Insar Unwrapping Error Correction Based on Quasi-Accurate Detection of Gross Errors (quad)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Y.; Zhao, C. Y.; Zhang, Q.; Yang, C. S.
2018-04-01
Unwrapping error is a common error in the InSAR processing, which will seriously degrade the accuracy of the monitoring results. Based on a gross error correction method, Quasi-accurate detection (QUAD), the method for unwrapping errors automatic correction is established in this paper. This method identifies and corrects the unwrapping errors by establishing a functional model between the true errors and interferograms. The basic principle and processing steps are presented. Then this method is compared with the L1-norm method with simulated data. Results show that both methods can effectively suppress the unwrapping error when the ratio of the unwrapping errors is low, and the two methods can complement each other when the ratio of the unwrapping errors is relatively high. At last the real SAR data is tested for the phase unwrapping error correction. Results show that this new method can correct the phase unwrapping errors successfully in the practical application.
Fringe-period selection for a multifrequency fringe-projection phase unwrapping method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Chunwei; Zhao, Hong; Jiang, Kejian
2016-08-01
The multi-frequency fringe-projection phase unwrapping method (MFPPUM) is a typical phase unwrapping algorithm for fringe projection profilometry. It has the advantage of being capable of correctly accomplishing phase unwrapping even in the presence of surface discontinuities. If the fringe frequency ratio of the MFPPUM is too large, fringe order error (FOE) may be triggered. FOE will result in phase unwrapping error. It is preferable for the phase unwrapping to be kept correct while the fewest sets of lower frequency fringe patterns are used. To achieve this goal, in this paper a parameter called fringe order inaccuracy (FOI) is defined, dominant factors which may induce FOE are theoretically analyzed, a method to optimally select the fringe periods for the MFPPUM is proposed with the aid of FOI, and experiments are conducted to research the impact of the dominant factors in phase unwrapping and demonstrate the validity of the proposed method. Some novel phenomena are revealed by these experiments. The proposed method helps to optimally select the fringe periods and detect the phase unwrapping error for the MFPPUM.
Phase quality map based on local multi-unwrapped results for two-dimensional phase unwrapping.
Zhong, Heping; Tang, Jinsong; Zhang, Sen
2015-02-01
The efficiency of a phase unwrapping algorithm and the reliability of the corresponding unwrapped result are two key problems in reconstructing the digital elevation model of a scene from its interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) or interferometric synthetic aperture sonar (InSAS) data. In this paper, a new phase quality map is designed and implemented in a graphic processing unit (GPU) environment, which greatly accelerates the unwrapping process of the quality-guided algorithm and enhances the correctness of the unwrapped result. In a local wrapped phase window, the center point is selected as the reference point, and then two unwrapped results are computed by integrating in two different simple ways. After the two local unwrapped results are computed, the total difference of the two unwrapped results is regarded as the phase quality value of the center point. In order to accelerate the computing process of the new proposed quality map, we have implemented it in a GPU environment. The wrapped phase data are first uploaded to the memory of a device, and then the kernel function is called in the device to compute the phase quality in parallel by blocks of threads. Unwrapping tests performed on the simulated and real InSAS data confirm the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method.
Phase unwrapping in digital holography based on non-subsampled contourlet transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiaolei; Zhang, Xiangchao; Xu, Min; Zhang, Hao; Jiang, Xiangqian
2018-01-01
In the digital holographic measurement of complex surfaces, phase unwrapping is a critical step for accurate reconstruction. The phases of the complex amplitudes calculated from interferometric holograms are disturbed by speckle noise, thus reliable unwrapping results are difficult to be obtained. Most of existing unwrapping algorithms implement denoising operations first to obtain noise-free phases and then conduct phase unwrapping pixel by pixel. This approach is sensitive to spikes and prone to unreliable results in practice. In this paper, a robust unwrapping algorithm based on the non-subsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) is developed. The multiscale and directional decomposition of NSCT enhances the boundary between adjacent phase levels and henceforth the influence of local noise can be eliminated in the transform domain. The wrapped phase map is segmented into several regions corresponding to different phase levels. Finally, an unwrapped phase map is obtained by elevating the phases of a whole segment instead of individual pixels to avoid unwrapping errors caused by local spikes. This algorithm is suitable for dealing with complex and noisy wavefronts. Its universality and superiority in the digital holographic interferometry have been demonstrated by both numerical analysis and practical experiments.
Temporal phase unwrapping algorithms for fringe projection profilometry: A comparative review
Zuo, Chao; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Minliang; ...
2016-05-06
In fringe projection pro lometry (FPP), temporal phase unwrapping is an essential procedure to recover an unambiguous absolute phase even in the presence of large discontinuities or spatially isolated surfaces. So far, there are typically three groups of temporal phase unwrapping algorithms proposed in the literature: multi-frequency (hierarchical) approach, multi-wavelength (heterodyne) approach, and number-theoretical approach. In this paper, the three methods are investigated and compared in details by analytical, numerical, and experimental means. The basic principles and recent developments of the three kind of algorithms are firstly reviewed. Then, the reliability of different phase unwrapping algorithms is compared based onmore » a rigorous stochastic noise model. Moreover, this noise model is used to predict the optimum fringe period for each unwrapping approach, which is a key factor governing the phase measurement accuracy in FPP. Simulations and experimental results verified the correctness and validity of the proposed noise model as well as the prediction scheme. The results show that the multi-frequency temporal phase unwrapping provides the best unwrapping reliability, while the multi-wavelength approach is the most susceptible to noise-induced unwrapping errors.« less
[Improvement of magnetic resonance phase unwrapping method based on Goldstein Branch-cut algorithm].
Guo, Lin; Kang, Lili; Wang, Dandan
2013-02-01
The phase information of magnetic resonance (MR) phase image can be used in many MR imaging techniques, but phase wrapping of the images often results in inaccurate phase information and phase unwrapping is essential for MR imaging techniques. In this paper we analyze the causes of errors in phase unwrapping with the commonly used Goldstein Brunch-cut algorithm and propose an improved algorithm. During the unwrapping process, masking, filtering, dipole- remover preprocessor, and the Prim algorithm of the minimum spanning tree were introduced to optimize the residues essential for the Goldstein Brunch-cut algorithm. Experimental results showed that the residues, branch-cuts and continuous unwrapped phase surface were efficiently reduced and the quality of MR phase images was obviously improved with the proposed method.
2-D weighted least-squares phase unwrapping
Ghiglia, Dennis C.; Romero, Louis A.
1995-01-01
Weighted values of interferometric signals are unwrapped by determining the least squares solution of phase unwrapping for unweighted values of the interferometric signals; and then determining the least squares solution of phase unwrapping for weighted values of the interferometric signals by preconditioned conjugate gradient methods using the unweighted solutions as preconditioning values. An output is provided that is representative of the least squares solution of phase unwrapping for weighted values of the interferometric signals.
2-D weighted least-squares phase unwrapping
Ghiglia, D.C.; Romero, L.A.
1995-06-13
Weighted values of interferometric signals are unwrapped by determining the least squares solution of phase unwrapping for unweighted values of the interferometric signals; and then determining the least squares solution of phase unwrapping for weighted values of the interferometric signals by preconditioned conjugate gradient methods using the unweighted solutions as preconditioning values. An output is provided that is representative of the least squares solution of phase unwrapping for weighted values of the interferometric signals. 6 figs.
Phase unwrapping methods of corner reflector DInSAR monitoring slow ground deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Wenxue; Guo, Xiaofang; Tian, Qingjiu
2007-06-01
Difference interferometric Synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR) has turned out to be a very powerful technique for the measurement of land deformations, but it requires the observed area to be correlated, and coherence degradation will seriously affect the quality of interferogram. Corner reflector DInSAR (CRDInSAR) is a new technique in recently years, which can compensate for the limitation of the classical DInSAR. Due to the stable amplitude and phase performance of the reflector, the interferometric phase difference of the reflector can be used to monitor or measure the small and slowly ground deformation for the cases of large geometrical baseline and large time interval between acquisitions. Phase unwrapping is the process where the absolute phase is reconstructed from its principal value as accurately as possible. It is a key step in the analysis of DInSAR. The classical phase unwrapping methods are either of path following type or of minimum-norm type. However, if the coherence of the two images is very low, the both methods will get error result. In application of CRDInSAR, due to the scattered points, the phase unwrapping of corner reflectors is only dealt with on a sparse grid, so all the reflectors are connected with Delaunay triangulation firstly, which can be used to define neighboring points and elementary cycles. When the monitoring ground deformation is slow, that is unwrapped neighboring-CR phase gradients are supposed to equal their wrapped-phase counterparts, then path-following method and Phase unwrapping using Coefficient of Elevation-Phase-Relation can be used to phase unwrapping. However, in the cases of unwrapped gradients exceeding one-half cycle, minimum cost flow (MCF) method can be used to unwrap the interferogram.
Recursive approach to the moment-based phase unwrapping method.
Langley, Jason A; Brice, Robert G; Zhao, Qun
2010-06-01
The moment-based phase unwrapping algorithm approximates the phase map as a product of Gegenbauer polynomials, but the weight function for the Gegenbauer polynomials generates artificial singularities along the edge of the phase map. A method is presented to remove the singularities inherent to the moment-based phase unwrapping algorithm by approximating the phase map as a product of two one-dimensional Legendre polynomials and applying a recursive property of derivatives of Legendre polynomials. The proposed phase unwrapping algorithm is tested on simulated and experimental data sets. The results are then compared to those of PRELUDE 2D, a widely used phase unwrapping algorithm, and a Chebyshev-polynomial-based phase unwrapping algorithm. It was found that the proposed phase unwrapping algorithm provides results that are comparable to those obtained by using PRELUDE 2D and the Chebyshev phase unwrapping algorithm.
Efficient Phase Unwrapping Architecture for Digital Holographic Microscopy
Hwang, Wen-Jyi; Cheng, Shih-Chang; Cheng, Chau-Jern
2011-01-01
This paper presents a novel phase unwrapping architecture for accelerating the computational speed of digital holographic microscopy (DHM). A fast Fourier transform (FFT) based phase unwrapping algorithm providing a minimum squared error solution is adopted for hardware implementation because of its simplicity and robustness to noise. The proposed architecture is realized in a pipeline fashion to maximize throughput of the computation. Moreover, the number of hardware multipliers and dividers are minimized to reduce the hardware costs. The proposed architecture is used as a custom user logic in a system on programmable chip (SOPC) for physical performance measurement. Experimental results reveal that the proposed architecture is effective for expediting the computational speed while consuming low hardware resources for designing an embedded DHM system. PMID:22163688
Speedup of minimum discontinuity phase unwrapping algorithm with a reference phase distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yihang; Han, Yu; Li, Fengjiao; Zhang, Qican
2018-06-01
In three-dimensional (3D) shape measurement based on phase analysis, the phase analysis process usually produces a wrapped phase map ranging from - π to π with some 2 π discontinuities, and thus a phase unwrapping algorithm is necessary to recover the continuous and nature phase map from which 3D height distribution can be restored. Usually, the minimum discontinuity phase unwrapping algorithm can be used to solve many different kinds of phase unwrapping problems, but its main drawback is that it requires a large amount of computations and has low efficiency in searching for the improving loop within the phase's discontinuity area. To overcome this drawback, an improvement to speedup of the minimum discontinuity phase unwrapping algorithm by using the phase distribution on reference plane is proposed. In this improved algorithm, before the minimum discontinuity phase unwrapping algorithm is carried out to unwrap phase, an integer number K was calculated from the ratio of the wrapped phase to the nature phase on a reference plane. And then the jump counts of the unwrapped phase can be reduced by adding 2K π, so the efficiency of the minimum discontinuity phase unwrapping algorithm is significantly improved. Both simulated and experimental data results verify the feasibility of the proposed improved algorithm, and both of them clearly show that the algorithm works very well and has high efficiency.
Phase unwrapping using region-based markov random field model.
Dong, Ying; Ji, Jim
2010-01-01
Phase unwrapping is a classical problem in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar and Sonar (InSAR/InSAS), fringe pattern analysis, and spectroscopy. Although many methods have been proposed to address this problem, robust and effective phase unwrapping remains a challenge. This paper presents a novel phase unwrapping method using a region-based Markov Random Field (MRF) model. Specifically, the phase image is segmented into regions within which the phase is not wrapped. Then, the phase image is unwrapped between different regions using an improved Highest Confidence First (HCF) algorithm to optimize the MRF model. The proposed method has desirable theoretical properties as well as an efficient implementation. Simulations and experimental results on MRI images show that the proposed method provides similar or improved phase unwrapping than Phase Unwrapping MAx-flow/min-cut (PUMA) method and ZpM method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xiangyu; Huang, Zhanhua; Zhu, Meng; He, Jin; Zhang, Hao
2014-12-01
Hilbert transform (HT) is widely used in temporal speckle pattern interferometry, but errors from low modulations might propagate and corrupt the calculated phase. A spatio-temporal method for phase retrieval using temporal HT and spatial phase unwrapping is presented. In time domain, the wrapped phase difference between the initial and current states is directly determined by using HT. To avoid the influence of the low modulation intensity, the phase information between the two states is ignored. As a result, the phase unwrapping is shifted from time domain to space domain. A phase unwrapping algorithm based on discrete cosine transform is adopted by taking advantage of the information in adjacent pixels. An experiment is carried out with a Michelson-type interferometer to study the out-of-plane deformation field. High quality whole-field phase distribution maps with different fringe densities are obtained. Under the experimental conditions, the maximum number of fringes resolvable in a 416×416 frame is 30, which indicates a 15λ deformation along the direction of loading.
A three-dimensional quality-guided phase unwrapping method for MR elastography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Huifang; Weaver, John B.; Perreard, Irina I.; Doyley, Marvin M.; Paulsen, Keith D.
2011-07-01
Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) uses accumulated phases that are acquired at multiple, uniformly spaced relative phase offsets, to estimate harmonic motion information. Heavily wrapped phase occurs when the motion is large and unwrapping procedures are necessary to estimate the displacements required by MRE. Two unwrapping methods were developed and compared in this paper. The first method is a sequentially applied approach. The three-dimensional MRE phase image block for each slice was processed by two-dimensional unwrapping followed by a one-dimensional phase unwrapping approach along the phase-offset direction. This unwrapping approach generally works well for low noise data. However, there are still cases where the two-dimensional unwrapping method fails when noise is high. In this case, the baseline of the corrupted regions within an unwrapped image will not be consistent. Instead of separating the two-dimensional and one-dimensional unwrapping in a sequential approach, an interleaved three-dimensional quality-guided unwrapping method was developed to combine both the two-dimensional phase image continuity and one-dimensional harmonic motion information. The quality of one-dimensional harmonic motion unwrapping was used to guide the three-dimensional unwrapping procedures and it resulted in stronger guidance than in the sequential method. In this work, in vivo results generated by the two methods were compared.
Iterated unscented Kalman filter for phase unwrapping of interferometric fringes.
Xie, Xianming
2016-08-22
A fresh phase unwrapping algorithm based on iterated unscented Kalman filter is proposed to estimate unambiguous unwrapped phase of interferometric fringes. This method is the result of combining an iterated unscented Kalman filter with a robust phase gradient estimator based on amended matrix pencil model, and an efficient quality-guided strategy based on heap sort. The iterated unscented Kalman filter that is one of the most robust methods under the Bayesian theorem frame in non-linear signal processing so far, is applied to perform simultaneously noise suppression and phase unwrapping of interferometric fringes for the first time, which can simplify the complexity and the difficulty of pre-filtering procedure followed by phase unwrapping procedure, and even can remove the pre-filtering procedure. The robust phase gradient estimator is used to efficiently and accurately obtain phase gradient information from interferometric fringes, which is needed for the iterated unscented Kalman filtering phase unwrapping model. The efficient quality-guided strategy is able to ensure that the proposed method fast unwraps wrapped pixels along the path from the high-quality area to the low-quality area of wrapped phase images, which can greatly improve the efficiency of phase unwrapping. Results obtained from synthetic data and real data show that the proposed method can obtain better solutions with an acceptable time consumption, with respect to some of the most used algorithms.
A model-based 3D phase unwrapping algorithm using Gegenbauer polynomials.
Langley, Jason; Zhao, Qun
2009-09-07
The application of a two-dimensional (2D) phase unwrapping algorithm to a three-dimensional (3D) phase map may result in an unwrapped phase map that is discontinuous in the direction normal to the unwrapped plane. This work investigates the problem of phase unwrapping for 3D phase maps. The phase map is modeled as a product of three one-dimensional Gegenbauer polynomials. The orthogonality of Gegenbauer polynomials and their derivatives on the interval [-1, 1] are exploited to calculate the expansion coefficients. The algorithm was implemented using two well-known Gegenbauer polynomials: Chebyshev polynomials of the first kind and Legendre polynomials. Both implementations of the phase unwrapping algorithm were tested on 3D datasets acquired from a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. The first dataset was acquired from a homogeneous spherical phantom. The second dataset was acquired using the same spherical phantom but magnetic field inhomogeneities were introduced by an external coil placed adjacent to the phantom, which provided an additional burden to the phase unwrapping algorithm. Then Gaussian noise was added to generate a low signal-to-noise ratio dataset. The third dataset was acquired from the brain of a human volunteer. The results showed that Chebyshev implementation and the Legendre implementation of the phase unwrapping algorithm give similar results on the 3D datasets. Both implementations of the phase unwrapping algorithm compare well to PRELUDE 3D, 3D phase unwrapping software well recognized for functional MRI.
Tile-Based Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping for Digital Holography Using a Modular Framework
Antonopoulos, Georgios C.; Steltner, Benjamin; Heisterkamp, Alexander; Ripken, Tammo; Meyer, Heiko
2015-01-01
A variety of physical and biomedical imaging techniques, such as digital holography, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enable measurement of the phase of a physical quantity additionally to its amplitude. However, the phase can commonly only be measured modulo 2π, as a so called wrapped phase map. Phase unwrapping is the process of obtaining the underlying physical phase map from the wrapped phase. Tile-based phase unwrapping algorithms operate by first tessellating the phase map, then unwrapping individual tiles, and finally merging them to a continuous phase map. They can be implemented computationally efficiently and are robust to noise. However, they are prone to failure in the presence of phase residues or erroneous unwraps of single tiles. We tried to overcome these shortcomings by creating novel tile unwrapping and merging algorithms as well as creating a framework that allows to combine them in modular fashion. To increase the robustness of the tile unwrapping step, we implemented a model-based algorithm that makes efficient use of linear algebra to unwrap individual tiles. Furthermore, we adapted an established pixel-based unwrapping algorithm to create a quality guided tile merger. These original algorithms as well as previously existing ones were implemented in a modular phase unwrapping C++ framework. By examining different combinations of unwrapping and merging algorithms we compared our method to existing approaches. We could show that the appropriate choice of unwrapping and merging algorithms can significantly improve the unwrapped result in the presence of phase residues and noise. Beyond that, our modular framework allows for efficient design and test of new tile-based phase unwrapping algorithms. The software developed in this study is freely available. PMID:26599984
Tile-Based Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping for Digital Holography Using a Modular Framework.
Antonopoulos, Georgios C; Steltner, Benjamin; Heisterkamp, Alexander; Ripken, Tammo; Meyer, Heiko
2015-01-01
A variety of physical and biomedical imaging techniques, such as digital holography, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enable measurement of the phase of a physical quantity additionally to its amplitude. However, the phase can commonly only be measured modulo 2π, as a so called wrapped phase map. Phase unwrapping is the process of obtaining the underlying physical phase map from the wrapped phase. Tile-based phase unwrapping algorithms operate by first tessellating the phase map, then unwrapping individual tiles, and finally merging them to a continuous phase map. They can be implemented computationally efficiently and are robust to noise. However, they are prone to failure in the presence of phase residues or erroneous unwraps of single tiles. We tried to overcome these shortcomings by creating novel tile unwrapping and merging algorithms as well as creating a framework that allows to combine them in modular fashion. To increase the robustness of the tile unwrapping step, we implemented a model-based algorithm that makes efficient use of linear algebra to unwrap individual tiles. Furthermore, we adapted an established pixel-based unwrapping algorithm to create a quality guided tile merger. These original algorithms as well as previously existing ones were implemented in a modular phase unwrapping C++ framework. By examining different combinations of unwrapping and merging algorithms we compared our method to existing approaches. We could show that the appropriate choice of unwrapping and merging algorithms can significantly improve the unwrapped result in the presence of phase residues and noise. Beyond that, our modular framework allows for efficient design and test of new tile-based phase unwrapping algorithms. The software developed in this study is freely available.
Threshold automatic selection hybrid phase unwrapping algorithm for digital holographic microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Meiling; Min, Junwei; Yao, Baoli; Yu, Xianghua; Lei, Ming; Yan, Shaohui; Yang, Yanlong; Dan, Dan
2015-01-01
Conventional quality-guided (QG) phase unwrapping algorithm is hard to be applied to digital holographic microscopy because of the long execution time. In this paper, we present a threshold automatic selection hybrid phase unwrapping algorithm that combines the existing QG algorithm and the flood-filled (FF) algorithm to solve this problem. The original wrapped phase map is divided into high- and low-quality sub-maps by selecting a threshold automatically, and then the FF and QG unwrapping algorithms are used in each level to unwrap the phase, respectively. The feasibility of the proposed method is proved by experimental results, and the execution speed is shown to be much faster than that of the original QG unwrapping algorithm.
Ensemble of hybrid genetic algorithm for two-dimensional phase unwrapping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balakrishnan, D.; Quan, C.; Tay, C. J.
2013-06-01
The phase unwrapping is the final and trickiest step in any phase retrieval technique. Phase unwrapping by artificial intelligence methods (optimization algorithms) such as hybrid genetic algorithm, reverse simulated annealing, particle swarm optimization, minimum cost matching showed better results than conventional phase unwrapping methods. In this paper, Ensemble of hybrid genetic algorithm with parallel populations is proposed to solve the branch-cut phase unwrapping problem. In a single populated hybrid genetic algorithm, the selection, cross-over and mutation operators are applied to obtain new population in every generation. The parameters and choice of operators will affect the performance of the hybrid genetic algorithm. The ensemble of hybrid genetic algorithm will facilitate to have different parameters set and different choice of operators simultaneously. Each population will use different set of parameters and the offspring of each population will compete against the offspring of all other populations, which use different set of parameters. The effectiveness of proposed algorithm is demonstrated by phase unwrapping examples and advantages of the proposed method are discussed.
Application of a swarm-based approach for phase unwrapping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
da S. Maciel, Lucas; Albertazzi G., Armando, Jr.
2014-07-01
An algorithm for phase unwrapping based on swarm intelligence is proposed. The novel approach is based on the emergent behavior of swarms. This behavior is the result of the interactions between independent agents following a simple set of rules and is regarded as fast, flexible and robust. The rules here were designed with two purposes. Firstly, the collective behavior must result in a reliable map of the unwrapped phase. The unwrapping reliability was evaluated by each agent during run-time, based on the quality of the neighboring pixels. In addition, the rule set must result in a behavior that focuses on wrapped regions. Stigmergy and communication rules were implemented in order to enable each agent to seek less worked areas of the image. The agents were modeled as Finite-State Machines. Based on the availability of unwrappable pixels, each agent assumed a different state in order to better adapt itself to the surroundings. The implemented rule set was able to fulfill the requirements on reliability and focused unwrapping. The unwrapped phase map was comparable to those from established methods as the agents were able to reliably evaluate each pixel quality. Also, the unwrapping behavior, being observed in real time, was able to focus on workable areas as the agents communicated in order to find less traveled regions. The results were very positive for such a new approach to the phase unwrapping problem. Finally, the authors see great potential for future developments concerning the flexibility, robustness and processing times of the swarm-based algorithm.
Phase-unwrapping algorithm by a rounding-least-squares approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Juarez-Salazar, Rigoberto; Robledo-Sanchez, Carlos; Guerrero-Sanchez, Fermin
2014-02-01
A simple and efficient phase-unwrapping algorithm based on a rounding procedure and a global least-squares minimization is proposed. Instead of processing the gradient of the wrapped phase, this algorithm operates over the gradient of the phase jumps by a robust and noniterative scheme. Thus, the residue-spreading and over-smoothing effects are reduced. The algorithm's performance is compared with four well-known phase-unwrapping methods: minimum cost network flow (MCNF), fast Fourier transform (FFT), quality-guided, and branch-cut. A computer simulation and experimental results show that the proposed algorithm reaches a high-accuracy level than the MCNF method by a low-computing time similar to the FFT phase-unwrapping method. Moreover, since the proposed algorithm is simple, fast, and user-free, it could be used in metrological interferometric and fringe-projection automatic real-time applications.
Absolute phase estimation: adaptive local denoising and global unwrapping.
Bioucas-Dias, Jose; Katkovnik, Vladimir; Astola, Jaakko; Egiazarian, Karen
2008-10-10
The paper attacks absolute phase estimation with a two-step approach: the first step applies an adaptive local denoising scheme to the modulo-2 pi noisy phase; the second step applies a robust phase unwrapping algorithm to the denoised modulo-2 pi phase obtained in the first step. The adaptive local modulo-2 pi phase denoising is a new algorithm based on local polynomial approximations. The zero-order and the first-order approximations of the phase are calculated in sliding windows of varying size. The zero-order approximation is used for pointwise adaptive window size selection, whereas the first-order approximation is used to filter the phase in the obtained windows. For phase unwrapping, we apply the recently introduced robust (in the sense of discontinuity preserving) PUMA unwrapping algorithm [IEEE Trans. Image Process.16, 698 (2007)] to the denoised wrapped phase. Simulations give evidence that the proposed algorithm yields state-of-the-art performance, enabling strong noise attenuation while preserving image details. (c) 2008 Optical Society of America
Phase recovery from a single interferogram with closed fringes by phase unwrapping
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Munoz-Maciel, Jesus; Casillas-Rodriguez, Francisco J.; Mora-Gonzalez, Miguel
2011-01-01
We describe a new algorithm for phase determination from a single interferogram with closed fringes based on an unwrapping procedure. Here we use bandpass filtering in the Fourier domain, obtaining two wrapped phases with sign changes corresponding to the orientation of the applied filters. An unwrapping scheme that corrects the sign ambiguities by comparing the local derivatives is then proposed. This can be done, assuming that the phase derivatives do not change abruptly among adjacent areas as occurs with smooth continuous phase maps. The proposed algorithm works fast and is robust against noise, as demonstrated in experimental and simulated data.
Edgelist phase unwrapping algorithm for time series InSAR analysis.
Shanker, A Piyush; Zebker, Howard
2010-03-01
We present here a new integer programming formulation for phase unwrapping of multidimensional data. Phase unwrapping is a key problem in many coherent imaging systems, including time series synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR), with two spatial and one temporal data dimensions. The minimum cost flow (MCF) [IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 813 (1998)] phase unwrapping algorithm describes a global cost minimization problem involving flow between phase residues computed over closed loops. Here we replace closed loops by reliable edges as the basic construct, thus leading to the name "edgelist." Our algorithm has several advantages over current methods-it simplifies the representation of multidimensional phase unwrapping, it incorporates data from external sources, such as GPS, where available to better constrain the unwrapped solution, and it treats regularly sampled or sparsely sampled data alike. It thus is particularly applicable to time series InSAR, where data are often irregularly spaced in time and individual interferograms can be corrupted with large decorrelated regions. We show that, similar to the MCF network problem, the edgelist formulation also exhibits total unimodularity, which enables us to solve the integer program problem by using efficient linear programming tools. We apply our method to a persistent scatterer-InSAR data set from the creeping section of the Central San Andreas Fault and find that the average creep rate of 22 mm/Yr is constant within 3 mm/Yr over 1992-2004 but varies systematically with ground location, with a slightly higher rate in 1992-1998 than in 1999-2003.
Phase unwrapping with a virtual Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor.
Akondi, Vyas; Falldorf, Claas; Marcos, Susana; Vohnsen, Brian
2015-10-05
The use of a spatial light modulator for implementing a digital phase-shifting (PS) point diffraction interferometer (PDI) allows tunability in fringe spacing and in achieving PS without the need for mechanically moving parts. However, a small amount of detector or scatter noise could affect the accuracy of wavefront sensing. Here, a novel method of wavefront reconstruction incorporating a virtual Hartmann-Shack (HS) wavefront sensor is proposed that allows easy tuning of several wavefront sensor parameters. The proposed method was tested and compared with a Fourier unwrapping method implemented on a digital PS PDI. The rewrapping of the Fourier reconstructed wavefronts resulted in phase maps that matched well the original wrapped phase and the performance was found to be more stable and accurate than conventional methods. Through simulation studies, the superiority of the proposed virtual HS phase unwrapping method is shown in comparison with the Fourier unwrapping method in the presence of noise. Further, combining the two methods could improve accuracy when the signal-to-noise ratio is sufficiently high.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Servin, Manuel; Padilla, Moises; Garnica, Guillermo; Gonzalez, Adonai
2016-12-01
In this work we review and combine two techniques that have been recently published for three-dimensional (3D) fringe projection profilometry and phase unwrapping, namely: co-phased profilometry and 2-steps temporal phase-unwrapping. By combining these two methods we get a more accurate, higher signal-to-noise 3D profilometer for discontinuous industrial objects. In single-camera single-projector (standard) profilometry, the camera and the projector must form an angle between them. The phase-sensitivity of the profilometer depends on this angle, so it cannot be avoided. This angle produces regions with self-occluding shadows and glare from the solid as viewed from the camera's perspective, making impossible the demodulation of the fringe-pattern there. In other words, the phase data is undefined at those shadow regions. As published recently, this limitation can be solved by using several co-phased fringe-projectors and a single camera. These co-phased projectors are positioned at different directions towards the object, and as a consequence most shadows are compensated. In addition to this, most industrial objects are highly discontinuous, which precludes the use of spatial phase-unwrappers. One way to avoid spatial unwrapping is to decrease the phase-sensitivity to a point where the demodulated phase is bounded to one lambda, so the need for phase-unwrapping disappears. By doing this, however, the recovered non-wrapped phase contains too much harmonic distortion and noise. Using our recently proposed two-step temporal phase-unwrapping technique, the high-sensitivity phase is unwrapped using the low-frequency one as initial gross estimation. This two-step unwrapping technique solves the 3D object discontinuities while keeping the accuracy of the high-frequency profilometry data. In scientific research, new art are derived as logical and consistent result of previous efforts in the same direction. Here we present a new 3D-profilometer combining these two recently
Multi-frequency Phase Unwrap from Noisy Data: Adaptive Least Squares Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katkovnik, Vladimir; Bioucas-Dias, José
2010-04-01
Multiple frequency interferometry is, basically, a phase acquisition strategy aimed at reducing or eliminating the ambiguity of the wrapped phase observations or, equivalently, reducing or eliminating the fringe ambiguity order. In multiple frequency interferometry, the phase measurements are acquired at different frequencies (or wavelengths) and recorded using the corresponding sensors (measurement channels). Assuming that the absolute phase to be reconstructed is piece-wise smooth, we use a nonparametric regression technique for the phase reconstruction. The nonparametric estimates are derived from a local least squares criterion, which, when applied to the multifrequency data, yields denoised (filtered) phase estimates with extended ambiguity (periodized), compared with the phase ambiguities inherent to each measurement frequency. The filtering algorithm is based on local polynomial (LPA) approximation for design of nonlinear filters (estimators) and adaptation of these filters to unknown smoothness of the spatially varying absolute phase [9]. For phase unwrapping, from filtered periodized data, we apply the recently introduced robust (in the sense of discontinuity preserving) PUMA unwrapping algorithm [1]. Simulations give evidence that the proposed algorithm yields state-of-the-art performance for continuous as well as for discontinues phase surfaces, enabling phase unwrapping in extraordinary difficult situations when all other algorithms fail.
Reliable two-dimensional phase unwrapping method using region growing and local linear estimation.
Zhou, Kun; Zaitsev, Maxim; Bao, Shanglian
2009-10-01
In MRI, phase maps can provide useful information about parameters such as field inhomogeneity, velocity of blood flow, and the chemical shift between water and fat. As phase is defined in the (-pi,pi] range, however, phase wraps often occur, which complicates image analysis and interpretation. This work presents a two-dimensional phase unwrapping algorithm that uses quality-guided region growing and local linear estimation. The quality map employs the variance of the second-order partial derivatives of the phase as the quality criterion. Phase information from unwrapped neighboring pixels is used to predict the correct phase of the current pixel using a linear regression method. The algorithm was tested on both simulated and real data, and is shown to successfully unwrap phase images that are corrupted by noise and have rapidly changing phase. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Phase unwrapping algorithm using polynomial phase approximation and linear Kalman filter.
Kulkarni, Rishikesh; Rastogi, Pramod
2018-02-01
A noise-robust phase unwrapping algorithm is proposed based on state space analysis and polynomial phase approximation using wrapped phase measurement. The true phase is approximated as a two-dimensional first order polynomial function within a small sized window around each pixel. The estimates of polynomial coefficients provide the measurement of phase and local fringe frequencies. A state space representation of spatial phase evolution and the wrapped phase measurement is considered with the state vector consisting of polynomial coefficients as its elements. Instead of using the traditional nonlinear Kalman filter for the purpose of state estimation, we propose to use the linear Kalman filter operating directly with the wrapped phase measurement. The adaptive window width is selected at each pixel based on the local fringe density to strike a balance between the computation time and the noise robustness. In order to retrieve the unwrapped phase, either a line-scanning approach or a quality guided strategy of pixel selection is used depending on the underlying continuous or discontinuous phase distribution, respectively. Simulation and experimental results are provided to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method.
Phase retrieval without unwrapping by single-shot dual-wavelength digital holography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Min, Junwei; Yao, Baoli; Zhou, Meiling; Guo, Rongli; Lei, Ming; Yang, Yanlong; Dan, Dan; Yan, Shaohui; Peng, Tong
2014-12-01
A phase retrieval method by using single-shot dual-wavelength digital holography is proposed. Each single wavelength hologram is extracted from the color CCD recorded hologram at one exposure, and the unwrapped phase image of object can be reconstructed directly. Different from the traditional multiple wavelength phase unwrapping techniques, any single complex wave-fronts at different wavelengths have no need to be calculated any more. Thus, the phase retrieval is computationally fast and straightforward, and the limitations on the total optical path difference are significantly relaxed. The practicability of the proposed method is demonstrated by both simulated and experimental results.
A temporal phase unwrapping algorithm for photoelastic stress analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baldi, Antonio; Bertolino, Filippo; Ginesu, Francesco
2007-05-01
Photoelastic stress analysis is a full-field optical technique for experimental stress analysis whose automation has received considerable research attention over the last 15 years. The latest developments have been made possible largely due to the availability of powerful calculators with large memory capacity and colour, high resolution, cameras. A further stimulus is provided by the photoelastic resins now used for rapid prototyping. However, one critical aspect which still deserves attention is phase unwrapping. The algorithms most commonly used for this purpose have been developed in other scientific areas (classical interferometry, profilometry, moiré, etc.) for solving different problems. In this article a new algorithm is proposed for temporal phase unwrapping, which offers several advantages over those used today.
Espe, Emil K S; Zhang, Lili; Sjaastad, Ivar
2014-10-01
Phase-contrast MRI (PC-MRI) is a versatile tool allowing evaluation of in vivo motion, but is sensitive to eddy current induced phase offsets, causing errors in the measured velocities. In high-resolution PC-MRI, these offsets can be sufficiently large to cause wrapping in the baseline phase, rendering conventional eddy current compensation (ECC) inadequate. The purpose of this study was to develop an improved ECC technique (unwrapping ECC) able to handle baseline phase discontinuities. Baseline phase discontinuities are unwrapped by minimizing the spatiotemporal standard deviation of the static-tissue phase. Computer simulations were used for demonstrating the theoretical foundation of the proposed technique. The presence of baseline wrapping was confirmed in high-resolution myocardial PC-MRI of a normal rat heart at 9.4 Tesla (T), and the performance of unwrapping ECC was compared with conventional ECC. Areas of phase wrapping in static regions were clearly evident in high-resolution PC-MRI. The proposed technique successfully eliminated discontinuities in the baseline, and resulted in significantly better ECC than the conventional approach. We report the occurrence of baseline phase wrapping in PC-MRI, and provide an improved ECC technique capable of handling its presence. Unwrapping ECC offers improved correction of eddy current induced baseline shifts in high-resolution PC-MRI. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
A new fringeline-tracking approach for color Doppler ultrasound imaging phase unwrapping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saad, Ashraf A.; Shapiro, Linda G.
2008-03-01
Color Doppler ultrasound imaging is a powerful non-invasive diagnostic tool for many clinical applications that involve examining the anatomy and hemodynamics of human blood vessels. These clinical applications include cardio-vascular diseases, obstetrics, and abdominal diseases. Since its commercial introduction in the early eighties, color Doppler ultrasound imaging has been used mainly as a qualitative tool with very little attempts to quantify its images. Many imaging artifacts hinder the quantification of the color Doppler images, the most important of which is the aliasing artifact that distorts the blood flow velocities measured by the color Doppler technique. In this work we will address the color Doppler aliasing problem and present a recovery methodology for the true flow velocities from the aliased ones. The problem is formulated as a 2D phase-unwrapping problem, which is a well-defined problem with solid theoretical foundations for other imaging domains, including synthetic aperture radar and magnetic resonance imaging. This paper documents the need for a phase unwrapping algorithm for use in color Doppler ultrasound image analysis. It describes a new phase-unwrapping algorithm that relies on the recently developed cutline detection approaches. The algorithm is novel in its use of heuristic information provided by the ultrasound imaging modality to guide the phase unwrapping process. Experiments have been performed on both in-vitro flow-phantom data and in-vivo human blood flow data. Both data types were acquired under a controlled acquisition protocol developed to minimize the distortion of the color Doppler data and hence to simplify the phase-unwrapping task. In addition to the qualitative assessment of the results, a quantitative assessment approach was developed to measure the success of the results. The results of our new algorithm have been compared on ultrasound data to those from other well-known algorithms, and it outperforms all of them.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tavakkoli Estahbanat, A.; Dehghani, M.
2017-09-01
In interferometry technique, phases have been modulated between 0-2π. Finding the number of integer phases missed when they were wrapped is the main goal of unwrapping algorithms. Although the density of points in conventional interferometry is high, this is not effective in some cases such as large temporal baselines or noisy interferograms. Due to existing noisy pixels, not only it does not improve results, but also it leads to some unwrapping errors during interferogram unwrapping. In PS technique, because of the sparse PS pixels, scientists are confronted with a problem to unwrap phases. Due to the irregular data separation, conventional methods are sterile. Unwrapping techniques are divided in to path-independent and path-dependent in the case of unwrapping paths. A region-growing method which is a path-dependent technique has been used to unwrap PS data. In this paper an idea of EKF has been generalized on PS data. This algorithm is applied to consider the nonlinearity of PS unwrapping problem as well as conventional unwrapping problem. A pulse-pair method enhanced with singular value decomposition (SVD) has been used to estimate spectral shift from interferometric power spectral density in 7*7 local windows. Furthermore, a hybrid cost-map is used to manage the unwrapping path. This algorithm has been implemented on simulated PS data. To form a sparse dataset, A few points from regular grid are randomly selected and the RMSE of results and true unambiguous phases in presented to validate presented approach. The results of this algorithm and true unwrapped phases were completely identical.
Virtual pyramid wavefront sensor for phase unwrapping.
Akondi, Vyas; Vohnsen, Brian; Marcos, Susana
2016-10-10
Noise affects wavefront reconstruction from wrapped phase data. A novel method of phase unwrapping is proposed with the help of a virtual pyramid wavefront sensor. The method was tested on noisy wrapped phase images obtained experimentally with a digital phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer. The virtuality of the pyramid wavefront sensor allows easy tuning of the pyramid apex angle and modulation amplitude. It is shown that an optimal modulation amplitude obtained by monitoring the Strehl ratio helps in achieving better accuracy. Through simulation studies and iterative estimation, it is shown that the virtual pyramid wavefront sensor is robust to random noise.
Dong, Jianwu; Chen, Feng; Zhou, Dong; Liu, Tian; Yu, Zhaofei; Wang, Yi
2017-03-01
Existence of low SNR regions and rapid-phase variations pose challenges to spatial phase unwrapping algorithms. Global optimization-based phase unwrapping methods are widely used, but are significantly slower than greedy methods. In this paper, dual decomposition acceleration is introduced to speed up a three-dimensional graph cut-based phase unwrapping algorithm. The phase unwrapping problem is formulated as a global discrete energy minimization problem, whereas the technique of dual decomposition is used to increase the computational efficiency by splitting the full problem into overlapping subproblems and enforcing the congruence of overlapping variables. Using three dimensional (3D) multiecho gradient echo images from an agarose phantom and five brain hemorrhage patients, we compared this proposed method with an unaccelerated graph cut-based method. Experimental results show up to 18-fold acceleration in computation time. Dual decomposition significantly improves the computational efficiency of 3D graph cut-based phase unwrapping algorithms. Magn Reson Med 77:1353-1358, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
Two-dimensional phase unwrapping using robust derivative estimation and adaptive integration.
Strand, Jarle; Taxt, Torfinn
2002-01-01
The adaptive integration (ADI) method for two-dimensional (2-D) phase unwrapping is presented. The method uses an algorithm for noise robust estimation of partial derivatives, followed by a noise robust adaptive integration process. The ADI method can easily unwrap phase images with moderate noise levels, and the resulting images are congruent modulo 2pi with the observed, wrapped, input images. In a quantitative evaluation, both the ADI and the BLS methods (Strand et al.) were better than the least-squares methods of Ghiglia and Romero (GR), and of Marroquin and Rivera (MRM). In a qualitative evaluation, the ADI, the BLS, and a conjugate gradient version of the MRM method (MRMCG), were all compared using a synthetic image with shear, using 115 magnetic resonance images, and using 22 fiber-optic interferometry images. For the synthetic image and the interferometry images, the ADI method gave consistently visually better results than the other methods. For the MR images, the MRMCG method was best, and the ADI method second best. The ADI method was less sensitive to the mask definition and the block size than the BLS method, and successfully unwrapped images with shears that were not marked in the masks. The computational requirements of the ADI method for images of nonrectangular objects were comparable to only two iterations of many least-squares-based methods (e.g., GR). We believe the ADI method provides a powerful addition to the ensemble of tools available for 2-D phase unwrapping.
Unweighted least squares phase unwrapping by means of multigrid techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pritt, Mark D.
1995-11-01
We present a multigrid algorithm for unweighted least squares phase unwrapping. This algorithm applies Gauss-Seidel relaxation schemes to solve the Poisson equation on smaller, coarser grids and transfers the intermediate results to the finer grids. This approach forms the basis of our multigrid algorithm for weighted least squares phase unwrapping, which is described in a separate paper. The key idea of our multigrid approach is to maintain the partial derivatives of the phase data in separate arrays and to correct these derivatives at the boundaries of the coarser grids. This maintains the boundary conditions necessary for rapid convergence to the correct solution. Although the multigrid algorithm is an iterative algorithm, we demonstrate that it is nearly as fast as the direct Fourier-based method. We also describe how to parallelize the algorithm for execution on a distributed-memory parallel processor computer or a network-cluster of workstations.
Linear programming phase unwrapping for dual-wavelength digital holography.
Wang, Zhaomin; Jiao, Jiannan; Qu, Weijuan; Yang, Fang; Li, Hongru; Tian, Ailing; Asundi, Anand
2017-01-20
A linear programming phase unwrapping method in dual-wavelength digital holography is proposed and verified experimentally. The proposed method uses the square of height difference as a convergence standard and theoretically gives the boundary condition in a searching process. A simulation was performed by unwrapping step structures at different levels of Gaussian noise. As a result, our method is capable of recovering the discontinuities accurately. It is robust and straightforward. In the experiment, a microelectromechanical systems sample and a cylindrical lens were measured separately. The testing results were in good agreement with true values. Moreover, the proposed method is applicable not only in digital holography but also in other dual-wavelength interferometric techniques.
Phase unwrapping in three dimensions with application to InSAR time series.
Hooper, Andrew; Zebker, Howard A
2007-09-01
The problem of phase unwrapping in two dimensions has been studied extensively in the past two decades, but the three-dimensional (3D) problem has so far received relatively little attention. We develop here a theoretical framework for 3D phase unwrapping and also describe two algorithms for implementation, both of which can be applied to synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) time series. We test the algorithms on simulated data and find both give more accurate results than a two-dimensional algorithm. When applied to actual InSAR time series, we find good agreement both between the algorithms and with ground truth.
Liu, Wanli; Bian, Zhengfu; Liu, Zhenguo; Zhang, Qiuzhao
2015-01-01
Differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar has been shown to be effective for monitoring subsidence in coal mining areas. Phase unwrapping can have a dramatic influence on the monitoring result. In this paper, a filtering-based phase unwrapping algorithm in combination with path-following is introduced to unwrap differential interferograms with high noise in mining areas. It can perform simultaneous noise filtering and phase unwrapping so that the pre-filtering steps can be omitted, thus usually retaining more details and improving the detectable deformation. For the method, the nonlinear measurement model of phase unwrapping is processed using a simplified Cubature Kalman filtering, which is an effective and efficient tool used in many nonlinear fields. Three case studies are designed to evaluate the performance of the method. In Case 1, two tests are designed to evaluate the performance of the method under different factors including the number of multi-looks and path-guiding indexes. The result demonstrates that the unwrapped results are sensitive to the number of multi-looks and that the Fisher Distance is the most suitable path-guiding index for our study. Two case studies are then designed to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed phase unwrapping method based on Cubature Kalman filtering. The results indicate that, compared with the popular Minimum Cost Flow method, the Cubature Kalman filtering-based phase unwrapping can achieve promising results without pre-filtering and is an appropriate method for coal mining areas with high noise. PMID:26153776
Comparison of multihardware parallel implementations for a phase unwrapping algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hernandez-Lopez, Francisco Javier; Rivera, Mariano; Salazar-Garibay, Adan; Legarda-Sáenz, Ricardo
2018-04-01
Phase unwrapping is an important problem in the areas of optical metrology, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image analysis, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis. These images are becoming larger in size and, particularly, the availability and need for processing of SAR and MRI data have increased significantly with the acquisition of remote sensing data and the popularization of magnetic resonators in clinical diagnosis. Therefore, it is important to develop faster and accurate phase unwrapping algorithms. We propose a parallel multigrid algorithm of a phase unwrapping method named accumulation of residual maps, which builds on a serial algorithm that consists of the minimization of a cost function; minimization achieved by means of a serial Gauss-Seidel kind algorithm. Our algorithm also optimizes the original cost function, but unlike the original work, our algorithm is a parallel Jacobi class with alternated minimizations. This strategy is known as the chessboard type, where red pixels can be updated in parallel at same iteration since they are independent. Similarly, black pixels can be updated in parallel in an alternating iteration. We present parallel implementations of our algorithm for different parallel multicore architecture such as CPU-multicore, Xeon Phi coprocessor, and Nvidia graphics processing unit. In all the cases, we obtain a superior performance of our parallel algorithm when compared with the original serial version. In addition, we present a detailed comparative performance of the developed parallel versions.
Phase Unwrapping in the Presence of Strong Turbulence
2010-03-01
r a t i o n 49 h2=hh( IIndex ) ; 50 hhh =[(h2−de l ta4 ) (h2−de l ta3 ) h2 ( h2+de l ta3 ) ( h2+de l ta4 ) ] ; 51 121 52 f o r index=1:5 53 pha s e sh...i f t= hhh ( index ) ; 54 NonLS phase2 ( : , : , index ) = wrap wave ( w phase /(2∗ pi )−LS phase−pha s e sh i f t ) ; % wrapped waves 55 [ iwc l2...Index ] = min ( iwc l2 ) ; 60 UnwrappedPhase=LS phase+NonLS phase2 ( : , : , I Index ) ; 61 62 h= hhh ( IIndex ) ; % Get phase s h i f t from lowest
Weighted least squares phase unwrapping based on the wavelet transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Jiafeng; Chen, Haiqin; Yang, Zhengang; Ren, Haixia
2007-01-01
The weighted least squares phase unwrapping algorithm is a robust and accurate method to solve phase unwrapping problem. This method usually leads to a large sparse linear equation system. Gauss-Seidel relaxation iterative method is usually used to solve this large linear equation. However, this method is not practical due to its extremely slow convergence. The multigrid method is an efficient algorithm to improve convergence rate. However, this method needs an additional weight restriction operator which is very complicated. For this reason, the multiresolution analysis method based on the wavelet transform is proposed. By applying the wavelet transform, the original system is decomposed into its coarse and fine resolution levels and an equivalent equation system with better convergence condition can be obtained. Fast convergence in separate coarse resolution levels speeds up the overall system convergence rate. The simulated experiment shows that the proposed method converges faster and provides better result than the multigrid method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yuanbo; Cui, Xiaoqian; Wang, Hongbei; Zhao, Mengge; Ding, Hongbin
2017-10-01
Digital speckle pattern interferometry (DSPI) can diagnose the topography evolution in real-time, continuous and non-destructive, and has been considered as a most promising technique for Plasma-Facing Components (PFCs) topography diagnostic under the complicated environment of tokamak. It is important for the study of digital speckle pattern interferometry to enhance speckle patterns and obtain the real topography of the ablated crater. In this paper, two kinds of numerical model based on flood-fill algorithm has been developed to obtain the real profile by unwrapping from the wrapped phase in speckle interference pattern, which can be calculated through four intensity images by means of 4-step phase-shifting technique. During the process of phase unwrapping by means of flood-fill algorithm, since the existence of noise pollution, and other inevitable factors will lead to poor quality of the reconstruction results, this will have an impact on the authenticity of the restored topography. The calculation of the quality parameters was introduced to obtain the quality-map from the wrapped phase map, this work presents two different methods to calculate the quality parameters. Then quality parameters are used to guide the path of flood-fill algorithm, and the pixels with good quality parameters are given priority calculation, so that the quality of speckle interference pattern reconstruction results are improved. According to the comparison between the flood-fill algorithm which is suitable for speckle pattern interferometry and the quality-guided flood-fill algorithm (with two different calculation approaches), the errors which caused by noise pollution and the discontinuous of the strips were successfully reduced.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mao, Cuili; Lu, Rongsheng; Liu, Zhijian
2018-07-01
In fringe projection profilometry, the phase errors caused by the nonlinear intensity response of digital projectors needs to be correctly compensated. In this paper, a multi-frequency inverse-phase method is proposed. The theoretical model of periodical phase errors is analyzed. The periodical phase errors can be adaptively compensated in the wrapped maps by using a set of fringe patterns. The compensated phase is then unwrapped with multi-frequency method. Compared with conventional methods, the proposed method can greatly reduce the periodical phase error without calibrating measurement system. Some simulation and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the validity of the proposed approach.
Modeling PSInSAR time series without phase unwrapping
Zhang, L.; Ding, X.; Lu, Z.
2011-01-01
In this paper, we propose a least-squares-based method for multitemporal synthetic aperture radar interferometry that allows one to estimate deformations without the need of phase unwrapping. The method utilizes a series of multimaster wrapped differential interferograms with short baselines and focuses on arcs at which there are no phase ambiguities. An outlier detector is used to identify and remove the arcs with phase ambiguities, and a pseudoinverse of the variance-covariance matrix is used as the weight matrix of the correlated observations. The deformation rates at coherent points are estimated with a least squares model constrained by reference points. The proposed approach is verified with a set of simulated data.
Use of (N-1)-D expansions for N-D phase unwrapping in MRI
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bones, Philip J.; King, Laura J.; Millane, Rick P.
2017-09-01
In MRI the presence of metal implants causes severe artifacts in images and interferes with the usual techniques used to separate fat signals from other tissues. In the Dixon method, three images are acquired at different echo times to enable the variation in the magnetic field to be estimated. However, the estimate is represented as the phase of a complex quantity and therefore suffers from wrapping. High field gradients near the metal mean that the phase estimate is undersampled and therefore challenging to unwrap. We have developed POP, phase estimation by onion peeling, an algorithm which unwraps the phase along 1-D paths for a 2-D image obtained with the Dixon method. The unwrapping is initially performed along a closed path enclosing the implant and well separated from it. The recovered phase is expanded using a smooth periodic basis along the path. Then, path-by-path, the estimate is applied to the next path and then the expansion coefficients are estimated to best fit the wrapped measurements. We have successfully tested POP on MRI images of specially constructed phantoms and on a group of patients with hip implants. In principle, POP can be extended to 3-D imaging. In that case, POP would entail representing phase with a suitably smooth basis over a series of surfaces enclosing the implant (the "onion skins"), again beginning the phase estimation well away from the implant. An approach for this is proposed. Results are presented for fat and water separation for 2-D images of phantoms and actual patients. The practicality of the method and its employment in clinical MRI are discussed.
Li, Beiwen; Liu, Ziping; Zhang, Song
2016-10-03
We propose a hybrid computational framework to reduce motion-induced measurement error by combining the Fourier transform profilometry (FTP) and phase-shifting profilometry (PSP). The proposed method is composed of three major steps: Step 1 is to extract continuous relative phase maps for each isolated object with single-shot FTP method and spatial phase unwrapping; Step 2 is to obtain an absolute phase map of the entire scene using PSP method, albeit motion-induced errors exist on the extracted absolute phase map; and Step 3 is to shift the continuous relative phase maps from Step 1 to generate final absolute phase maps for each isolated object by referring to the absolute phase map with error from Step 2. Experiments demonstrate the success of the proposed computational framework for measuring multiple isolated rapidly moving objects.
Local residue coupling strategies by neural network for InSAR phase unwrapping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Refice, Alberto; Satalino, Giuseppe; Chiaradia, Maria T.
1997-12-01
Phase unwrapping is one of the toughest problems in interferometric SAR processing. The main difficulties arise from the presence of point-like error sources, called residues, which occur mainly in close couples due to phase noise. We present an assessment of a local approach to the resolution of these problems by means of a neural network. Using a multi-layer perceptron, trained with the back- propagation scheme on a series of simulated phase images, fashion the best pairing strategies for close residue couples. Results show that god efficiencies and accuracies can have been obtained, provided a sufficient number of training examples are supplied. Results show that good efficiencies and accuracies can be obtained, provided a sufficient number of training examples are supplied. The technique is tested also on real SAR ERS-1/2 tandem interferometric images of the Matera test site, showing a good reduction of the residue density. The better results obtained by use of the neural network as far as local criteria are adopted appear justified given the probabilistic nature of the noise process on SAR interferometric phase fields and allows to outline a specifically tailored implementation of the neural network approach as a very fast pre-processing step intended to decrease the residue density and give sufficiently clean images to be processed further by more conventional techniques.
Improved adjoin-list for quality-guided phase unwrapping based on red-black trees
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cruz-Santos, William; López-García, Lourdes; Rueda-Paz, Juvenal; Redondo-Galvan, Arturo
2016-08-01
The quality-guide phase unwrapping is an important technique that is based on quality maps which guide the unwrapping process. The efficiency of this technique depends in the adjoin-list data structure implementation. There exists several proposals that improve the adjoin-list; Ming Zhao et. al. proposed an Indexed Interwoven Linked List (I2L2) that is based on dividing the quality values into intervals of equal size and inserting in a linked list those pixels with quality values within a certain interval. Ming Zhao and Qian Kemao proposed an improved I2L2 replacing each linked list in each interval by a heap data structure, which allows efficient procedures for insertion and deletion. In this paper, we propose an improved I2L2 which uses Red-Black trees (RBT) data structures for each interval. Our proposal has as main goal to avoid the unbalanced properties of the head and thus, reducing the time complexity of insertion. In order to maintain the same efficiency of the heap when deleting an element, we provide an efficient way to remove the pixel with the highest quality value in the RBT using a pointer to the rightmost element in the tree. We also provide a new partition strategy of the phase values that is based on a density criterion. Experimental results applied to phase shifting profilometry are shown for large images.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Lifan; Chai, Dengfeng; Xia, Yu; Ma, Peifeng; Lin, Hui
2018-01-01
Phase unwrapping (PU) is one of the key processes in reconstructing the digital elevation model of a scene from its interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data. It is known that two-dimensional (2-D) PU problems can be formulated as maximum a posteriori estimation of Markov random fields (MRFs). However, considering that the traditional MRF algorithm is usually defined on a rectangular grid, it fails easily if large parts of the wrapped data are dominated by noise caused by large low-coherence area or rapid-topography variation. A PU solution based on sparse MRF is presented to extend the traditional MRF algorithm to deal with sparse data, which allows the unwrapping of InSAR data dominated by high phase noise. To speed up the graph cuts algorithm for sparse MRF, we designed dual elementary graphs and merged them to obtain the Delaunay triangle graph, which is used to minimize the energy function efficiently. The experiments on simulated and real data, compared with other existing algorithms, both confirm the effectiveness of the proposed MRF approach, which suffers less from decorrelation effects caused by large low-coherence area or rapid-topography variation.
Unwrapping Closed Timelike Curves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slobodov, Sergei
2008-12-01
Closed timelike curves (CTCs) appear in many solutions of the Einstein equation, even with reasonable matter sources. These solutions appear to violate causality and so are considered problematic. Since CTCs reflect the global properties of a spacetime, one can attempt to extend a local CTC-free patch of such a spacetime in a way that does not give rise to CTCs. One such procedure is informally known as unwrapping. However, changes in global identifications tend to lead to local effects, and unwrapping is no exception, as it introduces a special kind of singularity, called quasi-regular. This “unwrapping” singularity is similar to the string singularities. We define an unwrapping of a (locally) axisymmetric spacetime as the universal cover of the spacetime after one or more of the local axes of symmetry is removed. We give two examples of unwrapping of essentially 2+1 dimensional spacetimes with CTCs, the Gott spacetime and the Gödel spacetime. We show that the unwrapped Gott spacetime, while singular, is at least devoid of CTCs. In contrast, the unwrapped Gödel spacetime still contains CTCs through every point. A “multiple unwrapping” procedure is devised to remove the remaining circular CTCs. We conclude that, based on the given examples, CTCs appearing in the solutions of the Einstein equation are not simply a mathematical artifact of coordinate identifications. Alternative extensions of spacetimes with CTCs tend to lead to other pathologies, such as naked quasi-regular singularities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Costantini, Mario; Malvarosa, Fabio; Minati, Federico
2010-03-01
Phase unwrapping and integration of finite differences are key problems in several technical fields. In SAR interferometry and differential and persistent scatterers interferometry digital elevation models and displacement measurements can be obtained after unambiguously determining the phase values and reconstructing the mean velocities and elevations of the observed targets, which can be performed by integrating differential estimates of these quantities (finite differences between neighboring points).In this paper we propose a general formulation for robust and efficient integration of finite differences and phase unwrapping, which includes standard techniques methods as sub-cases. The proposed approach allows obtaining more reliable and accurate solutions by exploiting redundant differential estimates (not only between nearest neighboring points) and multi-dimensional information (e.g. multi-temporal, multi-frequency, multi-baseline observations), or external data (e.g. GPS measurements). The proposed approach requires the solution of linear or quadratic programming problems, for which computationally efficient algorithms exist.The validation tests obtained on real SAR data confirm the validity of the method, which was integrated in our production chain and successfully used also in massive productions.
New developments for determination of uncertainty in phase evaluation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Sheng
Phase evaluation exists mostly in, but not limited to, interferometric applications that utilize coherent multidimensional signals to modulate the physical quantity of interest into a nonlinear form, represented by repeating the phase modulo of 271 radians. In order to estimate the underlying physical quantity, the wrapped phase has to be unwrapped by an evaluation procedure which is usually called phase unwrapping. The procedure of phase unwrapping will obviously face the challenge of inconsistent phase, which could bring errors in phase evaluation. The main objectives of this research include addressing the problem of inconsistent phase in phase unwrapping and applications in modern optical techniques. In this research, a new phase unwrapping algorithm is developed. The creative idea of doing phase unwrapping between regions has an advantage over conventional pixel-to-pixel unwrapping methods because the unwrapping result is more consistent by using a voting mechanism based on all Zit-discontinuities hints. Furthermore, a systematic sequence of regional unwrapping is constructed in order to achieve a global consistent result. An implementation of the idea is illustrated in dct.il with step-by-step pseudo codes. The performance of the algorithm is demonstrated on real world applications. In order to solve a phase unwrapping problem which is caused by depth discontinuities in 3D shape measurement, a new absolute phase coding strategy is developed. The algorithm presented has two merits: effectively extends the coding range and preserves the measurement sensitivity. The performance of the proposed absolute coding strategy is proved by results of 3D shape measurement for objects with surface discontinuities. As a powerful tool for real world applications a universal software package, Optical Measurement and Evaluation Software (OMES), is designed for the purposes of automatic measurement and quantitative evaluation in 3D shape measurement and laser interferometry
Robust dynamic 3-D measurements with motion-compensated phase-shifting profilometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Shijie; Zuo, Chao; Tao, Tianyang; Hu, Yan; Zhang, Minliang; Chen, Qian; Gu, Guohua
2018-04-01
Phase-shifting profilometry (PSP) is a widely used approach to high-accuracy three-dimensional shape measurements. However, when it comes to moving objects, phase errors induced by the movement often result in severe artifacts even though a high-speed camera is in use. From our observations, there are three kinds of motion artifacts: motion ripples, motion-induced phase unwrapping errors, and motion outliers. We present a novel motion-compensated PSP to remove the artifacts for dynamic measurements of rigid objects. The phase error of motion ripples is analyzed for the N-step phase-shifting algorithm and is compensated using the statistical nature of the fringes. The phase unwrapping errors are corrected exploiting adjacent reliable pixels, and the outliers are removed by comparing the original phase map with a smoothed phase map. Compared with the three-step PSP, our method can improve the accuracy by more than 95% for objects in motion.
Gao, Yandong; Zhang, Shubi; Li, Tao; Chen, Qianfu; Li, Shijin; Meng, Pengfei
2018-06-02
Phase unwrapping (PU) is a key step in the reconstruction of digital elevation models (DEMs) and the monitoring of surface deformation from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SAR, InSAR) data. In this paper, an improved PU method that combines an amended matrix pencil model, an adaptive unscented kalman filter (AUKF), an efficient quality-guided strategy based on heapsort, and a circular median filter is proposed. PU theory and the existing UKFPU method are covered. Then, the improved method is presented with emphasis on the AUKF and the circular median filter. AUKF has been well used in other fields, but it is for the first time applied to interferometric images PU, to the best of our knowledge. First, the amended matrix pencil model is used to estimate the phase gradient. Then, an AUKF model is used to unwrap the interferometric phase based on an efficient quality-guided strategy based on heapsort. Finally, the key results are obtained by filtering the results using a circular median. The proposed method is compared with the minimum cost network flow (MCF), statistical cost network flow (SNAPHU), regularized phase tracking technique (RPTPU), and UKFPU methods using two sets of simulated data and two sets of experimental GF-3 SAR data. The improved method is shown to yield the greatest accuracy in the interferometric phase maps compared to the methods considered in this paper. Furthermore, the improved method is shown to be the most robust to noise and is thus most suitable for PU of GF-3 SAR data in high-noise and low-coherence regions.
Finding minimum spanning trees more efficiently for tile-based phase unwrapping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sawaf, Firas; Tatam, Ralph P.
2006-06-01
The tile-based phase unwrapping method employs an algorithm for finding the minimum spanning tree (MST) in each tile. We first examine the properties of a tile's representation from a graph theory viewpoint, observing that it is possible to make use of a more efficient class of MST algorithms. We then describe a novel linear time algorithm which reduces the size of the MST problem by half at the least, and solves it completely at best. We also show how this algorithm can be applied to a tile using a sliding window technique. Finally, we show how the reduction algorithm can be combined with any other standard MST algorithm to achieve a more efficient hybrid, using Prim's algorithm for empirical comparison and noting that the reduction algorithm takes only 0.1% of the time taken by the overall hybrid.
Reliable estimation of orbit errors in spaceborne SAR interferometry. The network approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bähr, Hermann; Hanssen, Ramon F.
2012-12-01
An approach to improve orbital state vectors by orbit error estimates derived from residual phase patterns in synthetic aperture radar interferograms is presented. For individual interferograms, an error representation by two parameters is motivated: the baseline error in cross-range and the rate of change of the baseline error in range. For their estimation, two alternatives are proposed: a least squares approach that requires prior unwrapping and a less reliable gridsearch method handling the wrapped phase. In both cases, reliability is enhanced by mutual control of error estimates in an overdetermined network of linearly dependent interferometric combinations of images. Thus, systematic biases, e.g., due to unwrapping errors, can be detected and iteratively eliminated. Regularising the solution by a minimum-norm condition results in quasi-absolute orbit errors that refer to particular images. For the 31 images of a sample ENVISAT dataset, orbit corrections with a mutual consistency on the millimetre level have been inferred from 163 interferograms. The method itself qualifies by reliability and rigorous geometric modelling of the orbital error signal but does not consider interfering large scale deformation effects. However, a separation may be feasible in a combined processing with persistent scatterer approaches or by temporal filtering of the estimates.
Ding, Yi; Peng, Kai; Yu, Miao; Lu, Lei; Zhao, Kun
2017-08-01
The performance of the two selected spatial frequency phase unwrapping methods is limited by a phase error bound beyond which errors will occur in the fringe order leading to a significant error in the recovered absolute phase map. In this paper, we propose a method to detect and correct the wrong fringe orders. Two constraints are introduced during the fringe order determination of two selected spatial frequency phase unwrapping methods. A strategy to detect and correct the wrong fringe orders is also described. Compared with the existing methods, we do not need to estimate the threshold associated with absolute phase values to determine the fringe order error, thus making it more reliable and avoiding the procedure of search in detecting and correcting successive fringe order errors. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by the experimental results.
Li, Sikun; Wang, Xiangzhao; Su, Xianyu; Tang, Feng
2012-04-20
This paper theoretically discusses modulus of two-dimensional (2D) wavelet transform (WT) coefficients, calculated by using two frequently used 2D daughter wavelet definitions, in an optical fringe pattern analysis. The discussion shows that neither is good enough to represent the reliability of the phase data. The differences between the two frequently used 2D daughter wavelet definitions in the performance of 2D WT also are discussed. We propose a new 2D daughter wavelet definition for reliability-guided phase unwrapping of optical fringe pattern. The modulus of the advanced 2D WT coefficients, obtained by using a daughter wavelet under this new daughter wavelet definition, includes not only modulation information but also local frequency information of the deformed fringe pattern. Therefore, it can be treated as a good parameter that represents the reliability of the retrieved phase data. Computer simulation and experimentation show the validity of the proposed method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Umehara, Hiroaki; Okada, Masato; Naruse, Yasushi
2018-03-01
The estimation of angular time series data is a widespread issue relating to various situations involving rotational motion and moving objects. There are two kinds of problem settings: the estimation of wrapped angles, which are principal values in a circular coordinate system (e.g., the direction of an object), and the estimation of unwrapped angles in an unbounded coordinate system such as for the positioning and tracking of moving objects measured by the signal-wave phase. Wrapped angles have been estimated in previous studies by sequential Bayesian filtering; however, the hyperparameters that are to be solved and that control the properties of the estimation model were given a priori. The present study establishes a procedure of hyperparameter estimation from the observation data of angles only, using the framework of Bayesian inference completely as the maximum likelihood estimation. Moreover, the filter model is modified to estimate the unwrapped angles. It is proved that without noise our model reduces to the existing algorithm of Itoh's unwrapping transform. It is numerically confirmed that our model is an extension of unwrapping estimation from Itoh's unwrapping transform to the case with noise.
Free energy profiles for unwrapping the outer superhelical turn of nucleosomal DNA
Sakuraba, Shun; Ishida, Hisashi
2018-01-01
The eukaryotic genome is packaged into a nucleus in the form of chromatin. The fundamental structural unit of chromatin is a protein-DNA complex, the nucleosome, where 146 or 147 base pairs of DNA wrap 1.75 times around a histone core. To function in cellular processes, however, nucleosomal DNA must be unwrapped. Although this unwrapping has been experimentally investigated, details of the process at an atomic level are not yet well understood. Here, we used molecular dynamics simulation with an enhanced sampling method to calculate the free energy profiles for unwrapping the outer superhelical turn of nucleosomal DNA. A free energy change of about 11.5 kcal/mol for the unwrapping agrees well with values obtained in single molecule experiments. This simulation revealed a variety of conformational states, indicating there are many potential paths to outer superhelicdal turn unwrapping, but the dominant path is likely asymmetric. At one end of the DNA, the first five bps unwrap, after which a second five bps unwrap at the same end with no increase in free energy. The unwrapping then starts at the other end of the DNA, where 10 bps are unwrapped. During further unwrapping of 15 bps, the unwrapping advances at one of the ends, after which the other end of the DNA unwraps to complete the unwrapping of the outer superhelical turn. These results provide insight into the construction, disruption, and repositioning of nucleosomes, which are continuously ongoing during cellular processes. PMID:29505570
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Kihara, Toshiki
2007-09-01
A phase unwrapping method that employs scattered-light photoelasticity with unpolarized light was proposed for automated three-dimensional stress analysis [Appl. Opt. 45, 8848 (2006)]. I now demonstrate the validity of this method by performing nondestructive measurements at three different wavelengths of the secondary principal stress direction {psi}j and the total relative phase retardation {rho}jtot in the plane that contains the rotated principal stress directions in a spherical frozen stress model and compare the results obtained with mechanically sliced models. The parameters {psi}j and {rho}jtot were measured nondestructively over the entire field of view for the first time, to the best ofmore » my knowledge.« less
Optimized two-frequency phase-measuring-profilometry light-sensor temporal-noise sensitivity.
Li, Jielin; Hassebrook, Laurence G; Guan, Chun
2003-01-01
Temporal frame-to-frame noise in multipattern structured light projection can significantly corrupt depth measurement repeatability. We present a rigorous stochastic analysis of phase-measuring-profilometry temporal noise as a function of the pattern parameters and the reconstruction coefficients. The analysis is used to optimize the two-frequency phase measurement technique. In phase-measuring profilometry, a sequence of phase-shifted sine-wave patterns is projected onto a surface. In two-frequency phase measurement, two sets of pattern sequences are used. The first, low-frequency set establishes a nonambiguous depth estimate, and the second, high-frequency set is unwrapped, based on the low-frequency estimate, to obtain an accurate depth estimate. If the second frequency is too low, then depth error is caused directly by temporal noise in the phase measurement. If the second frequency is too high, temporal noise triggers ambiguous unwrapping, resulting in depth measurement error. We present a solution for finding the second frequency, where intensity noise variance is at its minimum.
Photogrammetric fingerprint unwrapping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paar, Gerhard; del Pilar Caballo Perucha, Maria; Bauer, Arnold; Nauschnegg, Bernhard
2008-04-01
Fingerprints are important biometric cues. Compared to conventional fingerprint sensors the use of contact-free stereoscopic image acquisition of the front-most finger segment has a set of advantages: Finger deformation is avoided, the entire relevant area for biometric use is covered, some technical aspects like sensor maintenance and cleaning are facilitated, and access to a three-dimensional reconstruction of the covered area is possible. We describe a photogrammetric workflow for nail-to-nail fingerprint reconstruction: A calibrated sensor setup with typically 5 cameras and dedicated illumination acquires adjacent stereo pairs. Using the silhouettes of the segmented finger a raw cylindrical model is generated. After preprocessing (shading correction, dust removal, lens distortion correction), each individual camera texture is projected onto the model. Image-to-image matching on these pseudo ortho images and dense 3D reconstruction obtains a textured cylindrical digital surface model with radial distances around the major axis and a grid size in the range of 25-50 µm. The model allows for objective fingerprint unwrapping and novel fingerprint matching algorithms since 3D relations between fingerprint features are available as additional cues. Moreover, covering the entire region with relevant fingerprint texture is particularly important for establishing a comprehensive forensic database. The workflow has been implemented in portable C and is ready for industrial exploitation. Further improvement issues are code optimization, unwrapping method, illumination strategy to avoid highlights and to improve the initial segmentation, and the comparison of the unwrapping result to conventional fingerprint acquisition technology.
Network Adjustment of Orbit Errors in SAR Interferometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bahr, Hermann; Hanssen, Ramon
2010-03-01
Orbit errors can induce significant long wavelength error signals in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferograms and thus bias estimates of wide-scale deformation phenomena. The presented approach aims for correcting orbit errors in a preprocessing step to deformation analysis by modifying state vectors. Whereas absolute errors in the orbital trajectory are negligible, the influence of relative errors (baseline errors) is parametrised by their parallel and perpendicular component as a linear function of time. As the sensitivity of the interferometric phase is only significant with respect to the perpendicular base-line and the rate of change of the parallel baseline, the algorithm focuses on estimating updates to these two parameters. This is achieved by a least squares approach, where the unwrapped residual interferometric phase is observed and atmospheric contributions are considered to be stochastic with constant mean. To enhance reliability, baseline errors are adjusted in an overdetermined network of interferograms, yielding individual orbit corrections per acquisition.
3D measurement using combined Gray code and dual-frequency phase-shifting approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Shuang; Zhang, Jing; Yu, Xiaoyang; Sun, Xiaoming; Wu, Haibin; Liu, Xin
2018-04-01
The combined Gray code and phase-shifting approach is a commonly used 3D measurement technique. In this technique, an error that equals integer multiples of the phase-shifted fringe period, i.e. period jump error, often exists in the absolute analog code, which can lead to gross measurement errors. To overcome this problem, the present paper proposes 3D measurement using a combined Gray code and dual-frequency phase-shifting approach. Based on 3D measurement using the combined Gray code and phase-shifting approach, one set of low-frequency phase-shifted fringe patterns with an odd-numbered multiple of the original phase-shifted fringe period is added. Thus, the absolute analog code measured value can be obtained by the combined Gray code and phase-shifting approach, and the low-frequency absolute analog code measured value can also be obtained by adding low-frequency phase-shifted fringe patterns. Then, the corrected absolute analog code measured value can be obtained by correcting the former by the latter, and the period jump errors can be eliminated, resulting in reliable analog code unwrapping. For the proposed approach, we established its measurement model, analyzed its measurement principle, expounded the mechanism of eliminating period jump errors by error analysis, and determined its applicable conditions. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the proposed approach can effectively eliminate period jump errors, reliably perform analog code unwrapping, and improve the measurement accuracy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Servin, Manuel; Padilla, Moises; Garnica, Guillermo
2018-07-01
Since the early 1970s, optical two-wavelength phase-metrology (TWPM) has been used in a wide variety of experimental set ups. In TWPM one may compute the phase-sum and the phase-difference of two close phase measurements. Early TWPM optically computed the phase difference and phase sum by double exposure holography. However soon after, TWPM became almost synonymous to calculating the phase-difference only. The more sensitive phase-sum was largely forgotten. The standard application for phase-difference TWPM is to extend the phase measurement depth without phase-unwrapping for discontinuous phase-objects. This phase-difference, while non-wrapped, decreases however the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the estimated phase. On the other hand, the phase-sum increases the phase sensitivity, and the SNR of the estimated phase. In spite of these two great advantages, the use of the phase-sum in TWPM has been almost ignored. In this paper we review and set the stage for digital TWPM for super-sensitive phase-sum estimation. This is coupled with two-sensitivity phase-unwrapping to obtain extended-range super-sensitive fringe-projection profilometry estimations. Here we mathematically prove, and experimentally show that using the phase-sum one obtains a huge increase in SNR with respect to using the phase-difference alone. The pioneer works on double exposure TWPM holography that uses the phase-difference and phase-sum are also properly acknowledged. Finally, two experimental results from fringe-projection profilometry that clearly show the huge SNR gain of the phase-sum, with respect to the phase-difference is now mathematically well established.
Quantitative evaluation of phase processing approaches in susceptibility weighted imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Ningzhi; Wang, Wen-Tung; Sati, Pascal; Pham, Dzung L.; Butman, John A.
2012-03-01
Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) takes advantage of the local variation in susceptibility between different tissues to enable highly detailed visualization of the cerebral venous system and sensitive detection of intracranial hemorrhages. Thus, it has been increasingly used in magnetic resonance imaging studies of traumatic brain injury as well as other intracranial pathologies. In SWI, magnitude information is combined with phase information to enhance the susceptibility induced image contrast. Because of global susceptibility variations across the image, the rate of phase accumulation varies widely across the image resulting in phase wrapping artifacts that interfere with the local assessment of phase variation. Homodyne filtering is a common approach to eliminate this global phase variation. However, filter size requires careful selection in order to preserve image contrast and avoid errors resulting from residual phase wraps. An alternative approach is to apply phase unwrapping prior to high pass filtering. A suitable phase unwrapping algorithm guarantees no residual phase wraps but additional computational steps are required. In this work, we quantitatively evaluate these two phase processing approaches on both simulated and real data using different filters and cutoff frequencies. Our analysis leads to an improved understanding of the relationship between phase wraps, susceptibility effects, and acquisition parameters. Although homodyne filtering approaches are faster and more straightforward, phase unwrapping approaches perform more accurately in a wider variety of acquisition scenarios.
Zhu, Haitao; Nie, Binbin; Liu, Hua; Guo, Hua; Demachi, Kazuyuki; Sekino, Masaki; Shan, Baoci
2016-05-01
Phase map cross-correlation detection and quantification may produce highlighted signal at superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, and distinguish them from other hypointensities. The method may quantify susceptibility change by performing least squares analysis between a theoretically generated magnetic field template and an experimentally scanned phase image. Because characteristic phase recognition requires the removal of phase wrap and phase background, additional steps of phase unwrapping and filtering may increase the chance of computing error and enlarge the inconsistence among algorithms. To solve problem, phase gradient cross-correlation and quantification method is developed by recognizing characteristic phase gradient pattern instead of phase image because phase gradient operation inherently includes unwrapping and filtering functions. However, few studies have mentioned the detectable limit of currently used phase gradient calculation algorithms. The limit may lead to an underestimation of large magnetic susceptibility change caused by high-concentrated iron accumulation. In this study, mathematical derivation points out the value of maximum detectable phase gradient calculated by differential chain algorithm in both spatial and Fourier domain. To break through the limit, a modified quantification method is proposed by using unwrapped forward differentiation for phase gradient generation. The method enlarges the detectable range of phase gradient measurement and avoids the underestimation of magnetic susceptibility. Simulation and phantom experiments were used to quantitatively compare different methods. In vivo application performs MRI scanning on nude mice implanted by iron-labeled human cancer cells. Results validate the limit of detectable phase gradient and the consequent susceptibility underestimation. Results also demonstrate the advantage of unwrapped forward differentiation compared with differential chain algorithms for susceptibility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mao, Heng; Wang, Xiao; Zhao, Dazun
2007-07-01
Baseline algorithm, as a tool in wavefront sensing (WFS), incorporates the phase-diverse phase retrieval (PDPR) method with hybrid-unwrapping approach to ensure a unique pupil phase estimate with high WFS accuracy even in the case of high dynamic range aberration, as long as the pupil shape is of a convex set. However, for a complicated pupil, such as that in obstructed pupil optics, the said unwrapping approach would fail owing to the fake values at points located in obstructed areas of the pupil. Thus a modified unwrapping approach that can minimize the negative effects of the obstructed areas is proposed. Simulations have shown the validity of this unwrapping approach when it is embedded in Baseline algorithm.
Fortier, Véronique; Levesque, Ives R
2018-06-01
Phase processing impacts the accuracy of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). Techniques for phase unwrapping and background removal have been proposed and demonstrated mostly in brain. In this work, phase processing was evaluated in the context of large susceptibility variations (Δχ) and negligible signal, in particular for susceptibility estimation using the iterative phase replacement (IPR) algorithm. Continuous Laplacian, region-growing, and quality-guided unwrapping were evaluated. For background removal, Laplacian boundary value (LBV), projection onto dipole fields (PDF), sophisticated harmonic artifact reduction for phase data (SHARP), variable-kernel sophisticated harmonic artifact reduction for phase data (V-SHARP), regularization enabled sophisticated harmonic artifact reduction for phase data (RESHARP), and 3D quadratic polynomial field removal were studied. Each algorithm was quantitatively evaluated in simulation and qualitatively in vivo. Additionally, IPR-QSM maps were produced to evaluate the impact of phase processing on the susceptibility in the context of large Δχ with negligible signal. Quality-guided unwrapping was the most accurate technique, whereas continuous Laplacian performed poorly in this context. All background removal algorithms tested resulted in important phase inaccuracies, suggesting that techniques used for brain do not translate well to situations where large Δχ and no or low signal are expected. LBV produced the smallest errors, followed closely by PDF. Results suggest that quality-guided unwrapping should be preferred, with PDF or LBV for background removal, for QSM in regions with large Δχ and negligible signal. This reduces the susceptibility inaccuracy introduced by phase processing. Accurate background removal remains an open question. Magn Reson Med 79:3103-3113, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
Vanin, Evgeny; Jacobsen, Gunnar
2010-03-01
The Bit-Error-Ratio (BER) floor caused by the laser phase noise in the optical fiber communication system with differential quadrature phase shift keying (DQPSK) and coherent detection followed by digital signal processing (DSP) is analytically evaluated. An in-phase and quadrature (I&Q) receiver with a carrier phase recovery using DSP is considered. The carrier phase recovery is based on a phase estimation of a finite sum (block) of the signal samples raised to the power of four and the phase unwrapping at transitions between blocks. It is demonstrated that errors generated at block transitions cause the dominating contribution to the system BER floor when the impact of the additive noise is negligibly small in comparison with the effect of the laser phase noise. Even the BER floor in the case when the phase unwrapping is omitted is analytically derived and applied to emphasize the crucial importance of this signal processing operation. The analytical results are verified by full Monte Carlo simulations. The BER for another type of DQPSK receiver operation, which is based on differential phase detection, is also obtained in the analytical form using the principle of conditional probability. The principle of conditional probability is justified in the case of differential phase detection due to statistical independency of the laser phase noise induced signal phase error and the additive noise contributions. Based on the achieved analytical results the laser linewidth tolerance is calculated for different system cases.
Image inversion analysis of the HST OTA (Hubble Space Telescope Optical Telescope Assembly), phase A
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Litvak, M. M.
1991-01-01
Technical work during September-December 1990 consisted of: (1) analyzing HST point source images obtained from JPL; (2) retrieving phase information from the images by a direct (noniterative) technique; and (3) characterizing the wavefront aberration due to the errors in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) mirrors, in a preliminary manner. This work was in support of JPL design of compensating optics for the next generation wide-field planetary camera on HST. This digital technique for phase retrieval from pairs of defocused images, is based on the energy transport equation between these image planes. In addition, an end-to-end wave optics routine, based on the JPL Code 5 prescription of the unaberrated HST and WFPC, was derived for output of the reference phase front when mirror error is absent. Also, the Roddier routine unwrapped the retrieved phase by inserting the required jumps of +/- 2(pi) radians for the sake of smoothness. A least-squares fitting routine, insensitive to phase unwrapping, but nonlinear, was used to obtain estimates of the Zernike polynomial coefficients that describe the aberration. The phase results were close to, but higher than, the expected error in conic constant of the primary mirror suggested by the fossil evidence. The analysis of aberration contributed by the camera itself could be responsible for the small discrepancy, but was not verified by analysis.
Research on effects of phase error in phase-shifting interferometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Hongjun; Wang, Zhao; Zhao, Hong; Tian, Ailing; Liu, Bingcai
2007-12-01
Referring to phase-shifting interferometry technology, the phase shifting error from the phase shifter is the main factor that directly affects the measurement accuracy of the phase shifting interferometer. In this paper, the resources and sorts of phase shifting error were introduction, and some methods to eliminate errors were mentioned. Based on the theory of phase shifting interferometry, the effects of phase shifting error were analyzed in detail. The Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) as a new shifter has advantage as that the phase shifting can be controlled digitally without any mechanical moving and rotating element. By changing coded image displayed on LCD, the phase shifting in measuring system was induced. LCD's phase modulation characteristic was analyzed in theory and tested. Based on Fourier transform, the effect model of phase error coming from LCD was established in four-step phase shifting interferometry. And the error range was obtained. In order to reduce error, a new error compensation algorithm was put forward. With this method, the error can be obtained by process interferogram. The interferogram can be compensated, and the measurement results can be obtained by four-step phase shifting interferogram. Theoretical analysis and simulation results demonstrate the feasibility of this approach to improve measurement accuracy.
Reliable absolute analog code retrieval approach for 3D measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Shuang; Zhang, Jing; Yu, Xiaoyang; Sun, Xiaoming; Wu, Haibin; Chen, Deyun
2017-11-01
The wrapped phase of phase-shifting approach can be unwrapped by using Gray code, but both the wrapped phase error and Gray code decoding error can result in period jump error, which will lead to gross measurement error. Therefore, this paper presents a reliable absolute analog code retrieval approach. The combination of unequal-period Gray code and phase shifting patterns at high frequencies are used to obtain high-frequency absolute analog code, and at low frequencies, the same unequal-period combination patterns are used to obtain the low-frequency absolute analog code. Next, the difference between the two absolute analog codes was employed to eliminate period jump errors, and a reliable unwrapped result can be obtained. Error analysis was used to determine the applicable conditions, and this approach was verified through theoretical analysis. The proposed approach was further verified experimentally. Theoretical analysis and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach can perform reliable analog code unwrapping.
A fast referenceless PRFS-based MR thermometry by phase finite difference
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zou, Chao; Shen, Huan; He, Mengyue; Tie, Changjun; Chung, Yiu-Cho; Liu, Xin
2013-08-01
Proton resonance frequency shift-based MR thermometry is a promising temperature monitoring approach for thermotherapy but its accuracy is vulnerable to inter-scan motion. Model-based referenceless thermometry has been proposed to address this problem but phase unwrapping is usually needed before the model fitting process. In this paper, a referenceless MR thermometry method using phase finite difference that avoids the time consuming phase unwrapping procedure is proposed. Unlike the previously proposed phase gradient technique, the use of finite difference in the new method reduces the fitting error resulting from the ringing artifacts associated with phase discontinuity in the calculation of the phase gradient image. The new method takes into account the values at the perimeter of the region of interest because of their direct relevance to the extrapolated baseline phase of the region of interest (where temperature increase takes place). In simulation study, in vivo and ex vivo experiments, the new method has a root-mean-square temperature error of 0.35 °C, 1.02 °C and 1.73 °C compared to 0.83 °C, 2.81 °C, and 3.76 °C from the phase gradient method, respectively. The method also demonstrated a slightly higher, albeit small, temperature accuracy than the original referenceless MR thermometry method. The proposed method is computationally efficient (∼0.1 s per image), making it very suitable for the real time temperature monitoring.
Iris unwrapping using the Bresenham circle algorithm for real-time iris recognition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carothers, Matthew T.; Ngo, Hau T.; Rakvic, Ryan N.; Broussard, Randy P.
2015-02-01
An efficient parallel architecture design for the iris unwrapping process in a real-time iris recognition system using the Bresenham Circle Algorithm is presented in this paper. Based on the characteristics of the model parameters this algorithm was chosen over the widely used polar conversion technique as the iris unwrapping model. The architecture design is parallelized to increase the throughput of the system and is suitable for processing an inputted image size of 320 × 240 pixels in real-time using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology. Quartus software is used to implement, verify, and analyze the design's performance using the VHSIC Hardware Description Language. The system's predicted processing time is faster than the modern iris unwrapping technique used today∗.
Software Method for Computed Tomography Cylinder Data Unwrapping, Re-slicing, and Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roth, Don J.
2013-01-01
A software method has been developed that is applicable for analyzing cylindrical and partially cylindrical objects inspected using computed tomography (CT). This method involves unwrapping and re-slicing data so that the CT data from the cylindrical object can be viewed as a series of 2D sheets (or flattened onion skins ) in addition to a series of top view slices and 3D volume rendering. The advantages of viewing the data in this fashion are as follows: (1) the use of standard and specialized image processing and analysis methods is facilitated having 2D array data versus a volume rendering; (2) accurate lateral dimensional analysis of flaws is possible in the unwrapped sheets versus volume rendering; (3) flaws in the part jump out at the inspector with the proper contrast expansion settings in the unwrapped sheets; and (4) it is much easier for the inspector to locate flaws in the unwrapped sheets versus top view slices for very thin cylinders. The method is fully automated and requires no input from the user except proper voxel dimension from the CT experiment and wall thickness of the part. The software is available in 32-bit and 64-bit versions, and can be used with binary data (8- and 16-bit) and BMP type CT image sets. The software has memory (RAM) and hard-drive based modes. The advantage of the (64-bit) RAM-based mode is speed (and is very practical for users of 64-bit Windows operating systems and computers having 16 GB or more RAM). The advantage of the hard-drive based analysis is one can work with essentially unlimited-sized data sets. Separate windows are spawned for the unwrapped/re-sliced data view and any image processing interactive capability. Individual unwrapped images and un -wrapped image series can be saved in common image formats. More information is available at http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/OptInstr/ NDE_CT_CylinderUnwrapper.html.
Phase estimation for magnetic resonance imaging near metal prostheses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bones, Philip J.; King, Laura J.; Millane, Rick P.
2015-09-01
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the potential to be the best technique for assessing complications in patients with metal orthopedic implants. The presence of fat can obscure definition of the other soft tissues in MRI images, so fat suppression is often required. However, the performance of existing fat suppression techniques is inadequate near implants, due to very significant magnetic field perturbations induced by the metal. The three-point Dixon technique is potentially a method of choice as it is able to suppress fat in the presence of inhomogeneities, but the success of this technique depends on being able to accurately calculate the phase shift. This is generally done using phase unwrapping and/or iterative reconstruction algorithms. Most current phase unwrapping techniques assume that the phase function is slowly varying and phase differences between adjacent points are limited to less than π radians in magnitude. Much greater phase differences can be present near metal implants. We present our experience with two phase unwrapping techniques which have been adapted to use prior knowledge of the implant. The first method identifies phase discontinuities before recovering the phase along paths through the image. The second method employs a transform to find the least squares solution to the unwrapped phase. Simulation results indicate that the methods show promise.
Tension-dependent free energies of nucleosome unwrapping
Lequieu, Joshua; Cordoba, Andres; Schwartz, David C.; ...
2016-08-23
Here, nucleosomes form the basic unit of compaction within eukaryotic genomes, and their locations represent an important, yet poorly understood, mechanism of genetic regulation. Quantifying the strength of interactions within the nucleosome is a central problem in biophysics and is critical to understanding how nucleosome positions influence gene expression. By comparing to single-molecule experiments, we demonstrate that a coarse-grained molecular model of the nucleosome can reproduce key aspects of nucleosome unwrapping. Using detailed simulations of DNA and histone proteins, we calculate the tension-dependent free energy surface corresponding to the unwrapping process. The model reproduces quantitatively the forces required to unwrapmore » the nucleosome and reveals the role played by electrostatic interactions during this process. We then demonstrate that histone modifications and DNA sequence can have significant effects on the energies of nucleosome formation. Most notably, we show that histone tails contribute asymmetrically to the stability of the outer and inner turn of nucleosomal DNA and that depending on which histone tails are modified, the tension-dependent response is modulated differently.« less
Full-Field Calibration of Color Camera Chromatic Aberration using Absolute Phase Maps.
Liu, Xiaohong; Huang, Shujun; Zhang, Zonghua; Gao, Feng; Jiang, Xiangqian
2017-05-06
The refractive index of a lens varies for different wavelengths of light, and thus the same incident light with different wavelengths has different outgoing light. This characteristic of lenses causes images captured by a color camera to display chromatic aberration (CA), which seriously reduces image quality. Based on an analysis of the distribution of CA, a full-field calibration method based on absolute phase maps is proposed in this paper. Red, green, and blue closed sinusoidal fringe patterns are generated, consecutively displayed on an LCD (liquid crystal display), and captured by a color camera from the front viewpoint. The phase information of each color fringe is obtained using a four-step phase-shifting algorithm and optimum fringe number selection method. CA causes the unwrapped phase of the three channels to differ. These pixel deviations can be computed by comparing the unwrapped phase data of the red, blue, and green channels in polar coordinates. CA calibration is accomplished in Cartesian coordinates. The systematic errors introduced by the LCD are analyzed and corrected. Simulated results show the validity of the proposed method and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed full-field calibration method based on absolute phase maps will be useful for practical software-based CA calibration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Missan, Sergey; Hrytsenko, Olga
2015-03-01
Digital inline holographic microscopy was used to record holograms of mammalian cells (HEK293, B16, and E0771) in culture. The holograms have been reconstructed using Octopus software (4Deep inwater imaging) and phase shift maps were unwrapped using the FFT-based phase unwrapping algorithm. The unwrapped phase shifts were used to determine the maximum phase shifts in individual cells. Addition of 0.5 mM H2O2 to cell media produced rapid rounding of cultured cells, followed by cell membrane rupture. The cell morphology changes and cell membrane ruptures were detected in real time and were apparent in the unwrapped phase shift images. The results indicate that quantitative phase contrast imaging produced by the digital inline holographic microscope can be used for the label-free real time automated determination of cell viability and confluence in mammalian cell cultures.
Phase correction and error estimation in InSAR time series analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Y.; Fattahi, H.; Amelung, F.
2017-12-01
During the last decade several InSAR time series approaches have been developed in response to the non-idea acquisition strategy of SAR satellites, such as large spatial and temporal baseline with non-regular acquisitions. The small baseline tubes and regular acquisitions of new SAR satellites such as Sentinel-1 allows us to form fully connected networks of interferograms and simplifies the time series analysis into a weighted least square inversion of an over-determined system. Such robust inversion allows us to focus more on the understanding of different components in InSAR time-series and its uncertainties. We present an open-source python-based package for InSAR time series analysis, called PySAR (https://yunjunz.github.io/PySAR/), with unique functionalities for obtaining unbiased ground displacement time-series, geometrical and atmospheric correction of InSAR data and quantifying the InSAR uncertainty. Our implemented strategy contains several features including: 1) improved spatial coverage using coherence-based network of interferograms, 2) unwrapping error correction using phase closure or bridging, 3) tropospheric delay correction using weather models and empirical approaches, 4) DEM error correction, 5) optimal selection of reference date and automatic outlier detection, 6) InSAR uncertainty due to the residual tropospheric delay, decorrelation and residual DEM error, and 7) variance-covariance matrix of final products for geodetic inversion. We demonstrate the performance using SAR datasets acquired by Cosmo-Skymed and TerraSAR-X, Sentinel-1 and ALOS/ALOS-2, with application on the highly non-linear volcanic deformation in Japan and Ecuador (figure 1). Our result shows precursory deformation before the 2015 eruptions of Cotopaxi volcano, with a maximum uplift of 3.4 cm on the western flank (fig. 1b), with a standard deviation of 0.9 cm (fig. 1a), supporting the finding by Morales-Rivera et al. (2017, GRL); and a post-eruptive subsidence on the same
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaitsev, Vladimir Y.; Matveyev, Alexander L.; Matveev, Lev A.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Sovetsky, Aleksandr A.; Vitkin, Alex
2016-11-01
In compressional optical coherence elastography, phase-variation gradients are used for estimating quasistatic strains created in tissue. Using reference and deformed optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans, one typically compares phases from pixels with the same coordinates in both scans. Usually, this limits the allowable strains to fairly small values < to 10-3, with the caveat that such weak phase gradients may become corrupted by stronger measurement noises. Here, we extend the OCT phase-resolved elastographic methodology by (1) showing that an order of magnitude greater strains can significantly increase the accuracy of derived phase-gradient differences, while also avoiding error-phone phase-unwrapping procedures and minimizing the influence of decorrelation noise caused by suprapixel displacements, (2) discussing the appearance of artifactual stiff inclusions in resultant OCT elastograms in the vicinity of bright scatterers due to the amplitude-phase interplay in phase-variation measurements, and (3) deriving/evaluating methods of phase-gradient estimation that can outperform conventionally used least-square gradient fitting. We present analytical arguments, numerical simulations, and experimental examples to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed optimized phase-variation methodology.
Time-dependent phase error correction using digital waveform synthesis
Doerry, Armin W.; Buskirk, Stephen
2017-10-10
The various technologies presented herein relate to correcting a time-dependent phase error generated as part of the formation of a radar waveform. A waveform can be pre-distorted to facilitate correction of an error induced into the waveform by a downstream operation/component in a radar system. For example, amplifier power droop effect can engender a time-dependent phase error in a waveform as part of a radar signal generating operation. The error can be quantified and an according complimentary distortion can be applied to the waveform to facilitate negation of the error during the subsequent processing of the waveform. A time domain correction can be applied by a phase error correction look up table incorporated into a waveform phase generator.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Zhenhai; Li, Kejie; Wu, Xiaobing; Zhang, Shujiang
2008-03-01
The unwrapped and correcting algorithm based on Coordinate Rotation Digital Computer (CORDIC) and bilinear interpolation algorithm was presented in this paper, with the purpose of processing dynamic panoramic annular image. An original annular panoramic image captured by panoramic annular lens (PAL) can be unwrapped and corrected to conventional rectangular image without distortion, which is much more coincident with people's vision. The algorithm for panoramic image processing is modeled by VHDL and implemented in FPGA. The experimental results show that the proposed panoramic image algorithm for unwrapped and distortion correction has the lower computation complexity and the architecture for dynamic panoramic image processing has lower hardware cost and power consumption. And the proposed algorithm is valid.
Phase measurement error in summation of electron holography series.
McLeod, Robert A; Bergen, Michael; Malac, Marek
2014-06-01
Off-axis electron holography is a method for the transmission electron microscope (TEM) that measures the electric and magnetic properties of a specimen. The electrostatic and magnetic potentials modulate the electron wavefront phase. The error in measurement of the phase therefore determines the smallest observable changes in electric and magnetic properties. Here we explore the summation of a hologram series to reduce the phase error and thereby improve the sensitivity of electron holography. Summation of hologram series requires independent registration and correction of image drift and phase wavefront drift, the consequences of which are discussed. Optimization of the electro-optical configuration of the TEM for the double biprism configuration is examined. An analytical model of image and phase drift, composed of a combination of linear drift and Brownian random-walk, is derived and experimentally verified. The accuracy of image registration via cross-correlation and phase registration is characterized by simulated hologram series. The model of series summation errors allows the optimization of phase error as a function of exposure time and fringe carrier frequency for a target spatial resolution. An experimental example of hologram series summation is provided on WS2 fullerenes. A metric is provided to measure the object phase error from experimental results and compared to analytical predictions. The ultimate experimental object root-mean-square phase error is 0.006 rad (2π/1050) at a spatial resolution less than 0.615 nm and a total exposure time of 900 s. The ultimate phase error in vacuum adjacent to the specimen is 0.0037 rad (2π/1700). The analytical prediction of phase error differs with the experimental metrics by +7% inside the object and -5% in the vacuum, indicating that the model can provide reliable quantitative predictions. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Unwrapping an Ancient Egyptian Mummy Using X-Rays
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hughes, Stephen W.
2010-01-01
This article describes a project of unwrapping an ancient Egyptian mummy using x-ray computed tomography (CT). About 600 x-ray CT images were obtained through the mummified body of a female named Tjetmutjengebtiu (or Jeni for short), who was a singer in the great temple of Karnak in Egypt during the 22nd dynasty (c 945-715 BC). The x-ray CT images…
Hubig, Michael; Suchandt, Steffen; Adam, Nico
2004-10-01
Phase unwrapping (PU) represents an important step in synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) and other interferometric applications. Among the different PU methods, the so called branch-cut approaches play an important role. In 1996 M. Costantini [Proceedings of the Fringe '96 Workshop ERS SAR Interferometry (European Space Agency, Munich, 1996), pp. 261-272] proposed to transform the problem of correctly placing branch cuts into a minimum cost flow (MCF) problem. The crucial point of this new approach is to generate cost functions that represent the a priori knowledge necessary for PU. Since cost functions are derived from measured data, they are random variables. This leads to the question of MCF solution stability: How much can the cost functions be varied without changing the cheapest flow that represents the correct branch cuts? This question is partially answered: The existence of a whole linear subspace in the space of cost functions is shown; this subspace contains all cost differences by which a cost function can be changed without changing the cost difference between any two flows that are discharging any residue configuration. These cost differences are called strictly stable cost differences. For quadrangular nonclosed networks (the most important type of MCF networks for interferometric purposes) a complete classification of strictly stable cost differences is presented. Further, the role of the well-known class of node potentials in the framework of strictly stable cost differences is investigated, and information on the vector-space structure representing the MCF environment is provided.
Maher, Robyn L.; Prasad, Amalthiya; Rizvanova, Olga; Wallace, Susan S.; Pederson, David S.
2013-01-01
Reactive oxygen species generate ~20,000 oxidative lesions in the DNA of every cell, every day. Most of these lesions are located within nucleosomes, which package DNA in chromatin and impede base excision repair (BER). We demonstrated previously that periodic, spontaneous partial unwrapping of DNA from the underlying histone octamer enables BER enzymes to bind to oxidative lesions that would otherwise be sterically inaccessible. In the present study, we asked if these periodic DNA unwrapping events are frequent enough to account for the estimated rates of BER in vivo. We measured rates of excision of oxidative lesions from sites in nucleosomes that are accessible only during unwrapping episodes. Using reaction conditions appropriate for presteady-state kinetic analyses, we derived lesion exposure rates for both 601 and 5S rDNA-based nucleosomes. Although DNA unwrapping-mediated exposure of a lesion ~16 NT from the nucleosome edge occurred ~7–8 times per minute, exposure rates fell dramatically for lesions located 10 or more NT further in from the nucleosome edge. The rates likely are too low to account for observed rates of BER in cells. Thus, chromatin remodeling, either BER-specific or that associated with transcription, replication, or other DNA repair processes, probably contributes to efficient BER in vivo. PMID:24051050
Pixel-by-pixel absolute phase retrieval using three phase-shifted fringe patterns without markers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Chufan; Li, Beiwen; Zhang, Song
2017-04-01
This paper presents a method that can recover absolute phase pixel by pixel without embedding markers on three phase-shifted fringe patterns, acquiring additional images, or introducing additional hardware component(s). The proposed three-dimensional (3D) absolute shape measurement technique includes the following major steps: (1) segment the measured object into different regions using rough priori knowledge of surface geometry; (2) artificially create phase maps at different z planes using geometric constraints of structured light system; (3) unwrap the phase pixel by pixel for each region by properly referring to the artificially created phase map; and (4) merge unwrapped phases from all regions into a complete absolute phase map for 3D reconstruction. We demonstrate that conventional three-step phase-shifted fringe patterns can be used to create absolute phase map pixel by pixel even for large depth range objects. We have successfully implemented our proposed computational framework to achieve absolute 3D shape measurement at 40 Hz.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Donghui; Chen, Lei; Li, Jinpeng; Sun, Qinyuan; Zhu, Wenhua; Anderson, James; Zhao, Jian; Schülzgen, Axel
2018-03-01
Circular carrier squeezing interferometry (CCSI) is proposed and applied to suppress phase shift error in simultaneous phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometer (SPSPDI). By introducing a defocus, four phase-shifting point-diffraction interferograms with circular carrier are acquired, and then converted into linear carrier interferograms by a coordinate transform. Rearranging the transformed interferograms into a spatial-temporal fringe (STF), so the error lobe will be separated from the phase lobe in the Fourier spectrum of the STF, and filtering the phase lobe to calculate the extended phase, when combined with the corresponding inverse coordinate transform, exactly retrieves the initial phase. Both simulations and experiments validate the ability of CCSI to suppress the ripple error generated by the phase shift error. Compared with carrier squeezing interferometry (CSI), CCSI is effective on some occasions in which a linear carrier is difficult to introduce, and with the added benefit of eliminating retrace error.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Natarajan, Suresh; Gardner, C. S.
1987-01-01
Receiver timing synchronization of an optical Pulse-Position Modulation (PPM) communication system can be achieved using a phased-locked loop (PLL), provided the photodetector output is suitably processed. The magnitude of the PLL phase error is a good indicator of the timing error at the receiver decoder. The statistics of the phase error are investigated while varying several key system parameters such as PPM order, signal and background strengths, and PPL bandwidth. A practical optical communication system utilizing a laser diode transmitter and an avalanche photodiode in the receiver is described, and the sampled phase error data are presented. A linear regression analysis is applied to the data to obtain estimates of the relational constants involving the phase error variance and incident signal power.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Yuzhen; Lu, Renfu
2017-05-01
Three-dimensional (3-D) shape information is valuable for fruit quality evaluation. This study was aimed at developing phase analysis techniques for reconstruction of the 3-D surface of fruit from the pattern images acquired by a structuredillumination reflectance imaging (SIRI) system. Phase-shifted sinusoidal patterns, distorted by the fruit geometry, were acquired and processed through phase demodulation, phase unwrapping and other post-processing procedures to obtain phase difference maps relative to the phase of a reference plane. The phase maps were then transformed into height profiles and 3-D shapes in a world coordinate system based on phase-to-height and in-plane calibrations. A reference plane-based approach, coupled with the curve fitting technique using polynomials of order 3 or higher, was utilized for phase-to-height calibrations, which achieved superior accuracies with the root-mean-squared errors (RMSEs) of 0.027- 0.033 mm for a height measurement range of 0-91 mm. The 3rd-order polynomial curve fitting technique was further tested on two reference blocks with known heights, resulting in relative errors of 3.75% and 4.16%. In-plane calibrations were performed by solving a linear system formed by a number of control points in a calibration object, which yielded a RMSE of 0.311 mm. Tests of the calibrated system for reconstructing the surface of apple samples showed that surface concavities (i.e., stem/calyx regions) could be easily discriminated from bruises from the phase difference maps, reconstructed height profiles and the 3-D shape of apples. This study has laid a foundation for using SIRI for 3-D shape measurement, and thus expanded the capability of the technique for quality evaluation of horticultural products. Further research is needed to utilize the phase analysis techniques for stem/calyx detection of apples, and optimize the phase demodulation and unwrapping algorithms for faster and more reliable detection.
Quantifying phase synchronization using instances of Hilbert phase slips
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Govindan, R. B.
2018-07-01
We propose to quantify phase synchronization between two signals, x(t) and y(t), by calculating variance in the Hilbert phase of y(t) at instances of phase slips exhibited by x(t). The proposed approach is tested on numerically simulated coupled chaotic Roessler systems and second order autoregressive processes. Furthermore we compare the performance of the proposed and original approaches using uterine electromyogram signals and show that both approaches yield consistent results A standard phase synchronization approach, which involves unwrapping the Hilbert phases (ϕ1(t) and ϕ2(t)) of the two signals and analyzing the variance in the | n ṡϕ1(t) - m ṡϕ2(t) | , mod 2 π, (n and m are integers), was used for comparison. The synchronization indexes obtained from the proposed approach and the standard approach agree reasonably well in all of the systems studied in this work. Our results indicate that the proposed approach, unlike the traditional approach, does not require the non-invertible transformations - unwrapping of the phases and calculation of mod 2 π and it can be used to reliably to quantify phase synchrony between two signals.
Robust water fat separated dual-echo MRI by phase-sensitive reconstruction.
Romu, Thobias; Dahlström, Nils; Leinhard, Olof Dahlqvist; Borga, Magnus
2017-09-01
The purpose of this work was to develop and evaluate a robust water-fat separation method for T1-weighted symmetric two-point Dixon data. A method for water-fat separation by phase unwrapping of the opposite-phase images by phase-sensitive reconstruction (PSR) is introduced. PSR consists of three steps; (1), identification of clusters of tissue voxels; (2), unwrapping of the phase in each cluster by solving Poisson's equation; and (3), finding the correct sign of each unwrapped opposite-phase cluster, so that the water-fat images are assigned the correct identities. Robustness was evaluated by counting the number of water-fat swap artifacts in a total of 733 image volumes. The method was also compared to commercial software. In the water-fat separated image volumes, the PSR method failed to unwrap the phase of one cluster and misclassified 10. One swap was observed in areas affected by motion and was constricted to the affected area. Twenty swaps were observed surrounding susceptibility artifacts, none of which spread outside the artifact affected regions. The PSR method had fewer swaps when compared to commercial software. The PSR method can robustly produce water-fat separated whole-body images based on symmetric two-echo spoiled gradient echo images, under both ideal conditions and in the presence of common artifacts. Magn Reson Med 78:1208-1216, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
Research on calibration error of carrier phase against antenna arraying
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Ke; Hou, Xiaomin
2016-11-01
It is the technical difficulty of uplink antenna arraying that signals from various quarters can not be automatically aligned at the target in deep space. The size of the far-field power combining gain is directly determined by the accuracy of carrier phase calibration. It is necessary to analyze the entire arraying system in order to improve the accuracy of the phase calibration. This paper analyzes the factors affecting the calibration error of carrier phase of uplink antenna arraying system including the error of phase measurement and equipment, the error of the uplink channel phase shift, the position error of ground antenna, calibration receiver and target spacecraft, the error of the atmospheric turbulence disturbance. Discuss the spatial and temporal autocorrelation model of atmospheric disturbances. Each antenna of the uplink antenna arraying is no common reference signal for continuous calibration. So it must be a system of the periodic calibration. Calibration is refered to communication of one or more spacecrafts in a certain period. Because the deep space targets are not automatically aligned to multiplexing received signal. Therefore the aligned signal should be done in advance on the ground. Data is shown that the error can be controlled within the range of demand by the use of existing technology to meet the accuracy of carrier phase calibration. The total error can be controlled within a reasonable range.
Errors in the Extra-Analytical Phases of Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Testing.
Zemlin, Annalise E
2018-04-01
The total testing process consists of various phases from the pre-preanalytical to the post-postanalytical phase, the so-called brain-to-brain loop. With improvements in analytical techniques and efficient quality control programmes, most laboratory errors now occur in the extra-analytical phases. There has been recent interest in these errors with numerous publications highlighting their effect on service delivery, patient care and cost. This interest has led to the formation of various working groups whose mission is to develop standardized quality indicators which can be used to measure the performance of service of these phases. This will eventually lead to the development of external quality assessment schemes to monitor these phases in agreement with ISO15189:2012 recommendations. This review focuses on potential errors in the extra-analytical phases of clinical chemistry laboratory testing, some of the studies performed to assess the severity and impact of these errors and processes that are in place to address these errors. The aim of this review is to highlight the importance of these errors for the requesting clinician.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mao, Heng; Wang, Xiao; Zhao, Dazun
2009-05-01
As a wavefront sensing (WFS) tool, Baseline algorithm, which is classified as the iterative-transform algorithm of phase retrieval, estimates the phase distribution at pupil from some known PSFs at defocus planes. By using multiple phase diversities and appropriate phase unwrapping methods, this algorithm can accomplish reliable unique solution and high dynamic phase measurement. In the paper, a Baseline algorithm based wavefront sensing experiment with modification of phase unwrapping has been implemented, and corresponding Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) software has also been given. The adaptability and repeatability of Baseline algorithm have been validated in experiments. Moreover, referring to the ZYGO interferometric results, the WFS accuracy of this algorithm has been exactly calibrated.
Analysis of phase error effects in multishot diffusion-prepared turbo spin echo imaging
Cervantes, Barbara; Kooijman, Hendrik; Karampinos, Dimitrios C.
2017-01-01
Background To characterize the effect of phase errors on the magnitude and the phase of the diffusion-weighted (DW) signal acquired with diffusion-prepared turbo spin echo (dprep-TSE) sequences. Methods Motion and eddy currents were identified as the main sources of phase errors. An analytical expression for the effect of phase errors on the acquired signal was derived and verified using Bloch simulations, phantom, and in vivo experiments. Results Simulations and experiments showed that phase errors during the diffusion preparation cause both magnitude and phase modulation on the acquired data. When motion-induced phase error (MiPe) is accounted for (e.g., with motion-compensated diffusion encoding), the signal magnitude modulation due to the leftover eddy-current-induced phase error cannot be eliminated by the conventional phase cycling and sum-of-squares (SOS) method. By employing magnitude stabilizers, the phase-error-induced magnitude modulation, regardless of its cause, was removed but the phase modulation remained. The in vivo comparison between pulsed gradient and flow-compensated diffusion preparations showed that MiPe needed to be addressed in multi-shot dprep-TSE acquisitions employing magnitude stabilizers. Conclusions A comprehensive analysis of phase errors in dprep-TSE sequences showed that magnitude stabilizers are mandatory in removing the phase error induced magnitude modulation. Additionally, when multi-shot dprep-TSE is employed the inconsistent signal phase modulation across shots has to be resolved before shot-combination is performed. PMID:28516049
A New Approach to Estimate Forest Parameters Using Dual-Baseline Pol-InSAR Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, L.; Hong, W.; Cao, F.; Zhou, Y.
2009-04-01
In POL-InSAR applications using ESPRIT technique, it is assumed that there exist stable scattering centres in the forest. However, the observations in forest severely suffer from volume and temporal decorrelation. The forest scatters are not stable as assumed. The obtained interferometric information is not accurate as expected. Besides, ESPRIT techniques could not identify the interferometric phases corresponding to the ground and the canopy. It provides multiple estimations for the height between two scattering centers due to phase unwrapping. Therefore, estimation errors are introduced to the forest height results. To suppress the two types of errors, we use the dual-baseline POL-InSAR data to estimate forest height. Dual-baseline coherence optimization is applied to obtain interferometric information of stable scattering centers in the forest. From the interferometric phases for different baselines, estimation errors caused by phase unwrapping is solved. Other estimation errors can be suppressed, too. Experiments are done to the ESAR L band POL-InSAR data. Experimental results show the proposed methods provide more accurate forest height than ESPRIT technique.
TanDEM-X calibrated Raw DEM generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rossi, Cristian; Rodriguez Gonzalez, Fernando; Fritz, Thomas; Yague-Martinez, Nestor; Eineder, Michael
2012-09-01
The TanDEM-X mission successfully started on June 21st 2010 with the launch of the German radar satellite TDX, placed in orbit in close formation with the TerraSAR-X (TSX) satellite, and establishing the first spaceborne bistatic interferometer. The processing of SAR raw data to the Raw DEM is performed by one single processor, the Integrated TanDEM-X Processor (ITP). The quality of the Raw DEM is a fundamental parameter for the mission planning. In this paper, a novel quality indicator is derived. It is based on the comparison of the interferometric measure, the unwrapped phase, and the stereo-radargrammetric measure, the geometrical shifts computed in the coregistration stage. By stating the accuracy of the unwrapped phase, it constitutes a useful parameter for the determination of problematic scenes, which will be resubmitted to the dual baseline phase unwrapping processing chain for the mitigation of phase unwrapping errors. The stereo-radargrammetric measure is also operationally used for the Raw DEM absolute calibration through an accurate estimation of the absolute phase offset. This paper examines the interferometric algorithms implemented for the operational TanDEM-X Raw DEM generation, focusing particularly on its quality assessment and its calibration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Minkang; Zhou, Changhe; Wei, Chunlong; Jia, Wei; Lu, Yancong; Xiang, Changcheng; Xiang, XianSong
2016-10-01
Large-sized gratings are essential optical elements in laser fusion and space astronomy facilities. Scanning beam interference lithography is an effective method to fabricate large-sized gratings. To minimize the nonlinear phase written into the photo-resist, the image grating must be measured to adjust the left and right beams to interfere at their waists. In this paper, we propose a new method to conduct wavefront metrology based on phase-stepping interferometry. Firstly, a transmission grating is used to combine the two beams to form an interferogram which is recorded by a charge coupled device(CCD). Phase steps are introduced by moving the grating with a linear stage monitored by a laser interferometer. A series of interferograms are recorded as the displacement is measured by the laser interferometer. Secondly, to eliminate the tilt and piston error during the phase stepping, the iterative least square phase shift method is implemented to obtain the wrapped phase. Thirdly, we use the discrete cosine transform least square method to unwrap the phase map. Experiment results indicate that the measured wavefront has a nonlinear phase around 0.05 λ@404.7nm. Finally, as the image grating is acquired, we simulate the print-error written into the photo-resist.
A Dual Frequency Carrier Phase Error Difference Checking Algorithm for the GNSS Compass.
Liu, Shuo; Zhang, Lei; Li, Jian
2016-11-24
The performance of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) compass is related to the quality of carrier phase measurement. How to process the carrier phase error properly is important to improve the GNSS compass accuracy. In this work, we propose a dual frequency carrier phase error difference checking algorithm for the GNSS compass. The algorithm aims at eliminating large carrier phase error in dual frequency double differenced carrier phase measurement according to the error difference between two frequencies. The advantage of the proposed algorithm is that it does not need additional environment information and has a good performance on multiple large errors compared with previous research. The core of the proposed algorithm is removing the geographical distance from the dual frequency carrier phase measurement, then the carrier phase error is separated and detectable. We generate the Double Differenced Geometry-Free (DDGF) measurement according to the characteristic that the different frequency carrier phase measurements contain the same geometrical distance. Then, we propose the DDGF detection to detect the large carrier phase error difference between two frequencies. The theoretical performance of the proposed DDGF detection is analyzed. An open sky test, a manmade multipath test and an urban vehicle test were carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. The result shows that the proposed DDGF detection is able to detect large error in dual frequency carrier phase measurement by checking the error difference between two frequencies. After the DDGF detection, the accuracy of the baseline vector is improved in the GNSS compass.
Blind phase error suppression for color-encoded digital fringe projection profilometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, S.; Zhu, R.; Quan, C.; Li, B.; Tay, C. J.; Chen, L.
2012-04-01
Color-encoded digital fringe projection profilometry (CDFPP) has the advantage of fast speed, non-contact and full-field testing. It is one of the most important dynamic three-dimensional (3D) profile measurement techniques. However, due to factors such as color cross-talk and gamma distortion of electro-optical devices, phase errors arise when conventional phase-shifting algorithms with fixed phase shift values are utilized to retrieve phases. In this paper, a simple and effective blind phase error suppression approach based on isotropic n-dimensional fringe pattern normalization (INFPN) and carrier squeezing interferometry (CSI) is proposed. It does not require pre-calibration for the gamma and color-coupling coefficients or the phase shift values. Simulation and experimental works show that our proposed approach is able to effectively suppress phase errors and achieve accurate measurement results in CDFPP.
Canceling the momentum in a phase-shifting algorithm to eliminate spatially uniform errors.
Hibino, Kenichi; Kim, Yangjin
2016-08-10
In phase-shifting interferometry, phase modulation nonlinearity causes both spatially uniform and nonuniform errors in the measured phase. Conventional linear-detuning error-compensating algorithms only eliminate the spatially variable error component. The uniform error is proportional to the inertial momentum of the data-sampling weight of a phase-shifting algorithm. This paper proposes a design approach to cancel the momentum by using characteristic polynomials in the Z-transform space and shows that an arbitrary M-frame algorithm can be modified to a new (M+2)-frame algorithm that acquires new symmetry to eliminate the uniform error.
A hybrid method for synthetic aperture ladar phase-error compensation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hua, Zhili; Li, Hongping; Gu, Yongjian
2009-07-01
As a high resolution imaging sensor, synthetic aperture ladar data contain phase-error whose source include uncompensated platform motion and atmospheric turbulence distortion errors. Two previously devised methods, rank one phase-error estimation algorithm and iterative blind deconvolution are reexamined, of which a hybrid method that can recover both the images and PSF's without any a priori information on the PSF is built to speed up the convergence rate by the consideration in the choice of initialization. To be integrated into spotlight mode SAL imaging model respectively, three methods all can effectively reduce the phase-error distortion. For each approach, signal to noise ratio, root mean square error and CPU time are computed, from which we can see the convergence rate of the hybrid method can be improved because a more efficient initialization set of blind deconvolution. Moreover, by making a further discussion of the hybrid method, the weight distribution of ROPE and IBD is found to be an important factor that affects the final result of the whole compensation process.
Dual-wavelength digital holographic imaging with phase background subtraction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khmaladze, Alexander; Matz, Rebecca L.; Jasensky, Joshua; Seeley, Emily; Holl, Mark M. Banaszak; Chen, Zhan
2012-05-01
Three-dimensional digital holographic microscopic phase imaging of objects that are thicker than the wavelength of the imaging light is ambiguous and results in phase wrapping. In recent years, several unwrapping methods that employed two or more wavelengths were introduced. These methods compare the phase information obtained from each of the wavelengths and extend the range of unambiguous height measurements. A straightforward dual-wavelength phase imaging method is presented which allows for a flexible tradeoff between the maximum height of the sample and the amount of noise the method can tolerate. For highly accurate phase measurements, phase unwrapping of objects with heights higher than the beat (synthetic) wavelength (i.e. the product of the original two wavelengths divided by their difference), can be achieved. Consequently, three-dimensional measurements of a wide variety of biological systems and microstructures become technically feasible. Additionally, an effective method of removing phase background curvature based on slowly varying polynomial fitting is proposed. This method allows accurate volume measurements of several small objects with the same image frame.
Adaptive Sparse Representation for Source Localization with Gain/Phase Errors
Sun, Ke; Liu, Yimin; Meng, Huadong; Wang, Xiqin
2011-01-01
Sparse representation (SR) algorithms can be implemented for high-resolution direction of arrival (DOA) estimation. Additionally, SR can effectively separate the coherent signal sources because the spectrum estimation is based on the optimization technique, such as the L1 norm minimization, but not on subspace orthogonality. However, in the actual source localization scenario, an unknown gain/phase error between the array sensors is inevitable. Due to this nonideal factor, the predefined overcomplete basis mismatches the actual array manifold so that the estimation performance is degraded in SR. In this paper, an adaptive SR algorithm is proposed to improve the robustness with respect to the gain/phase error, where the overcomplete basis is dynamically adjusted using multiple snapshots and the sparse solution is adaptively acquired to match with the actual scenario. The simulation results demonstrate the estimation robustness to the gain/phase error using the proposed method. PMID:22163875
Time series analysis of Mexico City subsidence constrained by radar interferometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
López-Quiroz, Penélope; Doin, Marie-Pierre; Tupin, Florence; Briole, Pierre; Nicolas, Jean-Marie
2009-09-01
In Mexico City, subsidence rates reach up to 40 cm/yr mainly due to soil compaction led by the over exploitation of the Mexico Basin aquifer. In this paper, we map the spatial and temporal patterns of the Mexico City subsidence by differential radar interferometry, using 38 ENVISAT images acquired between end of 2002 and beginning of 2007. We present the severe interferogram unwrapping problems partly due to the coherence loss but mostly due to the high fringe rates. These difficulties are overcome by designing a new methodology that helps the unwrapping step. Our approach is based on the fact that the deformation shape is stable for similar time intervals during the studied period. As a result, a stack of the five best interferograms can be used to compute an average deformation rate for a fixed time interval. Before unwrapping, the number of fringes is then decreased in wrapped interferograms using a scaled version of the stack together with the estimation of the atmospheric phase contribution related with the troposphere vertical stratification. The residual phase, containing less fringes, is more easily unwrapped than the original interferogram. The unwrapping procedure is applied in three iterative steps. The 71 small baseline unwrapped interferograms are inverted to obtain increments of radar propagation delays between the 38 acquisition dates. Based on the redundancy of the interferometric data base, we quantify the unwrapping errors and show that they are strongly decreased by iterations in the unwrapping process. A map of the RMS interferometric system misclosure allows to define the unwrapping reliability for each pixel. Finally, we present a new algorithm for time series analysis that differs from classical SVD decomposition and is best suited to the present data base. Accurate deformation time series are then derived over the metropolitan area of the city with a spatial resolution of 30 × 30 m.
Jiang, Junfeng; Wang, Shaohua; Liu, Tiegen; Liu, Kun; Yin, Jinde; Meng, Xiange; Zhang, Yimo; Wang, Shuang; Qin, Zunqi; Wu, Fan; Li, Dingjie
2012-07-30
A demodulation algorithm based on absolute phase recovery of a selected monochromatic frequency is proposed for optical fiber Fabry-Perot pressure sensing system. The algorithm uses Fourier transform to get the relative phase and intercept of the unwrapped phase-frequency linear fit curve to identify its interference-order, which are then used to recover the absolute phase. A simplified mathematical model of the polarized low-coherence interference fringes was established to illustrate the principle of the proposed algorithm. Phase unwrapping and the selection of monochromatic frequency were discussed in detail. Pressure measurement experiment was carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Results showed that the demodulation precision by our algorithm could reach up to 0.15kPa, which has been improved by 13 times comparing with phase slope based algorithm.
Motion-induced phase error estimation and correction in 3D diffusion tensor imaging.
Van, Anh T; Hernando, Diego; Sutton, Bradley P
2011-11-01
A multishot data acquisition strategy is one way to mitigate B0 distortion and T2∗ blurring for high-resolution diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging experiments. However, different object motions that take place during different shots cause phase inconsistencies in the data, leading to significant image artifacts. This work proposes a maximum likelihood estimation and k-space correction of motion-induced phase errors in 3D multishot diffusion tensor imaging. The proposed error estimation is robust, unbiased, and approaches the Cramer-Rao lower bound. For rigid body motion, the proposed correction effectively removes motion-induced phase errors regardless of the k-space trajectory used and gives comparable performance to the more computationally expensive 3D iterative nonlinear phase error correction method. The method has been extended to handle multichannel data collected using phased-array coils. Simulation and in vivo data are shown to demonstrate the performance of the method.
Steady-state phase error for a phase-locked loop subjected to periodic Doppler inputs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, C.-C.; Win, M. Z.
1991-01-01
The performance of a carrier phase locked loop (PLL) driven by a periodic Doppler input is studied. By expanding the Doppler input into a Fourier series and applying the linearized PLL approximations, it is easy to show that, for periodic frequency disturbances, the resulting steady state phase error is also periodic. Compared to the method of expanding frequency excursion into a power series, the Fourier expansion method can be used to predict the maximum phase error excursion for a periodic Doppler input. For systems with a large Doppler rate fluctuation, such as an optical transponder aboard an Earth orbiting spacecraft, the method can be applied to test whether a lower order tracking loop can provide satisfactory tracking and thereby save the effect of a higher order loop design.
MacDonald, M. Ethan; Forkert, Nils D.; Pike, G. Bruce; Frayne, Richard
2016-01-01
Purpose Volume flow rate (VFR) measurements based on phase contrast (PC)-magnetic resonance (MR) imaging datasets have spatially varying bias due to eddy current induced phase errors. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of phase errors in time averaged PC-MR imaging of the cerebral vasculature and explore the effects of three common correction schemes (local bias correction (LBC), local polynomial correction (LPC), and whole brain polynomial correction (WBPC)). Methods Measurements of the eddy current induced phase error from a static phantom were first obtained. In thirty healthy human subjects, the methods were then assessed in background tissue to determine if local phase offsets could be removed. Finally, the techniques were used to correct VFR measurements in cerebral vessels and compared statistically. Results In the phantom, phase error was measured to be <2.1 ml/s per pixel and the bias was reduced with the correction schemes. In background tissue, the bias was significantly reduced, by 65.6% (LBC), 58.4% (LPC) and 47.7% (WBPC) (p < 0.001 across all schemes). Correction did not lead to significantly different VFR measurements in the vessels (p = 0.997). In the vessel measurements, the three correction schemes led to flow measurement differences of -0.04 ± 0.05 ml/s, 0.09 ± 0.16 ml/s, and -0.02 ± 0.06 ml/s. Although there was an improvement in background measurements with correction, there was no statistical difference between the three correction schemes (p = 0.242 in background and p = 0.738 in vessels). Conclusions While eddy current induced phase errors can vary between hardware and sequence configurations, our results showed that the impact is small in a typical brain PC-MR protocol and does not have a significant effect on VFR measurements in cerebral vessels. PMID:26910600
Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission Commissioning Phase Orbit Determination Error Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chung, Lauren R.; Novak, Stefan; Long, Anne; Gramling, Cheryl
2009-01-01
The Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission commissioning phase starts in a 185 km altitude x 12 Earth radii (RE) injection orbit and lasts until the Phase 1 mission orbits and orientation to the Earth-Sun li ne are achieved. During a limited time period in the early part of co mmissioning, five maneuvers are performed to raise the perigee radius to 1.2 R E, with a maneuver every other apogee. The current baseline is for the Goddard Space Flight Center Flight Dynamics Facility to p rovide MMS orbit determination support during the early commissioning phase using all available two-way range and Doppler tracking from bo th the Deep Space Network and Space Network. This paper summarizes th e results from a linear covariance analysis to determine the type and amount of tracking data required to accurately estimate the spacecraf t state, plan each perigee raising maneuver, and support thruster cal ibration during this phase. The primary focus of this study is the na vigation accuracy required to plan the first and the final perigee ra ising maneuvers. Absolute and relative position and velocity error hi stories are generated for all cases and summarized in terms of the ma ximum root-sum-square consider and measurement noise error contributi ons over the definitive and predictive arcs and at discrete times inc luding the maneuver planning and execution times. Details of the meth odology, orbital characteristics, maneuver timeline, error models, and error sensitivities are provided.
The Influence of Training Phase on Error of Measurement in Jump Performance.
Taylor, Kristie-Lee; Hopkins, Will G; Chapman, Dale W; Cronin, John B
2016-03-01
The purpose of this study was to calculate the coefficients of variation in jump performance for individual participants in multiple trials over time to determine the extent to which there are real differences in the error of measurement between participants. The effect of training phase on measurement error was also investigated. Six subjects participated in a resistance-training intervention for 12 wk with mean power from a countermovement jump measured 6 d/wk. Using a mixed-model meta-analysis, differences between subjects, within-subject changes between training phases, and the mean error values during different phases of training were examined. Small, substantial factor differences of 1.11 were observed between subjects; however, the finding was unclear based on the width of the confidence limits. The mean error was clearly higher during overload training than baseline training, by a factor of ×/÷ 1.3 (confidence limits 1.0-1.6). The random factor representing the interaction between subjects and training phases revealed further substantial differences of ×/÷ 1.2 (1.1-1.3), indicating that on average, the error of measurement in some subjects changes more than in others when overload training is introduced. The results from this study provide the first indication that within-subject variability in performance is substantially different between training phases and, possibly, different between individuals. The implications of these findings for monitoring individuals and estimating sample size are discussed.
Phase-locked-loop interferometry applied to aspheric testing with a computer-stored compensator.
Servin, M; Malacara, D; Rodriguez-Vera, R
1994-05-01
A recently developed technique for continuous-phase determination of interferograms with a digital phase-locked loop (PLL) is applied to the null testing of aspheres. Although this PLL demodulating scheme is also a synchronous or direct interferometric technique, the separate unwrapping process is not explicitly required. The unwrapping and the phase-detection processes are achieved simultaneously within the PLL. The proposed method uses a computer-generated holographic compensator. The holographic compensator does not need to be printed out by any means; it is calculated and used from the computer. This computer-stored compensator is used as the reference signal to phase demodulate a sample interferogram obtained from the asphere being tested. Consequently the demodulated phase contains information about the wave-front departures from the ideal computer-stored aspheric interferogram. Wave-front differences of ~ 1 λ are handled easily by the proposed PLL scheme. The maximum recorded frequency in the template's interferogram as well as in the sampled interferogram are assumed to be below the Nyquist frequency.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Werner, C. L.; Wegmuller, U.; Strozzi, T.; Wiesmann, A.
2006-12-01
Principle contributors to the noise in differential SAR interferograms are temporal phase stability of the surface, geometry relating to baseline and surface slope, and propagation path delay variations due to tropospheric water vapor and the ionosphere. Time series analysis of multiple interferograms generated from a stack of SAR SLC images seeks to determine the deformation history of the surface while reducing errors. Only those scatterers within a resolution element that are stable and coherent for each interferometric pair contribute to the desired deformation signal. Interferograms with baselines exceeding 1/3 the critical baseline have substantial geometrical decorrelation for distributed targets. Short baseline pairs with multiple reference scenes can be combined using least-squares estimation to obtain a global deformation solution. Alternately point-like persistent scatterers can be identified in scenes that do not exhibit geometrical decorrelation associated with large baselines. In this approach interferograms are formed from a stack of SAR complex images using a single reference scene. Stable distributed scatter pixels are excluded however due to the presence of large baselines. We apply both point- based and short-baseline methodologies and compare results for a stack of fine-beam Radarsat data acquired in 2002-2004 over a rapidly subsiding oil field near Lost Hills, CA. We also investigate the density of point-like scatters with respect to image resolution. The primary difficulty encountered when applying time series methods is phase unwrapping errors due to spatial and temporal gaps. Phase unwrapping requires sufficient spatial and temporal sampling. Increasing the SAR range bandwidth increases the range resolution as well as increasing the critical interferometric baseline that defines the required satellite orbital tube diameter. Sufficient spatial sampling also permits unwrapping because of the reduced phase/pixel gradient. Short time intervals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daemi, Mohammad Hossein; Rasouli, Saifollah
2018-07-01
In this work, a three-point spatial phase shifting (SPS) method is implemented for chasing of the moving interference fringes in the homodyne laser Doppler vibrometry (HoLDV). By the use of SPS method, we remove disability of the HoLDV in the discrimination of the motion direction for long-range displacements. From the phase increments histogram, phase unwrapping tolerance value is selected, and adequacy of the data acquisition rate and required bandwidth limit are determined. Also in this paper, a detailed investigation on the effect of detectors positioning errors and influence of the Gaussian profile of the interfering beams on the measurements are presented. Performance of the method is verified by measuring a given harmonic vibration produced by a loudspeaker. Also, by the proposed method, vibration of mounting system of a disk laser gain medium is characterized.
Analysis of the PLL phase error in presence of simulated ionospheric scintillation events
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forte, B.
2012-01-01
The functioning of standard phase locked loops (PLL), including those used to track radio signals from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), is based on a linear approximation which holds in presence of small phase errors. Such an approximation represents a reasonable assumption in most of the propagation channels. However, in presence of a fading channel the phase error may become large, making the linear approximation no longer valid. The PLL is then expected to operate in a non-linear regime. As PLLs are generally designed and expected to operate in their linear regime, whenever the non-linear regime comes into play, they will experience a serious limitation in their capability to track the corresponding signals. The phase error and the performance of a typical PLL embedded into a commercial multiconstellation GNSS receiver were analyzed in presence of simulated ionospheric scintillation. Large phase errors occurred during scintillation-induced signal fluctuations although cycle slips only occurred during the signal re-acquisition after a loss of lock. Losses of lock occurred whenever the signal faded below the minimumC/N0threshold allowed for tracking. The simulations were performed for different signals (GPS L1C/A, GPS L2C, GPS L5 and Galileo L1). L5 and L2C proved to be weaker than L1. It appeared evident that the conditions driving the PLL phase error in the specific case of GPS receivers in presence of scintillation-induced signal perturbations need to be evaluated in terms of the combination of the minimumC/N0 tracking threshold, lock detector thresholds, possible cycle slips in the tracking PLL and accuracy of the observables (i.e. the error propagation onto the observables stage).
Digital Mirror Device Application in Reduction of Wave-front Phase Errors
Zhang, Yaping; Liu, Yan; Wang, Shuxue
2009-01-01
In order to correct the image distortion created by the mixing/shear layer, creative and effectual correction methods are necessary. First, a method combining adaptive optics (AO) correction with a digital micro-mirror device (DMD) is presented. Second, performance of an AO system using the Phase Diverse Speckle (PDS) principle is characterized in detail. Through combining the DMD method with PDS, a significant reduction in wavefront phase error is achieved in simulations and experiments. This kind of complex correction principle can be used to recovery the degraded images caused by unforeseen error sources. PMID:22574016
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doin, Marie-Pierre; Lodge, Felicity; Guillaso, Stephane; Jolivet, Romain; Lasserre, Cecile; Ducret, Gabriel; Grandin, Raphael; Pathier, Erwan; Pinel, Virginie
2012-01-01
We assemble a processing chain that handles InSAR computation from raw data to time series analysis. A large part of the chain (from raw data to geocoded unwrapped interferograms) is based on ROI PAC modules (Rosen et al., 2004), with original routines rearranged and combined with new routines to process in series and in a common radar geometry all SAR images and interferograms. A new feature of the software is the range-dependent spectral filtering to improve coherence in interferograms with long spatial baselines. Additional components include a module to estimate and remove digital elevation model errors before unwrapping, a module to mitigate the effects of the atmospheric phase delay and remove residual orbit errors, and a module to construct the phase change time series from small baseline interferograms (Berardino et al. 2002). This paper describes the main elements of the processing chain and presents an example of application of the software using a data set from the ENVISAT mission covering the Etna volcano.
Phase gradient algorithm based on co-axis two-step phase-shifting interferometry and its application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yawei; Zhu, Qiong; Xu, Yuanyuan; Xin, Zhiduo; Liu, Jingye
2017-12-01
A phase gradient method based on co-axis two-step phase-shifting interferometry, is used to reveal the detailed information of a specimen. In this method, the phase gradient distribution can only be obtained by calculating both the first-order derivative and the radial Hilbert transformation of the intensity difference between two phase-shifted interferograms. The feasibility and accuracy of this method were fully verified by the simulation results for a polystyrene sphere and a red blood cell. The empirical results demonstrated that phase gradient is sensitive to changes in the refractive index and morphology. Because phase retrieval and tedious phase unwrapping are not required, the calculation speed is faster. In addition, co-axis interferometry has high spatial resolution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Chaoying; Qu, Feifei; Zhang, Qin; Zhu, Wu
2012-10-01
The accuracy of DEM generated with interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) technique mostly depends on phase unwrapping errors, atmospheric effects, baseline errors and phase noise. The first term is more serious if the high-resolution TerraSAR-X data over urban regions and mountainous regions are applied. In addition, the deformation effect cannot be neglected if the study regions are suffering from surface deformation within the SAR acquisition dates. In this paper, several measures have been taken to generate high resolution DEM over urban regions and mountainous regions with TerraSAR data. The SAR interferometric pairs are divided into two subsets: (a) DEM subsets and (b) deformation subsets. These two interferometric sets serve to generate DEM and deformation, respectively. The external DEM is applied to assist the phase unwrapping with "remove-restore" procedure. The deformation phase is re-scaled and subtracted from each DEM observations. Lastly, the stochastic errors including atmospheric effects and phase noise are suppressed by averaging heights from several interferograms with weights. Six TerraSAR-X data are applied to generate a 6-m-resolution DEM over Xi'an, China using these procedures. Both discrete GPS heights and local high resolution and high precision DEM data are applied to calibrate the DEM generated with our algorithm, and around 4.1 m precision is achieved.
Addressing Phase Errors in Fat-Water Imaging Using a Mixed Magnitude/Complex Fitting Method
Hernando, D.; Hines, C. D. G.; Yu, H.; Reeder, S.B.
2012-01-01
Accurate, noninvasive measurements of liver fat content are needed for the early diagnosis and quantitative staging of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Chemical shift-based fat quantification methods acquire images at multiple echo times using a multiecho spoiled gradient echo sequence, and provide fat fraction measurements through postprocessing. However, phase errors, such as those caused by eddy currents, can adversely affect fat quantification. These phase errors are typically most significant at the first echo of the echo train, and introduce bias in complex-based fat quantification techniques. These errors can be overcome using a magnitude-based technique (where the phase of all echoes is discarded), but at the cost of significantly degraded signal-to-noise ratio, particularly for certain choices of echo time combinations. In this work, we develop a reconstruction method that overcomes these phase errors without the signal-to-noise ratio penalty incurred by magnitude fitting. This method discards the phase of the first echo (which is often corrupted) while maintaining the phase of the remaining echoes (where phase is unaltered). We test the proposed method on 104 patient liver datasets (from 52 patients, each scanned twice), where the fat fraction measurements are compared to coregistered spectroscopy measurements. We demonstrate that mixed fitting is able to provide accurate fat fraction measurements with high signal-to-noise ratio and low bias over a wide choice of echo combinations. PMID:21713978
Dichrometer errors resulting from large signals or improper modulator phasing.
Sutherland, John C
2012-09-01
A single-beam spectrometer equipped with a photoelastic modulator can be configured to measure a number of different parameters useful in characterizing chemical and biochemical materials including natural and magnetic circular dichroism, linear dichroism, natural and magnetic fluorescence-detected circular dichroism, and fluorescence polarization anisotropy as well as total absorption and fluorescence. The derivations of the mathematical expressions used to extract these parameters from ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared light-induced electronic signals in a dichrometer assume that the dichroic signals are sufficiently small that certain mathematical approximations will not introduce significant errors. This article quantifies errors resulting from these assumptions as a function of the magnitude of the dichroic signals. In the case of linear dichroism, improper modulator programming can result in errors greater than those resulting from the assumption of small signal size, whereas for fluorescence polarization anisotropy, improper modulator phase alone gives incorrect results. Modulator phase can also impact the values of total absorbance recorded simultaneously with linear dichroism and total fluorescence. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.
Phase-demodulation error of a fiber-optic Fabry-Perot sensor with complex reflection coefficients.
Kilpatrick, J M; MacPherson, W N; Barton, J S; Jones, J D
2000-03-20
The influence of reflector losses attracts little discussion in standard treatments of the Fabry-Perot interferometer yet may be an important factor contributing to errors in phase-stepped demodulation of fiber optic Fabry-Perot (FFP) sensors. We describe a general transfer function for FFP sensors with complex reflection coefficients and estimate systematic phase errors that arise when the asymmetry of the reflected fringe system is neglected, as is common in the literature. The measured asymmetric response of higher-finesse metal-dielectric FFP constructions corroborates a model that predicts systematic phase errors of 0.06 rad in three-step demodulation of a low-finesse FFP sensor (R = 0.05) with internal reflector losses of 25%.
Vector method for strain estimation in phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matveyev, A. L.; Matveev, L. A.; Sovetsky, A. A.; Gelikonov, G. V.; Moiseev, A. A.; Zaitsev, V. Y.
2018-06-01
A noise-tolerant approach to strain estimation in phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography, robust to decorrelation distortions, is discussed. The method is based on evaluation of interframe phase-variation gradient, but its main feature is that the phase is singled out at the very last step of the gradient estimation. All intermediate steps operate with complex-valued optical coherence tomography (OCT) signals represented as vectors in the complex plane (hence, we call this approach the ‘vector’ method). In comparison with such a popular method as least-square fitting of the phase-difference slope over a selected region (even in the improved variant with amplitude weighting for suppressing small-amplitude noisy pixels), the vector approach demonstrates superior tolerance to both additive noise in the receiving system and speckle-decorrelation caused by tissue straining. Another advantage of the vector approach is that it obviates the usual necessity of error-prone phase unwrapping. Here, special attention is paid to modifications of the vector method that make it especially suitable for processing deformations with significant lateral inhomogeneity, which often occur in real situations. The method’s advantages are demonstrated using both simulated and real OCT scans obtained during reshaping of a collagenous tissue sample irradiated by an IR laser beam producing complex spatially inhomogeneous deformations.
Correction of phase-shifting error in wavelength scanning digital holographic microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiaolei; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Xiangchao; Xu, Min; Zhang, Hao; Jiang, Xiangqian
2018-05-01
Digital holographic microscopy is a promising method for measuring complex micro-structures with high slopes. A quasi-common path interferometric apparatus is adopted to overcome environmental disturbances, and an acousto-optic tunable filter is used to obtain multi-wavelength holograms. However, the phase shifting error caused by the acousto-optic tunable filter reduces the measurement accuracy and, in turn, the reconstructed topographies are erroneous. In this paper, an accurate reconstruction approach is proposed. It corrects the phase-shifting errors by minimizing the difference between the ideal interferograms and the recorded ones. The restriction on the step number and uniformity of the phase shifting is relaxed in the interferometry, and the measurement accuracy for complex surfaces can also be improved. The universality and superiority of the proposed method are demonstrated by practical experiments and comparison to other measurement methods.
Local blur analysis and phase error correction method for fringe projection profilometry systems.
Rao, Li; Da, Feipeng
2018-05-20
We introduce a flexible error correction method for fringe projection profilometry (FPP) systems in the presence of local blur phenomenon. Local blur caused by global light transport such as camera defocus, projector defocus, and subsurface scattering will cause significant systematic errors in FPP systems. Previous methods, which adopt high-frequency patterns to separate the direct and global components, fail when the global light phenomenon occurs locally. In this paper, the influence of local blur on phase quality is thoroughly analyzed, and a concise error correction method is proposed to compensate the phase errors. For defocus phenomenon, this method can be directly applied. With the aid of spatially varying point spread functions and local frontal plane assumption, experiments show that the proposed method can effectively alleviate the system errors and improve the final reconstruction accuracy in various scenes. For a subsurface scattering scenario, if the translucent object is dominated by multiple scattering, the proposed method can also be applied to correct systematic errors once the bidirectional scattering-surface reflectance distribution function of the object material is measured.
Referenceless MR thermometry-a comparison of five methods.
Zou, Chao; Tie, Changjun; Pan, Min; Wan, Qian; Liang, Changhong; Liu, Xin; Chung, Yiu-Cho
2017-01-07
Proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS) MR thermometry is commonly used to measure temperature in thermotherapy. The method requires a baseline temperature map and is therefore motion sensitive. Several referenceless MR thermometry methods were proposed to address this problem but their performances have never been compared. This study compared the performance of five referenceless methods through simulation, heating of ex vivo tissues and in vivo imaging of the brain and liver of healthy volunteers. Mean, standard deviation, root mean square, 2/98 percentiles of error were used as performance metrics. Probability density functions (PDF) of the error distribution for these methods in the different tests were also compared. The results showed that the phase gradient method (PG) exhibited largest error in all scenarios. The original method (ORG) and the complex field estimation method (CFE) had similar performance in all experiments. The phase finite difference method (PFD) and the near harmonic method (NH) were better than other methods, especially in the lower signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and fast changing field cases. Except for PG, the PDFs of each method were very similar among the different experiments. Since phase unwrapping in ORG and NH is computationally demanding and subject to image SNR, PFD and CFE would be good choices as they do not need phase unwrapping. The results here would facilitate the choice of appropriate referenceless methods in various MR thermometry applications.
Referenceless MR thermometry—a comparison of five methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zou, Chao; Tie, Changjun; Pan, Min; Wan, Qian; Liang, Changhong; Liu, Xin; Chung, Yiu-Cho
2017-01-01
Proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS) MR thermometry is commonly used to measure temperature in thermotherapy. The method requires a baseline temperature map and is therefore motion sensitive. Several referenceless MR thermometry methods were proposed to address this problem but their performances have never been compared. This study compared the performance of five referenceless methods through simulation, heating of ex vivo tissues and in vivo imaging of the brain and liver of healthy volunteers. Mean, standard deviation, root mean square, 2/98 percentiles of error were used as performance metrics. Probability density functions (PDF) of the error distribution for these methods in the different tests were also compared. The results showed that the phase gradient method (PG) exhibited largest error in all scenarios. The original method (ORG) and the complex field estimation method (CFE) had similar performance in all experiments. The phase finite difference method (PFD) and the near harmonic method (NH) were better than other methods, especially in the lower signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and fast changing field cases. Except for PG, the PDFs of each method were very similar among the different experiments. Since phase unwrapping in ORG and NH is computationally demanding and subject to image SNR, PFD and CFE would be good choices as they do not need phase unwrapping. The results here would facilitate the choice of appropriate referenceless methods in various MR thermometry applications.
Effect of phase errors in stepped-frequency radar systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vanbrundt, H. E.
1988-04-01
Stepped-frequency waveforms are being considered for inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging from ship and airborne platforms and for detailed radar cross section (RCS) measurements of ships and aircraft. These waveforms make it possible to achieve resolutions of 1.0 foot by using existing radar designs and processing technology. One problem not yet fully resolved in using stepped-frequency waveform for ISAR imaging is the deterioration in signal level caused by random frequency error. Random frequency error of the stepped-frequency source results in reduced peak responses and increased null responses. The resulting reduced signal-to-noise ratio is range dependent. Two of the major concerns addressed in this report are radar range limitations for ISAR and the error in calibration for RCS measurements caused by differences in range between a passive reflector used for an RCS reference and the target to be measured. In addressing these concerns, NOSC developed an analysis to assess the tolerable frequency error in terms of resulting power loss in signal power and signal-to-phase noise.
Analysis of counting errors in the phase/Doppler particle analyzer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oldenburg, John R.
1987-01-01
NASA is investigating the application of the Phase Doppler measurement technique to provide improved drop sizing and liquid water content measurements in icing research. The magnitude of counting errors were analyzed because these errors contribute to inaccurate liquid water content measurements. The Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer counting errors due to data transfer losses and coincidence losses were analyzed for data input rates from 10 samples/sec to 70,000 samples/sec. Coincidence losses were calculated by determining the Poisson probability of having more than one event occurring during the droplet signal time. The magnitude of the coincidence loss can be determined, and for less than a 15 percent loss, corrections can be made. The data transfer losses were estimated for representative data transfer rates. With direct memory access enabled, data transfer losses are less than 5 percent for input rates below 2000 samples/sec. With direct memory access disabled losses exceeded 20 percent at a rate of 50 samples/sec preventing accurate number density or mass flux measurements. The data transfer losses of a new signal processor were analyzed and found to be less than 1 percent for rates under 65,000 samples/sec.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Xiaojun; Ma, Haotong; Luo, Chuanxin
2016-10-01
The optical multi-aperture imaging system is an effective way to magnify the aperture and increase the resolution of telescope optical system, the difficulty of which lies in detecting and correcting of co-phase error. This paper presents a method based on stochastic parallel gradient decent algorithm (SPGD) to correct the co-phase error. Compared with the current method, SPGD method can avoid detecting the co-phase error. This paper analyzed the influence of piston error and tilt error on image quality based on double-aperture imaging system, introduced the basic principle of SPGD algorithm, and discuss the influence of SPGD algorithm's key parameters (the gain coefficient and the disturbance amplitude) on error control performance. The results show that SPGD can efficiently correct the co-phase error. The convergence speed of the SPGD algorithm is improved with the increase of gain coefficient and disturbance amplitude, but the stability of the algorithm reduced. The adaptive gain coefficient can solve this problem appropriately. This paper's results can provide the theoretical reference for the co-phase error correction of the multi-aperture imaging system.
Skydan, Oleksandr A; Lilley, Francis; Lalor, Michael J; Burton, David R
2003-09-10
We present an investigation into the phase errors that occur in fringe pattern analysis that are caused by quantization effects. When acquisition devices with a limited value of camera bit depth are used, there are a limited number of quantization levels available to record the signal. This may adversely affect the recorded signal and adds a potential source of instrumental error to the measurement system. Quantization effects also determine the accuracy that may be achieved by acquisition devices in a measurement system. We used the Fourier fringe analysis measurement technique. However, the principles can be applied equally well for other phase measuring techniques to yield a phase error distribution that is caused by the camera bit depth.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Xiaoqing; Wang, Yawei; Ji, Ying; Xu, Yuanyuan; Xie, Ming
2018-01-01
A new method to extract quantitative phases for each wavelength from three-wavelength in-line phase-shifting interferograms is proposed. Firstly, seven interferograms with positive negative 2π phase shifts are sequentially captured by using the phase-shifting technique. Secondly, six dc-term suppressed intensities can be achieved by the use of the algebraic algorithm. Finally, the wrapped phases at the three wavelengths can be acquired simultaneously from these six interferograms add-subtracting by employing the trigonometric function method. The surface morphology with increased ambiguity-free range at synthetic beat wavelength can be obtained, while maintaining the low noise precision of the single wavelength measurement, by combining this method with three-wavelength phase unwrapping method. We illustrate the principle of this algorithm, and the simulated experiments of the spherical cap and the HeLa cell are conducted to prove our proposed method, respectively.
High Resolution Deformation Time Series Estimation for Distributed Scatterers Using Terrasar-X Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goel, K.; Adam, N.
2012-07-01
In recent years, several SAR satellites such as TerraSAR-X, COSMO-SkyMed and Radarsat-2 have been launched. These satellites provide high resolution data suitable for sophisticated interferometric applications. With shorter repeat cycles, smaller orbital tubes and higher bandwidth of the satellites; deformation time series analysis of distributed scatterers (DSs) is now supported by a practical data basis. Techniques for exploiting DSs in non-urban (rural) areas include the Small Baseline Subset Algorithm (SBAS). However, it involves spatial phase unwrapping, and phase unwrapping errors are typically encountered in rural areas and are difficult to detect. In addition, the SBAS technique involves a rectangular multilooking of the differential interferograms to reduce phase noise, resulting in a loss of resolution and superposition of different objects on ground. In this paper, we introduce a new approach for deformation monitoring with a focus on DSs, wherein, there is no need to unwrap the differential interferograms and the deformation is mapped at object resolution. It is based on a robust object adaptive parameter estimation using single look differential interferograms, where, the local tilts of deformation velocity and local slopes of residual DEM in range and azimuth directions are estimated. We present here the technical details and a processing example of this newly developed algorithm.
Camp, Charles H.; Lee, Young Jong; Cicerone, Marcus T.
2017-01-01
Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microspectroscopy has demonstrated significant potential for biological and materials imaging. To date, however, the primary mechanism of disseminating CARS spectroscopic information is through pseudocolor imagery, which explicitly neglects a vast majority of the hyperspectral data. Furthermore, current paradigms in CARS spectral processing do not lend themselves to quantitative sample-to-sample comparability. The primary limitation stems from the need to accurately measure the so-called nonresonant background (NRB) that is used to extract the chemically-sensitive Raman information from the raw spectra. Measurement of the NRB on a pixel-by-pixel basis is a nontrivial task; thus, reference NRB from glass or water are typically utilized, resulting in error between the actual and estimated amplitude and phase. In this manuscript, we present a new methodology for extracting the Raman spectral features that significantly suppresses these errors through phase detrending and scaling. Classic methods of error-correction, such as baseline detrending, are demonstrated to be inaccurate and to simply mask the underlying errors. The theoretical justification is presented by re-developing the theory of phase retrieval via the Kramers-Kronig relation, and we demonstrate that these results are also applicable to maximum entropy method-based phase retrieval. This new error-correction approach is experimentally applied to glycerol spectra and tissue images, demonstrating marked consistency between spectra obtained using different NRB estimates, and between spectra obtained on different instruments. Additionally, in order to facilitate implementation of these approaches, we have made many of the tools described herein available free for download. PMID:28819335
Bachman, Daniel; Chen, Zhijiang; Wang, Christopher; ...
2016-11-29
Phase errors caused by fabrication variations in silicon photonic integrated circuits are an important problem, which negatively impacts device yield and performance. This study reports our recent progress in the development of a method for permanent, postfabrication phase error correction of silicon photonic circuits based on femtosecond laser irradiation. Using beam shaping technique, we achieve a 14-fold enhancement in the phase tuning resolution of the method with a Gaussian-shaped beam compared to a top-hat beam. The large improvement in the tuning resolution makes the femtosecond laser method potentially useful for very fine phase trimming of silicon photonic circuits. Finally, wemore » also show that femtosecond laser pulses can directly modify silicon photonic devices through a SiO 2 cladding layer, making it the only permanent post-fabrication method that can tune silicon photonic circuits protected by an oxide cladding.« less
Shape based segmentation of MRIs of the bones in the knee using phase and intensity information
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fripp, Jurgen; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Crozier, Stuart; Ourselin, Sébastien
2007-03-01
The segmentation of the bones from MR images is useful for performing subsequent segmentation and quantitative measurements of cartilage tissue. In this paper, we present a shape based segmentation scheme for the bones that uses texture features derived from the phase and intensity information in the complex MR image. The phase can provide additional information about the tissue interfaces, but due to the phase unwrapping problem, this information is usually discarded. By using a Gabor filter bank on the complex MR image, texture features (including phase) can be extracted without requiring phase unwrapping. These texture features are then analyzed using a support vector machine classifier to obtain probability tissue matches. The segmentation of the bone is fully automatic and performed using a 3D active shape model based approach driven using gradient and texture information. The 3D active shape model is automatically initialized using a robust affine registration. The approach is validated using a database of 18 FLASH MR images that are manually segmented, with an average segmentation overlap (Dice similarity coefficient) of 0.92 compared to 0.9 obtained using the classifier only.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yun, Lingtong; Zhao, Hongzhong; Du, Mengyuan
2018-04-01
Quadrature and multi-channel amplitude-phase error have to be compensated in the I/Q quadrature sampling and signal through multi-channel. A new method that it doesn't need filter and standard signal is presented in this paper. And it can combined estimate quadrature and multi-channel amplitude-phase error. The method uses cross-correlation and amplitude ratio between the signal to estimate the two amplitude-phase errors simply and effectively. And the advantages of this method are verified by computer simulation. Finally, the superiority of the method is also verified by measure data of outfield experiments.
Error catastrophe and phase transition in the empirical fitness landscape of HIV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hart, Gregory R.; Ferguson, Andrew L.
2015-03-01
We have translated clinical sequence databases of the p6 HIV protein into an empirical fitness landscape quantifying viral replicative capacity as a function of the amino acid sequence. We show that the viral population resides close to a phase transition in sequence space corresponding to an "error catastrophe" beyond which there is lethal accumulation of mutations. Our model predicts that the phase transition may be induced by drug therapies that elevate the mutation rate, or by forcing mutations at particular amino acids. Applying immune pressure to any combination of killer T-cell targets cannot induce the transition, providing a rationale for why the viral protein can exist close to the error catastrophe without sustaining fatal fitness penalties due to adaptive immunity.
Zhu, Haitao; Demachi, Kazuyuki; Sekino, Masaki
2011-09-01
Positive contrast imaging methods produce enhanced signal at large magnetic field gradient in magnetic resonance imaging. Several postprocessing algorithms, such as susceptibility gradient mapping and phase gradient mapping methods, have been applied for positive contrast generation to detect the cells targeted by superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. In the phase gradient mapping methods, smoothness condition has to be satisfied to keep the phase gradient unwrapped. Moreover, there has been no discussion about the truncation artifact associated with the algorithm of differentiation that is performed in k-space by the multiplication with frequency value. In this work, phase gradient methods are discussed by considering the wrapping problem when the smoothness condition is not satisfied. A region-growing unwrapping algorithm is used in the phase gradient image to solve the problem. In order to reduce the truncation artifact, a cosine function is multiplied in the k-space to eliminate the abrupt change at the boundaries. Simulation, phantom and in vivo experimental results demonstrate that the modified phase gradient mapping methods may produce improved positive contrast effects by reducing truncation or wrapping artifacts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Kiyko, V V; Kislov, V I; Ofitserov, E N
2015-08-31
In the framework of a statistical model of an adaptive optics system (AOS) of phase conjugation, three algorithms based on an integrated mathematical approach are considered, each of them intended for minimisation of one of the following characteristics: the sensor error (in the case of an ideal corrector), the corrector error (in the case of ideal measurements) and the compensation error (with regard to discreteness and measurement noises and to incompleteness of a system of response functions of the corrector actuators). Functional and statistical relationships between the algorithms are studied and a relation is derived to ensure calculation of themore » mean-square compensation error as a function of the errors of the sensor and corrector with an accuracy better than 10%. Because in adjusting the AOS parameters, it is reasonable to proceed from the equality of the sensor and corrector errors, in the case the Hartmann sensor is used as a wavefront sensor, the required number of actuators in the absence of the noise component in the sensor error turns out 1.5 – 2.5 times less than the number of counts, and that difference grows with increasing measurement noise. (adaptive optics)« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vajedian, S.; Motagh, M.; Nilfouroushan, F.
2013-09-01
InSAR capacity to detect slow deformation over terrain areas is limited by temporal and geometric decorrelations. Multitemporal InSAR techniques involving Persistent Scatterer (Ps-InSAR) and Small Baseline (SBAS) are recently developed to compensate the decorrelation problems. Geometric decorrelation in mountainous areas especially for Envisat images makes phase unwrapping process difficult. To improve this unwrapping problem, we first modified phase filtering to make the wrapped phase image as smooth as possible. In addition, in order to improve unwrapping results, a modified unwrapping method has been developed. This method includes removing possible orbital and tropospheric effects. Topographic correction is done within three-dimensional unwrapping, Orbital and tropospheric corrections are done after unwrapping process. To evaluate the effectiveness of our improved method we tested the proposed algorithm by Envisat and ALOS dataset and compared our results with recently developed PS software (StaMAPS). In addition we used GPS observations for evaluating the modified method. The results indicate that our method improves the estimated deformation significantly.
Incoherent averaging of phase singularities in speckle-shearing interferometry.
Mantel, Klaus; Nercissian, Vanusch; Lindlein, Norbert
2014-08-01
Interferometric speckle techniques are plagued by the omnipresence of phase singularities, impairing the phase unwrapping process. To reduce the number of phase singularities by physical means, an incoherent averaging of multiple speckle fields may be applied. It turns out, however, that the results may strongly deviate from the expected √N behavior. Using speckle-shearing interferometry as an example, we investigate the mechanism behind the reduction of phase singularities, both by calculations and by computer simulations. Key to an understanding of the reduction mechanism during incoherent averaging is the representation of the physical averaging process in terms of certain vector fields associated with each speckle field.
Pulsed spatial phase-shifting digital shearography based on a micropolarizer camera
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aranchuk, Vyacheslav; Lal, Amit K.; Hess, Cecil F.; Trolinger, James Davis; Scott, Eddie
2018-02-01
We developed a pulsed digital shearography system that utilizes the spatial phase-shifting technique. The system employs a commercial micropolarizer camera and a double pulse laser, which allows for instantaneous phase measurements. The system can measure dynamic deformation of objects as large as 1 m at a 2-m distance during the time between two laser pulses that range from 30 μs to 30 ms. The ability of the system to measure dynamic deformation was demonstrated by obtaining phase wrapped and unwrapped shearograms of a vibrating object.
A high resolution InSAR topographic reconstruction research in urban area based on TerraSAR-X data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qu, Feifei; Qin, Zhang; Zhao, Chaoying; Zhu, Wu
2011-10-01
Aiming at the problems of difficult unwrapping and phase noise in InSAR DEM reconstruction, especially for the high-resolution TerraSAR-X data, this paper improved the height reconstruction algorithm in view of "remove-restore" based on external coarse DEM and multi-interferogram processing, proposed a height calibration method based on CR+GPS data. Several measures have been taken for urban high resolution DEM reconstruction with TerraSAR data. The SAR interferometric pairs with long spatial and short temporal baselines are served for the DEM. The external low resolution and low accuracy DEM is applied for the "remove-restore" concept to ease the phase unwrapping. The stochastic errors including atmospheric effects and phase noise are suppressed by weighted averaging of DEM phases. Six TerraSAR-X data are applied to create the twelve-meter's resolution DEM over Xian, China with the newly-proposed method. The heights in discrete GPS benchmarks are used to calibrate the result, and the RMS of 3.29 meter is achieved by comparing with 1:50000 DEM.
Nunes, Rita G; Hajnal, Joseph V
2018-06-01
Point spread function (PSF) mapping enables estimating the displacement fields required for distortion correction of echo planar images. Recently, a highly accelerated approach was introduced for estimating displacements from the phase slope of under-sampled PSF mapping data. Sampling schemes with varying spacing were proposed requiring stepwise phase unwrapping. To avoid unwrapping errors, an alternative approach applying the concept of finite rate of innovation to PSF mapping (FRIP) is introduced, using a pattern search strategy to locate the PSF peak, and the two methods are compared. Fully sampled PSF data was acquired in six subjects at 3.0 T, and distortion maps were estimated after retrospective under-sampling. The two methods were compared for both previously published and newly optimized sampling patterns. Prospectively under-sampled data were also acquired. Shift maps were estimated and deviations relative to the fully sampled reference map were calculated. The best performance was achieved when using FRIP with a previously proposed sampling scheme. The two methods were comparable for the remaining schemes. The displacement field errors tended to be lower as the number of samples or their spacing increased. A robust method for estimating the position of the PSF peak has been introduced.
Tang, Chen; Lu, Wenjing; Chen, Song; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Botao; Wang, Wenping; Han, Lin
2007-10-20
We extend and refine previous work [Appl. Opt. 46, 2907 (2007)]. Combining the coupled nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) denoising model with the ordinary differential equations enhancement method, we propose the new denoising and enhancing model for electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) fringe patterns. Meanwhile, we propose the backpropagation neural networks (BPNN) method to obtain unwrapped phase values based on a skeleton map instead of traditional interpolations. We test the introduced methods on the computer-simulated speckle ESPI fringe patterns and experimentally obtained fringe pattern, respectively. The experimental results show that the coupled nonlinear PDEs denoising model is capable of effectively removing noise, and the unwrapped phase values obtained by the BPNN method are much more accurate than those obtained by the well-known traditional interpolation. In addition, the accuracy of the BPNN method is adjustable by changing the parameters of networks such as the number of neurons.
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Singh, Kunwar Pal, E-mail: k-psingh@yahoo.com; Department of Physics, Shri Venkateshwara University, Gajraula, Amroha, Uttar Pradesh 244236; Arya, Rashmi
2015-09-14
We have investigated the effect of initial phase on error in electron energy obtained using paraxial approximation to study electron acceleration by a focused laser pulse in vacuum using a three dimensional test-particle simulation code. The error is obtained by comparing the energy of the electron for paraxial approximation and seventh-order correction description of the fields of Gaussian laser. The paraxial approximation predicts wrong laser divergence and wrong electron escape time from the pulse which leads to prediction of higher energy. The error shows strong phase dependence for the electrons lying along the axis of the laser for linearly polarizedmore » laser pulse. The relative error may be significant for some specific values of initial phase even at moderate values of laser spot sizes. The error does not show initial phase dependence for a circularly laser pulse.« less
Deformation Estimation In Non-Urban Areas Exploiting High Resolution SAR Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goel, Kanika; Adam, Nico
2012-01-01
Advanced techniques such as the Small Baseline Subset Algorithm (SBAS) have been developed for terrain motion mapping in non-urban areas with a focus on extracting information from distributed scatterers (DSs). SBAS uses small baseline differential interferograms (to limit the effects of geometric decorrelation) and these are typically multilooked to reduce phase noise, resulting in loss of resolution. Various error sources e.g. phase unwrapping errors, topographic errors, temporal decorrelation and atmospheric effects also affect the interferometric phase. The aim of our work is an improved deformation monitoring in non-urban areas exploiting high resolution SAR data. The paper provides technical details and a processing example of a newly developed technique which incorporates an adaptive spatial phase filtering algorithm for an accurate high resolution differential interferometric stacking, followed by deformation retrieval via the SBAS approach where we perform the phase inversion using a more robust L1 norm minimization.
Simplified formula for mean cycle-slip time of phase-locked loops with steady-state phase error.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tausworthe, R. C.
1972-01-01
Previous work shows that the mean time from lock to a slipped cycle of a phase-locked loop is given by a certain double integral. Accurate numerical evaluation of this formula for the second-order loop is extremely vexing because the difference between exponentially large quantities is involved. The presented article demonstrates a method in which a much-reduced precision program can be used to obtain the mean first-cycle slip time for a loop of arbitrary degree tracking at a specified SNR and steady-state phase error. It also presents a simple approximate formula that is asymptotically tight at higher loop SNR.
Loran digital phase-locked loop and RF front-end system error analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mccall, D. L.
1979-01-01
An analysis of the system performance of the digital phase locked loops (DPLL) and RF front end that are implemented in the MINI-L4 Loran receiver is presented. Three of the four experiments deal with the performance of the digital phase locked loops. The other experiment deals with the RF front end and DPLL system error which arise in the front end due to poor signal to noise ratios. The ability of the DPLLs to track the offsets is studied.
Model-based multi-fringe interferometry using Zernike polynomials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Wei; Song, Weihong; Wu, Gaofeng; Quan, Haiyang; Wu, Yongqian; Zhao, Wenchuan
2018-06-01
In this paper, a general phase retrieval method is proposed, which is based on one single interferogram with a small amount of fringes (either tilt or power). Zernike polynomials are used to characterize the phase to be measured; the phase distribution is reconstructed by a non-linear least squares method. Experiments show that the proposed method can obtain satisfactory results compared to the standard phase-shifting interferometry technique. Additionally, the retrace errors of proposed method can be neglected because of the few fringes; it does not need any auxiliary phase shifting facilities (low cost) and it is easy to implement without the process of phase unwrapping.
SITE project. Phase 1: Continuous data bit-error-rate testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fujikawa, Gene; Kerczewski, Robert J.
1992-01-01
The Systems Integration, Test, and Evaluation (SITE) Project at NASA LeRC encompasses a number of research and technology areas of satellite communications systems. Phase 1 of this project established a complete satellite link simulator system. The evaluation of proof-of-concept microwave devices, radiofrequency (RF) and bit-error-rate (BER) testing of hardware, testing of remote airlinks, and other tests were performed as part of this first testing phase. This final report covers the test results produced in phase 1 of the SITE Project. The data presented include 20-GHz high-power-amplifier testing, 30-GHz low-noise-receiver testing, amplitude equalization, transponder baseline testing, switch matrix tests, and continuous-wave and modulated interference tests. The report also presents the methods used to measure the RF and BER performance of the complete system. Correlations of the RF and BER data are summarized to note the effects of the RF responses on the BER.
Time series analysis of Mexico City subsidence constrained by radar interferometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doin, Marie-Pierre; Lopez-Quiroz, Penelope; Yan, Yajing; Bascou, Pascale; Pinel, Virginie
2010-05-01
unwrapping errors for each pixel and show that they are strongly decreased by iterations in the unwrapping process. (3) Finally, we present a new algorithm for time series analysis that differs from classical SVD decomposition and is best suited to the present data base. Accurate deformation time series are then derived over the metropolitan area of the city with a spatial resolution of 30 × 30 m. We also use the Gamma-PS software on the same data set. The phase differences are unwrapped within small patches with respect to a reference point chosen in each patch, whose phase is in turn unwrapped relatively to a reference point common for the whole area of interest. After removing the modelled contribution of the linear displacement rate and DEM error, some residual interferograms, presenting unwrapping errors because of strong residual orbital ramp or atmospheric phase screen, are spatially unwrapped by a minimum cost-flow algorithm. The next steps are to estimate and remove the residual orbital ramp and to apply temporal low-pass filter to remove atmospheric contributions. The step by step comparison of the SBAS and PS approaches shows both methods complementarity. The SBAS analysis provide subsidence rates with an accuracy of a mm/yr over the whole basin in a large area, together with the subsidence non linear behavior through time, however at the expense of some spatial regularization. The PS method provides locally accurate and punctual deformation rates, but fails in this case to yield a good large scale map and the non linear temporal behavior of the subsidence. We conclude that the relative contrast in subsidence between individual buildings and infrastructure must be relatively small, on average of the order of 5mm/yr.
Interference Confocal Microscope Integrated with Spatial Phase Shifter.
Wang, Weibo; Gu, Kang; You, Xiaoyu; Tan, Jiubin; Liu, Jian
2016-08-24
We present an interference confocal microscope (ICM) with a new single-body four-step simultaneous phase-shifter device designed to obtain high immunity to vibration. The proposed ICM combines the respective advantages of simultaneous phase shifting interferometry and bipolar differential confocal microscopy to obtain high axis resolution, large dynamic range, and reduce the sensitivity to vibration and reflectance disturbance seamlessly. A compact single body spatial phase shifter is added to capture four phase-shifted interference signals simultaneously without time delay and construct a stable and space-saving simplified interference confocal microscope system. The test result can be obtained by combining the interference phase response and the bipolar property of differential confocal microscopy without phase unwrapping. Experiments prove that the proposed microscope is capable of providing stable measurements with 1 nm of axial depth resolution for either low- or high-numerical aperture objective lenses.
Transmitted wavefront error of a volume phase holographic grating at cryogenic temperature.
Lee, David; Taylor, Gordon D; Baillie, Thomas E C; Montgomery, David
2012-06-01
This paper describes the results of transmitted wavefront error (WFE) measurements on a volume phase holographic (VPH) grating operating at a temperature of 120 K. The VPH grating was mounted in a cryogenically compatible optical mount and tested in situ in a cryostat. The nominal root mean square (RMS) wavefront error at room temperature was 19 nm measured over a 50 mm diameter test aperture. The WFE remained at 18 nm RMS when the grating was cooled. This important result demonstrates that excellent WFE performance can be obtained with cooled VPH gratings, as required for use in future cryogenic infrared astronomical spectrometers planned for the European Extremely Large Telescope.
Quantitative phase imaging using a programmable wavefront sensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soldevila, F.; Durán, V.; Clemente, P.; Lancis, J.; Tajahuerce, E.
2018-02-01
We perform phase imaging using a non-interferometric approach to measure the complex amplitude of a wavefront. We overcome the limitations in spatial resolution, optical efficiency, and dynamic range that are found in Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing. To do so, we sample the wavefront with a high-speed spatial light modulator. A single lens forms a time-dependent light distribution on its focal plane, where a position detector is placed. Our approach is lenslet-free and does not rely on any kind of iterative or unwrap algorithm. The validity of our technique is demonstrated by performing both aberration sensing and phase imaging of transparent samples.
Truong, Trong-Kha; Guidon, Arnaud
2014-01-01
Purpose To develop and compare three novel reconstruction methods designed to inherently correct for motion-induced phase errors in multi-shot spiral diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) without requiring a variable-density spiral trajectory or a navigator echo. Theory and Methods The first method simply averages magnitude images reconstructed with sensitivity encoding (SENSE) from each shot, whereas the second and third methods rely on SENSE to estimate the motion-induced phase error for each shot, and subsequently use either a direct phase subtraction or an iterative conjugate gradient (CG) algorithm, respectively, to correct for the resulting artifacts. Numerical simulations and in vivo experiments on healthy volunteers were performed to assess the performance of these methods. Results The first two methods suffer from a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) or from residual artifacts in the reconstructed diffusion-weighted images and fractional anisotropy maps. In contrast, the third method provides high-quality, high-resolution DTI results, revealing fine anatomical details such as a radial diffusion anisotropy in cortical gray matter. Conclusion The proposed SENSE+CG method can inherently and effectively correct for phase errors, signal loss, and aliasing artifacts caused by both rigid and nonrigid motion in multi-shot spiral DTI, without increasing the scan time or reducing the SNR. PMID:23450457
Improved Topographic Mapping Through Multi-Baseline SAR Interferometry with MAP Estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Yuting; Jiang, Houjun; Zhang, Lu; Liao, Mingsheng; Shi, Xuguo
2015-05-01
There is an inherent contradiction between the sensitivity of height measurement and the accuracy of phase unwrapping for SAR interferometry (InSAR) over rough terrain. This contradiction can be resolved by multi-baseline InSAR analysis, which exploits multiple phase observations with different normal baselines to improve phase unwrapping accuracy, or even avoid phase unwrapping. In this paper we propose a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation method assisted by SRTM DEM data for multi-baseline InSAR topographic mapping. Based on our method, a data processing flow is established and applied in processing multi-baseline ALOS/PALSAR dataset. The accuracy of resultant DEMs is evaluated by using a standard Chinese national DEM of scale 1:10,000 as reference. The results show that multi-baseline InSAR can improve DEM accuracy compared with single-baseline case. It is noteworthy that phase unwrapping is avoided and the quality of multi-baseline InSAR DEM can meet the DTED-2 standard.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rittersdorf, I. M.; Antonsen, T. M., Jr.; Chernin, D.; Lau, Y. Y.
2011-10-01
Random fabrication errors may have detrimental effects on the performance of traveling-wave tubes (TWTs) of all types. A new scaling law for the modification in the average small signal gain and in the output phase is derived from the third order ordinary differential equation that governs the forward wave interaction in a TWT in the presence of random error that is distributed along the axis of the tube. Analytical results compare favorably with numerical results, in both gain and phase modifications as a result of random error in the phase velocity of the slow wave circuit. Results on the effect of the reverse-propagating circuit mode will be reported. This work supported by AFOSR, ONR, L-3 Communications Electron Devices, and Northrop Grumman Corporation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ducret, Gabriel; Doin, Marie-Pierre; Lasserre, Cécile; Guillaso, Stéphane; Twardzik, Cedric
2010-05-01
In order to increase our knowledge on the lithosphere rheological structure under the Tibetan plateau, we study the loading response due to lake Siling Co water level changes. The challenge here is to measure the deformation with an accuracy good enough to obtain a correct sensivity to model parameters. InSAR method in theory allow to observe the spatio-temporal pattern of deformation, however its exploitation is limited by unwrapping difficulties linked with temporal decorrelation and DEM errors in sloppy and partially incoherent areas. This lake is a large endhoreic lake at 4500~m elevation located North of the strike-slip right lateral Gyaring Co fault, and just to the south of the Bangong Nujiang suture zone, on which numerous left-lateral strike slip are branching. The Siling Co lake water level has strongly changed in the past, as testified by numerous traces of palaeo-shorelines, clearly marked until 60 m above present-day level. In the last years, the water level in this lake increased by about 1~m/yr, a remarkably fast rate given the large lake surface (1600~km2). The present-day ground subsidence associated to the water level increase is studied by InSAR using all ERS and Envisat archived data on track 219, obtained through the Dragon cooperation program. We chose to compute 750~km long differential interferograms centered on the lake to provide a good constraint on the reference. A redundant network of small baseline interferograms is computed with perpendicular baseline smaller than 500~m. The coherence is quickly lost with time (over one year), particularly to the North of the lake because of freeze-thaw cycles. Unwrapping thus becomes hazardous in this configuration, and fails on phase jumps created by DEM contrasts. The first work is to improve the simulated elevation field in radar geometry from the Digital Elevation Model (here SRTM) in order to exploit the interferometric phase in layover areas. Then, to estimate DEM error, we mix the Permanent
Zhao, Changyun; Wei, Bing; Yang, Longzhi; Wang, Gencheng; Wang, Yuehai; Jiang, Xiaoqing; Li, Yubo; Yang, Jianyi
2015-09-20
We investigate the accumulative effect of the phase measurement errors in characterizing optical multipath components by low-coherence interferometry. The accumulative effect is caused by the fluctuation of the environment temperature, which leads to the variation of the refractive index of the device under test. The resulting phase measurement errors accumulate with the increasing of the phase difference between the two interferometer arms. Our experiments were carried out to demonstrate that the accumulative effect is still obvious even though the thermo-optical coefficient of the device under test is quite small. Shortening the measurement time to reduce the fluctuation of the environment temperature can effectively restrain the accumulative effect. The experiments show that when the scanning speed increases to 4.8 mm/s, the slope of the phase measurement errors decreases to 5.52×10(-8), which means the accumulative effect can be ignored.
General phase regularized reconstruction using phase cycling.
Ong, Frank; Cheng, Joseph Y; Lustig, Michael
2018-07-01
To develop a general phase regularized image reconstruction method, with applications to partial Fourier imaging, water-fat imaging and flow imaging. The problem of enforcing phase constraints in reconstruction was studied under a regularized inverse problem framework. A general phase regularized reconstruction algorithm was proposed to enable various joint reconstruction of partial Fourier imaging, water-fat imaging and flow imaging, along with parallel imaging (PI) and compressed sensing (CS). Since phase regularized reconstruction is inherently non-convex and sensitive to phase wraps in the initial solution, a reconstruction technique, named phase cycling, was proposed to render the overall algorithm invariant to phase wraps. The proposed method was applied to retrospectively under-sampled in vivo datasets and compared with state of the art reconstruction methods. Phase cycling reconstructions showed reduction of artifacts compared to reconstructions without phase cycling and achieved similar performances as state of the art results in partial Fourier, water-fat and divergence-free regularized flow reconstruction. Joint reconstruction of partial Fourier + water-fat imaging + PI + CS, and partial Fourier + divergence-free regularized flow imaging + PI + CS were demonstrated. The proposed phase cycling reconstruction provides an alternative way to perform phase regularized reconstruction, without the need to perform phase unwrapping. It is robust to the choice of initial solutions and encourages the joint reconstruction of phase imaging applications. Magn Reson Med 80:112-125, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buckley, S.; Agram, P. S.; Belz, J. E.; Crippen, R. E.; Gurrola, E. M.; Hensley, S.; Kobrick, M.; Lavalle, M.; Martin, J. M.; Neumann, M.; Nguyen, Q.; Rosen, P. A.; Shimada, J.; Simard, M.; Tung, W.
2015-12-01
NASADEM is a significant modernization of SRTM digital elevation model (DEM) data supported by the NASA MEaSUREs program. We are reprocessing the raw radar signal data using improved algorithms and incorporating ICESat and ASTER-derived DEM data unavailable during the original processing. The NASADEM products will be freely-available through the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LPDAAC) at 1-arcsecond spacing. The most significant processing improvements involve void reduction through improved phase unwrapping and using ICESat data for control. The updated unwrapping strategy now includes the use of SNAPHU for data processing patches where the unwrapped coverage from the original residue-based unwrapper falls below a coverage threshold. In North America continental processing, first experiments show the strip void area is reduced by more than 50% and the number of strip void patches is reduced by 40%. Patch boundary voids are mitigated by reprocessing with a different starting burst and merging the unwrapping results. We also updated a low-resolution elevation database to aid with unwrapping bootstrapping, retaining isolated component of unwrapped phase, and assessing the quality of the strip DEMs. We introduce a height ripple error correction to reduce artifacts in the strip elevation data. These ripples are a few meters in size with along-track spatial scales of tens of kilometers and are due to uncompensated mast motion most pronounced after Shuttle roll angle adjustment maneuvers. We developed an along-track filter utilizing differences between the SRTM heights and ICESat lidar elevation data. For a test using all data over North America, the algorithm reduced the ICESat-SRTM bias from 80 cm to 3 cm and the RMS from 5m to 4m. After merging and regridding the SRTM strip DEMs into 1x1-degree tiles, remaining voids are primarily filled with the ASTER-derived Global DEM. We use a Delta Surface Fill method to rubbersheet fill data across the void for
Unwrapping 3D complex hollow organs for spatial dose surface analysis.
Witztum, A; George, B; Warren, S; Partridge, M; Hawkins, M A
2016-11-01
Toxicity dose-response models describe the correlation between dose delivered to an organ and a given toxic endpoint. Duodenal toxicity is a dose limiting factor in the treatment of pancreatic cancer with radiation but the relationship between dose and toxicity in the duodenum is not well understood. While there have been limited studies into duodenal toxicity through investigations of the volume of the organ receiving dose over a specific threshold, both dose-volume and dose-surface histograms lack spatial information about the dose distribution, which may be important in determining normal tissue response. Due to the complex geometry of the duodenum, previous methods for unwrapping tubular organs for spatial modeling of toxicity are insufficient. A geometrically robust method for producing 2D dose surface maps (DSMs), specifically for the duodenum, has been developed and tested in order to characterize the spatial dose distribution. The organ contour is defined using Delaunay triangulation. The user selects a start and end coordinate in the structure and a path is found by regulating both length and curvature. This path is discretized and rays are cast from each point on the plane normal to the vector between the previous and the next point on the path and the dose at the closest perimeter point recorded. These angular perimeter slices are "unwrapped" from the edge distal to the pancreas to ensure the high dose region (proximal to the tumor) falls in the centre of the dose map. Gamma analysis is used to quantify the robustness of this method and the effect of overlapping planes. This method was used to extract DSMs for 15 duodena, with one esophagus case to illustrate the application to simpler geometries. Visual comparison indicates that a 30 × 30 map provides sufficient resolution to view gross spatial features of interest. A lookup table is created to store the area (cm 2 ) represented by each pixel in the DSMs in order to allow spatial descriptors in
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manjunath, D.; Gomez, F.; Loveless, J.
2005-12-01
Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) provides unprecedented spatial imaging of crustal deformation. However, for small deformations, such as those due to interseismic strain accumulation, potentially significant uncertainty may result from other sources of interferometric phase, such as atmospheric effects, errors in satellite baseline, and height errors in the reference digital elevation model (DEM). We aim to constrain spatial and temporal variations in crustal deformation of the northern Chilean forearc region of the Andean subduction zone (19° - 22°S) using multiple interferograms spanning 1995 - 2000. The study area includes the region of the 1995 Mw 8.1 Antofagasta earthquake and the region to the north. In contrast to previous InSAR-based studies of the Chilean forearc, we seek to distinguish interferometric phase contributions from linear and nonlinear deformation, height errors in the DEM, and atmospheric effects. Understanding these phase contributions reduces the uncertainties on the deformation rates and provides a view of the time-dependence of deformation. The inteferograms cover a 150 km-wide swath spanning two adjacent orbital tracks. Our study involves the analysis of more than 28 inteferograms along each track. Coherent interferograms in the hyper-arid Atacama Desert permit spatial phase unwrapping. Initial estimates of topographic phase were determined using 3'' DEM data from the SRTM mission. We perform a pixel-by-pixel analysis of the unwrapped phase to identify time- and baseline-dependent phase contributions, using the Gamma Remote Sensing radar software. Atmospheric phase, non-linear deformation, and phase noise were further distinguished using a combination of spatial and temporal filters. Non-linear deformation is evident for up to 2.5 years following the 1995 earthquake, followed by a return to time-linear, interseismic strain accumulation. The regional trend of linear deformation, characterized by coastal subsidence and
Ruschke, Stefan; Eggers, Holger; Kooijman, Hendrik; Diefenbach, Maximilian N; Baum, Thomas; Haase, Axel; Rummeny, Ernst J; Hu, Houchun H; Karampinos, Dimitrios C
2017-09-01
To propose a phase error correction scheme for monopolar time-interleaved multi-echo gradient echo water-fat imaging that allows accurate and robust complex-based quantification of the proton density fat fraction (PDFF). A three-step phase correction scheme is proposed to address a) a phase term induced by echo misalignments that can be measured with a reference scan using reversed readout polarity, b) a phase term induced by the concomitant gradient field that can be predicted from the gradient waveforms, and c) a phase offset between time-interleaved echo trains. Simulations were carried out to characterize the concomitant gradient field-induced PDFF bias and the performance estimating the phase offset between time-interleaved echo trains. Phantom experiments and in vivo liver and thigh imaging were performed to study the relevance of each of the three phase correction steps on PDFF accuracy and robustness. The simulation, phantom, and in vivo results showed in agreement with the theory an echo time-dependent PDFF bias introduced by the three phase error sources. The proposed phase correction scheme was found to provide accurate PDFF estimation independent of the employed echo time combination. Complex-based time-interleaved water-fat imaging was found to give accurate and robust PDFF measurements after applying the proposed phase error correction scheme. Magn Reson Med 78:984-996, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
Phase retrieval algorithm for JWST Flight and Testbed Telescope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dean, Bruce H.; Aronstein, David L.; Smith, J. Scott; Shiri, Ron; Acton, D. Scott
2006-06-01
An image-based wavefront sensing and control algorithm for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is presented. The algorithm heritage is discussed in addition to implications for algorithm performance dictated by NASA's Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 6. The algorithm uses feedback through an adaptive diversity function to avoid the need for phase-unwrapping post-processing steps. Algorithm results are demonstrated using JWST Testbed Telescope (TBT) commissioning data and the accuracy is assessed by comparison with interferometer results on a multi-wave phase aberration. Strategies for minimizing aliasing artifacts in the recovered phase are presented and orthogonal basis functions are implemented for representing wavefronts in irregular hexagonal apertures. Algorithm implementation on a parallel cluster of high-speed digital signal processors (DSPs) is also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakaguchi, Toshimasa; Fujigaki, Motoharu; Murata, Yorinobu
2015-03-01
Accurate and wide-range shape measurement method is required in industrial field. The same technique is possible to be used for a shape measurement of a human body for the garment industry. Compact 3D shape measurement equipment is also required for embedding in the inspection system. A shape measurement by a phase shifting method can measure the shape with high spatial resolution because the coordinates can be obtained pixel by pixel. A key-device to develop compact equipment is a grating projector. Authors developed a linear LED projector and proposed a light source stepping method (LSSM) using the linear LED projector. The shape measurement euipment can be produced with low-cost and compact without any phase-shifting mechanical systems by using this method. Also it enables us to measure 3D shape in very short time by switching the light sources quickly. A phase unwrapping method is necessary to widen the measurement range with constant accuracy for phase shifting method. A general phase unwrapping method with difference grating pitches is often used. It is one of a simple phase unwrapping method. It is, however, difficult to apply the conventional phase unwrapping algorithm to the LSSM. Authors, therefore, developed an expansion unwrapping algorithm for the LSSM. In this paper, an expansion algorithm of measurement range suited for 3D shape measurement using two pitches of projected grating with the LSSM was evaluated.
Analytical model and error analysis of arbitrary phasing technique for bunch length measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Qushan; Qin, Bin; Chen, Wei; Fan, Kuanjun; Pei, Yuanji
2018-05-01
An analytical model of an RF phasing method using arbitrary phase scanning for bunch length measurement is reported. We set up a statistical model instead of a linear chirp approximation to analyze the energy modulation process. It is found that, assuming a short bunch (σφ / 2 π → 0) and small relative energy spread (σγ /γr → 0), the energy spread (Y =σγ 2) at the exit of the traveling wave linac has a parabolic relationship with the cosine value of the injection phase (X = cosφr|z=0), i.e., Y = AX2 + BX + C. Analogous to quadrupole strength scanning for emittance measurement, this phase scanning method can be used to obtain the bunch length by measuring the energy spread at different injection phases. The injection phases can be randomly chosen, which is significantly different from the commonly used zero-phasing method. Further, the systematic error of the reported method, such as the influence of the space charge effect, is analyzed. This technique will be especially useful at low energies when the beam quality is dramatically degraded and is hard to measure using the zero-phasing method.
Improved arrayed-waveguide-grating layout avoiding systematic phase errors.
Ismail, Nur; Sun, Fei; Sengo, Gabriel; Wörhoff, Kerstin; Driessen, Alfred; de Ridder, René M; Pollnau, Markus
2011-04-25
We present a detailed description of an improved arrayed-waveguide-grating (AWG) layout for both, low and high diffraction orders. The novel layout presents identical bends across the entire array; in this way systematic phase errors arising from different bends that are inherent to conventional AWG designs are completely eliminated. In addition, for high-order AWGs our design results in more than 50% reduction of the occupied area on the wafer. We present an experimental characterization of a low-order device fabricated according to this geometry. The device has a resolution of 5.5 nm, low intrinsic losses (< 2 dB) in the wavelength region of interest for the application, and is polarization insensitive over a wide spectral range of 215 nm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Chaoying; Zhang, Qin; He, Yang; Peng, Jianbing; Yang, Chengsheng; Kang, Ya
2016-04-01
Small baseline subsets interferometric synthetic aperture radar technique is analyzed to detect and monitor the loess landslide in the southern bank of the Jinghe River, Shaanxi province, China. Aiming to achieve the accurate preslide time-series deformation results over small spatial scale and abrupt temporal deformation loess landslide, digital elevation model error, coherence threshold for phase unwrapping, and quality of unwrapping interferograms must be carefully checked in advance. In this experience, land subsidence accompanying a landslide with the distance <1 km is obtained, which gives a sound precursor for small-scale loess landslide detection. Moreover, the longer and continuous land subsidence has been monitored while deformation starting point for the landslide is successfully inverted, which is key to monitoring the similar loess landslide. In addition, the accelerated landslide deformation from one to two months before the landslide can provide a critical clue to early warning of this kind of landslide.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silva, Guilherme Gregório; Mura, José Claudio; Paradella, Waldir Renato; Gama, Fabio Furlan; Temporim, Filipe Altoé
2017-04-01
Persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) analysis of a large area is always a challenging task regarding the removal of the atmospheric phase component. This work presents an investigation of ground movement measurements based on a combination of differential SAR interferometry time-series (DTS) and PSI techniques, applied on a large area of extent with open pit iron mines located in Carajás (Brazilian Amazon Region), aiming at detecting linear and nonlinear ground movement. These mines have presented a history of instability, and surface monitoring measurements over sectors of the mines (pit walls) have been carried out based on ground-based radar and total station (prisms). Using a priori information regarding the topographic phase error and a phase displacement model derived from DTS, temporal phase unwrapping in the PSI processing and the removal of the atmospheric phases can be performed more efficiently. A set of 33 TerraSAR-X (TSX-1) images, acquired during the period from March 2012 to April 2013, was used to perform this investigation. The DTS analysis was carried out on a stack of multilook unwrapped interferograms using an extension of SVD to obtain the least-square solution. The height errors and deformation rates provided by the DTS approach were subtracted from the stack of interferograms to perform the PSI analysis. This procedure improved the capability of the PSI analysis for detecting high rates of deformation, as well as increased the numbers of point density of the final results. The proposed methodology showed good results for monitoring surface displacement in a large mining area, which is located in a rain forest environment, providing very useful information about the ground movement for planning and risk control.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mura, José C.; Paradella, Waldir R.; Gama, Fabio F.; Silva, Guilherme G.
2016-10-01
PSI (Persistent Scatterer Interferometry) analysis of large area is always a challenging task regarding the removal of the atmospheric phase component. This work presents an investigation of ground deformation measurements based on a combination of DInSAR Time-Series (DTS) and PSI techniques, applied in a large area of open pit iron mines located in Carajás (Brazilian Amazon Region), aiming at detect high rates of linear and nonlinear ground deformation. These mines have presented a historical of instability and surface monitoring measurements over sectors of the mines (pit walls) have been carried out based on ground based radar and total station (prisms). By using a priori information regarding the topographic phase error and phase displacement model derived from DTS, temporal phase unwrapping in the PSI processing and the removal of the atmospheric phases can be performed more efficiently. A set of 33 TerraSAR-X-1 images, acquired during the period from March 2012 to April 2013, was used to perform this investigation. The DTS analysis was carried out on a stack of multi-look unwrapped interferogram using an extension of SVD to obtain the Least-Square solution. The height errors and deformation rates provided by the DTS approach were subtracted from the stack of interferogram to perform the PSI analysis. This procedure improved the capability of the PSI analysis to detect high rates of deformation as well as increased the numbers of point density of the final results. The proposed methodology showed good results for monitoring surface displacement in a large mining area, which is located in a rain forest environment, providing very useful information about the ground movement for planning and risks control.
Optimized distortion correction technique for echo planar imaging.
Chen , N K; Wyrwicz, A M
2001-03-01
A new phase-shifted EPI pulse sequence is described that encodes EPI phase errors due to all off-resonance factors, including B(o) field inhomogeneity, eddy current effects, and gradient waveform imperfections. Combined with the previously proposed multichannel modulation postprocessing algorithm (Chen and Wyrwicz, MRM 1999;41:1206-1213), the encoded phase error information can be used to effectively remove geometric distortions in subsequent EPI scans. The proposed EPI distortion correction technique has been shown to be effective in removing distortions due to gradient waveform imperfections and phase gradient-induced eddy current effects. In addition, this new method retains advantages of the earlier method, such as simultaneous correction of different off-resonance factors without use of a complicated phase unwrapping procedure. The effectiveness of this technique is illustrated with EPI studies on phantoms and animal subjects. Implementation to different versions of EPI sequences is also described. Magn Reson Med 45:525-528, 2001. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Xifeng; Zhou, Wen
2018-03-01
Optical vector radio-frequency (RF) signal generation based on optical carrier suppression (OCS) in one Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) can realize frequency-doubling. In order to match the phase or amplitude of the recovered quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signal, phase or amplitude pre-coding is necessary in the transmitter side. The detected QAM signals usually have one non-uniform phase distribution after square-law detection at the photodiode because of the imperfect characteristics of the optical and electrical devices. We propose to use optimal threshold of error decision for non-uniform phase contribution to reduce the bit error rate (BER). By employing this scheme, the BER of 16 Gbaud (32 Gbit/s) quadrature-phase-shift-keying (QPSK) millimeter wave signal at 36 GHz is improved from 1 × 10-3 to 1 × 10-4 at - 4 . 6 dBm input power into the photodiode.
Higher-dimensional phase imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huntley, Jonathan M.
2010-04-01
Traditional full-field interferometric techniques (speckle, moiré, holography etc) provide 2-D phase images, which encode the surface deformation state of the object under test. Over the past 15 years, the use of additional spatial or temporal dimensions has been investigated by a number of research groups. Early examples include the measurement of 3-D surface profiles by temporally-varying projected fringe patterns, and dynamic speckle interferometry. More recently (the past 5 years) a family of related techniques (Wavelength Scanning Interferometry, Phase Contrast Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), and Tilt Scanning Interferometry) has emerged that provides the volume deformation state of the object. The techniques can be thought of as a marriage between the phase sensing capabilities of Phase Shifting Interferometry and the depth-sensing capabilities of OCT. Finally, in the past 12 months a technique called Hyperspectral Interferometry has been proposed in which absolute optical path distributions are obtained in a single shot through the spectral decomposition of a white light interferogram, and for which the additional dimension therefore corresponds to the illumination wavenumber. An overview of these developments, and the related issue of robust phase unwrapping of noisy 3-D wrapped phase volumes, is presented in this paper.
Middione, Matthew J; Thompson, Richard B; Ennis, Daniel B
2014-06-01
To investigate a novel phase-contrast MRI velocity-encoding technique for faster imaging and reduced chemical shift-induced phase errors. Velocity encoding with the slice select refocusing gradient achieves the target gradient moment by time shifting the refocusing gradient, which enables the use of the minimum in-phase echo time (TE) for faster imaging and reduced chemical shift-induced phase errors. Net forward flow was compared in 10 healthy subjects (N = 10) within the ascending aorta (aAo), main pulmonary artery (PA), and right/left pulmonary arteries (RPA/LPA) using conventional flow compensated and flow encoded (401 Hz/px and TE = 3.08 ms) and slice select refocused gradient velocity encoding (814 Hz/px and TE = 2.46 ms) at 3 T. Improved net forward flow agreement was measured across all vessels for slice select refocused gradient compared to flow compensated and flow encoded: aAo vs. PA (1.7% ± 1.9% vs. 5.8% ± 2.8%, P = 0.002), aAo vs. RPA + LPA (2.1% ± 1.7% vs. 6.0% ± 4.3%, P = 0.03), and PA vs. RPA + LPA (2.9% ± 2.1% vs. 6.1% ± 6.3%, P = 0.04), while increasing temporal resolution (35%) and signal-to-noise ratio (33%). Slice select refocused gradient phase-contrast MRI with a high receiver bandwidth and minimum in-phase TE provides more accurate and less variable flow measurements through the reduction of chemical shift-induced phase errors and a reduced TE/repetition time, which can be used to increase the temporal/spatial resolution and/or reduce breath hold durations. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Xianfeng; Cai, Luzhong; Li, Dailin; Mao, Jieying
2010-04-01
In phase-shifting interferometry (PSI) the reference wave is usually supposed to be an on-axis plane wave. But in practice a slight tilt of reference wave often occurs, and this tilt will introduce unexpected errors of the reconstructed object wave-front. Usually the least-square method with iterations, which is time consuming, is employed to analyze the phase errors caused by the tilt of reference wave. Here a simple effective algorithm is suggested to detect and then correct this kind of errors. In this method, only some simple mathematic operation is used, avoiding using least-square equations as needed in most methods reported before. It can be used for generalized phase-shifting interferometry with two or more frames for both smooth and diffusing objects, and the excellent performance has been verified by computer simulations. The numerical simulations show that the wave reconstruction errors can be reduced by 2 orders of magnitude.
Brodsky, Ethan K.; Klaers, Jessica L.; Samsonov, Alexey A.; Kijowski, Richard; Block, Walter F.
2014-01-01
Non-Cartesian imaging sequences and navigational methods can be more sensitive to scanner imperfections that have little impact on conventional clinical sequences, an issue which has repeatedly complicated the commercialization of these techniques by frustrating transitions to multi-center evaluations. One such imperfection is phase errors caused by resonant frequency shifts from eddy currents induced in the cryostat by time-varying gradients, a phenomemon known as B0 eddy currents. These phase errors can have a substantial impact on sequences that use ramp sampling, bipolar gradients, and readouts at varying azimuthal angles. We present a method for measuring and correcting phase errors from B0 eddy currents and examine the results on two different scanner models. This technique yields significant improvements in image quality for high-resolution joint imaging on certain scanners. The results suggest that correction of short time B0 eddy currents in manufacturer provided service routines would simplify adoption of non-Cartesian sampling methods. PMID:22488532
Error Cost Escalation Through the Project Life Cycle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stecklein, Jonette M.; Dabney, Jim; Dick, Brandon; Haskins, Bill; Lovell, Randy; Moroney, Gregory
2004-01-01
It is well known that the costs to fix errors increase as the project matures, but how fast do those costs build? A study was performed to determine the relative cost of fixing errors discovered during various phases of a project life cycle. This study used three approaches to determine the relative costs: the bottom-up cost method, the total cost breakdown method, and the top-down hypothetical project method. The approaches and results described in this paper presume development of a hardware/software system having project characteristics similar to those used in the development of a large, complex spacecraft, a military aircraft, or a small communications satellite. The results show the degree to which costs escalate, as errors are discovered and fixed at later and later phases in the project life cycle. If the cost of fixing a requirements error discovered during the requirements phase is defined to be 1 unit, the cost to fix that error if found during the design phase increases to 3 - 8 units; at the manufacturing/build phase, the cost to fix the error is 7 - 16 units; at the integration and test phase, the cost to fix the error becomes 21 - 78 units; and at the operations phase, the cost to fix the requirements error ranged from 29 units to more than 1500 units
Characteristics of pediatric chemotherapy medication errors in a national error reporting database.
Rinke, Michael L; Shore, Andrew D; Morlock, Laura; Hicks, Rodney W; Miller, Marlene R
2007-07-01
Little is known regarding chemotherapy medication errors in pediatrics despite studies suggesting high rates of overall pediatric medication errors. In this study, the authors examined patterns in pediatric chemotherapy errors. The authors queried the United States Pharmacopeia MEDMARX database, a national, voluntary, Internet-accessible error reporting system, for all error reports from 1999 through 2004 that involved chemotherapy medications and patients aged <18 years. Of the 310 pediatric chemotherapy error reports, 85% reached the patient, and 15.6% required additional patient monitoring or therapeutic intervention. Forty-eight percent of errors originated in the administering phase of medication delivery, and 30% originated in the drug-dispensing phase. Of the 387 medications cited, 39.5% were antimetabolites, 14.0% were alkylating agents, 9.3% were anthracyclines, and 9.3% were topoisomerase inhibitors. The most commonly involved chemotherapeutic agents were methotrexate (15.3%), cytarabine (12.1%), and etoposide (8.3%). The most common error types were improper dose/quantity (22.9% of 327 cited error types), wrong time (22.6%), omission error (14.1%), and wrong administration technique/wrong route (12.2%). The most common error causes were performance deficit (41.3% of 547 cited error causes), equipment and medication delivery devices (12.4%), communication (8.8%), knowledge deficit (6.8%), and written order errors (5.5%). Four of the 5 most serious errors occurred at community hospitals. Pediatric chemotherapy errors often reached the patient, potentially were harmful, and differed in quality between outpatient and inpatient areas. This study indicated which chemotherapeutic agents most often were involved in errors and that administering errors were common. Investigation is needed regarding targeted medication administration safeguards for these high-risk medications. Copyright (c) 2007 American Cancer Society.
Laboratory errors and patient safety.
Miligy, Dawlat A
2015-01-01
Laboratory data are extensively used in medical practice; consequently, laboratory errors have a tremendous impact on patient safety. Therefore, programs designed to identify and reduce laboratory errors, as well as, setting specific strategies are required to minimize these errors and improve patient safety. The purpose of this paper is to identify part of the commonly encountered laboratory errors throughout our practice in laboratory work, their hazards on patient health care and some measures and recommendations to minimize or to eliminate these errors. Recording the encountered laboratory errors during May 2008 and their statistical evaluation (using simple percent distribution) have been done in the department of laboratory of one of the private hospitals in Egypt. Errors have been classified according to the laboratory phases and according to their implication on patient health. Data obtained out of 1,600 testing procedure revealed that the total number of encountered errors is 14 tests (0.87 percent of total testing procedures). Most of the encountered errors lay in the pre- and post-analytic phases of testing cycle (representing 35.7 and 50 percent, respectively, of total errors). While the number of test errors encountered in the analytic phase represented only 14.3 percent of total errors. About 85.7 percent of total errors were of non-significant implication on patients health being detected before test reports have been submitted to the patients. On the other hand, the number of test errors that have been already submitted to patients and reach the physician represented 14.3 percent of total errors. Only 7.1 percent of the errors could have an impact on patient diagnosis. The findings of this study were concomitant with those published from the USA and other countries. This proves that laboratory problems are universal and need general standardization and bench marking measures. Original being the first data published from Arabic countries that
Applications and development of new algorithms for displacement analysis using InSAR time series
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osmanoglu, Batuhan
Time series analysis of Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) data has become an important scientific tool for monitoring and measuring the displacement of Earth's surface due to a wide range of phenomena, including earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, changes in ground water levels, and wetlands. Time series analysis is a product of interferometric phase measurements, which become ambiguous when the observed motion is larger than half of the radar wavelength. Thus, phase observations must first be unwrapped in order to obtain physically meaningful results. Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI), Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers (StaMPS), Short Baselines Interferometry (SBAS) and Small Temporal Baseline Subset (STBAS) algorithms solve for this ambiguity using a series of spatio-temporal unwrapping algorithms and filters. In this dissertation, I improve upon current phase unwrapping algorithms, and apply the PSI method to study subsidence in Mexico City. PSI was used to obtain unwrapped deformation rates in Mexico City (Chapter 3),where ground water withdrawal in excess of natural recharge causes subsurface, clay-rich sediments to compact. This study is based on 23 satellite SAR scenes acquired between January 2004 and July 2006. Time series analysis of the data reveals a maximum line-of-sight subsidence rate of 300mm/yr at a high enough resolution that individual subsidence rates for large buildings can be determined. Differential motion and related structural damage along an elevated metro rail was evident from the results. Comparison of PSI subsidence rates with data from permanent GPS stations indicate root mean square (RMS) agreement of 6.9 mm/yr, about the level expected based on joint data uncertainty. The Mexico City results suggest negligible recharge, implying continuing degradation and loss of the aquifer in the third largest metropolitan area in the world. Chapters 4 and 5 illustrate the link between time series analysis and three
McGraw, John T [Placitas, NM; Zimmer, Peter C [Albuquerque, NM; Ackermann, Mark R [Albuquerque, NM
2012-01-24
Methods and apparatus for a structure function monitor provide for generation of parameters characterizing a refractive medium. In an embodiment, a structure function monitor acquires images of a pupil plane and an image plane and, from these images, retrieves the phase over an aperture, unwraps the retrieved phase, and analyzes the unwrapped retrieved phase. In an embodiment, analysis yields atmospheric parameters measured at spatial scales from zero to the diameter of a telescope used to collect light from a source.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di, Jianglei; Zhao, Jianlin; Sun, Weiwei; Jiang, Hongzhen; Yan, Xiaobo
2009-10-01
Digital holographic microscopy allows the numerical reconstruction of the complex wavefront of samples, especially biological samples such as living cells. In digital holographic microscopy, a microscope objective is introduced to improve the transverse resolution of the sample; however a phase aberration in the object wavefront is also brought along, which will affect the phase distribution of the reconstructed image. We propose here a numerical method to compensate for the phase aberration of thin transparent objects with a single hologram. The least squares surface fitting with points number less than the matrix of the original hologram is performed on the unwrapped phase distribution to remove the unwanted wavefront curvature. The proposed method is demonstrated with the samples of the cicada wings and epidermal cells of garlic, and the experimental results are consistent with that of the double exposure method.
Spectroscopic Doppler analysis for visible-light optical coherence tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shu, Xiao; Liu, Wenzhong; Duan, Lian; Zhang, Hao F.
2017-12-01
Retinal oxygen metabolic rate can be effectively measured by visible-light optical coherence tomography (vis-OCT), which simultaneously quantifies oxygen saturation and blood flow rate in retinal vessels through spectroscopic analysis and Doppler measurement, respectively. Doppler OCT relates phase variation between sequential A-lines to the axial flow velocity of the scattering medium. The detectable phase shift is between -π and π due to its periodicity, which limits the maximum measurable unambiguous velocity without phase unwrapping. Using shorter wavelengths, vis-OCT is more vulnerable to phase ambiguity since flow induced phase variation is linearly related to the center wavenumber of the probing light. We eliminated the need for phase unwrapping using spectroscopic Doppler analysis. We split the whole vis-OCT spectrum into a series of narrow subbands and reconstructed vis-OCT images to extract corresponding Doppler phase shifts in all the subbands. Then, we quantified flow velocity by analyzing subband-dependent phase shift using linear regression. In the phantom experiment, we showed that spectroscopic Doppler analysis extended the measurable absolute phase shift range without conducting phase unwrapping. We also tested this method to quantify retinal blood flow in rodents in vivo.
High-speed transport-of-intensity phase microscopy with an electrically tunable lens.
Zuo, Chao; Chen, Qian; Qu, Weijuan; Asundi, Anand
2013-10-07
We present a high-speed transport-of-intensity equation (TIE) quantitative phase microscopy technique, named TL-TIE, by combining an electrically tunable lens with a conventional transmission microscope. This permits the specimen at different focus position to be imaged in rapid succession, with constant magnification and no physically moving parts. The simplified image stack collection significantly reduces the acquisition time, allows for the diffraction-limited through-focus intensity stack collection at 15 frames per second, making dynamic TIE phase imaging possible. The technique is demonstrated by profiling of microlens array using optimal frequency selection scheme, and time-lapse imaging of live breast cancer cells by inversion the defocused phase optical transfer function to correct the phase blurring in traditional TIE. Experimental results illustrate its outstanding capability of the technique for quantitative phase imaging, through a simple, non-interferometric, high-speed, high-resolution, and unwrapping-free approach with prosperous applications in micro-optics, life sciences and bio-photonics.
Measuring Cyclic Error in Laser Heterodyne Interferometers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ryan, Daniel; Abramovici, Alexander; Zhao, Feng; Dekens, Frank; An, Xin; Azizi, Alireza; Chapsky, Jacob; Halverson, Peter
2010-01-01
An improved method and apparatus have been devised for measuring cyclic errors in the readouts of laser heterodyne interferometers that are configured and operated as displacement gauges. The cyclic errors arise as a consequence of mixing of spurious optical and electrical signals in beam launchers that are subsystems of such interferometers. The conventional approach to measurement of cyclic error involves phase measurements and yields values precise to within about 10 pm over air optical paths at laser wavelengths in the visible and near infrared. The present approach, which involves amplitude measurements instead of phase measurements, yields values precise to about .0.1 microns . about 100 times the precision of the conventional approach. In a displacement gauge of the type of interest here, the laser heterodyne interferometer is used to measure any change in distance along an optical axis between two corner-cube retroreflectors. One of the corner-cube retroreflectors is mounted on a piezoelectric transducer (see figure), which is used to introduce a low-frequency periodic displacement that can be measured by the gauges. The transducer is excited at a frequency of 9 Hz by a triangular waveform to generate a 9-Hz triangular-wave displacement having an amplitude of 25 microns. The displacement gives rise to both amplitude and phase modulation of the heterodyne signals in the gauges. The modulation includes cyclic error components, and the magnitude of the cyclic-error component of the phase modulation is what one needs to measure in order to determine the magnitude of the cyclic displacement error. The precision attainable in the conventional (phase measurement) approach to measuring cyclic error is limited because the phase measurements are af-
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Paz, Juan Pablo; Roncaglia, Augusto Jose; Theoretical Division, LANL, MSB213, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545
2005-07-15
We analyze and further develop a method to represent the quantum state of a system of n qubits in a phase-space grid of NxN points (where N=2{sup n}). The method, which was recently proposed by Wootters and co-workers (Gibbons et al., Phys. Rev. A 70, 062101 (2004).), is based on the use of the elements of the finite field GF(2{sup n}) to label the phase-space axes. We present a self-contained overview of the method, we give insights into some of its features, and we apply it to investigate problems which are of interest for quantum-information theory: We analyze the phase-spacemore » representation of stabilizer states and quantum error-correction codes and present a phase-space solution to the so-called mean king problem.« less
Theta EEG dynamics of the error-related negativity.
Trujillo, Logan T; Allen, John J B
2007-03-01
The error-related negativity (ERN) is a response-locked brain potential (ERP) occurring 80-100ms following response errors. This report contrasts three views of the genesis of the ERN, testing the classic view that time-locked phasic bursts give rise to the ERN against the view that the ERN arises from a pure phase-resetting of ongoing theta (4-7Hz) EEG activity and the view that the ERN is generated - at least in part - by a phase-resetting and amplitude enhancement of ongoing theta EEG activity. Time-domain ERP analyses were augmented with time-frequency investigations of phase-locked and non-phase-locked spectral power, and inter-trial phase coherence (ITPC) computed from individual EEG trials, examining time courses and scalp topographies. Simulations based on the assumptions of the classic, pure phase-resetting, and phase-resetting plus enhancement views, using parameters from each subject's empirical data, were used to contrast the time-frequency findings that could be expected if one or more of these hypotheses adequately modeled the data. Error responses produced larger amplitude activity than correct responses in time-domain ERPs immediately following responses, as expected. Time-frequency analyses revealed that significant error-related post-response increases in total spectral power (phase- and non-phase-locked), phase-locked power, and ITPC were primarily restricted to the theta range, with this effect located over midfrontocentral sites, with a temporal distribution from approximately 150-200ms prior to the button press and persisting up to 400ms post-button press. The increase in non-phase-locked power (total power minus phase-locked power) was larger than phase-locked power, indicating that the bulk of the theta event-related dynamics were not phase-locked to response. Results of the simulations revealed a good fit for data simulated according to the phase-locking with amplitude enhancement perspective, and a poor fit for data simulated according to
Federico, Alejandro; Kaufmann, Guillermo H
2003-12-10
We evaluate the use of a smoothed space-frequency distribution (SSFD) to retrieve optical phase maps in digital speckle pattern interferometry (DSPI). The performance of this method is tested by use of computer-simulated DSPI fringes. Phase gradients are found along a pixel path from a single DSPI image, and the phase map is finally determined by integration. This technique does not need the application of a phase unwrapping algorithm or the introduction of carrier fringes in the interferometer. It is shown that a Wigner-Ville distribution with a smoothing Gaussian kernel gives more-accurate results than methods based on the continuous wavelet transform. We also discuss the influence of filtering on smoothing of the DSPI fringes and some additional limitations that emerge when this technique is applied. The performance of the SSFD method for processing experimental data is then illustrated.
Zavala, Baltazar; Tan, Huiling; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Foltynie, Thomas; Limousin, Patricia; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Zaghloul, Kareem; Brown, Peter
2016-08-15
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is thought to control the shift from automatic to controlled action selection when conflict is present or when mistakes have been recently committed. Growing evidence suggests that this process involves frequency specific communication in the theta (4-8Hz) band between the mPFC and the subthalamic nucleus (STN), which is the main target of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease. Key in this hypothesis is the finding that DBS can lead to impulsivity by disrupting the correlation between higher mPFC oscillations and slower reaction times during conflict. In order to test whether theta band coherence between the mPFC and the STN underlies adjustments to conflict and to errors, we simultaneously recorded mPFC and STN electrophysiological activity while DBS patients performed an arrowed flanker task. These recordings revealed higher theta phase coherence between the two sites during the high conflict trials relative to the low conflict trials. These differences were observed soon after conflicting arrows were displayed, but before a response was executed. Furthermore, trials that occurred after an error was committed showed higher phase coherence relative to trials that followed a correct trial, suggesting that mPFC-STN connectivity may also play a role in error related adjustments in behavior. Interestingly, the phase coherence we observed occurred before increases in theta power, implying that the theta phase and power may influence behavior at separate times during cortical monitoring. Finally, we showed that pre-stimulus differences in STN theta power were related to the reaction time on a given trial, which may help adjust behavior based on the probability of observing conflict during a task. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
An advanced algorithm for deformation estimation in non-urban areas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goel, Kanika; Adam, Nico
2012-09-01
This paper presents an advanced differential SAR interferometry stacking algorithm for high resolution deformation monitoring in non-urban areas with a focus on distributed scatterers (DSs). Techniques such as the Small Baseline Subset Algorithm (SBAS) have been proposed for processing DSs. SBAS makes use of small baseline differential interferogram subsets. Singular value decomposition (SVD), i.e. L2 norm minimization is applied to link independent subsets separated by large baselines. However, the interferograms used in SBAS are multilooked using a rectangular window to reduce phase noise caused for instance by temporal decorrelation, resulting in a loss of resolution and the superposition of topography and deformation signals from different objects. Moreover, these have to be individually phase unwrapped and this can be especially difficult in natural terrains. An improved deformation estimation technique is presented here which exploits high resolution SAR data and is suitable for rural areas. The implemented method makes use of small baseline differential interferograms and incorporates an object adaptive spatial phase filtering and residual topography removal for an accurate phase and coherence estimation, while preserving the high resolution provided by modern satellites. This is followed by retrieval of deformation via the SBAS approach, wherein, the phase inversion is performed using an L1 norm minimization which is more robust to the typical phase unwrapping errors encountered in non-urban areas. Meter resolution TerraSAR-X data of an underground gas storage reservoir in Germany is used for demonstrating the effectiveness of this newly developed technique in rural areas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, M. J.; Liu, Zhao-Cheng; Jhang, Jhen-Huei
2002-11-01
This study demonstrates the feasibility of applying phase-shifting electronic speckle pattern interfometry to measure the deformation field of the front panel of a cathode ray tube, to support analysis to enhance the implosion-resistance capacity under violent collapse. Two effects, the air exhaustion and shrink band constraint effects, are comprehensively investigated. The angle of an adjustable mirror is switched, to provide three sensitivity vectors that are required in 3D-displacement measurement. A Fourier filtration is employed to remove speckle noise and establish a noise-free phase map. Inconsistent points are identified and masked to prevent any possible divergence during phase unwrapping. The results show that the accuracy of this method is satisfactory.
Acquisition, representation, and transfer of models of visuo-motor error
Zhang, Hang; Kulsa, Mila Kirstie C.; Maloney, Laurence T.
2015-01-01
We examined how human subjects acquire and represent models of visuo-motor error and how they transfer information about visuo-motor error from one task to a closely related one. The experiment consisted of three phases. In the training phase, subjects threw beanbags underhand towards targets displayed on a wall-mounted touch screen. The distribution of their endpoints was a vertically elongated bivariate Gaussian. In the subsequent choice phase, subjects repeatedly chose which of two targets varying in shape and size they would prefer to attempt to hit. Their choices allowed us to investigate their internal models of visuo-motor error distribution, including the coordinate system in which they represented visuo-motor error. In the transfer phase, subjects repeated the choice phase from a different vantage point, the same distance from the screen but with the throwing direction shifted 45°. From the new vantage point, visuo-motor error was effectively expanded horizontally by . We found that subjects incorrectly assumed an isotropic distribution in the choice phase but that the anisotropy they assumed in the transfer phase agreed with an objectively correct transfer. We also found that the coordinate system used in coding two-dimensional visuo-motor error in the choice phase was effectively one-dimensional. PMID:26057549
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kulkarni, Rishikesh; Rastogi, Pramod
2018-05-01
A new approach is proposed for the multiple phase estimation from a multicomponent exponential phase signal recorded in multi-beam digital holographic interferometry. It is capable of providing multidimensional measurements in a simultaneous manner from a single recording of the exponential phase signal encoding multiple phases. Each phase within a small window around each pixel is appproximated with a first order polynomial function of spatial coordinates. The problem of accurate estimation of polynomial coefficients, and in turn the unwrapped phases, is formulated as a state space analysis wherein the coefficients and signal amplitudes are set as the elements of a state vector. The state estimation is performed using the extended Kalman filter. An amplitude discrimination criterion is utilized in order to unambiguously estimate the coefficients associated with the individual signal components. The performance of proposed method is stable over a wide range of the ratio of signal amplitudes. The pixelwise phase estimation approach of the proposed method allows it to handle the fringe patterns that may contain invalid regions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pengvanich, P.; Chernin, D. P.; Lau, Y. Y.; Luginsland, J. W.; Gilgenbach, R. M.
2007-11-01
Motivated by the current interest in mm-wave and THz sources, which use miniature, difficult-to-fabricate circuit components, we evaluate the statistical effects of random fabrication errors on a helix traveling wave tube amplifier's small signal characteristics. The small signal theory is treated in a continuum model in which the electron beam is assumed to be monoenergetic, and axially symmetric about the helix axis. Perturbations that vary randomly along the beam axis are introduced in the dimensionless Pierce parameters b, the beam-wave velocity mismatch, C, the gain parameter, and d, the cold tube circuit loss. Our study shows, as expected, that perturbation in b dominates the other two. The extensive numerical data have been confirmed by our analytic theory. They show in particular that the standard deviation of the output phase is linearly proportional to standard deviation of the individual perturbations in b, C, and d. Simple formulas have been derived which yield the output phase variations in terms of the statistical random manufacturing errors. This work was supported by AFOSR and by ONR.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reinisch, E. C.; Ali, S. T.; Cardiff, M. A.; Morency, C.; Kreemer, C.; Feigl, K. L.; Team, P.
2016-12-01
Time-dependent deformation has been observed at Brady Hot Springs using interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) [Ali et al. 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geothermics.2016.01.008]. Our goal is to evaluate multiple competing hypotheses to explain the observed deformation at Brady. To do so requires statistical tests that account for uncertainty. Graph theory is useful for such an analysis of InSAR data [Reinisch, et al. 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00190-016-0934-5]. In particular, the normalized edge Laplacian matrix calculated from the edge-vertex incidence matrix of the graph of the pair-wise data set represents its correlation and leads to a full data covariance matrix in the weighted least squares problem. This formulation also leads to the covariance matrix of the epoch-wise measurements, representing their relative uncertainties. While the formulation in terms of incidence graphs applies to any quantity derived from pair-wise differences, the modulo-2π ambiguity of wrapped phase renders the problem non-linear. The conventional practice is to unwrap InSAR phase before modeling, which can introduce mistakes without increasing the corresponding measurement uncertainty. To address this issue, we are applying Bayesian inference. To build the likelihood, we use three different observables: (a) wrapped phase [e.g., Feigl and Thurber 2009, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.2008.03881.x]; (b) range gradients, as defined by Ali and Feigl [2012, http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2012GC004112]; and (c) unwrapped phase, i.e. range change in mm, which we validate using GPS data. We apply our method to InSAR data taken over Brady Hot Springs geothermal field in Nevada as part of a project entitled "Poroelastic Tomography by Adjoint Inverse Modeling of Data from Seismology, Geodesy, and Hydrology" (PoroTomo) [ http://geoscience.wisc.edu/feigl/porotomo].
Analysis on optical heterodyne frequency error of full-field heterodyne interferometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yang; Zhang, Wenxi; Wu, Zhou; Lv, Xiaoyu; Kong, Xinxin; Guo, Xiaoli
2017-06-01
The full-field heterodyne interferometric measurement technology is beginning better applied by employing low frequency heterodyne acousto-optical modulators instead of complex electro-mechanical scanning devices. The optical element surface could be directly acquired by synchronously detecting the received signal phases of each pixel, because standard matrix detector as CCD and CMOS cameras could be used in heterodyne interferometer. Instead of the traditional four-step phase shifting phase calculating, Fourier spectral analysis method is used for phase extracting which brings lower sensitivity to sources of uncertainty and higher measurement accuracy. In this paper, two types of full-field heterodyne interferometer are described whose advantages and disadvantages are also specified. Heterodyne interferometer has to combine two different frequency beams to produce interference, which brings a variety of optical heterodyne frequency errors. Frequency mixing error and beat frequency error are two different kinds of inescapable heterodyne frequency errors. In this paper, the effects of frequency mixing error to surface measurement are derived. The relationship between the phase extraction accuracy and the errors are calculated. :: The tolerance of the extinction ratio of polarization splitting prism and the signal-to-noise ratio of stray light is given. The error of phase extraction by Fourier analysis that caused by beat frequency shifting is derived and calculated. We also propose an improved phase extraction method based on spectrum correction. An amplitude ratio spectrum correction algorithm with using Hanning window is used to correct the heterodyne signal phase extraction. The simulation results show that this method can effectively suppress the degradation of phase extracting caused by beat frequency error and reduce the measurement uncertainty of full-field heterodyne interferometer.
Evaluation and error apportionment of an ensemble of ...
Through the comparison of several regional-scale chemistry transport modelling systems that simulate meteorology and air quality over the European and American continents, this study aims at i) apportioning the error to the responsible processes using time-scale analysis, ii) helping to detect causes of models error, and iii) identifying the processes and scales most urgently requiring dedicated investigations. The analysis is conducted within the framework of the third phase of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) and tackles model performance gauging through measurement-to-model comparison, error decomposition and time series analysis of the models biases for several fields (ozone, CO, SO2, NO, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, wind speed, and temperature). The operational metrics (magnitude of the error, sign of the bias, associativity) provide an overall sense of model strengths and deficiencies, while apportioning the error to its constituent parts (bias, variance and covariance) can help to assess the nature and quality of the error. Each of the error components is analysed independently and apportioned to specific processes based on the corresponding timescale (long scale, synoptic, diurnal, and intra-day) using the error apportionment technique devised in the former phases of AQMEII.The application of the error apportionment method to the AQMEII Phase 3 simulations provides several key insights. In addition to reaffirming the strong impact
Phase walk analysis of leptokurtic time series.
Schreiber, Korbinian; Modest, Heike I; Räth, Christoph
2018-06-01
The Fourier phase information play a key role for the quantified description of nonlinear data. We present a novel tool for time series analysis that identifies nonlinearities by sensitively detecting correlations among the Fourier phases. The method, being called phase walk analysis, is based on well established measures from random walk analysis, which are now applied to the unwrapped Fourier phases of time series. We provide an analytical description of its functionality and demonstrate its capabilities on systematically controlled leptokurtic noise. Hereby, we investigate the properties of leptokurtic time series and their influence on the Fourier phases of time series. The phase walk analysis is applied to measured and simulated intermittent time series, whose probability density distribution is approximated by power laws. We use the day-to-day returns of the Dow-Jones industrial average, a synthetic time series with tailored nonlinearities mimicing the power law behavior of the Dow-Jones and the acceleration of the wind at an Atlantic offshore site. Testing for nonlinearities by means of surrogates shows that the new method yields strong significances for nonlinear behavior. Due to the drastically decreased computing time as compared to embedding space methods, the number of surrogate realizations can be increased by orders of magnitude. Thereby, the probability distribution of the test statistics can very accurately be derived and parameterized, which allows for much more precise tests on nonlinearities.
Estimation of error on the cross-correlation, phase and time lag between evenly sampled light curves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Misra, R.; Bora, A.; Dewangan, G.
2018-04-01
Temporal analysis of radiation from Astrophysical sources like Active Galactic Nuclei, X-ray Binaries and Gamma-ray bursts provides information on the geometry and sizes of the emitting regions. Establishing that two light-curves in different energy bands are correlated, and measuring the phase and time-lag between them is an important and frequently used temporal diagnostic. Generally the estimates are done by dividing the light-curves into large number of adjacent intervals to find the variance or by using numerically expensive simulations. In this work we have presented alternative expressions for estimate of the errors on the cross-correlation, phase and time-lag between two shorter light-curves when they cannot be divided into segments. Thus the estimates presented here allow for analysis of light-curves with relatively small number of points, as well as to obtain information on the longest time-scales available. The expressions have been tested using 200 light curves simulated from both white and 1 / f stochastic processes with measurement errors. We also present an application to the XMM-Newton light-curves of the Active Galactic Nucleus, Akn 564. The example shows that the estimates presented here allow for analysis of light-curves with relatively small (∼ 1000) number of points.
Complex phase error and motion estimation in synthetic aperture radar imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soumekh, M.; Yang, H.
1991-06-01
Attention is given to a SAR wave equation-based system model that accurately represents the interaction of the impinging radar signal with the target to be imaged. The model is used to estimate the complex phase error across the synthesized aperture from the measured corrupted SAR data by combining the two wave equation models governing the collected SAR data at two temporal frequencies of the radar signal. The SAR system model shows that the motion of an object in a static scene results in coupled Doppler shifts in both the temporal frequency domain and the spatial frequency domain of the synthetic aperture. The velocity of the moving object is estimated through these two Doppler shifts. It is shown that once the dynamic target's velocity is known, its reconstruction can be formulated via a squint-mode SAR geometry with parameters that depend upon the dynamic target's velocity.
Jiang, Hongzhi; Zhao, Huijie; Li, Xudong; Quan, Chenggen
2016-03-07
We propose a novel hyper thin 3D edge measurement technique to measure the profile of 3D outer envelope of honeycomb core structures. The width of the edges of the honeycomb core is less than 0.1 mm. We introduce a triangular layout design consisting of two cameras and one projector to measure hyper thin 3D edges and eliminate data interference from the walls. A phase-shifting algorithm and the multi-frequency heterodyne phase-unwrapping principle are applied for phase retrievals on edges. A new stereo matching method based on phase mapping and epipolar constraint is presented to solve correspondence searching on the edges and remove false matches resulting in 3D outliers. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for measuring the 3D profile of honeycomb core structures.
Automated error correction in IBM quantum computer and explicit generalization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Debjit; Agarwal, Pratik; Pandey, Pratyush; Behera, Bikash K.; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.
2018-06-01
Construction of a fault-tolerant quantum computer remains a challenging problem due to unavoidable noise and fragile quantum states. However, this goal can be achieved by introducing quantum error-correcting codes. Here, we experimentally realize an automated error correction code and demonstrate the nondestructive discrimination of GHZ states in IBM 5-qubit quantum computer. After performing quantum state tomography, we obtain the experimental results with a high fidelity. Finally, we generalize the investigated code for maximally entangled n-qudit case, which could both detect and automatically correct any arbitrary phase-change error, or any phase-flip error, or any bit-flip error, or combined error of all types of error.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Simon, M.; Mileant, A.
1986-01-01
The steady-state behavior of a particular type of digital phase-locked loop (DPLL) with an integrate-and-dump circuit following the phase detector is characterized in terms of the probability density function (pdf) of the phase error in the loop. Although the loop is entirely digital from an implementation standpoint, it operates at two extremely different sampling rates. In particular, the combination of a phase detector and an integrate-and-dump circuit operates at a very high rate whereas the loop update rate is very slow by comparison. Because of this dichotomy, the loop can be analyzed by hybrid analog/digital (s/z domain) techniques. The loop is modeled in such a general fashion that previous analyses of the Real-Time Combiner (RTC), Subcarrier Demodulator Assembly (SDA), and Symbol Synchronization Assembly (SSA) fall out as special cases.
Skylab water balance error analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leonard, J. I.
1977-01-01
Estimates of the precision of the net water balance were obtained for the entire Skylab preflight and inflight phases as well as for the first two weeks of flight. Quantitative estimates of both total sampling errors and instrumentation errors were obtained. It was shown that measurement error is minimal in comparison to biological variability and little can be gained from improvement in analytical accuracy. In addition, a propagation of error analysis demonstrated that total water balance error could be accounted for almost entirely by the errors associated with body mass changes. Errors due to interaction between terms in the water balance equation (covariances) represented less than 10% of the total error. Overall, the analysis provides evidence that daily measurements of body water changes obtained from the indirect balance technique are reasonable, precise, and relaible. The method is not biased toward net retention or loss.
A self-reference PRF-shift MR thermometry method utilizing the phase gradient
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Langley, Jason; Potter, William; Phipps, Corey; Huang, Feng; Zhao, Qun
2011-12-01
In magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, the most widely used and accurate method for measuring temperature is based on the shift in proton resonance frequency (PRF). However, inter-scan motion and bulk magnetic field shifts can lead to inaccurate temperature measurements in the PRF-shift MR thermometry method. The self-reference PRF-shift MR thermometry method was introduced to overcome such problems by deriving a reference image from the heated or treated image, and approximates the reference phase map with low-order polynomial functions. In this note, a new approach is presented to calculate the baseline phase map in self-reference PRF-shift MR thermometry. The proposed method utilizes the phase gradient to remove the phase unwrapping step inherent to other self-reference PRF-shift MR thermometry methods. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated using numerical simulations with temperature distributions following a two-dimensional Gaussian function as well as phantom and in vivo experimental data sets. The results from both the numerical simulations and experimental data show that the proposed method is a promising technique for measuring temperature.
A Constant Envelope OFDM Implementation on GNU Radio
2015-02-02
more advanced schemes like Decision Feedback Equalization or Turbo Equalization must be implemented to avoid the noise enhancement that all linear...block is coded in C++, and uses the phase unwrapping algorithm similar to MATLABs unwrap() function. To avoid false wraps propagating throughout the...outperform the real-time GNU radio implementation at higher SNR’s. While the unequalized experiment with the Matlab processor usually stayed within 5
Errors in clinical laboratories or errors in laboratory medicine?
Plebani, Mario
2006-01-01
Laboratory testing is a highly complex process and, although laboratory services are relatively safe, they are not as safe as they could or should be. Clinical laboratories have long focused their attention on quality control methods and quality assessment programs dealing with analytical aspects of testing. However, a growing body of evidence accumulated in recent decades demonstrates that quality in clinical laboratories cannot be assured by merely focusing on purely analytical aspects. The more recent surveys on errors in laboratory medicine conclude that in the delivery of laboratory testing, mistakes occur more frequently before (pre-analytical) and after (post-analytical) the test has been performed. Most errors are due to pre-analytical factors (46-68.2% of total errors), while a high error rate (18.5-47% of total errors) has also been found in the post-analytical phase. Errors due to analytical problems have been significantly reduced over time, but there is evidence that, particularly for immunoassays, interference may have a serious impact on patients. A description of the most frequent and risky pre-, intra- and post-analytical errors and advice on practical steps for measuring and reducing the risk of errors is therefore given in the present paper. Many mistakes in the Total Testing Process are called "laboratory errors", although these may be due to poor communication, action taken by others involved in the testing process (e.g., physicians, nurses and phlebotomists), or poorly designed processes, all of which are beyond the laboratory's control. Likewise, there is evidence that laboratory information is only partially utilized. A recent document from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) recommends a new, broader definition of the term "laboratory error" and a classification of errors according to different criteria. In a modern approach to total quality, centered on patients' needs and satisfaction, the risk of errors and mistakes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Werner, C. L.; Wegmüller, U.; Strozzi, T.
2012-12-01
The Lost-Hills oil field located in Kern County,California ranks sixth in total remaining reserves in California. Hundreds of densely packed wells characterize the field with one well every 5000 to 20000 square meters. Subsidence due to oil extraction can be grater than 10 cm/year and is highly variable both in space and time. The RADARSAT-1 SAR satellite collected data over this area with a 24-day repeat during a 2 year period spanning 2002-2004. Relatively high interferometric correlation makes this an excellent region for development and test of deformation time-series inversion algorithms. Errors in deformation time series derived from a stack of differential interferograms are primarily due to errors in the digital terrain model, interferometric baselines, variability in tropospheric delay, thermal noise and phase unwrapping errors. Particularly challenging is separation of non-linear deformation from variations in troposphere delay and phase unwrapping errors. In our algorithm a subset of interferometric pairs is selected from a set of N radar acquisitions based on criteria of connectivity, time interval, and perpendicular baseline. When possible, the subset consists of temporally connected interferograms, otherwise the different groups of interferograms are selected to overlap in time. The maximum time interval is constrained to be less than a threshold value to minimize phase gradients due to deformation as well as minimize temporal decorrelation. Large baselines are also avoided to minimize the consequence of DEM errors on the interferometric phase. Based on an extension of the SVD based inversion described by Lee et al. ( USGS Professional Paper 1769), Schmidt and Burgmann (JGR, 2003), and the earlier work of Berardino (TGRS, 2002), our algorithm combines estimation of the DEM height error with a set of finite difference smoothing constraints. A set of linear equations are formulated for each spatial point that are functions of the deformation velocities
Humidification of unwrapped chilled meat on retail display using an ultrasonic fogging system.
Brown, Tim; Corry, Janet E L; Evans, Judith A
2007-12-01
The effects of an ultrasonic humidification system on unwrapped meat in a chilled retail display cabinet were assessed. Humidification raised the relative humidity of the cabinet air from a mean of 76.7% to just below saturation at 98.8%. This reduced the mean evaporative weight loss from whole samples of meat after 14h from 1.68% to 0.62% of their initial weight. The rate of deterioration in the appearance of the meat due to dehydration was reduced to the extent that while the unhumidified trial was terminated after 14h because all samples were judged to be unacceptable, the humidified trial was continued for 24h without any major changes in appearance. Levels of presumptive pseudomonas bacteria were relatively high in water samples taken from the humidification system and defrost water during the humidified trial, but Legionella spp. were not isolated. Significant increases in the numbers of bacteria on the meat during either trial were only found in one case, that of humidified minced beef. However, some of the samples had high counts even before display, and this may have masked any effect due to humidification. Differences in levels of air-borne contamination were small and inconsistent. Air temperatures were raised by humidification by between 1 and 2°C and this was reflected in similarly raised product temperatures. Temperatures of air leaving the evaporator indicated that this was due to icing of the evaporator in the periods leading up to defrosts.
Gibson, Matthew D.; Gatchalian, Jovylyn; Slater, Andrew; Kutateladze, Tatiana G.
2017-01-01
Abstract The Tudor domain of human PHF1 recognizes trimethylated lysine 36 on histone H3 (H3K36me3). PHF1 relies on this interaction to regulate PRC2 methyltransferase activity, localize to DNA double strand breaks and mediate nucleosome accessibility. Here, we investigate the impact of the PHF1 N-terminal domain (NTD) on the Tudor domain interaction with the nucleosome. We show that the NTD is partially ordered when it is natively attached to the Tudor domain. Through a combination of FRET and single molecule studies, we find that the increase of DNA accessibility within the H3K36me3-containing nucleosome, instigated by the Tudor binding to H3K36me3, is dramatically enhanced by the NTD. We demonstrate that this nearly order of magnitude increase is due to preferential binding of PHF1 to partially unwrapped nucleosomes, and that PHF1 alters DNA–protein binding within the nucleosome by decreasing dissociation rates. These results highlight the potency of a PTM-binding protein to regulate DNA accessibility and underscores the role of the novel mechanism by which nucleosomes control DNA–protein binding through increasing protein dissociation rates. PMID:28082396
A portable intra-oral scanner based on sinusoidal pattern of fast phase-shifting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jan, Chia-Ming; Lin, Ying-Chieh
2016-03-01
This paper presented our current research about the intra-oral scanner made by MIRDC. Utilizing the sinusoidal pattern for fast phase-shifting technique to deal with 3D digitalization of human dental surface profile, the development of pseudo-phase shifting digital projection can easily achieve one type of full-field scanning instead of the common technique of the laser line scanning. Based on traditional Moiré method, we adopt projecting fringes and retrieve phase reconstruction to forward phase unwrapping. The phase difference between the plane and object can be exactly calculated from the desired fringe images, and the surface profile of object was probably reconstructed by using the phase differences information directly. According to our algorithm of space mapping between projections and capturing orientation exchange of our intra-oral scanning configuration, the system we made certainly can be proved to achieve the required accuracy of +/-10μm to deal with intra-oral scanning on the basis of utilizing active triangulation method. The final purpose aimed to the scanning of object surface profile with its size about 10x10x10mm3.
A novel algorithm for laser self-mixing sensors used with the Kalman filter to measure displacement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Hui; Liu, Ji-Gou
2018-07-01
This paper proposes a simple and effective method for estimating the feedback level factor C in a self-mixing interferometric sensor. It is used with a Kalman filter to retrieve the displacement. Without the complicated and onerous calculation process of the general C estimation method, a final equation is obtained. Thus, the estimation of C only involves a few simple calculations. It successfully retrieves the sinusoidal and aleatory displacement by means of simulated self-mixing signals in both weak and moderate feedback regimes. To deal with the errors resulting from noise and estimate bias of C and to further improve the retrieval precision, a Kalman filter is employed following the general phase unwrapping method. The simulation and experiment results show that the retrieved displacement using the C obtained with the proposed method is comparable to the joint estimation of C and α. Besides, the Kalman filter can significantly decrease measurement errors, especially the error caused by incorrectly locating the peak and valley positions of the signal.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dwivedi, Prashant Povel; Kumar, Challa Sesha Sai Pavan; Choi, Hee Joo; Cha, Myoungsik
2016-02-01
Random duty-cycle error (RDE) is inherent in the fabrication of ferroelectric quasi-phase-matching (QPM) gratings. Although a small RDE may not affect the nonlinearity of QPM devices, it enhances non-phase-matched parasitic harmonic generations, limiting the device performance in some applications. Recently, we demonstrated a simple method for measuring the RDE in QPM gratings by analyzing the far-field diffraction pattern obtained by uniform illumination (Dwivedi et al. in Opt Express 21:30221-30226, 2013). In the present study, we used a Gaussian beam illumination for the diffraction experiment to measure noise spectra that are less affected by the pedestals of the strong diffraction orders. Our results were compared with our calculations based on a random grating model, demonstrating improved resolution in the RDE estimation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, Zhiye; Xu, Lisheng; Chen, Hongbin; Wang, Yongqian; Liu, Jinbao; Feng, Wenlan
2017-06-01
Extended range forecasting of 10-30 days, which lies between medium-term and climate prediction in terms of timescale, plays a significant role in decision-making processes for the prevention and mitigation of disastrous meteorological events. The sensitivity of initial error, model parameter error, and random error in a nonlinear crossprediction error (NCPE) model, and their stability in the prediction validity period in 10-30-day extended range forecasting, are analyzed quantitatively. The associated sensitivity of precipitable water, temperature, and geopotential height during cases of heavy rain and hurricane is also discussed. The results are summarized as follows. First, the initial error and random error interact. When the ratio of random error to initial error is small (10-6-10-2), minor variation in random error cannot significantly change the dynamic features of a chaotic system, and therefore random error has minimal effect on the prediction. When the ratio is in the range of 10-1-2 (i.e., random error dominates), attention should be paid to the random error instead of only the initial error. When the ratio is around 10-2-10-1, both influences must be considered. Their mutual effects may bring considerable uncertainty to extended range forecasting, and de-noising is therefore necessary. Second, in terms of model parameter error, the embedding dimension m should be determined by the factual nonlinear time series. The dynamic features of a chaotic system cannot be depicted because of the incomplete structure of the attractor when m is small. When m is large, prediction indicators can vanish because of the scarcity of phase points in phase space. A method for overcoming the cut-off effect ( m > 4) is proposed. Third, for heavy rains, precipitable water is more sensitive to the prediction validity period than temperature or geopotential height; however, for hurricanes, geopotential height is most sensitive, followed by precipitable water.
Method and apparatus for optical phase error correction
DeRose, Christopher; Bender, Daniel A.
2014-09-02
The phase value of a phase-sensitive optical device, which includes an optical transport region, is modified by laser processing. At least a portion of the optical transport region is exposed to a laser beam such that the phase value is changed from a first phase value to a second phase value, where the second phase value is different from the first phase value. The portion of the optical transport region that is exposed to the laser beam can be a surface of the optical transport region or a portion of the volume of the optical transport region. In an embodiment of the invention, the phase value of the optical device is corrected by laser processing. At least a portion of the optical transport region is exposed to a laser beam until the phase value of the optical device is within a specified tolerance of a target phase value.
Multipath induced errors in meteorological Doppler/interferometer location systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wallace, R. G.
1984-01-01
One application of an RF interferometer aboard a low-orbiting spacecraft to determine the location of ground-based transmitters is in tracking high-altitude balloons for meteorological studies. A source of error in this application is reflection of the signal from the sea surface. Through propagating and signal analysis, the magnitude of the reflection-induced error in both Doppler frequency measurements and interferometer phase measurements was estimated. The theory of diffuse scattering from random surfaces was applied to obtain the power spectral density of the reflected signal. The processing of the combined direct and reflected signals was then analyzed to find the statistics of the measurement error. It was found that the error varies greatly during the satellite overpass and attains its maximum value at closest approach. The maximum values of interferometer phase error and Doppler frequency error found for the system configuration considered were comparable to thermal noise-induced error.
Bit-error-rate testing of fiber optic data links for MMIC-based phased array antennas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shalkhauser, K. A.; Kunath, R. R.; Daryoush, A. S.
1990-01-01
The measured bit-error-rate (BER) performance of a fiber optic data link to be used in satellite communications systems is presented and discussed. In the testing, the link was measured for its ability to carry high burst rate, serial-minimum shift keyed (SMSK) digital data similar to those used in actual space communications systems. The fiber optic data link, as part of a dual-segment injection-locked RF fiber optic link system, offers a means to distribute these signals to the many radiating elements of a phased array antenna. Test procedures, experimental arrangements, and test results are presented.
Demiral, Şükrü Barış; Golosheykin, Simon; Anokhin, Andrey P
2017-05-01
Detection and evaluation of the mismatch between the intended and actually obtained result of an action (reward prediction error) is an integral component of adaptive self-regulation of behavior. Extensive human and animal research has shown that evaluation of action outcome is supported by a distributed network of brain regions in which the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) plays a central role, and the integration of distant brain regions into a unified feedback-processing network is enabled by long-range phase synchronization of cortical oscillations in the theta band. Neural correlates of feedback processing are associated with individual differences in normal and abnormal behavior, however, little is known about the role of genetic factors in the cerebral mechanisms of feedback processing. Here we examined genetic influences on functional cortical connectivity related to prediction error in young adult twins (age 18, n=399) using event-related EEG phase coherence analysis in a monetary gambling task. To identify prediction error-specific connectivity pattern, we compared responses to loss and gain feedback. Monetary loss produced a significant increase of theta-band synchronization between the frontal midline region and widespread areas of the scalp, particularly parietal areas, whereas gain resulted in increased synchrony primarily within the posterior regions. Genetic analyses showed significant heritability of frontoparietal theta phase synchronization (24 to 46%), suggesting that individual differences in large-scale network dynamics are under substantial genetic control. We conclude that theta-band synchronization of brain oscillations related to negative feedback reflects genetically transmitted differences in the neural mechanisms of feedback processing. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence for genetic influences on task-related functional brain connectivity assessed using direct real-time measures of neuronal synchronization. Copyright © 2016
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zuo, Chao; Chen, Qian; Gu, Guohua; Feng, Shijie; Feng, Fangxiaoyu; Li, Rubin; Shen, Guochen
2013-08-01
This paper introduces a high-speed three-dimensional (3-D) shape measurement technique for dynamic scenes by using bi-frequency tripolar pulse-width-modulation (TPWM) fringe projection. Two wrapped phase maps with different wavelengths can be obtained simultaneously by our bi-frequency phase-shifting algorithm. Then the two phase maps are unwrapped using a simple look-up-table based number-theoretical approach. To guarantee the robustness of phase unwrapping as well as the high sinusoidality of projected patterns, TPWM technique is employed to generate ideal fringe patterns with slight defocus. We detailed our technique, including its principle, pattern design, and system setup. Several experiments on dynamic scenes were performed, verifying that our method can achieve a speed of 1250 frames per second for fast, dense, and accurate 3-D measurements.
Chua, Siew-Siang; Choo, Sim-Mei; Sulaiman, Che Zuraini; Omar, Asma; Thong, Meow-Keong
2017-01-01
Background and purpose Drug administration errors are more likely to reach the patient than other medication errors. The main aim of this study was to determine whether the sharing of information on drug administration errors among health care providers would reduce such problems. Patients and methods This study involved direct, undisguised observations of drug administrations in two pediatric wards of a major teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This study consisted of two phases: Phase 1 (pre-intervention) and Phase 2 (post-intervention). Data were collected by two observers over a 40-day period in both Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the study. Both observers were pharmacy graduates: Observer 1 just completed her undergraduate pharmacy degree, whereas Observer 2 was doing her one-year internship as a provisionally registered pharmacist in the hospital under study. A drug administration error was defined as a discrepancy between the drug regimen received by the patient and that intended by the prescriber and also drug administration procedures that did not follow standard hospital policies and procedures. Results from Phase 1 of the study were analyzed, presented and discussed with the ward staff before commencement of data collection in Phase 2. Results A total of 1,284 and 1,401 doses of drugs were administered in Phase 1 and Phase 2, respectively. The rate of drug administration errors reduced significantly from Phase 1 to Phase 2 (44.3% versus 28.6%, respectively; P<0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that the adjusted odds of drug administration errors in Phase 1 of the study were almost three times that in Phase 2 (P<0.001). The most common types of errors were incorrect administration technique and incorrect drug preparation. Nasogastric and intravenous routes of drug administration contributed significantly to the rate of drug administration errors. Conclusion This study showed that sharing of the types of errors that had occurred was significantly
Kittell, David E; Mares, Jesus O; Son, Steven F
2015-04-01
Two time-frequency analysis methods based on the short-time Fourier transform (STFT) and continuous wavelet transform (CWT) were used to determine time-resolved detonation velocities with microwave interferometry (MI). The results were directly compared to well-established analysis techniques consisting of a peak-picking routine as well as a phase unwrapping method (i.e., quadrature analysis). The comparison is conducted on experimental data consisting of transient detonation phenomena observed in triaminotrinitrobenzene and ammonium nitrate-urea explosives, representing high and low quality MI signals, respectively. Time-frequency analysis proved much more capable of extracting useful and highly resolved velocity information from low quality signals than the phase unwrapping and peak-picking methods. Additionally, control of the time-frequency methods is mainly constrained to a single parameter which allows for a highly unbiased analysis method to extract velocity information. In contrast, the phase unwrapping technique introduces user based variability while the peak-picking technique does not achieve a highly resolved velocity result. Both STFT and CWT methods are proposed as improved additions to the analysis methods applied to MI detonation experiments, and may be useful in similar applications.
High-precision real-time 3D shape measurement based on a quad-camera system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tao, Tianyang; Chen, Qian; Feng, Shijie; Hu, Yan; Zhang, Minliang; Zuo, Chao
2018-01-01
Phase-shifting profilometry (PSP) based 3D shape measurement is well established in various applications due to its high accuracy, simple implementation, and robustness to environmental illumination and surface texture. In PSP, higher depth resolution generally requires higher fringe density of projected patterns which, in turn, lead to severe phase ambiguities that must be solved with additional information from phase coding and/or geometric constraints. However, in order to guarantee the reliability of phase unwrapping, available techniques are usually accompanied by increased number of patterns, reduced amplitude of fringe, and complicated post-processing algorithms. In this work, we demonstrate that by using a quad-camera multi-view fringe projection system and carefully arranging the relative spatial positions between the cameras and the projector, it becomes possible to completely eliminate the phase ambiguities in conventional three-step PSP patterns with high-fringe-density without projecting any additional patterns or embedding any auxiliary signals. Benefiting from the position-optimized quad-camera system, stereo phase unwrapping can be efficiently and reliably performed by flexible phase consistency checks. Besides, redundant information of multiple phase consistency checks is fully used through a weighted phase difference scheme to further enhance the reliability of phase unwrapping. This paper explains the 3D measurement principle and the basic design of quad-camera system, and finally demonstrates that in a large measurement volume of 200 mm × 200 mm × 400 mm, the resultant dynamic 3D sensing system can realize real-time 3D reconstruction at 60 frames per second with a depth precision of 50 μm.
Signal analysis and radioholographic methods for airborne radio occultations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Kuo-Nung
Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO) is an atmospheric sounding technique utilizing the change in propagation direction and delay of the GPS signal to measure refractivity, which provides information on temperature and humidity. The GPS-RO technique is now operational on several Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) satellite missions. Nevertheless, when observing localized transient events, such as tropical storms, current LEO satellite systems cannot provide sufficiently high temporal and spatial resolution soundings. An airborne RO (ARO) system has therefore been developed for localized GPS-RO campaigns. The open-loop (OL) tracking in post-processing is used to cross-correlates the received Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signal with an internally generated local carrier signal predicted from a Doppler model and extract the atmospheric refractivity information. OL tracking also allows robust processing of rising GPS signals using backward tracking, which will double the observed occultation event numbers. RO signals in the lower troposphere are adversely affected by rapid phase accelerations and severe signal power fading, however. The negative bias caused by low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and multipath ray propagation limits the depth of tracking in the atmosphere. Therefore, we developed a model relating the SNR to the variance in the residual phase of the observed signal produced from OL tracking, and its applicability to airborne data is demonstrated. We then apply this model to set a threshold on refractivity retrieval, based upon the cumulative unwrapping error bias, to determine the altitude limit for reliable signal tracking. To enhance the SNR and decrease the unwrapping error rate, the CIRA-Q climatological model and signal residual phase pre-filtering are utilized to process the ARO residual phase. This more accurately modeled phase and less noisy received signal are shown to greatly reduce the bias caused by unwrapping error at lower
A Six Sigma Trial For Reduction of Error Rates in Pathology Laboratory.
Tosuner, Zeynep; Gücin, Zühal; Kiran, Tuğçe; Büyükpinarbaşili, Nur; Turna, Seval; Taşkiran, Olcay; Arici, Dilek Sema
2016-01-01
A major target of quality assurance is the minimization of error rates in order to enhance patient safety. Six Sigma is a method targeting zero error (3.4 errors per million events) used in industry. The five main principles of Six Sigma are defining, measuring, analysis, improvement and control. Using this methodology, the causes of errors can be examined and process improvement strategies can be identified. The aim of our study was to evaluate the utility of Six Sigma methodology in error reduction in our pathology laboratory. The errors encountered between April 2014 and April 2015 were recorded by the pathology personnel. Error follow-up forms were examined by the quality control supervisor, administrative supervisor and the head of the department. Using Six Sigma methodology, the rate of errors was measured monthly and the distribution of errors at the preanalytic, analytic and postanalytical phases was analysed. Improvement strategies were reclaimed in the monthly intradepartmental meetings and the control of the units with high error rates was provided. Fifty-six (52.4%) of 107 recorded errors in total were at the pre-analytic phase. Forty-five errors (42%) were recorded as analytical and 6 errors (5.6%) as post-analytical. Two of the 45 errors were major irrevocable errors. The error rate was 6.8 per million in the first half of the year and 1.3 per million in the second half, decreasing by 79.77%. The Six Sigma trial in our pathology laboratory provided the reduction of the error rates mainly in the pre-analytic and analytic phases.
Descriptive Linear modeling of steady-state visual evoked response
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Levison, W. H.; Junker, A. M.; Kenner, K.
1986-01-01
A study is being conducted to explore use of the steady state visual-evoke electrocortical response as an indicator of cognitive task loading. Application of linear descriptive modeling to steady state Visual Evoked Response (VER) data is summarized. Two aspects of linear modeling are reviewed: (1) unwrapping the phase-shift portion of the frequency response, and (2) parsimonious characterization of task-loading effects in terms of changes in model parameters. Model-based phase unwrapping appears to be most reliable in applications, such as manual control, where theoretical models are available. Linear descriptive modeling of the VER has not yet been shown to provide consistent and readily interpretable results.
Why phase errors affect the electron function more than amplitude errors.
Lattman, Eaton; DeRosier, David
2008-03-01
If Fexp(ialpha) are the set of structure factors for a structure f, the amplitudes can be converted to those of an uncorrelated structure g (amplitude swapping) by multiplying each F by the positive number G/F. Correspondingly, the image f is convoluted with k, the Fourier transform of G/F; k has a large peak at the origin, so that f * k approximately f. For swapped phases, the image f is convoluted with l, the Fourier transform of exp(iDeltaalpha), where Deltaalpha, the phase difference between F and G, is a random variable; l does not have a large peak at the origin, so that f * l does not resemble f. The paper provides quantitative descriptions of these arguments.
Multiple Acquisition InSAR Analysis: Persistent Scatterer and Small Baseline Approaches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hooper, A.
2006-12-01
InSAR techniques that process data from multiple acquisitions enable us to form time series of deformation and also allow us to reduce error terms present in single interferograms. There are currently two broad categories of methods that deal with multiple images: persistent scatterer methods and small baseline methods. The persistent scatterer approach relies on identifying pixels whose scattering properties vary little with time and look angle. Pixels that are dominated by a singular scatterer best meet these criteria; therefore, images are processed at full resolution to both increase the chance of there being only one dominant scatterer present, and to reduce the contribution from other scatterers within each pixel. In images where most pixels contain multiple scatterers of similar strength, even at the highest possible resolution, the persistent scatterer approach is less optimal, as the scattering characteristics of these pixels vary substantially with look angle. In this case, an approach that interferes only pairs of images for which the difference in look angle is small makes better sense, and resolution can be sacrificed to reduce the effects of the look angle difference by band-pass filtering. This is the small baseline approach. Existing small baseline methods depend on forming a series of multilooked interferograms and unwrapping each one individually. This approach fails to take advantage of two of the benefits of processing multiple acquisitions, however, which are usually embodied in persistent scatterer methods: the ability to find and extract the phase for single-look pixels with good signal-to-noise ratio that are surrounded by noisy pixels, and the ability to unwrap more robustly in three dimensions, the third dimension being that of time. We have developed, therefore, a new small baseline method to select individual single-look pixels that behave coherently in time, so that isolated stable pixels may be found. After correction for various error
One-shot profile inspection for surfaces with depth, color and reflectivity discontinuities.
Su, Wei-Hung; Chen, Sih-Yue
2017-05-01
A one-shot technique for surfaces with depth, color, and reflectivity discontinuities is presented. It uses windowed Fourier transform to extract the fringe phases and a binary-encoded scheme to unwrap the phases. Experiments show that absolute phases could be obtained with high reliability.
Impact of Measurement Error on Synchrophasor Applications
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Liu, Yilu; Gracia, Jose R.; Ewing, Paul D.
2015-07-01
Phasor measurement units (PMUs), a type of synchrophasor, are powerful diagnostic tools that can help avert catastrophic failures in the power grid. Because of this, PMU measurement errors are particularly worrisome. This report examines the internal and external factors contributing to PMU phase angle and frequency measurement errors and gives a reasonable explanation for them. It also analyzes the impact of those measurement errors on several synchrophasor applications: event location detection, oscillation detection, islanding detection, and dynamic line rating. The primary finding is that dynamic line rating is more likely to be influenced by measurement error. Other findings include themore » possibility of reporting nonoscillatory activity as an oscillation as the result of error, failing to detect oscillations submerged by error, and the unlikely impact of error on event location and islanding detection.« less
Min, Hua; Zheng, Ling; Perl, Yehoshua; Halper, Michael; De Coronado, Sherri; Ochs, Christopher
2017-05-18
Ontologies are knowledge structures that lend support to many health-information systems. A study is carried out to assess the quality of ontological concepts based on a measure of their complexity. The results show a relation between complexity of concepts and error rates of concepts. A measure of lateral complexity defined as the number of exhibited role types is used to distinguish between more complex and simpler concepts. Using a framework called an area taxonomy, a kind of abstraction network that summarizes the structural organization of an ontology, concepts are divided into two groups along these lines. Various concepts from each group are then subjected to a two-phase QA analysis to uncover and verify errors and inconsistencies in their modeling. A hierarchy of the National Cancer Institute thesaurus (NCIt) is used as our test-bed. A hypothesis pertaining to the expected error rates of the complex and simple concepts is tested. Our study was done on the NCIt's Biological Process hierarchy. Various errors, including missing roles, incorrect role targets, and incorrectly assigned roles, were discovered and verified in the two phases of our QA analysis. The overall findings confirmed our hypothesis by showing a statistically significant difference between the amounts of errors exhibited by more laterally complex concepts vis-à-vis simpler concepts. QA is an essential part of any ontology's maintenance regimen. In this paper, we reported on the results of a QA study targeting two groups of ontology concepts distinguished by their level of complexity, defined in terms of the number of exhibited role types. The study was carried out on a major component of an important ontology, the NCIt. The findings suggest that more complex concepts tend to have a higher error rate than simpler concepts. These findings can be utilized to guide ongoing efforts in ontology QA.
Approximation of Bit Error Rates in Digital Communications
2007-06-01
and Technology Organisation DSTO—TN—0761 ABSTRACT This report investigates the estimation of bit error rates in digital communi- cations, motivated by...recent work in [6]. In the latter, bounds are used to construct estimates for bit error rates in the case of differentially coherent quadrature phase
Dual-sensitivity profilometry with defocused projection of binary fringes.
Garnica, G; Padilla, M; Servin, M
2017-10-01
A dual-sensitivity profilometry technique based on defocused projection of binary fringes is presented. Here, two sets of fringe patterns with a sinusoidal profile are produced by applying the same analog low-pass filter (projector defocusing) to binary fringes with a high- and low-frequency spatial carrier. The high-frequency fringes have a binary square-wave profile, while the low-frequency binary fringes are produced with error-diffusion dithering. The binary nature of the binary fringes removes the need for calibration of the projector's nonlinear gamma. Working with high-frequency carrier fringes, we obtain a high-quality wrapped phase. On the other hand, working with low-frequency carrier fringes we found a lower-quality, nonwrapped phase map. The nonwrapped estimation is used as stepping stone for dual-sensitivity temporal phase unwrapping, extending the applicability of the technique to discontinuous (piecewise continuous) surfaces. We are proposing a single defocusing level for faster high- and low-frequency fringe data acquisition. The proposed technique is validated with experimental results.
Quantum error-correcting code for ternary logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Majumdar, Ritajit; Basu, Saikat; Ghosh, Shibashis; Sur-Kolay, Susmita
2018-05-01
Ternary quantum systems are being studied because they provide more computational state space per unit of information, known as qutrit. A qutrit has three basis states, thus a qubit may be considered as a special case of a qutrit where the coefficient of one of the basis states is zero. Hence both (2 ×2 ) -dimensional and (3 ×3 ) -dimensional Pauli errors can occur on qutrits. In this paper, we (i) explore the possible (2 ×2 ) -dimensional as well as (3 ×3 ) -dimensional Pauli errors in qutrits and show that any pairwise bit swap error can be expressed as a linear combination of shift errors and phase errors, (ii) propose a special type of error called a quantum superposition error and show its equivalence to arbitrary rotation, (iii) formulate a nine-qutrit code which can correct a single error in a qutrit, and (iv) provide its stabilizer and circuit realization.
Remmersmann, Christian; Stürwald, Stephan; Kemper, Björn; Langehanenberg, Patrik; von Bally, Gert
2009-03-10
In temporal phase-shifting-based digital holographic microscopy, high-resolution phase contrast imaging requires optimized conditions for hologram recording and phase retrieval. To optimize the phase resolution, for the example of a variable three-step algorithm, a theoretical analysis on statistical errors, digitalization errors, uncorrelated errors, and errors due to a misaligned temporal phase shift is carried out. In a second step the theoretically predicted results are compared to the measured phase noise obtained from comparative experimental investigations with several coherent and partially coherent light sources. Finally, the applicability for noise reduction is demonstrated by quantitative phase contrast imaging of pancreas tumor cells.
Erratum: Erratum: Denoising Phase Unwrapping Algorithm for Precise Phase Shifting Interferometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phuc, Phan Huy; Rhee, Hyug-Gyo; Ghim, Young-Sik
2018-06-01
This is a revision of the reference list reported in the original article. In order to clear the contribution of the previous work on the incremental breadth-first search (IBFS) method applied to the PUMA algorithm, we add one more reference to the existing reference list, as in this erratum. Page 83 : In this paper, we propose an algorithm that modifies the Boykov-Kolmogorov (BK) algorithm using the incremental breadth-first search (IBFS) method [27, 28] to find paths from the source to the sink of a graph. [28] S. Ali, H. Khan, I. Shaik and F. Ali, Int. J. Eng. and Technol. 7, 254 (2015).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leakeas, Charles L.; Capehart, Shay R.; Bartell, Richard J.; Cusumano, Salvatore J.; Whiteley, Matthew R.
2011-06-01
Laser weapon systems comprised of tiled subapertures are rapidly emerging in importance in the directed energy community. Performance models of these laser weapon systems have been developed from numerical simulations of a high fidelity wave-optics code called WaveTrain which is developed by MZA Associates. System characteristics such as mutual coherence, differential jitter, and beam quality rms wavefront error are defined for a focused beam on the target. Engagement scenarios are defined for various platform and target altitudes, speeds, headings, and slant ranges along with the natural wind speed and heading. Inputs to the performance model include platform and target height and velocities, Fried coherence length, Rytov number, isoplanatic angle, thermal blooming distortion number, Greenwood and Tyler frequencies, and atmospheric transmission. The performance model fit is based on power-in-the-bucket (PIB) values against the PIB from the simulation results for the vacuum diffraction-limited spot size as the bucket. The goal is to develop robust performance models for aperture phase error, turbulence, and thermal blooming effects in tiled subaperture systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duan, Wansuo; Zhao, Peng
2017-04-01
Within the Zebiak-Cane model, the nonlinear forcing singular vector (NFSV) approach is used to investigate the role of model errors in the "Spring Predictability Barrier" (SPB) phenomenon within ENSO predictions. NFSV-related errors have the largest negative effect on the uncertainties of El Niño predictions. NFSV errors can be classified into two types: the first is characterized by a zonal dipolar pattern of SST anomalies (SSTA), with the western poles centered in the equatorial central-western Pacific exhibiting positive anomalies and the eastern poles in the equatorial eastern Pacific exhibiting negative anomalies; and the second is characterized by a pattern almost opposite the first type. The first type of error tends to have the worst effects on El Niño growth-phase predictions, whereas the latter often yields the largest negative effects on decaying-phase predictions. The evolution of prediction errors caused by NFSV-related errors exhibits prominent seasonality, with the fastest error growth in the spring and/or summer seasons; hence, these errors result in a significant SPB related to El Niño events. The linear counterpart of NFSVs, the (linear) forcing singular vector (FSV), induces a less significant SPB because it contains smaller prediction errors. Random errors cannot generate a SPB for El Niño events. These results show that the occurrence of an SPB is related to the spatial patterns of tendency errors. The NFSV tendency errors cause the most significant SPB for El Niño events. In addition, NFSVs often concentrate these large value errors in a few areas within the equatorial eastern and central-western Pacific, which likely represent those areas sensitive to El Niño predictions associated with model errors. Meanwhile, these areas are also exactly consistent with the sensitive areas related to initial errors determined by previous studies. This implies that additional observations in the sensitive areas would not only improve the accuracy of
Palmero, David; Di Paolo, Ermindo R; Beauport, Lydie; Pannatier, André; Tolsa, Jean-François
2016-01-01
The objective of this study was to assess whether the introduction of a new preformatted medical order sheet coupled with an introductory course affected prescription quality and the frequency of errors during the prescription stage in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Two-phase observational study consisting of two consecutive 4-month phases: pre-intervention (phase 0) and post-intervention (phase I) conducted in an 11-bed NICU in a Swiss university hospital. Interventions consisted of the introduction of a new preformatted medical order sheet with explicit information supplied, coupled with a staff introductory course on appropriate prescription and medication errors. The main outcomes measured were formal aspects of prescription and frequency and nature of prescription errors. Eighty-three and 81 patients were included in phase 0 and phase I, respectively. A total of 505 handwritten prescriptions in phase 0 and 525 in phase I were analysed. The rate of prescription errors decreased significantly from 28.9% in phase 0 to 13.5% in phase I (p < 0.05). Compared with phase 0, dose errors, name confusion and errors in frequency and rate of drug administration decreased in phase I, from 5.4 to 2.7% (p < 0.05), 5.9 to 0.2% (p < 0.05), 3.6 to 0.2% (p < 0.05), and 4.7 to 2.1% (p < 0.05), respectively. The rate of incomplete and ambiguous prescriptions decreased from 44.2 to 25.7 and 8.5 to 3.2% (p < 0.05), respectively. Inexpensive and simple interventions can improve the intelligibility of prescriptions and reduce medication errors. Medication errors are frequent in NICUs and prescription is one of the most critical steps. CPOE reduce prescription errors, but their implementation is not available everywhere. Preformatted medical order sheet coupled with an introductory course decrease medication errors in a NICU. Preformatted medical order sheet is an inexpensive and readily implemented alternative to CPOE.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gherm, Vadim E.; Zernov, Nikolay N.; Strangeways, Hal J.
2011-06-01
It can be important to determine the correlation of different frequency signals in L band that have followed transionospheric paths. In the future, both GPS and the new Galileo satellite system will broadcast three frequencies enabling more advanced three frequency correction schemes so that knowledge of correlations of different frequency pairs for scintillation conditions is desirable. Even at present, it would be helpful to know how dual-frequency Global Navigation Satellite Systems positioning can be affected by lack of correlation between the L1 and L2 signals. To treat this problem of signal correlation for the case of strong scintillation, a previously constructed simulator program, based on the hybrid method, has been further modified to simulate the fields for both frequencies on the ground, taking account of their cross correlation. Then, the errors in the two-frequency range finding method caused by scintillation have been estimated for particular ionospheric conditions and for a realistic fully three-dimensional model of the ionospheric turbulence. The results which are presented for five different frequency pairs (L1/L2, L1/L3, L1/L5, L2/L3, and L2/L5) show the dependence of diffractional errors on the scintillation index S4 and that the errors diverge from a linear relationship, the stronger are scintillation effects, and may reach up to ten centimeters, or more. The correlation of the phases at spaced frequencies has also been studied and found that the correlation coefficients for different pairs of frequencies depend on the procedure of phase retrieval, and reduce slowly as both the variance of the electron density fluctuations and cycle slips increase.
1980-03-14
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Mohanan, Sharika; Srivastava, Atul
2014-04-10
The present work is concerned with the development and application of a novel fringe analysis technique based on the principles of the windowed-Fourier-transform (WFT) for the determination of temperature and concentration fields from interferometric images for a range of heat and mass transfer applications. Based on the extent of the noise level associated with the experimental data, the technique has been coupled with two different phase unwrapping methods: the Itoh algorithm and the quality guided phase unwrapping technique for phase extraction. In order to generate the experimental data, a range of experiments have been carried out which include cooling of a vertical flat plate in free convection conditions, combustion of mono-propellant flames, and growth of organic as well as inorganic crystals from their aqueous solutions. The flat plate and combustion experiments are modeled as heat transfer applications wherein the interest is to determine the whole-field temperature distribution. Aqueous-solution-based crystal growth experiments are performed to simulate the mass transfer phenomena and the interest is to determine the two-dimensional solute concentration field around the growing crystal. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer has been employed to record the path-integrated quantity of interest (temperature and/or concentration) in the form of interferometric images in the experiments. The potential of the WFT method has also been demonstrated on numerically simulated phase data for varying noise levels, and the accuracy in phase extraction have been quantified in terms of the root mean square errors. Three levels of noise, i.e., 0%, 10%, and 20% have been considered. Results of the present study show that the WFT technique allows an accurate extraction of phase values that can subsequently be converted into two-dimensional temperature and/or concentration distribution fields. Moreover, since WFT is a local processing technique, speckle patterns and the inherent
A GPS Phase-Locked Loop Performance Metric Based on the Phase Discriminator Output
Stevanovic, Stefan; Pervan, Boris
2018-01-01
We propose a novel GPS phase-lock loop (PLL) performance metric based on the standard deviation of tracking error (defined as the discriminator’s estimate of the true phase error), and explain its advantages over the popular phase jitter metric using theory, numerical simulation, and experimental results. We derive an augmented GPS phase-lock loop (PLL) linear model, which includes the effect of coherent averaging, to be used in conjunction with this proposed metric. The augmented linear model allows more accurate calculation of tracking error standard deviation in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) as compared to traditional linear models. The standard deviation of tracking error, with a threshold corresponding to half of the arctangent discriminator pull-in region, is shown to be a more reliable/robust measure of PLL performance under interference conditions than the phase jitter metric. In addition, the augmented linear model is shown to be valid up until this threshold, which facilitates efficient performance prediction, so that time-consuming direct simulations and costly experimental testing can be reserved for PLL designs that are much more likely to be successful. The effect of varying receiver reference oscillator quality on the tracking error metric is also considered. PMID:29351250
Ground settlement monitoring based on temporarily coherent points between two SAR acquisitions
Zhang, L.; Ding, X.; Lu, Z.
2011-01-01
An InSAR analysis approach for identifying and extracting the temporarily coherent points (TCP) that exist between two SAR acquisitions and for determining motions of the TCP is presented for applications such as ground settlement monitoring. TCP are identified based on the spatial characteristics of the range and azimuth offsets of coherent radar scatterers. A method for coregistering TCP based on the offsets of TCP is given to reduce the coregistration errors at TCP. An improved phase unwrapping method based on the minimum cost flow (MCF) algorithm and local Delaunay triangulation is also proposed for sparse TCP data. The proposed algorithms are validated using a test site in Hong Kong. The test results show that the algorithms work satisfactorily for various ground features.
Najat, Dereen
2017-01-01
Laboratory testing is roughly divided into three phases: a pre-analytical phase, an analytical phase and a post-analytical phase. Most analytical errors have been attributed to the analytical phase. However, recent studies have shown that up to 70% of analytical errors reflect the pre-analytical phase. The pre-analytical phase comprises all processes from the time a laboratory request is made by a physician until the specimen is analyzed at the lab. Generally, the pre-analytical phase includes patient preparation, specimen transportation, specimen collection and storage. In the present study, we report the first comprehensive assessment of the frequency and types of pre-analytical errors at the Sulaimani diagnostic labs in Iraqi Kurdistan. Over 2 months, 5500 venous blood samples were observed in 10 public diagnostic labs of Sulaimani City. The percentages of rejected samples and types of sample inappropriateness were evaluated. The percentage of each of the following pre-analytical errors were recorded: delay in sample transportation, clotted samples, expired reagents, hemolyzed samples, samples not on ice, incorrect sample identification, insufficient sample, tube broken in centrifuge, request procedure errors, sample mix-ups, communication conflicts, misinterpreted orders, lipemic samples, contaminated samples and missed physician's request orders. The difference between the relative frequencies of errors observed in the hospitals considered was tested using a proportional Z test. In particular, the survey aimed to discover whether analytical errors were recorded and examine the types of platforms used in the selected diagnostic labs. The analysis showed a high prevalence of improper sample handling during the pre-analytical phase. In appropriate samples, the percentage error was as high as 39%. The major reasons for rejection were hemolyzed samples (9%), incorrect sample identification (8%) and clotted samples (6%). Most quality control schemes at Sulaimani
Global distortion of GPS networks associated with satellite antenna model errors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cardellach, E.; Elósegui, P.; Davis, J. L.
2007-07-01
Recent studies of the GPS satellite phase center offsets (PCOs) suggest that these have been in error by ˜1 m. Previous studies had shown that PCO errors are absorbed mainly by parameters representing satellite clock and the radial components of site position. On the basis of the assumption that the radial errors are equal, PCO errors will therefore introduce an error in network scale. However, PCO errors also introduce distortions, or apparent deformations, within the network, primarily in the radial (vertical) component of site position that cannot be corrected via a Helmert transformation. Using numerical simulations to quantify the effects of PCO errors, we found that these PCO errors lead to a vertical network distortion of 6-12 mm per meter of PCO error. The network distortion depends on the minimum elevation angle used in the analysis of the GPS phase observables, becoming larger as the minimum elevation angle increases. The steady evolution of the GPS constellation as new satellites are launched, age, and are decommissioned, leads to the effects of PCO errors varying with time that introduce an apparent global-scale rate change. We demonstrate here that current estimates for PCO errors result in a geographically variable error in the vertical rate at the 1-2 mm yr-1 level, which will impact high-precision crustal deformation studies.
Global Distortion of GPS Networks Associated with Satellite Antenna Model Errors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cardellach, E.; Elosequi, P.; Davis, J. L.
2007-01-01
Recent studies of the GPS satellite phase center offsets (PCOs) suggest that these have been in error by approx.1 m. Previous studies had shown that PCO errors are absorbed mainly by parameters representing satellite clock and the radial components of site position. On the basis of the assumption that the radial errors are equal, PCO errors will therefore introduce an error in network scale. However, PCO errors also introduce distortions, or apparent deformations, within the network, primarily in the radial (vertical) component of site position that cannot be corrected via a Helmert transformation. Using numerical simulations to quantify the effects of PC0 errors, we found that these PCO errors lead to a vertical network distortion of 6-12 mm per meter of PCO error. The network distortion depends on the minimum elevation angle used in the analysis of the GPS phase observables, becoming larger as the minimum elevation angle increases. The steady evolution of the GPS constellation as new satellites are launched, age, and are decommissioned, leads to the effects of PCO errors varying with time that introduce an apparent global-scale rate change. We demonstrate here that current estimates for PCO errors result in a geographically variable error in the vertical rate at the 1-2 mm/yr level, which will impact high-precision crustal deformation studies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robleda, P. G.; Caroti, G.; Martínez-Espejo Zaragoza, I.; Piemonte, A.
2016-06-01
Sometimes it is difficult to represent "on paper" the existing reality of architectonic elements, depending on the complexity of his geometry, but not only in cases with complex geometries: non-relief surfaces, can need a "special planar format" for its graphical representation. Nowadays, there are a lot of methods to obtain tridimensional recovery of our Cultural Heritage with different ranges of the relationship accuracy / costs, even getting high accuracy using "low-cost" recovery methods as digital photogrammetry, which allow us easily to obtain a graphical representation "on paper": ortho-images of different points of view. This can be useful for many purposes but, for others, an orthographic projection is not really very interesting. In non-site restoration tasks of frescoed vaults, a "planar format" representation in needed to see in true magnitude the paintings represented on the intrados vault, because of the general methodology used: gluing the fresco on a fabric, removing the fresco-fabric from the support, moving to laboratory, removing the fresco from the fabric, restoring the fresco, gluing back the restored fresco on another fabric, laying the restored fresco on the original location and removing the fabric. Because of this, many times, an unfolded model is needed, in a similar way a cylinder or cone can be unfolded, but in this case with a texture included: UV unwrapping. Unfold and fold-back processes, can be especially interesting in restoration field of frescoed vaults and domes at: chromatic recovery of paintings, reconstruction of partially missed geometries, transference of paintings on surfaces, etc.
Empirical Analysis of Systematic Communication Errors.
1981-09-01
human o~ . .... 8 components in communication systems. (Systematic errors were defined to be those that occur regularly in human communication links...phase of the human communication process and focuses on the linkage between a specific piece of information (and the receiver) and the transmission...communication flow. (2) Exchange. Exchange is the next phase in human communication and entails a concerted effort on the part of the sender and receiver to share
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hao, Yudong; Zhao, Yang; Li, Dacheng
1999-11-01
Grating projection 3D profilometry has three major problems that have to be handled with great care. They are local shadows, phase discontinuities and surface isolations. Carrying no information, shadow areas give us no clue about the profile there. Phase discontinuities often baffle phase unwrappers because they may be generated for several reasons difficult to distinguish. Spatial phase unwrapping will inevitably fail if the object under teste have surface isolations. In this paper, a complementary grating projection profilometry is reported, which attempts to tackle the three aforementioned problems simultaneously. This technique involves projecting two grating patterns form both sides of the CCD camera. Phase unwrapping is carried out pixel by pixel using the two phase maps based on the excess fraction method, which is immune to phase discontinuities or surface isolations. Complementary projection makes sure that no area in the visible volume of CCD is devoid of fringe information, although in some cases a small area of the reconstructed profile is of low accuracy compared with others. The system calibration procedures and measurement results are presented in detail, and possible improvement is discussed.
Automated Classification of Phonological Errors in Aphasic Language
Ahuja, Sanjeev B.; Reggia, James A.; Berndt, Rita S.
1984-01-01
Using heuristically-guided state space search, a prototype program has been developed to simulate and classify phonemic errors occurring in the speech of neurologically-impaired patients. Simulations are based on an interchangeable rule/operator set of elementary errors which represent a theory of phonemic processing faults. This work introduces and evaluates a novel approach to error simulation and classification, it provides a prototype simulation tool for neurolinguistic research, and it forms the initial phase of a larger research effort involving computer modelling of neurolinguistic processes.
2017-01-01
Background Laboratory testing is roughly divided into three phases: a pre-analytical phase, an analytical phase and a post-analytical phase. Most analytical errors have been attributed to the analytical phase. However, recent studies have shown that up to 70% of analytical errors reflect the pre-analytical phase. The pre-analytical phase comprises all processes from the time a laboratory request is made by a physician until the specimen is analyzed at the lab. Generally, the pre-analytical phase includes patient preparation, specimen transportation, specimen collection and storage. In the present study, we report the first comprehensive assessment of the frequency and types of pre-analytical errors at the Sulaimani diagnostic labs in Iraqi Kurdistan. Materials and Methods Over 2 months, 5500 venous blood samples were observed in 10 public diagnostic labs of Sulaimani City. The percentages of rejected samples and types of sample inappropriateness were evaluated. The percentage of each of the following pre-analytical errors were recorded: delay in sample transportation, clotted samples, expired reagents, hemolyzed samples, samples not on ice, incorrect sample identification, insufficient sample, tube broken in centrifuge, request procedure errors, sample mix-ups, communication conflicts, misinterpreted orders, lipemic samples, contaminated samples and missed physician’s request orders. The difference between the relative frequencies of errors observed in the hospitals considered was tested using a proportional Z test. In particular, the survey aimed to discover whether analytical errors were recorded and examine the types of platforms used in the selected diagnostic labs. Results The analysis showed a high prevalence of improper sample handling during the pre-analytical phase. In appropriate samples, the percentage error was as high as 39%. The major reasons for rejection were hemolyzed samples (9%), incorrect sample identification (8%) and clotted samples (6
A description of medication errors reported by pharmacists in a neonatal intensive care unit.
Pawluk, Shane; Jaam, Myriam; Hazi, Fatima; Al Hail, Moza Sulaiman; El Kassem, Wessam; Khalifa, Hanan; Thomas, Binny; Abdul Rouf, Pallivalappila
2017-02-01
Background Patients in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) are at an increased risk for medication errors. Objective The objective of this study is to describe the nature and setting of medication errors occurring in patients admitted to an NICU in Qatar based on a standard electronic system reported by pharmacists. Setting Neonatal intensive care unit, Doha, Qatar. Method This was a retrospective cross-sectional study on medication errors reported electronically by pharmacists in the NICU between January 1, 2014 and April 30, 2015. Main outcome measure Data collected included patient information, and incident details including error category, medications involved, and follow-up completed. Results A total of 201 NICU pharmacists-reported medication errors were submitted during the study period. All reported errors did not reach the patient and did not cause harm. Of the errors reported, 98.5% occurred in the prescribing phase of the medication process with 58.7% being due to calculation errors. Overall, 53 different medications were documented in error reports with the anti-infective agents being the most frequently cited. The majority of incidents indicated that the primary prescriber was contacted and the error was resolved before reaching the next phase of the medication process. Conclusion Medication errors reported by pharmacists occur most frequently in the prescribing phase of the medication process. Our data suggest that error reporting systems need to be specific to the population involved. Special attention should be paid to frequently used medications in the NICU as these were responsible for the greatest numbers of medication errors.
Transportable and vibration-free full-field low-coherent quantitative phase microscope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamauchi, Toyohiko; Yamada, Hidenao; Goto, Kentaro; Matsui, Hisayuki; Yasuhiko, Osamu; Ueda, Yukio
2018-02-01
We developed a transportable Linnik-type full-field low-coherent quantitative phase microscope that is able to compensate for optical path length (OPL) disturbance due to environmental mechanical noises. Though two-beam interferometers such as Linnik ones suffer from unstable OPL difference, we overcame this problem with a mechanical feedback system based on digital signal-processing that controls the OPL difference in sub-nanometer resolution precisely with a feedback bandwidth of 4 kHz. The developed setup has a footprint of 200 mm by 200 mm, a height of 500 mm, and a weight of 4.5 kilograms. In the transmission imaging mode, cells were cultured on a reflection-enhanced glass-bottom dish, and we obtained interference images sequentially while performing stepwise quarter-wavelength phase-shifting. Real-time image processing, including retrieval of the unwrapped phase from interference images and its background correction, along with the acquisition of interference images, was performed on a laptop computer. Emulation of the phase contrast (PhC) images and the differential interference contrast (DIC) images was also performed in real time. Moreover, our setup was applied for full-field cell membrane imaging in the reflection mode, where the cells were cultured on an anti-reflection (AR)-coated glass-bottom dish. The phase and intensity of the light reflected by the membrane revealed the outer shape of the cells independent of the refractive index. In this paper, we show imaging results on cultured cells in both transmission and reflection modes.
Cronin, Matthew John; Wharton, Samuel; Al-Radaideh, Ali; Constantinescu, Cris; Evangelou, Nikos; Bowtell, Richard; Gowland, Penny Anne
2016-06-01
The aim of this study was to compare the use of high-resolution phase and QSM images acquired at ultra-high field in the investigation of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions with peripheral rings, and to discuss their usefulness for drawing inferences about underlying tissue composition. Thirty-nine Subjects were scanned at 7 T, using 3D T 2*-weighted and T 1-weighted sequences. Phase images were then unwrapped and filtered, and quantitative susceptibility maps were generated using a thresholded k-space division method. Lesions were compared visually and using a 1D profiling algorithm. Lesions displaying peripheral rings in the phase images were identified in 10 of the 39 subjects. Dipolar projections were apparent in the phase images outside of the extent of several of these lesions; however, QSM images showed peripheral rings without such projections. These projections appeared ring-like in a small number of phase images where no ring was observed in QSM. 1D profiles of six well-isolated example lesions showed that QSM contrast corresponds more closely to the magnitude images than phase contrast. Phase images contain dipolar projections, which confounds their use in the investigation of tissue composition in MS lesions. Quantitative susceptibility maps correct these projections, providing insight into the composition of MS lesions showing peripheral rings.
Interferometric detection of freeze-thaw displacements of Alaskan permafrost using ERS-1 data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Werner, Charles L.; Gabriel, Andrew K.
1993-01-01
The possibility of making large scale (50 km) measurements of motions of the earth's surface with high resolution (10 m) and very high accuracy (1 cm) from multipass SAR interferometry was established in 1989. Other experiments have confirmed the viability and usefulness of the method. Work is underway in various groups to measure displacements from volcanic activity, seismic events, glacier motion, and in the present study, freeze-thaw cycles in Alaskan permafrost. The ground is known to move significantly in these cycles, and provided that freezing does not cause image decorrelation, it should be possible to measure both ground swelling and subsidence. The authors have obtained data from multiple passes of ERS-1 over the Toolik Lake region of northern Alaska of suitable quality for interferometry. The data are processed into images, and single interferograms are formed in the usual manner. Phase unwrapping is performed, and the multipass baselines are estimated from the images using both orbit ephemerides and scene tie points. The phases are scaled by the baseline ratio, and a double-difference interferogram (DDI) is formed. It is found that there is a residual 'saddle-shape' phase error across the image, which is postulated to be caused by a small divergence (10(exp -2) deg.) in the orbits. A simulation of a DDI from divergent orbits confirms the shape and magnitude of the error. A two-dimensional least squares fit to the error is performed, which is used to correct the DDI. The final, corrected DDI shows significant phase (altitude) changes over the period of the observation.
Magnetic-field sensing with quantum error detection under the effect of energy relaxation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsuzaki, Yuichiro; Benjamin, Simon
2017-03-01
A solid state spin is an attractive system with which to realize an ultrasensitive magnetic field sensor. A spin superposition state will acquire a phase induced by the target field, and we can estimate the field strength from this phase. Recent studies have aimed at improving sensitivity through the use of quantum error correction (QEC) to detect and correct any bit-flip errors that may occur during the sensing period. Here we investigate the performance of a two-qubit sensor employing QEC and under the effect of energy relaxation. Surprisingly, we find that the standard QEC technique to detect and recover from an error does not improve the sensitivity compared with the single-qubit sensors. This is a consequence of the fact that the energy relaxation induces both a phase-flip and a bit-flip noise where the former noise cannot be distinguished from the relative phase induced from the target fields. However, we have found that we can improve the sensitivity if we adopt postselection to discard the state when error is detected. Even when quantum error detection is moderately noisy, and allowing for the cost of the postselection technique, we find that this two-qubit system shows an advantage in sensing over a single qubit in the same conditions.
Phase correction system for automatic focusing of synthetic aperture radar
Eichel, Paul H.; Ghiglia, Dennis C.; Jakowatz, Jr., Charles V.
1990-01-01
A phase gradient autofocus system for use in synthetic aperture imaging accurately compensates for arbitrary phase errors in each imaged frame by locating highlighted areas and determining the phase disturbance or image spread associated with each of these highlight areas. An estimate of the image spread for each highlighted area in a line in the case of one dimensional processing or in a sector, in the case of two-dimensional processing, is determined. The phase error is determined using phase gradient processing. The phase error is then removed from the uncorrected image and the process is iteratively performed to substantially eliminate phase errors which can degrade the image.
Defining the Relationship Between Human Error Classes and Technology Intervention Strategies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wiegmann, Douglas A.; Rantanen, Esa; Crisp, Vicki K. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
One of the main factors in all aviation accidents is human error. The NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP), therefore, has identified several human-factors safety technologies to address this issue. Some technologies directly address human error either by attempting to reduce the occurrence of errors or by mitigating the negative consequences of errors. However, new technologies and system changes may also introduce new error opportunities or even induce different types of errors. Consequently, a thorough understanding of the relationship between error classes and technology "fixes" is crucial for the evaluation of intervention strategies outlined in the AvSP, so that resources can be effectively directed to maximize the benefit to flight safety. The purpose of the present project, therefore, was to examine the repositories of human factors data to identify the possible relationship between different error class and technology intervention strategies. The first phase of the project, which is summarized here, involved the development of prototype data structures or matrices that map errors onto "fixes" (and vice versa), with the hope of facilitating the development of standards for evaluating safety products. Possible follow-on phases of this project are also discussed. These additional efforts include a thorough and detailed review of the literature to fill in the data matrix and the construction of a complete database and standards checklists.
An Enhanced Non-Coherent Pre-Filter Design for Tracking Error Estimation in GNSS Receivers.
Luo, Zhibin; Ding, Jicheng; Zhao, Lin; Wu, Mouyan
2017-11-18
Tracking error estimation is of great importance in global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers. Any inaccurate estimation for tracking error will decrease the signal tracking ability of signal tracking loops and the accuracies of position fixing, velocity determination, and timing. Tracking error estimation can be done by traditional discriminator, or Kalman filter-based pre-filter. The pre-filter can be divided into two categories: coherent and non-coherent. This paper focuses on the performance improvements of non-coherent pre-filter. Firstly, the signal characteristics of coherent and non-coherent integration-which are the basis of tracking error estimation-are analyzed in detail. After that, the probability distribution of estimation noise of four-quadrant arctangent (ATAN2) discriminator is derived according to the mathematical model of coherent integration. Secondly, the statistical property of observation noise of non-coherent pre-filter is studied through Monte Carlo simulation to set the observation noise variance matrix correctly. Thirdly, a simple fault detection and exclusion (FDE) structure is introduced to the non-coherent pre-filter design, and thus its effective working range for carrier phase error estimation extends from (-0.25 cycle, 0.25 cycle) to (-0.5 cycle, 0.5 cycle). Finally, the estimation accuracies of discriminator, coherent pre-filter, and the enhanced non-coherent pre-filter are evaluated comprehensively through the carefully designed experiment scenario. The pre-filter outperforms traditional discriminator in estimation accuracy. In a highly dynamic scenario, the enhanced non-coherent pre-filter provides accuracy improvements of 41.6%, 46.4%, and 50.36% for carrier phase error, carrier frequency error, and code phase error estimation, respectively, when compared with coherent pre-filter. The enhanced non-coherent pre-filter outperforms the coherent pre-filter in code phase error estimation when carrier-to-noise density ratio
Yousef, Nadin; Yousef, Farah
2017-09-04
Whereas one of the predominant causes of medication errors is a drug administration error, a previous study related to our investigations and reviews estimated that the incidences of medication errors constituted 6.7 out of 100 administrated medication doses. Therefore, we aimed by using six sigma approach to propose a way that reduces these errors to become less than 1 out of 100 administrated medication doses by improving healthcare professional education and clearer handwritten prescriptions. The study was held in a General Government Hospital. First, we systematically studied the current medication use process. Second, we used six sigma approach by utilizing the five-step DMAIC process (Define, Measure, Analyze, Implement, Control) to find out the real reasons behind such errors. This was to figure out a useful solution to avoid medication error incidences in daily healthcare professional practice. Data sheet was used in Data tool and Pareto diagrams were used in Analyzing tool. In our investigation, we reached out the real cause behind administrated medication errors. As Pareto diagrams used in our study showed that the fault percentage in administrated phase was 24.8%, while the percentage of errors related to prescribing phase was 42.8%, 1.7 folds. This means that the mistakes in prescribing phase, especially because of the poor handwritten prescriptions whose percentage in this phase was 17.6%, are responsible for the consequent) mistakes in this treatment process later on. Therefore, we proposed in this study an effective low cost strategy based on the behavior of healthcare workers as Guideline Recommendations to be followed by the physicians. This method can be a prior caution to decrease errors in prescribing phase which may lead to decrease the administrated medication error incidences to less than 1%. This improvement way of behavior can be efficient to improve hand written prescriptions and decrease the consequent errors related to administrated
An Enhanced Non-Coherent Pre-Filter Design for Tracking Error Estimation in GNSS Receivers
Luo, Zhibin; Ding, Jicheng; Zhao, Lin; Wu, Mouyan
2017-01-01
Tracking error estimation is of great importance in global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers. Any inaccurate estimation for tracking error will decrease the signal tracking ability of signal tracking loops and the accuracies of position fixing, velocity determination, and timing. Tracking error estimation can be done by traditional discriminator, or Kalman filter-based pre-filter. The pre-filter can be divided into two categories: coherent and non-coherent. This paper focuses on the performance improvements of non-coherent pre-filter. Firstly, the signal characteristics of coherent and non-coherent integration—which are the basis of tracking error estimation—are analyzed in detail. After that, the probability distribution of estimation noise of four-quadrant arctangent (ATAN2) discriminator is derived according to the mathematical model of coherent integration. Secondly, the statistical property of observation noise of non-coherent pre-filter is studied through Monte Carlo simulation to set the observation noise variance matrix correctly. Thirdly, a simple fault detection and exclusion (FDE) structure is introduced to the non-coherent pre-filter design, and thus its effective working range for carrier phase error estimation extends from (−0.25 cycle, 0.25 cycle) to (−0.5 cycle, 0.5 cycle). Finally, the estimation accuracies of discriminator, coherent pre-filter, and the enhanced non-coherent pre-filter are evaluated comprehensively through the carefully designed experiment scenario. The pre-filter outperforms traditional discriminator in estimation accuracy. In a highly dynamic scenario, the enhanced non-coherent pre-filter provides accuracy improvements of 41.6%, 46.4%, and 50.36% for carrier phase error, carrier frequency error, and code phase error estimation, respectively, when compared with coherent pre-filter. The enhanced non-coherent pre-filter outperforms the coherent pre-filter in code phase error estimation when carrier
Dosimetric effects of patient rotational setup errors on prostate IMRT treatments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Weihua; Yang, Yong; Li, Xiang; Heron, Dwight E.; Saiful Huq, M.; Yue, Ning J.
2006-10-01
The purpose of this work is to determine dose delivery errors that could result from systematic rotational setup errors (ΔΦ) for prostate cancer patients treated with three-phase sequential boost IMRT. In order to implement this, different rotational setup errors around three Cartesian axes were simulated for five prostate patients and dosimetric indices, such as dose-volume histogram (DVH), tumour control probability (TCP), normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) and equivalent uniform dose (EUD), were employed to evaluate the corresponding dosimetric influences. Rotational setup errors were simulated by adjusting the gantry, collimator and horizontal couch angles of treatment beams and the dosimetric effects were evaluated by recomputing the dose distributions in the treatment planning system. Our results indicated that, for prostate cancer treatment with the three-phase sequential boost IMRT technique, the rotational setup errors do not have significant dosimetric impacts on the cumulative plan. Even in the worst-case scenario with ΔΦ = 3°, the prostate EUD varied within 1.5% and TCP decreased about 1%. For seminal vesicle, slightly larger influences were observed. However, EUD and TCP changes were still within 2%. The influence on sensitive structures, such as rectum and bladder, is also negligible. This study demonstrates that the rotational setup error degrades the dosimetric coverage of target volume in prostate cancer treatment to a certain degree. However, the degradation was not significant for the three-phase sequential boost prostate IMRT technique and for the margin sizes used in our institution.
Iterative-Transform Phase Retrieval Using Adaptive Diversity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dean, Bruce H.
2007-01-01
A phase-diverse iterative-transform phase-retrieval algorithm enables high spatial-frequency, high-dynamic-range, image-based wavefront sensing. [The terms phase-diverse, phase retrieval, image-based, and wavefront sensing are defined in the first of the two immediately preceding articles, Broadband Phase Retrieval for Image-Based Wavefront Sensing (GSC-14899-1).] As described below, no prior phase-retrieval algorithm has offered both high dynamic range and the capability to recover high spatial-frequency components. Each of the previously developed image-based phase-retrieval techniques can be classified into one of two categories: iterative transform or parametric. Among the modifications of the original iterative-transform approach has been the introduction of a defocus diversity function (also defined in the cited companion article). Modifications of the original parametric approach have included minimizing alternative objective functions as well as implementing a variety of nonlinear optimization methods. The iterative-transform approach offers the advantage of ability to recover low, middle, and high spatial frequencies, but has disadvantage of having a limited dynamic range to one wavelength or less. In contrast, parametric phase retrieval offers the advantage of high dynamic range, but is poorly suited for recovering higher spatial frequency aberrations. The present phase-diverse iterative transform phase-retrieval algorithm offers both the high-spatial-frequency capability of the iterative-transform approach and the high dynamic range of parametric phase-recovery techniques. In implementation, this is a focus-diverse iterative-transform phaseretrieval algorithm that incorporates an adaptive diversity function, which makes it possible to avoid phase unwrapping while preserving high-spatial-frequency recovery. The algorithm includes an inner and an outer loop (see figure). An initial estimate of phase is used to start the algorithm on the inner loop, wherein
Error-related brain activity and error awareness in an error classification paradigm.
Di Gregorio, Francesco; Steinhauser, Marco; Maier, Martin E
2016-10-01
Error-related brain activity has been linked to error detection enabling adaptive behavioral adjustments. However, it is still unclear which role error awareness plays in this process. Here, we show that the error-related negativity (Ne/ERN), an event-related potential reflecting early error monitoring, is dissociable from the degree of error awareness. Participants responded to a target while ignoring two different incongruent distractors. After responding, they indicated whether they had committed an error, and if so, whether they had responded to one or to the other distractor. This error classification paradigm allowed distinguishing partially aware errors, (i.e., errors that were noticed but misclassified) and fully aware errors (i.e., errors that were correctly classified). The Ne/ERN was larger for partially aware errors than for fully aware errors. Whereas this speaks against the idea that the Ne/ERN foreshadows the degree of error awareness, it confirms the prediction of a computational model, which relates the Ne/ERN to post-response conflict. This model predicts that stronger distractor processing - a prerequisite of error classification in our paradigm - leads to lower post-response conflict and thus a smaller Ne/ERN. This implies that the relationship between Ne/ERN and error awareness depends on how error awareness is related to response conflict in a specific task. Our results further indicate that the Ne/ERN but not the degree of error awareness determines adaptive performance adjustments. Taken together, we conclude that the Ne/ERN is dissociable from error awareness and foreshadows adaptive performance adjustments. Our results suggest that the relationship between the Ne/ERN and error awareness is correlative and mediated by response conflict. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Coherent errors in quantum error correction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greenbaum, Daniel; Dutton, Zachary
Analysis of quantum error correcting (QEC) codes is typically done using a stochastic, Pauli channel error model for describing the noise on physical qubits. However, it was recently found that coherent errors (systematic rotations) on physical data qubits result in both physical and logical error rates that differ significantly from those predicted by a Pauli model. We present analytic results for the logical error as a function of concatenation level and code distance for coherent errors under the repetition code. For data-only coherent errors, we find that the logical error is partially coherent and therefore non-Pauli. However, the coherent part of the error is negligible after two or more concatenation levels or at fewer than ɛ - (d - 1) error correction cycles. Here ɛ << 1 is the rotation angle error per cycle for a single physical qubit and d is the code distance. These results support the validity of modeling coherent errors using a Pauli channel under some minimum requirements for code distance and/or concatenation. We discuss extensions to imperfect syndrome extraction and implications for general QEC.
Influence of measurement error on Maxwell's demon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sørdal, Vegard; Bergli, Joakim; Galperin, Y. M.
2017-06-01
In any general cycle of measurement, feedback, and erasure, the measurement will reduce the entropy of the system when information about the state is obtained, while erasure, according to Landauer's principle, is accompanied by a corresponding increase in entropy due to the compression of logical and physical phase space. The total process can in principle be fully reversible. A measurement error reduces the information obtained and the entropy decrease in the system. The erasure still gives the same increase in entropy, and the total process is irreversible. Another consequence of measurement error is that a bad feedback is applied, which further increases the entropy production if the proper protocol adapted to the expected error rate is not applied. We consider the effect of measurement error on a realistic single-electron box Szilard engine, and we find the optimal protocol for the cycle as a function of the desired power P and error ɛ .
Extremal Optimization for estimation of the error threshold in topological subsystem codes at T = 0
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Millán-Otoya, Jorge E.; Boettcher, Stefan
2014-03-01
Quantum decoherence is a problem that arises in implementations of quantum computing proposals. Topological subsystem codes (TSC) have been suggested as a way to overcome decoherence. These offer a higher optimal error tolerance when compared to typical error-correcting algorithms. A TSC has been translated into a planar Ising spin-glass with constrained bimodal three-spin couplings. This spin-glass has been considered at finite temperature to determine the phase boundary between the unstable phase and the stable phase, where error recovery is possible.[1] We approach the study of the error threshold problem by exploring ground states of this spin-glass with the Extremal Optimization algorithm (EO).[2] EO has proven to be a effective heuristic to explore ground state configurations of glassy spin-systems.[3
Kinematic markers dissociate error correction from sensorimotor realignment during prism adaptation.
O'Shea, Jacinta; Gaveau, Valérie; Kandel, Matthieu; Koga, Kazuo; Susami, Kenji; Prablanc, Claude; Rossetti, Yves
2014-03-01
This study investigated the motor control mechanisms that enable healthy individuals to adapt their pointing movements during prism exposure to a rightward optical shift. In the prism adaptation literature, two processes are typically distinguished. Strategic motor adjustments are thought to drive the pattern of rapid endpoint error correction typically observed during the early stage of prism exposure. This is distinguished from so-called 'true sensorimotor realignment', normally measured with a different pointing task, at the end of prism exposure, which reveals a compensatory leftward 'prism after-effect'. Here, we tested whether each mode of motor compensation - strategic adjustments versus 'true sensorimotor realignment' - could be distinguished, by analyzing patterns of kinematic change during prism exposure. We hypothesized that fast feedforward versus slower feedback error corrective processes would map onto two distinct phases of the reach trajectory. Specifically, we predicted that feedforward adjustments would drive rapid compensation of the initial (acceleration) phase of the reach, resulting in the rapid reduction of endpoint errors typically observed early during prism exposure. By contrast, we expected visual-proprioceptive realignment to unfold more slowly and to reflect feedback influences during the terminal (deceleration) phase of the reach. The results confirmed these hypotheses. Rapid error reduction during the early stage of prism exposure was achieved by trial-by-trial adjustments of the motor plan, which were proportional to the endpoint error feedback from the previous trial. By contrast, compensation of the terminal reach phase unfolded slowly across the duration of prism exposure. Even after 100 trials of pointing through prisms, adaptation was incomplete, with participants continuing to exhibit a small rightward shift in both the reach endpoints and in the terminal phase of reach trajectories. Individual differences in the degree of
Microscopic 3D measurement of dynamic scene using optimized pulse-width-modulation binary fringe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Yan; Chen, Qian; Feng, Shijie; Tao, Tianyang; Li, Hui; Zuo, Chao
2017-10-01
Microscopic 3-D shape measurement can supply accurate metrology of the delicacy and complexity of MEMS components of the final devices to ensure their proper performance. Fringe projection profilometry (FPP) has the advantages of noncontactness and high accuracy, making it widely used in 3-D measurement. Recently, tremendous advance of electronics development promotes 3-D measurements to be more accurate and faster. However, research about real-time microscopic 3-D measurement is still rarely reported. In this work, we effectively combine optimized binary structured pattern with number-theoretical phase unwrapping algorithm to realize real-time 3-D shape measurement. A slight defocusing of our proposed binary patterns can considerably alleviate the measurement error based on phase-shifting FPP, making the binary patterns have the comparable performance with ideal sinusoidal patterns. Real-time 3-D measurement about 120 frames per second (FPS) is achieved, and experimental result of a vibrating earphone is presented.
Imaging phased telescope array study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harvey, James E.
1989-01-01
The problems encountered in obtaining a wide field-of-view with large, space-based direct imaging phased telescope arrays were considered. After defining some of the critical systems issues, previous relevant work in the literature was reviewed and summarized. An extensive list was made of potential error sources and the error sources were categorized in the form of an error budget tree including optical design errors, optical fabrication errors, assembly and alignment errors, and environmental errors. After choosing a top level image quality requirment as a goal, a preliminary tops-down error budget allocation was performed; then, based upon engineering experience, detailed analysis, or data from the literature, a bottoms-up error budget reallocation was performed in an attempt to achieve an equitable distribution of difficulty in satisfying the various allocations. This exercise provided a realistic allocation for residual off-axis optical design errors in the presence of state-of-the-art optical fabrication and alignment errors. Three different computational techniques were developed for computing the image degradation of phased telescope arrays due to aberrations of the individual telescopes. Parametric studies and sensitivity analyses were then performed for a variety of subaperture configurations and telescope design parameters in an attempt to determine how the off-axis performance of a phased telescope array varies as the telescopes are scaled up in size. The Air Force Weapons Laboratory (AFWL) multipurpose telescope testbed (MMTT) configuration was analyzed in detail with regard to image degradation due to field curvature and distortion of the individual telescopes as they are scaled up in size.
Application of Phase Shifted, Laser Feedback Interferometry to Fluid Physics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ovryn, Ben; Eppell, Steven J.; Andrews, James H.; Khaydarov, John
1996-01-01
We have combined the principles of phase-shifting interferometry (PSI) and laser-feedback interferometry (LFI) to produce a new instrument that can measure both optical path length (OPL) changes and discern sample reflectivity variations. In LFI, coherent feedback of the incident light either reflected directly from a surface or reflected after transmission through a region of interest will modulate the output intensity of the laser. LFI can yield a high signal-to-noise ratio even for low reflectivity samples. By combining PSI and LFI, we have produced a robust instrument, based upon a HeNe laser, with high dynamic range that can be used to measure either static (dc) or oscillatory changes along the optical path. As with other forms of interferometry, large changes in OPL require phase unwrapping. Conversely, small phase changes are limited by the fraction of a fringe that can be measured. We introduce the phase shifts with an electro-optic modulator (EOM) and use either the Carre or Hariharan algorithms to determine the phase and visibility. We have determined the accuracy and precision of our technique by measuring both the bending of a cantilevered piezoelectric bimorph and linear ramps to the EOM. Using PSI, sub-nanometer displacements can be measured. We have combined our interferometer with a commercial microscope and scanning piezoelectric stage and have measured the variation in OPL and visibility for drops of PDMS (silicone oil) on coated single crystal silicon. Our measurement of the static contact angle agrees with the value of 68 deg stated in the literature.
Rashid, Ishtiaque; Tomkinson, Alan E.; Pederson, David S.
2017-01-01
Reactive oxygen species generate potentially cytotoxic and mutagenic lesions in DNA, both between and within the nucleosomes that package DNA in chromatin. The vast majority of these lesions are subject to base excision repair (BER). Enzymes that catalyze the first three steps in BER can act at many sites in nucleosomes without the aid of chromatin-remodeling agents and without irreversibly disrupting the host nucleosome. Here we show that the same is true for a protein complex comprising DNA ligase IIIα and the scaffolding protein X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 1 (XRCC1), which completes the fourth and final step in (short-patch) BER. Using in vitro assembled nucleosomes containing discretely positioned DNA nicks, our evidence indicates that the ligase IIIα-XRCC1 complex binds to DNA nicks in nucleosomes only when they are exposed by periodic, spontaneous partial unwrapping of DNA from the histone octamer; that the scaffolding protein XRCC1 enhances the ligation; that the ligation occurs within a complex that ligase IIIα-XRCC1 forms with the host nucleosome; and that the ligase IIIα-XRCC1-nucleosome complex decays when ligation is complete, allowing the host nucleosome to return to its native configuration. Taken together, our results illustrate ways in which dynamic properties intrinsic to nucleosomes may contribute to the discovery and efficient repair of base damage in chromatin. PMID:28184006
Testolin, C G; Gore, R; Rivkin, T; Horlick, M; Arbo, J; Wang, Z; Chiumello, G; Heymsfield, S B
2000-12-01
Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) percent (%) fat estimates may be inaccurate in young children, who typically have high tissue hydration levels. This study was designed to provide a comprehensive analysis of pediatric tissue hydration effects on DXA %fat estimates. Phase 1 was experimental and included three in vitro studies to establish the physical basis of DXA %fat-estimation models. Phase 2 extended phase 1 models and consisted of theoretical calculations to estimate the %fat errors emanating from previously reported pediatric hydration effects. Phase 1 experiments supported the two-compartment DXA soft tissue model and established that pixel ratio of low to high energy (R values) are a predictable function of tissue elemental content. In phase 2, modeling of reference body composition values from birth to age 120 mo revealed that %fat errors will arise if a "constant" adult lean soft tissue R value is applied to the pediatric population; the maximum %fat error, approximately 0.8%, would be present at birth. High tissue hydration, as observed in infants and young children, leads to errors in DXA %fat estimates. The magnitude of these errors based on theoretical calculations is small and may not be of clinical or research significance.
Noise Estimation and Adaptive Encoding for Asymmetric Quantum Error Correcting Codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Florjanczyk, Jan; Brun, Todd; CenterQuantum Information Science; Technology Team
We present a technique that improves the performance of asymmetric quantum error correcting codes in the presence of biased qubit noise channels. Our study is motivated by considering what useful information can be learned from the statistics of syndrome measurements in stabilizer quantum error correcting codes (QECC). We consider the case of a qubit dephasing channel where the dephasing axis is unknown and time-varying. We are able to estimate the dephasing angle from the statistics of the standard syndrome measurements used in stabilizer QECC's. We use this estimate to rotate the computational basis of the code in such a way that the most likely type of error is covered by the highest distance of the asymmetric code. In particular, we use the [ [ 15 , 1 , 3 ] ] shortened Reed-Muller code which can correct one phase-flip error but up to three bit-flip errors. In our simulations, we tune the computational basis to match the estimated dephasing axis which in turn leads to a decrease in the probability of a phase-flip error. With a sufficiently accurate estimate of the dephasing axis, our memory's effective error is dominated by the much lower probability of four bit-flips. Aro MURI Grant No. W911NF-11-1-0268.
A Comparative Study of Radar Stereo and Interferometry for DEM Generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gelautz, M.; Paillou, P.; Chen, C. W.; Zebker, H. A.
2004-06-01
In this experiment, we derive and compare radar stereo and interferometric elevation models (DEMs) of a study site in Djibouti, East Africa. As test data, we use a Radarsat stereo pair and ERS-2 and Radarsat interferometric data. Comparison of the reconstructed DEMs with a SPOT reference DEM shows that in regions of high coherence the DEMs produced by interferometry are of much better quality than the stereo result. However, the interferometric error histograms also show some pronounced outliers due to decorrelation and phase unwrapping problems on forested mountain slopes. The more robust stereo result is able to capture the general terrain shape, but finer surface details are lost. A fusion experiment demonstrates that merging the stereoscopic and interferometric DEMs by utilizing coherence- derived weights can significantly improve the accuracy of the computed elevation maps.
A NEW INSAR DERIVED DEM OF BLACK RAPIDS GLACIER
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shugar, D. H.; Rabus, B.; Clague, J. J.
2009-12-01
We have constructed a new digital elevation model representing the 1995 surface of surge-type Black Rapids Glacier and the surrounding central Alaska Range, using ERS-1/2 repeat-pass interferometry. First, we isolated the topographic phase from three interferograms with contrasting perpendicular baselines. Next we attempted to automatically unwrap this topographic phase but encountered numerous errors due to the terrain containing areas of poor coherence from fringe aliasing, radar layover or shadow. We then consistently corrected these persistent phase-unwrapping errors in all three interferograms using an iterative semi-automated approach that capitalizes on the multi-baseline nature of the data set. Over the surface of Black Rapids Glacier, the accuracy of the new DEM is estimated at better than +/- 12 m. Ground-surveyed spot elevations from 1995 corroborate this accuracy estimate. Comparison of the new DEM with a 1951 U.S. Geological Survey topographic map, and with ground survey data from other years, shows the gradual return of Black Rapids Glacier to pre-surge conditions. In the 44-year period between 1951 and 1995 the observed average steepening of the longitudinal profile is ~0.6°. The maximum elevation changes in the ablation and accumulation zones are -256 m and +75 m, respectively, suggesting corresponding average rates of elevation change of about -5.8 m/yr and +1.7 m/yr. These rates are 1.5-2 times higher than those indicated by the ground survey spot elevation measurements over the period 1975 to 2005. Considering the significant overlap of the two periods of measurement, the inferred average rates for 1951-1975 would have to be very large (-7.5 m/yr and +2.3 m/yr, respectively) for these two findings to be consistent. A second comparison with the recently released ASTER G-DEM (data from 2001) led to no glaciologically usable results due to major artifacts in the ASTER G-DEM. We therefore conclude that the 1951 U.S. Geological Survey map and the
Distortion Representation of Forecast Errors for Model Skill Assessment and Objective Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoffman, Ross N.; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Grassotti, Christopher
1996-01-01
We study a novel characterization of errors for numerical weather predictions. In its simplest form we decompose the error into a part attributable to phase errors and a remainder. The phase error is represented in the same fashion as a velocity field and will be required to vary slowly and smoothly with position. A general distortion representation allows for the displacement and a bias correction of forecast anomalies. In brief, the distortion is determined by minimizing the objective function by varying the displacement and bias correction fields. In the present project we use a global or hemispheric domain, and spherical harmonics to represent these fields. In this project we are initially focusing on the assessment application, restricted to a realistic but univariate 2-dimensional situation. Specifically we study the forecast errors of the 500 hPa geopotential height field for forecasts of the short and medium range. The forecasts are those of the Goddard Earth Observing System data assimilation system. Results presented show that the methodology works, that a large part of the total error may be explained by a distortion limited to triangular truncation at wavenumber 10, and that the remaining residual error contains mostly small spatial scales.
Eliminating US hospital medical errors.
Kumar, Sameer; Steinebach, Marc
2008-01-01
Healthcare costs in the USA have continued to rise steadily since the 1980s. Medical errors are one of the major causes of deaths and injuries of thousands of patients every year, contributing to soaring healthcare costs. The purpose of this study is to examine what has been done to deal with the medical-error problem in the last two decades and present a closed-loop mistake-proof operation system for surgery processes that would likely eliminate preventable medical errors. The design method used is a combination of creating a service blueprint, implementing the six sigma DMAIC cycle, developing cause-and-effect diagrams as well as devising poka-yokes in order to develop a robust surgery operation process for a typical US hospital. In the improve phase of the six sigma DMAIC cycle, a number of poka-yoke techniques are introduced to prevent typical medical errors (identified through cause-and-effect diagrams) that may occur in surgery operation processes in US hospitals. It is the authors' assertion that implementing the new service blueprint along with the poka-yokes, will likely result in the current medical error rate to significantly improve to the six-sigma level. Additionally, designing as many redundancies as possible in the delivery of care will help reduce medical errors. Primary healthcare providers should strongly consider investing in adequate doctor and nurse staffing, and improving their education related to the quality of service delivery to minimize clinical errors. This will lead to an increase in higher fixed costs, especially in the shorter time frame. This paper focuses additional attention needed to make a sound technical and business case for implementing six sigma tools to eliminate medical errors that will enable hospital managers to increase their hospital's profitability in the long run and also ensure patient safety.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Chunwei; Zhao, Hong; Zhu, Qian; Zhou, Changquan; Qiao, Jiacheng; Zhang, Lu
2018-06-01
Phase-shifting fringe projection profilometry (PSFPP) is a three-dimensional (3D) measurement technique widely adopted in industry measurement. It recovers the 3D profile of measured objects with the aid of the fringe phase. The phase accuracy is among the dominant factors that determine the 3D measurement accuracy. Evaluation of the phase accuracy helps refine adjustable measurement parameters, contributes to evaluating the 3D measurement accuracy, and facilitates improvement of the measurement accuracy. Although PSFPP has been deeply researched, an effective, easy-to-use phase accuracy evaluation method remains to be explored. In this paper, methods based on the uniform-phase coded image (UCI) are presented to accomplish phase accuracy evaluation for PSFPP. These methods work on the principle that the phase value of a UCI can be manually set to be any value, and once the phase value of a UCI pixel is the same as that of a pixel of a corresponding sinusoidal fringe pattern, their phase accuracy values are approximate. The proposed methods provide feasible approaches to evaluating the phase accuracy for PSFPP. Furthermore, they can be used to experimentally research the property of the random and gamma phase errors in PSFPP without the aid of a mathematical model to express random phase error or a large-step phase-shifting algorithm. In this paper, some novel and interesting phenomena are experimentally uncovered with the aid of the proposed methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Griesinger, Uwe A.; Dettmann, Wolfgang; Hennig, Mario; Heumann, Jan P.; Koehle, Roderick; Ludwig, Ralf; Verbeek, Martin; Zarrabian, Mardjan
2002-07-01
In optical lithography balancing the aerial image of an alternating phase shifting mask (alt. PSM) is a major challenge. For the exposure wavelengths (currently 248nm and 193nm) an optimum etching method is necessary to overcome imbalance effects. Defects play an important role in the imbalances of the aerial image. In this contribution defects will be discussed by using the methodology of global phase imbalance control also for local imbalances which are a result of quartz defects. The effective phase error can be determined with an AIMS-system by measuring the CD width between the images of deep- and shallow trenches at different focus settings. The AIMS results are analyzed in comparison to the simulated and lithographic print results of the alternating structures. For the analysis of local aerial image imbalances it is necessary to investigate the capability of detecting these phase defects with state of the art inspection systems. Alternating PSMs containing programmed defects were inspected with different algorithms to investigate the capture rate of special phase defects in dependence on the defect size. Besides inspection also repair of phase defects is an important task. In this contribution we show the effect of repair on the optical behavior of phase defects. Due to the limited accuracy of the repair tools the repaired area still shows a certain local phase error. This error can be caused either by residual quartz material or a substrate damage. The influence of such repair induced phase errors on the aerial image were investigated.
Higher-order ionospheric error at Arecibo, Millstone, and Jicamarca
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matteo, N. A.; Morton, Y. T.
2010-12-01
The ionosphere is a dominant source of Global Positioning System receiver range measurement error. Although dual-frequency receivers can eliminate the first-order ionospheric error, most second- and third-order errors remain in the range measurements. Higher-order ionospheric error is a function of both electron density distribution and the magnetic field vector along the GPS signal propagation path. This paper expands previous efforts by combining incoherent scatter radar (ISR) electron density measurements, the International Reference Ionosphere model, exponential decay extensions of electron densities, the International Geomagnetic Reference Field, and total electron content maps to compute higher-order error at ISRs in Arecibo, Puerto Rico; Jicamarca, Peru; and Millstone Hill, Massachusetts. Diurnal patterns, dependency on signal direction, seasonal variation, and geomagnetic activity dependency are analyzed. Higher-order error is largest at Arecibo with code phase maxima circa 7 cm for low-elevation southern signals. The maximum variation of the error over all angles of arrival is circa 8 cm.
Liu, Sheena Xin; Gutiérrez, Luis F; Stanton, Doug
2011-05-01
calibration method and a virtual navigation evaluation system for quantifying the overall errors of the intra-operative data integration. We believe this phantom not only offers us good insights to understand the systematic errors encountered in all phases of an EM-tracked endoscopy procedure but also can provide quality control of laboratory experiments for endoscopic procedures before the experiments are transferred from the laboratory to human subjects.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steinbock, Michael J.; Hyde, Milo W.
2012-10-01
Adaptive optics is used in applications such as laser communication, remote sensing, and laser weapon systems to estimate and correct for atmospheric distortions of propagated light in real-time. Within an adaptive optics system, a reconstruction process interprets the raw wavefront sensor measurements and calculates an estimate for the unwrapped phase function to be sent through a control law and applied to a wavefront correction device. This research is focused on adaptive optics using a self-referencing interferometer wavefront sensor, which directly measures the wrapped wavefront phase. Therefore, its measurements must be reconstructed for use on a continuous facesheet deformable mirror. In testing and evaluating a novel class of branch-point- tolerant wavefront reconstructors based on the post-processing congruence operation technique, an increase in Strehl ratio compared to a traditional least squares reconstructor was noted even in non-scintillated fields. To investigate this further, this paper uses wave-optics simulations to eliminate many of the variables from a hardware adaptive optics system, so as to focus on the reconstruction techniques alone. The simulation results along with a discussion of the physical reasoning for this phenomenon are provided. For any applications using a self-referencing interferometer wavefront sensor with low signal levels or high localized wavefront gradients, understanding this phenomena is critical when applying a traditional least squares wavefront reconstructor.
A method to map errors in the deformable registration of 4DCT images1
Vaman, Constantin; Staub, David; Williamson, Jeffrey; Murphy, Martin J.
2010-01-01
Purpose: To present a new approach to the problem of estimating errors in deformable image registration (DIR) applied to sequential phases of a 4DCT data set. Methods: A set of displacement vector fields (DVFs) are made by registering a sequence of 4DCT phases. The DVFs are assumed to display anatomical movement, with the addition of errors due to the imaging and registration processes. The positions of physical landmarks in each CT phase are measured as ground truth for the physical movement in the DVF. Principal component analysis of the DVFs and the landmarks is used to identify and separate the eigenmodes of physical movement from the error eigenmodes. By subtracting the physical modes from the principal components of the DVFs, the registration errors are exposed and reconstructed as DIR error maps. The method is demonstrated via a simple numerical model of 4DCT DVFs that combines breathing movement with simulated maps of spatially correlated DIR errors. Results: The principal components of the simulated DVFs were observed to share the basic properties of principal components for actual 4DCT data. The simulated error maps were accurately recovered by the estimation method. Conclusions: Deformable image registration errors can have complex spatial distributions. Consequently, point-by-point landmark validation can give unrepresentative results that do not accurately reflect the registration uncertainties away from the landmarks. The authors are developing a method for mapping the complete spatial distribution of DIR errors using only a small number of ground truth validation landmarks. PMID:21158288
Dosimetric Implications of Residual Tracking Errors During Robotic SBRT of Liver Metastases
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Chan, Mark; Tuen Mun Hospital, Hong Kong; Grehn, Melanie
Purpose: Although the metric precision of robotic stereotactic body radiation therapy in the presence of breathing motion is widely known, we investigated the dosimetric implications of breathing phase–related residual tracking errors. Methods and Materials: In 24 patients (28 liver metastases) treated with the CyberKnife, we recorded the residual correlation, prediction, and rotational tracking errors from 90 fractions and binned them into 10 breathing phases. The average breathing phase errors were used to shift and rotate the clinical tumor volume (CTV) and planning target volume (PTV) for each phase to calculate a pseudo 4-dimensional error dose distribution for comparison with themore » original planned dose distribution. Results: The median systematic directional correlation, prediction, and absolute aggregate rotation errors were 0.3 mm (range, 0.1-1.3 mm), 0.01 mm (range, 0.00-0.05 mm), and 1.5° (range, 0.4°-2.7°), respectively. Dosimetrically, 44%, 81%, and 92% of all voxels differed by less than 1%, 3%, and 5% of the planned local dose, respectively. The median coverage reduction for the PTV was 1.1% (range in coverage difference, −7.8% to +0.8%), significantly depending on correlation (P=.026) and rotational (P=.005) error. With a 3-mm PTV margin, the median coverage change for the CTV was 0.0% (range, −1.0% to +5.4%), not significantly depending on any investigated parameter. In 42% of patients, the 3-mm margin did not fully compensate for the residual tracking errors, resulting in a CTV coverage reduction of 0.1% to 1.0%. Conclusions: For liver tumors treated with robotic stereotactic body radiation therapy, a safety margin of 3 mm is not always sufficient to cover all residual tracking errors. Dosimetrically, this translates into only small CTV coverage reductions.« less
Action errors, error management, and learning in organizations.
Frese, Michael; Keith, Nina
2015-01-03
Every organization is confronted with errors. Most errors are corrected easily, but some may lead to negative consequences. Organizations often focus on error prevention as a single strategy for dealing with errors. Our review suggests that error prevention needs to be supplemented by error management--an approach directed at effectively dealing with errors after they have occurred, with the goal of minimizing negative and maximizing positive error consequences (examples of the latter are learning and innovations). After defining errors and related concepts, we review research on error-related processes affected by error management (error detection, damage control). Empirical evidence on positive effects of error management in individuals and organizations is then discussed, along with emotional, motivational, cognitive, and behavioral pathways of these effects. Learning from errors is central, but like other positive consequences, learning occurs under certain circumstances--one being the development of a mind-set of acceptance of human error.
A Typology of Errors and Myths Perpetuated in Educational Research Textbooks
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.
2005-01-01
This paper identifies major errors and myths perpetuated by educational research textbooks. The most pervasive errors and myths advanced by methodology textbooks at the following eight phases of the educational research process are described: (a) formulating a research problem/objective; (b) reviewing the literature; (c) developing the research…
Continuous fractional-order Zero Phase Error Tracking Control.
Liu, Lu; Tian, Siyuan; Xue, Dingyu; Zhang, Tao; Chen, YangQuan
2018-04-01
A continuous time fractional-order feedforward control algorithm for tracking desired time varying input signals is proposed in this paper. The presented controller cancels the phase shift caused by the zeros and poles of controlled closed-loop fractional-order system, so it is called Fractional-Order Zero Phase Tracking Controller (FZPETC). The controlled systems are divided into two categories i.e. with and without non-cancellable (non-minimum-phase) zeros which stand in unstable region or on stability boundary. Each kinds of systems has a targeted FZPETC design control strategy. The improved tracking performance has been evaluated successfully by applying the proposed controller to three different kinds of fractional-order controlled systems. Besides, a modified quasi-perfect tracking scheme is presented for those systems which may not have available future tracking trajectory information or have problem in high frequency disturbance rejection if the perfect tracking algorithm is applied. A simulation comparison and a hardware-in-the-loop thermal peltier platform are shown to validate the practicality of the proposed quasi-perfect control algorithm. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The Michelson Stellar Interferometer Error Budget for Triple Triple-Satellite Configuration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marathay, Arvind S.; Shiefman, Joe
1996-01-01
This report presents the results of a study of the instrumentation tolerances for a conventional style Michelson stellar interferometer (MSI). The method used to determine the tolerances was to determine the change, due to the instrument errors, in the measured fringe visibility and phase relative to the ideal values. The ideal values are those values of fringe visibility and phase that would be measured by a perfect MSI and are attributable solely to the object being detected. Once the functional relationship for changes in visibility and phase as a function of various instrument errors is understood it is then possible to set limits on the instrument errors in order to ensure that the measured visibility and phase are different from the ideal values by no more than some specified amount. This was done as part of this study. The limits we obtained are based on a visibility error of no more than 1% and a phase error of no more than 0.063 radians (this comes from 1% of 2(pi) radians). The choice of these 1% limits is supported in the literture. The approach employed in the study involved the use of ASAP (Advanced System Analysis Program) software provided by Breault Research Organization, Inc., in conjunction with parallel analytical calculations. The interferometer accepts object radiation into two separate arms each consisting of an outer mirror, an inner mirror, a delay line (made up of two moveable mirrors and two static mirrors), and a 10:1 afocal reduction telescope. The radiation coming out of both arms is incident on a slit plane which is opaque with two openings (slits). One of the two slits is centered directly under one of the two arms of the interferometer and the other slit is centered directly under the other arm. The slit plane is followed immediately by an ideal combining lens which images the radiation in the fringe plane (also referred to subsequently as the detector plane).
Modeling coherent errors in quantum error correction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greenbaum, Daniel; Dutton, Zachary
2018-01-01
Analysis of quantum error correcting codes is typically done using a stochastic, Pauli channel error model for describing the noise on physical qubits. However, it was recently found that coherent errors (systematic rotations) on physical data qubits result in both physical and logical error rates that differ significantly from those predicted by a Pauli model. Here we examine the accuracy of the Pauli approximation for noise containing coherent errors (characterized by a rotation angle ɛ) under the repetition code. We derive an analytic expression for the logical error channel as a function of arbitrary code distance d and concatenation level n, in the small error limit. We find that coherent physical errors result in logical errors that are partially coherent and therefore non-Pauli. However, the coherent part of the logical error is negligible at fewer than {ε }-({dn-1)} error correction cycles when the decoder is optimized for independent Pauli errors, thus providing a regime of validity for the Pauli approximation. Above this number of correction cycles, the persistent coherent logical error will cause logical failure more quickly than the Pauli model would predict, and this may need to be combated with coherent suppression methods at the physical level or larger codes.
Error Detection Processes during Observational Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Badets, Arnaud; Blandin, Yannick; Wright, David L.; Shea, Charles H.
2006-01-01
The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether a faded knowledge of results (KR) frequency during observation of a model's performance enhanced error detection capabilities. During the observation phase, participants observed a model performing a timing task and received KR about the model's performance on each trial or on one of two…
Error field detection in DIII-D by magnetic steering of locked modes
Shiraki, Daisuke; La Haye, Robert J.; Logan, Nikolas C.; ...
2014-02-20
Optimal correction coil currents for the n = 1 intrinsic error field of the DIII-D tokamak are inferred by applying a rotating external magnetic perturbation to steer the phase of a saturated locked mode with poloidal/toroidal mode number m/n = 2/1. The error field is detected non-disruptively in a single discharge, based on the toroidal torque balance of the resonant surface, which is assumed to be dominated by the balance of resonant electromagnetic torques. This is equivalent to the island being locked at all times to the resonant 2/1 component of the total of the applied and intrinsic error fields,more » such that the deviation of the locked mode phase from the applied field phase depends on the existing error field. The optimal set of correction coil currents is determined to be those currents which best cancels the torque from the error field, based on fitting of the torque balance model. The toroidal electromagnetic torques are calculated from experimental data using a simplified approach incorporating realistic DIII-D geometry, and including the effect of the plasma response on island torque balance based on the ideal plasma response to external fields. This method of error field detection is demonstrated in DIII-D discharges, and the results are compared with those based on the onset of low-density locked modes in ohmic plasmas. Furthermore, this magnetic steering technique presents an efficient approach to error field detection and is a promising method for ITER, particularly during initial operation when the lack of auxiliary heating systems makes established techniques based on rotation or plasma amplification unsuitable.« less
Errors in causal inference: an organizational schema for systematic error and random error.
Suzuki, Etsuji; Tsuda, Toshihide; Mitsuhashi, Toshiharu; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Yamamoto, Eiji
2016-11-01
To provide an organizational schema for systematic error and random error in estimating causal measures, aimed at clarifying the concept of errors from the perspective of causal inference. We propose to divide systematic error into structural error and analytic error. With regard to random error, our schema shows its four major sources: nondeterministic counterfactuals, sampling variability, a mechanism that generates exposure events and measurement variability. Structural error is defined from the perspective of counterfactual reasoning and divided into nonexchangeability bias (which comprises confounding bias and selection bias) and measurement bias. Directed acyclic graphs are useful to illustrate this kind of error. Nonexchangeability bias implies a lack of "exchangeability" between the selected exposed and unexposed groups. A lack of exchangeability is not a primary concern of measurement bias, justifying its separation from confounding bias and selection bias. Many forms of analytic errors result from the small-sample properties of the estimator used and vanish asymptotically. Analytic error also results from wrong (misspecified) statistical models and inappropriate statistical methods. Our organizational schema is helpful for understanding the relationship between systematic error and random error from a previously less investigated aspect, enabling us to better understand the relationship between accuracy, validity, and precision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kushniruk, Andre; Senathirajah, Yalini; Borycki, Elizabeth
2017-01-01
The usability and safety of health information systems have become major issues in the design and implementation of useful healthcare IT. In this paper we describe a multi-phased multi-method approach to integrating usability engineering methods into system testing to ensure both usability and safety of healthcare IT upon widespread deployment. The approach involves usability testing followed by clinical simulation (conducted in-situ) and "near-live" recording of user interactions with systems. At key stages in this process, usability problems are identified and rectified forming a usability and technology-induced error "safety net" that catches different types of usability and safety problems prior to releasing systems widely in healthcare settings.
Tsuji, Toshikazu; Nagata, Kenichiro; Kawashiri, Takehiro; Yamada, Takaaki; Irisa, Toshihiro; Murakami, Yuko; Kanaya, Akiko; Egashira, Nobuaki; Masuda, Satohiro
2016-01-01
There are many reports regarding various medical institutions' attempts at the prevention of dispensing errors. However, the relationship between occurrence timing of dispensing errors and subsequent danger to patients has not been studied under the situation according to the classification of drugs by efficacy. Therefore, we analyzed the relationship between position and time regarding the occurrence of dispensing errors. Furthermore, we investigated the relationship between occurrence timing of them and danger to patients. In this study, dispensing errors and incidents in three categories (drug name errors, drug strength errors, drug count errors) were classified into two groups in terms of its drug efficacy (efficacy similarity (-) group, efficacy similarity (+) group), into three classes in terms of the occurrence timing of dispensing errors (initial phase errors, middle phase errors, final phase errors). Then, the rates of damage shifting from "dispensing errors" to "damage to patients" were compared as an index of danger between two groups and among three classes. Consequently, the rate of damage in "efficacy similarity (-) group" was significantly higher than that in "efficacy similarity (+) group". Furthermore, the rate of damage is the highest in "initial phase errors", the lowest in "final phase errors" among three classes. From the results of this study, it became clear that the earlier the timing of dispensing errors occurs, the more severe the damage to patients becomes.
Three filters for visualization of phase objects with large variations of phase gradients
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Sagan, Arkadiusz; Antosiewicz, Tomasz J.; Szoplik, Tomasz
2009-02-20
We propose three amplitude filters for visualization of phase objects. They interact with the spectra of pure-phase objects in the frequency plane and are based on tangent and error functions as well as antisymmetric combination of square roots. The error function is a normalized form of the Gaussian function. The antisymmetric square-root filter is composed of two square-root filters to widen its spatial frequency spectral range. Their advantage over other known amplitude frequency-domain filters, such as linear or square-root graded ones, is that they allow high-contrast visualization of objects with large variations of phase gradients.
The Effects of Wiggler Errors on Free Electron Laser Performance
1990-04-02
phase deviation at the end of the wiggler by 113. The detrimental effects of wiggler errors may be reduced by arranging the magent poles in an optimal...fdz6BI. To meet these specifications, the vendor may arrange the mIagnet pole iD an optimum sequence such that If dz6BI is minimized. The present research...zc a- A,,/2. By considering a wiggler in which the error for a given magnet pole is correlated to the errors of the surrounding poles , one may
Analysis of frequency mixing error on heterodyne interferometric ellipsometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Yuan-long; Li, Xue-jin; Wu, Yu-bin; Hu, Ju-guang; Yao, Jian-quan
2007-11-01
A heterodyne interferometric ellipsometer, with no moving parts and a transverse Zeeman laser, is demonstrated. The modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer characterized as a separate frequency and common-path configuration is designed and theoretically analyzed. The experimental data show a fluctuation mainly resulting from the frequency mixing error which is caused by the imperfection of polarizing beam splitters (PBS), the elliptical polarization and non-orthogonality of light beams. The producing mechanism of the frequency mixing error and its influence on measurement are analyzed with the Jones matrix method; the calculation indicates that it results in an error up to several nanometres in the thickness measurement of thin films. The non-orthogonality has no contribution to the phase difference error when it is relatively small; the elliptical polarization and the imperfection of PBS have a major effect on the error.
Elsaid, K; Truong, T; Monckeberg, M; McCarthy, H; Butera, J; Collins, C
2013-12-01
To evaluate the impact of electronic standardized chemotherapy templates on incidence and types of prescribing errors. A quasi-experimental interrupted time series with segmented regression. A 700-bed multidisciplinary tertiary care hospital with an ambulatory cancer center. A multidisciplinary team including oncology physicians, nurses, pharmacists and information technologists. Standardized, regimen-specific, chemotherapy prescribing forms were developed and implemented over a 32-month period. Trend of monthly prevented prescribing errors per 1000 chemotherapy doses during the pre-implementation phase (30 months), immediate change in the error rate from pre-implementation to implementation and trend of errors during the implementation phase. Errors were analyzed according to their types: errors in communication or transcription, errors in dosing calculation and errors in regimen frequency or treatment duration. Relative risk (RR) of errors in the post-implementation phase (28 months) compared with the pre-implementation phase was computed with 95% confidence interval (CI). Baseline monthly error rate was stable with 16.7 prevented errors per 1000 chemotherapy doses. A 30% reduction in prescribing errors was observed with initiating the intervention. With implementation, a negative change in the slope of prescribing errors was observed (coefficient = -0.338; 95% CI: -0.612 to -0.064). The estimated RR of transcription errors was 0.74; 95% CI (0.59-0.92). The estimated RR of dosing calculation errors was 0.06; 95% CI (0.03-0.10). The estimated RR of chemotherapy frequency/duration errors was 0.51; 95% CI (0.42-0.62). Implementing standardized chemotherapy-prescribing templates significantly reduced all types of prescribing errors and improved chemotherapy safety.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mura, José C.; Paradella, Waldir R.; Gama, Fabio F.; Santos, Athos R.; Galo, Mauricio; Camargo, Paulo O.; Silva, Arnaldo Q.; Silva, Guilherme G.
2014-10-01
We present an investigation of surface deformation using Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) time-series carried out in an active open pit iron mine, the N5W, located in the Carajás Mineral Province (Brazilian Amazon region), using 33 TerraSAR-X (TSX-1) scenes. This mine has presented a historical of instability and surface monitoring measurements over sectors of the mine (pit walls) have been done based on ground based radar. Two complementary approaches were used: the standard DInSAR configuration, as an early warning of the slope instability conditions, and the DInSAR timeseries analysis. In order to decrease the topographic phase error a high resolution DEM was generated based on a stereo GeoEye-1 pair. Despite the fact that a DinSAR contains atmospheric and topographic phase artifacts and noise, it was possible to detect deformation in some interferometric pairs, covering pit benches, road ramps and waste piles. The timeseries analysis was performed using the 31 interferometric pairs, which were selected based on the highest mean coherence of a stack of 107 interferograms, presenting less phase unwrapping errors. The time-series deformation was retrieved by the Least-Squares (LS) solution using an extension of the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), with a set of additional weighted constrain on the acceleration deformation. The atmospheric phase artifacts were filtered in the space-time domain and the DEM height errors were estimated based on the normal baseline diversity. The DInSAR time-series investigation showed good results for monitoring surface displacement in the N5W mine located in a tropical rainforest environment, providing very useful information about the ground movement for alarm, planning and risk assessment.
Sub-nanometer periodic nonlinearity error in absolute distance interferometers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Hongxing; Huang, Kaiqi; Hu, Pengcheng; Zhu, Pengfei; Tan, Jiubin; Fan, Zhigang
2015-05-01
Periodic nonlinearity which can result in error in nanometer scale has become a main problem limiting the absolute distance measurement accuracy. In order to eliminate this error, a new integrated interferometer with non-polarizing beam splitter is developed. This leads to disappearing of the frequency and/or polarization mixing. Furthermore, a strict requirement on the laser source polarization is highly reduced. By combining retro-reflector and angel prism, reference and measuring beams can be spatially separated, and therefore, their optical paths are not overlapped. So, the main cause of the periodic nonlinearity error, i.e., the frequency and/or polarization mixing and leakage of beam, is eliminated. Experimental results indicate that the periodic phase error is kept within 0.0018°.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haldren, H. A.; Perey, D. F.; Yost, W. T.; Cramer, K. E.; Gupta, M. C.
2018-05-01
A digitally controlled instrument for conducting single-frequency and swept-frequency ultrasonic phase measurements has been developed based on a constant-frequency pulsed phase-locked-loop (CFPPLL) design. This instrument uses a pair of direct digital synthesizers to generate an ultrasonically transceived tone-burst and an internal reference wave for phase comparison. Real-time, constant-frequency phase tracking in an interrogated specimen is possible with a resolution of 0.000 38 rad (0.022°), and swept-frequency phase measurements can be obtained. Using phase measurements, an absolute thickness in borosilicate glass is presented to show the instrument's efficacy, and these results are compared to conventional ultrasonic pulse-echo time-of-flight (ToF) measurements. The newly developed instrument predicted the thickness with a mean error of -0.04 μm and a standard deviation of error of 1.35 μm. Additionally, the CFPPLL instrument shows a lower measured phase error in the absence of changing temperature and couplant thickness than high-resolution cross-correlation ToF measurements at a similar signal-to-noise ratio. By showing higher accuracy and precision than conventional pulse-echo ToF measurements and lower phase errors than cross-correlation ToF measurements, the new digitally controlled CFPPLL instrument provides high-resolution absolute ultrasonic velocity or path-length measurements in solids or liquids, as well as tracking of material property changes with high sensitivity. The ability to obtain absolute phase measurements allows for many new applications than possible with previous ultrasonic pulsed phase-locked loop instruments. In addition to improved resolution, swept-frequency phase measurements add useful capability in measuring properties of layered structures, such as bonded joints, or materials which exhibit non-linear frequency-dependent behavior, such as dispersive media.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shinnaka, Shinji; Sano, Kousuke
This paper presents a new unified analysis of estimate errors by model-matching phase-estimation methods such as rotor-flux state-observers, back EMF state-observers, and back EMF disturbance-observers, for sensorless drive of permanent-magnet synchronous motors. Analytical solutions about estimate errors, whose validity is confirmed by numerical experiments, are rich in universality and applicability. As an example of universality and applicability, a new trajectory-oriented vector control method is proposed, which can realize directly quasi-optimal strategy minimizing total losses with no additional computational loads by simply orienting one of vector-control coordinates to the associated quasi-optimal trajectory. The coordinate orientation rule, which is analytically derived, is surprisingly simple. Consequently the trajectory-oriented vector control method can be applied to a number of conventional vector control systems using one of the model-matching phase-estimation methods.
Monitoring urban subsidence based on SAR lnterferometric point target analysis
Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Jiahua; Gong, W.; Lu, Z.
2009-01-01
lnterferometric point target analysis (IPTA) is one of the latest developments in radar interferometric processing. It is achieved by analysis of the interferometric phases of some individual point targets, which are discrete and present temporarily stable backscattering characteristics, in long temporal series of interferometric SAR images. This paper analyzes the interferometric phase model of point targets, and then addresses two key issues within IPTA process. Firstly, a spatial searching method is proposed to unwrap the interferometric phase difference between two neighboring point targets. The height residual error and linear deformation rate of each point target can then be calculated, when a global reference point with known height correction and deformation history is chosen. Secondly, a spatial-temporal filtering scheme is proposed to further separate the atmosphere phase and nonlinear deformation phase from the residual interferometric phase. Finally, an experiment of the developed IPTA methodology is conducted over Suzhou urban area. Totally 38 ERS-1/2 SAR scenes are analyzed, and the deformation information over 3 546 point targets in the time span of 1992-2002 are generated. The IPTA-derived deformation shows very good agreement with the published result, which demonstrates that the IPTA technique can be developed into an operational tool to map the ground subsidence over urban area.
Wavelet-based group and phase velocity measurements: Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, H. Y.; Wang, W. W.; Hung, S. H.
2016-12-01
Measurements of group and phase velocities of surface waves are often carried out by applying a series of narrow bandpass or stationary Gaussian filters localized at specific frequencies to wave packets and estimating the corresponding arrival times at the peak envelopes and phases of the Fourier spectra. However, it's known that seismic waves are inherently nonstationary and not well represented by a sum of sinusoids. Alternatively, a continuous wavelet transform (CWT) which decomposes a time series into a family of wavelets, translated and scaled copies of a generally fast oscillating and decaying function known as the mother wavelet, is capable of retaining localization in both the time and frequency domain and well-suited for the time-frequency analysis of nonstationary signals. Here we develop a wavelet-based method to measure frequency-dependent group and phase velocities, an essential dataset used in crust and mantle tomography. For a given time series, we employ the complex morlet wavelet to obtain the scalogram of amplitude modulus |Wg| and phase φ on the time-frequency plane. The instantaneous frequency (IF) is then calculated by taking the derivative of phase with respect to time, i.e., (1/2π)dφ(f, t)/dt. Time windows comprising strong energy arrivals to be measured can be identified by those IFs close to the frequencies with the maximum modulus and varying smoothly and monotonically with time. The respective IFs in each selected time window are further interpolated to yield a smooth branch of ridge points or representative IFs at which the arrival time, tridge(f), and phase, φridge(f), after unwrapping and correcting cycle skipping based on a priori knowledge of the possible velocity range, are determined for group and phase velocity estimation. We will demonstrate our measurement method using both ambient noise cross correlation functions and multi-mode surface waves from earthquakes. The obtained dispersion curves will be compared with those by a
Biometrics based key management of double random phase encoding scheme using error control codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saini, Nirmala; Sinha, Aloka
2013-08-01
In this paper, an optical security system has been proposed in which key of the double random phase encoding technique is linked to the biometrics of the user to make it user specific. The error in recognition due to the biometric variation is corrected by encoding the key using the BCH code. A user specific shuffling key is used to increase the separation between genuine and impostor Hamming distance distribution. This shuffling key is then further secured using the RSA public key encryption to enhance the security of the system. XOR operation is performed between the encoded key and the feature vector obtained from the biometrics. The RSA encoded shuffling key and the data obtained from the XOR operation are stored into a token. The main advantage of the present technique is that the key retrieval is possible only in the simultaneous presence of the token and the biometrics of the user which not only authenticates the presence of the original input but also secures the key of the system. Computational experiments showed the effectiveness of the proposed technique for key retrieval in the decryption process by using the live biometrics of the user.
2013-12-01
experimental and simulated cases at Rytov number 0.044...21 Figure 9. Branch point occurrence for experimental and simulated cases at Rytov number 0.044...22 Figure 10. Unwrapped phase data for experimental and simulated cases at Rytov number 0.044
[Improving blood safety: errors management in transfusion medicine].
Bujandrić, Nevenka; Grujić, Jasmina; Krga-Milanović, Mirjana
2014-01-01
The concept of blood safety includes the entire transfusion chain starting with the collection of blood from the blood donor, and ending with blood transfusion to the patient. The concept involves quality management system as the systematic monitoring of adverse reactions and incidents regarding the blood donor or patient. Monitoring of near-miss errors show the critical points in the working process and increase transfusion safety. The aim of the study was to present the analysis results of adverse and unexpected events in transfusion practice with a potential risk to the health of blood donors and patients. One-year retrospective study was based on the collection, analysis and interpretation of written reports on medical errors in the Blood Transfusion Institute of Vojvodina. Errors were distributed according to the type, frequency and part of the working process where they occurred. Possible causes and corrective actions were described for each error. The study showed that there were not errors with potential health consequences for the blood donor/patient. Errors with potentially damaging consequences for patients were detected throughout the entire transfusion chain. Most of the errors were identified in the preanalytical phase. The human factor was responsible for the largest number of errors. Error reporting system has an important role in the error management and the reduction of transfusion-related risk of adverse events and incidents. The ongoing analysis reveals the strengths and weaknesses of the entire process and indicates the necessary changes. Errors in transfusion medicine can be avoided in a large percentage and prevention is cost-effective, systematic and applicable.
Frequency spectrum analyzer with phase-lock
Boland, Thomas J.
1984-01-01
A frequency-spectrum analyzer with phase-lock for analyzing the frequency and amplitude of an input signal is comprised of a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) which is driven by a ramp generator, and a phase error detector circuit. The phase error detector circuit measures the difference in phase between the VCO and the input signal, and drives the VCO locking it in phase momentarily with the input signal. The input signal and the output of the VCO are fed into a correlator which transfers the input signal to a frequency domain, while providing an accurate absolute amplitude measurement of each frequency component of the input signal.
He, Haijun; Shao, Liyang; Qian, Heng; Zhang, Xinpu; Liang, Jiawei; Luo, Bin; Pan, Wei; Yan, Lianshan
2017-03-20
A novel demodulation method for Sagnac loop interferometer based sensor has been proposed and demonstrated, by unwrapping the phase changes with birefringence interrogation. A temperature sensor based on Sagnac loop interferometer has been used to verify the feasibility of the proposed method. Several tests with 40 °C temperature range have been accomplished with a great linearity of 0.9996 in full range. The proposed scheme is universal for all Sagnac loop interferometer based sensors and it has unlimited linear measurable range which overwhelming the conventional demodulation method with peak/dip tracing. Furthermore, the influence of the wavelength sampling interval and wavelength span on the demodulation error has been discussed in this work. The proposed interrogation method has a great significance for Sagnac loop interferometer sensor and it might greatly enhance the availability of this type of sensors in practical application.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thelen, Brian J.; Paxman, Richard G.
1994-01-01
The method of phase diversity has been used in the context of incoherent imaging to estimate jointly an object that is being imaged and phase aberrations induced by atmospheric turbulence. The method requires a parametric model for the phase-aberration function. Typically, the parameters are coefficients to a finite set of basis functions. Care must be taken in selecting a parameterization that properly balances accuracy in the representation of the phase-aberration function with stability in the estimates. It is well known that over parameterization can result in unstable estimates. Thus a certain amount of model mismatch is often desirable. We derive expressions that quantify the bias and variance in object and aberration estimates as a function of parameter dimension.
Error begat error: design error analysis and prevention in social infrastructure projects.
Love, Peter E D; Lopez, Robert; Edwards, David J; Goh, Yang M
2012-09-01
Design errors contribute significantly to cost and schedule growth in social infrastructure projects and to engineering failures, which can result in accidents and loss of life. Despite considerable research that has addressed their error causation in construction projects they still remain prevalent. This paper identifies the underlying conditions that contribute to design errors in social infrastructure projects (e.g. hospitals, education, law and order type buildings). A systemic model of error causation is propagated and subsequently used to develop a learning framework for design error prevention. The research suggests that a multitude of strategies should be adopted in congruence to prevent design errors from occurring and so ensure that safety and project performance are ameliorated. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Ruiz, María Herrojo; Strübing, Felix; Jabusch, Hans-Christian; Altenmüller, Eckart
2011-04-15
Skilled performance requires the ability to monitor ongoing behavior, detect errors in advance and modify the performance accordingly. The acquisition of fast predictive mechanisms might be possible due to the extensive training characterizing expertise performance. Recent EEG studies on piano performance reported a negative event-related potential (ERP) triggered in the ACC 70 ms before performance errors (pitch errors due to incorrect keypress). This ERP component, termed pre-error related negativity (pre-ERN), was assumed to reflect processes of error detection in advance. However, some questions remained to be addressed: (i) Does the electrophysiological marker prior to errors reflect an error signal itself or is it related instead to the implementation of control mechanisms? (ii) Does the posterior frontomedial cortex (pFMC, including ACC) interact with other brain regions to implement control adjustments following motor prediction of an upcoming error? (iii) Can we gain insight into the electrophysiological correlates of error prediction and control by assessing the local neuronal synchronization and phase interaction among neuronal populations? (iv) Finally, are error detection and control mechanisms defective in pianists with musician's dystonia (MD), a focal task-specific dystonia resulting from dysfunction of the basal ganglia-thalamic-frontal circuits? Consequently, we investigated the EEG oscillatory and phase synchronization correlates of error detection and control during piano performances in healthy pianists and in a group of pianists with MD. In healthy pianists, the main outcomes were increased pre-error theta and beta band oscillations over the pFMC and 13-15 Hz phase synchronization, between the pFMC and the right lateral prefrontal cortex, which predicted corrective mechanisms. In MD patients, the pattern of phase synchronization appeared in a different frequency band (6-8 Hz) and correlated with the severity of the disorder. The present
Genetic mapping in the presence of genotyping errors.
Cartwright, Dustin A; Troggio, Michela; Velasco, Riccardo; Gutin, Alexander
2007-08-01
Genetic maps are built using the genotypes of many related individuals. Genotyping errors in these data sets can distort genetic maps, especially by inflating the distances. We have extended the traditional likelihood model used for genetic mapping to include the possibility of genotyping errors. Each individual marker is assigned an error rate, which is inferred from the data, just as the genetic distances are. We have developed a software package, called TMAP, which uses this model to find maximum-likelihood maps for phase-known pedigrees. We have tested our methods using a data set in Vitis and on simulated data and confirmed that our method dramatically reduces the inflationary effect caused by increasing the number of markers and leads to more accurate orders.
Genetic Mapping in the Presence of Genotyping Errors
Cartwright, Dustin A.; Troggio, Michela; Velasco, Riccardo; Gutin, Alexander
2007-01-01
Genetic maps are built using the genotypes of many related individuals. Genotyping errors in these data sets can distort genetic maps, especially by inflating the distances. We have extended the traditional likelihood model used for genetic mapping to include the possibility of genotyping errors. Each individual marker is assigned an error rate, which is inferred from the data, just as the genetic distances are. We have developed a software package, called TMAP, which uses this model to find maximum-likelihood maps for phase-known pedigrees. We have tested our methods using a data set in Vitis and on simulated data and confirmed that our method dramatically reduces the inflationary effect caused by increasing the number of markers and leads to more accurate orders. PMID:17277374
Exploring the initial steps of the testing process: frequency and nature of pre-preanalytic errors.
Carraro, Paolo; Zago, Tatiana; Plebani, Mario
2012-03-01
Few data are available on the nature of errors in the so-called pre-preanalytic phase, the initial steps of the testing process. We therefore sought to evaluate pre-preanalytic errors using a study design that enabled us to observe the initial procedures performed in the ward, from the physician's test request to the delivery of specimens in the clinical laboratory. After a 1-week direct observational phase designed to identify the operating procedures followed in 3 clinical wards, we recorded all nonconformities and errors occurring over a 6-month period. Overall, the study considered 8547 test requests, for which 15 917 blood sample tubes were collected and 52 982 tests undertaken. No significant differences in error rates were found between the observational phase and the overall study period, but underfilling of coagulation tubes was found to occur more frequently in the direct observational phase (P = 0.043). In the overall study period, the frequency of errors was found to be particularly high regarding order transmission [29 916 parts per million (ppm)] and hemolysed samples (2537 ppm). The frequency of patient misidentification was 352 ppm, and the most frequent nonconformities were test requests recorded in the diary without the patient's name and failure to check the patient's identity at the time of blood draw. The data collected in our study confirm the relative frequency of pre-preanalytic errors and underline the need to consensually prepare and adopt effective standard operating procedures in the initial steps of laboratory testing and to monitor compliance with these procedures over time.
Zhang, L.; Lu, Zhong; Ding, X.; Jung, H.-S.; Feng, G.; Lee, C.-W.
2012-01-01
Multi-temporal interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) is an effective tool to detect long-term seismotectonic motions by reducing the atmospheric artifacts, thereby providing more precise deformation signal. The commonly used approaches such as persistent scatterer InSAR (PSInSAR) and small baseline subset (SBAS) algorithms need to resolve the phase ambiguities in interferogram stacks either by searching a predefined solution space or by sparse phase unwrapping methods; however the efficiency and the success of phase unwrapping cannot be guaranteed. We present here an alternative approach – temporarily coherent point (TCP) InSAR (TCPInSAR) – to estimate the long term deformation rate without the need of phase unwrapping. The proposed approach has a series of innovations including TCP identification, TCP network and TCP least squares estimator. We apply the proposed method to the Los Angeles Basin in southern California where structurally active faults are believed capable of generating damaging earthquakes. The analysis is based on 55 interferograms from 32 ERS-1/2 images acquired during Oct. 1995 and Dec. 2000. To evaluate the performance of TCPInSAR on a small set of observations, a test with half of interferometric pairs is also performed. The retrieved TCPInSAR measurements have been validated by a comparison with GPS observations from Southern California Integrated GPS Network. Our result presents a similar deformation pattern as shown in past InSAR studies but with a smaller average standard deviation (4.6 mm) compared with GPS observations, indicating that TCPInSAR is a promising alternative for efficiently mapping ground deformation even from a relatively smaller set of interferograms.
Experiments and error analysis of laser ranging based on frequency-sweep polarization modulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Shuyuan; Ji, Rongyi; Li, Yao; Cheng, Zhi; Zhou, Weihu
2016-11-01
Frequency-sweep polarization modulation ranging uses a polarization-modulated laser beam to determine the distance to the target, the modulation frequency is swept and frequency values are measured when transmitted and received signals are in phase, thus the distance can be calculated through these values. This method gets much higher theoretical measuring accuracy than phase difference method because of the prevention of phase measurement. However, actual accuracy of the system is limited since additional phase retardation occurs in the measuring optical path when optical elements are imperfectly processed and installed. In this paper, working principle of frequency sweep polarization modulation ranging method is analyzed, transmission model of polarization state in light path is built based on the theory of Jones Matrix, additional phase retardation of λ/4 wave plate and PBS, their impact on measuring performance is analyzed. Theoretical results show that wave plate's azimuth error dominates the limitation of ranging accuracy. According to the system design index, element tolerance and error correcting method of system is proposed, ranging system is built and ranging experiment is performed. Experiential results show that with proposed tolerance, the system can satisfy the accuracy requirement. The present work has a guide value for further research about system design and error distribution.
Interferometric phase measurement techniques for coherent beam combining
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antier, Marie; Bourderionnet, Jérôme; Larat, Christian; Lallier, Eric; Primot, Jérôme; Brignon, Arnaud
2015-03-01
Coherent beam combining of fiber amplifiers provides an attractive mean of reaching high power laser. In an interferometric phase measurement the beams issued for each fiber combined are imaged onto a sensor and interfere with a reference plane wave. This registration of interference patterns on a camera allows the measurement of the exact phase error of each fiber beam in a single shot. Therefore, this method is a promising candidate toward very large number of combined fibers. Based on this technique, several architectures can be proposed to coherently combine a high number of fibers. The first one based on digital holography transfers directly the image of the camera to spatial light modulator (SLM). The generated hologram is used to compensate the phase errors induced by the amplifiers. This architecture has therefore a collective phase measurement and correction. Unlike previous digital holography technique, the probe beams measuring the phase errors between the fibers are co-propagating with the phase-locked signal beams. This architecture is compatible with the use of multi-stage isolated amplifying fibers. In that case, only 20 pixels per fiber on the SLM are needed to obtain a residual phase shift error below λ/10rms. The second proposed architecture calculates the correction applied to each fiber channel by tracking the relative position of the interference finges. In this case, a phase modulator is placed on each channel. In that configuration, only 8 pixels per fiber on the camera is required for a stable close loop operation with a residual phase error of λ/20rms, which demonstrates the scalability of this concept.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Meisaku; Kanno, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Sotobayashi, Hideyuki
2016-02-01
The effects of in-phase/quadrature-phase (IQ) imbalances are evaluated with a direct IQ down-converter in the W-band (75-110 GHz). The IQ imbalance of the converter is measured within a range of +/-10 degrees in an intermediate frequency of DC-26.5 GHz. 1-8-G-baud quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) signals are transmitted successfully with observed bit error rates within a forward error correction limit of 2×10-3 using radio over fiber (RoF) techniques. The direct down-conversion technique is applicable to next-generation high-speed wireless access communication systems in the millimeter-wave band.
Gamma model and its analysis for phase measuring profilometry.
Liu, Kai; Wang, Yongchang; Lau, Daniel L; Hao, Qi; Hassebrook, Laurence G
2010-03-01
Phase measuring profilometry is a method of structured light illumination whose three-dimensional reconstructions are susceptible to error from nonunitary gamma in the associated optical devices. While the effects of this distortion diminish with an increasing number of employed phase-shifted patterns, gamma distortion may be unavoidable in real-time systems where the number of projected patterns is limited by the presence of target motion. A mathematical model is developed for predicting the effects of nonunitary gamma on phase measuring profilometry, while also introducing an accurate gamma calibration method and two strategies for minimizing gamma's effect on phase determination. These phase correction strategies include phase corrections with and without gamma calibration. With the reduction in noise, for three-step phase measuring profilometry, analysis of the root mean squared error of the corrected phase will show a 60x reduction in phase error when the proposed gamma calibration is performed versus 33x reduction without calibration.
Long-term care physical environments--effect on medication errors.
Mahmood, Atiya; Chaudhury, Habib; Gaumont, Alana; Rust, Tiana
2012-01-01
Few studies examine physical environmental factors and their effects on staff health, effectiveness, work errors and job satisfaction. To address this gap, this study aims to examine environmental features and their role in medication and nursing errors in long-term care facilities. A mixed methodological strategy was used. Data were collected via focus groups, observing medication preparation and administration, and a nursing staff survey in four facilities. The paper reveals that, during the medication preparation phase, physical design, such as medication room layout, is a major source of potential errors. During medication administration, social environment is more likely to contribute to errors. Interruptions, noise and staff shortages were particular problems. The survey's relatively small sample size needs to be considered when interpreting the findings. Also, actual error data could not be included as existing records were incomplete. The study offers several relatively low-cost recommendations to help staff reduce medication errors. Physical environmental factors are important when addressing measures to reduce errors. The findings of this study underscore the fact that the physical environment's influence on the possibility of medication errors is often neglected. This study contributes to the scarce empirical literature examining the relationship between physical design and patient safety.
Luu, Phan; Tucker, Don M; Makeig, Scott
2004-08-01
The error-related negativity (ERN) is an event-related potential (ERP) peak occurring between 50 and 100 ms after the commission of a speeded motor response that the subject immediately realizes to be in error. The ERN is believed to index brain processes that monitor action outcomes. Our previous analyses of ERP and EEG data suggested that the ERN is dominated by partial phase-locking of intermittent theta-band EEG activity. In this paper, this possibility is further evaluated. The possibility that the ERN is produced by phase-locking of theta-band EEG activity was examined by analyzing the single-trial EEG traces from a forced-choice speeded response paradigm before and after applying theta-band (4-7 Hz) filtering and by comparing the averaged and single-trial phase-locked (ERP) and non-phase-locked (other) EEG data. Electrical source analyses were used to estimate the brain sources involved in the generation of the ERN. Beginning just before incorrect button presses in a speeded choice response paradigm, midfrontal theta-band activity increased in amplitude and became partially and transiently phase-locked to the subject's motor response, accounting for 57% of ERN peak amplitude. The portion of the theta-EEG activity increase remaining after subtracting the response-locked ERP from each trial was larger and longer lasting after error responses than after correct responses, extending on average 400 ms beyond the ERN peak. Multiple equivalent-dipole source analysis suggested 3 possible equivalent dipole sources of the theta-bandpassed ERN, while the scalp distribution of non-phase-locked theta amplitude suggested the presence of additional frontal theta-EEG sources. These results appear consistent with a body of research that demonstrates a relationship between limbic theta activity and action regulation, including error monitoring and learning.
Schultze, A E; Irizarry, A R
2017-02-01
Veterinary clinical pathologists are well positioned via education and training to assist in investigations of unexpected results or increased variation in clinical pathology data. Errors in testing and unexpected variability in clinical pathology data are sometimes referred to as "laboratory errors." These alterations may occur in the preanalytical, analytical, or postanalytical phases of studies. Most of the errors or variability in clinical pathology data occur in the preanalytical or postanalytical phases. True analytical errors occur within the laboratory and are usually the result of operator or instrument error. Analytical errors are often ≤10% of all errors in diagnostic testing, and the frequency of these types of errors has decreased in the last decade. Analytical errors and increased data variability may result from instrument malfunctions, inability to follow proper procedures, undetected failures in quality control, sample misidentification, and/or test interference. This article (1) illustrates several different types of analytical errors and situations within laboratories that may result in increased variability in data, (2) provides recommendations regarding prevention of testing errors and techniques to control variation, and (3) provides a list of references that describe and advise how to deal with increased data variability.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kojima, Yosuke; Shirasaki, Masanori; Chiba, Kazuaki; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Inazuki, Yukio; Yoshikawa, Hiroki; Okazaki, Satoshi; Iwase, Kazuya; Ishikawa, Kiichi; Ozawa, Ken
2007-05-01
For 45 nm node and beyond, the alternating phase-shift mask (alt. PSM), one of the most expected resolution enhancement technologies (RET) because of its high image contrast and small mask error enhancement factor (MEEF), and the binary mask (BIM) attract attention. Reducing CD and registration errors and defect are their critical issues. As the solution, the new blank for alt. PSM and BIM is developed. The top film of new blank is thin Cr, and the antireflection film and shielding film composed of MoSi are deposited under the Cr film. The mask CD performance is evaluated for through pitch, CD linearity, CD uniformity, global loading, resolution and pattern fidelity, and the blank performance is evaluated for optical density, reflectivity, sheet resistance, flatness and defect level. It is found that the performance of new blank is equal to or better than that of conventional blank in all items. The mask CD performance shows significant improvement. The lithography performance of new blank is confirmed by wafer printing and AIMS measurement. The full dry type alt. PSM has been used as test plate, and the test results show that new blank can almost meet the specifications of pi-0 CD difference, CD uniformity and process margin for 45 nm node. Additionally, the new blank shows the better pattern fidelity than that of conventional blank on wafer. AIMS results are almost same as wafer results except for the narrowest pattern. Considering the result above, this new blank can reduce the mask error factors of alt. PSM and BIM for 45 nm node and beyond.
Review of Pre-Analytical Errors in Oral Glucose Tolerance Testing in a Tertiary Care Hospital.
Nanda, Rachita; Patel, Suprava; Sahoo, Sibashish; Mohapatra, Eli
2018-03-13
The pre-pre-analytical and pre-analytical phases form a major chunk of the errors in a laboratory. The process has taken into consideration a very common procedure which is the oral glucose tolerance test to identify the pre-pre-analytical errors. Quality indicators provide evidence of quality, support accountability and help in the decision making of laboratory personnel. The aim of this research is to evaluate pre-analytical performance of the oral glucose tolerance test procedure. An observational study that was conducted overa period of three months, in the phlebotomy and accessioning unit of our laboratory using questionnaire that examined the pre-pre-analytical errors through a scoring system. The pre-analytical phase was analyzed for each sample collected as per seven quality indicators. About 25% of the population gave wrong answer with regard to the question that tested the knowledge of patient preparation. The appropriateness of test result QI-1 had the most error. Although QI-5 for sample collection had a low error rate, it is a very important indicator as any wrongly collected sample can alter the test result. Evaluating the pre-analytical and pre-pre-analytical phase is essential and must be conducted routinely on a yearly basis to identify errors and take corrective action and to facilitate their gradual introduction into routine practice.
Errors, error detection, error correction and hippocampal-region damage: data and theories.
MacKay, Donald G; Johnson, Laura W
2013-11-01
This review and perspective article outlines 15 observational constraints on theories of errors, error detection, and error correction, and their relation to hippocampal-region (HR) damage. The core observations come from 10 studies with H.M., an amnesic with cerebellar and HR damage but virtually no neocortical damage. Three studies examined the detection of errors planted in visual scenes (e.g., a bird flying in a fish bowl in a school classroom) and sentences (e.g., I helped themselves to the birthday cake). In all three experiments, H.M. detected reliably fewer errors than carefully matched memory-normal controls. Other studies examined the detection and correction of self-produced errors, with controls for comprehension of the instructions, impaired visual acuity, temporal factors, motoric slowing, forgetting, excessive memory load, lack of motivation, and deficits in visual scanning or attention. In these studies, H.M. corrected reliably fewer errors than memory-normal and cerebellar controls, and his uncorrected errors in speech, object naming, and reading aloud exhibited two consistent features: omission and anomaly. For example, in sentence production tasks, H.M. omitted one or more words in uncorrected encoding errors that rendered his sentences anomalous (incoherent, incomplete, or ungrammatical) reliably more often than controls. Besides explaining these core findings, the theoretical principles discussed here explain H.M.'s retrograde amnesia for once familiar episodic and semantic information; his anterograde amnesia for novel information; his deficits in visual cognition, sentence comprehension, sentence production, sentence reading, and object naming; and effects of aging on his ability to read isolated low frequency words aloud. These theoretical principles also explain a wide range of other data on error detection and correction and generate new predictions for future test. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Error threshold for color codes and random three-body Ising models.
Katzgraber, Helmut G; Bombin, H; Martin-Delgado, M A
2009-08-28
We study the error threshold of color codes, a class of topological quantum codes that allow a direct implementation of quantum Clifford gates suitable for entanglement distillation, teleportation, and fault-tolerant quantum computation. We map the error-correction process onto a statistical mechanical random three-body Ising model and study its phase diagram via Monte Carlo simulations. The obtained error threshold of p(c) = 0.109(2) is very close to that of Kitaev's toric code, showing that enhanced computational capabilities do not necessarily imply lower resistance to noise.
Detection and avoidance of errors in computer software
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kinsler, Les
1989-01-01
The acceptance test errors of a computer software project to determine if the errors could be detected or avoided in earlier phases of development. GROAGSS (Gamma Ray Observatory Attitude Ground Support System) was selected as the software project to be examined. The development of the software followed the standard Flight Dynamics Software Development methods. GROAGSS was developed between August 1985 and April 1989. The project is approximately 250,000 lines of code of which approximately 43,000 lines are reused from previous projects. GROAGSS had a total of 1715 Change Report Forms (CRFs) submitted during the entire development and testing. These changes contained 936 errors. Of these 936 errors, 374 were found during the acceptance testing. These acceptance test errors were first categorized into methods of avoidance including: more clearly written requirements; detail review; code reading; structural unit testing; and functional system integration testing. The errors were later broken down in terms of effort to detect and correct, class of error, and probability that the prescribed detection method would be successful. These determinations were based on Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) documents and interviews with the project programmers. A summary of the results of the categorizations is presented. The number of programming errors at the beginning of acceptance testing can be significantly reduced. The results of the existing development methodology are examined for ways of improvements. A basis is provided for the definition is a new development/testing paradigm. Monitoring of the new scheme will objectively determine its effectiveness on avoiding and detecting errors.
Absolute vs. relative error characterization of electromagnetic tracking accuracy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matinfar, Mohammad; Narayanasamy, Ganesh; Gutierrez, Luis; Chan, Raymond; Jain, Ameet
2010-02-01
Electromagnetic (EM) tracking systems are often used for real time navigation of medical tools in an Image Guided Therapy (IGT) system. They are specifically advantageous when the medical device requires tracking within the body of a patient where line of sight constraints prevent the use of conventional optical tracking. EM tracking systems are however very sensitive to electromagnetic field distortions. These distortions, arising from changes in the electromagnetic environment due to the presence of conductive ferromagnetic surgical tools or other medical equipment, limit the accuracy of EM tracking, in some cases potentially rendering tracking data unusable. We present a mapping method for the operating region over which EM tracking sensors are used, allowing for characterization of measurement errors, in turn providing physicians with visual feedback about measurement confidence or reliability of localization estimates. In this instance, we employ a calibration phantom to assess distortion within the operating field of the EM tracker and to display in real time the distribution of measurement errors, as well as the location and extent of the field associated with minimal spatial distortion. The accuracy is assessed relative to successive measurements. Error is computed for a reference point and consecutive measurement errors are displayed relative to the reference in order to characterize the accuracy in near-real-time. In an initial set-up phase, the phantom geometry is calibrated by registering the data from a multitude of EM sensors in a non-ferromagnetic ("clean") EM environment. The registration results in the locations of sensors with respect to each other and defines the geometry of the sensors in the phantom. In a measurement phase, the position and orientation data from all sensors are compared with the known geometry of the sensor spacing, and localization errors (displacement and orientation) are computed. Based on error thresholds provided by the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Y.; Zimmermann, E.; Huisman, J. A.; Treichel, A.; Wolters, B.; van Waasen, S.; Kemna, A.
2012-12-01
Spectral Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) allows obtaining images of the complex electrical conductivity for a broad frequency range (mHz to kHz). It has recently received increased interest in the field of near-surface geophysics and hydrogeophysics because of the relationships between complex electrical properties and hydrogeological and biogeochemical properties and processes observed in the laboratory with Spectral Induced Polarization (SIP). However, these laboratory results have also indicated that a high phase accuracy is required for surface and borehole EIT measurements because many soils and sediments are only weakly polarizable and show phase angles between 1 and 20 mrad. In the case of borehole EIT measurements, long cables and electrode chains (>10 meters) are typically used, which leads to undesired inductive coupling between the electric loops for current injection and potential measurement and capacitive coupling between the electrically conductive cable shielding and the soil. Depending on the electrical properties of the subsurface and the measured transfer impedances, both coupling effects can cause large phase errors that have typically limited the frequency bandwidth of field EIT measurement to the mHz to Hz range. The aim of this study is i) to develop correction procedures for these coupling effects to extend the applicability of EIT to the kHz range and ii) to validate these corrections using controlled laboratory measurements and field measurements. In order to do so, the inductive coupling effect was modeled using electronic circuit models and the capacitive coupling effect was modeled by integrating discrete capacitances in the electrical forward model describing the EIT measurement process. The correction methods were successfully verified with measurements under controlled conditions in a water-filled rain barrel, where a high phase accuracy of 2 mrad in the frequency range up to 10 kHz was achieved. In a field demonstration using
Analysis on the dynamic error for optoelectronic scanning coordinate measurement network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Shendong; Yang, Linghui; Lin, Jiarui; Guo, Siyang; Ren, Yongjie
2018-01-01
Large-scale dynamic three-dimension coordinate measurement technique is eagerly demanded in equipment manufacturing. Noted for advantages of high accuracy, scale expandability and multitask parallel measurement, optoelectronic scanning measurement network has got close attention. It is widely used in large components jointing, spacecraft rendezvous and docking simulation, digital shipbuilding and automated guided vehicle navigation. At present, most research about optoelectronic scanning measurement network is focused on static measurement capacity and research about dynamic accuracy is insufficient. Limited by the measurement principle, the dynamic error is non-negligible and restricts the application. The workshop measurement and positioning system is a representative which can realize dynamic measurement function in theory. In this paper we conduct deep research on dynamic error resources and divide them two parts: phase error and synchronization error. Dynamic error model is constructed. Based on the theory above, simulation about dynamic error is carried out. Dynamic error is quantized and the rule of volatility and periodicity has been found. Dynamic error characteristics are shown in detail. The research result lays foundation for further accuracy improvement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huo, Ming-Xia; Li, Ying
2017-12-01
Quantum error correction is important to quantum information processing, which allows us to reliably process information encoded in quantum error correction codes. Efficient quantum error correction benefits from the knowledge of error rates. We propose a protocol for monitoring error rates in real time without interrupting the quantum error correction. Any adaptation of the quantum error correction code or its implementation circuit is not required. The protocol can be directly applied to the most advanced quantum error correction techniques, e.g. surface code. A Gaussian processes algorithm is used to estimate and predict error rates based on error correction data in the past. We find that using these estimated error rates, the probability of error correction failures can be significantly reduced by a factor increasing with the code distance.
Quantizing and sampling considerations in digital phased-locked loops
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hurst, G. T.; Gupta, S. C.
1974-01-01
The quantizer problem is first considered. The conditions under which the uniform white sequence model for the quantizer error is valid are established independent of the sampling rate. An equivalent spectral density is defined for the quantizer error resulting in an effective SNR value. This effective SNR may be used to determine quantized performance from infinitely fine quantized results. Attention is given to sampling rate considerations. Sampling rate characteristics of the digital phase-locked loop (DPLL) structure are investigated for the infinitely fine quantized system. The predicted phase error variance equation is examined as a function of the sampling rate. Simulation results are presented and a method is described which enables the minimum required sampling rate to be determined from the predicted phase error variance equations.
Impact of Feedback on Three Phases of Performance Monitoring
Appelgren, Alva; Penny, William; Bengtsson, Sara L
2013-01-01
We investigated if certain phases of performance monitoring show differential sensitivity to external feedback and thus rely on distinct mechanisms. The phases of interest were: the error phase (FE), the phase of the correct response after errors (FEC), and the phase of correct responses following corrects (FCC). We tested accuracy and reaction time (RT) on 12 conditions of a continuous-choice-response task; the 2-back task. External feedback was either presented or not in FE and FEC, and delivered on 0%, 20%, or 100% of FCC trials. The FCC20 was matched to FE and FEC in the number of sounds received so that we could investigate when external feedback was most valuable to the participants. We found that external feedback led to a reduction in accuracy when presented on all the correct responses. Moreover, RT was significantly reduced for FCC100, which in turn correlated with the accuracy reduction. Interestingly, the correct response after an error was particularly sensitive to external feedback since accuracy was reduced when external feedback was presented during this phase but not for FCC20. Notably, error-monitoring was not influenced by feedback-type. The results are in line with models suggesting that the internal error-monitoring system is sufficient in cognitively demanding tasks where performance is ∼ 80%, as well as theories stipulating that external feedback directs attention away from the task. Our data highlight the first correct response after an error as particularly sensitive to external feedback, suggesting that important consolidation of response strategy takes place here. PMID:24217138
Error and Error Mitigation in Low-Coverage Genome Assemblies
Hubisz, Melissa J.; Lin, Michael F.; Kellis, Manolis; Siepel, Adam
2011-01-01
The recent release of twenty-two new genome sequences has dramatically increased the data available for mammalian comparative genomics, but twenty of these new sequences are currently limited to ∼2× coverage. Here we examine the extent of sequencing error in these 2× assemblies, and its potential impact in downstream analyses. By comparing 2× assemblies with high-quality sequences from the ENCODE regions, we estimate the rate of sequencing error to be 1–4 errors per kilobase. While this error rate is fairly modest, sequencing error can still have surprising effects. For example, an apparent lineage-specific insertion in a coding region is more likely to reflect sequencing error than a true biological event, and the length distribution of coding indels is strongly distorted by error. We find that most errors are contributed by a small fraction of bases with low quality scores, in particular, by the ends of reads in regions of single-read coverage in the assembly. We explore several approaches for automatic sequencing error mitigation (SEM), making use of the localized nature of sequencing error, the fact that it is well predicted by quality scores, and information about errors that comes from comparisons across species. Our automatic methods for error mitigation cannot replace the need for additional sequencing, but they do allow substantial fractions of errors to be masked or eliminated at the cost of modest amounts of over-correction, and they can reduce the impact of error in downstream phylogenomic analyses. Our error-mitigated alignments are available for download. PMID:21340033
Optimum projection pattern generation for grey-level coded structured light illumination systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Porras-Aguilar, Rosario; Falaggis, Konstantinos; Ramos-Garcia, Ruben
2017-04-01
Structured light illumination (SLI) systems are well-established optical inspection techniques for noncontact 3D surface measurements. A common technique is multi-frequency sinusoidal SLI that obtains the phase map at various fringe periods in order to estimate the absolute phase, and hence, the 3D surface information. Nevertheless, multi-frequency SLI systems employ multiple measurement planes (e.g. four phase shifted frames) to obtain the phase at a given fringe period. It is therefore an age old challenge to obtain the absolute surface information using fewer measurement frames. Grey level (GL) coding techniques have been developed as an attempt to reduce the number of planes needed, because a spatio-temporal GL sequence employing p discrete grey-levels and m frames has the potential to unwrap up to pm fringes. Nevertheless, one major disadvantage of GL based SLI techniques is that there are often errors near the border of each stripe, because an ideal stepwise intensity change cannot be measured. If the step-change in intensity is a single discrete grey-level unit, this problem can usually be overcome by applying an appropriate threshold. However, severe errors occur if the intensity change at the border of the stripe exceeds several discrete grey-level units. In this work, an optimum GL based technique is presented that generates a series of projection patterns with a minimal gradient in the intensity. It is shown that when using this technique, the errors near the border of the stripes can be significantly reduced. This improvement is achieved with the choice generated patterns, and does not involve additional hardware or special post-processing techniques. The performance of that method is validated using both simulations and experiments. The reported technique is generic, works with an arbitrary number of frames, and can employ an arbitrary number of grey-levels.
Multi-temporal InSAR measurement of interseimic motion on the eastern Tibet border
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doin, M. P.; Lasserre, C.; He, P.; de Sigoyer, J.
2014-12-01
We use here SAR interferometry using archived Envisat data to map the interseismic deformation of eastern Tibet. The area under study starts just South of the Haiyuan fault, crosses the eastern termination of the Kunlun fault and the bend on the XianShuiHe fault to the South. It includes the Longriba fault system, an active structure located 150 km west of the Longmen Shan front (Xu et al., 2008, Ren et al., 2013). GPS data suggest that it may accommodate a large part of the present-day relative movement (6-8 mm/yr) between the Aba block and the south China block (Thatcher, 2007, Shen et al 2005). The Longriba and the Longmen Shan faults might be linked at depth by a decollement zone or by ductile shear in the crust (Shu et al., 2008). We process three adjacent Envisat 1000 km long swaths crossing this mountainous and vegetated terrain using a small baseline strategy. The interferograms show numerous phase perturbations that mask the interseismic motion due to : (1) coherence loss, (2) stratified atmospheric delays, (3) DEM error contribution, (4) the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. We will show how we tackle these limitations and display the effect of successive corrections. Focus will first be brought to the corrections applied before filtering and unwrapping, that increase phase spatial continuity. We estimate empirically stratified atmospheric delay polynomial relationship, depending on azimuth and elevation, on wrapped interferograms. We then estimate the local DEM error for each pixel. Multi-looking and filtering are based on various measures of pixel reliability in order to increase the signal to noise ratio of filtered interferograms. Finally, unwrapping is obtained by a region growing algorithm, from the most reliable areas to the least, avoiding to cross layover areas. Time series of phase delay maps in the Longriba area are dominated by a side lobe of the May 2008 Sichuan earthquake. After its extraction and correction, principal component analysis clearly
Distributed phased array architecture study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bourgeois, Brian
1987-01-01
Variations in amplifiers and phase shifters can cause degraded antenna performance, depending also on the environmental conditions and antenna array architecture. The implementation of distributed phased array hardware was studied with the aid of the DISTAR computer program as a simulation tool. This simulation provides guidance in hardware simulation. Both hard and soft failures of the amplifiers in the T/R modules are modeled. Hard failures are catastrophic: no power is transmitted to the antenna elements. Noncatastrophic or soft failures are modeled as a modified Gaussian distribution. The resulting amplitude characteristics then determine the array excitation coefficients. The phase characteristics take on a uniform distribution. Pattern characteristics such as antenna gain, half power beamwidth, mainbeam phase errors, sidelobe levels, and beam pointing errors were studied as functions of amplifier and phase shifter variations. General specifications for amplifier and phase shifter tolerances in various architecture configurations for C band and S band were determined.
Combined Henyey-Greenstein and Rayleigh phase function.
Liu, Quanhua; Weng, Fuzhong
2006-10-01
The phase function is an important parameter that affects the distribution of scattered radiation. In Rayleigh scattering, a scatterer is approximated by a dipole, and its phase function is analytically related to the scattering angle. For the Henyey-Greenstein (HG) approximation, the phase function preserves only the correct asymmetry factor (i.e., the first moment), which is essentially important for anisotropic scattering. When the HG function is applied to small particles, it produces a significant error in radiance. In addition, the HG function is applied only for an intensity radiative transfer. We develop a combined HG and Rayleigh (HG-Rayleigh) phase function. The HG phase function plays the role of modulator extending the application of the Rayleigh phase function for small asymmetry scattering. The HG-Rayleigh phase function guarantees the correct asymmetry factor and is valid for a polarization radiative transfer. It approaches the Rayleigh phase function for small particles. Thus the HG-Rayleigh phase function has wider applications for both intensity and polarimetric radiative transfers. For microwave radiative transfer modeling in this study, the largest errors in the brightness temperature calculations for weak asymmetry scattering are generally below 0.02 K by using the HG-Rayleigh phase function. The errors can be much larger, in the 1-3 K range, if the Rayleigh and HG functions are applied separately.
An active co-phasing imaging testbed with segmented mirrors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Weirui; Cao, Genrui
2011-06-01
An active co-phasing imaging testbed with high accurate optical adjustment and control in nanometer scale was set up to validate the algorithms of piston and tip-tilt error sensing and real-time adjusting. Modularization design was adopted. The primary mirror was spherical and divided into three sub-mirrors. One of them was fixed and worked as reference segment, the others were adjustable respectively related to the fixed segment in three freedoms (piston, tip and tilt) by using sensitive micro-displacement actuators in the range of 15mm with a resolution of 3nm. The method of twodimension dispersed fringe analysis was used to sense the piston error between the adjacent segments in the range of 200μm with a repeatability of 2nm. And the tip-tilt error was gained with the method of centroid sensing. Co-phasing image could be realized by correcting the errors measured above with the sensitive micro-displacement actuators driven by a computer. The process of co-phasing error sensing and correcting could be monitored in real time by a scrutiny module set in this testbed. A FISBA interferometer was introduced to evaluate the co-phasing performance, and finally a total residual surface error of about 50nm rms was achieved.
Bilotti, Katharina; Kennedy, Erin E; Li, Chuxuan; Delaney, Sarah
2017-11-01
If unrepaired, damage to genomic DNA can cause mutations and/or be cytotoxic. Single base lesions are repaired via the base excision repair (BER) pathway. The first step in BER is the recognition and removal of the nucleobase lesion by a glycosylase enzyme. For example, human oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (hOGG1) is responsible for removal of the prototypic oxidatively damaged nucleobase, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG). To date, most studies of glycosylases have used free duplex DNA substrates. However, cellular DNA is packaged as repeating nucleosome units, with 145 base pair segments of DNA wrapped around histone protein octamers. Previous studies revealed inhibition of hOGG1 at the nucleosome dyad axis and in the absence of chromatin remodelers. In this study, we reveal that even in the absence of chromatin remodelers or external cofactors, hOGG1 can initiate BER at positions off the dyad axis and that this activity is facilitated by spontaneous and transient unwrapping of DNA from the histones. Additionally, we find that solution accessibility as determined by hydroxyl radical footprinting is not fully predictive of glycosylase activity and that histone tails can suppress hOGG1 activity. We therefore suggest that local nuances in the nucleosome environment and histone-DNA interactions can impact glycosylase activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Unforced errors and error reduction in tennis
Brody, H
2006-01-01
Only at the highest level of tennis is the number of winners comparable to the number of unforced errors. As the average player loses many more points due to unforced errors than due to winners by an opponent, if the rate of unforced errors can be reduced, it should lead to an increase in points won. This article shows how players can improve their game by understanding and applying the laws of physics to reduce the number of unforced errors. PMID:16632568
On higher order discrete phase-locked loops.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gill, G. S.; Gupta, S. C.
1972-01-01
An exact mathematical model is developed for a discrete loop of a general order particularly suitable for digital computation. The deterministic response of the loop to the phase step and the frequency step is investigated. The design of the digital filter for the second-order loop is considered. Use is made of the incremental phase plane to study the phase error behavior of the loop. The model of the noisy loop is derived and the optimization of the loop filter for minimum mean-square error is considered.
Evaluation of analytical errors in a clinical chemistry laboratory: a 3 year experience.
Sakyi, As; Laing, Ef; Ephraim, Rk; Asibey, Of; Sadique, Ok
2015-01-01
Proficient laboratory service is the cornerstone of modern healthcare systems and has an impact on over 70% of medical decisions on admission, discharge, and medications. In recent years, there is an increasing awareness of the importance of errors in laboratory practice and their possible negative impact on patient outcomes. We retrospectively analyzed data spanning a period of 3 years on analytical errors observed in our laboratory. The data covered errors over the whole testing cycle including pre-, intra-, and post-analytical phases and discussed strategies pertinent to our settings to minimize their occurrence. We described the occurrence of pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical errors observed at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital clinical biochemistry laboratory during a 3-year period from January, 2010 to December, 2012. Data were analyzed with Graph Pad Prism 5(GraphPad Software Inc. CA USA). A total of 589,510 tests was performed on 188,503 outpatients and hospitalized patients. The overall error rate for the 3 years was 4.7% (27,520/58,950). Pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical errors contributed 3.7% (2210/58,950), 0.1% (108/58,950), and 0.9% (512/58,950), respectively. The number of tests reduced significantly over the 3-year period, but this did not correspond with a reduction in the overall error rate (P = 0.90) along with the years. Analytical errors are embedded within our total process setup especially pre-analytical and post-analytical phases. Strategic measures including quality assessment programs for staff involved in pre-analytical processes should be intensified.
Phase Distribution and Selection of Partially Correlated Persistent Scatterers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lien, J.; Zebker, H. A.
2012-12-01
Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) time-series methods can effectively estimate temporal surface changes induced by geophysical phenomena. However, such methods are susceptible to decorrelation due to spatial and temporal baselines (radar pass separation), changes in orbital geometries, atmosphere, and noise. These effects limit the number of interferograms that can be used for differential analysis and obscure the deformation signal. InSAR decorrelation effects may be ameliorated by exploiting pixels that exhibit phase stability across the stack of interferograms. These so-called persistent scatterer (PS) pixels are dominated by a single point-like scatterer that remains phase-stable over the spatial and temporal baseline. By identifying a network of PS pixels for use in phase unwrapping, reliable deformation measurements may be obtained even in areas of low correlation, where traditional InSAR techniques fail to produce useful observations. Many additional pixels can be added to the PS list if we are able to identify those in which a dominant scatterer exhibits partial, rather than complete, correlation across all radar scenes. In this work, we quantify and exploit the phase stability of partially correlated PS pixels. We present a new system model for producing interferometric pixel values from a complex surface backscatter function characterized by signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR). From this model, we derive the joint probabilistic distribution for PS pixel phases in a stack of interferograms as a function of SCR and spatial baselines. This PS phase distribution generalizes previous results that assume the clutter phase contribution is uncorrelated between radar passes. We verify the analytic distribution through a series of radar scattering simulations. We use the derived joint PS phase distribution with maximum-likelihood SCR estimation to analyze an area of the Hayward Fault Zone in the San Francisco Bay Area. We obtain a series of 38
Theta Coordinated Error-Driven Learning in the Hippocampus
Ketz, Nicholas; Morkonda, Srinimisha G.; O'Reilly, Randall C.
2013-01-01
The learning mechanism in the hippocampus has almost universally been assumed to be Hebbian in nature, where individual neurons in an engram join together with synaptic weight increases to support facilitated recall of memories later. However, it is also widely known that Hebbian learning mechanisms impose significant capacity constraints, and are generally less computationally powerful than learning mechanisms that take advantage of error signals. We show that the differential phase relationships of hippocampal subfields within the overall theta rhythm enable a powerful form of error-driven learning, which results in significantly greater capacity, as shown in computer simulations. In one phase of the theta cycle, the bidirectional connectivity between CA1 and entorhinal cortex can be trained in an error-driven fashion to learn to effectively encode the cortical inputs in a compact and sparse form over CA1. In a subsequent portion of the theta cycle, the system attempts to recall an existing memory, via the pathway from entorhinal cortex to CA3 and CA1. Finally the full theta cycle completes when a strong target encoding representation of the current input is imposed onto the CA1 via direct projections from entorhinal cortex. The difference between this target encoding and the attempted recall of the same representation on CA1 constitutes an error signal that can drive the learning of CA3 to CA1 synapses. This CA3 to CA1 pathway is critical for enabling full reinstatement of recalled hippocampal memories out in cortex. Taken together, these new learning dynamics enable a much more robust, high-capacity model of hippocampal learning than was available previously under the classical Hebbian model. PMID:23762019
Detailed analysis of an optimized FPP-based 3D imaging system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tran, Dat; Thai, Anh; Duong, Kiet; Nguyen, Thanh; Nehmetallah, Georges
2016-05-01
In this paper, we present detail analysis and a step-by-step implementation of an optimized fringe projection profilometry (FPP) based 3D shape measurement system. First, we propose a multi-frequency and multi-phase shifting sinusoidal fringe pattern reconstruction approach to increase accuracy and sensitivity of the system. Second, phase error compensation caused by the nonlinear transfer function of the projector and camera is performed through polynomial approximation. Third, phase unwrapping is performed using spatial and temporal techniques and the tradeoff between processing speed and high accuracy is discussed in details. Fourth, generalized camera and system calibration are developed for phase to real world coordinate transformation. The calibration coefficients are estimated accurately using a reference plane and several gauge blocks with precisely known heights and by employing a nonlinear least square fitting method. Fifth, a texture will be attached to the height profile by registering a 2D real photo to the 3D height map. The last step is to perform 3D image fusion and registration using an iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm for a full field of view reconstruction. The system is experimentally constructed using compact, portable, and low cost off-the-shelf components. A MATLAB® based GUI is developed to control and synchronize the whole system.
K-space data processing for magnetic resonance elastography (MRE).
Corbin, Nadège; Breton, Elodie; de Mathelin, Michel; Vappou, Jonathan
2017-04-01
Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) requires substantial data processing based on phase image reconstruction, wave enhancement, and inverse problem solving. The objective of this study is to propose a new, fast MRE method based on MR raw data processing, particularly adapted to applications requiring fast MRE measurement or high elastogram update rate. The proposed method allows measuring tissue elasticity directly from raw data without prior phase image reconstruction and without phase unwrapping. Experimental feasibility is assessed both in a gelatin phantom and in the liver of a porcine model in vivo. Elastograms are reconstructed with the raw MRE method and compared to those obtained using conventional MRE. In a third experiment, changes in elasticity are monitored in real-time in a gelatin phantom during its solidification by using both conventional MRE and raw MRE. The raw MRE method shows promising results by providing similar elasticity values to the ones obtained with conventional MRE methods while decreasing the number of processing steps and circumventing the delicate step of phase unwrapping. Limitations of the proposed method are the influence of the magnitude on the elastogram and the requirement for a minimum number of phase offsets. This study demonstrates the feasibility of directly reconstructing elastograms from raw data.
Correction of motion measurement errors beyond the range resolution of a synthetic aperture radar
Doerry, Armin W [Albuquerque, NM; Heard, Freddie E [Albuquerque, NM; Cordaro, J Thomas [Albuquerque, NM
2008-06-24
Motion measurement errors that extend beyond the range resolution of a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can be corrected by effectively decreasing the range resolution of the SAR in order to permit measurement of the error. Range profiles can be compared across the slow-time dimension of the input data in order to estimate the error. Once the error has been determined, appropriate frequency and phase correction can be applied to the uncompressed input data, after which range and azimuth compression can be performed to produce a desired SAR image.
Phase jitter in a differential phase experiment.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tanenbaum, B. S.; Connolly, D. J.; Austin, G. L.
1973-01-01
Austin (1971) had concluded that, because of the 'phase jitter,' the differential phase experiment is useful over a more limited height range than the differential absorption experiment. Several observations are presented to show that this conclusion is premature. It is pointed out that the logical basis of the differential absorption experiment also requires that the O- and X-mode echoes, at a given time, come from the same irregularities. Austin's calculations are believed to contain a systematic error above 80 km.
Challenge and Error: Critical Events and Attention-Related Errors
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cheyne, James Allan; Carriere, Jonathan S. A.; Solman, Grayden J. F.; Smilek, Daniel
2011-01-01
Attention lapses resulting from reactivity to task challenges and their consequences constitute a pervasive factor affecting everyday performance errors and accidents. A bidirectional model of attention lapses (error [image omitted] attention-lapse: Cheyne, Solman, Carriere, & Smilek, 2009) argues that errors beget errors by generating attention…
Real-Time Phase Correction Based on FPGA in the Beam Position and Phase Measurement System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Xingshun; Zhao, Lei; Liu, Jinxin; Jiang, Zouyi; Hu, Xiaofang; Liu, Shubin; An, Qi
2016-12-01
A fully digital beam position and phase measurement (BPPM) system was designed for the linear accelerator (LINAC) in Accelerator Driven Sub-critical System (ADS) in China. Phase information is obtained from the summed signals from four pick-ups of the Beam Position Monitor (BPM). Considering that the delay variations of different analog circuit channels would introduce phase measurement errors, we propose a new method to tune the digital waveforms of four channels before summation and achieve real-time error correction. The process is based on the vector rotation method and implemented within one single Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) device. Tests were conducted to evaluate this correction method and the results indicate that a phase correction precision better than ± 0.3° over the dynamic range from -60 dBm to 0 dBm is achieved.
ANALYZING NUMERICAL ERRORS IN DOMAIN HEAT TRANSPORT MODELS USING THE CVBEM.
Hromadka, T.V.
1987-01-01
Besides providing an exact solution for steady-state heat conduction processes (Laplace-Poisson equations), the CVBEM (complex variable boundary element method) can be used for the numerical error analysis of domain model solutions. For problems where soil-water phase change latent heat effects dominate the thermal regime, heat transport can be approximately modeled as a time-stepped steady-state condition in the thawed and frozen regions, respectively. The CVBEM provides an exact solution of the two-dimensional steady-state heat transport problem, and also provides the error in matching the prescribed boundary conditions by the development of a modeling error distribution or an approximate boundary generation.
Evaluation of Analytical Errors in a Clinical Chemistry Laboratory: A 3 Year Experience
Sakyi, AS; Laing, EF; Ephraim, RK; Asibey, OF; Sadique, OK
2015-01-01
Background: Proficient laboratory service is the cornerstone of modern healthcare systems and has an impact on over 70% of medical decisions on admission, discharge, and medications. In recent years, there is an increasing awareness of the importance of errors in laboratory practice and their possible negative impact on patient outcomes. Aim: We retrospectively analyzed data spanning a period of 3 years on analytical errors observed in our laboratory. The data covered errors over the whole testing cycle including pre-, intra-, and post-analytical phases and discussed strategies pertinent to our settings to minimize their occurrence. Materials and Methods: We described the occurrence of pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical errors observed at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital clinical biochemistry laboratory during a 3-year period from January, 2010 to December, 2012. Data were analyzed with Graph Pad Prism 5(GraphPad Software Inc. CA USA). Results: A total of 589,510 tests was performed on 188,503 outpatients and hospitalized patients. The overall error rate for the 3 years was 4.7% (27,520/58,950). Pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical errors contributed 3.7% (2210/58,950), 0.1% (108/58,950), and 0.9% (512/58,950), respectively. The number of tests reduced significantly over the 3-year period, but this did not correspond with a reduction in the overall error rate (P = 0.90) along with the years. Conclusion: Analytical errors are embedded within our total process setup especially pre-analytical and post-analytical phases. Strategic measures including quality assessment programs for staff involved in pre-analytical processes should be intensified. PMID:25745569
How Do Simulated Error Experiences Impact Attitudes Related to Error Prevention?
Breitkreuz, Karen R; Dougal, Renae L; Wright, Melanie C
2016-10-01
The objective of this project was to determine whether simulated exposure to error situations changes attitudes in a way that may have a positive impact on error prevention behaviors. Using a stratified quasi-randomized experiment design, we compared risk perception attitudes of a control group of nursing students who received standard error education (reviewed medication error content and watched movies about error experiences) to an experimental group of students who reviewed medication error content and participated in simulated error experiences. Dependent measures included perceived memorability of the educational experience, perceived frequency of errors, and perceived caution with respect to preventing errors. Experienced nursing students perceived the simulated error experiences to be more memorable than movies. Less experienced students perceived both simulated error experiences and movies to be highly memorable. After the intervention, compared with movie participants, simulation participants believed errors occurred more frequently. Both types of education increased the participants' intentions to be more cautious and reported caution remained higher than baseline for medication errors 6 months after the intervention. This study provides limited evidence of an advantage of simulation over watching movies describing actual errors with respect to manipulating attitudes related to error prevention. Both interventions resulted in long-term impacts on perceived caution in medication administration. Simulated error experiences made participants more aware of how easily errors can occur, and the movie education made participants more aware of the devastating consequences of errors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prasitmeeboon, Pitcha
Repetitive control (RC) is a control method that specifically aims to converge to zero tracking error of a control systems that execute a periodic command or have periodic disturbances of known period. It uses the error of one period back to adjust the command in the present period. In theory, RC can completely eliminate periodic disturbance effects. RC has applications in many fields such as high-precision manufacturing in robotics, computer disk drives, and active vibration isolation in spacecraft. The first topic treated in this dissertation develops several simple RC design methods that are somewhat analogous to PID controller design in classical control. From the early days of digital control, emulation methods were developed based on a Forward Rule, a Backward Rule, Tustin's Formula, a modification using prewarping, and a pole-zero mapping method. These allowed one to convert a candidate controller design to discrete time in a simple way. We investigate to what extent they can be used to simplify RC design. A particular design is developed from modification of the pole-zero mapping rules, which is simple and sheds light on the robustness of repetitive control designs. RC convergence requires less than 90 degree model phase error at all frequencies up to Nyquist. A zero-phase cutoff filter is normally used to robustify to high frequency model error when this limit is exceeded. The result is stabilization at the expense of failure to cancel errors above the cutoff. The second topic investigates a series of methods to use data to make real time updates of the frequency response model, allowing one to increase or eliminate the frequency cutoff. These include the use of a moving window employing a recursive discrete Fourier transform (DFT), and use of a real time projection algorithm from adaptive control for each frequency. The results can be used directly to make repetitive control corrections that cancel each error frequency, or they can be used to update a
Structured methods for identifying and correcting potential human errors in aviation operations
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Nelson, W.R.
1997-10-01
Human errors have been identified as the source of approximately 60% of the incidents and accidents that occur in commercial aviation. It can be assumed that a very large number of human errors occur in aviation operations, even though in most cases the redundancies and diversities built into the design of aircraft systems prevent the errors from leading to serious consequences. In addition, when it is acknowledged that many system failures have their roots in human errors that occur in the design phase, it becomes apparent that the identification and elimination of potential human errors could significantly decrease the risksmore » of aviation operations. This will become even more critical during the design of advanced automation-based aircraft systems as well as next-generation systems for air traffic management. Structured methods to identify and correct potential human errors in aviation operations have been developed and are currently undergoing testing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL).« less
Incorporating Measurement Error from Modeled Air Pollution Exposures into Epidemiological Analyses.
Samoli, Evangelia; Butland, Barbara K
2017-12-01
Outdoor air pollution exposures used in epidemiological studies are commonly predicted from spatiotemporal models incorporating limited measurements, temporal factors, geographic information system variables, and/or satellite data. Measurement error in these exposure estimates leads to imprecise estimation of health effects and their standard errors. We reviewed methods for measurement error correction that have been applied in epidemiological studies that use model-derived air pollution data. We identified seven cohort studies and one panel study that have employed measurement error correction methods. These methods included regression calibration, risk set regression calibration, regression calibration with instrumental variables, the simulation extrapolation approach (SIMEX), and methods under the non-parametric or parameter bootstrap. Corrections resulted in small increases in the absolute magnitude of the health effect estimate and its standard error under most scenarios. Limited application of measurement error correction methods in air pollution studies may be attributed to the absence of exposure validation data and the methodological complexity of the proposed methods. Future epidemiological studies should consider in their design phase the requirements for the measurement error correction method to be later applied, while methodological advances are needed under the multi-pollutants setting.
The ZpiM algorithm: a method for interferometric image reconstruction in SAR/SAS.
Dias, José M B; Leitao, José M N
2002-01-01
This paper presents an effective algorithm for absolute phase (not simply modulo-2-pi) estimation from incomplete, noisy and modulo-2pi observations in interferometric aperture radar and sonar (InSAR/InSAS). The adopted framework is also representative of other applications such as optical interferometry, magnetic resonance imaging and diffraction tomography. The Bayesian viewpoint is adopted; the observation density is 2-pi-periodic and accounts for the interferometric pair decorrelation and system noise; the a priori probability of the absolute phase is modeled by a compound Gauss-Markov random field (CGMRF) tailored to piecewise smooth absolute phase images. We propose an iterative scheme for the computation of the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) absolute phase estimate. Each iteration embodies a discrete optimization step (Z-step), implemented by network programming techniques and an iterative conditional modes (ICM) step (pi-step). Accordingly, the algorithm is termed ZpiM, where the letter M stands for maximization. An important contribution of the paper is the simultaneous implementation of phase unwrapping (inference of the 2pi-multiples) and smoothing (denoising of the observations). This improves considerably the accuracy of the absolute phase estimates compared to methods in which the data is low-pass filtered prior to unwrapping. A set of experimental results, comparing the proposed algorithm with alternative methods, illustrates the effectiveness of our approach.
Autonomous Quantum Error Correction with Application to Quantum Metrology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reiter, Florentin; Sorensen, Anders S.; Zoller, Peter; Muschik, Christine A.
2017-04-01
We present a quantum error correction scheme that stabilizes a qubit by coupling it to an engineered environment which protects it against spin- or phase flips. Our scheme uses always-on couplings that run continuously in time and operates in a fully autonomous fashion without the need to perform measurements or feedback operations on the system. The correction of errors takes place entirely at the microscopic level through a build-in feedback mechanism. Our dissipative error correction scheme can be implemented in a system of trapped ions and can be used for improving high precision sensing. We show that the enhanced coherence time that results from the coupling to the engineered environment translates into a significantly enhanced precision for measuring weak fields. In a broader context, this work constitutes a stepping stone towards the paradigm of self-correcting quantum information processing.
Validation, Edits, and Application Processing Phase II and Error-Prone Model Report.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gray, Susan; And Others
The impact of quality assurance procedures on the correct award of Basic Educational Opportunity Grants (BEOGs) for 1979-1980 was assessed, and a model for detecting error-prone applications early in processing was developed. The Bureau of Student Financial Aid introduced new comments into the edit system in 1979 and expanded the pre-established…
Ogawa, Takahiro; Haseyama, Miki
2013-03-01
A missing texture reconstruction method based on an error reduction (ER) algorithm, including a novel estimation scheme of Fourier transform magnitudes is presented in this brief. In our method, Fourier transform magnitude is estimated for a target patch including missing areas, and the missing intensities are estimated by retrieving its phase based on the ER algorithm. Specifically, by monitoring errors converged in the ER algorithm, known patches whose Fourier transform magnitudes are similar to that of the target patch are selected from the target image. In the second approach, the Fourier transform magnitude of the target patch is estimated from those of the selected known patches and their corresponding errors. Consequently, by using the ER algorithm, we can estimate both the Fourier transform magnitudes and phases to reconstruct the missing areas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Utegulov, B. B.
2018-02-01
In the work the study of the developed method was carried out for reliability by analyzing the error in indirect determination of the insulation parameters in an asymmetric network with an isolated neutral voltage above 1000 V. The conducted studies of the random relative mean square errors show that the accuracy of indirect measurements in the developed method can be effectively regulated not only by selecting a capacitive additional conductivity, which are connected between phases of the electrical network and the ground, but also by the selection of measuring instruments according to the accuracy class. When choosing meters with accuracy class of 0.5 with the correct selection of capacitive additional conductivity that are connected between the phases of the electrical network and the ground, the errors in measuring the insulation parameters will not exceed 10%.
Prediction of discretization error using the error transport equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Celik, Ismail B.; Parsons, Don Roscoe
2017-06-01
This study focuses on an approach to quantify the discretization error associated with numerical solutions of partial differential equations by solving an error transport equation (ETE). The goal is to develop a method that can be used to adequately predict the discretization error using the numerical solution on only one grid/mesh. The primary problem associated with solving the ETE is the formulation of the error source term which is required for accurately predicting the transport of the error. In this study, a novel approach is considered which involves fitting the numerical solution with a series of locally smooth curves and then blending them together with a weighted spline approach. The result is a continuously differentiable analytic expression that can be used to determine the error source term. Once the source term has been developed, the ETE can easily be solved using the same solver that is used to obtain the original numerical solution. The new methodology is applied to the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in the laminar flow regime. A simple unsteady flow case is also considered. The discretization error predictions based on the methodology presented in this study are in good agreement with the 'true error'. While in most cases the error predictions are not quite as accurate as those from Richardson extrapolation, the results are reasonable and only require one numerical grid. The current results indicate that there is much promise going forward with the newly developed error source term evaluation technique and the ETE.
Analysis of ionospheric refraction error corrections for GRARR systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mallinckrodt, A. J.; Parker, H. C.; Berbert, J. H.
1971-01-01
A determination is presented of the ionospheric refraction correction requirements for the Goddard range and range rate (GRARR) S-band, modified S-band, very high frequency (VHF), and modified VHF systems. The relation ships within these four systems are analyzed to show that the refraction corrections are the same for all four systems and to clarify the group and phase nature of these corrections. The analysis is simplified by recognizing that the range rate is equivalent to a carrier phase range change measurement. The equation for the range errors are given.
A Continental Rifting Event in Tanzania Revealed by Envisat and ALOS InSAR Observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oyen, A. M.; Marinkovic, P. S.; Wauthier, C.; d'Oreye, N.; Hanssen, R. F.
2008-11-01
From July to September 2007 a series of moderate earthquakes struck the area South of the Gelai volcano, located on the Eastern branch of the East African Rift (North Tanzania). Most deformation patterns detected by InSAR in these period are very complex, impeding proper interpretation. To decrease the complexity of the models of the deformation, this study proposes two strategies of combining data from different tracks and sensors. In a first stage a method is proposed to correct unwrapping errors in C-band using the much more coherent L-band data. Furthermore, a modeling optimization method is explored, which aims at the decomposition of the deformation in smaller temporal baselines, by means of creating new, artificial interferograms and the use of models. Due to the higher coherence level and fewer phase cycles in L-band, the deformation interpretation is facilitated but model residual interpretation has become more difficult compared to C-band.
Yohay Carmel; Curtis Flather; Denis Dean
2006-01-01
This paper summarizes our efforts to investigate the nature, behavior, and implications of positional error and attribute error in spatiotemporal datasets. Estimating the combined influence of these errors on map analysis has been hindered by the fact that these two error types are traditionally expressed in different units (distance units, and categorical units,...
Geodetic Measurements and Numerical Models of Rifting in Northern Iceland for 1993-1999
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali, T.; Feigl, K.; Masterlark, T.; Carr, B. B.; Sigmundsson, F.; Thurber, C. H.
2009-12-01
Rifting occurs as episodes of active deformation in individual rift segments of the Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ) of Iceland. To measure the deformation, we use interferometric analysis of synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data acquired between 1993 and 1999. Preliminary results suggest that a complex interplay of multiple inflating and deflating sources at depth is required to account for the observed deformation. In an effort to integrate heterogeneous constraining information (kinematic plate spreading, seismic tomography and anisotropy, and thermal and rheologic structures), we develop finite element models that simulate the underlying sources and processes associated with rifting events to quantitatively understand the magmatic plumbing system beneath Krafla central volcano and rift segment, the site of the most recent rifting episode in the NVZ. Calibration parameters include the positions, geometries, and flux rates for elements of the plumbing system, as well as material properties. The General Inversion for Phase Technique (GIPhT) [Feigl and Thurber, Geophys. J. Int., 2009] is used to model the InSAR phase data directly, without unwrapping parameters. It operates on wrapped phase values ranging from -1/2 to +1/2 cycles. By defining a cost function that quantifies the misfit between observed and modeled values in terms of wrapped phase, GIPhT can estimate parameters in a geophysical model by minimizing the cost function. Since this approach can handle noisy, wrapped phase data, it avoids the pitfalls of phase-unwrapping approaches. Consequently, GIPhT allows the analysis, interpretation and modeling of more interferometric pairs than approaches that require unwrapping. GIPhT also allows statistical testing of hypotheses because the wrapped phase residuals follow a Von Mises distribution. As a result, the model parameters estimated by GIPhT include formal uncertainties. We test the hypothesis that deformation in the rift zone occurred at a constant (secular
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Ahn, Charlene; Wiseman, Howard; Jacobs, Kurt
2004-08-01
It was shown by Ahn, Wiseman, and Milburn [Phys. Rev. A 67, 052310 (2003)] that feedback control could be used as a quantum error correction process for errors induced by weak continuous measurement, given one perfectly measured error channel per qubit. Here we point out that this method can be easily extended to an arbitrary number of error channels per qubit. We show that the feedback protocols generated by our method encode n-2 logical qubits in n physical qubits, thus requiring just one more physical qubit than in the previous case.
Hitti, Eveline; Tamim, Hani; Bakhti, Rinad; Zebian, Dina; Mufarrij, Afif
2017-08-01
Medication errors are common, with studies reporting at least one error per patient encounter. At hospital discharge, medication errors vary from 15%-38%. However, studies assessing the effect of an internally developed electronic (E)-prescription system at discharge from an emergency department (ED) are comparatively minimal. Additionally, commercially available electronic solutions are cost-prohibitive in many resource-limited settings. We assessed the impact of introducing an internally developed, low-cost E-prescription system, with a list of commonly prescribed medications, on prescription error rates at discharge from the ED, compared to handwritten prescriptions. We conducted a pre- and post-intervention study comparing error rates in a randomly selected sample of discharge prescriptions (handwritten versus electronic) five months pre and four months post the introduction of the E-prescription. The internally developed, E-prescription system included a list of 166 commonly prescribed medications with the generic name, strength, dose, frequency and duration. We included a total of 2,883 prescriptions in this study: 1,475 in the pre-intervention phase were handwritten (HW) and 1,408 in the post-intervention phase were electronic. We calculated rates of 14 different errors and compared them between the pre- and post-intervention period. Overall, E-prescriptions included fewer prescription errors as compared to HW-prescriptions. Specifically, E-prescriptions reduced missing dose (11.3% to 4.3%, p <0.0001), missing frequency (3.5% to 2.2%, p=0.04), missing strength errors (32.4% to 10.2%, p <0.0001) and legibility (0.7% to 0.2%, p=0.005). E-prescriptions, however, were associated with a significant increase in duplication errors, specifically with home medication (1.7% to 3%, p=0.02). A basic, internally developed E-prescription system, featuring commonly used medications, effectively reduced medication errors in a low-resource setting where the costs of
Bandwidth controller for phase-locked-loop
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brockman, Milton H. (Inventor)
1992-01-01
A phase locked loop utilizing digital techniques to control the closed loop bandwidth of the RF carrier phase locked loop in a receiver provides high sensitivity and a wide dynamic range for signal reception. After analog to digital conversion, a digital phase locked loop bandwidth controller provides phase error detection with automatic RF carrier closed loop tracking bandwidth control to accommodate several modes of transmission.
ANALYZING NUMERICAL ERRORS IN DOMAIN HEAT TRANSPORT MODELS USING THE CVBEM.
Hromadka, T.V.; ,
1985-01-01
Besides providing an exact solution for steady-state heat conduction processes (Laplace Poisson equations), the CVBEM (complex variable boundary element method) can be used for the numerical error analysis of domain model solutions. For problems where soil water phase change latent heat effects dominate the thermal regime, heat transport can be approximately modeled as a time-stepped steady-state condition in the thawed and frozen regions, respectively. The CVBEM provides an exact solution of the two-dimensional steady-state heat transport problem, and also provides the error in matching the prescribed boundary conditions by the development of a modeling error distribution or an approximative boundary generation. This error evaluation can be used to develop highly accurate CVBEM models of the heat transport process, and the resulting model can be used as a test case for evaluating the precision of domain models based on finite elements or finite differences.
Optical injection phase-lock loops
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bordonalli, Aldario Chrestani
Locking techniques have been widely applied for frequency synchronisation of semiconductor lasers used in coherent communication and microwave signal generation systems. Two main locking techniques, the optical phase-lock loop (OPLL) and optical injection locking (OIL) are analysed in this thesis. The principal limitations on OPLL performance result from the loop propagation delay, which makes difficult the implementation of high gain and wide bandwidth loops, leading to poor phase noise suppression performance and requiring the linewidths of the semiconductor laser sources to be less than a few megahertz for practical values of loop delay. The OIL phase noise suppression is controlled by the injected power. The principal limitations of the OIL implementation are the finite phase error under locked conditions and the narrow stable locking range the system provides at injected power levels required to reduce the phase noise output of semiconductor lasers significantly. This thesis demonstrates theoretically and experimentally that it is possible to overcome the limitations of OPLL and OIL systems by combining them, to form an optical injection phase-lock loop (OIPLL). The modelling of an OIPLL system is presented and compared with the equivalent OPLL and OIL results. Optical and electrical design of an homodyne OIPLL is detailed. Experimental results are given which verify the theoretical prediction that the OIPLL would keep the phase noise suppression as high as that of the OIL system over a much wider stable locking range, even with wide linewidth lasers and long loop delays. The experimental results for lasers with summed linewidth of 36 MHz and a loop delay of 15 ns showed measured phase error variances as low as 0.006 rad2 (500 MHz bandwidth) for locking bandwidths greater than 26 GHz, compared with the equivalent OPLL phase error variance of around 1 rad2 (500 MHz bandwidth) and the equivalent OIL locking bandwidth of less than 1.2 GHz.
Differential phase measurements of D-region partial reflections
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wiersma, D. J.; Sechrist, C. F., Jr.
1972-01-01
Differential phase partial reflection measurements were used to deduce D region electron density profiles. The phase difference was measured by taking sums and differences of amplitudes received on an array of crossed dipoles. The reflection model used was derived from Fresnel reflection theory. Seven profiles obtained over the period from 13 October 1971 to 5 November 1971 are presented, along with the results from simultaneous measurements of differential absorption. Some possible sources of error and error propagation are discussed. A collision frequency profile was deduced from the electron concentration calculated from differential phase and differential absorption.
Large-baseline InSAR for precise topographic mapping: a framework for TanDEM-X large-baseline data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pinheiro, Muriel; Reigber, Andreas; Moreira, Alberto
2017-09-01
The global Digital Elevation Model (DEM) resulting from the TanDEM-X mission provides information about the world topography with outstanding precision. In fact, performance analysis carried out with the already available data have shown that the global product is well within the requirements of 10 m absolute vertical accuracy and 2 m relative vertical accuracy for flat to moderate terrain. The mission's science phase took place from October 2014 to December 2015. During this phase, bistatic acquisitions with across-track separation between the two satellites up to 3.6 km at the equator were commanded. Since the relative vertical accuracy of InSAR derived elevation models is, in principle, inversely proportional to the system baseline, the TanDEM-X science phase opened the doors for the generation of elevation models with improved quality with respect to the standard product. However, the interferometric processing of the large-baseline data is troublesome due to the increased volume decorrelation and very high frequency of the phase variations. Hence, in order to fully profit from the increased baseline, sophisticated algorithms for the interferometric processing, and, in particular, for the phase unwrapping have to be considered. This paper proposes a novel dual-baseline region-growing framework for the phase unwrapping of the large-baseline interferograms. Results from two experiments with data from the TanDEM-X science phase are discussed, corroborating the expected increased level of detail of the large-baseline DEMs.
Stochastic characterization of phase detection algorithms in phase-shifting interferometry
Munteanu, Florin
2016-11-01
Phase-shifting interferometry (PSI) is the preferred non-contact method for profiling sub-nanometer surfaces. Based on monochromatic light interference, the method computes the surface profile from a set of interferograms collected at separate stepping positions. Errors in the estimated profile are introduced when these positions are not located correctly. In order to cope with this problem, various algorithms that minimize the effects of certain types of stepping errors (linear, sinusoidal, etc.) have been developed. Despite the relatively large number of algorithms suggested in the literature, there is no unified way of characterizing their performance when additional unaccounted random errors are present. Here,more » we suggest a procedure for quantifying the expected behavior of each algorithm in the presence of independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) random stepping errors, which can occur in addition to the systematic errors for which the algorithm has been designed. As a result, the usefulness of this method derives from the fact that it can guide the selection of the best algorithm for specific measurement situations.« less
How to conduct External Quality Assessment Schemes for the pre-analytical phase?
Kristensen, Gunn B B; Aakre, Kristin Moberg; Kristoffersen, Ann Helen; Sandberg, Sverre
2014-01-01
In laboratory medicine, several studies have described the most frequent errors in the different phases of the total testing process, and a large proportion of these errors occur in the pre-analytical phase. Schemes for registration of errors and subsequent feedback to the participants have been conducted for decades concerning the analytical phase by External Quality Assessment (EQA) organizations operating in most countries. The aim of the paper is to present an overview of different types of EQA schemes for the pre-analytical phase, and give examples of some existing schemes. So far, very few EQA organizations have focused on the pre-analytical phase, and most EQA organizations do not offer pre-analytical EQA schemes (EQAS). It is more difficult to perform and standardize pre-analytical EQAS and also, accreditation bodies do not ask the laboratories for results from such schemes. However, some ongoing EQA programs for the pre-analytical phase do exist, and some examples are given in this paper. The methods used can be divided into three different types; collecting information about pre-analytical laboratory procedures, circulating real samples to collect information about interferences that might affect the measurement procedure, or register actual laboratory errors and relate these to quality indicators. These three types have different focus and different challenges regarding implementation, and a combination of the three is probably necessary to be able to detect and monitor the wide range of errors occurring in the pre-analytical phase.
An error-based micro-sensor capture system for real-time motion estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Lin; Ye, Shiwei; Wang, Zhibo; Huang, Zhipei; Wu, Jiankang; Kong, Yongmei; Zhang, Li
2017-10-01
A wearable micro-sensor motion capture system with 16 IMUs and an error-compensatory complementary filter algorithm for real-time motion estimation has been developed to acquire accurate 3D orientation and displacement in real life activities. In the proposed filter algorithm, the gyroscope bias error, orientation error and magnetic disturbance error are estimated and compensated, significantly reducing the orientation estimation error due to sensor noise and drift. Displacement estimation, especially for activities such as jumping, has been the challenge in micro-sensor motion capture. An adaptive gait phase detection algorithm has been developed to accommodate accurate displacement estimation in different types of activities. The performance of this system is benchmarked with respect to the results of VICON optical capture system. The experimental results have demonstrated effectiveness of the system in daily activities tracking, with estimation error 0.16 ± 0.06 m for normal walking and 0.13 ± 0.11 m for jumping motions. Research supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61431017, 81272166).
Reliable Channel-Adapted Error Correction: Bacon-Shor Code Recovery from Amplitude Damping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piedrafita, Álvaro; Renes, Joseph M.
2017-12-01
We construct two simple error correction schemes adapted to amplitude damping noise for Bacon-Shor codes and investigate their prospects for fault-tolerant implementation. Both consist solely of Clifford gates and require far fewer qubits, relative to the standard method, to achieve exact correction to a desired order in the damping rate. The first, employing one-bit teleportation and single-qubit measurements, needs only one-fourth as many physical qubits, while the second, using just stabilizer measurements and Pauli corrections, needs only half. The improvements stem from the fact that damping events need only be detected, not corrected, and that effective phase errors arising due to undamped qubits occur at a lower rate than damping errors. For error correction that is itself subject to damping noise, we show that existing fault-tolerance methods can be employed for the latter scheme, while the former can be made to avoid potential catastrophic errors and can easily cope with damping faults in ancilla qubits.
Quantum error-correction failure distributions: Comparison of coherent and stochastic error models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barnes, Jeff P.; Trout, Colin J.; Lucarelli, Dennis; Clader, B. D.
2017-06-01
We compare failure distributions of quantum error correction circuits for stochastic errors and coherent errors. We utilize a fully coherent simulation of a fault-tolerant quantum error correcting circuit for a d =3 Steane and surface code. We find that the output distributions are markedly different for the two error models, showing that no simple mapping between the two error models exists. Coherent errors create very broad and heavy-tailed failure distributions. This suggests that they are susceptible to outlier events and that mean statistics, such as pseudothreshold estimates, may not provide the key figure of merit. This provides further statistical insight into why coherent errors can be so harmful for quantum error correction. These output probability distributions may also provide a useful metric that can be utilized when optimizing quantum error correcting codes and decoding procedures for purely coherent errors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Chengying; Li, Dahai; Kewei, E.; Li, Mengyang; Chen, Pengyu; Wang, Ruiyang; Xiong, Zhao
2018-06-01
In phase measuring deflectometry, two orthogonal sinusoidal fringe patterns are separately projected on the test surface and the distorted fringes reflected by the surface are recorded, each with a sequential phase shift. Then the two components of the local surface gradients are obtained by triangulation. It usually involves some complicated and time-consuming procedures (fringe projection in the orthogonal directions). In addition, the digital light devices (e.g. LCD screen and CCD camera) are not error free. There are quantization errors for each pixel of both LCD and CCD. Therefore, to avoid the complex process and improve the reliability of the phase distribution, a phase extraction algorithm with five-frame crossed fringes is presented in this paper. It is based on a least-squares iterative process. Using the proposed algorithm, phase distributions and phase shift amounts in two orthogonal directions can be simultaneously and successfully determined through an iterative procedure. Both a numerical simulation and a preliminary experiment are conducted to verify the validity and performance of this algorithm. Experimental results obtained by our method are shown, and comparisons between our experimental results and those obtained by the traditional 16-step phase-shifting algorithm and between our experimental results and those measured by the Fizeau interferometer are made.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoffman, Ross N.; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Grassotti, Christopher
1997-01-01
We proposed a novel characterization of errors for numerical weather predictions. In its simplest form we decompose the error into a part attributable to phase errors and a remainder. The phase error is represented in the same fashion as a velocity field and is required to vary slowly and smoothly with position. A general distortion representation allows for the displacement and amplification or bias correction of forecast anomalies. Characterizing and decomposing forecast error in this way has two important applications, which we term the assessment application and the objective analysis application. For the assessment application, our approach results in new objective measures of forecast skill which are more in line with subjective measures of forecast skill and which are useful in validating models and diagnosing their shortcomings. With regard to the objective analysis application, meteorological analysis schemes balance forecast error and observational error to obtain an optimal analysis. Presently, representations of the error covariance matrix used to measure the forecast error are severely limited. For the objective analysis application our approach will improve analyses by providing a more realistic measure of the forecast error. We expect, a priori, that our approach should greatly improve the utility of remotely sensed data which have relatively high horizontal resolution, but which are indirectly related to the conventional atmospheric variables. In this project, we are initially focusing on the assessment application, restricted to a realistic but univariate 2-dimensional situation. Specifically, we study the forecast errors of the sea level pressure (SLP) and 500 hPa geopotential height fields for forecasts of the short and medium range. Since the forecasts are generated by the GEOS (Goddard Earth Observing System) data assimilation system with and without ERS 1 scatterometer data, these preliminary studies serve several purposes. They (1) provide a
Medhi, Biswajit; Hegde, Gopalakrishna M; Gorthi, Sai Siva; Reddy, Kalidevapura Jagannath; Roy, Debasish; Vasu, Ram Mohan
2016-08-01
A simple noninterferometric optical probe is developed to estimate wavefront distortion suffered by a plane wave in its passage through density variations in a hypersonic flow obstructed by a test model in a typical shock tunnel. The probe has a plane light wave trans-illuminating the flow and casting a shadow of a continuous-tone sinusoidal grating. Through a geometrical optics, eikonal approximation to the distorted wavefront, a bilinear approximation to it is related to the location-dependent shift (distortion) suffered by the grating, which can be read out space-continuously from the projected grating image. The processing of the grating shadow is done through an efficient Fourier fringe analysis scheme, either with a windowed or global Fourier transform (WFT and FT). For comparison, wavefront slopes are also estimated from shadows of random-dot patterns, processed through cross correlation. The measured slopes are suitably unwrapped by using a discrete cosine transform (DCT)-based phase unwrapping procedure, and also through iterative procedures. The unwrapped phase information is used in an iterative scheme, for a full quantitative recovery of density distribution in the shock around the model, through refraction tomographic inversion. Hypersonic flow field parameters around a missile-shaped body at a free-stream Mach number of ∼8 measured using this technique are compared with the numerically estimated values. It is shown that, while processing a wavefront with small space-bandwidth product (SBP) the FT inversion gave accurate results with computational efficiency; computation-intensive WFT was needed for similar results when dealing with larger SBP wavefronts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patil, Prataprao; Vyasarayani, C. P.; Ramji, M.
2017-06-01
In this work, digital photoelasticity technique is used to estimate the crack tip fracture parameters for different crack configurations. Conventionally, only isochromatic data surrounding the crack tip is used for SIF estimation, but with the advent of digital photoelasticity, pixel-wise availability of both isoclinic and isochromatic data could be exploited for SIF estimation in a novel way. A linear least square approach is proposed to estimate the mixed-mode crack tip fracture parameters by solving the multi-parameter stress field equation. The stress intensity factor (SIF) is extracted from those estimated fracture parameters. The isochromatic and isoclinic data around the crack tip is estimated using the ten-step phase shifting technique. To get the unwrapped data, the adaptive quality guided phase unwrapping algorithm (AQGPU) has been used. The mixed mode fracture parameters, especially SIF are estimated for specimen configurations like single edge notch (SEN), center crack and straight crack ahead of inclusion using the proposed algorithm. The experimental SIF values estimated using the proposed method are compared with analytical/finite element analysis (FEA) results, and are found to be in good agreement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andrés, Nieves; Pinto, Cristina; Lobera, Julia; Palero, Virginia; Arroyo, M. Pilar
2017-06-01
Holographic techniques have been used to measure the shape and the radial deformation of a blood vessel model and a real sheep aorta. Measurements are obtained from several holograms recorded for different object states. For each object state, two holograms with two different wavelengths are multiplexed in the same digital recording. Thus both holograms are simultaneously recorded but the information from each of them is separately obtained. The shape analysis gives a wrapped phase map whose fringes are related to a synthetic wavelength. After a filtering and unwrapping process, the 3D shape can be obtained. The shape data for each line are fitted to a circumference in order to determine the local vessel radius and center. The deformation analysis also results in a wrapped phase map, but the fringes are related to the laser wavelength used in the corresponding hologram. After the filtering and unwrapping process, a 2D map of the deformation in an out-of-plane direction is reconstructed. The radial deformation is then calculated by using the shape information.
Learning to Fail in Aphasia: An Investigation of Error Learning in Naming
Middleton, Erica L.; Schwartz, Myrna F.
2013-01-01
Purpose To determine if the naming impairment in aphasia is influenced by error learning and if error learning is related to type of retrieval strategy. Method Nine participants with aphasia and ten neurologically-intact controls named familiar proper noun concepts. When experiencing tip-of-the-tongue naming failure (TOT) in an initial TOT-elicitation phase, participants were instructed to adopt phonological or semantic self-cued retrieval strategies. In the error learning manipulation, items evoking TOT states during TOT-elicitation were randomly assigned to a short or long time condition where participants were encouraged to continue to try to retrieve the name for either 20 seconds (short interval) or 60 seconds (long). The incidence of TOT on the same items was measured on a post test after 48-hours. Error learning was defined as a higher rate of recurrent TOTs (TOT at both TOT-elicitation and post test) for items assigned to the long (versus short) time condition. Results In the phonological condition, participants with aphasia showed error learning whereas controls showed a pattern opposite to error learning. There was no evidence for error learning in the semantic condition for either group. Conclusion Error learning is operative in aphasia, but dependent on the type of strategy employed during naming failure. PMID:23816662
First measurements of error fields on W7-X using flux surface mapping
Lazerson, Samuel A.; Otte, Matthias; Bozhenkov, Sergey; ...
2016-08-03
Error fields have been detected and quantified using the flux surface mapping diagnostic system on Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X). A low-field 'more » $${\\rlap{-}\\ \\iota} =1/2$$ ' magnetic configuration ($${\\rlap{-}\\ \\iota} =\\iota /2\\pi $$ ), sensitive to error fields, was developed in order to detect their presence using the flux surface mapping diagnostic. In this configuration, a vacuum flux surface with rotational transform of n/m = 1/2 is created at the mid-radius of the vacuum flux surfaces. If no error fields are present a vanishingly small n/m = 5/10 island chain should be present. Modeling indicates that if an n = 1 perturbing field is applied by the trim coils, a large n/m = 1/2 island chain will be opened. This island chain is used to create a perturbation large enough to be imaged by the diagnostic. Phase and amplitude scans of the applied field allow the measurement of a small $$\\sim 0.04$$ m intrinsic island chain with a $${{130}^{\\circ}}$$ phase relative to the first module of the W7-X experiment. Lastly, these error fields are determined to be small and easily correctable by the trim coil system.« less
Ka-Band Phased Array System Characterization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Acosta, R.; Johnson, S.; Sands, O.; Lambert, K.
2001-01-01
Phased Array Antennas (PAAs) using patch-radiating elements are projected to transmit data at rates several orders of magnitude higher than currently offered with reflector-based systems. However, there are a number of potential sources of degradation in the Bit Error Rate (BER) performance of the communications link that are unique to PAA-based links. Short spacing of radiating elements can induce mutual coupling between radiating elements, long spacing can induce grating lobes, modulo 2 pi phase errors can add to Inter Symbol Interference (ISI), phase shifters and power divider network introduce losses into the system. This paper describes efforts underway to test and evaluate the effects of the performance degrading features of phased-array antennas when used in a high data rate modulation link. The tests and evaluations described here uncover the interaction between the electrical characteristics of a PAA and the BER performance of a communication link.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noble, Viveca K.
1993-01-01
There are various elements such as radio frequency interference (RFI) which may induce errors in data being transmitted via a satellite communication link. When a transmission is affected by interference or other error-causing elements, the transmitted data becomes indecipherable. It becomes necessary to implement techniques to recover from these disturbances. The objective of this research is to develop software which simulates error control circuits and evaluate the performance of these modules in various bit error rate environments. The results of the evaluation provide the engineer with information which helps determine the optimal error control scheme. The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) recommends the use of Reed-Solomon (RS) and convolutional encoders and Viterbi and RS decoders for error correction. The use of forward error correction techniques greatly reduces the received signal to noise needed for a certain desired bit error rate. The use of concatenated coding, e.g. inner convolutional code and outer RS code, provides even greater coding gain. The 16-bit cyclic redundancy check (CRC) code is recommended by CCSDS for error detection.
[Diagnostic Errors in Medicine].
Buser, Claudia; Bankova, Andriyana
2015-12-09
The recognition of diagnostic errors in everyday practice can help improve patient safety. The most common diagnostic errors are the cognitive errors, followed by system-related errors and no fault errors. The cognitive errors often result from mental shortcuts, known as heuristics. The rate of cognitive errors can be reduced by a better understanding of heuristics and the use of checklists. The autopsy as a retrospective quality assessment of clinical diagnosis has a crucial role in learning from diagnostic errors. Diagnostic errors occur more often in primary care in comparison to hospital settings. On the other hand, the inpatient errors are more severe than the outpatient errors.
The Error in Total Error Reduction
Witnauer, James E.; Urcelay, Gonzalo P.; Miller, Ralph R.
2013-01-01
Most models of human and animal learning assume that learning is proportional to the discrepancy between a delivered outcome and the outcome predicted by all cues present during that trial (i.e., total error across a stimulus compound). This total error reduction (TER) view has been implemented in connectionist and artificial neural network models to describe the conditions under which weights between units change. Electrophysiological work has revealed that the activity of dopamine neurons is correlated with the total error signal in models of reward learning. Similar neural mechanisms presumably support fear conditioning, human contingency learning, and other types of learning. Using a computational modelling approach, we compared several TER models of associative learning to an alternative model that rejects the TER assumption in favor of local error reduction (LER), which assumes that learning about each cue is proportional to the discrepancy between the delivered outcome and the outcome predicted by that specific cue on that trial. The LER model provided a better fit to the reviewed data than the TER models. Given the superiority of the LER model with the present data sets, acceptance of TER should be tempered. PMID:23891930
The error in total error reduction.
Witnauer, James E; Urcelay, Gonzalo P; Miller, Ralph R
2014-02-01
Most models of human and animal learning assume that learning is proportional to the discrepancy between a delivered outcome and the outcome predicted by all cues present during that trial (i.e., total error across a stimulus compound). This total error reduction (TER) view has been implemented in connectionist and artificial neural network models to describe the conditions under which weights between units change. Electrophysiological work has revealed that the activity of dopamine neurons is correlated with the total error signal in models of reward learning. Similar neural mechanisms presumably support fear conditioning, human contingency learning, and other types of learning. Using a computational modeling approach, we compared several TER models of associative learning to an alternative model that rejects the TER assumption in favor of local error reduction (LER), which assumes that learning about each cue is proportional to the discrepancy between the delivered outcome and the outcome predicted by that specific cue on that trial. The LER model provided a better fit to the reviewed data than the TER models. Given the superiority of the LER model with the present data sets, acceptance of TER should be tempered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lobaugh, Lauren M Y; Martin, Lizabeth D; Schleelein, Laura E; Tyler, Donald C; Litman, Ronald S
2017-09-01
Wake Up Safe is a quality improvement initiative of the Society for Pediatric Anesthesia that contains a deidentified registry of serious adverse events occurring in pediatric anesthesia. The aim of this study was to describe and characterize reported medication errors to find common patterns amenable to preventative strategies. In September 2016, we analyzed approximately 6 years' worth of medication error events reported to Wake Up Safe. Medication errors were classified by: (1) medication category; (2) error type by phase of administration: prescribing, preparation, or administration; (3) bolus or infusion error; (4) provider type and level of training; (5) harm as defined by the National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention; and (6) perceived preventability. From 2010 to the time of our data analysis in September 2016, 32 institutions had joined and submitted data on 2087 adverse events during 2,316,635 anesthetics. These reports contained details of 276 medication errors, which comprised the third highest category of events behind cardiac and respiratory related events. Medication errors most commonly involved opioids and sedative/hypnotics. When categorized by phase of handling, 30 events occurred during preparation, 67 during prescribing, and 179 during administration. The most common error type was accidental administration of the wrong dose (N = 84), followed by syringe swap (accidental administration of the wrong syringe, N = 49). Fifty-seven (21%) reported medication errors involved medications prepared as infusions as opposed to 1 time bolus administrations. Medication errors were committed by all types of anesthesia providers, most commonly by attendings. Over 80% of reported medication errors reached the patient and more than half of these events caused patient harm. Fifteen events (5%) required a life sustaining intervention. Nearly all cases (97%) were judged to be either likely or certainly preventable. Our findings
Gilbert, Guillaume; Savard, Geneviève; Bard, Céline; Beaudoin, Gilles
2012-06-01
The aim of this study was to investigate the benefits arising from the use of a multiecho sequence for susceptibility-weighted phase imaging using a quantitative comparison with a standard single-echo acquisition. Four healthy adult volunteers were imaged on a clinical 3-T system using a protocol comprising two different three-dimensional susceptibility-weighted gradient-echo sequences: a standard single-echo sequence and a multiecho sequence. Both sequences were repeated twice in order to evaluate the local noise contribution by a subtraction of the two acquisitions. For the multiecho sequence, the phase information from each echo was independently unwrapped, and the background field contribution was removed using either homodyne filtering or the projection onto dipole fields method. The phase information from all echoes was then combined using a weighted linear regression. R2 maps were also calculated from the multiecho acquisitions. The noise standard deviation in the reconstructed phase images was evaluated for six manually segmented regions of interest (frontal white matter, posterior white matter, globus pallidus, putamen, caudate nucleus and lateral ventricle). The use of the multiecho sequence for susceptibility-weighted phase imaging led to a reduction of the noise standard deviation for all subjects and all regions of interest investigated in comparison to the reference single-echo acquisition. On average, the noise reduction ranged from 18.4% for the globus pallidus to 47.9% for the lateral ventricle. In addition, the amount of noise reduction was found to be strongly inversely correlated to the estimated R2 value (R=-0.92). In conclusion, the use of a multiecho sequence is an effective way to decrease the noise contribution in susceptibility-weighted phase images, while preserving both contrast and acquisition time. The proposed approach additionally permits the calculation of R2 maps. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Flow Mapping Based on the Motion-Integration Errors of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, D.; Edwards, C. R.; Zhang, F.
2016-02-01
Knowledge of a flow field is crucial in the navigation of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) since the motion of AUVs is affected by ambient flow. Due to the imperfect knowledge of the flow field, it is typical to observe a difference between the actual and predicted trajectories of an AUV, which is referred to as a motion-integration error (also known as a dead-reckoning error if an AUV navigates via dead-reckoning). The motion-integration error has been essential for an underwater glider to compute its flow estimate from the travel information of the last leg and to improve navigation performance by using the estimate for the next leg. However, the estimate by nature exhibits a phase difference compared to ambient flow experienced by gliders, prohibiting its application in a flow field with strong temporal and spatial gradients. In our study, to mitigate the phase problem, we have developed a local ocean model by combining the flow estimate based on the motion-integration error with flow predictions from a tidal ocean model. Our model has been used to create desired trajectories of gliders for guidance. Our method is validated by Long Bay experiments in 2012 and 2013 in which we deployed multiple gliders on the shelf of South Atlantic Bight and near the edge of Gulf Stream. In our recent study, the application of the motion-integration error is further extended to create a spatial flow map. Considering that the motion-integration errors of AUVs accumulate along their trajectories, the motion-integration error is formulated as a line integral of ambient flow which is then reformulated into algebraic equations. By solving an inverse problem for these algebraic equations, we obtain the knowledge of such flow in near real time, allowing more effective and precise guidance of AUVs in a dynamic environment. This method is referred to as motion tomography. We provide the results of non-parametric and parametric flow mapping from both simulated and experimental data.
Armstrong, Gail E; Dietrich, Mary; Norman, Linda; Barnsteiner, Jane; Mion, Lorraine
Approximately a quarter of medication errors in the hospital occur at the administration phase, which is solely under the purview of the bedside nurse. The purpose of this study was to assess bedside nurses' perceived skills and attitudes about updated safety concepts and examine their impact on medication administration errors and adherence to safe medication administration practices. Findings support the premise that medication administration errors result from an interplay among system-, unit-, and nurse-level factors.
Array Phase Shifters: Theory and Technology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Romanofsky, Robert R.
2007-01-01
While there are a myriad of applications for microwave phase shifters in instrumentation and metrology, power combining, amplifier linearization, and so on, the most prevalent use is in scanning phased-array antennas. And while this market continues to be dominated by military radar and tracking platforms, many commercial applications have emerged in the past decade or so. These new and potential applications span low-Earth-orbit (LEO) communications satellite constellations and collision warning radar, an aspect of the Intelligent Vehicle Highway System or Automated Highway System. In any case, the phase shifters represent a considerable portion of the overall antenna cost, with some estimates approaching 40 percent for receive arrays. Ferrite phase shifters continue to be the workhorse in military-phased arrays, and while there have been advances in thin film ferrite devices, the review of this device technology in the previous edition of this book is still highly relevant. This chapter will focus on three types of phase shifters that have matured in the past decade: GaAs MESFET monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC), micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), and thin film ferroelectric-based devices. A brief review of some novel devices including thin film ferrite phase shifters and superconducting switches for phase shifter applications will be provided. Finally, the effects of modulo 2 phase shift limitations, phase errors, and transient response on bit error rate degradation will be considered.
A Robust Sound Source Localization Approach for Microphone Array with Model Errors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Hua; Shao, Huai-Zong; Peng, Qi-Cong
In this paper, a robust sound source localization approach is proposed. The approach retains good performance even when model errors exist. Compared with previous work in this field, the contributions of this paper are as follows. First, an improved broad-band and near-field array model is proposed. It takes array gain, phase perturbations into account and is based on the actual positions of the elements. It can be used in arbitrary planar geometry arrays. Second, a subspace model errors estimation algorithm and a Weighted 2-Dimension Multiple Signal Classification (W2D-MUSIC) algorithm are proposed. The subspace model errors estimation algorithm estimates unknown parameters of the array model, i. e., gain, phase perturbations, and positions of the elements, with high accuracy. The performance of this algorithm is improved with the increasing of SNR or number of snapshots. The W2D-MUSIC algorithm based on the improved array model is implemented to locate sound sources. These two algorithms compose the robust sound source approach. The more accurate steering vectors can be provided for further processing such as adaptive beamforming algorithm. Numerical examples confirm effectiveness of this proposed approach.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balbarani, S.; Euillades, P. A.; Euillades, L. D.; Casu, F.; Riveros, N. C.
2013-09-01
Differential interferometry is a remote sensing technique that allows studying crustal deformation produced by several phenomena like earthquakes, landslides, land subsidence and volcanic eruptions. Advanced techniques, like small baseline subsets (SBAS), exploit series of images acquired by synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensors during a given time span. Phase propagation delay in the atmosphere is the main systematic error of interferometric SAR measurements. It affects differently images acquired at different days or even at different hours of the same day. So, datasets acquired during the same time span from different sensors (or sensor configuration) often give diverging results. Here we processed two datasets acquired from June 2010 to December 2011 by COSMO-SkyMed satellites. One of them is HH-polarized, and the other one is VV-polarized and acquired on different days. As expected, time series computed from these datasets show differences. We attributed them to non-compensated atmospheric artifacts and tried to correct them by using ERA-Interim global atmospheric model (GAM) data. With this method, we were able to correct less than 50% of the scenes, considering an area where no phase unwrapping errors were detected. We conclude that GAM-based corrections are not enough for explaining differences in computed time series, at least in the processed area of interest. We remark that no direct meteorological data for the GAM-based corrections were employed. Further research is needed in order to understand under what conditions this kind of data can be used.
Study on Network Error Analysis and Locating based on Integrated Information Decision System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, F.; Dong, Z. H.
2017-10-01
Integrated information decision system (IIDS) integrates multiple sub-system developed by many facilities, including almost hundred kinds of software, which provides with various services, such as email, short messages, drawing and sharing. Because the under-layer protocols are different, user standards are not unified, many errors are occurred during the stages of setup, configuration, and operation, which seriously affect the usage. Because the errors are various, which may be happened in different operation phases, stages, TCP/IP communication protocol layers, sub-system software, it is necessary to design a network error analysis and locating tool for IIDS to solve the above problems. This paper studies on network error analysis and locating based on IIDS, which provides strong theory and technology supports for the running and communicating of IIDS.
Investigation of Fiber Optics Based Phased Locked Diode Lasers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burke, Paul D.; Gregory, Don A.
1997-01-01
Optical power beaming requires a high intensity source and a system to address beam phase and location. A synthetic aperture array of phased locked sources can provide the necessary power levels as well as a means to correct for phase errors. A fiber optic phase modulator with a master oscillator and power amplifier (MOPA) using an injection-locking semiconductor optical amplifier has proven to be effective in correcting phase errors as large as 4pi in an interferometer system. Phase corrections with the piezoelectric fiber stretcher were made from 0 - 10 kHz, with most application oriented corrections requiring only 1 kHz. The amplifier did not lose locked power output while the phase was changed, however its performance was below expectation. Results of this investigation indicate fiber stretchers and amplifiers can be incorporated into a MOPA system to achieve successful earth based power beaming.
Carrier and aberrations removal in interferometric fringe projection profilometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blain, P.; Michel, F.; Renotte, Y.; Habraken, S.
2012-04-01
A profilometer which takes advantage of polarization states splitting technique and monochromatic light projection method as a way to overcome ambient lighting for in-situ measurement is under development [1, 2]. Because of the Savart plate which refracts two out of axis beams, the device suffers from aberrations (mostly coma and astigmatism). These aberrations affect the quality of the sinusoidal fringe pattern. In fringe projection profilometry, the unwrapped phase distribution map contains the sum of the object's shape-related phase and carrier-fringe-related phase. In order to extract the 3D shape of the object, the carrier phase has to be removed [3, 4]. An easy way to remove both the fringe carrier and the aberrations of the optical system is to measure the phases of the test object and to measure the phase of a reference plane with the same set up and to subtract both phase maps. This time consuming technique is suitable for laboratory but not for industry. We propose a method to numerically remove both the fringe carrier and the aberrations. A first reference phase of a calibration plane is evaluated knowing the position of the different elements in the set up and the orientation of the fringes. Then a fitting of the phase map by Zernike polynomials is computed [5]. As the triangulation parameters are known during the calibration, the computation of Zernike coefficients has only to be made once. The wavefront error can be adjusted by a scale factor which depends on the position of the test object.
Geometric error characterization and error budgets. [thematic mapper
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beyer, E.
1982-01-01
Procedures used in characterizing geometric error sources for a spaceborne imaging system are described using the LANDSAT D thematic mapper ground segment processing as the prototype. Software was tested through simulation and is undergoing tests with the operational hardware as part of the prelaunch system evaluation. Geometric accuracy specifications, geometric correction, and control point processing are discussed. Cross track and along track errors are tabulated for the thematic mapper, the spacecraft, and ground processing to show the temporal registration error budget in pixel (42.5 microrad) 90%.
Qu, Conghui; Schuetz, Johanna M.; Min, Jeong Eun; Leach, Stephen; Daley, Denise; Spinelli, John J.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Graham, Jinko
2011-01-01
We describe a statistical approach to predict gender-labeling errors in candidate-gene association studies, when Y-chromosome markers have not been included in the genotyping set. The approach adds value to methods that consider only the heterozygosity of X-chromosome SNPs, by incorporating available information about the intensity of X-chromosome SNPs in candidate genes relative to autosomal SNPs from the same individual. To our knowledge, no published methods formalize a framework in which heterozygosity and relative intensity are simultaneously taken into account. Our method offers the advantage that, in the genotyping set, no additional space is required beyond that already assigned to X-chromosome SNPs in the candidate genes. We also show how the predictions can be used in a two-phase sampling design to estimate the gender-labeling error rates for an entire study, at a fraction of the cost of a conventional design. PMID:22303327
Extreme ultraviolet interferometry
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Goldberg, Kenneth A.
sources of systematic measurement errors. To overcome a variety of experimental difficulties, several new methods in interferogram analysis and phase-retrieval were developed: the Fourier-Transform Method of Phase-Shift Determination, which uses Fourier-domain analysis to improve the accuracy of phase-shifting interferometry; the Fourier-Transform Guided Unwrap Method, which was developed to overcome difficulties associated with a high density of mid-spatial-frequency blemishes and which uses a low-spatial-frequency approximation to the measured wavefront to guide the phase unwrapping in the presence of noise; and, finally, an expedient method of Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization which facilitates polynomial basis transformations in wave-front surface fitting procedures.« less
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Hardcastle, N; Booth, J; Caillet, V
Purpose: To assess endo-bronchial electromagnetic beacon insertion and to quantify the geometric accuracy of using beacons as a surrogate for tumour motion in real-time multileaf collimator (MLC) tracking of lung tumours. Methods: The LIGHT SABR trial is a world-first clinical trial in which the MLC leaves move with lung tumours in real time on a standard linear accelerator. Tracking is performed based on implanted electromagnetic beacons (CalypsoTM, Varian Medical Systems, USA) as a surrogate for tumour motion. Five patients have been treated and have each had three beacons implanted endo-bronchially under fluoroscopic guidance. The centre of mass (C.O.M) has beenmore » used to adapt the MLC in real-time. The geometric error in using the beacon C.O.M as a surrogate for tumour motion was measured by measuring the tumour and beacon C.O.M in all phases of the respiratory cycle of a 4DCT. The surrogacy error was defined as the difference in beacon and tumour C.O.M relative to the reference phase (maximum exhale). Results: All five patients have had three beacons successfully implanted with no migration between simulation and end of treatment. Beacon placement relative to tumour C.O.M varied from 14 to 74 mm and in one patient spanned two lobes. Surrogacy error was measured in each patient on the simulation 4DCT and ranged from 0 to 3 mm. Surrogacy error as measured on 4DCT was subject to artefacts in mid-ventilation phases. Surrogacy error was a function of breathing phase and was typically larger at maximum inhale. Conclusion: Beacon placement and thus surrogacy error is a major component of geometric uncertainty in MLC tracking of lung tumours. Surrogacy error must be measured on each patient and incorporated into margin calculation. Reduction of surrogacy error is limited by airway anatomy, however should be taken into consideration when performing beacon insertion and planning. This research is funded by Varian Medical Systems via a collaborative research
Relationships of Measurement Error and Prediction Error in Observed-Score Regression
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moses, Tim
2012-01-01
The focus of this paper is assessing the impact of measurement errors on the prediction error of an observed-score regression. Measures are presented and described for decomposing the linear regression's prediction error variance into parts attributable to the true score variance and the error variances of the dependent variable and the predictor…
Kartush, J M
1996-11-01
Practicing medicine successfully requires that errors in diagnosis and treatment be minimized. Malpractice laws encourage litigators to ascribe all medical errors to incompetence and negligence. There are, however, many other causes of unintended outcomes. This article describes common causes of errors and suggests ways to minimize mistakes in otologic practice. Widespread dissemination of knowledge about common errors and their precursors can reduce the incidence of their occurrence. Consequently, laws should be passed to allow for a system of non-punitive, confidential reporting of errors and "near misses" that can be shared by physicians nationwide.
Rigorous derivation of porous-media phase-field equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmuck, Markus; Kalliadasis, Serafim
2017-11-01
The evolution of interfaces in Complex heterogeneous Multiphase Systems (CheMSs) plays a fundamental role in a wide range of scientific fields such as thermodynamic modelling of phase transitions, materials science, or as a computational tool for interfacial flow studies or material design. Here, we focus on phase-field equations in CheMSs such as porous media. To the best of our knowledge, we present the first rigorous derivation of error estimates for fourth order, upscaled, and nonlinear evolution equations. For CheMs with heterogeneity ɛ, we obtain the convergence rate ɛ 1 / 4 , which governs the error between the solution of the new upscaled formulation and the solution of the microscopic phase-field problem. This error behaviour has recently been validated computationally in. Due to the wide range of application of phase-field equations, we expect this upscaled formulation to allow for new modelling, analytic, and computational perspectives for interfacial transport and phase transformations in CheMSs. This work was supported by EPSRC, UK, through Grant Nos. EP/H034587/1, EP/L027186/1, EP/L025159/1, EP/L020564/1, EP/K008595/1, and EP/P011713/1 and from ERC via Advanced Grant No. 247031.
A prototype automatic phase compensation module
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Terry, John D.
1992-01-01
The growing demands for high gain and accurate satellite communication systems will necessitate the utilization of large reflector systems. One area of concern of reflector based satellite communication is large scale surface deformations due to thermal effects. These distortions, when present, can degrade the performance of the reflector system appreciable. This performance degradation is manifested by a decrease in peak gain, and increase in sidelobe level, and pointing errors. It is essential to compensate for these distortion effects and to maintain the required system performance in the operating space environment. For this reason the development of a technique to offset the degradation effects is highly desirable. Currently, most research is direct at developing better material for the reflector. These materials have a lower coefficient of linear expansion thereby reducing the surface errors. Alternatively, one can minimize the distortion effects of these large scale errors by adaptive phased array compensation. Adaptive phased array techniques have been studied extensively at NASA and elsewhere. Presented in this paper is a prototype automatic phase compensation module designed and built at NASA Lewis Research Center which is the first stage of development for an adaptive array compensation module.
Coherent detection of position errors in inter-satellite laser communications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Nan; Liu, Liren; Liu, De'an; Sun, Jianfeng; Luan, Zhu
2007-09-01
Due to the improved receiver sensitivity and wavelength selectivity, coherent detection became an attractive alternative to direct detection in inter-satellite laser communications. A novel method to coherent detection of position errors information is proposed. Coherent communication system generally consists of receive telescope, local oscillator, optical hybrid, photoelectric detector and optical phase lock loop (OPLL). Based on the system composing, this method adds CCD and computer as position error detector. CCD captures interference pattern while detection of transmission data from the transmitter laser. After processed and analyzed by computer, target position information is obtained from characteristic parameter of the interference pattern. The position errors as the control signal of PAT subsystem drive the receiver telescope to keep tracking to the target. Theoretical deviation and analysis is presented. The application extends to coherent laser rang finder, in which object distance and position information can be obtained simultaneously.
Visuomotor adaptation needs a validation of prediction error by feedback error
Gaveau, Valérie; Prablanc, Claude; Laurent, Damien; Rossetti, Yves; Priot, Anne-Emmanuelle
2014-01-01
The processes underlying short-term plasticity induced by visuomotor adaptation to a shifted visual field are still debated. Two main sources of error can induce motor adaptation: reaching feedback errors, which correspond to visually perceived discrepancies between hand and target positions, and errors between predicted and actual visual reafferences of the moving hand. These two sources of error are closely intertwined and difficult to disentangle, as both the target and the reaching limb are simultaneously visible. Accordingly, the goal of the present study was to clarify the relative contributions of these two types of errors during a pointing task under prism-displaced vision. In “terminal feedback error” condition, viewing of their hand by subjects was allowed only at movement end, simultaneously with viewing of the target. In “movement prediction error” condition, viewing of the hand was limited to movement duration, in the absence of any visual target, and error signals arose solely from comparisons between predicted and actual reafferences of the hand. In order to prevent intentional corrections of errors, a subthreshold, progressive stepwise increase in prism deviation was used, so that subjects remained unaware of the visual deviation applied in both conditions. An adaptive aftereffect was observed in the “terminal feedback error” condition only. As far as subjects remained unaware of the optical deviation and self-assigned pointing errors, prediction error alone was insufficient to induce adaptation. These results indicate a critical role of hand-to-target feedback error signals in visuomotor adaptation; consistent with recent neurophysiological findings, they suggest that a combination of feedback and prediction error signals is necessary for eliciting aftereffects. They also suggest that feedback error updates the prediction of reafferences when a visual perturbation is introduced gradually and cognitive factors are eliminated or strongly
3D displacement time series in the Afar rift zone computed from SAR phase and amplitude information
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casu, Francesco; Manconi, Andrea
2013-04-01
Large and rapid deformations, such as those caused by earthquakes, eruptions, and landslides cannot be fully measured by using standard DInSAR applications. Indeed, the phase information often degrades and some areas of the interferograms are affected by high fringe rates, leading to difficulties in the phase unwrapping, and/or to complete loss of coherence due to significant misregistration errors. This limitation can be overcome by exploiting the SAR image amplitude information instead of the phase, and by calculating the Pixel-Offset (PO) field SAR image pairs, for both range and azimuth directions. Moreover, it is possible to combine the PO results by following the same rationale of the SBAS technique, to finally retrieve the offset-based deformation time series. Such technique, named PO-SBAS, permits to retrieve the deformation field in areas affected by very large displacements at an accuracy that, for ENVISAT data, correspond to 30 cm and 15 cm for the range and azimuth, respectively [1]. Moreover, the combination of SBAS and PO-SBAS time series can help to better study and model deformation phenomena characterized by spatial and temporal heterogeneities [2]. The Dabbahu rift segment of the Afar depression has been active since 2005 when a 2.5 km3 dyke intrusion and hundreds of earthquakes marked the onset a rifting episode which continues to date. The ENVISAT satellite has repeatedly imaged the Afar depression since 2003, generating a large SAR archive. In this work, we study the Afar rift region deformations by using both the phase and amplitude information of several sets of SAR images acquired from ascending and descending ENVISAT tracks. We combined sets of small baseline interferograms through the SBAS algorithm, and we generate both ground deformation maps and time series along the satellite Line-Of-Sight (LOS). In areas where the deformation gradient causes loss of coherence, we retrieve the displacement field through the amplitude information
Update: Validation, Edits, and Application Processing. Phase II and Error-Prone Model Report.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gray, Susan; And Others
An update to the Validation, Edits, and Application Processing and Error-Prone Model Report (Section 1, July 3, 1980) is presented. The objective is to present the most current data obtained from the June 1980 Basic Educational Opportunity Grant applicant and recipient files and to determine whether the findings reported in Section 1 of the July…
Elimination of numerical diffusion in 1 - phase and 2 - phase flows
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Rajamaeki, M.
1997-07-01
The new hydraulics solution method PLIM (Piecewise Linear Interpolation Method) is capable of avoiding the excessive errors, numerical diffusion and also numerical dispersion. The hydraulics solver CFDPLIM uses PLIM and solves the time-dependent one-dimensional flow equations in network geometry. An example is given for 1-phase flow in the case when thermal-hydraulics and reactor kinetics are strongly coupled. Another example concerns oscillations in 2-phase flow. Both the example computations are not possible with conventional methods.
Hitti, Eveline; Tamim, Hani; Bakhti, Rinad; Zebian, Dina; Mufarrij, Afif
2017-01-01
Introduction Medication errors are common, with studies reporting at least one error per patient encounter. At hospital discharge, medication errors vary from 15%–38%. However, studies assessing the effect of an internally developed electronic (E)-prescription system at discharge from an emergency department (ED) are comparatively minimal. Additionally, commercially available electronic solutions are cost-prohibitive in many resource-limited settings. We assessed the impact of introducing an internally developed, low-cost E-prescription system, with a list of commonly prescribed medications, on prescription error rates at discharge from the ED, compared to handwritten prescriptions. Methods We conducted a pre- and post-intervention study comparing error rates in a randomly selected sample of discharge prescriptions (handwritten versus electronic) five months pre and four months post the introduction of the E-prescription. The internally developed, E-prescription system included a list of 166 commonly prescribed medications with the generic name, strength, dose, frequency and duration. We included a total of 2,883 prescriptions in this study: 1,475 in the pre-intervention phase were handwritten (HW) and 1,408 in the post-intervention phase were electronic. We calculated rates of 14 different errors and compared them between the pre- and post-intervention period. Results Overall, E-prescriptions included fewer prescription errors as compared to HW-prescriptions. Specifically, E-prescriptions reduced missing dose (11.3% to 4.3%, p <0.0001), missing frequency (3.5% to 2.2%, p=0.04), missing strength errors (32.4% to 10.2%, p <0.0001) and legibility (0.7% to 0.2%, p=0.005). E-prescriptions, however, were associated with a significant increase in duplication errors, specifically with home medication (1.7% to 3%, p=0.02). Conclusion A basic, internally developed E-prescription system, featuring commonly used medications, effectively reduced medication errors in a low
Effect of DM Actuator Errors on the WFIRST/AFTA Coronagraph Contrast Performance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sidick, Erkin; Shi, Fang
2015-01-01
The WFIRST/AFTA 2.4 m space telescope currently under study includes a stellar coronagraph for the imaging and the spectral characterization of extrasolar planets. The coronagraph employs two sequential deformable mirrors (DMs) to compensate for phase and amplitude errors in creating dark holes. DMs are critical elements in high contrast coronagraphs, requiring precision and stability measured in picometers to enable detection of Earth-like exoplanets. Working with a low-order wavefront-sensor the DM that is conjugate to a pupil can also be used to correct low-order wavefront drift during a scientific observation. However, not all actuators in a DM have the same gain. When using such a DM in low-order wavefront sensing and control subsystem, the actuator gain errors introduce high-spatial frequency errors to the DM surface and thus worsen the contrast performance of the coronagraph. We have investigated the effects of actuator gain errors and the actuator command digitization errors on the contrast performance of the coronagraph through modeling and simulations, and will present our results in this paper.
Duong, Minh V; Nguyen, Hieu T; Mai, Tam V-T; Huynh, Lam K
2018-01-03
Master equation/Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (ME/RRKM) has shown to be a powerful framework for modeling kinetic and dynamic behaviors of a complex gas-phase chemical system on a complicated multiple-species and multiple-channel potential energy surface (PES) for a wide range of temperatures and pressures. Derived from the ME time-resolved species profiles, the macroscopic or phenomenological rate coefficients are essential for many reaction engineering applications including those in combustion and atmospheric chemistry. Therefore, in this study, a least-squares-based approach named Global Minimum Profile Error (GMPE) was proposed and implemented in the MultiSpecies-MultiChannel (MSMC) code (Int. J. Chem. Kinet., 2015, 47, 564) to extract macroscopic rate coefficients for such a complicated system. The capability and limitations of the new approach were discussed in several well-defined test cases.
Phase ambiguity resolution for offset QPSK modulation systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nguyen, Tien M. (Inventor)
1991-01-01
A demodulator for Offset Quaternary Phase Shift Keyed (OQPSK) signals modulated with two words resolves eight possible combinations of phase ambiguity which may produce data error by first processing received I(sub R) and Q(sub R) data in an integrated carrier loop/symbol synchronizer using a digital Costas loop with matched filters for correcting four of eight possible phase lock errors, and then the remaining four using a phase ambiguity resolver which detects the words to not only reverse the received I(sub R) and Q(sub R) data channels, but to also invert (complement) the I(sub R) and/or Q(sub R) data, or to at least complement the I(sub R) and Q(sub R) data for systems using nontransparent codes that do not have rotation direction ambiguity.
Quantum-state anomaly detection for arbitrary errors using a machine-learning technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hara, Satoshi; Ono, Takafumi; Okamoto, Ryo; Washio, Takashi; Takeuchi, Shigeki
2016-10-01
The accurate detection of small deviations in given density matrice is important for quantum information processing, which is a difficult task because of the intrinsic fluctuation in density matrices reconstructed using a limited number of experiments. We previously proposed a method for decoherence error detection using a machine-learning technique [S. Hara, T. Ono, R. Okamoto, T. Washio, and S. Takeuchi, Phys. Rev. A 89, 022104 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevA.89.022104]. However, the previous method is not valid when the errors are just changes in phase. Here, we propose a method that is valid for arbitrary errors in density matrices. The performance of the proposed method is verified using both numerical simulation data and real experimental data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blucker, T. J.; Ferry, W. W.
1971-01-01
An error model is described for the Apollo 15 sun compass, a contingency navigational device. Field test data are presented along with significant results of the test. The errors reported include a random error resulting from tilt in leveling the sun compass, a random error because of observer sighting inaccuracies, a bias error because of mean tilt in compass leveling, a bias error in the sun compass itself, and a bias error because the device is leveled to the local terrain slope.
Propagation of coherent light pulses with PHASE
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bahrdt, J.; Flechsig, U.; Grizzoli, W.; Siewert, F.
2014-09-01
The current status of the software package PHASE for the propagation of coherent light pulses along a synchrotron radiation beamline is presented. PHASE is based on an asymptotic expansion of the Fresnel-Kirchhoff integral (stationary phase approximation) which is usually truncated at the 2nd order. The limits of this approximation as well as possible extensions to higher orders are discussed. The accuracy is benchmarked against a direct integration of the Fresnel-Kirchhoff integral. Long range slope errors of optical elements can be included by means of 8th order polynomials in the optical element coordinates w and l. Only recently, a method for the description of short range slope errors has been implemented. The accuracy of this method is evaluated and examples for realistic slope errors are given. PHASE can be run either from a built-in graphical user interface or from any script language. The latter method provides substantial flexibility. Optical elements including apertures can be combined. Complete wave packages can be propagated, as well. Fourier propagators are included in the package, thus, the user may choose between a variety of propagators. Several means to speed up the computation time were tested - among them are the parallelization in a multi core environment and the parallelization on a cluster.
Topological quantum error correction in the Kitaev honeycomb model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Yi-Chan; Brell, Courtney G.; Flammia, Steven T.
2017-08-01
The Kitaev honeycomb model is an approximate topological quantum error correcting code in the same phase as the toric code, but requiring only a 2-body Hamiltonian. As a frustrated spin model, it is well outside the commuting models of topological quantum codes that are typically studied, but its exact solubility makes it more amenable to analysis of effects arising in this noncommutative setting than a generic topologically ordered Hamiltonian. Here we study quantum error correction in the honeycomb model using both analytic and numerical techniques. We first prove explicit exponential bounds on the approximate degeneracy, local indistinguishability, and correctability of the code space. These bounds are tighter than can be achieved using known general properties of topological phases. Our proofs are specialized to the honeycomb model, but some of the methods may nonetheless be of broader interest. Following this, we numerically study noise caused by thermalization processes in the perturbative regime close to the toric code renormalization group fixed point. The appearance of non-topological excitations in this setting has no significant effect on the error correction properties of the honeycomb model in the regimes we study. Although the behavior of this model is found to be qualitatively similar to that of the standard toric code in most regimes, we find numerical evidence of an interesting effect in the low-temperature, finite-size regime where a preferred lattice direction emerges and anyon diffusion is geometrically constrained. We expect this effect to yield an improvement in the scaling of the lifetime with system size as compared to the standard toric code.
Chen, Yi-Ching; Lin, Yen-Ting; Chang, Gwo-Ching; Hwang, Ing-Shiou
2017-01-01
The detection of error information is an essential prerequisite of a feedback-based movement. This study investigated the differential behavior and neurophysiological mechanisms of a cyclic force-tracking task using error-reducing and error-enhancing feedback. The discharge patterns of a relatively large number of motor units (MUs) were assessed with custom-designed multi-channel surface electromyography following mathematical decomposition of the experimentally-measured signals. Force characteristics, force-discharge relation, and phase-locking cortical activities in the contralateral motor cortex to individual MUs were contrasted among the low (LSF), normal (NSF), and high scaling factor (HSF) conditions, in which the sizes of online execution errors were displayed with various amplification ratios. Along with a spectral shift of the force output toward a lower band, force output with a more phase-lead became less irregular, and tracking accuracy was worse in the LSF condition than in the HSF condition. The coherent discharge of high phasic (HP) MUs with the target signal was greater, and inter-spike intervals were larger, in the LSF condition than in the HSF condition. Force-tracking in the LSF condition manifested with stronger phase-locked EEG activity in the contralateral motor cortex to discharge of the (HP) MUs (LSF > NSF, HSF). The coherent discharge of the (HP) MUs during the cyclic force-tracking predominated the force-discharge relation, which increased inversely to the error scaling factor. In conclusion, the size of visualized error gates motor unit discharge, force-discharge relation, and the relative influences of the feedback and feedforward processes on force control. A smaller visualized error size favors voluntary force control using a feedforward process, in relation to a selective central modulation that enhance the coherent discharge of (HP) MUs. PMID:28348530
Chen, Yi-Ching; Lin, Yen-Ting; Chang, Gwo-Ching; Hwang, Ing-Shiou
2017-01-01
The detection of error information is an essential prerequisite of a feedback-based movement. This study investigated the differential behavior and neurophysiological mechanisms of a cyclic force-tracking task using error-reducing and error-enhancing feedback. The discharge patterns of a relatively large number of motor units (MUs) were assessed with custom-designed multi-channel surface electromyography following mathematical decomposition of the experimentally-measured signals. Force characteristics, force-discharge relation, and phase-locking cortical activities in the contralateral motor cortex to individual MUs were contrasted among the low (LSF), normal (NSF), and high scaling factor (HSF) conditions, in which the sizes of online execution errors were displayed with various amplification ratios. Along with a spectral shift of the force output toward a lower band, force output with a more phase-lead became less irregular, and tracking accuracy was worse in the LSF condition than in the HSF condition. The coherent discharge of high phasic (HP) MUs with the target signal was greater, and inter-spike intervals were larger, in the LSF condition than in the HSF condition. Force-tracking in the LSF condition manifested with stronger phase-locked EEG activity in the contralateral motor cortex to discharge of the (HP) MUs (LSF > NSF, HSF). The coherent discharge of the (HP) MUs during the cyclic force-tracking predominated the force-discharge relation, which increased inversely to the error scaling factor. In conclusion, the size of visualized error gates motor unit discharge, force-discharge relation, and the relative influences of the feedback and feedforward processes on force control. A smaller visualized error size favors voluntary force control using a feedforward process, in relation to a selective central modulation that enhance the coherent discharge of (HP) MUs.
Advanced Information Processing System - Fault detection and error handling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lala, J. H.
1985-01-01
The Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is designed to provide a fault tolerant and damage tolerant data processing architecture for a broad range of aerospace vehicles, including tactical and transport aircraft, and manned and autonomous spacecraft. A proof-of-concept (POC) system is now in the detailed design and fabrication phase. This paper gives an overview of a preliminary fault detection and error handling philosophy in AIPS.
Guo, Tong; Chen, Zhuo; Li, Minghui; Wu, Juhong; Fu, Xing; Hu, Xiaotang
2018-04-20
Based on white-light spectral interferometry and the Linnik microscopic interference configuration, the nonlinear phase components of the spectral interferometric signal were analyzed for film thickness measurement. The spectral interferometric signal was obtained using a Linnik microscopic white-light spectral interferometer, which includes the nonlinear phase components associated with the effective thickness, the nonlinear phase error caused by the double-objective lens, and the nonlinear phase of the thin film itself. To determine the influence of the effective thickness, a wavelength-correction method was proposed that converts the effective thickness into a constant value; the nonlinear phase caused by the effective thickness can then be determined and subtracted from the total nonlinear phase. A method for the extraction of the nonlinear phase error caused by the double-objective lens was also proposed. Accurate thickness measurement of a thin film can be achieved by fitting the nonlinear phase of the thin film after removal of the nonlinear phase caused by the effective thickness and by the nonlinear phase error caused by the double-objective lens. The experimental results demonstrated that both the wavelength-correction method and the extraction method for the nonlinear phase error caused by the double-objective lens improve the accuracy of film thickness measurements.
Error minimization algorithm for comparative quantitative PCR analysis: Q-Anal.
OConnor, William; Runquist, Elizabeth A
2008-07-01
Current methods for comparative quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis, the threshold and extrapolation methods, either make assumptions about PCR efficiency that require an arbitrary threshold selection process or extrapolate to estimate relative levels of messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts. Here we describe an algorithm, Q-Anal, that blends elements from current methods to by-pass assumptions regarding PCR efficiency and improve the threshold selection process to minimize error in comparative qPCR analysis. This algorithm uses iterative linear regression to identify the exponential phase for both target and reference amplicons and then selects, by minimizing linear regression error, a fluorescence threshold where efficiencies for both amplicons have been defined. From this defined fluorescence threshold, cycle time (Ct) and the error for both amplicons are calculated and used to determine the expression ratio. Ratios in complementary DNA (cDNA) dilution assays from qPCR data were analyzed by the Q-Anal method and compared with the threshold method and an extrapolation method. Dilution ratios determined by the Q-Anal and threshold methods were 86 to 118% of the expected cDNA ratios, but relative errors for the Q-Anal method were 4 to 10% in comparison with 4 to 34% for the threshold method. In contrast, ratios determined by an extrapolation method were 32 to 242% of the expected cDNA ratios, with relative errors of 67 to 193%. Q-Anal will be a valuable and quick method for minimizing error in comparative qPCR analysis.
Determining the location of buried plastic water pipes from measurements of ground surface vibration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muggleton, J. M.; Brennan, M. J.; Gao, Y.
2011-09-01
‘Mapping the Underworld' is a UK-based project, which aims to create a multi-sensor device that combines complementary technologies for remote buried utility service detection and location. One of the technologies to be incorporated in the device is low-frequency vibro-acoustics, and techniques for detecting buried infrastructure, in particular plastic water pipes, are being investigated. One of the proposed techniques involves excitation of the pipe at some known location with concurrent vibrational mapping of the ground surface in order to infer the location of the remainder of the pipe. In this paper, measurements made on a dedicated pipe rig are reported. Frequency response measurements relating vibrational velocity on the ground to the input excitation were acquired. Contour plots of the unwrapped phase revealed the location of the pipe to within 0.1-0.2 m. Magnitude contour plots revealed the excitation point and also the location of the pipe end. By examining the unwrapped phase gradients along a line above the pipe, it was possible to identify the wave-type within the pipe responsible for the ground surface vibration. Furthermore, changes in the ground surface phase speed computed using this method enabled the location of the end of the pipe to be confirmed.
Testing and Calibration of Phase Plates for JWST Optical Simulator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gong, Qian; Chu, Jenny; Tournois, Severine; Eichhorn, William; Kubalak, David
2011-01-01
Three phase plates were designed to simulate the JWST segmented primary mirror wavefront at three on-orbit alignment stages: coarse phasing, intermediate phasing, and fine phasing. The purpose is to verify JWST's on-orbit wavefront sensing capability. Amongst the three stages, coarse alignment is defined to have piston error between adjacent segments being 30 m to 300 m, intermediate being 0.4 m to 10 m, and fine is below 0.4 m. The phase plates were made of fused silica, and were assembled in JWST Optical Simulator (OSIM). The piston difference was realized by the thickness difference of two adjacent segments. The two important parameters to phase plates are piston and wavefront errors. Dispersed Fringe Sensor (DFS) method was used for initial coarse piston evaluation, which is the emphasis of this paper. Point Diffraction Interferometer (PDI) is used for fine piston and wavefront error. In order to remove piston's 2 pi uncertainty with PDI, three laser wavelengths, 640nm, 660nm, and 780nm, are used for the measurement. The DHS test setup, analysis algorithm and results are presented. The phase plate design concept and its application (i.e. verifying the JWST on-orbit alignment algorithm) are described. The layout of JWST OSIM and the function of phase plates in OSIM are also addressed briefly.
The Afar rift zone deformation dynamics retrieved through phase and amplitude SAR data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casu, F.; Pagli, C.; Paglia, L.; Wang, H.; Wright, T. J.; Lanari, R.
2011-12-01
The Dabbahu rift segment of the Afar depression has been active since 2005 when a 2.5 km3 dyke intrusion and hundreds of earthquakes marked the onset a rifting episode which continues to date. Since 2003, the Afar depression has been repeatedly imaged by the ENVISAT satellite, generating a large SAR archive which allow us to study the ongoing deformation processes and the dynamics of magma movements. We combine sets of small baseline interferograms through the advanced DInSAR algorithm referred to as Small BAseline Subset (SBAS), and we generate both ground deformation maps and time series along the satellite Line-Of-Sight (LOS), with accuracies on the order of 5 mm. The main limitation of DInSAR applications is that large and rapid deformations, such as those caused by dyke intrusions and eruptions in Afar, cannot be fully measured. The phase information often degrades and some areas of the interferograms are affected by high fringe rates, leading to difficulties in the phase unwrapping, and/or to complete loss of coherence due to significant misregistration errors. This limitation can be overcome by exploiting the SAR image amplitude information instead of the phase, and by calculating the Pixel-Offset (PO) field of a given SAR image pair, for both range and azimuth directions. Moreover, after computing the POs for each image pair, it is possible to combine them, following the same rationale of the SBAS technique, to finally retrieve the offset-based deformation time series. Such technique, named PO-SBAS, permits to retrieve the deformation field in areas affected by very large displacements at an accuracy that, for ENVISAT data, correspond to 30cm and 15 cm for the range and azimuth, respectively. In this work, we study the Afar rift region deformations by using both the phase and amplitude information of several sets of SAR images acquired from ascending and descending ENVISAT tracks. In particular, we use the phase information to construct dense and accurate
Phase-modulated decoupling and error suppression in qubit-oscillator systems.
Green, Todd J; Biercuk, Michael J
2015-03-27
We present a scheme designed to suppress the dominant source of infidelity in entangling gates between quantum systems coupled through intermediate bosonic oscillator modes. Such systems are particularly susceptible to residual qubit-oscillator entanglement at the conclusion of a gate period that reduces the fidelity of the target entangling operation. We demonstrate how the exclusive use of discrete shifts in the phase of the field moderating the qubit-oscillator interaction is sufficient to both ensure multiple oscillator modes are decoupled and to suppress the effects of fluctuations in the driving field. This approach is amenable to a wide variety of technical implementations including geometric phase gates in superconducting qubits and the Molmer-Sorensen gate for trapped ions. We present detailed example protocols tailored to trapped-ion experiments and demonstrate that our approach has the potential to enable multiqubit gate implementation with a significant reduction in technical complexity relative to previously demonstrated protocols.
Casner, Stephen M
2009-05-01
Four types of advanced cockpit systems were tested in an in-flight experiment for their effect on pilot workload and error. Twelve experienced pilots flew conventional cockpit and advanced cockpit versions of the same make and model airplane. In both airplanes, the experimenter dictated selected combinations of cockpit systems for each pilot to use while soliciting subjective workload measures and recording any errors that pilots made. The results indicate that the use of a GPS navigation computer helped reduce workload and errors during some phases of flight but raised them in others. Autopilots helped reduce some aspects of workload in the advanced cockpit airplane but did not appear to reduce workload in the conventional cockpit. Electronic flight and navigation instruments appeared to have no effect on workload or error. Despite this modest showing for advanced cockpit systems, pilots stated an overwhelming preference for using them during all phases of flight.
Dissipative quantum error correction and application to quantum sensing with trapped ions.
Reiter, F; Sørensen, A S; Zoller, P; Muschik, C A
2017-11-28
Quantum-enhanced measurements hold the promise to improve high-precision sensing ranging from the definition of time standards to the determination of fundamental constants of nature. However, quantum sensors lose their sensitivity in the presence of noise. To protect them, the use of quantum error-correcting codes has been proposed. Trapped ions are an excellent technological platform for both quantum sensing and quantum error correction. Here we present a quantum error correction scheme that harnesses dissipation to stabilize a trapped-ion qubit. In our approach, always-on couplings to an engineered environment protect the qubit against spin-flips or phase-flips. Our dissipative error correction scheme operates in a continuous manner without the need to perform measurements or feedback operations. We show that the resulting enhanced coherence time translates into a significantly enhanced precision for quantum measurements. Our work constitutes a stepping stone towards the paradigm of self-correcting quantum information processing.
Digital second-order phase-locked loop
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holmes, J. K.; Carl, C. C.; Tagnelia, C. R.
1975-01-01
Actual tests with second-order digital phase-locked loop at simulated relative Doppler shift of 1x0.0001 produced phase lock with timing error of 6.5 deg and no appreciable Doppler bias. Loop thus appears to achieve subcarrier synchronization and to remove bias due to Doppler shift in range of interest.
Error Tracking System is a database used to store & track error notifications sent by users of EPA's web site. ETS is managed by OIC/OEI. OECA's ECHO & OEI Envirofacts use it. Error notifications from EPA's home Page under Contact Us also uses it.
The statistical properties and possible causes of polar motion prediction errors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kosek, Wieslaw; Kalarus, Maciej; Wnek, Agnieszka; Zbylut-Gorska, Maria
2015-08-01
The pole coordinate data predictions from different prediction contributors of the Earth Orientation Parameters Combination of Prediction Pilot Project (EOPCPPP) were studied to determine the statistical properties of polar motion forecasts by looking at the time series of differences between them and the future IERS pole coordinates data. The mean absolute errors, standard deviations as well as the skewness and kurtosis of these differences were computed together with their error bars as a function of prediction length. The ensemble predictions show a little smaller mean absolute errors or standard deviations however their skewness and kurtosis values are similar as the for predictions from different contributors. The skewness and kurtosis enable to check whether these prediction differences satisfy normal distribution. The kurtosis values diminish with the prediction length which means that the probability distribution of these prediction differences is becoming more platykurtic than letptokurtic. Non zero skewness values result from oscillating character of these differences for particular prediction lengths which can be due to the irregular change of the annual oscillation phase in the joint fluid (atmospheric + ocean + land hydrology) excitation functions. The variations of the annual oscillation phase computed by the combination of the Fourier transform band pass filter and the Hilbert transform from pole coordinates data as well as from pole coordinates model data obtained from fluid excitations are in a good agreement.
... and lens of your eye helps you focus. Refractive errors are vision problems that happen when the shape ... cornea, or aging of the lens. Four common refractive errors are Myopia, or nearsightedness - clear vision close up ...
Olson, Eric J.
2013-06-11
An apparatus, program product, and method that run an algorithm on a hardware based processor, generate a hardware error as a result of running the algorithm, generate an algorithm output for the algorithm, compare the algorithm output to another output for the algorithm, and detect the hardware error from the comparison. The algorithm is designed to cause the hardware based processor to heat to a degree that increases the likelihood of hardware errors to manifest, and the hardware error is observable in the algorithm output. As such, electronic components may be sufficiently heated and/or sufficiently stressed to create better conditions for generating hardware errors, and the output of the algorithm may be compared at the end of the run to detect a hardware error that occurred anywhere during the run that may otherwise not be detected by traditional methodologies (e.g., due to cooling, insufficient heat and/or stress, etc.).
Aircraft system modeling error and control error
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kulkarni, Nilesh V. (Inventor); Kaneshige, John T. (Inventor); Krishnakumar, Kalmanje S. (Inventor); Burken, John J. (Inventor)
2012-01-01
A method for modeling error-driven adaptive control of an aircraft. Normal aircraft plant dynamics is modeled, using an original plant description in which a controller responds to a tracking error e(k) to drive the component to a normal reference value according to an asymptote curve. Where the system senses that (1) at least one aircraft plant component is experiencing an excursion and (2) the return of this component value toward its reference value is not proceeding according to the expected controller characteristics, neural network (NN) modeling of aircraft plant operation may be changed. However, if (1) is satisfied but the error component is returning toward its reference value according to expected controller characteristics, the NN will continue to model operation of the aircraft plant according to an original description.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rao, Xiong; Tang, Yunwei
2014-11-01
Land surface deformation evidently exists in a newly-built high-speed railway in the southeast of China. In this study, we utilize the Small BAseline Subsets (SBAS)-Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) technique to detect land surface deformation along the railway. In this work, 40 Cosmo-SkyMed satellite images were selected to analyze the spatial distribution and velocity of the deformation in study area. 88 pairs of image with high coherence were firstly chosen with an appropriate threshold. These images were used to deduce the deformation velocity map and the variation in time series. This result can provide information for orbit correctness and ground control point (GCP) selection in the following steps. Then, more pairs of image were selected to tighten the constraint in time dimension, and to improve the final result by decreasing the phase unwrapping error. 171 combinations of SAR pairs were ultimately selected. Reliable GCPs were re-selected according to the previously derived deformation velocity map. Orbital residuals error was rectified using these GCPs, and nonlinear deformation components were estimated. Therefore, a more accurate surface deformation velocity map was produced. Precise geodetic leveling work was implemented in the meantime. We compared the leveling result with the geocoding SBAS product using the nearest neighbour method. The mean error and standard deviation of the error were respectively 0.82 mm and 4.17 mm. This result demonstrates the effectiveness of DInSAR technique for monitoring land surface deformation, which can serve as a reliable decision for supporting highspeed railway project design, construction, operation and maintenance.
Error Analysis System for Spacecraft Navigation Using the Global Positioning System (GPS)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Truong, S. H.; Hart, R. C.; Hartman, K. R.; Tomcsik, T. L.; Searl, J. E.; Bernstein, A.
1997-01-01
The Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is currently developing improved space-navigation filtering algorithms to use the Global Positioning System (GPS) for autonomous real-time onboard orbit determination. In connection with a GPS technology demonstration on the Small Satellite Technology Initiative (SSTI)/Lewis spacecraft, FDD analysts and programmers have teamed with the GSFC Guidance, Navigation, and Control Branch to develop the GPS Enhanced Orbit Determination Experiment (GEODE) system. The GEODE system consists of a Kalman filter operating as a navigation tool for estimating the position, velocity, and additional states required to accurately navigate the orbiting Lewis spacecraft by using astrodynamic modeling and GPS measurements from the receiver. A parallel effort at the FDD is the development of a GPS Error Analysis System (GEAS) that will be used to analyze and improve navigation filtering algorithms during development phases and during in-flight calibration. For GEAS, the Kalman filter theory is extended to estimate the errors in position, velocity, and other error states of interest. The estimation of errors in physical variables at regular intervals will allow the time, cause, and effect of navigation system weaknesses to be identified. In addition, by modeling a sufficient set of navigation system errors, a system failure that causes an observed error anomaly can be traced and accounted for. The GEAS software is formulated using Object Oriented Design (OOD) techniques implemented in the C++ programming language on a Sun SPARC workstation. The Phase 1 of this effort is the development of a basic system to be used to evaluate navigation algorithms implemented in the GEODE system. This paper presents the GEAS mathematical methodology, systems and operations concepts, and software design and implementation. Results from the use of the basic system to evaluate
Improvement in error propagation in the Shack-Hartmann-type zonal wavefront sensors.
Pathak, Biswajit; Boruah, Bosanta R
2017-12-01
Estimation of the wavefront from measured slope values is an essential step in a Shack-Hartmann-type wavefront sensor. Using an appropriate estimation algorithm, these measured slopes are converted into wavefront phase values. Hence, accuracy in wavefront estimation lies in proper interpretation of these measured slope values using the chosen estimation algorithm. There are two important sources of errors associated with the wavefront estimation process, namely, the slope measurement error and the algorithm discretization error. The former type is due to the noise in the slope measurements or to the detector centroiding error, and the latter is a consequence of solving equations of a basic estimation algorithm adopted onto a discrete geometry. These errors deserve particular attention, because they decide the preference of a specific estimation algorithm for wavefront estimation. In this paper, we investigate these two important sources of errors associated with the wavefront estimation algorithms of Shack-Hartmann-type wavefront sensors. We consider the widely used Southwell algorithm and the recently proposed Pathak-Boruah algorithm [J. Opt.16, 055403 (2014)JOOPDB0150-536X10.1088/2040-8978/16/5/055403] and perform a comparative study between the two. We find that the latter algorithm is inherently superior to the Southwell algorithm in terms of the error propagation performance. We also conduct experiments that further establish the correctness of the comparative study between the said two estimation algorithms.
Geodetic Measurements and Mechanical Models of Cyclic Deformation at Okmok Volcano, Alaska
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feigl, K.; Masterlark, T.; Lu, Z.; Ohlendorf, S. J.; Thurber, C. H.; Sigmundsson, F.
2009-12-01
The 1997 and 2008 eruptions of Okmok volcano, Alaska, provide a rare opportunity for conducting a rheological experiment to unravel the complex processes associated with magma migration, storage, and eruption in an active volcano. In this experiment, the magma flux during the eruption provides the “impulse” and the subsequent, transient deformation, the “response”. By simulating the impulse, measuring the response, and interpreting the constitutive relations between the two, one can infer the rheology. Okmok is an excellent natural laboratory for such an experiment because a complete cycle of deformation has been monitored using geodetic and seismic means, including: (a) geodetic time series from Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and the Global Positioning System (GPS), (b) earthquake locations; and (c) seismic tomography. We are developing quantitative models using the Finite Element Method (FEM) to simulate the timing and location of the observed seismicity and deformation by accounting for: (a) the geometry and loading of the magma chamber and lava flow, (b) the spatial distribution of material properties; and (c) the constitutive (rheological) relations between stress and strain. Here, we test the hypothesis that the deformation following the 1997 eruption did not reach a steady state before the eruption in 2008. To do so, we iteratively confront the FEM models with the InSAR measurements using the General Inversion of Phase Technique (GIPhT). This approach models the InSAR phase data directly, without unwrapping, as developed, validated, and applied by Feigl and Thurber [Geophys. J. Int., 2009]. By minimizing a cost function that quantifies the misfit between observed and modeled values in terms of “wrapped” phase (with values ranging from -1/2 to +1/2 cycles), GIPhT can estimate parameters in a geophysical model. By avoiding the pitfalls of phase-unwrapping approaches, GIPhT allows the analysis, interpretation and modeling of more
Effects of Listening Conditions, Error Types, and Ensemble Textures on Error Detection Skills
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Waggoner, Dori T.
2011-01-01
This study was designed with three main purposes: (a) to investigate the effects of two listening conditions on error detection accuracy, (b) to compare error detection responses for rhythm errors and pitch errors, and (c) to examine the influences of texture on error detection accuracy. Undergraduate music education students (N = 18) listened to…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buechler, W.; Tucker, A. G.
1981-01-01
Several methods were employed to detect both the occurrence and source of errors in the operational software of the AN/SLQ-32. A large embedded real time electronic warfare command and control system for the ROLM 1606 computer are presented. The ROLM computer provides information about invalid addressing, improper use of privileged instructions, stack overflows, and unimplemented instructions. Additionally, software techniques were developed to detect invalid jumps, indices out of range, infinte loops, stack underflows, and field size errors. Finally, data are saved to provide information about the status of the system when an error is detected. This information includes I/O buffers, interrupt counts, stack contents, and recently passed locations. The various errors detected, techniques to assist in debugging problems, and segment simulation on a nontarget computer are discussed. These error detection techniques were a major factor in the success of finding the primary cause of error in 98% of over 500 system dumps.
PLATFORM DEFORMATION PHASE CORRECTION FOR THE AMiBA-13 COPLANAR INTERFEROMETER
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Liao, Yu-Wei; Lin, Kai-Yang; Huang, Yau-De
2013-05-20
We present a new way to solve the platform deformation problem of coplanar interferometers. The platform of a coplanar interferometer can be deformed due to driving forces and gravity. A deformed platform will induce extra components into the geometric delay of each baseline and change the phases of observed visibilities. The reconstructed images will also be diluted due to the errors of the phases. The platform deformations of The Yuan-Tseh Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) were modeled based on photogrammetry data with about 20 mount pointing positions. We then used the differential optical pointing error between two opticalmore » telescopes to fit the model parameters in the entire horizontal coordinate space. With the platform deformation model, we can predict the errors of the geometric phase delays due to platform deformation with a given azimuth and elevation of the targets and calibrators. After correcting the phases of the radio point sources in the AMiBA interferometric data, we recover 50%-70% flux loss due to phase errors. This allows us to restore more than 90% of a source flux. The method outlined in this work is not only applicable to the correction of deformation for other coplanar telescopes but also to single-dish telescopes with deformation problems. This work also forms the basis of the upcoming science results of AMiBA-13.« less
Yelland, Lisa N; Kahan, Brennan C; Dent, Elsa; Lee, Katherine J; Voysey, Merryn; Forbes, Andrew B; Cook, Jonathan A
2018-06-01
Background/aims In clinical trials, it is not unusual for errors to occur during the process of recruiting, randomising and providing treatment to participants. For example, an ineligible participant may inadvertently be randomised, a participant may be randomised in the incorrect stratum, a participant may be randomised multiple times when only a single randomisation is permitted or the incorrect treatment may inadvertently be issued to a participant at randomisation. Such errors have the potential to introduce bias into treatment effect estimates and affect the validity of the trial, yet there is little motivation for researchers to report these errors and it is unclear how often they occur. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of recruitment, randomisation and treatment errors and review current approaches for reporting these errors in trials published in leading medical journals. Methods We conducted a systematic review of individually randomised, phase III, randomised controlled trials published in New England Journal of Medicine, Lancet, Journal of the American Medical Association, Annals of Internal Medicine and British Medical Journal from January to March 2015. The number and type of recruitment, randomisation and treatment errors that were reported and how they were handled were recorded. The corresponding authors were contacted for a random sample of trials included in the review and asked to provide details on unreported errors that occurred during their trial. Results We identified 241 potentially eligible articles, of which 82 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. These trials involved a median of 24 centres and 650 participants, and 87% involved two treatment arms. Recruitment, randomisation or treatment errors were reported in 32 in 82 trials (39%) that had a median of eight errors. The most commonly reported error was ineligible participants inadvertently being randomised. No mention of recruitment, randomisation
Two-sample binary phase 2 trials with low type I error and low sample size
Litwin, Samuel; Basickes, Stanley; Ross, Eric A.
2017-01-01
Summary We address design of two-stage clinical trials comparing experimental and control patients. Our end-point is success or failure, however measured, with null hypothesis that the chance of success in both arms is p0 and alternative that it is p0 among controls and p1 > p0 among experimental patients. Standard rules will have the null hypothesis rejected when the number of successes in the (E)xperimental arm, E, sufficiently exceeds C, that among (C)ontrols. Here, we combine one-sample rejection decision rules, E ≥ m, with two-sample rules of the form E – C > r to achieve two-sample tests with low sample number and low type I error. We find designs with sample numbers not far from the minimum possible using standard two-sample rules, but with type I error of 5% rather than 15% or 20% associated with them, and of equal power. This level of type I error is achieved locally, near the stated null, and increases to 15% or 20% when the null is significantly higher than specified. We increase the attractiveness of these designs to patients by using 2:1 randomization. Examples of the application of this new design covering both high and low success rates under the null hypothesis are provided. PMID:28118686
Two-sample binary phase 2 trials with low type I error and low sample size.
Litwin, Samuel; Basickes, Stanley; Ross, Eric A
2017-04-30
We address design of two-stage clinical trials comparing experimental and control patients. Our end point is success or failure, however measured, with null hypothesis that the chance of success in both arms is p 0 and alternative that it is p 0 among controls and p 1 > p 0 among experimental patients. Standard rules will have the null hypothesis rejected when the number of successes in the (E)xperimental arm, E, sufficiently exceeds C, that among (C)ontrols. Here, we combine one-sample rejection decision rules, E⩾m, with two-sample rules of the form E - C > r to achieve two-sample tests with low sample number and low type I error. We find designs with sample numbers not far from the minimum possible using standard two-sample rules, but with type I error of 5% rather than 15% or 20% associated with them, and of equal power. This level of type I error is achieved locally, near the stated null, and increases to 15% or 20% when the null is significantly higher than specified. We increase the attractiveness of these designs to patients by using 2:1 randomization. Examples of the application of this new design covering both high and low success rates under the null hypothesis are provided. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Identifying and Correcting Timing Errors at Seismic Stations in and around Iran
Syracuse, Ellen Marie; Phillips, William Scott; Maceira, Monica; ...
2017-09-06
A fundamental component of seismic research is the use of phase arrival times, which are central to event location, Earth model development, and phase identification, as well as derived products. Hence, the accuracy of arrival times is crucial. However, errors in the timing of seismic waveforms and the arrival times based on them may go unidentified by the end user, particularly when seismic data are shared between different organizations. Here, we present a method used to analyze travel-time residuals for stations in and around Iran to identify time periods that are likely to contain station timing problems. For the 14more » stations with the strongest evidence of timing errors lasting one month or longer, timing corrections are proposed to address the problematic time periods. Finally, two additional stations are identified with incorrect locations in the International Registry of Seismograph Stations, and one is found to have erroneously reported arrival times in 2011.« less
Measurement Error and Equating Error in Power Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Phillips, Gary W.; Jiang, Tao
2016-01-01
Power analysis is a fundamental prerequisite for conducting scientific research. Without power analysis the researcher has no way of knowing whether the sample size is large enough to detect the effect he or she is looking for. This paper demonstrates how psychometric factors such as measurement error and equating error affect the power of…
Geographically correlated orbit error
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rosborough, G. W.
1989-01-01
The dominant error source in estimating the orbital position of a satellite from ground based tracking data is the modeling of the Earth's gravity field. The resulting orbit error due to gravity field model errors are predominantly long wavelength in nature. This results in an orbit error signature that is strongly correlated over distances on the size of ocean basins. Anderle and Hoskin (1977) have shown that the orbit error along a given ground track also is correlated to some degree with the orbit error along adjacent ground tracks. This cross track correlation is verified here and is found to be significant out to nearly 1000 kilometers in the case of TOPEX/POSEIDON when using the GEM-T1 gravity model. Finally, it was determined that even the orbit error at points where ascending and descending ground traces cross is somewhat correlated. The implication of these various correlations is that the orbit error due to gravity error is geographically correlated. Such correlations have direct implications when using altimetry to recover oceanographic signals.