk hexacelsian was isothermally heat treated at 1026, 1050, 1100, 1152, and 1200 C for various times. The amounts of monoclinic celsian formed were determined using quantitative X-ray diffraction. Values of reaction rate constant, k, at various temperatures were evaluated from the Avrami equation. The Avrami parameter was determined to be 1.1, suggesting a diffusionless, one-dimensional transformation mechanism. From the temperature dependence of k, the activation energy for this reaction was evaluated to be 527 plus or minus 50 kJ/mole (126 plus or minus 12 kcal/mole). This value is consistent with a mechanism involving the transformation of the layered hexacelsian structure to a three-dimensional network celsian structure which necessitates breaking of the strongest bonds, the Si-O bonds.

  10. Analyzing the impact of ambient temperature indicators on transformer life in different regions of Chinese mainland.

    PubMed

    Bai, Cui-fen; Gao, Wen-Sheng; Liu, Tong

    2013-01-01

    Regression analysis is applied to quantitatively analyze the impact of different ambient temperature characteristics on the transformer life at different locations of Chinese mainland. 200 typical locations in Chinese mainland are selected for the study. They are specially divided into six regions so that the subsequent analysis can be done in a regional context. For each region, the local historical ambient temperature and load data are provided as inputs variables of the life consumption model in IEEE Std. C57.91-1995 to estimate the transformer life at every location. Five ambient temperature indicators related to the transformer life are involved into the partial least squares regression to describe their impact on the transformer life. According to a contribution measurement criterion of partial least squares regression, three indicators are conclusively found to be the most important factors influencing the transformer life, and an explicit expression is provided to describe the relationship between the indicators and the transformer life for every region. The analysis result is applicable to the area where the temperature characteristics are similar to Chinese mainland, and the expressions obtained can be applied to the other locations that are not included in this paper if these three indicators are known.

  11. Molecular Dynamics at Electrical- and Optical-Driven Phase Transitions: Time-Resolved Infrared Studies Using Fourier-Transform Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterseim, Tobias; Dressel, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The time-dependent optical properties of molecular systems are investigated by step-scan Fourier-transform spectroscopy in order to explore the dynamics at phase transitions and molecular orientation in the milli- and microsecond range. The electrical switching of liquid crystals traced by vibrational spectroscopy reveals a rotation of the molecules with a relaxation time of 2 ms. The photo-induced neutral-ionic transition in TTF-CA takes place by a suppression of the dimerization in the ionic phase and creation of neutral domains. The time-dependent infrared spectra, employed to investigate the domain-wall dynamics, depend on temperature and laser pulse intensity; the relaxation of the spectra follows a stretched-exponential decay with relaxation times in the microsecond range strongly dependent on temperature and laser intensity. We present all details of the experimental setups and thoroughly discuss the technical challenges.

  12. Direct Observation of Phase Transformations in Austenitic Stainless Steel Welds Using In-situ Spatially Resolved and Time-resolved X-ray Diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Elmer, J.; Wong, J.; Ressler, T.

    1999-09-23

    Spatially resolved x-ray diffraction (SRXRD) and time resolved x-ray diffraction (TRXRD) were used to investigate real time solid state phase transformations and solidification in AISI type 304 stainless steel gas tungsten arc (GTA) welds. These experiments were conducted at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) using a high flux beam line. Spatially resolved observations of {gamma} {leftrightarrow} {delta} solid state phase transformations were performed in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of moving welds and time-resolved observations of the solidification sequence were performed in the fusion zone (FZ) of stationary welds after the arc had been terminated. Results of the moving weld experiments showed that the kinetics of the {gamma}{yields}{delta} phase transformation on heating in the HAZ were sufficiently rapid to transform a narrow region surrounding the liquid weld pool to the {delta} ferrite phase. Results of the stationary weld experiments showed, for the first time, that solidification can occur directly to the {delta} ferrite phase, which persisted as a single phase for 0.5s. Upon solidification to {delta}, the {delta} {yields} {gamma} phase transformation followed and completed in 0.2s as the weld cooled further to room temperature.

  13. An olivine to beta phase transformation mechanism in Mg sub 2 SiO sub 4

    SciTech Connect

    Guyot, F.; Gwanmesia, G.D.; Liebermann, R.C. )

    1991-01-01

    Fine-grained powder samples of Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} forsterite ({alpha} phase) have been partially transformed to the beta phase in a 200-ton uniaxial split-sphere apparatus (USSA-2000) at P = 15 GPa and T = 1,000C in runs of 5 minutes duration. This technique allowed them to catch the first steps of the {alpha} {yields} {beta} transformation in Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}. A TEM study of the run products showed that a structurally disordered phase is an intermediate of the reaction. The oxygen sublattice of this intermediate phase is well ordered, but a very large density of planar faults on (010) planes destroys the long range order in the cation sublattices. A two-steps mechanism for the {alpha} {yields} {beta} transformation is therefore probable, involving first the nucleation of the structurally disordered phase, then the ordering of this phase. These two steps may be associated with low energy activation barriers and could thus explain the fast kinetics of the {alpha} {yields} {beta} transformation.

  14. The influence of phase transformation hardening on continuous laser processing of notches for fracture splitting of a C70S6 connecting rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, S. Q.; Gao, Y.; Shi, Z.

    2017-01-01

    The dynamic process of local material microstructure and hardness of continuous laser grooving for fracture splitting of a C70S6 connecting rod was studied. According to the phase transformation characteristics of C70S6 steel during laser processing, the coupling calculation between the transient temperature field and phase transformation process of continuous laser grooving was carried out, and then the phase transformation process and phase compositions in the heat affected zone (HAZ) was obtained. The research results showed that the HAZ was composed of martensite and pearlite as well as residual austenite after continuous laser grooving, and the generation of the martensite in the HAZ is beneficial to the subsequent splitting process; meanwhile, the hardening effect of continuous laser grooving is remarkable on the HAZ, and the requirement for the cutting tool and technique used at the subsequent machining process for the fine boring of the big end hole should be higher.

  15. Amelogenin Affects Brushite Crystal Morphology and Promotes Its Phase Transformation to Monetite

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Dongni; Ruan, Qichao; Tao, Jinhui; Lo, Jonathan; Nutt, Steven; Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2016-09-07

    Amelogenin protein is involved in organized apatite crystallization during enamel formation. Brushite (CaHPO4·2H2O), which is one of the precursors for hydroxyapatite in in vitro mineralization, has been used for fabrication of biomaterials for hard tissue repair. In order to explore its potential application in biomimetic material synthesis, we studied the influence of amelogenin on brushite morphology and phase transformation to monetite. Our results show that amelogenin can adsorb onto surface of brushite, leading to the formation of layered structures on the (010) face. Amelogenin promoted the phase transformation of brushite into monetite (CaHPO4) in the dry state, presumably by interacting with crystalline water layers in brushite unit cell. Changes to the crystal morphology by amelogenin continued even after the phase transformation to monetite forming an organized nanotextured structure of nano-sticks resembling the bundle structure in enamel.

  16. Neural network calibration of a snapshot birefringent Fourier transform spectrometer with periodic phase errors.

    PubMed

    Luo, David; Kudenov, Michael W

    2016-05-16

    Systematic phase errors in Fourier transform spectroscopy can severely degrade the calculated spectra. Compensation of these errors is typically accomplished using post-processing techniques, such as Fourier deconvolution, linear unmixing, or iterative solvers. This results in increased computational complexity when reconstructing and calibrating many parallel interference patterns. In this paper, we describe a new method of calibrating a Fourier transform spectrometer based on the use of artificial neural networks (ANNs). In this way, it is demonstrated that a simpler and more straightforward reconstruction process can be achieved at the cost of additional calibration equipment. To this end, we provide a theoretical model for general systematic phase errors in a polarization birefringent interferometer. This is followed by a discussion of our experimental setup and a demonstration of our technique, as applied to data with and without phase error. The technique's utility is then supported by comparison to alternative reconstruction techniques using fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) and linear unmixing.

  17. Stress-induced phase transformation and optical coupling of silver nanoparticle superlattices into mechanically stable nanowires.

    PubMed

    Li, Binsong; Wen, Xiaodong; Li, Ruipeng; Wang, Zhongwu; Clem, Paul G; Fan, Hongyou

    2014-06-24

    One-dimensional silver materials display unique optical and electrical properties with promise as functional blocks for a new generation of nanoelectronics. To date, synthetic approaches and property engineering of silver nanowires have primarily focused on chemical methods. Here we report a simple physical method of metal nanowire synthesis, based on stress-induced phase transformation and sintering of spherical Ag nanoparticle superlattices. Two phase transformations of nanoparticles under stress have been observed at distinct length scales. First, the lattice dimensions of silver nanoparticle superlattices may be reversibly manipulated between 0-8 GPa compressive stresses to enable systematic and reversible changes in mesoscale optical coupling between silver nanoparticles. Second, stresses greater than 8 GPa induced an atomic lattice phase transformation, which induced sintering of silver nanoparticles into micron-length scale nanowires. The nanowire synthesis mechanism displays a dependence on both nanoparticle crystal surface orientation and presence of particular grain boundaries to enable nanoparticle consolidation into nanowires.

  18. EXAFS Measurements of Laser-Shocked V and Ti and Crystal Phase Transformation in Ti

    SciTech Connect

    Yaakobi, B; Meyerhofer, D D; Boehly, T R; Rehr, J J; Remington, B A; Allen, P G; Pollaine, S M; Albers, R C

    2004-03-10

    Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS), using a laser-imploded target as a source, can yield the properties of laser-shocked metals on a nanosecond time scale. EXAFS measurements of vanadium shocked to {approx}0.4 Mbar yield the compression and temperature in good agreement with hydrodynamic simulations and shock-speed measurements. In laser-shocked titanium at the same pressure, the EXAFS modulation damping is much higher than warranted by the predicted temperature increase. This is shown to be due to the {alpha}-Ti to {omega}-Ti crystal-phase transformation, known to occur below {approx}0.1 Mbar for slower shock waves. The dynamics of material response to shock loading has been extensively studied in the past [1]. The goal of those studies has been to understand the shock-induced deformation and structural changes at the microscopic level [2]. Laser-generated shocks can be employed to broaden these studies to higher pressures ({approx}1 Mbar) and strain rates ({approx} 10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} s{sup -1}). Recently, laser-shocked materials have been studied with in-situ x-ray diffraction [3,4]. The goal of this work is to examine the use of in-situ EXAFS [5] as a complementary characterization of laser-shocked metals. EXAFS is the modulation in the x-ray absorption above the K edge (or L edge) due to the interference of the photoelectron waves with the waves reflected from neighboring atoms. The frequency of EXAFS modulations is related to the inter-particle distance, hence to the compression. The damping rate of the modulation can yield the lattice temperature, which is not readily available by other methods.

  19. Analysis of Transformation Plasticity in Steel Using a Finite Element Method Coupled with a Phase Field Model

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yi-Gil; Kim, Jin-You; Cho, Hoon-Hwe; Cha, Pil-Ryung; Suh, Dong-Woo; Lee, Jae Kon; Han, Heung Nam

    2012-01-01

    An implicit finite element model was developed to analyze the deformation behavior of low carbon steel during phase transformation. The finite element model was coupled hierarchically with a phase field model that could simulate the kinetics and micro-structural evolution during the austenite-to-ferrite transformation of low carbon steel. Thermo-elastic-plastic constitutive equations for each phase were adopted to confirm the transformation plasticity due to the weaker phase yielding that was proposed by Greenwood and Johnson. From the simulations under various possible plastic properties of each phase, a more quantitative understanding of the origin of transformation plasticity was attempted by a comparison with the experimental observation. PMID:22558295

  20. Structural and phase transformations in zinc and brass wires under heating with high-density current pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pervikov, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    The work is focused on revealing the mechanism of structure and phase transformations in the metal wires under heating with a high-density current pulse (the electric explosion of wires, EEWs). It has been demonstrated on the example of brass and zinc wires that the transition of a current pulse with the density of j ≈ 3.3 × 107 A/cm2 results in homogeneous heating of the crystalline structure of the metal/alloy. It has been determined that under heating with a pulse of high-density current pulse, the electric resistance of the liquid phases of zinc and brass decreases as the temperature increases. The results obtained allow for a conclusion that the presence of the particles of the condensed phase in the expanding products of EEW is the result of overheating instabilities in the liquid metal.