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Sample records for phase-ii randomized clinical

  1. Randomized phase II clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sin-Ho; Sargent, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, Phase II trials have been conducted as single-arm trials to compare the response probabilities between an experimental therapy and a historical control. Historical control data, however, often have a small sample size, are collected from a different patient population, or use a different response assessment method, so that a direct comparison between a historical control and an experimental therapy may be severely biased. Randomized Phase II trials entering patients prospectively to both experimental and control arms have been proposed to avoid any bias in such cases. The small sample sizes for typical Phase II clinical trials imply that the use of exact statistical methods for their design and analysis is appropriate. In this article, we propose two-stage randomized Phase II trials based on Fisher's exact test, which does not require specification of the response probability of the control arm for testing. Through numerical studies, we observe that the proposed method controls the type I error accurately and maintains a high power. If we specify the response probabilities of the two arms under the alternative hypothesis, we can identify good randomized Phase II trial designs by adopting the Simon's minimax and optimal design concepts that were developed for single-arm Phase II trials.

  2. Generalized optimal design for two-arm, randomized phase II clinical trials with endpoints from the exponential dispersion family.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Mahnken, Jonathan D; He, Jianghua; Mayo, Matthew S

    2016-11-01

    For two-arm randomized phase II clinical trials, previous literature proposed an optimal design that minimizes the total sample sizes subject to multiple constraints on the standard errors of the estimated event rates and their difference. The original design is limited to trials with dichotomous endpoints. This paper extends the original approach to be applicable to phase II clinical trials with endpoints from the exponential dispersion family distributions. The proposed optimal design minimizes the total sample sizes needed to provide estimates of population means of both arms and their difference with pre-specified precision. Its applications on data from specific distribution families are discussed under multiple design considerations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Optimal two-stage log-rank test for randomized phase II clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Minjung; Jung, Sin-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Randomized controlled clinical trials are conducted to determine whether a new treatment is safe and efficacious compared to a standard therapy. We consider randomized clinical trials with right censored time to event endpoint, called survival time here. The two-sample log-rank test is popularly used to test if the experimental therapy has a longer survival distribution than the control therapy or not. We consider an early stopping for futility only or for both futility and efficacy. For planning such clinical trials, this article presents two-stage designs that are optimal in the sense that either the maximal sample size or the expected sample size when the experimental therapy is futile or superior is minimized under the given type I and II error rates. Optimal designs for a range of design parameters are tabulated and evaluated using simulations.

  4. Periodontal Tissue Regeneration Using Fibroblast Growth Factor -2: Randomized Controlled Phase II Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Masahiro; Nakashima, Keisuke; Kowashi, Yusuke; Fujii, Takeo; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi; Sasano, Takashi; Furuuchi, Toshi; Fukuda, Mitsuo; Noguchi, Toshihide; Shibutani, Toshiaki; Iwayama, Yukio; Takashiba, Shogo; Kurihara, Hidemi; Ninomiya, Masami; Kido, Jun-ichi; Nagata, Toshihiko; Hamachi, Takafumi; Maeda, Katsumasa; Hara, Yoshitaka; Izumi, Yuichi; Hirofuji, Takao; Imai, Enyu; Omae, Masatoshi; Watanuki, Mitsuru; Murakami, Shinya

    2008-01-01

    Background The options for medical use of signaling molecules as stimulators of tissue regeneration are currently limited. Preclinical evidence suggests that fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 can promote periodontal regeneration. This study aimed to clarify the activity of FGF-2 in stimulating regeneration of periodontal tissue lost by periodontitis and to evaluate the safety of such stimulation. Methodology/Principal Findings We used recombinant human FGF-2 with 3% hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) as vehicle and conducted a randomized double-blinded controlled trial involving 13 facilities. Subjects comprised 74 patients displaying a 2- or 3-walled vertical bone defect as measured ≥3 mm apical to the bone crest. Patients were randomly assigned to 4 groups: Group P, given HPC with no FGF-2; Group L, given HPC containing 0.03% FGF-2; Group M, given HPC containing 0.1% FGF-2; and Group H, given HPC containing 0.3% FGF-2. Each patient underwent flap operation during which we administered 200 µL of the appropriate investigational drug to the bone defect. Before and for 36 weeks following administration, patients underwent periodontal tissue inspections and standardized radiography of the region under investigation. As a result, a significant difference (p = 0.021) in rate of increase in alveolar bone height was identified between Group P (23.92%) and Group H (58.62%) at 36 weeks. The linear increase in alveolar bone height at 36 weeks in Group P and H was 0.95 mm and 1.85 mm, respectively (p = 0.132). No serious adverse events attributable to the investigational drug were identified. Conclusions Although no statistically significant differences were noted for gains in clinical attachment level and alveolar bone gain for FGF-2 groups versus Group P, the significant difference in rate of increase in alveolar bone height (p = 0.021) between Groups P and H at 36 weeks suggests that some efficacy could be expected from FGF-2 in stimulating regeneration of

  5. Randomized phase II/III clinical trial of elpamotide for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer: PEGASUS-PC Study.

    PubMed

    Yamaue, Hiroki; Tsunoda, Takuya; Tani, Masaji; Miyazawa, Motoki; Yamao, Kenji; Mizuno, Nobumasa; Okusaka, Takuji; Ueno, Hideki; Boku, Narikazu; Fukutomi, Akira; Ishii, Hiroshi; Ohkawa, Shinichi; Furukawa, Masayuki; Maguchi, Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Masafumi; Togashi, Yosuke; Nishio, Kazuto; Ohashi, Yasuo

    2015-07-01

    Gemcitabine is a key drug for the treatment of pancreatic cancer; however, with its limitation in clinical benefits, the development of another potent therapeutic is necessary. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 is an essential target for tumor angiogenesis, and we have conducted a phase I clinical trial using gemcitabine and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 peptide (elpamotide). Based on the promising results of this phase I trial, a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind phase II/III clinical trial has been carried out for pancreatic cancer. The eligibility criteria included locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer. Patients were assigned to either the Active group (elpamotide + gemcitabine) or Placebo group (placebo + gemcitabine) in a 2:1 ratio by the dynamic allocation method. The primary endpoint was overall survival. The Harrington-Fleming test was applied to the statistical analysis in this study to evaluate the time-lagged effect of immunotherapy appropriately. A total of 153 patients (Active group, n = 100; Placebo group, n = 53) were included in the analysis. No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups in the prolongation of overall survival (Harrington-Fleming P-value, 0.918; log-rank P-value, 0.897; hazard ratio, 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.486-1.557). Median survival time was 8.36 months (95% CI, 7.46-10.18) for the Active group and 8.54 months (95% CI, 7.33-10.84) for the Placebo group. The toxicity observed in both groups was manageable. Combination therapy of elpamotide with gemcitabine was well tolerated. Despite the lack of benefit in overall survival, subgroup analysis suggested that the patients who experienced severe injection site reaction, such as ulceration and erosion, might have better survival.

  6. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II clinical trial of lovastatin for various endpoints of melanoma pathobiology.

    PubMed

    Linden, Kenneth G; Leachman, Sancy A; Zager, Jonathan S; Jakowatz, James G; Viner, Jaye L; McLaren, Christine E; Barr, Ronald J; Carpenter, Philip M; Chen, Wen-Pin; Elmets, Craig A; Tangrea, Joseph A; Lim, Sung-Jig; Cochran, Alistair J; Meyskens, Frank L

    2014-05-01

    On the basis of large cardiovascular clinical trials of lipid-lowering agents that showed a considerable decrease in the incidence of primary melanomas in the active agent arm, we have carried out a randomized, double-blind clinical trial examining the impact of lovastatin on various biomarkers of melanoma pathogenesis. Subjects with at least two clinically atypical nevi were randomized to receive oral lovastatin or placebo for a 6-month period. Clinical, histopathologic, and molecular biomarkers were evaluated for change in the two groups. Eighty subjects were randomized, evaluable, and included in the analyses. Lovastatin showed no benefit in comparison with placebo in the primary endpoint of decreasing the level of histopathologic atypia, nor in any of the secondary endpoints of decreasing clinical atypia, impact on nevus number, nor in showing significant changes in any of the molecular biomarkers. There were no significant differences in adverse event profiles for lovastatin compared with placebo. The lovastatin arm did show a significant and considerable decrease in total serum cholesterol and serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels compared with placebo, an expected result. This finding bolsters confidence in subject compliance. Given the results of this trial, it is concluded that if lovastatin were to lower the incidence of melanoma, it would appear not to be doing so by reversing atypia of precursor atypical nevi over the 6-month time frame studied. Further research into the pathogenesis of melanoma and in other potential chemopreventive agents is needed.

  7. Economic analysis of amifostine as adjunctive support for patients with advanced head and neck cancer: preliminary results from a randomized phase II clinical trial from Germany.

    PubMed

    Bennett, C L; Lane, D; Stinson, T; Glatzel, M; Buntzel, J

    2001-01-01

    In a randomized phase II trial in Germany, we investigated the clinical and economic impact of amifostine protection against the hematological and oral toxicities of carboplatin administered concurrently with standard fractions of radiotherapy. 28 patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck received adjunctive or primary radiotherapy (5 days per week with daily fractions of 2 Gy, up to a total dose of 60 Gy) in conjunction with carboplatin (70 mg/m2) on days 1-5 and days 21-26. All patients received radiation encompassing at least 75% of the major salivary glands. Patients were randomized to receive radiation and carboplatin (RCT) alone or RCT preceded by rapid infusion of amifostine (500 mg) on days carboplatin was administered. The 14 patients who received amifostine, in comparison to 14 patients in the control arm, had significantly fewer episodes of grade 3 or 4 thrombocytopenia (p = 0.001), mucositis (p = 0.001), and xerostomia (p = 0.001). The patients receiving amifostine accrued significantly lower supportive care costs for resources related to infection ($241 vs. $1,275, p < 0.01), red blood cell and platelet support ($286 vs. $1,276 p = 0.06) alimentation ($343 vs. $894, p = .01), and hospitalization ($286 vs. $2,429, p < 0.01). Overall, including the costs of amifostine, mean per patient supportive care costs were $4,401 for the amifostine group and $5,873 (p = .02) for the control group. Our results from a randomized phase II trial indicate that selective cytoprotection with amifostine potentially offers clinical and economic benefits in patients with advanced head and neck cancer receiving radiochemotherapy. Additional economic studies alongside randomized phase III trials and from other countries are needed.

  8. Axitinib dose titration: analyses of exposure, blood pressure and clinical response from a randomized phase II study in metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rini, B I; Melichar, B; Fishman, M N; Oya, M; Pithavala, Y K; Chen, Y; Bair, A H; Grünwald, V

    2015-07-01

    In a randomized, double-blind phase II trial in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), axitinib versus placebo titration yielded a significantly higher objective response rate. We evaluated pharmacokinetic and blood pressure (BP) data from this study to elucidate relationships among axitinib exposure, BP change, and efficacy. Patients received axitinib 5 mg twice daily during a lead-in period. Patients who met dose-titration criteria were randomized 1:1 to stepwise dose increases with axitinib or placebo. Patients ineligible for randomization continued without dose increases. Serial 6-h and sparse pharmacokinetic sampling were carried out; BP was measured at clinic visits and at home in all patients, and by 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) in a subset of patients. Area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h throughout the course of treatment (AUCstudy) was higher in patients with complete or partial responses than those with stable or progressive disease in the axitinib-titration arm, but comparable between these groups in the placebo-titration and nonrandomized arms. In the overall population, AUCstudy and efficacy outcomes were not strongly correlated. Mean BP across the population was similar when measured in clinic, at home, or by 24-h ABPM. Weak correlations were observed between axitinib steady-state exposure and diastolic BP. When grouped by change in diastolic BP from baseline, patients in the ≥10 and ≥15 mmHg groups had longer progression-free survival. Optimal axitinib exposure may differ among patients with mRCC. Pharmacokinetic or BP measurements cannot be used exclusively to guide axitinib dosing. Individualization of treatment with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, including axitinib, is thus more complex than anticipated and cannot be limited to a single clinical factor. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical

  9. Randomized Phase II Trial of Sulindac for Lung Cancer Chemoprevention

    PubMed Central

    Limburg, Paul J.; Mandrekar, Sumithra J.; Aubry, Marie Christine; Ziegler, Katie L. Allen; Zhang, Jun; Yi, Joanne E.; Henry, Michael; Tazelaar, Henry D.; Lam, Stephen; McWilliams, Annette; Midthun, David E.; Edell, Eric S.; Rickman, Otis B.; Mazzone, Peter; Tockman, Melvyn; Beamis, John F.; Lamb, Carla; Simoff, Michael; Loprinzi, Charles; Szabo, Eva; Jett, James

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Sulindac represents a promising candidate agent for lung cancer chemoprevention, but clinical trial data have not been previously reported. We conducted a randomized, phase II chemoprevention trial involving current or former cigarette smokers (≥ 30 pack-years) utilizing the multi-center, inter-disciplinary infrastructure of the Cancer Prevention Network (CPN). Methods At least 1 bronchial dysplastic lesion identified by fluorescence bronchoscopy was required for randomization. Intervention assignments were sulindac 150 mg bid or an identical placebo bid for six months. Trial endpoints included changes in histologic grade of dysplasia (per-participant as primary endpoint and per lesion as secondary endpoint), number of dysplastic lesions (per-participant), and Ki67 labeling index. Results Slower than anticipated recruitment led to trial closure after randomizing participants (n = 31 and n = 30 in the sulindac and placebo arms, respectively). Pre- and post-intervention fluorescence bronchoscopy data were available for 53/61 (87%) randomized, eligible participants. The median (range) of dysplastic lesions at baseline was 2 (1-12) in the sulindac arm and 2 (1-7) in the placebo arm. Change in dysplasia was categorized as regression:stable:progression for 15:3:8 (58%:12%:31%) subjects in the sulindac arm and 15:2:10 (56%:7%:37%) subjects in the placebo arm; these distributions were not statistically different (p=0.85). Median Ki67 expression (% cells stained positive) was significantly reduced in both the placebo (30 versus 5; p = 0.0005) and sulindac (30 versus 10; p = 0.0003) arms, but the difference between arms was not statistically significant (p = 0.92). Conclusions Data from this multi-center, phase II squamous cell lung cancer chemoprevention trial do not demonstrate sufficient benefits from sulindac 150 mg bid for 6 months to warrant additional phase III testing. Investigation of pathway-focused agents is necessary for lung cancer chemoprevention

  10. Randomized phase II trial of sulindac for lung cancer chemoprevention.

    PubMed

    Limburg, Paul J; Mandrekar, Sumithra J; Aubry, Marie Christine; Ziegler, Katie L Allen; Zhang, Jun; Yi, Joanne E; Henry, Michael; Tazelaar, Henry D; Lam, Stephen; McWilliams, Annette; Midthun, David E; Edell, Eric S; Rickman, Otis B; Mazzone, Peter; Tockman, Melvyn; Beamis, John F; Lamb, Carla; Simoff, Michael; Loprinzi, Charles; Szabo, Eva; Jett, James

    2013-03-01

    Sulindac represents a promising candidate agent for lung cancer chemoprevention, but clinical trial data have not been previously reported. We conducted a randomized, phase II chemoprevention trial involving current or former cigarette smokers (≥30 pack-years) utilizing the multi-center, inter-disciplinary infrastructure of the Cancer Prevention Network (CPN). At least 1 bronchial dysplastic lesion identified by fluorescence bronchoscopy was required for randomization. Intervention assignments were sulindac 150mg bid or an identical placebo bid for 6 months. Trial endpoints included changes in histologic grade of dysplasia (per-participant as primary endpoint and per lesion as secondary endpoint), number of dysplastic lesions (per-participant), and Ki67 labeling index. Slower than anticipated recruitment led to trial closure after randomizing participants (n=31 and n=30 in the sulindac and placebo arms, respectively). Pre- and post-intervention fluorescence bronchoscopy data were available for 53/61 (87%) randomized, eligible participants. The median (range) of dysplastic lesions at baseline was 2 (1-12) in the sulindac arm and 2 (1-7) in the placebo arm. Change in dysplasia was categorized as regression:stable:progression for 15:3:8 (58%:12%:31%) subjects in the sulindac arm and 15:2:10 (56%:7%:37%) subjects in the placebo arm; these distributions were not statistically different (p=0.85). Median Ki67 expression (% cells stained positive) was significantly reduced in both the placebo (30 versus 5; p=0.0005) and sulindac (30 versus 10; p=0.0003) arms, but the difference between arms was not statistically significant (p=0.92). Data from this multi-center, phase II squamous cell lung cancer chemoprevention trial do not demonstrate sufficient benefits from sulindac 150mg bid for 6 months to warrant additional phase III testing. Investigation of pathway-focused agents is necessary for lung cancer chemoprevention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  11. Therapeutic vaccination with TNF-Kinoid in TNF antagonist-resistant rheumatoid arthritis: a phase II randomized, controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Durez, Patrick; Vandepapeliere, Pierre; Miranda, Pedro; Toncheva, Antoaneta; Berman, Alberto; Kehler, Tatjana; Mociran, Eugenia; Fautrel, Bruno; Mariette, Xavier; Dhellin, Olivier; Fanget, Bernard; Ouary, Stephane; Grouard-Vogel, Géraldine; Boissier, Marie-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Active immunization, or vaccination, with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-Kinoid (TNF-K) is a novel approach to induce polyclonal anti-TNF antibodies in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. This study was performed to transfer the proof of concept obtained in mice model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) into human. We designed a pilot study to demonstrate the feasibility of therapeutic vaccination in RA. This was a phase IIa, placebo-controlled, multicenter study in adults with RA who previously experienced secondary failure of TNF antagonists. Patients were immunized intramuscularly with 2 or 3 doses of placebo (n = 10) or 90 (n = 6), 180 (n = 12), or 360 µg TNF-K (n = 12). The primary objective was to identify the best dose and schedule based on anti-TNF antibody titers. Clinical symptoms and safety were assessed during 12 months and solicited reactions for 7 days after each injection. The highest anti-TNF antibody response was detected in patients immunized with 360 µg TNF-K and with 3 injections, although this difference was not significant with all other groups. Similar proportions of patients receiving TNF-K and placebo reported adverse events up to month 12. Serious adverse events were reported by 4 patients treated with TNF-K (13.3%) and 3 treated with placebo (30.0%), all unrelated to treatment. At month 12, DAS28-CRP, tender and swollen joint counts, and HAQ scores decreased significantly more in patients who exhibited anti-TNF antibody response than in patients who did not. TNF-K therapeutic vaccination induced dose- and schedule-dependent anti-TNF antibodies in RA patients and was well tolerated. Patients who developed anti-TNF antibodies showed a trend toward clinical improvement. Although the most aggressive dose and schedule, i.e. 360 mg dose administered 3 times, did show a strong trend of higher antibody response, further studies are warranted to examine even higher and more frequent doses in order to establish the best conditions for

  12. Therapeutic Vaccination with TNF-Kinoid in TNF Antagonist-Resistant Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Phase II Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Durez, Patrick; Vandepapeliere, Pierre; Miranda, Pedro; Toncheva, Antoaneta; Berman, Alberto; Kehler, Tatjana; Mociran, Eugenia; Fautrel, Bruno; Mariette, Xavier; Dhellin, Olivier; Fanget, Bernard; Ouary, Stephane; Grouard-Vogel, Géraldine; Boissier, Marie-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Active immunization, or vaccination, with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-Kinoid (TNF-K) is a novel approach to induce polyclonal anti-TNF antibodies in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. This study was performed to transfer the proof of concept obtained in mice model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) into human. We designed a pilot study to demonstrate the feasibility of therapeutic vaccination in RA. Methods This was a phase IIa, placebo-controlled, multicenter study in adults with RA who previously experienced secondary failure of TNF antagonists. Patients were immunized intramuscularly with 2 or 3 doses of placebo (n = 10) or 90 (n = 6), 180 (n = 12), or 360 µg TNF-K (n = 12). The primary objective was to identify the best dose and schedule based on anti-TNF antibody titers. Clinical symptoms and safety were assessed during 12 months and solicited reactions for 7 days after each injection. Results The highest anti-TNF antibody response was detected in patients immunized with 360 µg TNF-K and with 3 injections, although this difference was not significant with all other groups. Similar proportions of patients receiving TNF-K and placebo reported adverse events up to month 12. Serious adverse events were reported by 4 patients treated with TNF-K (13.3%) and 3 treated with placebo (30.0%), all unrelated to treatment. At month 12, DAS28-CRP, tender and swollen joint counts, and HAQ scores decreased significantly more in patients who exhibited anti-TNF antibody response than in patients who did not. Conclusions TNF-K therapeutic vaccination induced dose- and schedule-dependent anti-TNF antibodies in RA patients and was well tolerated. Patients who developed anti-TNF antibodies showed a trend toward clinical improvement. Although the most aggressive dose and schedule, i.e. 360 mg dose administered 3 times, did show a strong trend of higher antibody response, further studies are warranted to examine even higher and more frequent doses in order

  13. Antimalarial compounds in Phase II clinical development.

    PubMed

    Held, Jana; Jeyaraj, Sankarganesh; Kreidenweiss, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Malaria is a major health problem in endemic countries and chemotherapy remains the most important tool in combating it. Treatment options are limited and essentially rely on a single drug class - the artemisinins. Efforts are ongoing to restrict the evolving threat of artemisinin resistance but declining sensitivity has been reported. Fueled by the ambitious aim of malaria eradication, novel antimalarial compounds, with improved properties, are now in the progressive phase of drug development. Herein, the authors describe antimalarial compounds currently in Phase II clinical development and present the results of these investigations. Thanks to recent efforts, a number of promising antimalarial compounds are now in the pipeline. First safety data have been generated for all of these candidates, although their efficacy as antimalarials is still unclear for most of them. Of particular note are KAE609, KAF156 and DSM265, which are of chemical scaffolds new to malaria chemotherapy and would truly diversify antimalarial options. Apart from SAR97276, which also has a novel chemical scaffold that has had its development stopped, all other compounds in the pipeline belong to already known substance classes, which have been chemically modified. At this moment in time, there is not one standout compound that will revolutionize malaria treatment but several compounds that will add to its control in the future.

  14. Effect of prophylactic transluminal balloon angioplasty on cerebral vasospasm and outcome in patients with Fisher grade III subarachnoid hemorrhage: results of a phase II multicenter, randomized, clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Zwienenberg-Lee, Marike; Hartman, Jonathan; Rudisill, Nancy; Madden, Lori Kennedy; Smith, Karen; Eskridge, Joseph; Newell, David; Verweij, Bon; Bullock, M Ross; Baker, Andrew; Coplin, William; Mericle, Robert; Dai, Jian; Rocke, David; Muizelaar, J Paul

    2008-06-01

    Cerebral vasospasm continues to be a major cause of poor outcome in patients with ruptured aneurysms. Prophylactic Transluminal Balloon Angioplasty (pTBA) appeared to prevent delayed ischemic neurological deficit in a pilot study. A phase II multicenter randomized clinical trial was subsequently designed. One hundred and seventy patients with Fisher Grade III subarachnoid hemorrhage were enrolled in the study. Of these, 85 patients were randomized to the treatment group and underwent pTBA within 96 hours after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Main end points of the study included the 3-month dichotomized Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS), development of delayed ischemic neurological deficit (DIND), occurrence of Transcranial Doppler (TCD) vasospasm, and length of stay in the ICU and hospital. The incidence of DIND was lower in the pTBA group (P=0.30) and fewer patients required therapeutic angioplasty to treat DIND (P=0.03). Overall pTBA resulted in an absolute risk reduction of 5.9% and a relative risk reduction of 10.4% unfavorable outcome (P=0.54). Good grade patients had absolute and relative risk reductions of respectively 9.5 and 29.4% (P=0.73). Length of stay in ICU and hospital was similar in both groups. Four patients had a procedure-related vessel perforation, of which three patients died. While the trial is unsuccessful as defined by the primary end point (GOS), proof of concept is confirmed by these results. Fewer patients tend to develop vasospasm after treatment with pTBA and there is a statistically significantly decreased need for therapeutic angioplasty. pTBA does not improve the poor outcome of patients with Fisher grade III subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  15. Clinical Effectiveness of Intravenous Exenatide Infusion in Perioperative Glycemic Control after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: A Phase II/III Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Besch, Guillaume; Perrotti, Andrea; Mauny, Frederic; Puyraveau, Marc; Baltres, Maude; Flicoteaux, Guillaume; Salomon du Mont, Lucie; Barrucand, Benoit; Samain, Emmanuel; Chocron, Sidney; Pili-Floury, Sebastien

    2017-08-18

    We aimed to assess the clinical effectiveness of intravenous exenatide compared to insulin in perioperative blood glucose control in coronary artery bypass grafting surgery patients. Patients more than 18 yr old admitted for elective coronary artery bypass grafting were included in a phase II/III nonblinded randomized superiority trial. Current insulin use and creatinine clearance of less than 60 ml/min were exclusion criteria. Two groups were compared: the exenatide group, receiving exenatide (1-h bolus of 0.05 µg/min followed by a constant infusion of 0.025 µg/min), and the control group, receiving insulin therapy. The blood glucose target range was 100 to 139 mg/dl. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who spent at least 50% of the study period within the target range. The consumption of insulin (Cinsulin) and the time to start insulin (Tinsulin) were compared between the two groups. In total, 53 and 51 patients were included and analyzed in the exenatide and control groups, respectively (age: 70 ± 9 vs. 68 ± 11 yr; diabetes mellitus: 12 [23%] vs. 10 [20%]). The primary outcome was observed in 38 (72%) patients in the exenatide group and in 41 (80%) patients in the control group (odds ratio [95% CI] = 0.85 [0.34 to 2.11]; P = 0.30). Cinsulin was significantly lower (60 [40 to 80] vs. 92 [63 to 121] U, P < 0.001), and Tinsulin was significantly longer (12 [7 to 16] vs. 7 [5 to 10] h, P = 0.02) in the exenatide group. Exenatide alone at the dose used was not enough to achieve adequate blood glucose control in coronary artery bypass grafting patients, but it reduces overall consumption of insulin and increases the time to initiation of insulin.

  16. Antiretroviral effect of lovastatin on HIV-1-infected individuals without highly active antiretroviral therapy (The LIVE study): a phase-II randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, Carlos J; Jaimes, Fabian; Higuita, Edwin A; Convers-Páez, Sandra; Estrada, Santiago; Gutierrez, Francisco; Amariles, Pedro; Giraldo, Newar; Peñaloza, Cristina; Rugeles, Maria T

    2009-01-01

    Background Highly active antiretroviral therapy produces a significant decrease in HIV-1 replication and allows an increase in the CD4 T-cell count, leading to a decrease in the incidence of opportunistic infections and mortality. However, the cost, side effects and complexity of antiretroviral regimens have underscored the immediate need for additional therapeutic approaches. Statins exert pleiotropic effects through a variety of mechanisms, among which there are several immunoregulatory effects, related and unrelated to their cholesterol-lowering activity that can be useful to control HIV-1 infection. Methods/design Randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled, single-center, phase-II clinical trial. One hundred and ten chronically HIV-1-infected patients, older than 18 years and naïve for antirretroviral therapy (i.e., without prior or current management with antiretroviral drugs) will be enrolled at the outpatient services from the most important centres for health insurance care in Medellin-Colombia. The interventions will be lovastatin (40 mg/day, orally, for 12 months; 55 patients) or placebo (55 patients). Our primary aim will be to determine the effect of lovastatin on viral replication. The secondary aim will be to determine the effect of lovastatin on CD4+ T-cell count in peripheral blood. As tertiary aims we will explore differences in CD8+ T-cell count, expression of activation markers (CD38 and HLA-DR) on CD4 and CD8 T cells, cholesterol metabolism, LFA-1/ICAM-1 function, Rho GTPases function and clinical evolution between treated and not treated HIV-1-infected individuals. Discussion Preliminary descriptive studies have suggested that statins (lovastatin) may have anti HIV-1 activity and that their administration is safe, with the potential effect of controlling HIV-1 replication in chronically infected individuals who had not received antiretroviral medications. Considering that there is limited clinical data available on this topic, all these

  17. Randomized phase II study of gemcitabine plus S-1 combination therapy vs. S-1 in advanced biliary tract cancer: Japan Clinical Oncology Group Study (JCOG0805).

    PubMed

    Takashima, Atsuo; Morizane, Chigusa; Ishii, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Kenichi; Fukuda, Haruhiko; Okusaka, Takuji; Furuse, Junji

    2010-12-01

    A randomized Phase II selection design trial comparing gemcitabine plus S-1 combination therapy with S-1 monotherapy for chemo-naïve unresectable or recurrent biliary tract cancer patients was started in Japan. The aim of this trial is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the two regimens and to determine which is more promising as a test arm regimen to be compared with the current standard regimen, gemcitabine plus cisplatin, in a subsequent Phase III trial. Patients with unresectable or recurrent biliary tract cancer are randomized to either gemcitabine plus S-1 combination therapy arm or S-1 monotherapy arm. A total of 100 patients will be accrued for this study from 18 institutions over 1 year. The primary endpoint is the proportion of 1-year overall survival, and the secondary endpoints are progression-free survival, response rate and adverse events.

  18. Phase II Evaluation of Clinical Coding Schemes

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, James R.; Carpenter, Paul; Sneiderman, Charles; Cohn, Simon; Chute, Christopher G.; Warren, Judith

    1997-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To compare three potential sources of controlled clinical terminology (READ codes version 3.1, SNOMED International, and Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) version 1.6) relative to attributes of completeness, clinical taxonomy, administrative mapping, term definitions and clarity (duplicate coding rate). Methods: The authors assembled 1929 source concept records from a variety of clinical information taken from four medical centers across the United States. The source data included medical as well as ample nursing terminology. The source records were coded in each scheme by an investigator and checked by the coding scheme owner. The codings were then scored by an independent panel of clinicians for acceptability. Codes were checked for definitions provided with the scheme. Codes for a random sample of source records were analyzed by an investigator for “parent” and “child” codes within the scheme. Parent and child pairs were scored by an independent panel of medical informatics specialists for clinical acceptability. Administrative and billing code mapping from the published scheme were reviewed for all coded records and analyzed by independent reviewers for accuracy. The investigator for each scheme exhaustively searched a sample of coded records for duplications. Results: SNOMED was judged to be significantly more complete in coding the source material than the other schemes (SNOMED* 70%; READ 57%; UMLS 50%; *p <.00001). SNOMED also had a richer clinical taxonomy judged by the number of acceptable first-degree relatives per coded concept (SNOMED* 4.56; UMLS 3.17; READ 2.14, *p <.005). Only the UMLS provided any definitions; these were found for 49% of records which had a coding assignment. READ and UMLS had better administrative mappings (composite score: READ* 40.6%; UMLS* 36.1%; SNOMED 20.7%, *p <. 00001), and SNOMED had substantially more duplications of coding assignments (duplication rate: READ 0%; UMLS 4.2%; SNOMED* 13.9%, *p

  19. Randomized phase II/III trial of post-operative chemoradiotherapy comparing 3-weekly cisplatin with weekly cisplatin in high-risk patients with squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck: Japan Clinical Oncology Group Study (JCOG1008).

    PubMed

    Kunieda, Futoshi; Kiyota, Naomi; Tahara, Makoto; Kodaira, Takeshi; Hayashi, Ryuichi; Ishikura, Satoshi; Mizusawa, Junki; Nakamura, Kenichi; Fukuda, Haruhiko; Fujii, Masato

    2014-08-01

    A randomized Phase II/III study was launched in Japan to evaluate the non-inferiority of concurrent chemoradiotherapy with weekly cisplatin (40 mg/m(2)) compared with concurrent chemoradiotherapy with 3-weekly cisplatin (100 mg/m(2)) for post-operative high-risk patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck. This study began in October 2012, and a total of 260 patients will be accrued from 18 institutions within 5 years. The primary endpoint of the Phase II part is proportion of treatment completion and that of the Phase III part is overall survival. The secondary endpoints are relapse-free survival, local relapse-free survival, nutrition-support-free survival, non-hospitalized treatment period during permissible treatment period and adverse events. This trial was registered at the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry as UMIN 000009125 [http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/].

  20. A Multicenter, Phase II, Randomized, Noncomparative Clinical Trial of Radiation and Temozolomide with or without Vandetanib in Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eudocia Q.; Kaley, Thomas J.; Duda, Dan G.; Schiff, David; Lassman, Andrew B.; Wong, Eric T.; Mikkelsen, Tom; Purow, Benjamin W.; Muzikansky, Alona; Ancukiewicz, Marek; Huse, Jason T.; Ramkissoon, Shakti; Drappatz, Jan; Norden, Andrew D.; Beroukhim, Rameen; Weiss, Stephanie E.; Alexander, Brian M.; McCluskey, Christine S.; Gerard, Mary; Smith, Katrina H.; Jain, Rakesh K.; Batchelor, Tracy T.; Ligon, Keith L.; Wen, Patrick Y.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Vandetanib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor of KDR (VEGFR2), EGFR, and RET, may enhance sensitivity to chemotherapy and radiation. We conducted a randomized, noncomparative, phase II study of radiation (RT) and temozolomide with or without vandetanib in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GBM). Experimental Design We planned to randomize a total of 114 newly diagnosed GBM patients in a ratio of 2:1 to standard RT and temozolomide with (76 patients) or without (38 patients) vandetanib 100 mg daily. Patients with age ≥ 18 years, Karnofsky performance status (KPS) ≥ 60, and not on enzyme-inducing antiepileptics were eligible. Primary end-point was median overall survival (OS) from the date of randomization. Secondary endpoints included median progression-free survival (PFS), 12-month PFS, and safety. Correlative studies included pharmacokinetics as well as tissue and serum biomarker analysis. Results The study was terminated early for futility based on the results of an interim analysis. We enrolled 106 patients (36 in the RT/temozolomide arm and 70 in the vandetanib/RT/temozolomide arm). Median OS was 15.9 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 11.0–22.5 months] in the RT/temozolomide arm and 16.6 months (95% CI, 14.9–20.1 months) in the vandetanib/RT/temozolomide (log-rank P = 0.75). Conclusions The addition of vandetanib at a dose of 100 mg daily to standard chemoradiation in patients with newly diagnosed GBM or gliosarcoma was associated with potential pharmacodynamic biomarker changes and was reasonably well tolerated. However, the regimen did not significantly prolong OS compared with the parallel control arm, leading to early termination of the study. PMID:25910950

  1. Rethinking Phase II Clinical Trial Design in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Lavine, Kory J.; Mann, Douglas L.

    2014-01-01

    The incidence and economic burden of heart failure continue to rise worldwide, despite implementation of a number of effective heart failure therapies. Although there have been a number phase I–II studies of potential novel heart failure therapies over the past decade, none of these new compounds have been successful in phase III clinical trials. While there are likely a number of reasons for this failure, one of the problems that has become increasingly apparent is the inability of phase II trials to correctly identify novel therapies that will be successful in phase III clinical trials. In the following review, we will discuss the some of the problems inherent with current phase II heart failure clinical trials, as well as discuss possible ways to rethink phase II development of new therapies for heart failure. PMID:25343020

  2. Safety and immunogenicity of Bio Pox™, a live varicella vaccine (Oka strain) in Indian children: A comparative multicentric, randomized phase II/III clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Anand Prakash; Faridi, Mohammad Moonis Akbar; Mitra, Monjori; Kaur, Iqbal Rajinder; Dabas, Aashima; Choudhury, Jaydeep; Mukherjee, Mallar; Mishra, Devendra

    2017-09-02

    Varicella or chickenpox is a highly contagious disease with a high secondary attack rate. Almost 30% of Indian adolescents lack protective antibodies against varicella, emphasizing the need of routine varicella immunization. The Oka VZV is a well-established, safe and efficacious vaccine strain that is highly immunogenic and produces lifelong protective immunity. The present multicentric, open label, randomized, controlled Phase II/III study, compared the Bio Pox™ (indigenous investigational vaccine) with a licensed vaccine, Varivax™ ([a])([a]) Please note that this article refers to the product named VARIVAX as manufactured by Changchun Keygen Biological Products Ltd., China and marketed in India by VHB Life Sciences Limited, Mumbai, and not the product VARIVAX® owned by Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., Rahway, New Jersey, USA. Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. have asked us to make clear that the product manufactured by Changchun Keygen Biological Products Ltd. is unrelated to and is not sponsored, endorsed or otherwise authorised by Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. , for its safety and immunogenicity profile in 252 healthy subjects in the age group of 1-12 y (cohort I: 6-12 years, II:1-6 years) in 3 tertiary medical institutions. Antibodies were measured by VZV Glycoprotein Enzyme Linked Immunoassay (IgG ELISA) kit. Seroconversion percentage in children having pre-vaccination anti VZV IgG titer <10 mIU/mL (< 5 gp ELISA units/mL) were 80% for Bio Pox™ and 77% for Varivax™ (p = 0.692). The seroconversion rate in the group receiving Bio Pox™ was non-inferior to the group that received Varivax™. There were mild local reactions for both the vaccines; none of the patient had fever or required hospitalization or medication. The Bio Pox™ was found to be safe and immunogenic in children against VZV infection.

  3. Er:YAG clinical results on hard tissue: phase II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cozean, Colette D.; Powell, G. L.

    1998-04-01

    Objective: In Phase I, we demonstrated the safety and efficacy of the pulsed 2.94 micron Er:YAG laser for caries removal, cavity preparation and laser etching utilizing in vivo teeth scheduled for removal to quantitatively verify the safety of the product for up to one year following treatment. Phase II was a continuation of this study evaluating in vivo teeth to verify the safety and efficacy of the Er:YAG in a long-term follow-up study. Methods: We randomly divided the patients into two groups: a laser group and a control group, which employed the high speed drill. The investigators rated clinical efficacy by several criteria, evaluated pain and measured pulpal vitality up to two years following treatment. This phase consisted of 512 procedures that made up the laser group and 357 procedures that made up the control group. Conclusions: The results from this phase showed that the Er:YAG laser was able to perform as well as, if not better than, the drill in caries removal, cavity preparation, and acid etching alone. Use of the laser virtually eliminated the need for anesthesia. The Er:YAG laser is safe and efficacious for removal of caries, cavity preparation and etching prior to acid etching.

  4. A Phase II/III randomized controlled trial comparing perioperative versus postoperative chemotherapy with mFOLFOX6 for lower rectal cancer with suspected lateral pelvic node metastasis: Japan Clinical Oncology Group Study JCOG1310 (PRECIOUS study).

    PubMed

    Ohue, Masayuki; Iwasa, Satoru; Kanemitsu, Yukihide; Hamaguchi, Tetsuya; Shiozawa, Manabu; Ito, Masaaki; Yasui, Masayoshi; Katayama, Hiroshi; Mizusawa, Junki; Shimada, Yasuhiro

    2017-01-01

    A randomized phase II/III trial was started in May 2015 comparing perioperative versus postoperative chemotherapy with modified infusional fluorouracil and folinic acid with oxaliplatin for lower rectal cancer patients with suspected lateral pelvic node metastasis. The standard arm is total mesorectal excision or tumor-specific mesorectal excision with lateral pelvic node dissection (LND) followed by postoperative chemotherapy (modified infusional fluorouracil and folinic acid with oxaliplatin; 12 cycles). The experimental (perioperative chemotherapy) arm is six courses of modified infusional fluorouracil and folinic acid with oxaliplatin before and six courses after total mesorectal excision with lateral pelvic node dissection. The aim of this trial is to confirm the superiority of perioperative chemotherapy. A total of 330 patients will be enrolled over 7 years. The primary endpoint in Phase II part is proportion of R0 resection and that in Phase III part is overall survival. Secondary endpoints are progression-free survival, local progression-free survival, etc. This trial has been registered in the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry as UMIN000017603 [http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index-j.htm].

  5. Phase II, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Neoadjuvant Celecoxib in Men With Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer: Evaluation of Drug-Specific Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Antonarakis, Emmanuel S.; Heath, Elisabeth I.; Walczak, Janet R.; Nelson, William G.; Fedor, Helen; De Marzo, Angelo M.; Zahurak, Marianna L.; Piantadosi, Steven; Dannenberg, Andrew J.; Gurganus, Robin T.; Baker, Sharyn D.; Parnes, Howard L.; DeWeese, Theodore L.; Partin, Alan W.; Carducci, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a potential pharmacologic target for the prevention of various malignancies, including prostate cancer. We conducted a randomized, double-blind trial to examine the effect of celecoxib on drug-specific biomarkers from prostate tissue obtained at prostatectomy. Patients and Methods Patients with localized prostate cancer and Gleason sum ≥ 7, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≥ 15 ng/mL, clinical stage T2b or greater, or any combination with greater than 45% risk of capsular penetration were randomly assigned to celecoxib 400 mg by mouth twice daily or placebo for 4 to 6 weeks before prostatectomy. The primary end point was the difference in prostatic prostaglandin levels between the two groups. Secondary end points were differences in COX-1 and -2 expressions; oxidized DNA bases; and markers of proliferation, apoptosis and angiogenesis. Tissue celecoxib concentrations also were measured. Tertiary end points were drug safety and compliance. Results Seventy-three patients consented, and 64 were randomly assigned and included in the intention-to-treat analysis. There were no treatment differences in any of the primary or secondary outcomes. Multivariable regression revealed that tumor tissue had significantly lower COX-2 expression than benign prostatic tissue (P = .01) and significantly higher levels of the proliferation marker Ki-67 (P < .0001). Celecoxib was measurable in prostate tissue of patients on treatment, demonstrating that celecoxib reached its target. Celecoxib was safe and resulted in only grade 1 toxicities. Conclusion Treatment with 4 to 6 weeks of celecoxib had no effect on intermediate biomarkers of prostate carcinogenesis, despite the achievement of measurable tissue levels. We caution against using celecoxib 400 mg twice daily as a preventive agent for prostate cancer in additional studies. PMID:19720908

  6. An evaluation of the safety and efficacy of cariprazine in patients with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia: a phase II, randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Durgam, Suresh; Starace, Anju; Li, Dayong; Migliore, Raffaele; Ruth, Adam; Németh, György; Laszlovszky, István

    2014-02-01

    Cariprazine is an orally active and potent D3 and D2 partial agonist with preferential binding to D3 receptors in development for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar mania. This study (NCT00694707) evaluated the efficacy and safety of cariprazine in patients with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia. This study was a multinational, double-blind, randomized, placebo- and active-controlled, fixed-dose trial. Patients were randomized to receive placebo, cariprazine 1.5mg/d, cariprazine 3.0mg/d, cariprazine 4.5mg/d, or risperidone 4.0mg/d (for assay sensitivity) for 6 weeks of double-blind treatment and 2 weeks of safety follow-up. Primary and secondary efficacy parameters were change from baseline to Week 6 in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total and Global Impressions-Severity of Illness (CGI-S) scores, respectively. Safety parameters included adverse events (AEs), vital signs, laboratory measures, and extrapyramidal symptom (EPS) scales. Of 732 randomized patients, 64% completed the study. PANSS total score improvement at Week 6 was statistically significant versus placebo for cariprazine 1.5mg/d, 3.0mg/d, and 4.5mg/d (least squares mean difference [LSMD]: -7.6, -8.8, -10.4, respectively; p<0.001; LOCF) and risperidone (-15.1, p<0.001; LOCF); significant improvement on CGI-S was demonstrated for all active treatments (p<0.05). The most frequent cariprazine AEs (≥ 5% and at least twice the rate of the placebo group) were insomnia, extrapyramidal disorder, akathisia, sedation, nausea, dizziness, and constipation. Mean changes in metabolic parameters were small and similar between groups. The results of this study support the efficacy and safety of cariprazine in patients with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. A randomized phase II study of capecitabine-based chemoradiation with or without bevacizumab in resectable locally advanced rectal cancer: clinical and biological features.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Ramon; Capdevila, Jaume; Laquente, Berta; Manzano, Jose Luis; Pericay, Carles; Villacampa, Mercedes Martínez; López, Carlos; Losa, Ferran; Safont, Maria Jose; Gómez, Auxiliadora; Alonso, Vicente; Escudero, Pilar; Gallego, Javier; Sastre, Javier; Grávalos, Cristina; Biondo, Sebastiano; Palacios, Amalia; Aranda, Enrique

    2015-02-26

    Perioperatory chemoradiotherapy (CRT) improves local control and survival in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). The objective of the current study was to evaluate the addition of bevacizumab (BEV) to preoperative capecitabine (CAP)-based CRT in LARC, and to explore biomarkers for downstaging. Patients (pts) were randomized to receive 5 weeks of radiotherapy 45 Gy/25 fractions with concurrent CAP 825 mg/m(2) twice daily 5 days per week and BEV 5 mg/kg once every 2 weeks (3 doses) (arm A), or the same schedule without BEV (arm B). The primary end point was pathologic complete response (ypCR: ypT0N0). Ninety pts were included in arm A (44) or arm B (46). Grade 3-4 treatment-related toxicity rates were 16% and 13%, respectively. All patients but one (arm A) proceeded to surgery. The ypCR rate was 16% in arm A and 11% in arm B (p =0.54). Fifty-nine percent vs 39% of pts achieved T-downstaging (arm A vs arm B; p =0.04). Serial samples for biomarker analyses were obtained for 50 out of 90 randomized pts (arm A/B: 22/28). Plasma angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) levels decreased in arm A and increased in arm B (p <0.05 at all time points). Decrease in Ang-2 levels from baseline to day 57 was significantly associated with tumor downstaging (p =0.02). The addition of BEV to CAP-based preoperative CRT has shown to be feasible in LARC. The association between decreasing Ang-2 levels and tumor downstaging should be further validated in customized studies. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01043484. Trial registration date: 12/30/2009.

  8. A randomized phase II clinical trial of personalized peptide vaccination with metronomic low-dose cyclophosphamide in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Masanori; Moriya, Fukuko; Koga, Noriko; Matsueda, Satoko; Sasada, Tetsuro; Yamada, Akira; Kakuma, Tatsuyuki; Itoh, Kyogo

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of metronomic cyclophosphamide (CPA) in combination with personalized peptide vaccination (PPV) on regulatory T cells (Treg) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), and whether it could improve the antitumor effect of PPV. Seventy patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive PPV plus oral low-dose CPA (50 mg/day), or PPV alone. PPV treatment used a maximum of four peptides chosen from 31 pooled peptides according to human leukocyte antigen types and antigen-specific humoral immune responses before PPV, for 8 subcutaneous weekly injections. Peptide-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and immunoglobulin G responses were measured before and after PPV. The incidence of grade 3 or 4 hematologic adverse events was higher in the PPV plus CPA arm than in the PPV alone arm. Decrease in Treg and increase in MDSC were more pronounced in PPV plus CPA treatment than in PPV alone (p = 0.036 and p = 0.048, respectively). There was no correlation between the changes in Treg or MDSC and CTL response. There was no difference in positive immune responses between the two arms, although overall survival in patients with positive immune responses was longer than in those with negative immune responses (p = 0.001). Significant differences in neither progression-free survival nor overall survival were observed between the two arms. Low-dose CPA showed no change in the antitumor effect of PPV, possibly due to the simultaneous decrease in Treg and increase in MDSC, in patients under PPV.

  9. A randomized Phase II trial of systemic chemotherapy with and without trastuzumab followed by surgery in HER2-positive advanced gastric or esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma with extensive lymph node metastasis: Japan Clinical Oncology Group study JCOG1301 (Trigger Study).

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Kozo; Tokunaga, Masanori; Mizusawa, Junki; Machida, Nozomu; Katayama, Hiroshi; Shitara, Kohei; Tomita, Toshihiko; Nakamura, Kenichi; Boku, Narikazu; Sano, Takeshi; Terashima, Masanori; Sasako, Mitsuru

    2015-11-01

    Pre-operative chemotherapy with S-1 plus cisplatin is considered to be acceptable as one of the standard treatment options for gastric cancer patients with extensive lymph node metastases in Japan. Addition of trastuzumab to chemotherapy is shown to be effective for HER2-positive advanced gastric cancer patients, and we have commenced a randomized Phase II trial in March 2015 to evaluate S-1 plus cisplatin plus trastuzumab compared with S-1 plus cisplatin alone in the neoadjuvant setting for HER2-positive gastric cancer patients with ELM, which are followed by adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 for 1 year. A total of 130 patients will be accrued from 41 Japanese institutions over 3 years. The primary endpoint is overall survival. The secondary endpoints are progression-free survival, response rate of pre-operative chemotherapy, proportion of patients with R0 resection, proportion of patients who complete the pre-operative chemotherapy and surgery, proportion of patients who complete the protocol treatment including post-operative chemotherapy, pathological response rate and adverse events. This trial has been registered in the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry as UMIN 000016920. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Reparative therapy for acute ischemic stroke with allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue: a safety assessment: a phase II randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-center, pilot clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Díez-Tejedor, Exuperio; Gutiérrez-Fernández, María; Martínez-Sánchez, Patricia; Rodríguez-Frutos, Berta; Ruiz-Ares, Gerardo; Lara, Manuel Lara; Gimeno, Blanca Fuentes

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the possible beneficial effect of the administration of stem cells in the early stages of stroke. Intravenous administration of allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from adipose tissue in patients with acute stroke could be a safe therapy for promoting neurovascular unit repair, consequently supporting better functional recovery. We aim to assess the safety and efficacy of MSC administration and evaluate its potential as a treatment for cerebral protection and repair. A Phase IIa, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-center, pilot clinical trial. Twenty patients presenting acute ischemic stroke will be randomized in a 1:1 proportion to treatment with allogeneic MSCs from adipose tissue or to placebo (or vehicle) administered as a single intravenous dose within the first 2 weeks after the onset of stroke symptoms. The patients will be followed up for 2 years. Primary outcomes for safety analysis: adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs; neurologic and systemic complications, and tumor development. Secondary outcomes for efficacy analysis: modified Rankin Scale; NIHSS; infarct size; and biochemical markers of brain repair (vascular endothelial growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and matrix metalloproteinases 9). To our knowledge, this is the first, phase II, pilot clinical trial to investigate the safety and efficacy of intravenous administration of allogeneic MSCs from adipose tissue within the first 2 weeks of stroke. In addition, its results will help us define the best criteria for a future phase III study. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Potential clinical applications of epothilones: a review of phase II studies.

    PubMed

    Larkin, J M G; Kaye, S B

    2007-07-01

    Epothilones are cytotoxic macrolides that share a similar mechanism of action with the taxanes but demonstrate antitumor activity in taxane-resistant settings. Six epothilones are in early clinical trials for cancer treatment. This review summarizes data from phase II clinical studies of the epothilones ixabepilone (BMS-247550), patupilone (EPO906), and KOS-862. Data were identified by searches of PubMed and of the proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology annual meetings and the Federation of European Cancer Societies biennial conference for the period 2000-2006. Studies were included if safety and efficacy data were available for at least 10 patients with a given tumor type in a standard phase II design. Epothilones have demonstrated activity in lung, ovarian, breast, prostate, and renal carcinomas and in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in phase II studies. Little or no evidence of clinical activity has been reported in studies of epothilones in other tumor types. Preliminary data indicate that epothilones can be combined safely with other cytotoxic agents such as carboplatin. The epothilones may play a role as an alternative to taxanes if activity in resistant settings can be confirmed together with an acceptable toxicity profile. Randomized studies are awaited to investigate the utility of epothilones in single-agent and combination regimens.

  12. Huo-Luo-Xiao-Ling (HLXL)-Dan, a Traditional Chinese Medicine, for Patients with Osteoarthritis of the Knee: A Multi-site, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Phase II Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lao, Lixing; Hochberg, Marc; Lee, David Y.W.; Gilpin, Adele M.K.; Fong, Harry H.S.; Langenberg, Patrica; Chen, Kevin; Li, Edmund K.; Tam, Lai Shan; Berman, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the efficacy and safety of Huo-Luo-Xiao-Ling (HLXL)-Dan, a traditional Chinese medicine, in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Design A multi-site, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II dose-escalation clinical trial was conducted. Eligible patients who fulfilled American College of Rheumatology criteria were randomized to receive either HLXL or placebo. Clinical assessments included measurement of knee pain and function with the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), patient global assessment (PGA), and knee pain scores every 2 weeks. A Data and Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) was established to review the data for ensuring the quality of the trial. Results In the first stage, 28 participants were randomized to receive either low-dose HLXL-Dan (2,400mg/day) or placebo for 6 weeks. The results showed no statistical difference between the two groups. The study was then re-designed following the recommendation of DSMB. Ninety-two patients were enrolled in the second stage and were randomized to receive either high-dose HLXL-Dan (4,000mg/day for week 1–2, and 5,600mg/day for week 3–8) or placebo for 8 weeks. All outcome assessments showed significant improvements for both groups after 8 weeks but no significant between-group differences. The change (mean ± SD) of WOMAC pain and WOMAC function scores of HLXL and placebo group after 8 weeks were −1.2±1.7 VS −1.4±1.5, and −1.1±1.6 VS −1.3±1.5 respectively. No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion Although safe to use, an 8-week treatment of HLXL-Dan was not superior to placebo for reduction in pain or functional improvement in patients with knee OA. Clinical trial registration number Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00755326) PMID:26099553

  13. Phase II cancer clinical trials with heterogeneous patient populations.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sin-Ho; Chang, Myron N; Kang, Sun J

    2012-01-01

    The patient population for a Phase II trial often consists of multiple subgroups in terms of risk level. In this case, a popular design approach is to specify the response rate and the prevalence of each subgroup, to calculate the response rate of the whole population by the weighted average of the response rates across subgroups, and to choose a standard Phase II design such as Simon's optimal or minimax design to test the response rate for the whole population. In this case, although the prevalence of each subgroup is accurately specified, the observed prevalence among the accrued patients to the study may be quite different from the expected one because of the small sample size, which is typical in most Phase II trials. The fixed rejection value for a chosen standard Phase II design may be either too conservative (i.e., increasing the false rejection probability of the experimental therapy) if the trial accrues more high-risk patients than expected, or too anti-conservative (i.e., increasing the false acceptance probability of the experimental therapy) if the trial accrues more low-risk patients than expected. We can avoid such problems by adjusting the rejection values, depending on the observed prevalence from the trial. In this paper, we investigate the performance of the flexible designs compared with the standard design with fixed rejection values under various settings.

  14. Bayesian design of single-arm phase II clinical trials with continuous monitoring.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Valen E; Cook, John D

    2009-06-01

    Bayesian designs are increasingly used to conduct phase II clinical trials. However, stopping boundaries in most Bayesian designs are defined from posterior credible intervals. The use of designs based on posterior credible intervals results in a loss of efficiency when compared to formal stopping rules based on Bayesian hypothesis tests. Such designs also introduce an unnecessary element of subjectivity in the interpretation of trial results. We derive a new class of Bayesian designs based on formal hypothesis tests. The prior densities used to define the alternative hypotheses in these tests assign no mass to parameter values that are consistent with the null hypotheses and are called nonlocal alternative prior densities. We show that Bayesian designs based on hypothesis tests and nonlocal alternative prior densities are more efficient than common Bayesian designs based on posterior credible intervals and common frequentist designs. In contrast to trial designs based on Bayesian credible intervals, we demonstrate that the mis-specification of the prior densities used to describe the anticipated effect of the experimental treatment in designs based on hypothesis tests cannot increase the expected weight of evidence in favor of the trial agent. Extension of test-based designs to phase I-II designs and randomized phase II designs remains an open research question. Phase II single-arm trials designed using Bayesian hypothesis tests with nonlocal alternatives provide better operating characteristics, use fewer patients per correct decision, and provide more directly interpretable results than other commonly used Bayesian and frequentist designs. Because the mis-specification of the prior density on the effect of the experimental agent decreases the expected weight of evidence that is collected in favor of the experimental treatment, the use of Bayesian hypothesis tests to design clinical trials also eliminates a potential source of bias often associated with trials

  15. Scar-improving efficacy of avotermin administered into the wound margins of skin incisions as evaluated by a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase II clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Bush, James; Duncan, Jonathan A L; Bond, Jeremy S; Durani, Piyush; So, Karen; Mason, Tracey; O'Kane, Sharon; Ferguson, Mark W J

    2010-11-01

    The authors report on a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled phase II trial to investigate avotermin (transforming growth factor beta-3) for reducing scarring resulting from acute incised skin wounds. Seventy-one healthy male subjects (18 to 45 years) received avotermin at 50 or 200 ng/100 μl/linear centimeter of wound margin. Subjects received three standardized 1-cm incisional wounds on the inner aspect of each upper arm. Wounds were randomized to receive (into each margin): no injection (standard wound care only), one intradermal injection of avotermin or placebo (immediately before surgery), or two injections of avotermin or placebo (immediately before surgery and 24 hours later). The primary efficacy variable was a 10-cm visual analog scale score, which assessed how closely scars resembled normal skin, administered at month 12 by an independent external scar assessment panel (a panel of lay public individuals). Avotermin at 200 ng/100 μl/linear centimeter, administered once or twice, achieved significant improvements in scar appearance compared with controls (p<0.02 for all comparisons). The 50-ng dose, administered twice, achieved significant improvements in scar appearance versus placebo (p=0.043). Treatment was well tolerated. These results confirm that avotermin is the first of a new class of regenerative medicines that reduce scarring when administered once or twice to the approximated margins of acute skin incisions.

  16. Hypothermia for Traumatic Brain Injury in Children-A Phase II Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Beca, John; McSharry, Brent; Erickson, Simon; Yung, Michael; Schibler, Andreas; Slater, Anthony; Wilkins, Barry; Singhal, Ash; Williams, Gary; Sherring, Claire; Butt, Warwick

    2015-07-01

    To perform a pilot study to assess the feasibility of performing a phase III trial of therapeutic hypothermia started early and continued for at least 72 hours in children with severe traumatic brain injury. Multicenter prospective randomized controlled phase II trial. All eight of the PICUs in Australia and New Zealand and one in Canada. Children 1-15 years old with severe traumatic brain injury and who could be randomized within 6 hours of injury. The control group had strict normothermia to a temperature of 36-37°C for 72 hours. The intervention group had therapeutic hypothermia to a temperature of 32-33°C for 72 hours followed by slow rewarming at a rate compatible with maintaining intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure. Of 764 children admitted to PICU with traumatic brain injury, 92 (12%) were eligible and 55 (7.2%) were recruited. There were five major protocol violations (9%): three related to recruitment and consent processes and two to incorrect temperature management. Rewarming took a median of 21.5 hours (16-35 hr) and was performed without compromise in the cerebral perfusion pressure. There was no increase in any complications, including infections, bleeding, and arrhythmias. There was no difference in outcomes 12 months after injury; in the therapeutic hypothermia group, four (17%) had a bad outcome (pediatric cerebral performance category, 4-6) and three (13%) died, whereas in the normothermia group, three (12%) had a bad outcome and one (4%) died. Early therapeutic hypothermia in children with severe traumatic brain injury does not improve outcome and should not be used outside a clinical trial. Recruitment rates were lower and outcomes were better than expected. Conventional randomized controlled trials in children with severe traumatic brain injury are unlikely to be feasible. A large international trials group and alternative approaches to trial design will be required to further inform practice.

  17. Play the winner for phase II/III clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Yao, Q; Wei, L J

    In comparing two treatments under a typical sequential clinical trial setting, a 50-50 randomization design generates reliable data for making efficient inferences about the treatment difference for the benefit of patients in the general population. However, if the treatment difference is large and the endpoint of the study is potentially fatal, it does not seem appropriate to sacrifice a large number of study patients who are assigned to the inferior arm. An adaptive design is a data-dependent treatment allocation rule that sequentially uses accumulating information about the treatment difference during the trial to modify the allocation rule for new study patients. In this article, we utilize real trials from AIDS and cancer to illustrate the advantage of using adaptive designs. Specifically we show that, with adaptive designs, the loss of power for testing the equality of two treatments is negligible. Moreover, the study patients do not have to pay a handsome price for the benefit of future patients. We also propose multi-stage adaptive rules to relax the administrative burden of implementing the study and to handle continuous response variables, such as the failure time in survival analysis.

  18. Rivaroxaban in antiphospholipid syndrome (RAPS) protocol: a prospective, randomized controlled phase II/III clinical trial of rivaroxaban versus warfarin in patients with thrombotic antiphospholipid syndrome, with or without SLE.

    PubMed

    Cohen, H; Doré, C J; Clawson, S; Hunt, B J; Isenberg, D; Khamashta, M; Muirhead, N

    2015-09-01

    The current mainstay of the treatment of thrombotic antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is long-term anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) such as warfarin. Non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOACs), which include rivaroxaban, have been shown to be effective and safe compared with warfarin for the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in major phase III prospective, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), but the results may not be directly generalizable to patients with APS. The primary aim is to demonstrate, in patients with APS and previous VTE, with or without systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), that the intensity of anticoagulation achieved with rivaroxaban is not inferior to that of warfarin. Secondary aims are to compare rates of recurrent thrombosis, bleeding and the quality of life in patients on rivaroxaban with those on warfarin. Rivaroxaban in antiphospholipid syndrome (RAPS) is a phase II/III prospective non-inferiority RCT in which eligible patients with APS, with or without SLE, who are on warfarin, target international normalized ratio (INR) 2.5 for previous VTE, will be randomized either to continue warfarin (standard of care) or to switch to rivaroxaban. Intensity of anticoagulation will be assessed using thrombin generation (TG) testing, with the primary outcome the percentage change in endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) from randomization to day 42. Other TG parameters, markers of in vivo coagulation activation, prothrombin fragment 1.2, thrombin antithrombin complex and D-dimer, will also be assessed. If RAPS demonstrates i) that the anticoagulant effect of rivaroxaban is not inferior to that of warfarin and ii) the absence of any adverse effects that cause concern with regard to the use of rivaroxaban, this would provide sufficient supporting evidence to make rivaroxaban a standard of care for the treatment of APS patients with previous VTE, requiring a target INR of 2.5. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Nivolumab for Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: Results of a Randomized Phase II Trial.

    PubMed

    Motzer, Robert J; Rini, Brian I; McDermott, David F; Redman, Bruce G; Kuzel, Timothy M; Harrison, Michael R; Vaishampayan, Ulka N; Drabkin, Harry A; George, Saby; Logan, Theodore F; Margolin, Kim A; Plimack, Elizabeth R; Lambert, Alexandre M; Waxman, Ian M; Hammers, Hans J

    2015-05-01

    Nivolumab is a fully human immunoglobulin G4 programmed death-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor antibody that restores T-cell immune activity. This phase II trial assessed the antitumor activity, dose-response relationship, and safety of nivolumab in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Patients with clear-cell mRCC previously treated with agents targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway were randomly assigned (blinded ratio of 1:1:1) to nivolumab 0.3, 2, or 10 mg/kg intravenously once every 3 weeks. The primary objective was to evaluate the dose-response relationship as measured by progression-free survival (PFS); secondary end points included objective response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS), and safety. A total of 168 patients were randomly assigned to the nivolumab 0.3- (n = 60), 2- (n = 54), and 10-mg/kg (n = 54) cohorts. One hundred eighteen patients (70%) had received more than one prior systemic regimen. Median PFS was 2.7, 4.0, and 4.2 months, respectively (P = .9). Respective ORRs were 20%, 22%, and 20%. Median OS was 18.2 months (80% CI, 16.2 to 24.0 months), 25.5 months (80% CI, 19.8 to 28.8 months), and 24.7 months (80% CI, 15.3 to 26.0 months), respectively. The most common treatment-related adverse event (AE) was fatigue (24%, 22%, and 35%, respectively). Nineteen patients (11%) experienced grade 3 to 4 treatment-related AEs. Nivolumab demonstrated antitumor activity with a manageable safety profile across the three doses studied in mRCC. No dose-response relationship was detected as measured by PFS. These efficacy and safety results in mRCC support study in the phase III setting. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  20. Phase II clinical trials on Investigational drugs for the Treatment of Pancreatic Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Edward J.; Semrad, Thomas J.; Bold, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite some recent advances in treatment options, pancreatic cancer remains a devastating disease with poor outcomes. In a trend contrary to most malignancies, both incidence and mortality continue to rise due to pancreatic cancer. The majority of patients present with advanced disease and there are no treatment options for this stage that have demonstrated a median survival greater than 1 year. As the penultimate step prior to phase III studies involving hundreds of patients, phase II clinical trials provide an early opportunity to evaluate the efficacy of new treatments that are desperately needed for this disease. Areas Covered This review covers the results of published phase II clinical trials in advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma published within the past 5 years. The treatment results are framed in the context of the current standards of care and the historic challenge of predicting phase III success from phase II trial results. Expert opinion Promising therapies remain elusive in pancreatic cancer based on recent phase II clinical trial results. Optimization and standardization of clinical trial design in the phase II setting, with consistent incorporation of biomarkers, is needed to more accurately identify promising therapies that warrant phase III evaluation. PMID:25809274

  1. Evaluation of Immunogenicity and Safety of the New Tetanus-Reduced Diphtheria (Td) Vaccines (GC1107) in Healthy Korean Adolescents: A Phase II, Double-Blind, Randomized, Multicenter Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rhim, Jung-Woo; Lee, Kyung-Yil; Kim, Sang-Yong; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Hee; Kim, Hwang Min; Choi, Young-Youn; Ma, Sang-Hyuk; Kim, Dong-Ho; Ahn, Dong Ho

    2013-01-01

    This phase II clinical trial was conducted to compare the immunogenicity and safety of a newly developed tetanus-reduced diphtheria (Td) vaccine (GC1107-T5.0 and GC1107-T7.5) and control vaccine. This study was also performed to select the proper dose of tetanus toxoid in the new Td vaccines. Healthy adolescents aged between 11 and 12 yr participated in this study. A total of 130 subjects (44 GC1107-T5.0, 42 GC1107-T7.5 and 44 control vaccine) completed a single dose of vaccination. Blood samples were collected from the subjects before and 4 weeks after the vaccination. In this study, all subjects (100%) in both GC1107-T5.0 and GC1107-T7.5 groups showed seroprotective antibody levels (≥ 0.1 U/mL) against diphtheria or tetanus toxoids. After the vaccination, the geometric mean titer (GMT) against diphtheria was significantly higher in Group GC1107-T5.0 (6.53) and GC1107-T7.5 (6.11) than in the control group (3.96). The GMT against tetanus was 18.6 in Group GC1107-T5.0, 19.94 in GC1107-T7.5 and 19.01 in the control group after the vaccination. In this study, the rates of local adverse reactions were 67.3% and 59.1% in GC1107-T5.0 and GC1107-7.5, respectively. No significant differences in the number of adverse reactions, prevalence and degree of severity of the solicited and unsolicited adverse reactions were observed among the three groups. Thus, both newly developed Td vaccines appear to be safe and show good immunogenicity. GC1107-T5.0, which contains relatively small amounts of tetanus toxoid, has been selected for a phase III clinical trial. PMID:23579367

  2. Evaluation of immunogenicity and safety of the new tetanus-reduced diphtheria (Td) vaccines (GC1107) in healthy Korean adolescents: a phase II, double-blind, randomized, multicenter clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Rhim, Jung-Woo; Lee, Kyung-Yil; Kim, Sang-Yong; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Hee; Kim, Hwang Min; Choi, Young-Youn; Ma, Sang-Hyuk; Kim, Dong-Ho; Ahn, Dong Ho; Kang, Jin-Han

    2013-04-01

    This phase II clinical trial was conducted to compare the immunogenicity and safety of a newly developed tetanus-reduced diphtheria (Td) vaccine (GC1107-T5.0 and GC1107-T7.5) and control vaccine. This study was also performed to select the proper dose of tetanus toxoid in the new Td vaccines. Healthy adolescents aged between 11 and 12 yr participated in this study. A total of 130 subjects (44 GC1107-T5.0, 42 GC1107-T7.5 and 44 control vaccine) completed a single dose of vaccination. Blood samples were collected from the subjects before and 4 weeks after the vaccination. In this study, all subjects (100%) in both GC1107-T5.0 and GC1107-T7.5 groups showed seroprotective antibody levels (≥ 0.1 U/mL) against diphtheria or tetanus toxoids. After the vaccination, the geometric mean titer (GMT) against diphtheria was significantly higher in Group GC1107-T5.0 (6.53) and GC1107-T7.5 (6.11) than in the control group (3.96). The GMT against tetanus was 18.6 in Group GC1107-T5.0, 19.94 in GC1107-T7.5 and 19.01 in the control group after the vaccination. In this study, the rates of local adverse reactions were 67.3% and 59.1% in GC1107-T5.0 and GC1107-7.5, respectively. No significant differences in the number of adverse reactions, prevalence and degree of severity of the solicited and unsolicited adverse reactions were observed among the three groups. Thus, both newly developed Td vaccines appear to be safe and show good immunogenicity. GC1107-T5.0, which contains relatively small amounts of tetanus toxoid, has been selected for a phase III clinical trial.

  3. Randomized placebo-controlled phase II trial of autologous mesenchymal stem cells in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Llufriu, Sara; Sepúlveda, María; Blanco, Yolanda; Marín, Pedro; Moreno, Beatriz; Berenguer, Joan; Gabilondo, Iñigo; Martínez-Heras, Eloy; Sola-Valls, Nuria; Arnaiz, Joan-Albert; Andreu, Enrique J; Fernández, Begoña; Bullich, Santi; Sánchez-Dalmau, Bernardo; Graus, Francesc; Villoslada, Pablo; Saiz, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Uncontrolled studies of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in multiple sclerosis suggested some beneficial effect. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover phase II study we investigated their safety and efficacy in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients. Efficacy was evaluated in terms of cumulative number of gadolinium-enhancing lesions (GEL) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 6 months and at the end of the study. Patients unresponsive to conventional therapy, defined by at least 1 relapse and/or GEL on MRI scan in past 12 months, disease duration 2 to 10 years and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 3.0-6.5 were randomized to receive IV 1-2×10(6) bone-marrow-derived-MSCs/Kg or placebo. After 6 months, the treatment was reversed and patients were followed-up for another 6 months. Secondary endpoints were clinical outcomes (relapses and disability by EDSS and MS Functional Composite), and several brain MRI and optical coherence tomography measures. Immunological tests were explored to assess the immunomodulatory effects. At baseline 9 patients were randomized to receive MSCs (n = 5) or placebo (n = 4). One patient on placebo withdrew after having 3 relapses in the first 5 months. We did not identify any serious adverse events. At 6 months, patients treated with MSCs had a trend to lower mean cumulative number of GEL (3.1, 95% CI = 1.1-8.8 vs 12.3, 95% CI = 4.4-34.5, p = 0.064), and at the end of study to reduced mean GEL (-2.8±5.9 vs 3±5.4, p = 0.075). No significant treatment differences were detected in the secondary endpoints. We observed a non-significant decrease of the frequency of Th1 (CD4+ IFN-γ+) cells in blood of MSCs treated patients. Bone-marrow-MSCs are safe and may reduce inflammatory MRI parameters supporting their immunomodulatory properties. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01228266.

  4. Randomized Placebo-Controlled Phase II Trial of Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Yolanda; Marín, Pedro; Moreno, Beatriz; Berenguer, Joan; Gabilondo, Iñigo; Martínez-Heras, Eloy; Sola-Valls, Nuria; Arnaiz, Joan-Albert; Andreu, Enrique J.; Fernández, Begoña; Bullich, Santi; Sánchez-Dalmau, Bernardo; Graus, Francesc; Villoslada, Pablo; Saiz, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Objective Uncontrolled studies of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in multiple sclerosis suggested some beneficial effect. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover phase II study we investigated their safety and efficacy in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients. Efficacy was evaluated in terms of cumulative number of gadolinium-enhancing lesions (GEL) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 6 months and at the end of the study. Methods Patients unresponsive to conventional therapy, defined by at least 1 relapse and/or GEL on MRI scan in past 12 months, disease duration 2 to 10 years and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 3.0–6.5 were randomized to receive IV 1–2×106 bone-marrow-derived-MSCs/Kg or placebo. After 6 months, the treatment was reversed and patients were followed-up for another 6 months. Secondary endpoints were clinical outcomes (relapses and disability by EDSS and MS Functional Composite), and several brain MRI and optical coherence tomography measures. Immunological tests were explored to assess the immunomodulatory effects. Results At baseline 9 patients were randomized to receive MSCs (n = 5) or placebo (n = 4). One patient on placebo withdrew after having 3 relapses in the first 5 months. We did not identify any serious adverse events. At 6 months, patients treated with MSCs had a trend to lower mean cumulative number of GEL (3.1, 95% CI = 1.1–8.8 vs 12.3, 95% CI = 4.4–34.5, p = 0.064), and at the end of study to reduced mean GEL (−2.8±5.9 vs 3±5.4, p = 0.075). No significant treatment differences were detected in the secondary endpoints. We observed a non-significant decrease of the frequency of Th1 (CD4+ IFN-γ+) cells in blood of MSCs treated patients. Conclusion Bone-marrow-MSCs are safe and may reduce inflammatory MRI parameters supporting their immunomodulatory properties. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01228266 PMID:25436769

  5. Novel therapies for resistant focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FONT) phase II clinical trial: study design

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The lack of adequate randomized clinical trials (RCT) has hindered identification of new therapies that are safe and effective for patients with primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), especially in patients who fail to respond to corticosteroids and immunosuppressive therapies. Recent basic science advances have led to development of alternative treatments that specifically target aberrant pathways of fibrosis which are relevant to disease progression in FSGS. There is a need for a flexible Phase II study design which will test such novel antifibrotic strategies in order to identify agents suitable for phase III testing. Methods/Design The Novel Therapies for Resistant Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FONT) project is a multicenter Phase I/II RCT designed to investigate the potential efficacy of novel therapies for resistant FSGS. Adalimumab and galactose will be evaluated against conservative therapy consisting of the combination of lisinopril, losartan and atorvastatin. The sample size is defined to assure that if one of the treatments has a superior response rate compared to that of the other treatments, it will be selected with high probability for further evaluation. Comparison of primary and secondary endpoints in each study arm will enable a choice to be made of which treatments are worthy of further study in future Phase III RCT. Discussion This report highlights the key features of the FONT II RCT including the two-step outcome analysis that will expedite achievement of the study objectives. The proposed phase II study design will help to identify promising agents for further testing while excluding ineffective agents. This staged approach can help to prevent large expenditures on unworthy therapeutic agents in the management of serious but rare kidney diseases Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00814255 PMID:21310077

  6. A phase II randomized clinical trial on cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy plus a treatment guideline versus treatment as usual for extremely preterm infants during the first three days of life (SafeBoosC): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Every year in Europe about 25,000 infants are born extremely preterm. These infants have a 20% mortality rate, and 25% of survivors have severe long-term cerebral impairment. Preventative measures are key to reduce mortality and morbidity in an extremely preterm population. The primary objective of the SafeBoosC phase II trial is to examine if it is possible to stabilize the cerebral oxygenation of extremely preterm infants during the first 72 hours of life through the application of cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) oximetry and implementation of an clinical treatment guideline based on intervention thresholds of cerebral regional tissue saturation rStO2. Methods/Design SafeBoosC is a randomized, blinded, multinational, phase II clinical trial. The inclusion criteria are: neonates born more than 12 weeks preterm; decision to conduct full life support; parental informed consent; and possibility to place the cerebral NIRS oximeter within 3 hours after birth. The infants will be randomized into one of two groups. Both groups will have a cerebral oximeter monitoring device placed within three hours of birth. In the experimental group, the cerebral oxygenation reading will supplement the standard treatment using a predefined treatment guideline. In the control group, the cerebral oxygenation reading will not be visible and the infant will be treated according to the local standards. The primary outcome is the multiplication of the duration and magnitude of rStO2 values outside the target ranges of 55% to 85%, that is, the ‘burden of hypoxia and hyperoxia’ expressed in ‘%hours’. To detect a 50% difference between the experimental and control group in %hours, 166 infants in total must be randomized. Secondary outcomes are mortality at term date, cerebral ultrasound score, and interburst intervals on an amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram at 64 hours of life and explorative outcomes include neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years corrected

  7. A phase II, randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial on the efficacy of Curcumina and Calendula suppositories for the treatment of patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome type III.

    PubMed

    Morgia, Giuseppe; Russo, Giorgio Ivan; Urzì, Daniele; Privitera, Salvatore; Castelli, Tommaso; Favilla, Vincenzo; Cimino, Sebastiano

    2017-06-30

    The management of chronic prostatitis/ chronic pelvic pain syndrome type III (CP/CPPS) has been always considered complex due to several biopsychological factors underling the disease. In this clinical study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment with Curcumin and Calendula extract in patients with CP/CPPS III. From June 2015 to January 2016 we enrolled 60 consecutive patients affected by CP/CPPS III in our institution. Patients between 20 and 50 year of age with symptoms of pelvic pain for 3 months or more before study, a total National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) score ≥ 15 point and diagnosed with NIH category III. Patients were then allocated to receive placebo (Group A) or treatment (Group B). Treatment consisted of rectal suppositories of Curcumin extract 350 mg (95%) and Calendula extract 80 mg (1 suppository/die for 1 month). Patients of Group B received 1 suppository/die for 1 month of placebo. The primary endpoint of the study was the reduction of NIH-CPSI. The secondary outcomes were the change of peak flow, IIEF-5, VAS score and of premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT). A total of 48 patients concluded the study protocol. The median age of the all cohort was 32.0 years, the median NIH-CPSI was 20.5, the median IIEF-5 was 18.5, the median PEDT was 11.0, the median VAS score was 7.5 and the median peak flow was 14.0. After 3 months of therapy in group A we observed a significant improvement of NIH-CPSI (-5.5; p < 0.01), IIEF-5 (+ 3.5; p < 0.01), PEDT (-6.5; p < 0.01), peak flow (+2.8; p < 0.01) and VAS (-6.5; p < 0.01) with significant differences over placebo group (all p-value significant). In this phase II clinical trial we showed the clinical efficacy of the treatment with Curcumin and Calendula in patients with CP/CPPS III. The benefits of this treatment could be related to the reduction of inflammatory cytokines and of inflammatory cells. These results should be confirmed in

  8. The design of phase II clinical trials testing cancer therapeutics: consensus recommendations from the clinical trial design task force of the national cancer institute investigational drug steering committee.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Lesley; Ivy, S Percy; Sargent, Daniel; Spriggs, David; Baker, Laurence; Rubinstein, Larry; Ratain, Mark J; Le Blanc, Michael; Stewart, David; Crowley, John; Groshen, Susan; Humphrey, Jeffrey S; West, Pamela; Berry, Donald

    2010-03-15

    The optimal design of phase II studies continues to be the subject of vigorous debate, especially studies of newer molecularly targeted agents. The observations that many new therapeutics "fail" in definitive phase III studies, coupled with the numbers of new agents to be tested as well as the increasing costs and complexity of clinical trials, further emphasize the critical importance of robust and efficient phase II design. The Clinical Trial Design Task Force (CTD-TF) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Investigational Drug Steering Committee (IDSC) has published a series of discussion papers on phase II trial design in Clinical Cancer Research. The IDSC has developed formal recommendations about aspects of phase II trial design that are the subject of frequent debate, such as endpoints (response versus progression-free survival), randomization (single-arm designs versus randomization), inclusion of biomarkers, biomarker-based patient enrichment strategies, and statistical design (e.g., two-stage designs versus multiple-group adaptive designs). Although these recommendations in general encourage the use of progression-free survival as the primary endpoint, randomization, inclusion of biomarkers, and incorporation of newer designs, we acknowledge that objective response as an endpoint and single-arm designs remain relevant in certain situations. The design of any clinical trial should always be carefully evaluated and justified based on characteristic specific to the situation.

  9. Exploring the statistical and clinical impact of two interim analyses on the Phase II design with option for direct assignment.

    PubMed

    An, Ming-Wen; Mandrekar, Sumithra J; Edelman, Martin J; Sargent, Daniel J

    2014-07-01

    The primary goal of Phase II clinical trials is to understand better a treatment's safety and efficacy to inform a Phase III go/no-go decision. Many Phase II designs have been proposed, incorporating randomization, interim analyses, adaptation, and patient selection. The Phase II design with an option for direct assignment (i.e. stop randomization and assign all patients to the experimental arm based on a single interim analysis (IA) at 50% accrual) was recently proposed [An et al., 2012]. We discuss this design in the context of existing designs, and extend it from a single-IA to a two-IA design. We compared the statistical properties and clinical relevance of the direct assignment design with two IA (DAD-2) versus a balanced randomized design with two IA (BRD-2) and a direct assignment design with one IA (DAD-1), over a range of response rate ratios (2.0-3.0). The DAD-2 has minimal loss in power (<2.2%) and minimal increase in T1ER (<1.6%) compared to a BRD-2. As many as 80% more patients were treated with experimental vs. control in the DAD-2 than with the BRD-2 (experimental vs. control ratio: 1.8 vs. 1.0), and as many as 64% more in the DAD-2 than with the DAD-1 (1.8 vs. 1.1). We illustrate the DAD-2 using a case study in lung cancer. In the spectrum of Phase II designs, the direct assignment design, especially with two IA, provides a middle ground with desirable statistical properties and likely appeal to both clinicians and patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Web-based data management for a phase II clinical trial in ALS.

    PubMed

    Buchsbaum, Richard; Kaufmann, Petra; Barsdorf, Alexandra I; Arbing, Rachel; Montes, Jacqueline; Thompson, John L P

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to report on the creation, features and performance of a web-based data management system for a two-stage phase II randomized clinical trial of Co-Enzyme Q10 in ALS. We created a relatively comprehensive web-based data system that provided electronic data entry; patient management utilities; adverse event reporting, safety monitoring, and invoice generation; and standardized coding for medications and adverse events. In stage 1, clinical sites submitted 7207 forms reporting on 105 patients followed for 10 months. Less than 0.7% of submitted forms contained errors. At the time of the delivery of the analysis data set, only four errors remained unresolved. Data were available quickly, with a median time from event to data posting of two days. The data set was locked and the analysis data set produced nine days after the final patient visit. A survey of trial personnel yielded generally positive feedback, with 75% of respondents wishing to use a similar system in the future. Given sufficient resources, a comprehensive web-based data management system can meet the need for clean, available data in clinical trials in ALS and similar diseases, and can contribute significantly to their efficient execution.

  11. Randomized Phase II Trial of Lyophilized Strawberries in Patients with Dysplastic Precancerous Lesions of the Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tong; Yan, Fei; Qian, Jiaming; Guo, Mingzhou; Zhang, Hongbing; Tang, Xiaofei; Chen, Fang; Stoner, Gary D.; Wang, Xiaomin

    2016-01-01

    Dysplasia is a histologic precursor of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We previously showed that dietary freeze-dried, or lyophilized, strawberry powder inhibits N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine-induced SCC in the rat esophagus. On the basis of this observation, we conducted a randomized (noncomparative) phase II trial in China to investigate the effects of two doses of freeze-dried strawberries in patients with esophageal dysplastic lesions in a high-risk area for esophageal cancer. We randomly assigned 75 patients identified by endoscopy to have dysplastic esophageal premalignant lesions to receive freeze-dried strawberry powder at either 30 g/d (37 patients) or 60 g/d (38 patients) for six months; the powder was mixed with water and drunk. After six months, we assessed the changes in histologic grade of these lesions (primary endpoint) in a blinded fashion. The dose of 30 g/d, did not significantly affect histology or any other measured parameter. The dose of 60 g/d, however, reduced the histologic grade of dysplastic premalignant lesions in 29 (80.6%) of the 36 patients at this dose who were evaluated for histology (P < 0.0001). The strawberry powder was well tolerated, with no toxic effects or serious adverse events. Strawberries (60 g/d) also reduced protein expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) by 79.5% (P < 0.001), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) by 62.9% (P < 0.001), phospho-nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB)-p65 (pNFκB-p65) by 62.6% (P < 0.001), and phospho-S6 (pS6) by 73.2% (P < 0.001). Freeze-dried strawberries (60 g/d) also significantly inhibited the Ki-67 labeling index by 37.9% (P = 0.023). Our present results indicate the potential of freeze-dried strawberry powder for preventing human esophageal cancer, supporting further clinical testing of this natural agent in this setting. PMID:22135048

  12. Photosensitizer Radachlorin®: Skin cancer PDT phase II clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Kochneva, Elena V; Filonenko, Elena V; Vakulovskaya, Elena G; Scherbakova, Elena G; Seliverstov, Oleg V; Markichev, Nikolay A; Reshetnickov, Andrei V

    2010-12-01

    "Radachlorin"(®), also known in the EU as Bremachlorin, a composition of 3 chlorophyll a derivatives in an aqueous solution, was introduced into the Russian Pharmacopoeia. Its GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice) facility based manufacturing method was patented. Laboratory experiments and clinical phase I were performed. Protocols were designed for PDT of basal cell carcinoma of the skin to result in GCP (Good Clinical Practice)-conformed randomized phase II clinical studies. "Radachlorin"(®) solution for intravenous infusions 0.35% 10mL in the doses of 0.5-0.6 and 1.0-1.2mg/kg and a gel for topical application 0.1% 25g in the dose of 0.1g/cm(2) were photoactivated by 2.5W 662nm semiconductor laser "LAKHTA-MILON(®)" (St. Petersburg, Russia) in light doses of 200, 300 (solution), 400, 600, 800 (gel) J/cm(2). Safety study showed no side effects and a good tolerability of "Radachlorin"(®) by patients. There was no normal skin/subdermal tissue damage after both laser and sun light exposure. The main part (98%) of the drug was excreted or metabolized in the first 48h. Drug administration at a dose of 1.0-1.2mg/kg and irradiation at 3h with 662±3nm light at a dose of 300J/cm(2) (solution) and 4 PDT sessions at an interval of 1 week with 3h gel exposure, followed by 400J/cm(2) light exposure (gel) were found to be the optimal treatment regimes. Having successfully passed clinical trials, "Radachlorin"(®) achieved marketing authorization in Russia in 2009 and a conditional approval in South Korea in 2008. It is a candidate for phase III clinical trials in the EC and may be commercialized as a prospective second-generation photosensitizer.

  13. Changes in ventricular remodelling and clinical status during the year following a single administration of stromal cell-derived factor-1 non-viral gene therapy in chronic ischaemic heart failure patients: the STOP-HF randomized Phase II trial

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Eugene S.; Miller, Leslie; Patel, Amit N.; Anderson, Russell David; Mendelsohn, Farrell O.; Traverse, Jay; Silver, Kevin H.; Shin, Julia; Ewald, Gregory; Farr, Mary Jane; Anwaruddin, Saif; Plat, Francis; Fisher, Scott J.; AuWerter, Alexander T.; Pastore, Joseph M.; Aras, Rahul; Penn, Marc S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) promotes tissue repair through mechanisms of cell survival, endogenous stem cell recruitment, and vasculogenesis. Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1 Plasmid Treatment for Patients with Heart Failure (STOP-HF) is a Phase II, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate safety and efficacy of a single treatment of plasmid stromal cell-derived factor-1 (pSDF-1) delivered via endomyocardial injection to patients with ischaemic heart failure (IHF). Methods Ninety-three subjects with IHF on stable guideline-based medical therapy and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤40%, completed Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLWHFQ) and 6-min walk distance (6 MWD), were randomized 1 : 1 : 1 to receive a single treatment of either a 15 or 30 mg dose of pSDF-1 or placebo via endomyocardial injections. Safety and efficacy parameters were assessed at 4 and 12 months after injection. Left ventricular functional and structural measures were assessed by contrast echocardiography and quantified by a blinded independent core laboratory. Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1 Plasmid Treatment for Patients with Heart Failure was powered based on change in 6 MWD and MLWHFQ at 4 months. Results Subject profiles at baseline were (mean ± SD): age 65 ± 9 years, LVEF 28 ± 7%, left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) 167 ± 66 mL, N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) (NTproBNP) 1120 ± 1084 pg/mL, MLWHFQ 50 ± 20 points, and 6 MWD 289 ± 99 m. Patients were 11 ± 9 years post most recent myocardial infarction. Study injections were delivered without serious adverse events in all subjects. Sixty-two patients received drug with no unanticipated serious product-related adverse events. The primary endpoint was a composite of change in 6 MWD and MLWHFQ from baseline to 4 months follow-up. The primary endpoint was not met (P = 0.89). For the patients treated with pSDF-1, there was a trend toward an

  14. Flexible designs for phase II comparative clinical trials involving two response variables.

    PubMed

    Bersimis, S; Sachlas, A; Papaioannou, T

    2015-01-30

    The aim of phase II clinical trials is to determine whether an experimental treatment is sufficiently promising and safe to justify further testing. The need for reduced sample size arises naturally in phase II clinical trials owing to both technical and ethical reasons, motivating a significant part of research in the field during recent years, while another significant part of the research effort is aimed at more complex therapeutic schemes that demand the consideration of multiple endpoints to make decisions. In this paper, our attention is restricted to phase II clinical trials in which two treatments are compared with respect to two dependent dichotomous responses proposing some flexible designs. These designs permit the researcher to terminate the clinical trial when high rates of favorable or unfavorable outcomes are observed early enough requiring in this way a small number of patients. From the mathematical point of view, the proposed designs are defined on bivariate sequences of multi-state trials, and the corresponding stopping rules are based on various distributions related to the waiting time until a certain number of events appear in these sequences. The exact distributions of interest, under a unified framework, are studied using the Markov chain embedding technique, which appears to be very useful in clinical trials for the sample size determination. Tables of expected sample size and power are presented. The numerical illustration showed a very good performance for these new designs.

  15. Clinical and Biomarker Outcomes of the Phase II Vandetanib Study from the BATTLE Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Anne S.; Liu, Suyu; Lee, J. Jack; Alden, Christine M.; Blumenschein, George R.; Herbst, Roy; Davis, Suzanne E.; Kim, Edward; Lippman, Scott; Heymach, John; Tran, Hai; Tang, XiMing; Wistuba, Ignacio; Hong, Waun Ki

    2016-01-01

    Background The Biomarker-integrated Approaches of Targeted Therapy for Lung Cancer Elimination trial1 prospectively obtained serum and tumor core biopsies and randomized 255 chemorefractory non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients into four phase II trials: erlotinib, erlotinib-bexarotene, vandetanib, or sorafenib. Herein, we report the clinical and biomarker results of the phase II vandetanib trial. Results Fifty-four patients received vandetanib. The 8-week disease control rate was 33%, median progression-free survival (PFS) 1.81 months, and median overall survival (OS) 6.5 months. No demographic subgroups had PFS or OS benefit. Eight patients with EGFR mutations had a trend for higher 8-week disease control rate (63% versus 31%; p = 0.12) but worse OS (5.9 months versus 9 months; p = 0.8). Patients with EGFR gene amplification (n = 6) had a worse OS (3.9 months versus 9.5 months; p = 0.04). KRAS mutation patients (3.9 months versus 9.5 months; p = 0.23) also had a worse OS. For the serum biomarker analysis, patients with below the median serum expression of interleukin 9c (p = 0.019) and eotaxin (p = 0.007) had a shorter PFS. A trend toward a shorter PFS was also seen in patients with higher than the median neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (p = 0.079) and lower than the median TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (p = 0.087). Conclusion Our trial results are largely consistent with the literature in unselected pretreated NSCLC patients. Although vandetanib improved median PFS in EGFR mutation patients with epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor–resistance compared with EGFR wild-type, there was no OS advantage. Although vandetanib is no longer in development in NSCLC, identification of a molecular phenotype that responds to dual epidermal growth factor receptor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibition would contribute to the field. PMID:23584298

  16. A Bayesian design for phase II clinical trials with delayed responses based on multiple imputation

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Chunyan; Liu, Suyu; Yuan, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Interimmonitoring is routinely conducted in phase II clinical trials to terminate the trial early if the experimental treatment is futile. Interim monitoring requires that patients’ responses be ascertained shortly after the initiation of treatment so that the outcomes are known by the time the interim decision must be made. However, in some cases, response outcomes require a long time to be assessed, which causes difficulties for interim monitoring. To address this issue, we propose a Bayesian trial design to allow for continuously monitoring phase II clinical trials in the presence of delayed responses. We treat the delayed responses as missing data and handle them using a multiple imputation approach. Extensive simulations show that the proposed design yields desirable operating characteristics under various settings and dramatically reduces the trial duration. PMID:24817556

  17. Local Treatment of Unresectable Colorectal Liver Metastases: Results of a Randomized Phase II Trial

    PubMed Central

    Van Coevorden, Frits; Punt, Cornelis J. A.; Pierie, Jean-Pierre E. N.; Borel-Rinkes, Inne; Ledermann, Jonathan A.; Poston, Graeme; Bechstein, Wolf; Lentz, Marie-Ange; Mauer, Murielle; Folprecht, Gunnar; Van Cutsem, Eric; Ducreux, Michel; Nordlinger, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Background: Tumor ablation is often employed for unresectable colorectal liver metastases. However, no survival benefit has ever been demonstrated in prospective randomized studies. Here, we investigate the long-term benefits of such an aggressive approach. Methods: In this randomized phase II trial, 119 patients with unresectable colorectal liver metastases (n < 10 and no extrahepatic disease) received systemic treatment alone or systemic treatment plus aggressive local treatment by radiofrequency ablation ± resection. Previously, we reported that the primary end point (30-month overall survival [OS] > 38%) was met. We now report on long-term OS results. All statistical tests were two-sided. The analyses were according to intention to treat. Results: At a median follow up of 9.7 years, 92 of 119 (77.3%) patients had died: 39 of 60 (65.0%) in the combined modality arm and 53 of 59 (89.8%) in the systemic treatment arm. Almost all patients died of progressive disease (35 patients in the combined modality arm, 49 patients in the systemic treatment arm). There was a statistically significant difference in OS in favor of the combined modality arm (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.38 to 0.88, P = .01). Three-, five-, and eight-year OS were 56.9% (95% CI = 43.3% to 68.5%), 43.1% (95% CI = 30.3% to 55.3%), 35.9% (95% CI = 23.8% to 48.2%), respectively, in the combined modality arm and 55.2% (95% CI = 41.6% to 66.9%), 30.3% (95% CI = 19.0% to 42.4%), 8.9% (95% CI = 3.3% to 18.1%), respectively, in the systemic treatment arm. Median OS was 45.6 months (95% CI = 30.3 to 67.8 months) in the combined modality arm vs 40.5 months (95% CI = 27.5 to 47.7 months) in the systemic treatment arm. Conclusions: This phase II trial is the first randomized study demonstrating that aggressive local treatment can prolong OS in patients with unresectable colorectal liver metastases. PMID:28376151

  18. A randomized phase II study of pomegranate extract for men with rising PSA following initial therapy for localized prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Paller, CJ; Ye, X; Wozniak, PJ; Gillespie, BK; Sieber, PR; Greengold, RH; Stockton, BR; Hertzman, BL; Efros, MD; Roper, RP; Liker, HR; Carducci, MA

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pomegranate juice has been associated with PSA doubling time (PSADT) elongation in a single-arm phase II trial. This study assesses biological activity of two doses of pomegranate extract (POMx) in men with recurrent prostate cancer, using changes in PSADT as the primary outcome. METHODS This randomized, multi-center, double-blind phase II, dose-exploring trial randomized men with a rising PSA and without metastases to receive 1 or 3 g of POMx, stratified by baseline PSADT and Gleason score. Patients (104) were enrolled and treated for up to 18 months. The intent-to-treat (ITT) population was 96% white, with median age 74.5 years and median Gleason score 7. This study was designed to detect a 6-month on-study increase in PSADT from baseline in each arm. RESULTS: Overall, median PSADT in the ITT population lengthened from 11.9 months at baseline to 18.5 months after treatment (P<0.001). PSADT lengthened in the low-dose group from 11.9 to 18.8 months and 12.2 to 17.5 months in the high-dose group, with no significant difference between dose groups (P =0.554). PSADT increases >100% of baseline were observed in 43% of patients. Declining PSA levels were observed in 13 patients (13%). In all, 42% of patients discontinued treatment before meeting the protocol-definition of PSA progression, or 18 months, primarily due to a rising PSA. No significant changes occurred in testosterone. Although no clinically significant toxicities were seen, diarrhea was seen in 1.9% and 13.5% of patients in the 1- and 3-g dose groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS POMx treatment was associated with ≥6 month increases in PSADT in both treatment arms without adverse effects. The significance of this on-study slowing of PSADT remains unclear, reinforcing the need for placebo-controlled studies in this patient population. PMID:22689129

  19. A varying-stage adaptive phase II/III clinical trial design.

    PubMed

    Dong, Gaohong

    2014-04-15

    Currently, adaptive phase II/III clinical trials are typically carried out with a strict two-stage design. The first stage is a learning stage called phase II, and the second stage is a confirmatory stage called phase III. Following phase II analysis, inefficacious or harmful dose arms are dropped, then one or two promising dose arms are selected for the second stage. However, there are often situations in which researchers are in dilemma to make 'go or no-go' decision and/or to select 'best' dose arm(s), as data from the first stage may not provide sufficient information for their decision making. In this case, it is challenging to follow a strict two-stage plan. Therefore, we propose a varying-stage adaptive phase II/III clinical trial design, in which we consider whether there is a need to have an intermediate stage to obtain more data, so that a more informative decision could be made. Hence, the number of further investigational stages in our design is determined on the basis of data accumulated to the interim analysis. With respect to adaptations, we consider dropping dose arm(s), switching another plausible endpoint as the primary study endpoint, re-estimating sample size, and early stopping for futility. We use an adaptive combination test to perform final analyses. By applying closed testing procedure, we control family-wise type I error rate at the nominal level of α in the strong sense. We delineate other essential design considerations including the threshold parameters and the proportion of alpha allocated in the two-stage versus three-stage setting.

  20. Randomized Phase II Trial of Erlotinib Beyond Progression in Advanced Erlotinib-Responsive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pennell, Nathan A.; Fu, Pingfu; Saad, Shumaila; Gadgeel, Shirish; Otterson, Gregory A.; Mekhail, Tarek; Snell, Michael; Kuebler, J. Philip; Sharma, Neelesh

    2015-01-01

    Background. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy is clearly beneficial in patients with advanced EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, acquired resistance develops uniformly and the benefit of continuation of EGFR TKI therapy beyond progression remains unclear. Materials and Methods. This was a randomized phase II study of chemotherapy (arm A: pemetrexed or docetaxel) versus chemotherapy plus erlotinib (ERL) (arm B) in patients with progressive NSCLC following clinical benefit from erlotinib. In arm B, chemotherapy was given with erlotinib at an oral daily dose of 150 mg on days 2–19 of each cycle to minimize negative pharmacodynamic interactions. The primary endpoint was that continuation of erlotinib in this patient population could extend progression-free survival (PFS) by 50%. Results. A total of 46 patients were randomized (arm A: 24; arm B: 22). Patient characteristics were well balanced except there were more female patients in arm A (p = .075). The median PFS of patients in arm A was 5.5 months and for those in arm B, 4.4 months (p = .699). The response rates were 13% and 16% in arms A and B, respectively (p = .79). EGFR status data were available for 39 of the 46 patients and no significant difference in PFS was seen for continuing ERL beyond progression in mutation-positive patients. Substantially more toxicity was seen in arm B than arm A. Conclusion. There was added toxicity but no benefit with the continuation of ERL beyond progression along with chemotherapy as compared with chemotherapy alone. Implications for Practice: The benefits of continuing erlotinib upon progression alongside conventional chemotherapy are unclear. This randomized phase II study, initiated prior to the establishment of routine epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation testing, addressed this clinically relevant issue through randomizing patients with prior clinical benefit from erlotinib (thereby enriching

  1. Protocol for a Randomized Phase II Trial for Mesh Optimization by Autologous Plasma Coating in Prolapse Repair: IDEAL Stage 3.

    PubMed

    Gerullis, Holger; Barski, Dimitri; Georgas, Evangelos; Borós, Mihaly; Ramon, Albert; Ecke, Thorsten H; Selinski, Silvia; Luedders, Dörte; Kramer, Mario W; Winter, Alexander; Wawroschek, Friedhelm; Otto, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Mesh-related complications especially after vaginal implantation have raised awareness lately because of severe adverse reactions and legal aspects. About 20% of patients suffer from complications after mesh insertion in the anterior vaginal wall. Autologous plasma coating of meshes prior to implantation has shown potential to improve the biocompatibility of meshes in vivo and in vitro. This innovative approach has been developed according to the IDEAL recommendations for surgical innovations. The method has still to be assessed at stage 3 accordingly. A protocol is developed for a prospective single-blinded randomized controlled phase II trial for biocompatibility optimization of anterior vaginal meshes for prolapse repair by autologous plasma coating versus non-coated meshes. The protocol aims at fulfilling the requirements for stage 3 (assessment) according to IDEAL. Eligible for inclusion are women with primary cystocele, requiring a surgical procedure, suitable for randomization, and willing to be randomized. Participants will be followed up by postal questionnaires (6 months post surgery and 12 months post randomization) and will also be reviewed in clinic 12 and 24 months post surgery. Primary endpoint is the assessment of mesh-related complications following the Clavien-Dindo classifications. QoL, sexual function assessment, efficacy, and validation of an already developed long-term register are considered secondary endpoints. To afford a calculated 10% reduction of postoperative complications through plasma-coated meshes vs. non-coated meshes at 1-year follow-up, a total 214 women in each arm will be necessary to achieve 80% power at a significance level of 5%. The protocol for this randomized clinical trial represents the conditions to assess the surgical innovation of plasma coating of meshes in order to improve the meshes' biocompatibility at stage 3 according to the IDEAL recommendations.

  2. Randomized Phase II Study Investigating Pazopanib Versus Weekly Paclitaxel in Relapsed or Progressive Urothelial Cancer.

    PubMed

    Jones, Robert J; Hussain, Syed A; Protheroe, Andrew S; Birtle, Alison; Chakraborti, Prabir; Huddart, Robert A; Jagdev, Satinder; Bahl, Amit; Stockdale, Andrew; Sundar, Santhanam; Crabb, Simon J; Dixon-Hughes, Judith; Alexander, Laura; Morris, Anna; Kelly, Caroline; Stobo, Jon; Paul, James; Powles, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Purpose Two previous single-arm trials have drawn conflicting conclusions regarding the activity of pazopanib in urothelial cancers after failure of platinum-based chemotherapy. Patients and Methods This randomized (1:1) open-label phase II trial compared the efficacy of pazopanib 800 mg orally with paclitaxel (80 mg/m(2) days 1, 8, and 15 every 28 days) in the second-line setting. The primary end point was overall survival (OS). Results Between August 2012 and October 2014, 131 patients, out of 140 planned, were randomly assigned. The study was terminated early on the recommendation of the independent data monitoring committee because of futility. Final analysis after the preplanned number of deaths (n = 110) occurred after a median follow-up of 18 months. One hundred fifteen deaths had occurred at the final data extract presented here. Median OS was 8.0 months for paclitaxel (80% CI, 6.9 to 9.7 months) and 4.7 months for pazopanib (80% CI, 4.2 to 6.4 months). The hazard ratio (HR) adjusted for baseline stratification factors was 1.28 (80% CI, 0.99 to 1.67; one-sided P = .89). Median progression-free survival was 4.1 months for paclitaxel (80% CI, 3.0 to 5.6 months) and 3.1 months for pazopanib (80% CI, 2.7 to 4.6 months; HR, 1.09; 80% CI, 0.85 to 1.40; one-sided P = .67). Discontinuations for toxicity occurred in 7.8% and 23.1% for paclitaxel and pazopanib, respectively. Conclusion Pazopanib did not have greater efficacy than paclitaxel in the second-line treatment of urothelial cancers. There was a trend toward superior OS for paclitaxel.

  3. Nivolumab for Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: Results of a Randomized Phase II Trial

    PubMed Central

    Motzer, Robert J.; Rini, Brian I.; McDermott, David F.; Redman, Bruce G.; Kuzel, Timothy M.; Harrison, Michael R.; Vaishampayan, Ulka N.; Drabkin, Harry A.; George, Saby; Logan, Theodore F.; Margolin, Kim A.; Plimack, Elizabeth R.; Lambert, Alexandre M.; Waxman, Ian M.; Hammers, Hans J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Nivolumab is a fully human immunoglobulin G4 programmed death–1 immune checkpoint inhibitor antibody that restores T-cell immune activity. This phase II trial assessed the antitumor activity, dose-response relationship, and safety of nivolumab in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Patients and Methods Patients with clear-cell mRCC previously treated with agents targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway were randomly assigned (blinded ratio of 1:1:1) to nivolumab 0.3, 2, or 10 mg/kg intravenously once every 3 weeks. The primary objective was to evaluate the dose-response relationship as measured by progression-free survival (PFS); secondary end points included objective response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS), and safety. Results A total of 168 patients were randomly assigned to the nivolumab 0.3- (n = 60), 2- (n = 54), and 10-mg/kg (n = 54) cohorts. One hundred eighteen patients (70%) had received more than one prior systemic regimen. Median PFS was 2.7, 4.0, and 4.2 months, respectively (P = .9). Respective ORRs were 20%, 22%, and 20%. Median OS was 18.2 months (80% CI, 16.2 to 24.0 months), 25.5 months (80% CI, 19.8 to 28.8 months), and 24.7 months (80% CI, 15.3 to 26.0 months), respectively. The most common treatment-related adverse event (AE) was fatigue (24%, 22%, and 35%, respectively). Nineteen patients (11%) experienced grade 3 to 4 treatment-related AEs. Conclusion Nivolumab demonstrated antitumor activity with a manageable safety profile across the three doses studied in mRCC. No dose-response relationship was detected as measured by PFS. These efficacy and safety results in mRCC support study in the phase III setting. PMID:25452452

  4. An evaluation of a Simon 2-Stage phase II clinical trial design incorporating toxicity monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ray, H E; Rai, S N

    2011-05-01

    Phase II clinical trials are usually designed to measure efficacy but patient safety is also a very important aspect. Previous authors suggested a methodology that allows one to monitor the cumulative number of toxic events after each patient is treated, which is also known as continuous toxicity monitoring. In this work we describe how to combine the continuous toxicity monitoring methodology with the Simon 2-Stage design for response. Then we investigate through simulation the combined procedure's type I and type II error rates under various combinations of design parameters. We include the underlying relationship between toxicity and response in our examination of the error rates.

  5. Treadmill training to improve mobility for people with sub-acute stroke: a phase II feasibility randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Baer, Gillian D; Salisbury, Lisa G; Smith, Mark T; Pitman, Jane; Dennis, Martin

    2017-07-01

    This phase II study investigated the feasibility and potential effectiveness of treadmill training versus normal gait re-education for ambulant and non-ambulant people with sub-acute stroke delivered as part of normal clinical practice. A single-blind, feasibility randomized controlled trial. Four hospital-based stroke units. Participants within three months of stroke onset. Participants were randomized to treadmill training (minimum twice weekly) plus normal gait re-education or normal gait re-education only (control) for up to eight weeks. Measures were taken at baseline, after eight weeks of intervention and at six-month follow-up. The primary outcome was the Rivermead Mobility Index. Other measures included the Functional Ambulation Category, 10-metre walk, 6-minute walk, Barthel Index, Motor Assessment Scale, Stroke Impact Scale and a measure of confidence in walking. In all, 77 patients were randomized, 39 to treadmill and 38 to control. It was feasible to deliver treadmill training to people with sub-acute stroke. Only two adverse events occurred. No statistically significant differences were found between groups. For example, Rivermead Mobility Index, median (interquartile range (IQR)): after eight weeks treadmill 5 (4-9), control 6 (4-11) p = 0.33; or six-month follow-up treadmill 8.5 (3-12), control 8 (6-12.5) p = 0.42. The frequency and intensity of intervention was low. Treadmill training in sub-acute stroke patients was feasible but showed no significant difference in outcomes when compared to normal gait re-education. A large definitive randomized trial is now required to explore treadmill training in normal clinical practice.

  6. Tumor and circulating biomarkers in patients with second-line hepatocellular carcinoma from the randomized phase II study with tivantinib

    PubMed Central

    Rimassa, Lorenza; Abbadessa, Giovanni; Personeni, Nicola; Porta, Camillo; Borbath, Ivan; Daniele, Bruno; Salvagni, Stefania; Van Laethem, Jean-Luc; Van Vlierberghe, Hans; Trojan, Jörg; De Toni, Enrico N.; Weiss, Alan; Miles, Steven; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Lencioni, Monica; Lamar, Maria E.; Wang, Yunxia; Shuster, Dale; Schwartz, Brian E.; Santoro, Armando

    2016-01-01

    ARQ 197-215 was a randomized placebo-controlled phase II study testing the MET inhibitor tivantinib in second-line hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. It identified tumor MET as a key biomarker in HCC. Aim of this research was to study the prognostic and predictive value of tumor (MET, the receptor tyrosine kinase encoded by the homonymous MNNG-HOS transforming gene) and circulating (MET, hepatocyte growth factor [HGF], alpha-fetoprotein [AFP], vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF]) biomarkers in second-line HCC. Tumor MET-High status was centrally assessed by immunohistochemistry. Circulating biomarkers were centrally analyzed on serum samples collected at baseline and every 4-8 weeks, using medians as cut-off to determine High/Low status. Tumor MET, tested in 77 patients, was more frequently High after (82%) versus before (40%) sorafenib. A significant interaction (p = 0.04) between tivantinib and baseline tumor MET in terms of survival was observed. Baseline circulating MET and HGF (102 patients) High status correlated with shorter survival (HR 0.61, p = 0.03, and HR 0.60, p = 0.02, respectively), while the association between AFP (104 patients) or VEGF (103 patients) status and survival was non-significant. Conclusions: Tumor MET levels were higher in patients treated with sorafenib. Circulating biomarkers such as MET and HGF may be prognostic in second-line HCC. These results need to be confirmed in larger randomized clinical trials. PMID:27579536

  7. A modified varying-stage adaptive phase II/III clinical trial design.

    PubMed

    Dong, Gaohong; Vandemeulebroecke, Marc

    2016-07-01

    Conventionally, adaptive phase II/III clinical trials are carried out with a strict two-stage design. Recently, a varying-stage adaptive phase II/III clinical trial design has been developed. In this design, following the first stage, an intermediate stage can be adaptively added to obtain more data, so that a more informative decision can be made. Therefore, the number of further investigational stages is determined based upon data accumulated to the interim analysis. This design considers two plausible study endpoints, with one of them initially designated as the primary endpoint. Based on interim results, another endpoint can be switched as the primary endpoint. However, in many therapeutic areas, the primary study endpoint is well established. Therefore, we modify this design to consider one study endpoint only so that it may be more readily applicable in real clinical trial designs. Our simulations show that, the same as the original design, this modified design controls the Type I error rate, and the design parameters such as the threshold probability for the two-stage setting and the alpha allocation ratio in the two-stage setting versus the three-stage setting have a great impact on the design characteristics. However, this modified design requires a larger sample size for the initial stage, and the probability of futility becomes much higher when the threshold probability for the two-stage setting gets smaller. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Cerebral near infrared spectroscopy oximetry in extremely preterm infants: phase II randomised clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Pellicer, Adelina; Alderliesten, Thomas; Austin, Topun; van Bel, Frank; Benders, Manon; Claris, Olivier; Dempsey, Eugene; Franz, Axel R; Fumagalli, Monica; Gluud, Christian; Grevstad, Berit; Hagmann, Cornelia; Lemmers, Petra; van Oeveren, Wim; Pichler, Gerhard; Plomgaard, Anne Mette; Riera, Joan; Sanchez, Laura; Winkel, Per; Wolf, Martin; Greisen, Gorm

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if it is possible to stabilise the cerebral oxygenation of extremely preterm infants monitored by cerebral near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) oximetry. Design Phase II randomised, single blinded, parallel clinical trial. Setting Eight tertiary neonatal intensive care units in eight European countries. Participants 166 extremely preterm infants born before 28 weeks of gestation: 86 were randomised to cerebral NIRS monitoring and 80 to blinded NIRS monitoring. The only exclusion criterion was a decision not to provide life support. Interventions Monitoring of cerebral oxygenation using NIRS in combination with a dedicated treatment guideline during the first 72 hours of life (experimental) compared with blinded NIRS oxygenation monitoring with standard care (control). Main outcome measures The primary outcome measure was the time spent outside the target range of 55-85% for cerebral oxygenation multiplied by the mean absolute deviation, expressed in %hours (burden of hypoxia and hyperoxia). One hour with an oxygenation of 50% gives 5%hours of hypoxia. Secondary outcomes were all cause mortality at term equivalent age and a brain injury score assessed by cerebral ultrasonography. Randomisation Allocation sequence 1:1 with block sizes 4 and 6 in random order concealed for the investigators. The allocation was stratified for gestational age (<26 weeks or ≥26 weeks). Blinding Cerebral oxygenation measurements were blinded in the control group. All outcome assessors were blinded to group allocation. Results The 86 infants randomised to the NIRS group had a median burden of hypoxia and hyperoxia of 36.1%hours (interquartile range 9.2-79.5%hours) compared with 81.3 (38.5-181.3) %hours in the control group, a reduction of 58% (95% confidence interval 35% to 73%, P<0.001). In the experimental group the median burden of hypoxia was 16.6 (interquartile range 5.4-68.1) %hours, compared with 53.6 (17.4-171.3) %hours in the control group (P=0.0012). The

  9. A randomized phase II trial of personalized peptide vaccine with low dose cyclophosphamide in biliary tract cancer.

    PubMed

    Shirahama, Takahisa; Muroya, Daisuke; Matsueda, Satoko; Yamada, Akira; Shichijo, Shigeki; Naito, Masayasu; Yamashita, Takuto; Sakamoto, Shinjiro; Okuda, Koji; Itoh, Kyogo; Sasada, Tetsuro; Yutani, Shigeru

    2017-02-11

    Since the prognosis of advanced biliary tract cancer (aBTC) still remains very poor, new therapeutic approaches, including immunotherapies, need to be developed. In the current study, we conducted an open-label randomized phase II study to test whether low dose cyclophosphamide (CPA) could improve antigen-specific immune responses and clinical efficacy of personalized peptide vaccination (PPV) in 49 previously treated aBTC patients. Patients with aBTC refractory to at least one regimen of chemotherapies were randomly assigned to receive PPV with low dose CPA (100 mg/ day for 7 days before vaccination) (PPV/CPA, n=24) or PPV alone (n=25). A maximum of four HLA-matched peptides were selected based on the pre-existing peptide-specific IgG responses, followed by subcutaneous administration. T cell responses to the vaccinated peptides in the PPV/CPA arm tended to be greater than those in the PPV alone arm. The PPV/CPA arm showed significantly better progression-free survival (median time: 6.1 vs 2.9 months; hazard ratio (HR): 0.427; P = 0.008) and overall survival (median time: 12.1 vs 5.9 months; HR: 0.376; P = 0.004), compared to the PPV alone arm. The PPV alone arm, but not the PPV/CPA arm, showed significant increase in plasma IL-6 after vaccinations, which might be associated with inhibition of antigen-specific T cell responses. These results suggested that combined treatment with low dose CPA could provide clinical benefits in aBTC patients under PPV, possibly through prevention of IL-6-mediated immune suppression. Further clinical studies would be recommended to clarify the clinical efficacy of PPV/CPA in aBTC patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Raising the bar for enthusiasm when looking at results of randomized phase II trials—the case of sunitinib in small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Di Maio, Massimo; Bironzo, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of targeted agents, randomized phase II trials designed with explicit comparative intent, to allow a better interpretation of the results obtained with experimental treatment, have become a common approach for anti-cancer drug development. In the Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 30504 randomized phase II trial, patients with extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), without progression after four to six cycles of standard chemotherapy with cisplatin or carboplatin plus etoposide, were randomized to sunitinib or placebo, until disease progression. Primary endpoint of the study was progression-free survival (PFS), and the results were formally positive [hazard ratio (HR) 0.62; one-sided P=0.02]. However, the prognosis of patients with extensive-stage SCLC is particularly bad, and even a relevant relative benefit (i.e., an encouraging HR) will likely correspond to a debatable absolute benefit: the difference in median PFS between patients treated with sunitinib and patients assigned to control arm was slightly higher than 1.5 months. Is this difference in median PFS big enough to predict a clinically relevant benefit in overall survival? Unfortunately, we do not know. From a “clinical” point of view, is this small absolute improvement in PFS relevant enough to further invest in the strategy? Probably not, also considering the absence of known predictive factors. If the results of the phase II trial had been really promising, the subsequent phase III study should have been promptly conducted, but this was not the case. It seems that, this time, the bar for enthusiasm was already raised in the phase II setting. PMID:26958498

  11. Statistical issues for design and analysis of single-arm multi-stage phase II cancer clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sin-Ho

    2015-05-01

    Phase II trials have been very widely conducted and published every year for cancer clinical research. In spite of the fast progress in design and analysis methods, single-arm two-stage design is still the most popular for phase II cancer clinical trials. Because of their small sample sizes, statistical methods based on large sample approximation are not appropriate for design and analysis of phase II trials. As a prospective clinical research, the analysis method of a phase II trial is predetermined at the design stage and it is analyzed during and at the end of the trial as planned by the design. The analysis method of a trial should be matched with the design method. For two-stage single arm phase II trials, Simon's method has been the standards for choosing an optimal design, but the resulting data have been analyzed and published ignoring the two-stage design aspect with small sample sizes. In this article, we review analysis methods that exactly get along with the exact two-stage design method. We also discuss some statistical methods to improve the existing design and analysis methods for single-arm two-stage phase II trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Phase II randomized study of ISIS 3521 and ISIS 5132 in patients with locally advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer: a National Cancer Institute of Canada clinical trials group study.

    PubMed

    Cripps, M Christine; Figueredo, Alvaro T; Oza, Amit M; Taylor, Marianne J; Fields, Anthony L; Holmlund, John T; McIntosh, Lynn W; Geary, Richard S; Eisenhauer, Elizabeth A

    2002-07-01

    Because treatment of metastatic colon cancer is noncurative, new treatments are needed. This trial evaluated the antitumor effects of two targeted anticancer agents: (a) ISIS 3521, an antisense inhibitor of the protein kinase C alpha; and (b) ISIS 5132, an antisense inhibitor of c-raf kinase in patients untreated previously with recurrent or metastatic colorectal carcinoma. All patients had colorectal adenocarcinoma with measurable disease and no prior chemotherapy for metastatic disease. Patients were randomized to receive either ISIS 3521 or ISIS 5132 at a dose of 2 mg/kg/day as a continuous i.v. infusion 21 of 28 days. Cycles were repeated as long as progression was not seen, and doses of both agents were modified according to toxic effects. A two-arm study design was used with each study arm considered independently. Steady-state blood levels of both antisense molecules were measured on days 8, 15, and 22 of the first cycle of therapy. Thirty-seven eligible patients were enrolled, and 32 were evaluable for response (17 receiving ISIS 3521 and 15 receiving ISIS 5132). No responses were noted. Four of the patients receiving ISIS 3521 had stable disease, and 5 patients receiving ISIS 5132 were stable. Neither ISIS 5132 nor ISIS 3521given in the dose and schedule studied induced objective responses in untreated colorectal cancer patients.

  13. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase II clinical trial to investigate the efficacy and safety of oral DA-1229 in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who have inadequate glycaemic control with diet and exercise.

    PubMed

    Jung, Chang Hee; Park, Cheol-Young; Ahn, Kyu-Joeng; Kim, Nan-Hee; Jang, Hak-Chul; Lee, Moon-Kyu; Park, Joong-Yeol; Chung, Choon-Hee; Min, Kyung-Wan; Sung, Yeon-Ah; Park, Jeong-Hyun; Kim, Sung Jin; Lee, Hyo Jung; Park, Sung-Woo

    2015-03-01

    DA-1229 is a novel, potent and selective dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-IV) inhibitor that is orally bioavailable. We aimed to evaluate the optimal dose, efficacy and safety of DA-1229, in Korean subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus suboptimally controlled with diet and exercise. We enrolled 158 patients (mean age, 53 years and a mean BMI, 25.6 kg/m(2) ). The mean baseline fasting plasma glucose level, HbA1c and duration of diabetes were 8.28 mmol/L, 7.6% (60 mmol/mol) and 3.9 years, respectively. After 2 or 6 weeks of an exercise and diet program followed by 2 weeks of a placebo period, the subjects were randomized into one of four groups for a 12-week active treatment period: placebo, 2.5, 5 or 10 mg of DA-1229. All three doses of DA-1229 significantly reduced HbA1c from baseline compared to the placebo group (-0.09 in the placebo group vs. -0.56, -0.66 and -0.61% in 2.5, 5 and 10-mg groups, respectively) but without any significant differences between the doses. Insulin secretory function, as assessed by homeostasis model assessment β-cell, the insulinogenic index, 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) C-peptide and post-OGTT C-peptide area under the curve (AUC)0-2h, significantly improved with DA-1229 treatment. The incidence of adverse events was similar between the treatment groups and DA-1229 did not affect body weight or induce hypoglycaemic events. DA-1229 monotherapy (5 mg for 12 weeks) improved HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose level, OGTT results and β-cell function. This drug was well tolerated in Korean subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. A randomized phase II trial comparing chemoimmunotherapy with or without bevacizumab in previously untreated patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Kay, Neil E.; Strati, Paolo; LaPlant, Betsy R.; Leis, Jose F.; Nikcevich, Daniel; Call, Timothy G.; Pettinger, Adam M.; Lesnick, Connie E.; Hanson, Curtis A.; Shanafelt, Tait D.

    2016-01-01

    Bevacizumab is a monoclonal antibody targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) with in vitro pro-apoptotic and antiangiogenic effects on chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. As monotherapy in patients with CLL, it has no clinical activity. Here we report the results of an open-label, randomized phase II trial comparing the combination of pentostatin, cyclophosphamide and rituximab (PCR) either without or with bevacizumab (PCR-B) in previously untreated CLL patients. A total of 65 evaluable patients were enrolled, 32 receiving PCR and 33 PCR-B. A higher rate of grade 3-4 cardiovascular toxicity was observed with PCR-B (33% vs. 3%, p < 0.003). Patients treated with PCR-B had a trend for a higher complete remission (CR) rate (54.5% vs 31.3%; p = 0.08), longer progression-free survival (PFS)(p = 0.06) and treatment-free survival (TFS)(p = 0.09). No differences in PFS and TFS by IGHV mutational status were observed with the addition of bevacizumab. A significant post-treatment increase in VEGF levels was observed in the PCR-B arm (29.77 to 57.05 pg/mL); in the PCR-B arm, lower baseline CCL-3 levels were significantly associated with achievement of CR (p = 0.01). In conclusion, the addition of bevacizumab to chemoimmunotherapy in CLL is generally well-tolerated and appears to prolong PFS and TFS. PMID:27861157

  15. Efficacy and safety of a phospholipid emulsion (GR270773) in Gram-negative severe sepsis: results of a phase II multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-finding clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Dellinger, R Phillip; Tomayko, John F; Angus, Derek C; Opal, Steven; Cupo, Michael A; McDermott, Sharon; Ducher, Annie; Calandra, Thierry; Cohen, Jonathan

    2009-11-01

    To assess the survival benefit and safety profile of low-dose (850 mg/kg) and high-dose (1350 mg/kg) phospholipid emulsion vs. placebo administered as a continuous 3-day infusion in patients with confirmed or suspected Gram-negative severe sepsis. Preclinical and ex vivo studies show that lipoproteins bind and neutralize endotoxin, and experimental animal studies demonstrate protection from septic death when lipoproteins are administered. Endotoxin neutralization correlates with the amount of phospholipid in the lipoprotein particles. A three-arm, randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Conducted at 235 centers worldwide between September 2004 and April 2006. A total of 1379 patients participated in the study, 598 patients received low-dose phospholipid emulsion, and 599 patients received placebo. The high-dose phospholipid emulsion arm was stopped, on the recommendation of the Independent Data Monitoring Committee, due to an increase in life-threatening serious adverse events at the fourth interim analysis and included 182 patients. A 28-day all-cause mortality and new-onset organ failure. There was no significant treatment benefit for low- or high-dose phospholipid emulsion vs. placebo for 28-day all-cause mortality, with rates of 25.8% (p = .329), 31.3% (p = .879), and 26.9%, respectively. The rate of new-onset organ failure was not statistically different among groups at 26.3%, 31.3%, 20.4% with low- and high-dose phospholipid emulsion, and placebo, respectively (one-sided p = .992, low vs. placebo; p = .999, high vs. placebo). Of the subjects treated, 45% had microbiologically confirmed Gram-negative infections. Maximal changes in mean hemoglobin levels were reached on day 10 (-1.04 g/dL) and day 5 (-1.36 g/dL) with low- and high-dose phospholipid emulsion, respectively, and on day 14 (-0.82 g/dL) with placebo. Treatment with phospholipid emulsion did not reduce 28-day all-cause mortality, or reduce the onset of new organ failure in patients with

  16. A randomized phase II crossover study of imatinib or rituximab for cutaneous sclerosis after hematopoietic cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Sally; Pidala, Joseph; Pusic, Iskra; Chai, Xiaoyu; Jaglowski, Samantha; Khera, Nandita; Palmer, Jeanne; Chen, George L; Jagasia, Madan H; Mayer, Sebastian A; Wood, William A; Green, Michael; Hyun, Teresa S.; Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Storer, Barry E; Miklos, David B; Shulman, Howard M.; Martin, Paul J; Sarantopoulos, Stefanie; Lee, Stephanie J; Flowers, Mary E D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cutaneous sclerosis (CS) occurs in 20% of patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and can compromise mobility and quality of life. Experimental design We conducted a prospective, multi-center, randomized, two-arm phase II crossover trial of imatinib (200 mg daily) or rituximab (375 mg/m2 intravenously weekly × 4 doses, repeatable after 3 months) for treatment of CS diagnosed within 18 months (NCT01309997). The primary endpoint was significant clinical response (SCR) at 6 months, defined as quantitative improvement in skin sclerosis or joint range of motion. Treatment success was defined as SCR at 6 months without crossover, recurrent malignancy or death. Secondary end points included changes of B cell profiles in blood (BAFF levels and cellular subsets), patient-reported outcomes, and histopathology between responders and non-responders with each therapy. Results SCR was observed in 9 of 35 (26%, 95% CI 13-43%) participants randomized to imatinib and 10 of 37 (27%, 95% CI 14-44%) randomized to rituximab. Six (17%, 95% CI 7-34%) patients in the imatinib arm and 5 (14%, 95% CI 5-29%) in the rituximab arm had treatment success. Higher percentages of activated B cells (CD27+) were seen at enrollment in rituximab-treated patients who had treatment success (p = 0.01), but not in imatinib-treated patients. Conclusion These results support the need for more effective therapies for CS and suggest that activated B cells define a subgroup of patients with CS who are more likely to respond to rituximab. PMID:26378033

  17. A Randomized Phase II Crossover Study of Imatinib or Rituximab for Cutaneous Sclerosis after Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Arai, Sally; Pidala, Joseph; Pusic, Iskra; Chai, Xiaoyu; Jaglowski, Samantha; Khera, Nandita; Palmer, Jeanne; Chen, George L; Jagasia, Madan H; Mayer, Sebastian A; Wood, William A; Green, Michael; Hyun, Teresa S; Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Storer, Barry E; Miklos, David B; Shulman, Howard M; Martin, Paul J; Sarantopoulos, Stefanie; Lee, Stephanie J; Flowers, Mary E D

    2016-01-15

    Cutaneous sclerosis occurs in 20% of patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and can compromise mobility and quality of life. We conducted a prospective, multicenter, randomized, two-arm phase II crossover trial of imatinib (200 mg daily) or rituximab (375 mg/m(2) i.v. weekly × 4 doses, repeatable after 3 months) for treatment of cutaneous sclerosis diagnosed within 18 months (NCT01309997). The primary endpoint was significant clinical response (SCR) at 6 months, defined as quantitative improvement in skin sclerosis or joint range of motion. Treatment success was defined as SCR at 6 months without crossover, recurrent malignancy or death. Secondary endpoints included changes of B-cell profiles in blood (BAFF levels and cellular subsets), patient-reported outcomes, and histopathology between responders and nonresponders with each therapy. SCR was observed in 9 of 35 [26%; 95% confidence interval (CI); 13%-43%] participants randomized to imatinib and 10 of 37 (27%; 95% CI, 14%-44%) randomized to rituximab. Six (17%; 95% CI, 7%-34%) patients in the imatinib arm and 5 (14%; 95% CI, 5%-29%) in the rituximab arm had treatment success. Higher percentages of activated B cells (CD27(+)) were seen at enrollment in rituximab-treated patients who had treatment success (P = 0.01), but not in imatinib-treated patients. These results support the need for more effective therapies for cutaneous sclerosis and suggest that activated B cells define a subgroup of patients with cutaneous sclerosis who are more likely to respond to rituximab. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Cediranib in combination with fulvestrant in hormone-sensitive metastatic breast cancer: a randomized Phase II study.

    PubMed

    Hyams, David M; Chan, Arlene; de Oliveira, Celia; Snyder, Raymond; Vinholes, Jeferson; Audeh, M William; Alencar, Victor M; Lombard, Janine; Mookerjee, Bijoyesh; Xu, John; Brown, Kathryn; Klein, Paula

    2013-10-01

    Hormone receptor-positive breast cancer is treated with estrogen inhibitors. Fulvestrant (FASLODEX™), an estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist with no known agonist effects, competitively binds, blocks and degrades the ER. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) may mediate resistance to ER antagonists. Cediranib is a highly potent VEGF signaling inhibitor with activity against all three VEGF receptors. This randomized Phase II study evaluated cediranib plus fulvestrant. Postmenopausal women with hormone-sensitive metastatic breast cancer were eligible. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints included objective response rate (ORR), duration of response, clinical benefit rate (CBR), safety/tolerability and pharmacokinetics (PK). Patients received cediranib 45 mg/day (n=31) or placebo (n=31) both plus fulvestrant. Demographic/baseline characteristics were well balanced. Patients treated with cediranib had a numerical advantage in PFS (hazard ratio=0.867, P=0.669; median 223 vs. 112 days, respectively) and ORR (22 vs. 8 %, respectively) vs. placebo, although not statistically significant. CBR was 42 % in both arms. The most common adverse events (AEs) in the cediranib arm were diarrhea (68 %), fatigue (61 %) and hypertension (55 %). The incidence of grade ≥ 3 AEs (68 % vs. 32 %), serious AEs (48 % vs. 13 %), discontinuation AEs (39 % vs. 10 %), and cediranib dose reductions/interruptions (74 % vs. 32 %) were higher in the cediranib arm. There was no evidence of a clinically relevant effect of cediranib on fulvestrant PK. Cediranib plus fulvestrant may demonstrate clinical activity in this population, but cediranib 45 mg was not sufficiently well tolerated. Investigation of lower doses of cediranib plus hormonal/chemotherapy could be considered.

  19. Investigational drugs in phase I and phase II clinical trials for thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Motta, Irene; Scaramellini, Natalia; Cappellini, Maria Domenica

    2017-07-01

    Regular transfusion and iron chelation are the current treatment of severe forms of thalassemia. As a consequence of this demanding supportive treatment, there are several unmet therapeutic needs. Due to a deeper understanding in the pathophysiology of thalassemia, new therapeutic strategies have been developed that are now in pre-clinical and clinical trials. Areas covered: Activin receptor ligand traps (luspatercept and sotatercept), drugs targeting ineffective erythropoiesis, showed encouraging results in Phase I and II clinical trials. A phase III clinical trial is currently ongoing. Ruxolitinib, a Jak2 inhibitor, has been tested to limit stress erythropoiesis in a phase II clinical trial. In addition, improvement in iron chelation has been developed. Moreover, several trials of gene therapy are currently active in different countries with different lentiviral vectors. Expert opinion: The most promising molecules are the activin receptor ligand traps. Together with gene therapy these could be an alternative to bone marrow transplant, aiming towards a curative strategy. The main limit to gene therapy seems to be the conditioning regimen, thus an in vivo gene therapy would be more suitable. At pre-clinical level gene editing is showing extremely encouraging results.

  20. SU-E-J-35: Clinical Performance Evaluation of a Phase II Proton CT Scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Mandapaka, A; Ghebremedhin, A; Farley, D; Giacometti, V; Vence, N; Bashkirov, V; Patyal, B; Schulte, R; Plautz, T; Zatserklyaniy, A; Johnson, R; Sadrozinski, H

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop the methodology to evaluate the clinical performance of a Phase II Proton CT scanner Methods: Range errors on the order of 3%-5% constitute a major uncertainty in current charged particle treatment planning based on Hounsfield Unit (HU)-relative stopping power (RSP) calibration curves. Within our proton CT collaboration, we previously developed and built a Phase I proton CT scanner that provided a sensitive area of 9 cm (axial) × 18 cm (in-plane). This scanner served to get initial experience with this new treatment planning tool and to incorporate lessons learned into the next generation design. A Phase II scanner was recently completed and is now undergoing initial performance testing. It will increase the proton acquisition rate and provide a larger detection area of 9 cm x 36 cm. We are now designing a comprehensive evaluation program to test the image quality, imaging dose, and range uncertainty associated with this scanner. The testing will be performed along the lines of AAPM TG 66. Results: In our discussion of the evaluation protocol we identified the following priorities. The image quality of proton CT images, in particular spatial resolution and low-density contrast discrimination, will be evaluated with the Catphan600 phantom. Initial testing showed that the Catphan uniformity phantom did not provide sufficient uniformity; it was thus replaced by a cylindrical water phantom. The imaging dose will be tested with a Catphan dose module, and compared to a typical cone beam CT dose for comparable image quality. Lastly, we developed a dedicated dosimetry range phantom based on the CIRS pediatric head phantom HN715. Conclusion: A formal evaluation of proton CT as a new tool for proton treatment planning is an important task. The availability of the new Phase II proton CT scanner will allow us to perform this task. This research is supported by the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering of the NIH under award number R01

  1. Randomized Phase II Trial of Adjuvant WT-1 Analog Peptide Vaccine in Patients with Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma after Completion of Multimodality Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Scheinberg DA. Vaccination with Synthetic Analog Peptides Derived from WT1 Oncoprotein Induces T Cell Responses in Patients with Complete Remission ...TITLE:Randomized Phase II Trial of Adjuvant WT-1 Analog Peptide Vaccine in Patients with Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma after Completion of...TITLE:Randomized Phase II Trial of Adjuvant WT-1 Analog Peptide Vaccine in Patients with Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma after Completion of Multimodality

  2. Randomized Phase II Trial of Adjuvant WT-1 Analog Peptide Vaccine in Patients with Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma after Completion of Multimodality Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    10-1-0699 TITLE: Randomized Phase II Trial of Adjuvant WT-1 Analog Peptide Vaccine in Patients with Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma after...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 W81XWH-10-1-0699 Randomized Phase II Trial of Adjuvant WT-1 Analog Peptide Vaccine in Patients with Malignant... peptides that are given together with Montanide and GM-CSF as immunologic adjuvants. This WT1 vaccine was previously tested in a small pilot trial

  3. Motor recovery and cortical reorganization after mirror therapy in chronic stroke patients: a phase II randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Michielsen, Marian E; Selles, Ruud W; van der Geest, Jos N; Eckhardt, Martine; Yavuzer, Gunes; Stam, Henk J; Smits, Marion; Ribbers, Gerard M; Bussmann, Johannes B J

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate for any clinical effects of home-based mirror therapy and subsequent cortical reorganization in patients with chronic stroke with moderate upper extremity paresis. A total of 40 chronic stroke patients (mean time post .onset, 3.9 years) were randomly assigned to the mirror group (n = 20) or the control group (n = 20) and then joined a 6-week training program. Both groups trained once a week under supervision of a physiotherapist at the rehabilitation center and practiced at home 1 hour daily, 5 times a week. The primary outcome measure was the Fugl-Meyer motor assessment (FMA). The grip force, spasticity, pain, dexterity, hand-use in daily life, and quality of life at baseline-posttreatment and at 6 months-were all measured by a blinded assessor. Changes in neural activation patterns were assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at baseline and posttreatment in an available subgroup (mirror, 12; control, 9). Posttreatment, the FMA improved more in the mirror than in the control group (3.6 ± 1.5, P < .05), but this improvement did not persist at follow-up. No changes were found on the other outcome measures (all Ps >.05). fMRI results showed a shift in activation balance within the primary motor cortex toward the affected hemisphere in the mirror group only (weighted laterality index difference 0.40 ± 0.39, P < .05). This phase II trial showed some effectiveness for mirror therapy in chronic stroke patients and is the first to associate mirror therapy with cortical reorganization. Future research has to determine the optimum practice intensity and duration for improvements to persist and generalize to other functional domains.

  4. Significance of Circulating Tumor Cells in metastatic triple negative breast cancer patients within a randomized, phase II trial: TBCRC 019

    PubMed Central

    Paoletti, Costanza; Li, Yufeng; Muñiz, Maria C.; Kidwell, Kelley M.; Aung, Kimberly; Thomas, Dafydd G.; Brown, Martha E.; Abramson, Vandana G.; Irvin, William J.; Lin, Nancy U.; Liu, Minetta C.; Nanda, Rita; Nangia, Julie R.; Storniolo, Anna M.; Traina, Tiffany A.; Vaklavas, Christos; Van Poznak, Catherine H.; Wolff, Antonio C.; Forero-Torres, Andres; Hayes, Daniel F.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Circulating Tumor cells (CTC) are prognostic in metastatic breast cancer (MBC). We tested whether the EpCAM based capture system (CellSearch®) is effective in patients with triple negative (TN) MBC, and whether CTC-apoptosis and clustering enhances the prognostic role of CTC. Experimental Design CTC enumeration and apoptosis was determined using the CXC CellSearch® kit at baseline and days 15 and 29 in blood drawn from TN MBC patients who participated in a prospective randomized phase II trial of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-PAC) with or without tigatuzumab (TIG). Association between levels of CTC and patient outcomes was assessed using logistic regression, Kaplan Meier curves, and Cox proportional hazards modeling. Results Nineteen of 52 (36.5%), 14/52 (26.9%), and 13/49 (26.5%) patients who were evaluable had elevated CTC (≥5CTC/7.5 ml WB) at baseline, days 15 and 29, respectively. Patients with elevated vs. not elevated CTC at each time point had worse progression free survival (PFS) (p=0.005, 0.0003, 0.0002, respectively). The odds of clinical benefit response for those who had elevated vs. low CTC at baseline and days 15 and 29 were 0.25 (95% CI: 0.08–0.84, p=0.024), 0.19 (95% CI: 0.05–0.17, p=0.014), and 0.06 (95% CI: 0.01–0.33, p=0.001), respectively. There was no apparent prognostic effect comparing CTC-apoptosis vs. non-apoptosis. Presence of CTC-cluster at day 15, and day 29 was associated with shorter PFS. Conclusions CTC were detected using CellSearch® assay in approximately one-third of TN MBC patients. Elevated CTC at baseline and days 15 and 29 were prognostic, and reductions in CTC levels reflected response. PMID:25779948

  5. A wet dressing for male genital surgery: A phase II clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Vilar, Fábio de Oliveira; Pinto, Flávia Cristina Morone; Albuquerque, Amanda Vasconcelos; Martins, Ana Gabriela Santos; de Araújo, Luiz Alberto Pereira; Aguiar, José Lamartine de Andrade; Lima, Salvador Vilar Correia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: This study was to confirm the safety and efficacy of BC dressing when used in surgical male wound healing at the urogenital area. Methods: Open, non-controlled clinical study of phase II. A total of 141 patients, among those children, adolescents and adults with hypospadias (112), epispadias (04), phymosis (13) and Peyronie's disease (12) that had a BC dressing applied over the operated area after surgery. A written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Study exclusion criteria were patients with other alternative treatment indications due to the severity, extent of the injury or the underlying disease. The outcomes evaluated were efficacy, safe and complete healing. The costs were discussed. Results: In 68% patients, the BC dressing fell off spontaneously. The BC was removed without complications in 13% of patients at the outpatient clinic during the follow-up visit and 17% not reported the time of removal. In 3% of the cases, the dressing fell off early. Complete healing was observed between 8th and 10th days after surgery. The BC dressings have shown a good tolerance by all the patients and there were no reports of serious adverse events. Conclusion: The bacterial cellulose dressings have shown efficacy, safety and that can be considered as a satisfactory alternative for postoperative wound healing in urogenital area and with low cost. PMID:27649111

  6. Prospective randomized phase II Trial of accelerated reepithelialization of superficial second-degree burn wounds using extracorporeal shock wave therapy.

    PubMed

    Ottomann, Christian; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Lavin, Philip T; Gannon, Francis H; Heggeness, Michael H; Thiele, Richard; Schaden, Wolfgang; Hartmann, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    As extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) can enhance healing of skin graft donor sites, this study focused on shock wave effects in burn wounds. A predefined cohort of 50 patients (6 with incomplete data or lost to follow-up) with acute second-degree burns from a larger study of 100 patients were randomly assigned between December 2006 and December 2007 to receive standard therapy (burn wound debridement/topical antiseptic therapy) with (n = 22) or without (n = 22) defocused ESWT (100 impulses/cm at 0.1 mJ/mm) applied once to the study burn, after debridement. Randomization sequence was computer-generated, and patients were blinded to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint, time to complete burn wound epithelialization, was determined by independent, blinded-observer. A worst case scenario was applied to the missing cases to rule out the impact of withdrawal bias. Patient characteristics across the 2 study groups were balanced (P > 0.05) except for older age (53 ± 17 vs. 38 ± 13 years, P = 0.002) in the ESWT group. Mean time to complete (≥95%) epithelialization (CE) for patients that did and did not undergo ESWT was 9.6 ± 1.7 and 12.5 ± 2.2 days, respectively (P < 0.0005). When age (continuous variable) and treatment group (binary) were examined in a linear regression model to control the baseline age imbalance, time to CE, age was not significant (P = 0.33) and treatment group retained significance (P < 0.0005). Statistical significance (P = 0.001) was retained when ESWT cases with missing follow-up were assigned the longest time to CE and when controls with missing follow-up were assigned the shortest time to CE. In this randomized phase II study, application of a single defocused shock wave treatment to the superficial second-degree burn wound after debridement/topical antiseptic therapy significantly accelerated epithelialization. This finding warrants confirmation in a larger phase III trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01242423).

  7. Safety and Activity of UR-1505 in Atopic Dermatitis: A Randomized, Double-blind Phase II Exploratory Trial.

    PubMed

    Vives, Roser; Pontes, Caridad; Sarasa, Maria; Millier, Aurelie

    2015-09-01

    UR-1505 is a new small molecule with immune modulator properties intended for the topical treatment of inflammatory skin diseases that has shown anti-inflammatory effects in models of skin inflammation. We compared the activity of UR-1505 ointment against its vehicle in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Secondary objectives included exploring dose response, safety, and local tolerability of UR-1505. Patients with AD lesions on 2 symmetrical topographic areas (arms, leg, or trunk) were included in this unicenter randomized, double-blind, within-patient, controlled Phase II exploratory trial and received simultaneously 2 different treatments (0.5%, 1%, or 2% UR-1505 and vehicle or 0.1% tacrolimus ointment) once daily during 28 days. The primary efficacy end point was the change from baseline in the Investigator Global Assessment score at Day 28. Secondary end points were percentage of area clearance, local Eczema Area Severity Index (local EASI), and local tolerability. A linear mixed model was used, fitting treatment, body side, and group (treatment at the contralateral side) as fixed factors and the patient as a random effect. Twenty-eight patients were randomized and 25 patients were included in the per protocol analysis, with 50 evaluable lesions (n = 13 for vehicle, n = 8 for UR-1505 0.5%, n = 9 for 1% UR-1505, n=8 for 2% UR-1505, and n=12 for tacrolimus). The mean Investigator Global Assessment score change from baseline at Day 28 was -1.7 for vehicle, -1.0, -1.2, and -1.5 for 0.5%, 1%, and 2% UR-1505, respectively, and -2.6% for tacrolimus (P = 0.002). No serious nor causal adverse reactions were reported in this study, but patients reported numerous local symptoms after product applications, especially itching, tingling, tightness, and heat/burning sensations at frequencies that were similar for vehicle, 1% UR-1505, and 2% UR-1505; more frequent with 0.5% UR-1505; and lowest for tacrolimus. This study found that UR-1505 may not be a suitable option for the

  8. Supplementation of iron in pulmonary hypertension: Rationale and design of a phase II clinical trial in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Howard, Luke S G E; Watson, Geoffrey M J; Wharton, John; Rhodes, Christopher J; Chan, Kakit; Khengar, Rajeshree; Robbins, Peter A; Kiely, David G; Condliffe, Robin; Elliott, Charlie A; Pepke-Zaba, Joanna; Sheares, Karen; Morrell, Nicholas W; Davies, Rachel; Ashby, Deborah; Gibbs, J Simon R; Wilkins, Martin R

    2013-01-01

    Our aim is to assess the safety and potential clinical benefit of intravenous iron (Ferinject) infusion in iron deficient patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). Iron deficiency in the absence of anemia (1) is common in patients with IPAH; (2) is associated with inappropriately raised levels of hepcidin, the key regulator of iron homeostasis; and (3) correlates with disease severity and worse clinical outcomes. Oral iron absorption may be impeded by reduced absorption due to elevated hepcidin levels. The safety and benefits of parenteral iron replacement in IPAH are unknown. Supplementation of Iron in Pulmonary Hypertension (SIPHON) is a Phase II, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical trial of iron in IPAH. At least 60 patients will be randomized to intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (Ferinject) or saline placebo with a crossover point after 12 weeks of treatment. The primary outcome will be the change in resting pulmonary vascular resistance from baseline at 12 weeks, measured by cardiac catheterization. Secondary measures include resting and exercise hemodynamics and exercise performance from serial bicycle incremental and endurance cardiopulmonary exercise tests. Other secondary measurements include serum iron indices, 6-Minute Walk Distance, WHO functional class, quality of life score, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and cardiac anatomy and function from cardiac magnetic resonance. We propose that intravenous iron replacement will improve hemodynamics and clinical outcomes in IPAH. If the data supports a potentially useful therapeutic effect and suggest this drug is safe, the study will be used to power a Phase III study to address efficacy.

  9. Emerging drugs for antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia: investigational drugs in Phase II and Phase III clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Jonathan Tomas; Remington, Gary

    2015-09-01

    Antipsychotic drugs (APs) represent the mainstay of treatment for schizophrenia and other forms of psychosis. Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a motor disorder associated with the ongoing use of APs and is characterized by involuntary, repetitive movements that are potentially irreversible. Current treatment is wanting, due in part to our limited understanding of the mechanisms underlying TD. Risk of TD associated with APs appears linked to continuous blockade of dopamine D2 receptors in the basal ganglia. Proposed mechanisms include increased dopamine activation of D2 receptors caused by supersensitivity and neurodegeneration of dopamine-producing neurons due to biochemical changes incurred by ongoing AP exposure. Existing treatments are designed to reverse or prevent the neurochemical/biological changes caused by dopamine D2 receptor blockade and include vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) inhibitors, antioxidants, compounds with serotonin receptor agonism as well as antagonism, GABA agonists and cholinergic agents. Randomized, controlled trials in Phase II and Phase III (ClinicalTrials.org/ClinicalTrialsRegister.eu) are summarized and discussed. Effective adjunctive treatment for the symptoms of TD will depend on gaining a better understanding of the neurological changes induced by chronic dopamine D2 receptor antagonism from APs.

  10. Dose-dependent change in biomarkers during neoadjuvant endocrine therapy with fulvestrant: results from NEWEST, a randomized Phase II study.

    PubMed

    Kuter, Irene; Gee, Julia M W; Hegg, Roberto; Singer, Christian F; Badwe, Rajendra A; Lowe, Elizabeth S; Emeribe, Ugochi A; Anderson, Elizabeth; Sapunar, Francisco; Finlay, Pauline; Nicholson, Robert I; Bines, José; Harbeck, Nadia

    2012-05-01

    NEWEST (Neoadjuvant Endocrine Therapy for Women with Estrogen-Sensitive Tumors) is the first study to compare biological and clinical activity of fulvestrant 500 versus 250 mg in the neoadjuvant breast cancer setting. We hypothesized that fulvestrant 500 mg may be superior to 250 mg in blocking estrogen receptor (ER) signaling and growth. A multicenter, randomized, open-label, Phase II study was performed to compare fulvestrant 500 mg (500 mg/month plus 500 mg on day 14 of month 1) versus fulvestrant 250 mg/month for 16 weeks prior to surgery in postmenopausal women with ER+ locally advanced breast cancer. Core biopsies at baseline, week 4, and surgery were assessed for biomarker changes. Primary endpoint: change in Ki67 labeling index (LI) from baseline to week 4 determined by automated computer imaging system (ACIS). Secondary endpoints: ER protein expression and function; progesterone receptor (PgR) expression; tumor response; tolerability. ER and PgR were examined retrospectively using the H score method. A total of 211 patients were randomized (fulvestrant 500 mg: n = 109; 250 mg: n = 102). At week 4, fulvestrant 500 mg resulted in greater reduction of Ki67 LI and ER expression versus 250 mg (-78.8 vs. -47.4% [p < 0.0001] and -25.0 vs. -13.5% [p = 0.0002], respectively [ACIS]); PgR suppression was not significantly different (-22.7 vs. -17.6; p = 0.5677). However, H score detected even greater suppression of ER (-50.3 vs. -13.7%; p < 0.0001) and greater PgR suppression (-80.5 vs. -46.3%; p = 0.0018) for fulvestrant 500 versus 250 mg. At week 16, tumor response rates were 22.9 and 20.6% for fulvestrant 500 and 250 mg, respectively, with considerable decline in all markers by both ACIS and H score. No detrimental effects on endometrial thickness or bone markers and no new safety concerns were identified. This provides the first evidence of greater biological activity for fulvestrant 500 versus 250 mg in depleting ER expression, function, and growth.

  11. Phase II study of metformin for reduction of obesity-associated breast cancer risk: a randomized controlled trial protocol.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Jessica A; Chalasani, Pavani; Thomson, Cynthia A; Roe, Denise; Altbach, Maria; Galons, Jean-Philippe; Stopeck, Alison; Thompson, Patricia A; Villa-Guillen, Diana Evelyn; Chow, H-H Sherry

    2016-07-19

    Two-thirds of U.S. adult women are overweight or obese. High body mass index (BMI) and adult weight gain are risk factors for a number of chronic diseases, including postmenopausal breast cancer. The higher postmenopausal breast cancer risk in women with elevated BMI is likely to be attributable to related metabolic disturbances including altered circulating sex steroid hormones and adipokines, elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines, and insulin resistance. Metformin is a widely used antidiabetic drug that has demonstrated favorable effects on metabolic disturbances and as such may lead to lower breast cancer risk in obese women. Further, the anti-proliferative effects of metformin suggest it may decrease breast density, an accepted biomarker of breast cancer risk. This is a Phase II randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of metformin in overweight/obese premenopausal women who have elements of metabolic syndrome. Eligible participants will be randomized to receive metformin 850 mg BID (n = 75) or placebo (n = 75) for 12 months. The primary endpoint is change in breast density, based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquired fat-water features. Secondary outcomes include changes in serum insulin levels, serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 to insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3 ratio, serum IGF-2 levels, serum testosterone levels, serum leptin to adiponectin ratio, body weight, and waist circumference. Exploratory outcomes include changes in metabolomic profiles in plasma and nipple aspirate fluid. Changes in tissue architecture as well as cellular and molecular targets in breast tissue collected in a subgroup of participants will also be explored. The study will evaluate whether metformin can result in favorable changes in breast density, select proteins and hormones, products of body metabolism, and body weight and composition. The study should help determine the potential breast cancer preventive activity of metformin

  12. A Phase II Randomized Dose Escalation Trial of Sorafenib in Patients With Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pressiani, Tiziana; Boni, Corrado; Carnaghi, Carlo; Rota Caremoli, Elena; Fagiuoli, Stefano; Foa, Paolo; Salvagni, Stefania; Cortesi, Enrico; Chiara Tronconi, Maria; Personeni, Nicola; Bozzarelli, Silvia; Chiara Banzi, Maria; Fanello, Silvia; Romano Lutman, Fabio; Giordano, Laura; Santoro, Armando

    2013-01-01

    Background. Sorafenib has proven survival benefits in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The viability of continuing sorafenib at a higher dosage in patients who experienced radiologic disease progression was investigated. Methods. Patients who experienced disease progression while on sorafenib 400 mg twice daily were randomized to sorafenib 600 mg twice daily (n = 49) or best supportive care (n = 52). The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Time to progression, overall survival, and safety were also evaluated. Results. The study did not meet its primary end point. The difference in PFS between the sorafenib arm (3.91 months) and the best supportive care arm (2.69 months) did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.086). Adverse events were mainly grade 1–2 and similar across both groups. In the sorafenib arm, the most frequent events were diarrhea (80%), weight loss (75%), fatigue (67%), hand-foot-skin reaction (49%), abdominal pain (37%), and stomatitis (26%). Conclusions. Escalated-dose sorafenib in patients with advanced HCC who progressed while on sorafenib, failed to provide any clinical benefit. Second-line treatment still remains an open issue to be explored in appropriate clinical trials. PMID:23580239

  13. A Randomized Phase II Study of Linsitinib (OSI-906) Versus Topotecan in Patients With Relapsed Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Otterson, Gregory A.; Dowlati, Afshin; Traynor, Anne M.; Horn, Leora; Owonikoko, Taofeek K.; Ross, Helen J.; Hann, Christine L.; Abu Hejleh, Taher; Nieva, Jorge; Zhao, Xiuhua; Schell, Michael; Sullivan, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    Lessons Learned Targeted therapy options for SCLC patients are limited; no agent, thus far, has resulted in a strategy promising enough to progress to phase III trials. Linsitinib, a potent insulin growth factor-1-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, may be one agent with activity against SCLC. Despite lack of a reliable predictive biomarker in this disease, which may have partly contributed to the negative outcome reported here, linsitinib, although safe, showed no clinical activity in unselected, relapsed SCLC patients. Background. Treatment of relapsed small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) remains suboptimal. Insulin growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling plays a role in growth, survival, and chemoresistance in SCLC. Linsitinib is a potent IGF-1R tyrosine kinase inhibitor that potentially may be active against SCLC. Methods. In this phase II study, 8 eligible patients were randomly assigned in a 1:2 ratio to topotecan (1.5 mg/m2 intravenously or 2.3 mg/m2 orally, daily for 5 days for 4 cycles) or linsitinib (150 mg orally twice daily until progression). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. Patients with relapsed SCLC, platinum sensitive or resistant, performance status (PS) 0–2, and adequate hematologic, renal, and hepatic function were enrolled. Patients with diabetes, cirrhosis, and those taking insulinotropic agents were excluded. Crossover to linsitinib was allowed at progression. Results. Fifteen patients received topotecan (8 resistant, 3 with PS 2) and 29 received linsitinib (16 resistant, 5 with PS 2). Two partial responses were observed with topotecan. Only 4 of 15 patients with topotecan and 1 of 29 with linsitinib achieved stable disease. Median progression-free survival was 3.0 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5–3.6) and 1.2 (95% CI, 1.1–1.4) months for topotecan and linsitinib, respectively (p = .0001). Median survival was 5.3 (95% CI, 2.2–7.6) and 3.4 (95% CI, 1.8–5.6) months for topotecan and linsitinib, respectively (p = .71

  14. Phase II Clinical Trial of Sorafenib in Metastatic Medullary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Elaine T.; Ringel, Matthew D.; Kloos, Richard T.; Prior, Thomas W.; Knopp, Michael V.; Liang, Jiachao; Sammet, Steffen; Hall, Nathan C.; Wakely, Paul E.; Vasko, Vasyl V.; Saji, Motoyasu; Snyder, Pamela J.; Wei, Lai; Arbogast, Daria; Collamore, Minden; Wright, John J.; Moley, Jeffrey F.; Villalona-Calero, Miguel A.; Shah, Manisha H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Mutations in the RET proto-oncogene and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) activity are critical in the pathogenesis of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). Sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor targeting Ret and VEGFR, showed antitumor activity in preclinical studies of MTC. Patients and Methods In this phase II trial of sorafenib in patients with advanced MTC, the primary end point was objective response. Secondary end points included toxicity assessment and response correlation with tumor markers, functional imaging, and RET mutations. Using a two-stage design, 16 or 25 patients were to be enrolled onto arms A (hereditary) and B (sporadic). Patients received sorafenib 400 mg orally twice daily. Results Of 16 patients treated in arm B, one achieved partial response (PR; 6.3%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 30.2%), 14 had stable disease (SD; 87.5%; 95% CI, 61.7% to 99.5%), and one was nonevaluable. In a post hoc analysis of 10 arm B patients with progressive disease (PD) before study, one patient had PR of 21+ months, four patients had SD ≥ 15 months, four patients had SD ≤ 6 months, and one patient had clinical PD. Median progression-free survival was 17.9 months. Arm A was prematurely terminated because of slow accrual. Common adverse events (AEs) included diarrhea, hand-foot-skin reaction, rash, and hypertension. Although serious AEs were rare, one death was seen. Tumor markers decreased in the majority of patients, and RET mutations were detected in 10 of 12 sporadic MTCs analyzed. Conclusion Sorafenib is reasonably well tolerated, with suggestion of clinical benefit for patients with sporadic MTC. Caution should be taken because of the rare but fatal toxicity potentially associated with sorafenib. PMID:20368568

  15. Lessons learned from a phase II clinical trial of laparoscopic HIPEC for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Badgwell, Brian; Blum, Mariela; Das, Prajnan; Estrella, Jeannelyn; Wang, Xuemei; Fournier, Keith; Royal, Richard; Mansfield, Paul; Ajani, Jaffer

    2017-06-22

    Over the last two decades, intraperitoneal chemotherapy has been found to have activity for select subgroups of patients with carcinomatosis from colon, ovarian, appendiceal, and recently, gastric origins. However, there is little data to support an aggressive surgical approach of cytoreduction (debulking) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal perfusion with chemotherapy (HIPEC) for patients with gastric cancer and positive cytology or carcinomatosis. The morbidity and mortality rates of cytoreduction and HIPEC, in combination with gastrectomy, are significant and the survival rates of this approach may not extend beyond that of treatment with systemic chemotherapy. The objective of this clinical trial, therefore, was to perform HIPEC in a neoadjuvant fashion via a minimally invasive approach without cytoreduction for patients with gastric cancer and positive cytology or low volume carcinomatosis. Patients found to have resolution of all extra-gastric disease are then candidates for gastrectomy. Patients with gastric and gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma and positive peritoneal cytology or radiologically-occult carcinomatosis that have completed treatment with systemic chemotherapy were offered participation in the study. We have performed 38 laparoscopic HIPEC procedures in 19 patients. Laparoscopic HIPEC consists of Mitomycin C 30 mg and Cisplatin 200 mg in 3-7 L of infusate circulated using an extracorporeal circulation device at a flow rate of 700-1500 mL/minute for 60 min. The Laparoscopic HIPEC procedure may be performed up to five times. In this video, we sought to present the surgical technique refined during our development and completion of this Phase II clinical trial (NCT02092298). The purpose of this presentation is to (1) demonstrate the technique of laparoscopic HIPEC and (2) review the surgical lessons learned from performing multiple HIPEC procedures prior to attempted gastrectomy.

  16. Two Phase II randomized trials on the CRTh2 antagonist AZD1981 in adults with asthma

    PubMed Central

    Kuna, Piotr; Bjermer, Leif; Tornling, Göran

    2016-01-01

    Background Chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on T helper type 2 (Th2) cell (CRTh2) receptor antagonists is being investigated for asthma. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the CRTh2 receptor antagonist, AZD1981 (with/without inhaled corticosteroids [ICSs]), on lung function and asthma control. Patients and methods Adults aged 18–60 years were enrolled in two randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trials (protocol number: D9830C00003 [study 1, n=209] and protocol number: D9830C00004 [study 2, n=510]). In study 1, patients with stable asthma (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1]: 65%−110%) were withdrawn from ICS (<400 µg/d) and randomized to AZD1981 1,000 mg twice daily (bid) or placebo. In study 2, patients with uncontrolled asthma (FEV1: 40%−85%) despite ICS therapy (≥500 µg/d) were randomized to 50 mg, 400 mg, or 1,000 mg bid AZD1981 or placebo. The primary efficacy variable for both trials was the change in morning peak expiratory flow after 4 weeks of treatment. Secondary variables included Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ-5) scores, FEV1 assessments, safety, and tolerability. In study 2, efficacy was also assessed according to atopic status. Results Following 4 weeks of treatment, there was a nonsignificant increase in morning peak expiratory flow on AZD1981 1,000 mg bid (9.5 L/min vs placebo, P=0.086 [study 1] and 12 L/min vs placebo, P=0.16 [study 2]). In study 2, all doses of AZD1981 provided significant improvements in ACQ-5 scores (0.26–0.3 units vs placebo, P=0.010–0.022); however, there was no dose–response relationship. Improved ACQ-5 scores and FEV1 were observed in the majority of atopic patients treated with AZD1981. AZD1981 was well tolerated across treatment groups. Conclusion Further research may be warranted in atopic patients to fully evaluate the clinical efficacy of AZD1981. PMID:27621597

  17. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer: Interim Results of a Prospective Phase II Clinical Trial

    SciTech Connect

    King, Christopher R. Brooks, James D.; Gill, Harcharan; Pawlicki, Todd; Cotrutz, Cristian; Presti, Joseph C.

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: The radiobiology of prostate cancer favors a hypofractionated dose regimen. We report results of a prospective Phase II clinical trial of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Forty-one low-risk prostate cancer patients with 6 months' minimum follow-up received 36.25 Gy in five fractions of 7.25 Gy with image-guided SBRT alone using the CyberKnife. The early (<3 months) and late (>6 months) urinary and rectal toxicities were assessed using validated quality of life questionnaires (International Prostate Symptom Score, Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite) and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) toxicity criteria. Patterns of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response are analyzed. Results: The median follow-up was 33 months. There were no RTOG Grade 4 acute or late rectal/urinary complications. There were 2 patients with RTOG Grade 3 late urinary toxicity and none with RTOG Grade 3 rectal complications. A reduced rate of severe rectal toxicities was observed with every-other-day vs. 5 consecutive days treatment regimen (0% vs. 38%, p = 0.0035). A benign PSA bounce (median, 0.4 ng/mL) was observed in 12 patients (29%) occurring at 18 months (median) after treatment. At last follow-up, no patient has had a PSA failure regardless of biochemical failure definition. Of 32 patients with 12 months minimum follow-up, 25 patients (78%) achieved a PSA nadir {<=}0.4 ng/mL. A PSA decline to progressively lower nadirs up to 3 years after treatment was observed. Conclusions: The early and late toxicity profile and PSA response for prostate SBRT are highly encouraging. Continued accrual and follow-up will be necessary to confirm durable biochemical control rates and low toxicity profiles.

  18. Randomized phase II study of loratadine for the prevention of bone pain caused by pegfilgrastim.

    PubMed

    Moukharskaya, J; Abrams, D M; Ashikaga, T; Khan, F; Schwartz, J; Wilson, K; Verschraegen, C; Openshaw, T; Valentine, J; Eneman, J; Unger, P; Ades, S

    2016-07-01

    Bone pain is a common side effect of pegfilgrastim and can interfere with quality of life and treatment adherence. This study investigated the impact of antihistamine prophylaxis on pegfilgrastim-induced bone pain. This is a two-stage enrichment trial design. Patients receiving an initial dose of pegfilgrastim after chemotherapy were enrolled into the observation (OBS) stage. Those who developed significant back or leg bone pain (SP) were enrolled into the treatment (TRT) stage and randomized to daily loratadine 10 mg or placebo for 7 days. SP was defined by Brief Pain Inventory as back or leg pain score ≥5 and a 2-point increase after pegfilgrastim. The primary end point of TRT was reduction of worst back or leg bone pain with loratadine, defined as a 2-point decrease after treatment compared to OBS. Two hundred thirteen patients were included in the final analysis. Incidence of SP was 30.5 %. The SP subset had a worse overall Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Bone Pain score (33.9 vs. 51.7, p < 0.001) and a higher mean white blood cell count (15.4 vs. 8.4 K/cm(3), p = 0.013) following pegfilgrastim than those without SP. Forty-six patients were randomized in the TRT. Benefit was 77.3 % with loratadine and 62.5 % with placebo (p = 0.35). Baseline NSAID use was documented in four patients (18.2 %) in loratadine arm and two patients (8.3 %) in placebo arm, with baseline non-NSAID use documented in five (22.7 %) and six (25 %) patients, respectively. Eight additional patients used NSAIDS by day 8 compared to day 1 (six in the loratadine and two in the placebo arm). A total of six additional patients used non-NSAIDS by day 8 compared to day 1 (four in the loratadine and two in the placebo arm). Administration of prophylactic loratadine does not decrease the incidence of severe bone pain or improve quality of life in a high-risk patient population. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01311336.

  19. Reducing Sitting Time After Stroke: A Phase II Safety and Feasibility Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    English, Coralie; Healy, Genevieve N; Olds, Tim; Parfitt, Gaynor; Borkoles, Erika; Coates, Alison; Kramer, Sharon; Bernhardt, Julie

    2016-02-01

    To test the safety, feasibility, and effectiveness of reducing sitting time in stroke survivors. Randomized controlled trial with attention-matched controls and blinded assessments. Community. Stroke survivors (N=35; 22 men; mean age, 66.9±12.7y). Four counseling sessions over 7 weeks with a message of sit less and move more (intervention group) or calcium for bone health (attention-matched control group). Measures included safety (adverse events, increases in pain, spasticity, or fatigue) and feasibility (adherence to trial protocol). Secondary measures included time spent sitting (including in prolonged bouts ≥30min), standing, and stepping as measured by the thigh-worn inclinometer (7d, 24h/d protocol) and time spent in physical activity of at least moderate intensity as measured by a triaxial accelerometer. The Multimedia Activity Recall for Children and Adults was used to describe changes in use of time. Thirty-three participants completed the full protocol. Four participants reported falls during the intervention period with no other adverse events. From a baseline average of 640.7±99.6min/d, daily sitting time reduced on average by 30±50.6min/d (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.8-54.6) in the intervention group and 40.4±92.5min/d in the control group (95% CI, 13.0-93.8). Participants in both groups also reduced their time spent in prolonged sitting bouts (≥30min) and increased time spent standing and stepping. Our protocol was both safe and feasible. Participants in both groups spent less time sitting and more time standing and stepping postintervention, but outcomes were not superior for intervention participants. Attention matching is desirable in clinical trials and may have contributed to the positive outcomes for control participants. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Conservative treatment of retinoblastoma: a prospective phase II randomized trial of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by local treatments and chemothermotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Lumbroso-Le Rouic, L; Aerts, I; Hajage, D; Lévy-Gabriel, C; Savignoni, A; Algret, N; Cassoux, N; Bertozzi, A-I; Esteve, M; Doz, F; Desjardins, L

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Intraocular retinoblastoma treatments often combine chemotherapy and focal treatments. A first prospective protocol of conservative treatments in our institution showed the efficacy of the use of two courses of chemoreduction with etoposide and carboplatin, followed by chemothermotherapy using carboplatin as a single agent and diode laser. In order to decrease the possible long-term toxicity of chemotherapy due to etoposide, a randomized neoadjuvant phase II protocol was conducted using vincristine–carboplatin vs etoposide–carboplatin. Patients and methods The study was proposed when initial tumor characteristics did not allow front-line local treatments. Patients included in this phase II noncomparative randomized study of neoadjuvant chemotherapy received vincristin–carboplatin (new arm) vs etoposide–carboplatin (our reference arm). They were subsequently treated by local treatments and chemothermotherapy. Primary end point was the need for secondary enucleation or external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) not exceeding 40% at 2 years. Results A total of 65 eyes in 55 children were included in the study (May 2004 to August 2009). Of these, 32 eyes (27 children) were treated in the arm etoposide–carboplatin and 33 eyes (28 children) in the arm vincristin–carboplatin. At 2 years after treatment, 23/33 (69.7%) eyes were treated and salvaged without EBRT or enucleation in the arm vincristin–carboplatin and 26/32 (81.2%) in the arm etoposide–carboplatin. Conclusion Even if the two treatment arms could be considered as sufficiently active according to the study decision rules, neoadjuvant chemotherapy by two cycles of vincristine–carboplatin followed by chemothermotherapy appear to offer less optimal local control than the etoposide–carboplatin combination. PMID:26427984

  1. Phase-II Clinical Validation of a Powered Exoskeleton for the Treatment of Elbow Spasticity

    PubMed Central

    Crea, Simona; Cempini, Marco; Mazzoleni, Stefano; Carrozza, Maria Chiara; Posteraro, Federico; Vitiello, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Spasticity is a typical motor disorder in patients affected by stroke. Typically post-stroke rehabilitation consists of repetition of mobilization exercises on impaired limbs, aimed to reduce muscle hypertonia and mitigate spastic reflexes. It is currently strongly debated if the treatment's effectiveness improves with the timeliness of its adoption; in particular, starting intensive rehabilitation as close as possible to the stroke event may counteract the growth and postpone the onset of spasticity. In this paper we present a phase-II clinical validation of a robotic exoskeleton in treating subacute post-stroke patients. Methods: Seventeen post-stroke patients participated in 10 daily rehabilitation sessions using the NEUROExos Elbow Module exoskeleton, each one lasting 45 min: the exercises consisted of isokinetic passive mobilization of the elbow, with torque threshold to detect excessive user's resistance to the movement. We investigated the safety by reporting possible adverse events, such as mechanical, electrical or software failures of the device or injuries or pain experienced by the patient. As regards the efficacy, the Modified Ashworth Scale, was identified as primary outcome measure and the NEEM metrics describing elbow joint resistance to passive extension (i.e., maximum extension torque and zero-torque angle) as secondary outcomes. Results: During the entire duration of the treatments no failures or adverse events for the patients were reported. No statistically significant differences were found in the Modified Ashworth Scale scores, between pre-treatment and post-treatment and between post-treatment and follow-up sessions, indicating the absence of spasticity increase throughout (14 days) and after (3–4 months follow-up) the treatment. Exoskeleton metrics confirmed the absence of significant difference in between pre- and post-treatment data, whereas intra-session data highlighted significant differences in the secondary outcomes

  2. Phase-II Clinical Validation of a Powered Exoskeleton for the Treatment of Elbow Spasticity.

    PubMed

    Crea, Simona; Cempini, Marco; Mazzoleni, Stefano; Carrozza, Maria Chiara; Posteraro, Federico; Vitiello, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Spasticity is a typical motor disorder in patients affected by stroke. Typically post-stroke rehabilitation consists of repetition of mobilization exercises on impaired limbs, aimed to reduce muscle hypertonia and mitigate spastic reflexes. It is currently strongly debated if the treatment's effectiveness improves with the timeliness of its adoption; in particular, starting intensive rehabilitation as close as possible to the stroke event may counteract the growth and postpone the onset of spasticity. In this paper we present a phase-II clinical validation of a robotic exoskeleton in treating subacute post-stroke patients. Methods: Seventeen post-stroke patients participated in 10 daily rehabilitation sessions using the NEUROExos Elbow Module exoskeleton, each one lasting 45 min: the exercises consisted of isokinetic passive mobilization of the elbow, with torque threshold to detect excessive user's resistance to the movement. We investigated the safety by reporting possible adverse events, such as mechanical, electrical or software failures of the device or injuries or pain experienced by the patient. As regards the efficacy, the Modified Ashworth Scale, was identified as primary outcome measure and the NEEM metrics describing elbow joint resistance to passive extension (i.e., maximum extension torque and zero-torque angle) as secondary outcomes. Results: During the entire duration of the treatments no failures or adverse events for the patients were reported. No statistically significant differences were found in the Modified Ashworth Scale scores, between pre-treatment and post-treatment and between post-treatment and follow-up sessions, indicating the absence of spasticity increase throughout (14 days) and after (3-4 months follow-up) the treatment. Exoskeleton metrics confirmed the absence of significant difference in between pre- and post-treatment data, whereas intra-session data highlighted significant differences in the secondary outcomes

  3. Effects of laser immunotherapy on late-stage, metastatic breast cancer patients in a Phase II clinical trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrel, Gabriela L.; Zhou, Feifan; Li, Xiaosong; Hode, Tomas; Nordquist, Robert E.; Alleruzzo, Luciano; Chen, Wei R.

    2014-03-01

    Laser immunotherapy (LIT), a novel technique with a local intervention to induce systemic antitumor effects, was developed to treat metastatic cancers. The pre-clinical studies of LIT have shown its unique characteristics in generating a specific antitumor immunity in treating metastatic tumors in rats and mice. For late-stage, metastatic breast cancer patients, who were considered to be out of other available treatment options, we conducted a small Phase II clinical trial using LIT starting in 2009 in Lima, Peru. This Phase II study was closed in December of 2012, as acknowldged by the Ministry of Health (MOH) of Peur letter 438-2014-OGITT/INS dated March 5th, 2014. Ten patients were enrolled and received LIT in one or multiple 4-week treatment cycles. At the study closing date, four patients were alive and two of them remained cancer free. Here, following the successful conclusion of our Phase II study, we report the clinical effects of LIT on metastatic breast cancer patients. Specifically, we present the overall status of all the patients three years after the treatment and also the outcomes of two long-term surviving patients.

  4. Nimotuzumab combined with radiotherapy for esophageal cancer: preliminary study of a Phase II clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jun; E, Mingyan; Wu, Gang; Zhao, Lujun; Li, Xia; Xiu, Xia; Li, Ning; Chen, Bo; Hui, Zhouguang; Lv, Jima; Fang, Hui; Tang, Yu; Bi, Nan; Wang, Wenqing; Zhai, Yirui; Li, Tao; Chen, Dongfu; Zou, Shuangmei; Lu, Ning; Perez-Rodríguez, Rolando; Zheng, Junqi; Wang, Luhua

    2013-01-01

    To determine the safety and therapeutic effects of nimotuzumab (h-R3) combined with radiotherapy in esophageal cancer. This Phase II clinical trial involved 42 patients with stage II (inoperable or refused surgery) to stage IV (supraclavicular lymph node metastasis only) esophageal cancers treated between November 2008 and July 2010. All patients had squamous cell carcinomas, and all received three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and 200 mg nimotuzumab per week during radiotherapy. There were 9, 25, and 8 patients with stage II, III and IV disease, respectively. All except two patients received 50-70 Gy radiation; 37 patients (88.1%) received more than five nimotuzumab doses. Grade III toxicities (21.4% of all adverse events) included esophagitis and gastrointestinal, dermatological and hematological toxicities. Complete response, partial response, stable disease, and progressive disease were observed in 0, 22 (52.4%), 17 (40.5%) and 3 (7.1%) patients at 1 month after the treatment. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpression rate was 95.2%. After a median follow-up of 37 months, the median survival time (MST) was 14 months. The 2 year and 3 year overall survival (OS) rates were 33.3% and 26.2%, respectively. The median progression-free survival (PFS) time was 10 months. The 2 year and 3 year PFS rates were 24.5% and 22.1%, respectively. The MST in the 13 patients with (+++) EGFR expression (group A) and 7 patients with (++) EGFR expression (group B) was 15 and 11 months, respectively. The 2 year and 3 year OS rates were 46.2% and 38.5% in group A and 28.6% and 28.6% in group B, respectively (P = 0.405). Although concurrent chemoradiotherapy was the standard care for locally advanced esophageal cancer, radiotherapy was the choice for those who were refused or could not tolerate chemoradiotherapy. Our study shows that nimotuzumab combined with radiotherapy was well tolerated in patients with esophageal cancer. EGFR overexpression was more common

  5. Study protocol of REGOSARC trial: activity and safety of regorafenib in advanced soft tissue sarcoma: a multinational, randomized, placebo-controlled, phase II trial.

    PubMed

    Brodowicz, Thomas; Liegl-Atzwager, Bernadette; Tresch, Emmanuelle; Taieb, Sophie; Kramar, Andrew; Gruenwald, Viktor; Vanseymortier, Marie; Clisant, Stéphanie; Blay, Jean-Yves; Le Cesne, Axel; Penel, Nicolas

    2015-03-14

    Angiogenesis, among other signaling pathways, plays a key-role in sarcoma biology. Regorafenib (RE) has recently been shown to be effective in imatinib and sunitinib-refractory GIST in a phase III trial. We are conducting an international trial (France, Austria and Germany) consisting in 4 parallel double-blind placebo-controlled randomized (1/1) phase II trials to assess the activity and safety of RE in doxorubicin-refractory STS (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01900743). Each phase II trial is dedicated to one of the 4 following histological subgroups: liposarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, synovial sarcoma and other sarcoma. Within each randomized trial the following stratification factors will be applied: countries and prior exposure to pazopanib. Key-eligibility criteria are: measurable disease, age ≥18, not > 3 previous systemic treatment lines for metastatic disease, metastatic disease not amenable to surgical resection. The primary endpoint is progression-free survival (PFS) according to central radiological review. Secondary endpoints are: Toxicity (NCI-CTC AE V4.0); time to progression; Growth modulation index in pts receiving RE after randomization; 3 and 6 months PFS-Rates, best response rate and overall survival. Each phase II trial will be separately analyzed. In 3 trials, statistical assumptions are: PFS0 = 1.6 & PFS1 = 4.6 months; 1-sided α = 0.1; β = 0.05 with a total sample size of 192 pts. To take into account the rarity of synovial sarcoma, the statistical assumptions are: PFS0 = 1.6 & PFS1 = 4.6 months; 1-sided α = 0.1; β = 0.2 Tumor assessment is done monthly during the 4 first months, and every 3 months thereafter. After central radiological confirmation of tumor progression, an optional open-label option is offered to eligible patients. The design of this trial allows an assessment of regorafenib activity over placebo in four sarcoma strata and might provide evidence for launching a phase III trial. This study

  6. Soy Isoflavone supplementation for breast cancer risk reduction: a randomized phase II trial

    PubMed Central

    Khan, SA; Chatterton, RT; Michel, N; Bryk, M; Lee, O; Ivancic, D; Heinz, R.; Zalles, CM; Helenowski, I; Jovanovic, B; Franke, A; Bosland, M; Wang, J; Hansen, NM; Bethke, KP; Dew, A; Coomes, M.; Bergan, RC.

    2012-01-01

    Background Soy isoflavone consumption may protect against breast cancer development. We conducted a Phase IIB trial of soy isoflavone supplementation, to examine its effect on breast epithelial proliferation and other biomarkers in the healthy high risk breast. Methods 126 consented women underwent a random fine needle aspiration (rFNA); those with ≥ 4000 epithelial cells were randomized to a double-blind six-month intervention of mixed soy isoflavones (PTIG-2535) or placebo, followed by repeat rFNA. Cells were examined for Ki-67 labeling index (Ki-67 LI), and atypia. Expression of 28 genes related to proliferation, apoptosis and estrogenic effect was measured using quantitative RT-PCR. Hormone and protein levels were measured in nipple aspirate fluid (NAF). All statistical tests were 2-sided. Results 98 women were evaluable for Ki-67 LI. In 49 treated women, the median Ki-67 LI was 1.18 at entry and 1.12 post-intervention, whereas in 49 placebo subjects it was 0.97 and 0.92 (p for between-group change 0.32). Menopausal stratification yielded similar results between groups, but within premenopausal soy-treated women, Ki-67 LI increased from 1.71 to 2.18 (p=0.04). We saw no treatment effect on cytologic atypia or NAF parameters. There were significant increases in the expression of 14/28 genes within the soy, but not the control group, without significant between-group differences. Plasma genistein values demonstrated excellent compliance. Conclusions A six-month intervention of mixed soy isoflavones in healthy, high risk adult western women did not reduce breast epithelial proliferation, suggesting a lack of efficacy for breast cancer prevention, and a possible adverse effect in premenopausal women. PMID:22307566

  7. Recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in severe traumatic brain injury: a phase II randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Helmy, Adel; Guilfoyle, Mathew R; Carpenter, Keri L H; Pickard, John D; Menon, David K; Hutchinson, Peter J

    2014-05-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the commonest cause of death and disability in those aged under 40 years. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1ra) is an endogenous competitive antagonist at the interleukin-1 type-1 receptor (IL-1R). Antagonism at the IL-1R confers neuroprotection in several rodent models of neuronal injury (i.e., trauma, stroke and excitotoxicity). We describe a single center, phase II, open label, randomized-control study of recombinant human IL1ra (rhIL1ra, anakinra) in severe TBI, at a dose of 100 mg subcutaneously once a day for 5 days in 20 patients randomized 1:1. We provide safety data (primary outcome) in this pathology, utilize cerebral microdialysis to directly determine brain extracellular concentrations of IL1ra and 41 cytokines and chemokines, and use principal component analysis (PCA) to explore the resultant cerebral cytokine profile. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist was safe, penetrated into plasma and the brain extracellular fluid. The PCA showed a separation in cytokine profiles after IL1ra administration. A candidate cytokine from this analysis, macrophage-derived chemoattractant, was significantly lower in the rhIL1ra-treated group. Our results provide promising data for rhIL1ra as a therapeutic candidate by showing safety, brain penetration and a modification of the neuroinflammatory response to TBI by a putative neuroprotective agent in humans for the first time.

  8. Recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in severe traumatic brain injury: a phase II randomized control trial

    PubMed Central

    Helmy, Adel; Guilfoyle, Mathew R; Carpenter, Keri LH; Pickard, John D; Menon, David K; Hutchinson, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the commonest cause of death and disability in those aged under 40 years. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1ra) is an endogenous competitive antagonist at the interleukin-1 type-1 receptor (IL-1R). Antagonism at the IL-1R confers neuroprotection in several rodent models of neuronal injury (i.e., trauma, stroke and excitotoxicity). We describe a single center, phase II, open label, randomized-control study of recombinant human IL1ra (rhIL1ra, anakinra) in severe TBI, at a dose of 100 mg subcutaneously once a day for 5 days in 20 patients randomized 1:1. We provide safety data (primary outcome) in this pathology, utilize cerebral microdialysis to directly determine brain extracellular concentrations of IL1ra and 41 cytokines and chemokines, and use principal component analysis (PCA) to explore the resultant cerebral cytokine profile. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist was safe, penetrated into plasma and the brain extracellular fluid. The PCA showed a separation in cytokine profiles after IL1ra administration. A candidate cytokine from this analysis, macrophage-derived chemoattractant, was significantly lower in the rhIL1ra-treated group. Our results provide promising data for rhIL1ra as a therapeutic candidate by showing safety, brain penetration and a modification of the neuroinflammatory response to TBI by a putative neuroprotective agent in humans for the first time. PMID:24569690

  9. Randomized phase II trial of rubidazone and adriamycin in women with advanced breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ingle, J N; Ahmann, D L; O'Fallon, J R; Bisel, H F; Rubin, J; Kvols, L K; Giuliani, E R

    1979-01-01

    Thirty-eight females with advanced breast cancer who had failed prior chemotherapy were entered in a randomized study of rubidazone (150 mg/m2 iv over 1 hour) versus Adriamycin (60 mg/m2 iv over 5 minutes), both given every 4 weeks. The two treatment groups each contained 19 patients and were similar with respect to age, menopausal status, dominant disease status, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance score, and prior hormonal therapy and chemotherapy exposure. No regressions (complete or partial) were observed with rubidazone, but four (21%) patients achieved regressions (one complete and three partial) with Adriamycin. Considering all cycles, hematologic toxicity included leukopenia (wbc count nadir of less than 4000/mm3) in 88% of patients receiving rubidazone and in 89% of those receiving Adriamycin. Three of eight patients treated with Adriamycin after rubidazone failure achieved a regression. Rubidazone appears to be of little value in the treatment of patients with advanced breast cancer who have failed prior chemotherapy.

  10. A Method for Utilizing Bivariate Efficacy Outcome Measures to Screen Regimens for Activity in 2-Stage Phase II Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Larry; Litwin, Samuel; Yothers, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Background Most phase II clinical trials utilize a single primary endpoint to determine the promise of a regimen for future study. However, many disorders manifest themselves in complex ways. For example, migraine headaches can cause pain, auras, photophobia, and emesis. Investigators may believe a drug is effective at reducing migraine pain and the severity of emesis during an attack. Nevertheless, they could still be interested in proceeding with development of the drug if it is effective against only one of these symptoms. Such a study would be a candidate for a clinical trial with co-primary endpoints. Purpose The purpose of the article is to provide a method for designing a 2-stage clinical trial with dichotomous co-primary endpoints of efficacy that has the ability to detect activity on either response measure with high probability when the drug is active on one or both measures, while at the same time rejecting the drug with high probability when there is little activity on both dimensions. The design enables early closure for futility and is flexible with regard to attained accrual. Methods The design is proposed in the context of cancer clinical trials where tumor response is used to assess a drug's ability to kill tumor cells and progression-free survival (PFS) status after a certain period is used to evaluate the drug's ability to stabilize tumor growth. Both endpoints are assumed to be distributed as binomial random variables, and uninteresting probabilities of success are determined from historical controls. Given the necessity of accrual flexibility, exhaustive searching algorithms to find optimum designs do not seem feasible at this time. Instead, critical values are determined for realized sample sizes using specific procedures. Then accrual windows are found to achieve a design's desired level of significance, probability of early termination (PET), and power. Results The design is illustrated with a clinical trial that examined bevacizumab in

  11. Phase II randomized trial of neoadjuvant metformin plus letrozole versus placebo plus letrozole for estrogen receptor positive postmenopausal breast cancer (METEOR).

    PubMed

    Kim, Jisun; Lim, Woosung; Kim, Eun-Kyu; Kim, Min-Kyoon; Paik, Nam-Sun; Jeong, Sang-Seol; Yoon, Jung-Han; Park, Chan Heun; Ahn, Sei Hyun; Kim, Lee Su; Han, Sehwan; Nam, Seok Jin; Kang, Han-Sung; Kim, Seung Il; Yoo, Young Bum; Jeong, Joon; Kim, Tae Hyun; Kang, Taewoo; Kim, Sung-Won; Jung, Yongsik; Lee, Jeong Eon; Kim, Ku Sang; Yu, Jong-Han; Chae, Byung Joo; Jung, So-Youn; Kang, Eunyoung; Choi, Su Yun; Moon, Hyeong-Gon; Noh, Dong-Young; Han, Wonshik

    2014-03-10

    Neoadjuvant endocrine therapy with an aromatase inhibitor has shown efficacy comparable to that of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with postmenopausal breast cancer. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that the antidiabetic drug metformin has anti-tumor activity. This prospective, multicenter, phase II randomized, placebo controlled trial was designed to evaluate the direct anti-tumor effect of metformin in non-diabetic postmenopausal women with estrogen-receptor (ER) positive breast cancer. Patients meeting the inclusion criteria and providing written informed consent will be randomized to 24 weeks of neoadjuvant treatment with letrozole (2.5 mg/day) and either metformin (2000 mg/day) or placebo. Target accrual number is 104 patients per arm. The primary endpoint will be clinical response rate, as measured by calipers. Secondary endpoints include pathologic complete response rate, breast conserving rate, change in Ki67 expression, breast density change, and toxicity profile. Molecular assays will be performed using samples obtained before treatment, at week 4, and postoperatively. This study will provide direct evidence of the anti-tumor effect of metformin in non-diabetic, postmenopausal patients with ER-positive breast cancer. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01589367.

  12. One-stage and two-stage designs for phase II clinical trials with survival endpoints.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, John

    2014-09-28

    This work is motivated by trials in rapidly lethal cancers or cancers for which measuring shrinkage of tumours is infeasible. In either case, traditional phase II designs focussing on tumour response are unsuitable. Usually, tumour response is considered as a substitute for the more relevant but longer-term endpoint of death. In rapidly lethal cancers such as pancreatic cancer, there is no need to use a surrogate, as the definitive endpoint is (sadly) available so soon. In uveal cancer, there is no counterpart to tumour response, and so, mortality is the only realistic response available. Cytostatic cancer treatments do not seek to kill tumours, but to mitigate their effects. Trials of such therapy might also be based on survival times to death or progression, rather than on tumour shrinkage. Phase II oncology trials are often conducted with all study patients receiving the experimental therapy, and this approach is considered here. Simple extensions of one-stage and two-stage designs based on binary responses are presented. Outcomes based on survival past a small number of landmark times are considered: here, the case of three such times is explored in examples. This approach allows exact calculations to be made for both design and analysis purposes. Simulations presented here show that calculations based on normal approximations can lead to loss of power when sample sizes are small. Two-stage versions of the procedure are also suggested.

  13. BOP2: Bayesian optimal design for phase II clinical trials with simple and complex endpoints.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Heng; Lee, J Jack; Yuan, Ying

    2017-09-20

    We propose a flexible Bayesian optimal phase II (BOP2) design that is capable of handling simple (e.g., binary) and complicated (e.g., ordinal, nested, and co-primary) endpoints under a unified framework. We use a Dirichlet-multinomial model to accommodate different types of endpoints. At each interim, the go/no-go decision is made by evaluating a set of posterior probabilities of the events of interest, which is optimized to maximize power or minimize the number of patients under the null hypothesis. Unlike other existing Bayesian designs, the BOP2 design explicitly controls the type I error rate, thereby bridging the gap between Bayesian designs and frequentist designs. In addition, the stopping boundary of the BOP2 design can be enumerated prior to the onset of the trial. These features make the BOP2 design accessible to a wide range of users and regulatory agencies and particularly easy to implement in practice. Simulation studies show that the BOP2 design has favorable operating characteristics with higher power and lower risk of incorrectly terminating the trial than some existing Bayesian phase II designs. The software to implement the BOP2 design is freely available at www.trialdesign.org. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Robot-assisted Versus Laparoscopic Surgery for Rectal Cancer: A Phase II Open Label Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jung; Park, Sung Chan; Park, Ji Won; Chang, Hee Jin; Kim, Dae Yong; Nam, Byung-Ho; Sohn, Dae Kyung; Oh, Jae Hwan

    2017-05-25

    The phase II randomized controlled trial aimed to compare the outcomes of robot-assisted surgery with those of laparoscopic surgery in the patients with rectal cancer. The feasibility of robot-assisted surgery over laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer has not been established yet. Between February 21, 2012 and March 11, 2015, patients with rectal cancer (cT1-3NxM0) were enrolled. Patients were randomized 1:1 to either robot-assisted or laparoscopic surgery, and stratified per sex and administration of preoperative chemoradiotherapy. The primary outcome was the quality of total mesorectal excision (TME) specimen. Secondary outcomes were the circumferential and distal resection margins, the number of harvested lymph nodes, morbidity, bowel function recovery, and quality of life. A total of 163 patients were randomly assigned to the robot-assisted (n = 81) and laparoscopic (n = 82) surgery groups, and 139 patients were eligible for the analyses (73 vs 66, respectively). One patient (1.2%) in the robot-assisted group was converted to open surgery. The TME quality did not differ between the robot-assisted and laparoscopic groups (80.3% vs 78.1% complete TME, respectively; 18.2% vs 21.9% nearly complete TME, respectively; P = 0.599). The resection margins, number of harvested lymph nodes, morbidity, and bowel function recovery also were not significantly different. On analyzing quality of life, scores of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life (EORTC QLQ C30) and EORTC QLQ CR38 were similar in the 2 groups, but in the EORTC QLQ CR 38 questionnaire, sexual function 12 months postoperatively was better in the robot-assisted group than in the laparoscopic group (P = 0.03). Robot-assisted surgery in rectal cancer showed TME quality comparable with that of laparoscopic surgery, and it demonstrated similar postoperative morbidity, bowel function recovery, and quality of life.

  15. Phase II prospective randomized trial of a low-fat diet with fish oil supplementation in men undergoing radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Aronson, William J; Kobayashi, Naoko; Barnard, R James; Henning, Susanne; Huang, Min; Jardack, Patricia M; Liu, Bingrong; Gray, Ashley; Wan, Junxiang; Konijeti, Ramdev; Freedland, Stephen J; Castor, Brandon; Heber, David; Elashoff, David; Said, Jonathan; Cohen, Pinchas; Galet, Colette

    2011-12-01

    Preclinical studies suggest lowering dietary fat and decreasing the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids decreases the risk of prostate cancer development and progression. We conducted a phase II randomized trial to test the effect of decreasing dietary fat combined with decreasing the dietary omega-6:omega-3 ratio on biomarkers related to prostate cancer development and progression. Patients undergoing radical prostatectomy were randomly assigned to receive a low-fat diet with 5 grams of fish oil daily (dietary omega-6:omega-3 ratio of 2:1) or a control Western diet (omega-6:omega-3 ratio of 15:1) for four to six weeks prior to surgery. The primary endpoint was change in serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) between arms. Secondary endpoints were serum IGFBP-1, prostate prostaglandin E2 levels, omega-6:omega-3 fatty acid ratios, COX-2, and markers of proliferation and apoptosis. Fifty-five patients were randomized and 48 completed the trial. There was no treatment difference in the primary outcome. Positive secondary outcomes in the low-fat fish oil versus Western group were reduced benign and malignant prostate tissue omega-6:omega-3 ratios, reduced proliferation (Ki-67 index), and reduced proliferation in an ex vivo bioassay when patient sera was applied to prostate cancer cells in vitro. In summary, four to six weeks of a low-fat diet and fish oil capsules to achieve an omega-6:omega-3 fatty acid ratio of 2:1 had no effect on serum IGF-1 levels, though in secondary analyses, the intervention resulted in decreased prostate cancer proliferation and decreased prostate tissue omega-6:omega-3 ratios. These results support further studies evaluating reduction of dietary fat with fish oil supplementation on modulating prostate cancer biology. 2011 AACR

  16. Phase II Prospective Randomized Trial of a Low-Fat Diet with Fish Oil Supplementation in Men Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Aronson, William J.; Kobayashi, Naoko; Barnard, R. James; Henning, Susanne; Jardack, Patricia M.; Liu, Bingrong; Gray, Ashley; Wan, Junxiang; Konijeti, Ramdev; Freedland, Stephen J.; Castor, Brandon; Heber, David; Elashoff, David; Said, Jonathan; Cohen, Pinchas; Galet, Colette

    2011-01-01

    Preclinical studies suggest lowering dietary fat and decreasing the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids decreases the risk of prostate cancer development and progression. We conducted a phase II randomized trial to test the effect of decreasing dietary fat combined with decreasing the dietary omega-6:omega-3 ratio on biomarkers related to prostate cancer development and progression. Patients undergoing radical prostatectomy were randomly assigned to receive a low-fat diet with 5 grams of fish oil daily (dietary omega-6:omega-3 ratio of 2:1) or a control western diet (omega-6:omega-3 ratio of 15:1) for 4–6 weeks prior to surgery. The primary endpoint was change in serum IGF-1 between arms. Secondary endpoints were serum IGFBP-1, prostate prostaglandin E-2 levels, omega-6:omega-3 fatty acid ratios, COX-2 and markers of proliferation and apoptosis. Fifty-five patients were randomized and 48 completed the trial. There was no treatment difference in the primary outcome. Positive secondary outcomes in the low-fat fish oil vs. western group were reduced benign and malignant prostate tissue omega-6:omega-3 ratios, reduced proliferation (Ki67 index), and reduced proliferation in an ex-vivo bioassay when patient sera was applied to prostate cancer cells in vitro. In summary, 4–6 weeks of a low-fat diet and fish oil capsules to achieve an omega-6:omega-3 fatty acid ratio of 2:1 had no effect on serum IGF-1 levels, though in secondary analyses the intervention resulted in decreased prostate cancer proliferation and decreased prostate tissue omega-6:omega-3 ratios. These results support further studies evaluating reduction of dietary fat with fish oil supplementation on modulating prostate cancer biology. PMID:22027686

  17. A Phase II Clinical Trial Evaluating the Preventive Effectiveness of Lactobacillus Vaginal Suppositories in Patients with Recurrent Cystitis.

    PubMed

    Wada, Koichiro; Uehara, Shinya; Ishii, Ayano; Sadahira, Takuya; Yamamoto, Masumi; Mitsuhata, Ritsuko; Takamoto, Atsushi; Araki, Motoo; Kobayashi, Yasuyuki; Watanabe, Masami; Watanabe, Toyohiko; Hotta, Katsuyuki; Nasu, Yasutomo

    2016-08-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common bacterial infections in women, and many patients experience frequent recurrence. The aim of this report is to introduce an on-going prospective phase II clinical trial performed to evaluate the preventive effectiveness of Lactobacillus vaginal suppositories for prevention of recurrent cystitis. Patients enrolled in this study are administered vaginal suppositories containing the GAI 98322 strain of Lactobacillus crispatus every 2 days or 3 times a week for one year. The primary endpoint is recurrence of cystitis and the secondary endpoints are adverse events. Recruitment began in December 2013 and target sample size is 20 participants.

  18. Operating characteristics of a Simon two-stage phase II clinical trial design incorporating continuous toxicity monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ray, H E; Rai, S N

    2012-01-01

    Phase II clinical trials are usually designed to measure efficacy, but safety is also an important end point. Previous authors recommended a method to monitor toxic events after each patient is enrolled, which is also known as continuously monitoring the toxicity. In this work, we investigate combining the usual Simon two-stage design to monitor response with the continuous toxicity monitoring methodology. Theoretical justification is given for the nominal size, probability of early termination, and average sample size under the null hypothesis of the combined testing procedure. A series of simulations are performed to investigate the performance of the combined procedure.

  19. A randomized phase II trial of tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and sirolimus after non-myeloablative unrelated donor transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kornblit, Brian; Maloney, David G; Storer, Barry E; Maris, Michael B; Vindeløv, Lars; Hari, Parameswaran; Langston, Amelia A; Pulsipher, Michael A; Bethge, Wolfgang A; Chauncey, Thomas R; Lange, Thoralf; Petersen, Finn B; Hübel, Kai; Woolfrey, Ann E; Flowers, Mary E D; Storb, Rainer; Sandmaier, Brenda M

    2014-10-01

    The study is a randomized phase II trial investigating graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis after non-myeloablative (90 mg/m(2) fludarabine and 2 Gy total body irradiation) human leukocyte antigen matched unrelated donor transplantation. Patients were randomized as follows: arm 1 - tacrolimus 180 days and mycophenolate mofetil 95 days (n=69); arm 2 - tacrolimus 150 days and mycophenolate mofetil 180 days (n=71); arm 3 - tacrolimus 150 days, mycophenolate mofetil 180 days and sirolimus 80 days (n=68). All patients had sustained engraftment. Grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease rates in the 3 arms were 64%, 48% and 47% at Day 150, respectively (arm 3 vs. arm 1 (hazard ratio 0.62; P=0.04). Owing to the decreased incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease, systemic steroid use was lower at Day 150 in arm 3 (32% vs. 55% in arm 1 and 49% in arm 2; overall P=0.009 by hazard ratio analysis). The Day 150 incidence of cytomegalovirus reactivation was lower in arm 3 (arm 1, 54%; arm 2, 47%; arm 3, 22%; overall P=0.002 by hazard ratio analysis). Non-relapse mortality was comparable in the three arms at two years (arm 1, 26%; arm 2, 23%; arm 3, 18%). Toxicity rates and other outcome measures were similar between the three arms. The addition of sirolimus to tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil is safe and associated with lower incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease and cytomegalovirus reactivation. (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: 00105001). Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  20. Phase II double-blind placebo-controlled randomized study of armodafinil for brain radiation-induced fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Page, Brandi R.; Shaw, Edward G.; Lu, Lingyi; Bryant, David; Grisell, David; Lesser, Glenn J.; Monitto, Drew C.; Naughton, Michelle J.; Rapp, Stephen R.; Savona, Steven R.; Shah, Sunjay; Case, Doug; Chan, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Common acute-term side effects of brain radiotherapy (RT) include fatigue, drowsiness, decreased physical functioning, and decreased quality of life (QOL). We hypothesized that armodafinil (a wakefulness-promoting drug known to reduce fatigue and increase cognitive function in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy) would result in reduced fatigue and sleepiness for patients receiving brain RT. Methods A phase II, multi-institutional, placebo-controlled randomized trial assessed feasibility of armodafinil 150 mg/day in participants receiving brain RT, from whom we obtained estimates of variability for fatigue, sleepiness, QOL, cognitive function, and treatment effect. Results From September 20, 2010, to October 20, 2012, 54 participants enrolled with 80% retention and 94% self-reported compliance. There were no grade 4–5 toxicities, and the incidence of grade 2–3 toxicities was similar between treatment arms, the most common of which were anxiety and nausea (15%), headaches (19%), and insomnia (20%). There were no statistically significant differences in end-RT or 4 week post-RT outcomes between armodafinil and placebo in any outcomes (Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy [FACIT]-Fatigue, Brief Fatigue Inventory, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, FACT-Brain, and FACIT-cognitive function). However, in participants with more baseline fatigue, those treated with armodafinil did better than those who received the placebo on the end-RT assessments for several outcomes. Conclusion Armodafinil 150 mg/day was well tolerated in primary brain tumor patients undergoing RT with good compliance. While there was no overall significant effect on fatigue, those with greater baseline fatigue experienced improved QOL and reduced fatigue when using armodafinil. These data suggest that a prospective, phase III randomized trial is warranted for patients with greater baseline fatigue. PMID:25972454

  1. Investigational drugs in phase II clinical trials for the treatment of neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Amoroso, Loredana; Haupt, Riccardo; Garaventa, Alberto; Ponzoni, Mirco

    2017-11-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is an embryonal tumor originating from undifferentiated neural crest cell, highly heterogeneous ranging from spontaneous regression to progression despite multimodal treatments. Approximately, 20% of patients are refractory to frontline therapy and 50% will relapse/progress after an initial response. The overall five year survival for high-risk neuroblastoma ranges from 35-45%. Despite enhanced understanding of NB biology and the addition of myeloablative chemotherapy, isotretinoin and immunotherapy, survival for high risk NB remains less than 50%. Areas covered: This review summarizes and gives a critical overview of phase II trials investigating therapies for relapsed-refractory and high risk neuroblastoma. Expert opinion: Several novel molecules have been developed and are currently under investigation for the treatment of NB. The trend of novel targeted agents is one towards individualized, tailored therapy, based on the molecular and biological differences that characterize tumors that seem similar based solely on histological analysis. The task of developing new molecules is particularly difficult for NB, given the recurrent development of new patterns of drug resistance. However, even if current research is focused towards identifying the best treatments for each children and young adult with a NB defined disease, a deeper knowledge of the molecular biology and genetics is needed.

  2. Imatinib mesylate in scleroderma-associated diffuse skin fibrosis: a phase II multicentre randomized double-blinded controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Prey, S; Ezzedine, K; Doussau, A; Grandoulier, A-S; Barcat, D; Chatelus, E; Diot, E; Durant, C; Hachulla, E; de Korwin-Krokowski, J-D; Kostrzewa, E; Quemeneur, T; Paul, C; Schaeverbeke, T; Seneschal, J; Solanilla, A; Sparsa, A; Bouchet, S; Lepreux, S; Mahon, F-X; Chene, G; Taïeb, A

    2012-11-01

    Imatinib mesylate is a potent inhibitor of platelet-derived growth factor and transforming growth factor-β signalling pathways which may play a role in systemic sclerosis (SSc)-associated skin changes. We aimed primarily at assessing the efficacy of imatinib mesylate in scleroderma skin fibrosis. We performed a phase II double-blinded trial on patients with scleroderma with either morphoea involving > 20% of body surface area or SSc with extensive skin involvement: modified Rodnan Skin Score (mRSS) ≥ 20/51. Each patient was randomized to receive either imatinib mesylate 400 mg or placebo daily for a total of 6 months, and then was followed up 6 months after therapy discontinuation. Skin fibrosis was assessed by mRSS and measurement of the dermal thickness using skin biopsies performed at inclusion and at 6 months of treatment. In addition, quality of life (Dermatology Life Quality Index and modified Health Assessment Questionnaire for Scleroderma) was recorded at each visit, and pulmonary function before and after intervention. Twenty-eight patients were included in the study with a mean age of 48·9 years (range 30-71): 25 had a diagnosis of a SSc and three of diffuse cutaneous scleroderma. Demographic data, frequency of organ involvement of SSc and mRSS were comparable between groups. At 6 months, the proportion of variation of mRSS from inclusion was not statistically significantly different between the two groups (median +0·10 in imatinib group vs. -0·16 in placebo group, P = 0·098). Similarly, changes in dermal thickness, quality of life and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide were not significantly different between groups. This study failed to demonstrate the efficacy of imatinib 400 mg daily to improve skin fibrosis of diffuse scleroderma after 6 months of treatment based on validated outcome measurements. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  3. TBCRC 001: Randomized Phase II Study of Cetuximab in Combination With Carboplatin in Stage IV Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Lisa A.; Rugo, Hope S.; Marcom, P. Kelly; Mayer, Erica L.; Esteva, Francisco J.; Ma, Cynthia X.; Liu, Minetta C.; Storniolo, Anna Maria; Rimawi, Mothaffar F.; Forero-Torres, Andres; Wolff, Antonio C.; Hobday, Timothy J.; Ivanova, Anastasia; Chiu, Wing-Keung; Ferraro, Madlyn; Burrows, Emily; Bernard, Philip S.; Hoadley, Katherine A.; Perou, Charles M.; Winer, Eric P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a targetable receptor frequently overexpressed in basal-like breast cancer, which comprises most triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs), the only subtype without established targeted therapy. Patients and Methods In this randomized phase II trial, patients with metastatic TNBC received anti-EGFR antibody cetuximab (400 mg/m2 load then 250 mg/m2 per week intravenously [IV]) alone, with carboplatin (area under the curve of 2, once per week IV) added after progression or as concomitant therapy from the beginning. Response rate (RR) was the primary end point; others included time to progression (TTP), overall survival (OS), and toxicity. Embedded correlative studies included molecular subtyping on archival tissue. Fresh tumor tissue before and after 7 to 14 days of therapy was used for microarray analyses exploring EGFR pathway activity and inhibition. Results In 102 patients with TNBC, RRs were 6% (two of 31) to cetuximab and 16% (four of 25) to cetuximab plus carboplatin after progression. RR to those treated from the beginning with cetuximab plus carboplatin was 17% (12 of 71); 31% of patients responded or had prolonged disease stabilization. The cetuximab plus carboplatin regimen was well tolerated, but both TTP and OS were short at 2.1 months (95% CI, 1.8 to 5.5 months) and 10.4 months (95% CI, 7.7 to 13.1 months), respectively. Of 73 patients with archival tissue for analysis, 74% had basal-like molecular subtype. Sixteen patients had tumor biopsies before and 1 week after therapy; genomic patterns of the EGFR pathway showed activation in 13 and inhibition by therapy in five. Conclusion Despite strong preclinical data, combination cetuximab plus carboplatin in metastatic TNBC produced responses in fewer than 20% of patients. EGFR pathway analysis showed that most TNBCs involved activation. However, cetuximab blocked expression of the EGFR pathway in only a minority, suggesting that most had alternate mechanisms

  4. Netmums: a phase II randomized controlled trial of a guided Internet behavioural activation treatment for postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    O'Mahen, H A; Richards, D A; Woodford, J; Wilkinson, E; McGinley, J; Taylor, R S; Warren, F C

    2014-06-01

    Despite the high prevalence of postnatal depression (PND), few women seek help. Internet interventions may overcome many of the barriers to PND treatment use. We report a phase II evaluation of a 12-session, modular, guided Internet behavioural activation (BA) treatment modified to address postnatal-specific concerns [Netmums Helping With Depression (NetmumsHWD)]. To assess feasibility, we measured recruitment and attrition to the trial and examined telephone session support and treatment adherence. We investigated sociodemographic and psychological predictors of treatment adherence. Effectiveness outcomes were estimated with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, Work and Social Adjustment Scale, Postnatal Bonding Questionnaire, and Social Provisions Scale. A total of 249 women were recruited via a UK parenting site, Netmums.com. A total of 83 women meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder were randomized to NetmumsHWD (n = 41) or treatment-as-usual (TAU; n = 42). Of the 83 women, 71 (86%) completed the EPDS at post-treatment, and 71% (59/83) at the 6-month follow-up. Women completed an average of eight out of 12 telephone support sessions and five out of 12 modules. Working women and those with less support completed fewer modules. There was a large effect size favouring women who received NetmumsHWD on depression, work and social impairment, and anxiety scores at post-treatment compared with women in the TAU group, and a large effect size on depression at 6 months post-treatment. There were small effect sizes for postnatal bonding and perceived social support. A supported, modular, Internet BA programme can be feasibly delivered to postpartum women, offering promise to improve depression, anxiety and functioning.

  5. A Phase II, Randomized, Safety and Immunogenicity Trial of a Re-Derived, Live-Attenuated Dengue Virus Vaccine in Healthy Children and Adults Living in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Kristen; Esquilin, Ines O.; Cornier, Alberto Santiago; Thomas, Stephen J.; Quintero del Rio, Ana I.; Bertran-Pasarell, Jorge; Morales Ramirez, Javier O.; Diaz, Clemente; Carlo, Simon; Eckels, Kenneth H.; Tournay, Elodie; Toussaint, Jean-Francois; De La Barrera, Rafael; Fernandez, Stefan; Lyons, Arthur; Sun, Wellington; Innis, Bruce L.

    2015-01-01

    This was a double-blind, randomized, controlled, phase II clinical trial, two dose study of re-derived, live-attenuated, tetravalent dengue virus (TDEN) vaccine (two formulations) or placebo in subjects 1–50 years of age. Among the 636 subjects enrolled, 331 (52%) were primed, that is, baseline seropositive to at least one dengue virus (DENV) type. Baseline seropositivity prevalence increased with age (10% [< 2 years], 26% [2–4 years], 60% [5–20 years], and 93% [21–50 years]). Safety profiles of TDEN vaccines were similar to placebo regardless of priming status. No vaccine-related serious adverse events (SAEs) were reported. Among unprimed subjects, immunogenicity (geometric mean antibody titers [GMT] and seropositivity rates) for each DENV increased substantially in both TDEN vaccine groups with at least 74.6% seropositive for four DENV types. The TDEN vaccine candidate showed an acceptable safety and immunogenicity profile in children and adults ranging from 1 to 50 years of age, regardless of priming status. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00468858. PMID:26175027

  6. A Phase II, Randomized, Safety and Immunogenicity Trial of a Re-Derived, Live-Attenuated Dengue Virus Vaccine in Healthy Children and Adults Living in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Kristen; Esquilin, Ines O; Cornier, Alberto Santiago; Thomas, Stephen J; Quintero Del Rio, Ana I; Bertran-Pasarell, Jorge; Morales Ramirez, Javier O; Diaz, Clemente; Carlo, Simon; Eckels, Kenneth H; Tournay, Elodie; Toussaint, Jean-Francois; De La Barrera, Rafael; Fernandez, Stefan; Lyons, Arthur; Sun, Wellington; Innis, Bruce L

    2015-09-01

    This was a double-blind, randomized, controlled, phase II clinical trial, two dose study of re-derived, live-attenuated, tetravalent dengue virus (TDEN) vaccine (two formulations) or placebo in subjects 1-50 years of age. Among the 636 subjects enrolled, 331 (52%) were primed, that is, baseline seropositive to at least one dengue virus (DENV) type. Baseline seropositivity prevalence increased with age (10% [< 2 years], 26% [2-4 years], 60% [5-20 years], and 93% [21-50 years]). Safety profiles of TDEN vaccines were similar to placebo regardless of priming status. No vaccine-related serious adverse events (SAEs) were reported. Among unprimed subjects, immunogenicity (geometric mean antibody titers [GMT] and seropositivity rates) for each DENV increased substantially in both TDEN vaccine groups with at least 74.6% seropositive for four DENV types. The TDEN vaccine candidate showed an acceptable safety and immunogenicity profile in children and adults ranging from 1 to 50 years of age, regardless of priming status. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00468858.

  7. Optimal blood sampling time windows for parameter estimation using a population approach: design of a phase II clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Chenel, Marylore; Ogungbenro, Kayode; Duval, Vincent; Laveille, Christian; Jochemsen, Roeline; Aarons, Leon

    2005-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine optimal blood sampling time windows for the estimation of pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters by a population approach within the clinical constraints. A population PK model was developed to describe a reference phase II PK dataset. Using this model and the parameter estimates, D-optimal sampling times were determined by optimising the determinant of the population Fisher information matrix (PFIM) using PFIM_ _M 1.2 and the modified Fedorov exchange algorithm. Optimal sampling time windows were then determined by allowing the D-optimal windows design to result in a specified level of efficiency when compared to the fixed-times D-optimal design. The best results were obtained when K(a) and IIV on K(a) were fixed. Windows were determined using this approach assuming 90% level of efficiency and uniform sample distribution. Four optimal sampling time windows were determined as follow: at trough between 22 h and new drug administration; between 2 and 4 h after dose for all patients; and for 1/3 of the patients only 2 sampling time windows between 4 and 10 h after dose, equal to [4 h-5 h 05] and [9 h 10-10 h]. This work permitted the determination of an optimal design, with suitable sampling time windows which was then evaluated by simulations. The sampling time windows will be used to define the sampling schedule in a prospective phase II study.

  8. End points for phase II trials in intensive care: recommendations from the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Group consensus panel meeting.

    PubMed

    Young, Paul; Hodgson, Carol; Dulhunty, Joel; Saxena, Manoj; Bailey, Michael; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Davies, Andrew; Finfer, Simon; Kruger, Peter; Lipman, Jeffrey; Myburgh, John; Peake, Sandra; Seppelt, Ian; Streat, Stephen; Tate, Rhiannon; Webb, Steven

    2012-09-01

    There is uncertainty about which end points should be used for Phase II trials in critically ill patients. To systematically evaluate potential end points for Phase II trials in critically ill patients. A report outlining a process of literature review and recommendations from a consensus meeting conducted on behalf of the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Clinical Trials Group (ANZICS CTG) in October 2011. The consensus panel concluded that there are no adequately validated end points for Phase II trials in critically ill patients. However, the following were identified as potential Phase II end points: hospital-free days to Day 90, ICU-free days to Day 28, ventilator-free days to Day 28, cardiovascular support-free days to Day 28, and renal replacement therapy-free days to Day 28. We recommend that these end points be evaluated further.

  9. Effects of treatment with an Hsp90 inhibitor in tumors based on 15 phase II clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, He; Lu, Mingjie; Yao, Mengqian; Zhu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock protein (Hsp)90 serves as a chaperone protein that promotes the proper folding of proteins involved in a variety of signal transduction processes involved in cell growth. Hsp90 inhibitors, which inhibit the activity of critical client proteins, have emerged as the accessory therapeutic agents for multiple human cancer types. To better understand the effects of Hsp90 inhibitors in cancer treatment, the present study reviewed 15 published phase II clinical trials to investigate whether Hsp90 inhibitors will benefit patients with cancer. Information of complete response, partial response, stable disease, objective response and objective response rate was collected to evaluate clinical outcomes. Overall, Hsp90 inhibitors are effective against a variety of oncogene-addicted cancers, including those that have developed resistance to specific receptors. PMID:27602225

  10. Randomized Phase II Trial of Gemcitabine Plus TH-302 Versus Gemcitabine in Patients With Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Borad, Mitesh J.; Reddy, Shantan G.; Bahary, Nathan; Uronis, Hope E.; Sigal, Darren; Cohn, Allen L.; Schelman, William R.; Stephenson, Joe; Chiorean, E. Gabriela; Rosen, Peter J.; Ulrich, Brian; Dragovich, Tomislav; Del Prete, Salvatore A.; Rarick, Mark; Eng, Clarence; Kroll, Stew; Ryan, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose TH-302 is an investigational hypoxia-activated prodrug that releases the DNA alkylator bromo-isophosphoramide mustard in hypoxic settings. This phase II study (NCT01144455) evaluated gemcitabine plus TH-302 in patients with previously untreated, locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer. Patients and Methods Patients were randomly assigned 1:1:1 to gemcitabine (1,000 mg/m2), gemcitabine plus TH-302 240 mg/m2 (G+T240), or gemcitabine plus TH-302 340 mg/m2 (G+T340). Randomized crossover after progression on gemcitabine was allowed. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary end points included overall survival (OS), tumor response, CA 19-9 response, and safety. Results Two hundred fourteen patients (77% with metastatic disease) were enrolled between June 2010 and July 2011. PFS was significantly longer with gemcitabine plus TH-302 (pooled combination arms) compared with gemcitabine alone (median PFS, 5.6 v 3.6 months, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.87; P = .005; median PFS for metastatic disease, 5.1 v 3.4 months, respectively). Median PFS times for G+T240 and G+T340 were 5.6 and 6.0 months, respectively. Tumor response was 12%, 17%, and 26% in the gemcitabine, G+T240, and G+T340 arms, respectively (G+T340 v gemcitabine, P = .04). CA 19-9 decrease was greater with G+T340 versus gemcitabine (−5,398 v −549 U/mL, respectively; P = .008). Median OS times for gemcitabine, G+T240, and G+T340 were 6.9, 8.7, and 9.2 months, respectively (P = not significant). The most common adverse events (AEs) were fatigue, nausea, and peripheral edema (frequencies similar across arms). Skin and mucosal toxicities (2% grade 3) and myelosuppression (55% grade 3 or 4) were the most common TH-302–related AEs but were not associated with treatment discontinuation. Conclusion PFS, tumor response, and CA 19-9 response were significantly improved with G+TH-302. G+T340 is being investigated further in the phase III MAESTRO study

  11. Phase II randomized study of PM01183 versus topotecan in patients with platinum-resistant/refractory advanced ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Poveda, A; Del Campo, J M; Ray-Coquard, I; Alexandre, J; Provansal, M; Guerra Alía, E M; Casado, A; Gonzalez-Martin, A; Fernández, C; Rodriguez, I; Soto, A; Kahatt, C; Fernández Teruel, C; Galmarini, C M; Pérez de la Haza, A; Bohan, P; Berton-Rigaud, D

    2017-06-01

    PM01183 is a new compound that blocks active transcription, produces DNA breaks and apoptosis, and affects the inflammatory microenvironment. PM01183 showed strong antitumor activity in preclinical models of cisplatin-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer. Patients with platinum-resistant/refractory ovarian cancer were included in a two-stage, controlled, randomized (in a second stage), multicenter, phase II study. Primary endpoint was overall response rate (ORR) by RECIST and/or GCIG criteria. The exploratory first stage (n = 22) confirmed the activity of PM01183 as a single agent at 7.0 mg flat dose every 3 weeks (q3wk). The second stage (n = 59) was randomized and controlled with topotecan on days 1-5 q3wk or weekly (every 4 weeks, q4wk). ORR was 23% (95% CI, 13%-37%) for 52 PM01183-treated patients. Median duration of response was 4.6 months (95% CI, 2.5-6.9 months), and 23% (95% CI, 0%-51%) of responses lasted 6 months or more. Ten of the 12 confirmed responses were reported for 33 patients with platinum-resistant disease [ORR = 30% (95% CI, 16%-49%)]; for the 29 patients treated with topotecan in the second stage, no responses were found. Median PFS for all PM01183-treated patients was 4.0 months (95% CI, 2.7-5.6 months), and 5.0 months (95% CI, 2.7-6.9 months) for patients with platinum-resistant disease. Grade 3/4 neutropenia in 85% of patients; febrile neutropenia in 21% and fatigue (grade 3 in 35%) were the principal safety findings for PM01183. PM01183 is an active drug in platinum-resistant/refractory ovarian cancer and warrants further development. The highest activity was observed in platinum-resistant disease. Its safety profile indicates the dose should be adjusted to body surface area (mg/m2). EudraCT 2011-002172-16.

  12. Phase II randomized study of PM01183 versus topotecan in patients with platinum-resistant/refractory advanced ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    del Campo, J. M.; Ray-Coquard, I.; Alexandre, J.; Provansal, M.; Guerra Alía, E. M.; Casado, A.; Gonzalez-Martin, A.; Fernández, C.; Rodriguez, I.; Soto, A.; Kahatt, C.; Fernández Teruel, C.; Galmarini, C. M.; Pérez de la Haza, A.; Bohan, P.; Berton-Rigaud, D.

    2017-01-01

    Background PM01183 is a new compound that blocks active transcription, produces DNA breaks and apoptosis, and affects the inflammatory microenvironment. PM01183 showed strong antitumor activity in preclinical models of cisplatin-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer. Patients and methods Patients with platinum-resistant/refractory ovarian cancer were included in a two-stage, controlled, randomized (in a second stage), multicenter, phase II study. Primary endpoint was overall response rate (ORR) by RECIST and/or GCIG criteria. The exploratory first stage (n = 22) confirmed the activity of PM01183 as a single agent at 7.0 mg flat dose every 3 weeks (q3wk). The second stage (n = 59) was randomized and controlled with topotecan on days 1–5 q3wk or weekly (every 4 weeks, q4wk). Results ORR was 23% (95% CI, 13%–37%) for 52 PM01183-treated patients. Median duration of response was 4.6 months (95% CI, 2.5–6.9 months), and 23% (95% CI, 0%–51%) of responses lasted 6 months or more. Ten of the 12 confirmed responses were reported for 33 patients with platinum-resistant disease [ORR = 30% (95% CI, 16%–49%)]; for the 29 patients treated with topotecan in the second stage, no responses were found. Median PFS for all PM01183-treated patients was 4.0 months (95% CI, 2.7–5.6 months), and 5.0 months (95% CI, 2.7–6.9 months) for patients with platinum-resistant disease. Grade 3/4 neutropenia in 85% of patients; febrile neutropenia in 21% and fatigue (grade 3 in 35%) were the principal safety findings for PM01183. Conclusion PM01183 is an active drug in platinum-resistant/refractory ovarian cancer and warrants further development. The highest activity was observed in platinum-resistant disease. Its safety profile indicates the dose should be adjusted to body surface area (mg/m2). Trial code EudraCT 2011-002172-16. PMID:28368437

  13. Cyclosporine C2 monitoring for the treatment of frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome in children: a multicenter randomized phase II trial.

    PubMed

    Iijima, Kazumoto; Sako, Mayumi; Oba, Mari Saito; Ito, Shuichi; Hataya, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Ryojiro; Ohwada, Yoko; Kamei, Koichi; Ishikura, Kenji; Yata, Nahoko; Nozu, Kandai; Honda, Masataka; Nakamura, Hidefumi; Nagata, Michio; Ohashi, Yasuo; Nakanishi, Koichi; Yoshikawa, Norishige

    2014-02-01

    An open-label, multicenter, randomized phase II trial was conducted from July 1, 2005 to March 29, 2011 to compare two protocols for treating children with frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome using microemulsified cyclosporine. Ninety-three children with frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome were randomly assigned to group A (n=46) or group B (n=47). In both groups, the 2-hour postdose cyclosporine level was monitored. For group A, the cyclosporine target was set to 600-700 ng/ml for the first 6 months and 450-550 ng/ml for the next 18 months; for group B, it was set to 450-550 ng/ml for the first 6 months and 300-400 ng/ml for the next 18 months. The primary end point was the sustained remission rate. At the end of the study, if there was no difference in safety profile between the two groups and the sustained remission rate in group A was superior to group B with a decision threshold of 8%, then the regimen for group A would be determined the better treatment. Eight children from an ineligible institution, where cyclosporine levels were not measured, were excluded from all analyses. At 24 months, the sustained remission rate was nonsignificantly higher in group A (n=43) than group B (n=42; 64.4% versus 50.0%; hazard ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.29 to 1.11; P=0.09), and the progression-free survival rate was significantly higher (88.1% versus 68.4%; hazard ratio, 0.33; 95% confidence interval, 0.12 to 0.94; P=0.03). The relapse rate was significantly lower in group A than group B (0.41 versus 0.95 times/person-year; hazard ratio, 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.19 to 0.84; P=0.02). The rate and severity of adverse events were similar in both treatment groups. The sustained remission rate was not significantly different between the two treatment groups, but the regimen with the higher 2-hour postdose cyclosporine level target improved progression-free survival and reduced the relapse rate.

  14. Cyclosporine C2 Monitoring for the Treatment of Frequently Relapsing Nephrotic Syndrome in Children: A Multicenter Randomized Phase II Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sako, Mayumi; Oba, Mari Saito; Ito, Shuichi; Hataya, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Ryojiro; Ohwada, Yoko; Kamei, Koichi; Ishikura, Kenji; Yata, Nahoko; Nozu, Kandai; Honda, Masataka; Nakamura, Hidefumi; Nagata, Michio; Ohashi, Yasuo; Nakanishi, Koichi; Yoshikawa, Norishige

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives An open-label, multicenter, randomized phase II trial was conducted from July 1, 2005 to March 29, 2011 to compare two protocols for treating children with frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome using microemulsified cyclosporine. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Ninety-three children with frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome were randomly assigned to group A (n=46) or group B (n=47). In both groups, the 2-hour postdose cyclosporine level was monitored. For group A, the cyclosporine target was set to 600–700 ng/ml for the first 6 months and 450–550 ng/ml for the next 18 months; for group B, it was set to 450–550 ng/ml for the first 6 months and 300–400 ng/ml for the next 18 months. The primary end point was the sustained remission rate. At the end of the study, if there was no difference in safety profile between the two groups and the sustained remission rate in group A was superior to group B with a decision threshold of 8%, then the regimen for group A would be determined the better treatment. Results Eight children from an ineligible institution, where cyclosporine levels were not measured, were excluded from all analyses. At 24 months, the sustained remission rate was nonsignificantly higher in group A (n=43) than group B (n=42; 64.4% versus 50.0%; hazard ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.29 to 1.11; P=0.09), and the progression-free survival rate was significantly higher (88.1% versus 68.4%; hazard ratio, 0.33; 95% confidence interval, 0.12 to 0.94; P=0.03). The relapse rate was significantly lower in group A than group B (0.41 versus 0.95 times/person-year; hazard ratio, 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.19 to 0.84; P=0.02). The rate and severity of adverse events were similar in both treatment groups. Conclusion The sustained remission rate was not significantly different between the two treatment groups, but the regimen with the higher 2-hour postdose cyclosporine level target improved

  15. Micropulse diode laser trabeculoplasty (MDLT): A phase II clinical study with 12 months follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Fea, Antonio Maria; Bosone, Alex; Rolle, Teresa; Brogliatti, Beatrice; Grignolo, Federico Maria

    2008-01-01

    peripheral anterior synechiae formed. Conclusions In this case series, MDLT was effective in reducing IOP in 75% of medically insufficiently controlled OAG eyes without significant complications. This justifies randomized clinical studies to compare MDLT with current IOP lowering strategies. PMID:19668712

  16. A randomized, phase II study of afatinib versus cetuximab in metastatic or recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck†

    PubMed Central

    Seiwert, T. Y.; Fayette, J.; Cupissol, D.; del Campo, J. M.; Clement, P. M.; Hitt, R.; Degardin, M.; Zhang, W.; Blackman, A.; Ehrnrooth, E.; Cohen, E. E. W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Afatinib is an oral, irreversible ErbB family blocker that has shown activity in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutated lung cancer. We hypothesized that the agent would have greater antitumor activity compared with cetuximab in recurrent or metastatic (R/M) head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients, whose disease has progressed after platinum-containing therapy. Patients and methods An open-label, randomized, phase II trial was conducted in 43 centers; 124 patients were randomized (1 : 1) to either afatinib (50 mg/day) or cetuximab (250 mg/m2/week) until disease progression or intolerable adverse events (AEs) (stage I), with optional crossover (stage II). The primary end point was tumor shrinkage before crossover assessed by investigator (IR) and independent central review (ICR). Results A total of 121 patients were treated (61 afatinib, 60 cetuximab) and 68 crossed over to stage II (32 and 36 respectively). In stage I, mean tumor shrinkage by IR/ICR was 10.4%/16.6% with afatinib and 5.4%/10.1% with cetuximab (P = 0.46/0.30). Objective response rate was 16.1%/8.1% with afatinib and 6.5%/9.7% with cetuximab (IR/ICR). Comparable disease control rates were observed with afatinib (50%) and cetuximab (56.5%) by IR; similar results were seen by ICR. Most common grade ≥3 drug-related AEs (DRAEs) were rash/acne (18% versus 8.3%), diarrhea (14.8% versus 0%), and stomatitis/mucositis (11.5% versus 0%) with afatinib and cetuximab, respectively. Patients with DRAEs leading to treatment discontinuation were 23% with afatinib and 5% with cetuximab. In stage II, disease control rate (IR/ICR) was 38.9%/33.3% with afatinib and 18.8%/18.8% with cetuximab. Conclusion Afatinib showed antitumor activity comparable to cetuximab in R/M HNSCC in this exploratory phase II trial, although more patients on afatinib discontinued treatment due to AEs. Sequential EGFR/ErbB treatment with afatinib and cetuximab provided sustained clinical benefit in patients

  17. Randomized Phase II Trial of Adjuvant WT-1 Analog Peptide Vaccine in Patients with Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma after Completion of Multimodality Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Analog Peptides Derived from WT1 Oncoprotein Induces T Cell Responses in Patients with Complete Remission from Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML), Blood 2010...10-1-0699 TITLE: Randomized Phase II Trial of Adjuvant WT-1 Analog Peptide Vaccine in Patients with Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma after...vaccine comprised of four WT1 heteroclitic peptides that are given together with Montanide and GM- CSF as immunologic adjuvants. This WT1 vaccine was

  18. Rationale and design of a Phase II clinical trial of aspirin and simvastatin for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension: ASA-STAT

    PubMed Central

    Kawut, Steven M.; Bagiella, Emilia; Shimbo, Daichi; Lederer, David J.; Al-Naamani, Nadine; Roberts, Kari E.; Barr, R. Graham; Post, Wendy; Horn, Evelyn; Tracy, Russell; Hassoun, Paul; Girgis, Reda

    2011-01-01

    Background Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease which causes exercise limitation, heart failure, and death. Aspirin and simvastatin are highly effective and safe therapies for other cardiovascular diseases characterized by platelet activation and endothelial dysfunction, but have not been formally studied in PAH. Methods ASA-STAT is a Phase II, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 2 × 2 factorial clinical trial of aspirin and simvastatin in patients with PAH. A total of 92 subjects were to be randomized to aspirin or aspirin placebo and simvastatin or simvastatin placebo. The primary outcome is the distance walked in six minutes at six months after randomization. Secondary measures include brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, circulating biomarkers of platelet and endothelial function, functional class, quality-of-life, and time to clinical end points. The incidence of adverse events will be compared between treatment groups. Screening and Enrollment We screened a total of 712 individuals with PAH. Sixty-five subjects were enrolled when the trial was terminated for futility in reaching the primary end point for simvastatin. Conclusions This study aims to determine whether aspirin or simvastatin have beneficial biologic or clinical effects in patients with PAH. The safety and side effects of these commonly prescribed cardiovascular drugs will also be assessed. PMID:21146637

  19. Bayesian hierarchical modeling of patient subpopulations: Efficient designs of Phase II oncology clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Scott M; Broglio, Kristine R; Groshen, Susan; Berry, Donald A

    2015-01-01

    Background In oncology, the treatment paradigm is shifting toward personalized medicine, where the goal is to match patients to the treatments most likely to deliver benefit. Treatment effects in various subpopulations may provide some information about treatment effects in other subpopulations. Purpose We compare different approaches to Phase II trial design where a new treatment is being investigated in several groups of patients. We compare considering each group in an independent trial to a single trial with hierarchical modeling of the patient groups. Methods We assume four patient groups with different background response rates and simulate operating characteristics of three trial designs, Simon’s Optimal Two-Stage design, a Bayesian adaptive design with frequent interim analyses, and a Bayesian adaptive design with frequent interim analyses and hierarchical modeling across patient groups. Results Simon’s designs are based on 10% Type I and Type II error rates. The independent Bayesian designs are tuned to have similar error rates, but may have a slightly smaller mean sample size due to more frequent interim analyses. Under the null, the mean sample size is 2–4 patients smaller. A hierarchical model across patient groups can provide additional power and a further reduction in mean sample size. Under the null, the addition of the hierarchical model decreases the mean sample size an additional 4–7 patients in each group. Under the alternative hypothesis, power is increased to at least 98% in all groups. Limitations Hierarchical borrowing can make finding a single group in which the treatment is promising, if there is only one, more difficult. In a scenario where the treatment is uninteresting in all but one group, power for that one group is reduced to 65%. When the drug appears promising in some groups and not in others, there is potential for borrowing to inflate the Type I error rate. Conclusions The Bayesian hierarchical design is more likely to

  20. Phase II clinical trial of peptide cocktail therapy for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer: VENUS-PC study.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Nobuaki; Hazama, Shoichi; Iguchi, Haruo; Uesugi, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Hirakawa, Kosei; Aruga, Atsushi; Hatori, Takashi; Ishizaki, Hidenobu; Umeda, Yuzo; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Ikemoto, Tetsuya; Shimada, Mitsuo; Yoshimatsu, Kazuhiko; Shimizu, Ryoichi; Hayashi, Hiroto; Sakata, Koichiro; Takenouchi, Hiroko; Matsui, Hiroto; Shindo, Yoshitaro; Iida, Michihisa; Koki, Yasunobu; Arima, Hideki; Furukawa, Hiroyuki; Ueno, Tomio; Yoshino, Shigefumi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Oka, Masaaki; Nagano, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    We previously conducted a phase I clinical trial combining the HLA-A*2402-restricted KIF20A-derived peptide vaccine with gemcitabine for advanced pancreatic cancer (PC) and confirmed its safety and immunogenicity in cancer patients. In this study, we conducted a multicenter, single-armed, phase II trial using two antiangiogenic cancer vaccines targeting VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 in addition to the KIF20A peptide. We attempted to evaluate the clinical benefit of the cancer vaccination in combination with gemcitabine. Chemotherapy naïve PC patients were enrolled to evaluate primarily the 1-year survival rate, and secondarily overall survival (OS), progression free survival (PFS), response rate (RR), disease control rate (DCR) and the peptide-specific immune responses. All enrolled patients received therapy without the HLA-A information, and the HLA genotypes were used for classification of the patients. Between June 2012 and May 2013, a total of 68 patients were enrolled. No severe systemic adverse effects of Grade 3 or higher related to these three peptides were observed. The 1-year survival rates between the HLA-A*2402-matched and -unmatched groups were not significantly different. In the HLA-A*2402 matched group, patients showing peptide-specific CTL induction for KIF20A or VEGFR1 showed a better prognosis compared to those without such induction (P = 0.023, P = 0.009, respectively). In the HLA-A*2402-matched group, the patients who showed a strong injection site reaction had a better survival rate (P = 0.017) compared to those with a weak or no injection site reaction. This phase II study demonstrated that this therapeutic peptide cocktail might be effective in patients who demonstrate peptide-specific immune reactions although predictive biomarkers are needed for patient selection in its further clinical application.

  1. Phase II cancer clinical trials with a one-sample log-rank test and its corrections based on the Edgeworth expansion.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoqun; Peng, Paul; Tu, Dongsheng

    2011-01-01

    The response rate has been frequently used as the primary endpoint of phase II cancer clinical trials. It may not be an appropriate endpoint when a new treatment is not expected to produce any tumour shrinkage. When a large database for a historical control is available, the direct comparison of survival curves between a new treatment and the historical control may be made in phase II cancer clinical trials. In this paper, a one-sample log-rank test is introduced for the design and analysis of phase II cancer clinical trials with time-to-event endpoints. Corrections to the one-sample log-rank test are also derived based on the Edgeworth expansion. Simulations showed that the original one-sample log-rank test may be preferred if strictly controlling for type I error is important or when the sample size of a phase II trial is as large as 50, and a corrected one-sample log-rank test is used if the sample size of a phase II trial is small. A data set from a clinical trial conducted by the NCIC Clinical Trials Group is used to illustrate the proposed procedures.

  2. Clinical Utility of Metrics Based on Tumor Measurements in Phase II Trials to Predict Overall Survival Outcomes in Phase III Trials by Using Resampling Methods

    PubMed Central

    An, Ming-Wen; Han, Yu; Meyers, Jeffrey P.; Bogaerts, Jan; Sargent, Daniel J.; Mandrekar, Sumithra J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Phase II clinical trials inform go/no-go decisions for proceeding to phase III trials, and appropriate end points in phase II trials are critical for facilitating this decision. Phase II solid tumor trials have traditionally used end points such as tumor response defined by Response Evaluation Criteria for Solid Tumors (RECIST). We previously reported that absolute and relative changes in tumor measurements demonstrated potential, but not convincing, improvement over RECIST to predict overall survival (OS). We have evaluated the metrics by using additional measures of clinical utility and data from phase III trials. Methods Resampling methods were used to assess the clinical utility of metrics to predict phase III outcomes from simulated phase II trials. In all, 2,000 phase II trials were simulated from four actual phase III trials (two positive for OS and two negative for OS). Cox models for three metrics landmarked at 12 weeks and adjusted for baseline tumor burden were fit for each phase II trial: absolute changes, relative changes, and RECIST. Clinical utility was assessed by positive predictive value and negative predictive value, that is, the probability of a positive or negative phase II trial predicting an effective or ineffective phase III conclusion, by prediction error, and by concordance index (c-index). Results Absolute and relative change metrics had higher positive predictive value and negative predictive value than RECIST in five of six treatment comparisons and lower prediction error curves in all six. However, differences were negligible. No statistically significant difference in c-index across metrics was found. Conclusion The absolute and relative change metrics are not meaningfully better than RECIST in predicting OS. PMID:26503199

  3. Phase II, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter Study to Investigate the Immunogenicity and Safety of a West Nile Virus Vaccine in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Biedenbender, Rex; Bevilacqua, Joan; Gregg, Anne M.; Watson, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Background. ChimeriVax-WN02 is a live, attenuated chimeric vaccine for protection against West Nile virus. This Phase II, randomized, double-blind, placebo–controlled, multicenter study assessed the immunogenicity, viremia, and safety of the ChimeriVax-WN02 vaccine. Methods. The 2-part study included adults in general good health. In part 1, subjects aged 18–40 years were randomized to 1 of 4 treatment groups: ChimeriVax–WN02 3.7- × -105 plaque-forming units (PFU), 3.7 × 104 PFU, 3.7 × 103 PFU, or placebo. In part 2, subjects aged 41–64 and ≥65 years were randomized to receive ChimeriVax-WN02 3.7 × 105 PFU or placebo. Results. In both part 1 and part 2, seroconversion was achieved at day 28 by >96% of subjects in active treatment groups. In part 1, neutralizing antibody titers at day 28 were higher and viremia levels lower with the highest dose, whereas the adverse event profile was similar between the dose groups. In part 2, antibody titers and viremia levels were higher in subjects aged ≥65 years, and more subjects in the 41–64 years cohort experienced adverse events. Conclusions. The ChimeriVax-WN02 vaccine was highly immunogenic in younger adults and the elderly, and it was well tolerated at all dose levels and in all age groups investigated. Clinical Trials.gov identifier: NCT00442169. PMID:21148499

  4. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II study to assess the efficacy and safety of mapatumumab with sorafenib in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ciuleanu, T; Bazin, I; Lungulescu, D; Miron, L; Bondarenko, I; Deptala, A; Rodriguez-Torres, M; Giantonio, B; Fox, N L; Wissel, P; Egger, J; Ding, M; Kalyani, R N; Humphreys, R; Gribbin, M; Sun, W

    2016-04-01

    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase II study evaluated the efficacy and safety of mapatumumab (a human agonistic monoclonal antibody against tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 1) in combination with sorafenib in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Patients with advanced HCC (stratified by Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status) were randomized 1:1 to receive sorafenib (400 mg, twice daily per 21-day cycle) and either placebo (placebo-sorafenib arm) or mapatumumab (30 mg/kg on day 1 per 21-day cycle; mapatumumab-sorafenib arm). The primary end point was time to (radiologic) progression (TTP), assessed by blinded independent central review. Key secondary end points included progression-free survival, overall survival, and objective response. In total, 101 patients were randomized (placebo-sorafenib arm: N = 51; mapatumumab-sorafenib arm: N = 50). There was no significant difference in median TTP between both arms [5.6 versus 4.1 months, respectively; adjusted hazard ratio (one-sided 90% confidence interval) 1.192 (0-1.737)]. No mapatumumab-related benefit was identified when TTP was evaluated in the stratified subgroups. The addition of mapatumumab to sorafenib did not demonstrate improvement in the secondary efficacy end points. The reported frequency of adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs was comparable in both treatment arms. The addition of mapatumumab to sorafenib did not improve TTP or other efficacy end points, nor did it substantially change the toxicity profile of sorafenib in patients with advanced HCC. Based on these results, further development of the combination of mapatumumab and sorafenib in HCC is not planned. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase II extended safety study of two Invisible Condom formulations in Cameroonian women.

    PubMed

    Mbopi-Keou, Francois-Xavier; Trottier, Sylvie; Omar, Rabeea F; Nkele, Ngoh N; Fokoua, Séraphin; Mbu, Enow R; Domingo, Marc-Christian; Giguère, Jean-Francois; Piret, Jocelyne; Mwatha, Anthony; Mâsse, Benoît; Bergeron, Michel G

    2010-01-01

    Invisible Condom gel formulations being developed as microbicides to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV are advancing through the phases of clinical trials. The objectives of this study were to evaluate, after 8 weeks of vaginal application, the extended safety and acceptability of two Invisible Condom vaginal gel formulations: (i) the polymer alone and (ii) the polymer containing sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) compared to placebo. This study is a randomized, doubled-blind, placebo-controlled Phase II extended safety study in healthy sexually active women from Yaoundé, Cameroon. Women were randomized into three gel arms: (i) placebo, (ii) polymer alone and (iii) polymer/SLS. Women applied gel intravaginally twice daily for 8 weeks. A total of 194 sexually active women applied placebo (n=41), polymer alone (n=76) and polymer/SLS (n=77). Invisible Condom gel formulations were well tolerated with no reported serious adverse events. The majority of reported adverse events were mild or moderate and mostly similar in all three arms, except for pelvic pain that was 10% higher in the polymer and polymer/SLS arms compared to placebo. Colposcopy showed neither genital ulceration nor mucosal lesions. Nugent score, H(2)O(2)-producing lactobacilli and vaginal pH were not affected by the study products. The gel formulations and applicator were generally acceptable and comfortable. This extended safety study showed that the Invisible Condom gel formulations and applicator were well tolerated and acceptable when applied intravaginally twice daily for 8 weeks. Thus, further phases of clinical development of Invisible Condom as a potential microbicide to prevent sexual transmission of HIV are warranted.

  6. Design of Phase II Non-inferiority Trials.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sin-Ho

    2017-09-01

    With the development of inexpensive treatment regimens and less invasive surgical procedures, we are confronted with non-inferiority study objectives. A non-inferiority phase III trial requires a roughly four times larger sample size than that of a similar standard superiority trial. Because of the large required sample size, we often face feasibility issues to open a non-inferiority trial. Furthermore, due to lack of phase II non-inferiority trial design methods, we do not have an opportunity to investigate the efficacy of the experimental therapy through a phase II trial. As a result, we often fail to open a non-inferiority phase III trial and a large number of non-inferiority clinical questions still remain unanswered. In this paper, we want to develop some designs for non-inferiority randomized phase II trials with feasible sample sizes. At first, we review a design method for non-inferiority phase III trials. Subsequently, we propose three different designs for non-inferiority phase II trials that can be used under different settings. Each method is demonstrated with examples. Each of the proposed design methods is shown to require a reasonable sample size for non-inferiority phase II trials. The three different non-inferiority phase II trial designs are used under different settings, but require similar sample sizes that are typical for phase II trials.

  7. Intense Androgen-Deprivation Therapy With Abiraterone Acetate Plus Leuprolide Acetate in Patients With Localized High-Risk Prostate Cancer: Results of a Randomized Phase II Neoadjuvant Study

    PubMed Central

    Taplin, Mary-Ellen; Montgomery, Bruce; Logothetis, Christopher J.; Bubley, Glenn J.; Richie, Jerome P.; Dalkin, Bruce L.; Sanda, Martin G.; Davis, John W.; Loda, Massimo; True, Lawrence D.; Troncoso, Patricia; Ye, Huihui; Lis, Rosina T.; Marck, Brett T.; Matsumoto, Alvin M.; Balk, Steven P.; Mostaghel, Elahe A.; Penning, Trevor M.; Nelson, Peter S.; Xie, Wanling; Jiang, Zhenyang; Haqq, Christopher M.; Tamae, Daniel; Tran, NamPhuong; Peng, Weimin; Kheoh, Thian; Molina, Arturo; Kantoff, Philip W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Cure rates for localized high-risk prostate cancers (PCa) and some intermediate-risk PCa are frequently suboptimal with local therapy. Outcomes are improved by concomitant androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) with radiation therapy, but not by concomitant ADT with surgery. Luteinizing hormone–releasing hormone agonist (LHRHa; leuprolide acetate) does not reduce serum androgens as effectively as abiraterone acetate (AA), a prodrug of abiraterone, a CYP17 inhibitor that lowers serum testosterone (< 1 ng/dL) and improves survival in metastatic PCa. The possibility that greater androgen suppression in patients with localized high-risk PCa will result in improved clinical outcomes makes paramount the reassessment of neoadjuvant ADT with more robust androgen suppression. Patients and Methods A neoadjuvant randomized phase II trial of LHRHa with AA was conducted in patients with localized high-risk PCa (N = 58). For the first 12 weeks, patients were randomly assigned to LHRHa versus LHRHa plus AA. After a research prostate biopsy, all patients received 12 additional weeks of LHRHa plus AA followed by prostatectomy. Results The levels of intraprostatic androgens from 12-week prostate biopsies, including the primary end point (dihydrotestosterone/testosterone), were significantly lower (dehydroepiandrosterone, Δ4-androstene-3,17-dione, dihydrotestosterone, all P < .001; testosterone, P < .05) with LHRHa plus AA compared with LHRHa alone. Prostatectomy pathologic staging demonstrated a low incidence of complete responses and minimal residual disease, with residual T3- or lymph node–positive disease in the majority. Conclusion LHRHa plus AA treatment suppresses tissue androgens more effectively than LHRHa alone. Intensive intratumoral androgen suppression with LHRHa plus AA before prostatectomy for localized high-risk PCa may reduce tumor burden. PMID:25311217

  8. Repurposing Itraconazole as a Treatment for Advanced Prostate Cancer: A Noncomparative Randomized Phase II Trial in Men With Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Elisabeth I.; Smith, David C.; Rathkopf, Dana; Blackford, Amanda L.; Danila, Daniel C.; King, Serina; Frost, Anja; Ajiboye, A. Seun; Zhao, Ming; Mendonca, Janet; Kachhap, Sushant K.; Rudek, Michelle A.; Carducci, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Background. The antifungal drug itraconazole inhibits angiogenesis and Hedgehog signaling and delays tumor growth in murine prostate cancer xenograft models. We conducted a noncomparative, randomized, phase II study evaluating the antitumor efficacy of two doses of oral itraconazole in men with metastatic prostate cancer. Patients and Methods. We randomly assigned 46 men with chemotherapy-naïve metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) to receive low-dose (200 mg/day) or high-dose (600 mg/day) itraconazole until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression-free survival (PPFS) rate at 24 weeks; a 45% success rate in either arm was prespecified as constituting clinical significance. Secondary endpoints included the progression-free survival (PFS) rate and PSA response rate (Prostate Cancer Working Group criteria). Exploratory outcomes included circulating tumor cell (CTC) enumeration, serum androgen measurements, as well as pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analyses. Results. The high-dose arm enrolled to completion (n = 29), but the low-dose arm closed early (n = 17) because of a prespecified futility rule. The PPFS rates at 24 weeks were 11.8% in the low-dose arm and 48.0% in the high-dose arm. The median PFS times were 11.9 weeks and 35.9 weeks, respectively. PSA response rates were 0% and 14.3%, respectively. In addition, itraconazole had favorable effects on CTC counts, and it suppressed Hedgehog signaling in skin biopsy samples. Itraconazole did not reduce serum testosterone or dehydroepiandrostenedione sulfate levels. Common toxicities included fatigue, nausea, anorexia, rash, and a syndrome of hypokalemia, hypertension, and edema. Conclusion. High-dose itraconazole (600 mg/day) has modest antitumor activity in men with metastatic CRPC that is not mediated by testosterone suppression. PMID:23340005

  9. Cancer immunotherapy: phase II clinical studies with TG4010 (MVA-MUC1-IL2).

    PubMed

    Acres, Bruce

    2007-09-01

    Vaccines are well known in the context of prevention of diseases caused by infectious agents. Current research is now aimed at using vaccines to manipulate the immune system to eliminate established diseases, including cancer. Several such immunotherapeutic vaccines are now in clinical trials and are beginning to show clinical benefit. TG4010 is one such vaccine. It incorporates the MUC1 antigen, which is overexpressed in the majority of cancers, into a non-propagative pox viral vector, MVA. A second gene, interleukin-2 is also incorporated into TG4010 as an immune stimulus. The vaccine has been tested in breast, kidney, prostate and lung cancers with encouraging results.

  10. Flexible bivariate phase II clinical trial design incorporating toxicity and response on different schedules.

    PubMed

    Ray, Herman E; Rai, Shesh N

    2013-02-10

    The single-arm, two-stage clinical trial is a popular design utilized to evaluate oncology treatments. The designs are typically augmented with an ad hoc toxicity monitoring rule that is imposed outside of the formal two-stage design. In this work, we present a flexible bivariate single-arm clinical trial design that incorporates both response and toxicity. The design is considered flexible because it can monitor toxicity on a different schedule from the response. An example is considered in which toxicity is measured at four equally spaced times, which correspond to the data monitoring committee's meeting schedule while evaluating the response only at the second and fourth toxicity evaluations. The effect of the correlation on the types I and II error rates is examined through simulation. The simulations also examine the power over the response rates when the toxicity rate is fixed in the alternative region and vice versa. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Phase-I and randomized phase-II trial of panobinostat in combination with ICE (ifosfamide, carboplatin, etoposide) in relapsed or refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bei; Younes, Anas; Westin, Jason R; Turturro, Francesco; Claret, Linda; Feng, Lei; Fowler, Nathan; Neelapu, Sattva; Romaguera, Jorge; Hagemeister, Fredrick B; Rodriguez, Maria Alma; Samaniego, Felipe; Fayad, Luis E; Copeland, Amanda R; Nastoupil, Loretta J; Nieto, Yago; Fanale, Michelle A; Oki, Yasuhiro

    2017-08-09

    This phase-I/phase-II study evaluated panobinostat in combination with ifosfamide, carboplatin, etoposide (P-ICE) in relapsed/refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma. During phase I, panobinostat was given daily on Monday/Wednesday/Friday starting one week prior to Cycle 1 (C1) of ICE and during two weeks of C1-2 of ICE (Schedule A). No DLT was observed at 30 mg. However, frequent (84%) grade-4 thrombocytopenia during second week prompted us to omit the second week of panobinostat 30 mg (Schedule B) for phase II, where this regimen was compared to ICE. In the randomized phase-II study, CR was seen in 9/11 (82%) and 8/12 (67%) for P-ICE and ICE, respectively (p = .64). Grade-4 neutropenia (55% vs. 8%) and thrombocytopenia (100% vs. 33%) were more common in P-ICE. In summary, combination therapy using panobinostat produced high CR rate at the cost of greater bone marrow toxicity. Investigation of panobinostat with less myelosuppressive agents is of interest.

  12. Investigational phosphodiesterase inhibitors in phase I and phase II clinical trials for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Prickaerts, Jos; Heckman, Pim R A; Blokland, Arjan

    2017-09-01

    Phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors improve signaling pathways in brain circuits by increasing intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and/or cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). In the last decade, the first clinical studies investigating selective PDE inhibitors in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been initiated, based on their positive effects on cognitive processes and neuroprotection in numerous animal studies. Areas covered: This article reviews the clinical studies investigating the pro-cognitive/neuroprotective effects of PDE inhibitors in patients with AD, as well as in age-associated memory impaired elderly and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), the prodromal stage of AD. PDE inhibitors will also be discussed with respect to adverse effects including safety and tolerability. Expert opinion: The limited available data of clinical studies with PDE inhibitors tested in different populations of AD patients do not allow the drawing of any concrete conclusion yet. Currently, studies with a PDE3 (cilostazol) or PDE9 inhibitor (BI 409,306) are still ongoing in patients with MCI or AD, respectively. Studies with PDE4 inhibitors (HT-0712, roflumilast and BPN14770) in healthy elderly and elderly with age-associated memory impairments indicate that the optimum dose and/or inhibiting the most relevant PDE isoform hold great promise when tested in the appropriate population of patients with MCI or AD eventually.

  13. Post-treatment resistance analysis of hepatitis C virus from phase II and III clinical trials of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir.

    PubMed

    Wyles, David; Dvory-Sobol, Hadas; Svarovskaia, Evguenia S; Doehle, Brian P; Martin, Ross; Afdhal, Nezam H; Kowdley, Kris V; Lawitz, Eric; Brainard, Diana M; Miller, Michael D; Mo, Hongmei; Gane, Edward J

    2017-04-01

    Ledipasvir/sofosbuvir combination treatment in phase III clinical trials resulted in sustained viral suppression in 94-99% of patients. This study characterized drug resistance in treatment failures, which may help to inform retreatment options. We performed NS5A and NS5B deep sequencing of hepatitis C virus (HCV) from patients infected with genotype (GT) 1 who participated in ledipasvir/sofosbuvir phase II and III clinical trials. Fifty-one of 2144 (2.4%) (42 GT1a and 9 GT1b) treated patients met the criteria for resistance analysis due to virologic failure following the end of treatment. The majority of patients with virologic failure (38 of 51; 74.5%) had detectable ledipasvir-specific resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) at the time of virologic failure (1% deep sequencing cut-off). The percent of patients with NS5A RASs at virologic failure were 37.5%, 66.7%, 94.7% and 100% in patients treated for 6, 8, 12 and 24weeks, respectively. The common substitutions detected at failure were Q30R/H, and/or Y93H/N in GT1a and Y93H in GT1b. At failure, 35.3% (18/51) of virologic failure patients' viruses had two or more NS5A RASs and the majority of patients harbored NS5A RASs conferring a 100-1000-fold (n=10) or >1000-fold (n=23) reduced susceptibility to ledipasvir. One patient in a phase II study with a known ledipasvir RAS at baseline (L31M) developed the S282T sofosbuvir (NS5B) RAS at failure. In GT1 HCV-infected patients treated with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir±ribavirin, virologic failure was rare. Ledipasvir resistance in NS5A was selected or enhanced in most patients with virologic failure, one of whom also developed resistance to sofosbuvir. Clinical studies have shown that combination treatment with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir efficiently cures most patients with genotype 1 hepatitis C infection. For the few patients failing treatment, we show that resistance to ledipasvir was observed in most patients, whereas resistance to sofosbuvir was less common. This has

  14. Drugs in Phase II clinical trials for the treatment of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Tolentino, Michael John; Dennrick, Abrahan; John, Elizabeth; Tolentino, Michael Steven

    2015-02-01

    The clinical development of anti-VEGF therapies for the treatment of exudative age-related macular degeneration (wet AMD) has revolutionized ophthalmology. Indeed, it has provided clinicians and patients with treatments that lessen visual loss from in a disease that once was uniformly blinding. Although blindness is yet to be eradicated from AMD, repeated intraocular anti-VEGF injections are required to preserve a patient's vision. Therefore, further advances in this field are necessary. This review provides an overview of the agents that are in mid-stage phase trials for both exudative (wet AMD) and nonexudative macular degeneration (dry AMD). For wet AMD, new agents intend to enhance efficacy, develop alternative delivery such as eye drops, investigate alternate targets and construct sustained release strategies. For advanced dry AMD, the goal is to develop a strategy to slow or stop progressive loss of retinal tissue seen in geographic atrophy, the hallmark of advanced dry AMD. It is important to develop better more sensitive biomarkers, validating different approvable clinical trial endpoints and stratifying patients on their genetic polymorphisms. These developments should help to progress the already rapidly developing field of macular degeneration therapy.

  15. The SafeBoosC phase II clinical trial: an analysis of the interventions related with the oximeter readings

    PubMed Central

    Riera, Joan; Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Bravo, María Carmen; Cabañas, Fernando; López-Ortego, Paloma; Sanchez, Laura; Ybarra, Marta; Dempsey, Eugene; Greisen, Gorm; Austin, Topun; Claris, Olivier; Fumagalli, Monica; Gluud, Christian; Lemmers, Petra; Pichler, Gerhard; Plomgaard, Anne Mette; van Bel, Frank; Wolf, Martin; Pellicer, Adelina

    2016-01-01

    Background The SafeBoosC phase II randomised clinical trial recently demonstrated the benefits of a combination of cerebral regional tissue oxygen saturation (rStO2) by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and a treatment guideline to reduce the oxygen imbalance in extremely preterm infants. Aims To analyse rStO2-alarm-related clinical decisions and their heterogeneity in the NIRS experimental group (NIRS monitoring visible) and their impact on rStO2 and SpO2. Methods Continuous data from NIRS devices and the alarms (area under the curve of the rStO2 out of range had accumulated 0.2%h during 10 min), clinical data at discrete time points and interventions prompted by the alarms were recorded. Results Sixty-seven infants had data that fulfilled the requirements for this analysis. 1107 alarm episodes were analysed. The alarm triggered a treatment guideline intervention in 25% of the cases; the type of intervention chosen varied among clinical sites. More than 55% of alarms were not followed by an intervention (‘No action’); additionally, in 5% of alarms the rStO2 value apparently was considered non-reliable and the sensor was repositioned. The percentage of unresolved alarms at 30 min after ‘No action’ almost doubled the treatment guideline intervention (p<0.001). Changes in peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), were observed only after treatment guideline interventions. Conclusions This study shows that 25% of rStO2 alarms were followed by a clinical intervention determined by the treatment guideline. However, the rStO2 and SpO2 returned to normal ranges after the intervention, supporting the notion that decisions taken by the clinicians were appropriate. Trial registration number ClinicalTrial.gov NCT01590316. PMID:26645538

  16. [Results of phase II clinical trial of vindesine in the treatment of malignant tumors].

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Zhang, H; Sun, Y

    1996-07-01

    A phase III clinical trial of vindesine-containing regimens organized by Chinese Medical Association was conducted from November 1993 to October 1994. In 799 evaluable cases, the overall response rate was 64.5% and the individual response rate was 74.1% for SCLC, 52.6% for NSCLC, 88.0% for malignant lymphomas, 62.6% for breast cancer, 57.5% for esophageal carcinoma, 59.0% for overian carcinoma and 94.0% for ALL. There were 1532 patients evaluable for toxicity. The dose-limiting toxicity was myelosuppression. Gastro-intestinal reactions, peripheral neuritis, alopecia and phlebtitis were also common. It is concluded that vindesine is similar to that reported as to response rate and toxicity.

  17. Bayesian decision sequential analysis with survival endpoint in phase II clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lili; Woodworth, George

    2009-04-30

    Chen and Chaloner (Statist. Med. 2006; 25:2956-2966. DOI: 10.1002/sim.2429) present a Bayesian stopping rule for a single-arm clinical trial with a binary endpoint. In some cases, earlier stopping may be possible by basing the stopping rule on the time to a binary event. We investigate the feasibility of computing exact, Bayesian, decision-theoretic time-to-event stopping rules for a single-arm group sequential non-inferiority trial relative to an objective performance criterion. For a conjugate prior distribution, exponential failure time distribution, and linear and threshold loss structures, we obtain the optimal Bayes stopping rule by backward induction. We compute frequentist operating characteristics of including Type I error, statistical power, and expected run length. We also briefly address design issues.

  18. Phase II Trial Evaluating the Clinical and Biologic Effects of Bevacizumab in Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Abby B.; Cohen, Emil I.; Ocean, Allyson; Lehrer, Deborah; Goldenberg, Alec; Knox, Jennifer J.; Chen, Helen; Clark-Garvey, Sean; Weinberg, Alan; Mandeli, John; Christos, Paul; Mazumdar, Madhu; Popa, Elizabeta; Brown, Robert S.; Rafii, Shahin; Schwartz, Jonathan D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine the clinical and biologic effects of bevacizumab, an anti–vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) monoclonal antibody, in unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Patients and Methods Adults with organ-confined HCC, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 to 2, and compensated liver disease were eligible. Patients received bevacizumab 5 mg/kg (n = 12) or 10 mg/kg (n = 34) every 2 weeks until disease progression or treatment-limiting toxicity. The primary objective was to determine whether bevacizumab improved the 6-month progression-free survival (PFS) rate from 40% to 60%. Secondary end points included determining the effects of bevacizumab on arterial enhancement and on plasma cytokine levels and the capacity of patients’ plasma to support angiogenesis via an in vitro assay. Results The study included 46 patients, of whom six had objective responses (13%; 95% CI, 3% to 23%), and 65% were progression free at 6 months. Median PFS time was 6.9 months (95% CI, 6.5 to 9.1 months); overall survival rate was 53% at 1 year, 28% at 2 years, and 23% at 3 years. Grade 3 to 4 adverse events included hypertension (15%) and thrombosis (6%, including 4% with arterial thrombosis). Grade 3 or higher hemorrhage occurred in 11% of patients, including one fatal variceal bleed. Bevacizumab was associated with significant reductions in tumor enhancement by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and reductions in circulating VEGF-A and stromal-derived factor-1 levels. Functional angiogenic activity was associated with VEGF-A levels in patient plasma. Conclusion We observed significant clinical and biologic activity for bevacizumab in nonmetastatic HCC and achieved the primary study end point. Serious bleeding complications occurred in 11% of patients. Further evaluation is warranted in carefully selected patients. PMID:18565886

  19. A randomized phase II and pharmacokinetic study of the antisense oligonucleotides ISIS 3521 and ISIS 5132 in patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Tolcher, Anthony W; Reyno, Leonard; Venner, Peter M; Ernst, Scott D; Moore, Malcolm; Geary, Richard S; Chi, Kim; Hall, Sean; Walsh, Wendy; Dorr, Andrew; Eisenhauer, Elizabeth

    2002-08-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha and Raf-1 are important elements of proliferative signal transduction pathways in both normal and malignant cells. Abrogation of either Raf-1 or PKC-alpha function can both inhibit cellular proliferation and induce apoptosis in several experimental cancer models including prostate cancer cell lines. ISIS 3521 and ISIS 5132 are antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotides that inhibit PKC-alpha and Raf-1 expression, respectively, and induce a broad spectrum of antiproliferative and antitumor effects in several human tumor cell lines. In Phase I evaluation both ISIS 3521 and ISIS 5132 could be safely administered on 21-day i.v. infusion schedules and demonstrated preliminary evidence of antitumor activity. On the basis of these findings, a randomized Phase II study of ISIS 3521 and ISIS 5132 was performed in two comparable cohorts of patients who had chemotherapy-naïve, hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). Patients with documented evidence of metastatic HRPC and a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value > or =20 ng/ml were randomized to receive treatment with either ISIS 3521 or ISIS 5132 as a continuous i.v. infusion for 21 days repeated every 4 weeks. Patients were stratified according to the presence or absence of bidimensionally measurable disease at the time of randomization. The principal endpoints included PSA response, objective response in patients with bidimensionally measurable disease, and treatment failure defined as new or worsening symptoms; a fall in performance status of 2 levels; new or objective progression of disease; or a rise in PSA for 12 weeks without symptom improvement. Plasma samples were collected to assess individual steady-state concentrations and to relate this pharmacokinetic parameter to observed toxicities and responses. Thirty-one patients were randomized in this study; 15 patients received 43 courses of ISIS 3521 and 16 patients received 48 courses of ISIS 5132. The most common toxicities observed

  20. Optimal adaptive two-stage designs for early phase II clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Shan, Guogen; Wilding, Gregory E; Hutson, Alan D; Gerstenberger, Shawn

    2016-04-15

    Simon's optimal two-stage design has been widely used in early phase clinical trials for Oncology and AIDS studies with binary endpoints. With this approach, the second-stage sample size is fixed when the trial passes the first stage with sufficient activity. Adaptive designs, such as those due to Banerjee and Tsiatis (2006) and Englert and Kieser (2013), are flexible in the sense that the second-stage sample size depends on the response from the first stage, and these designs are often seen to reduce the expected sample size under the null hypothesis as compared with Simon's approach. An unappealing trait of the existing designs is that they are not associated with a second-stage sample size, which is a non-increasing function of the first-stage response rate. In this paper, an efficient intelligent process, the branch-and-bound algorithm, is used in extensively searching for the optimal adaptive design with the smallest expected sample size under the null, while the type I and II error rates are maintained and the aforementioned monotonicity characteristic is respected. The proposed optimal design is observed to have smaller expected sample sizes compared to Simon's optimal design, and the maximum total sample size of the proposed adaptive design is very close to that from Simon's method. The proposed optimal adaptive two-stage design is recommended for use in practice to improve the flexibility and efficiency of early phase therapeutic development.

  1. A randomized multi-center phase II trial of the angiogenesis inhibitor Cilengitide (EMD 121974) and gemcitabine compared with gemcitabine alone in advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Friess, Helmut; Langrehr, Jan M; Oettle, Helmut; Raedle, Jochen; Niedergethmann, Marco; Dittrich, Christian; Hossfeld, Dieter K; Stöger, Herbert; Neyns, Bart; Herzog, Peter; Piedbois, Pascal; Dobrowolski, Frank; Scheithauer, Werner; Hawkins, Robert; Katz, Frieder; Balcke, Peter; Vermorken, Jan; van Belle, Simon; Davidson, Neville; Esteve, Albert Abad; Castellano, Daniel; Kleeff, Jörg; Tempia-Caliera, Adrien A; Kovar, Andreas; Nippgen, Johannes

    2006-01-01

    Background Anti-angiogenic treatment is believed to have at least cystostatic effects in highly vascularized tumours like pancreatic cancer. In this study, the treatment effects of the angiogenesis inhibitor Cilengitide and gemcitabine were compared with gemcitabine alone in patients with advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer. Methods A multi-national, open-label, controlled, randomized, parallel-group, phase II pilot study was conducted in 20 centers in 7 countries. Cilengitide was administered at 600 mg/m2 twice weekly for 4 weeks per cycle and gemcitabine at 1000 mg/m2 for 3 weeks followed by a week of rest per cycle. The planned treatment period was 6 four-week cycles. The primary endpoint of the study was overall survival and the secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), response rate, quality of life (QoL), effects on biological markers of disease (CA 19.9) and angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor), and safety. An ancillary study investigated the pharmacokinetics of both drugs in a subset of patients. Results Eighty-nine patients were randomized. The median overall survival was 6.7 months for Cilengitide and gemcitabine and 7.7 months for gemcitabine alone. The median PFS times were 3.6 months and 3.8 months, respectively. The overall response rates were 17% and 14%, and the tumor growth control rates were 54% and 56%, respectively. Changes in the levels of CA 19.9 went in line with the clinical course of the disease, but no apparent relationships were seen with the biological markers of angiogenesis. QoL and safety evaluations were comparable between treatment groups. Pharmacokinetic studies showed no influence of gemcitabine on the pharmacokinetic parameters of Cilengitide and vice versa. Conclusion There were no clinically important differences observed regarding efficacy, safety and QoL between the groups. The observations lay in the range of other clinical studies in this setting. The

  2. Gefitinib or Placebo in Combination with Tamoxifen in Patients with Hormone Receptor-Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer: a Randomized Phase II Study

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, C. Kent; Neven, Patrick; Dirix, Luc Y.; Mackey, John R.; Robert, Jean; Underhill, Craig; Schiff, Rachel; Gutierrez, Carolina; Migliaccio, Ilenia; Anagnostou, Valsamo K.; Rimm, David L.; Magill, Patrick; Sellers, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Increased growth factor signaling may contribute to tamoxifen resistance. This randomized Phase II trial assessed tamoxifen plus placebo or the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib in ER-positive metastatic breast cancer. Experimental Design Patients with newly metastatic disease or recurring after adjuvant tamoxifen (Stratum 1, St1), or recurred during/after adjuvant aromatase inhibitor (AI) or after failed first-line AI (Stratum 2, St2) were eligible. Primary variables were progression-free survival (PFS) (St1) and clinical benefit rate (CBR) (St2). A ≥ 5% improvement in response variables with gefitinib was considered to warrant further investigation. Outcome was correlated with biomarkers measured on the primary tumor. Results In St1 (n=206), the PFS hazard ratios (HR, gefitinib:placebo) were 0.84 (95% CI, 0.59 to 1.18; median PFS 10.9 v 8.8 months). In the St1 endocrine therapy naïve subset (n=158) the HR was 0.78 (95% CI, 0.52 to 1.15), and the prior endocrine-treated subgroup (n=48) 1.47 (95% CI, 0.63 to 3.45). In St1, CBRs were 50.5% with gefitinib and 45.5% with placebo. In St2 (n=84), CBRs were 29.2% with gefitinib and 31.4% with placebo. Biomarker analysis suggested that in St1 there was greater benefit with gefitinib in patients who were ER negative or had lower levels of ER protein. Conclusions In St1, the improved PFS with gefitinib plus tamoxifen met the protocol criteria sufficient to warrant further investigation of this strategy. In St2, there was a numerical disadvantage for gefitinib; additional investigation after AI therapy is not warranted. Studies of predictive biomarkers are needed to subset appropriate patients. PMID:21220480

  3. Phase II, multicenter, open-label, randomized study of YM155 plus docetaxel as first-line treatment in patients with HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Michael R; Gladkov, Oleg A; Gartner, Elaina; Vladimirov, Vladimir; Crown, John; Steinberg, Joyce; Jie, Fei; Keating, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of YM155, a survivin suppressor, in combination with docetaxel, compared with docetaxel alone in patients with HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer. This phase II, multicenter, open-label, 2-arm study randomized patients (≥18 years) with histologically or cytologically confirmed stage IV HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer and ≥1 measurable lesion, to receive docetaxel alone or docetaxel plus YM155. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints included objective response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS), duration of response (DOR), clinical benefit rate (CBR), time to response (TTR), biomarker assessment, and analysis of circulating tumor cells. Patients were women diagnosed with HER2-negative breast cancer; most had received prior drug therapies. The median PFS was 8.4 months with YM155 plus docetaxel (n = 50) and 10.5 months with docetaxel alone (n = 51; HR 1.53; 95 % CI 0.83, 2.83; P = 0.176). No statistically significant differences were observed for secondary endpoints, although slightly greater OS (630 vs 601 days; P = 0.768), CBR (84.3 vs 82.0 %; P = 0.855), DOR, and TTR were observed with docetaxel alone compared with YM155 plus docetaxel, whereas ORR was similar (25.5 vs 26.0). The most common TEAEs observed with YM155 plus docetaxel compared with docetaxel alone were neutropenia (83.3 vs 84.3 %), alopecia (62.5 vs 52.9 %), fatigue (50 vs 41.2 %), and nausea (37.5 vs 41.2 %). Although YM155 is a novel drug that suppresses survivin, YM155 plus docetaxel exhibited no statistically significant differences in endpoints compared with docetaxel alone. The combination regimen was well tolerated.

  4. Induction of a pathological complete response by four courses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for gastric cancer: early results of the randomized phase II COMPASS trial.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Takaki; Tanabe, Kazuaki; Nishikawa, Kazuhiro; Ito, Yuichi; Matsui, Takanori; Kimura, Yutaka; Hirabayashi, Naoki; Mikata, Shoki; Iwahashi, Makoto; Fukushima, Ryoji; Takiguchi, Nobuhiro; Miyashiro, Isao; Morita, Satoshi; Miyashita, Yumi; Tsuburaya, Aakira; Sakamoto, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    The prognosis for stage 3 gastric cancer is not satisfactory, even with S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy. A randomized phase II trial was conducted to compare two and four courses of neoadjuvant S-1/cisplatin (SC) and paclitaxel/cisplatin (PC) using a two-by-two factorial design for locally advanced gastric cancer. The primary endpoint was overall survival. We clarified the impact of these regimens on the secondary endpoints, including the clinical and pathological responses, chemotherapy-related toxicities, and surgical results. Patients received S-1 (80 mg/m(2) for 21 days with 1 week's rest)/cisplatin (60 mg/m(2) at day 8) or paclitaxel/cisplatin (80 and 25 mg/m(2), respectively, on days 1, 8, and 15 with 1 week's rest) as neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Eighty-three patients were assigned to arm A (two courses of SC, n = 21), arm B (four courses of SC, n = 20), arm C (two courses of PC, n = 21), and arm D (four courses of PC, n = 21). Pathological response rate was 43 % in arm A, 40 % in arm B, 29 % in arm C, and 38 % in arm D. Pathological complete response was only observed in arms B (10 %) and D (10 %). Most bone marrow toxicities, nausea, vomiting, alopecia, and fatigue were slightly higher but acceptable in arms B and D. Grade 3/4 surgical morbidities were not commonly observed in all four arms. Pathological complete response could be induced by four courses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy without a marked increase of toxicities, regardless of a SC or PC regimen.

  5. Neuroplastic Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Painful Symptoms Reduction in Chronic Hepatitis C: A Phase II Randomized, Double Blind, Sham Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Brietzke, Aline P.; Rozisky, Joanna R.; Dussan-Sarria, Jairo A.; Deitos, Alicia; Laste, Gabriela; Hoppe, Priscila F. T.; Muller, Suzana; Torres, Iraci L. S.; Alvares-da-Silva, Mário R.; de Amorim, Rivadavio F. B.; Fregni, Felipe; Caumo, Wolnei

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Pegylated Interferon Alpha (Peg-IFN) in combination with other drugs is the standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C infection (HCV) and is related to severe painful symptoms. The aim of this study was access the efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in controlling the painful symptoms related to Peg-IFN side effects. Materials and Methods: In this phase II double-blind trial, twenty eight (n = 28) HCV subjects were randomized to receive either 5 consecutive days of active tDCS (n = 14) or sham (n = 14) during 5 consecutive days with anodal stimulation over the primary motor cortex region using 2 mA for 20 min. The primary outcomes were visual analogue scale (VAS) pain and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) serum levels. Secondary outcomes were the pressure-pain threshold (PPT), the Brazilian Profile of Chronic Pain: Screen (B-PCP:S), and drug analgesics use. Results: tDCS reduced the VAS scores (P < 0.003), with a mean pain drop of 56% (p < 0.001). Furthermore, tDCS was able to enhance BDNF levels (p < 0.01). The mean increase was 37.48% in the active group. Finally, tDCS raised PPT (p < 0.001) and reduced the B-PCP:S scores and analgesic use (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Five sessions of tDCS were effective in reducing the painful symptoms in HCV patients undergoing Peg-IFN treatment. These findings support the efficacy of tDCS as a promising therapeutic tool to improve the tolerance of the side effects related to the use of Peg-IFN. Future larger studies (phase III and IV trials) are needed to confirm the clinical use of the therapeutic effects of tDCS in such condition. Trial registration: Brazilian Human Health Regulator for Research with the approval number CAAE 07802012.0.0000.5327. PMID:26793047

  6. Phase II, randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a polyclonal anti-Staphylococcus aureus capsular polysaccharide immune globulin in treatment of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Mark E; Holley, H Preston; Lutz, Jon; Dicpinigaitis, Peter V; Woods, Christopher W; Levine, Donald P; Veney, Naomi; Fowler, Vance G

    2007-12-01

    New treatment modalities are needed for the treatment of infections due to multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. S. aureus capsular polysaccharide immune globulin (Altastaph) is a polyclonal immune globulin preparation that is being developed as adjunctive therapy for persons with S. aureus infections complicated by bacteremia. In a phase II, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 40 subjects with documented S. aureus bacteremia received standard therapy plus either Altastaph at 200 mg/kg of body weight in each of two infusions 24 h apart or placebo. During the 42-day observation period, antibody pharmacokinetics and safety were the primary characteristics studied. Information regarding the resolution of bacteremia and fever was also analyzed. Anti-type-5 and anti-type-8 capsular antibody levels peaked after the second infusion at 550 mug/ml and 419 mug/ml, respectively, and remained above 100 mug/ml at day 28. A total of 316 adverse events were noted in 39 of 40 subjects. Infusion-related adverse events in Altastaph recipients were infrequent and similar to those among recipients of commercial intravenously administered immunoglobulin G products. Five of 21 (23%) subjects in the Altastaph group died, whereas 2 of 18 (11%) subjects in the placebo group died (P = 0.42). Compared to the control patients, the Altastaph recipients had a shorter median time to the resolution of fever (2 days and 7 days, respectively; P = 0.09) and a shorter length of hospital stay (9 days and 14 days, respectively; P = 0.03). However, these findings are exploratory, and there were few differences in the other variables measured. High levels of opsonizing antibodies were maintained for the initial 4 weeks. Although the study was not powered to show efficacy, these preliminary findings and safety profile suggest that Altastaph may be an effective adjunct to antibiotics and warrants further investigation (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00063089).

  7. Efficacy and Safety of AmBisome in Combination with Sodium Stibogluconate or Miltefosine and Miltefosine Monotherapy for African Visceral Leishmaniasis: Phase II Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wasunna, Monique; Njenga, Simon; Balasegaram, Manica; Alexander, Neal; Omollo, Raymond; Edwards, Tansy; Dorlo, Thomas P. C.; Musa, Brima; Ali, Mohammed Hassan Sharaf; Elamin, Mohammed Yasein; Kirigi, George; Kip, Anke E.; Schoone, Gerard J.; Hailu, Asrat; Olobo, Joseph; Ellis, Sally; Kimutai, Robert; Wells, Susan; Khalil, Eltahir Awad Gasim; Strub Wourgaft, Nathalie; Alves, Fabiana; Musa, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Background SSG&PM over 17 days is recommended as first line treatment for visceral leishmaniasis in eastern Africa, but is painful and requires hospitalization. Combination regimens including AmBisome and miltefosine are safe and effective in India, but there are no published data from trials of combination therapies including these drugs from Africa. Methods A phase II open-label, non-comparative randomized trial was conducted in Sudan and Kenya to evaluate the efficacy and safety of three treatment regimens: 10 mg/kg single dose AmBisome plus 10 days of SSG (20 mg/kg/day), 10 mg/kg single dose AmBisome plus 10 days of miltefosine (2.5mg/kg/day) and miltefosine alone (2.5 mg/kg/day for 28 days). The primary endpoint was initial parasitological cure at Day 28, and secondary endpoints included definitive cure at Day 210, and pharmacokinetic (miltefosine) and pharmacodynamic assessments. Results In sequential analyses with 49–51 patients per arm, initial cure was 85% (95% CI: 73–92) in all arms. At D210, definitive cure was 87% (95% CI: 77–97) for AmBisome + SSG, 77% (95% CI 64–90) for AmBisome + miltefosine and 72% (95% CI 60–85) for miltefosine alone, with lower efficacy in younger patients, who weigh less. Miltefosine pharmacokinetic data indicated under-exposure in children compared to adults. Conclusion No major safety concerns were identified, but point estimates of definitive cure were less than 90% for each regimen so none will be evaluated in Phase III trials in their current form. Allometric dosing of miltefosine in children needs to be evaluated. Trial Registration The study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01067443 PMID:27627654

  8. Significance of Circulating Tumor Cells in Metastatic Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Patients within a Randomized, Phase II Trial: TBCRC 019.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, Costanza; Li, Yufeng; Muñiz, Maria C; Kidwell, Kelley M; Aung, Kimberly; Thomas, Dafydd G; Brown, Martha E; Abramson, Vandana G; Irvin, William J; Lin, Nancy U; Liu, Minetta C; Nanda, Rita; Nangia, Julie R; Storniolo, Anna M; Traina, Tiffany A; Vaklavas, Christos; Van Poznak, Catherine H; Wolff, Antonio C; Forero-Torres, Andres; Hayes, Daniel F

    2015-06-15

    Circulating tumor cells (CTC) are prognostic in metastatic breast cancer (MBC). We tested whether EpCAM-based capture system (CellSearch) is effective in patients with triple-negative (TN) MBC, and whether CTC apoptosis and clustering enhances the prognostic role of CTC. CTC enumeration and apoptosis were determined using the CXC CellSearch kit at baseline and days 15 and 29 in blood drawn from TN MBC patients who participated in a prospective randomized phase II trial of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) with or without tigatuzumab. Association between levels of CTC and patient outcomes was assessed using logistic regression, Kaplan-Meier curves, and Cox proportional hazards modeling. Nineteen of 52 (36.5%), 14 of 52 (26.9%), and 13 of 49 (26.5%) patients who were evaluable had elevated CTC (≥5 CTC/7.5 mL whole blood) at baseline and at days 15 and 29, respectively. Patients with elevated versus not elevated CTC at each time point had worse progression-free survival (PFS; P = 0.005, 0.0003, 0.0002, respectively). The odds of clinical benefit response for those who had elevated versus low CTC at baseline and days 15 and 29 were 0.25 (95% CI: 0.08-0.84; P = 0.024), 0.19 (95% CI: 0.05-0.17; P = 0.014), and 0.06 (95% CI: 0.01-0.33; P = 0.001), respectively. There was no apparent prognostic effect comparing CTC apoptosis versus non-apoptosis. Presence of CTC cluster at day 15 and day 29 was associated with shorter PFS. CTC were detected using CellSearch assay in approximately one-third of TN MBC patients. Elevated CTC at baseline and days 15 and 29 were prognostic, and reductions in CTC levels reflected response. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Efficacy and Safety of AmBisome in Combination with Sodium Stibogluconate or Miltefosine and Miltefosine Monotherapy for African Visceral Leishmaniasis: Phase II Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Wasunna, Monique; Njenga, Simon; Balasegaram, Manica; Alexander, Neal; Omollo, Raymond; Edwards, Tansy; Dorlo, Thomas P C; Musa, Brima; Ali, Mohammed Hassan Sharaf; Elamin, Mohammed Yasein; Kirigi, George; Juma, Rashid; Kip, Anke E; Schoone, Gerard J; Hailu, Asrat; Olobo, Joseph; Ellis, Sally; Kimutai, Robert; Wells, Susan; Khalil, Eltahir Awad Gasim; Strub Wourgaft, Nathalie; Alves, Fabiana; Musa, Ahmed

    2016-09-01

    SSG&PM over 17 days is recommended as first line treatment for visceral leishmaniasis in eastern Africa, but is painful and requires hospitalization. Combination regimens including AmBisome and miltefosine are safe and effective in India, but there are no published data from trials of combination therapies including these drugs from Africa. A phase II open-label, non-comparative randomized trial was conducted in Sudan and Kenya to evaluate the efficacy and safety of three treatment regimens: 10 mg/kg single dose AmBisome plus 10 days of SSG (20 mg/kg/day), 10 mg/kg single dose AmBisome plus 10 days of miltefosine (2.5mg/kg/day) and miltefosine alone (2.5 mg/kg/day for 28 days). The primary endpoint was initial parasitological cure at Day 28, and secondary endpoints included definitive cure at Day 210, and pharmacokinetic (miltefosine) and pharmacodynamic assessments. In sequential analyses with 49-51 patients per arm, initial cure was 85% (95% CI: 73-92) in all arms. At D210, definitive cure was 87% (95% CI: 77-97) for AmBisome + SSG, 77% (95% CI 64-90) for AmBisome + miltefosine and 72% (95% CI 60-85) for miltefosine alone, with lower efficacy in younger patients, who weigh less. Miltefosine pharmacokinetic data indicated under-exposure in children compared to adults. No major safety concerns were identified, but point estimates of definitive cure were less than 90% for each regimen so none will be evaluated in Phase III trials in their current form. Allometric dosing of miltefosine in children needs to be evaluated. The study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01067443.

  10. Randomized phase II trial of cytosine arabinoside with and without the CHK1 inhibitor MK-8776 in relapsed and refractory acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Webster, Jonathan A; Tibes, Raoul; Morris, Larry; Blackford, Amanda L; Litzow, Mark; Patnaik, Mrinal; Rosner, Gary L; Gojo, Ivana; Kinders, Robert; Wang, Lihua; Doyle, L Austin; Huntoon, Catherine J; Karnitz, Larry M; Kaufmann, Scott H; Karp, Judith E; Smith, B Douglas

    2017-10-01

    Cytosine arabinoside (AraC) remains the backbone of most treatment regimens for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Incorporation of AraC into DNA activates checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1), leading to cell-cycle arrest and diminished AraC cytotoxicity, which can be reversed by the selective Chk1 inhibitor MK-8776. Building on a Phase I trial, we conducted a phase II trial comparing timed sequential AraC with or without MK-8776. Patients with relapsed or primary refractory AML were randomized 1:1 to receive either AraC with MK-8776 (Arm A); or AraC alone (Arm B). 32 patients were treated: 14 assigned to Arm A and 18 to Arm B. There were 5 (36%) complete responses (CR/CRi) and 1 (7%) partial response (PR) in Arm A, and 8 (44%) CR/CRis and 1 (6%) PR in Arm B. Median survival did not differ significantly between the two groups (5.9months in Arm A vs. 4.5 months in Arm B). MK-8776 led to a robust increase in DNA damage in circulating leukemic blasts as measured by increased γ-H2AX (16.9%±6.1% prior and 36.4%±6.8% at one hour after MK-8776 infusion, p=0.016). Response rates and survival were similar between the two groups in spite of evidence that MK-8776 augmented DNA damage in circulating leukemic blasts. Better than expected results in the control arm using timed sequential AraC and truncated patient enrollment may have limited the ability to detect clinical benefit from the combination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Carbon Ion Radiotherapy for Sacral Chordoma: Results of Phase I-II and Phase II Clinical Trials

    SciTech Connect

    Imai, Reiko; Kamada, Tadashi; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Sugawara, Shinji; Serizawa, Itsuko; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Tatezaki, Shin-ichiro

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: To summarize the results of treatment for sacral chordoma in Phase I-II and Phase II carbon ion radiotherapy trials for bone and soft-tissue sarcomas. Patients and Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 38 patients with medically unresectable sacral chordomas treated with the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba, Japan between 1996 and 2003. Of the 38 patients, 30 had not received previous treatment and 8 had locally recurrent tumor after previous resection. The applied carbon ion dose was 52.8-73.6 Gray equivalents (median, 70.4) in a total of 16 fixed fractions within 4 weeks. Results: The median patient age was 66 years. The cranial tumor extension was S2 or greater in 31 patients. The median clinical target volume was 523 cm{sup 3}. The median follow-up period was 80 months. The 5-year overall survival rate was 86%, and the 5-year local control rate was 89%. After treatment, 27 of 30 patients with primary tumor remained ambulatory with or without supportive devices. Two patients experienced severe skin or soft-tissue complications requiring skin grafts. Conclusion: Carbon ion radiotherapy appears effective and safe in the treatment of patients with sacral chordoma and offers a promising alternative to surgery.

  12. Flexible selection of a single treatment incorporating short-term endpoint information in a phase II/III clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Stallard, Nigel; Kunz, Cornelia Ursula; Todd, Susan; Parsons, Nicholas; Friede, Tim

    2015-10-15

    Seamless phase II/III clinical trials in which an experimental treatment is selected at an interim analysis have been the focus of much recent research interest. Many of the methods proposed are based on the group sequential approach. This paper considers designs of this type in which the treatment selection can be based on short-term endpoint information for more patients than have primary endpoint data available. We show that in such a case, the familywise type I error rate may be inflated if previously proposed group sequential methods are used and the treatment selection rule is not specified in advance. A method is proposed to avoid this inflation by considering the treatment selection that maximises the conditional error given the data available at the interim analysis. A simulation study is reported that illustrates the type I error rate inflation and compares the power of the new approach with two other methods: a combination testing approach and a group sequential method that does not use the short-term endpoint data, both of which also strongly control the type I error rate. The new method is also illustrated through application to a study in Alzheimer's disease. © 2015 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Treatment of Non-neovascular Idiopathic Macular Telangiectasia Type 2 with Intravitreal Ranibizumab: Results of a Phase II Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Toy, Brian C.; Koo, Euna; Cukras, Catherine; Meyerle, Catherine B.; Chew, Emily Y.; Wong, Wai T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the safety and preliminary efficacy of intravitreal ranibizumab for non-neovascular idiopathic macular telangiectasia, type 2 (IMT2). Methods Single-center, open-label phase II clinical trial enrolling 5 participants with bilateral non-neovascular IMT2. Intravitreal ranibizumab (0.5mg) was administered every 4 weeks in the study eye for 12 months with the contralateral eye observed. Outcome measures included changes in: best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), area of late-phase leakage on fluorescein angiography (FA), and retinal thickness on optical coherence tomography (OCT). Results The study treatment was well-tolerated and associated with few adverse events. Change in BCVA at 12 months was not significantly different between treated study eyes (0.0±7.5 letters) and control fellow eyes (+2.2±1.9 letters). However, decreases in the area of late-phase FA leakage (−33±20% for study eyes, +1±8% for fellow eyes) and in OCT central subfield retinal thickness (−11.7±7.0% for study eyes and −2.9±3.5% for fellow eyes) were greater in study eyes compared to fellow eyes. Conclusions Despite significant anatomical responses to treatment, functional improvement in visual acuity was not detected. Intravitreal ranibizumab administered monthly over a time course of 12 months is unlikely to provide a general and significant benefit to patients with non-neovascular IMT2. PMID:22266930

  14. Escalated radiation dose alone vs. concurrent chemoradiation for locally advanced and unresectable rectal cancers: results from phase II randomized study.

    PubMed

    Engineer, Reena; Mohandas, K M; Shukla, P J; Shrikhande, S V; Mahantshetty, U; Chopra, S; Goel, M; Mehta, S; Patil, P; Ramadwar, M; Deodhar, K; Arya, S; Shrivastava, Shyam Kishore

    2013-07-01

    This trial was undertaken to compare the rates of resectability between patients treated with neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiation vs. boosted radiotherapy alone. Patients with clinically unresectable rectal cancer were randomized to receive external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) to pelvis (45 Gy) with concurrent oral Capecitabine (CRT group; Arm 1) or EBRT to pelvis (45 Gy) alone followed by 20 Gy dose of localized radiotherapy boost to the primary tumor site (RT with boost group, Arm 2). All patients were assessed for resectability after 6 weeks by clinical examination and by CT scan and those deemed resectable underwent surgery. A total of 90 patients were randomized, 46 to Arm 1 and 44 to Arm 2. Eighty seven patients (44 in Arm 1 and 41 in Arm 2) completed the prescribed treatment protocol. Overall resectability rate was low in both the groups; R0 resection was achieved in 20 (43 %) patients in Arm 1 vs. 15 (34 %) in Arm 2. Adverse factors that significantly affected the resectability rate in both the groups were extension of tumor to pelvic bones and signet ring cell pathology. Complete pathological response was seen in 7 and 11 %, respectively. There was greater morbidity such as wound infection and delayed wound healing in Arm 2 (16 vs. 40 %; p = 0.03). Escalated radiation dose without chemotherapy does not achieve higher complete (R0) tumor resectability in locally advanced inoperable rectal cancers, compared to concurrent chemoradiation.

  15. A phase II randomized study evaluating the addition of iniparib to gemcitabine plus cisplatin as first-line therapy for metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Novello, S; Besse, B; Felip, E; Barlesi, F; Mazieres, J; Zalcman, G; von Pawel, J; Reck, M; Cappuzzo, F; Ferry, D; Carcereny, E; Santoro, A; Garcia-Ribas, I; Scagliotti, G; Soria, J-C

    2014-11-01

    Iniparib is a novel anticancer agent initially considered a poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, but subsequently shown to act via non-selective protein modification through cysteine adducts. This randomized phase II study investigated the addition of iniparib to gemcitabine-cisplatin in metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Patients with histologically confirmed stage IV NSCLC were randomized 2 : 1 to receive gemcitabine (1250 mg/m(2), days 1/8) and cisplatin (75 mg/m(2), day 1) with [gemcitabine/cisplatin/iniparib (GCI)] or without [gemcitabine/cisplatin (GC)] iniparib (5.6 mg/kg, days 1/4/8/11) every 3 weeks for six cycles. The primary end point was the overall response rate (ORR). Secondary objectives included progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and safety. The study was not designed for formal efficacy comparison, the control arm being to benchmark results against the literature. One hundred and nineteen patients were randomized (39 GC and 80 GCI). More GCI patients were male (80% GCI and 67% GC) and had PS 0 (61% GCI and 49% GC). The ORR was 25.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 13.0%-42.1%] with GC versus 20.0% (95% CI 11.9%-30.4%) with GCI, which did not allow rejection of the null hypothesis (ORR with GCI ≤20%; P = 0.545). Median PFS was 4.3 (95% CI 2.8-5.6) months with GC and 5.7 (95% CI 4.6-6.6) months with GCI (hazard ratio 0.89, 95% CI 0.56-1.40). Median OS was 8.5 (95% CI 5.5 to not reached) months with GC, and 12.0 (95% CI 8.9-17.1) months with GCI (hazard ratio 0.78, 95% CI 0.48-1.27). More GCI patients received second-line treatment (51% GC and 68% GCI). Toxicity was similar in the two arms. Grade 3-4 toxicities included asthenia (28% GC and 8% GCI), nausea (3% GC and 14% GCI), and decreased appetite (10% in each). Addition of iniparib to GC did not improve ORR over GC alone. The GCI safety profile was comparable to GC alone. Imbalances in PS and gender distribution may have impacted study results

  16. Randomized Phase II Trial of Seribantumab in Combination With Paclitaxel in Patients With Advanced Platinum-Resistant or -Refractory Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Joyce F; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Selle, Frederic; Poveda, Andrés M; Cibula, David; Hirte, Hal; Hilpert, Felix; Raspagliesi, Francesco; Gladieff, Laurence; Harter, Philipp; Siena, Salvatore; Del Campo, Josep Maria; Tabah-Fisch, Isabelle; Pearlberg, Joseph; Moyo, Victor; Riahi, Kaveh; Nering, Rachel; Kubasek, William; Adiwijaya, Bambang; Czibere, Akos; Naumann, R Wendel; Coleman, Robert L; Vergote, Ignace; MacBeath, Gavin; Pujade-Lauraine, Eric

    2016-12-20

    Purpose Seribantumab is a fully human immunoglobulin G2 monoclonal antibody that binds to human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) 3 (ErbB3), blocking heregulin (HRG) -mediated ErbB3 signaling and inducing ErbB3 receptor downregulation. This open-label randomized phase II study evaluated progression-free survival (PFS) with seribantumab in combination with once-per-week paclitaxel compared with paclitaxel alone in patients with platinum-resistant or -refractory ovarian cancer. A key secondary objective was to determine if any of five prespecified biomarkers predicted benefit from seribantumab. Patients and Methods Patients with platinum-resistant or -refractory epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer were randomly assigned at a ratio of two to one to receive seribantumab plus paclitaxel or paclitaxel alone. Patients underwent pretreatment core needle biopsy; archival tumor samples were also obtained to support biomarker analyses. Results A total of 223 patients were randomly assigned (seribantumab plus paclitaxel, n = 140; paclitaxel alone, n = 83). Median PFS in the unselected intent-to-treat population was 3.75 months with seribantumab plus paclitaxel compared with 3.68 months with paclitaxel alone (hazard ratio [HR], 1.027; 95% CI, 0.741 to 1.425; P = .864). Among patients whose tumors had detectable HRG mRNA and low HER2 (n = 57 [38%] of 151 with available biomarker data), increased treatment benefit was observed in those receiving seribantumab plus paclitaxel compared with paclitaxel alone (PFS HR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.18 to 0.76; P = .007). The HR in patients not meeting these criteria was 1.80 (95% CI, 1.08 to 2.98; P = .023). Conclusion The addition of seribantumab to paclitaxel did not result in improved PFS in unselected patients. Exploratory analyses suggest that detectable HRG and low HER2, biomarkers that link directly to the mechanism of action of seribantumab, identified patients who might benefit from this combination. Future

  17. Randomized phase II study of axitinib versus placebo plus best supportive care in second-line treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kang, Y-K; Yau, T; Park, J-W; Lim, H Y; Lee, T-Y; Obi, S; Chan, S L; Qin, Sk; Kim, R D; Casey, M; Chen, C; Bhattacharyya, H; Williams, J A; Valota, O; Chakrabarti, D; Kudo, M

    2015-12-01

    The efficacy and safety of axitinib, a potent and selective vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1-3 inhibitor, combined with best supportive care (BSC) was evaluated in a global, randomized, placebo-controlled phase II trial in patients with locally advanced or metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Patients with HCC and Child-Pugh Class A who progressed on or were intolerant to one prior antiangiogenic therapy were stratified by tumour invasion (presence/absence of extrahepatic spread and/or vascular invasion) and region (Asian/non-Asian) and randomized (2:1) to axitinib/BSC (starting dose 5 mg twice-daily) or placebo/BSC. The primary end point was overall survival (OS). The estimated hazard ratio for OS was 0.907 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.646-1.274; one-sided stratified P = 0.287] for axitinib/BSC (n = 134) versus placebo/BSC (n = 68), with the median (95% CI) of 12.7 (10.2-14.9) versus 9.7 (5.9-11.8) months, respectively. Results of prespecified subgroup analyses in Asian versus non-Asian patients or presence versus absence of tumour invasion were consistent with the overall population. Improvements favouring axitinib/BSC (P < 0.01) were observed in secondary efficacy end point analyses [progression-free survival (PFS), time to tumour progression (TTP), and clinical benefit rate (CBR)], and were retained among Asian patients in the prespecified subgroup analyses. Overall response rate did not differ significantly between treatments and patient-reported outcomes favoured placebo/BSC. Most common all-causality adverse events with axitinib/BSC were diarrhoea (54%), hypertension (54%), and decreased appetite (47%). Baseline serum analyses identified potential new prognostic (interleukin-6, E-selectin, interleukin-8, angiopoietin-2, migration inhibitory factor, and c-MET) or predictive (E-selectin and stromal-derived factor-1) factors for survival. Axitinib/BSC did not improve OS over placebo/BSC in the overall population or in stratification

  18. Local modulated electro-hyperthermia in combination with traditional Chinese medicine vs. intraperitoneal chemoinfusion for the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis with malignant ascites: A phase II randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Clifford L.K.; Zhang, Xinting; Wang, Zhen; Ou, Junwen; Lu, Yimin; Chen, Pengfei; Zhao, Changlin; Wang, Xiaopu; Zhang, Hongyu; Roussakow, Sergey V.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a safe and non-toxic alternative to the conventional conservative treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis with malignant ascites (PCMA) by investigating the efficacy and safety of local modulated electro-hyperthermia (mEHT) combined with the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) ‘Shi Pi’ herbal decoction, compared with standard intraperitoneal chemoinfusion (IPCI). A randomized, controlled, single-center, open-label clinical trial (phase II) with two parallel groups (allocation ratio, 1:1) was conducted to investigate the efficacy and safety of mEHT+TCM (study group, SG) vs. standard IPCI (control group, CG) in patients with PCMA by intention-to-treat analysis. A total of 260 patients with PCMA were randomly allocated into the two groups (130/130); mEHT was applied for 60 min per session every second day for 4 weeks, for a total of 14 sessions. The TCM decoction was administered orally, at 400 ml daily. In CG, occlusive IPCI with cisplatin (30–60 mg) and fluorouracil (500–600 mg/m2) was applied twice, biweekly. The objective response rate (ORR), quality of life (QoL) and adverse event rate (AER) in the two groups were evaluated 1 month after treatment, analyzed and compared. The present study is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02638051). No case was lost or excluded (0/260). The ORR in SG was 77.69% (101/130) vs. 63.85% (73/130) in CG (P<0.05). The QoL in SG was 49.23% vs. 32.3% in CG (P<0.05). The AER in SG was 2.3% (3/130) vs. 12.3% (16/130) in CG (P<0.05). All the adverse events were grade I. In conclusion, the combination of mEHT with TCM achieves better control of PCMA compared with standard IPCI, with less toxicity. Both components of the combination are non-toxic treatments easily tolerated by patients. Thus, this combined treatment may be preferred due to the better benefit-harm balance. PMID:28529748

  19. Primary analysis of a prospective, randomized, single-blinded phase II trial evaluating the HER2 peptide GP2 vaccine in breast cancer patients to prevent recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Ardavanis, Alexandros; Litton, Jennifer K.; Shumway, Nathan M.; Hale, Diane F.; Murray, James L.; Perez, Sonia A.; Ponniah, Sathibalan; Baxevanis, Constantin N.; Papamichail, Michael

    2016-01-01

    GP2 is a HER2-derived, HLA-A2+ restricted peptide. Phase I studies showed GP2 administered with GM-CSF to be safe and immunogenic. Here we report the primary analysis of a prospective, randomized, multicenter phase II adjuvant trial conducted to determine the vaccine's efficacy. The trial enrolled HLA-A2+, clinically disease-free, node-positive and high-risk node-negative breast cancer patients with tumors expressing HER2 (immunohistochemistry[IHC] 1+-3+). Patients were randomized to GP2+GM-CSF versus GM-CSF alone. Disease-free survival (DFS) was analyzed in intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-treatment cohorts; pre-specified subgroup analyses were performed for patients with IHC 3+ or FISH+ disease. The trial enrolled 180 patients; 89 received GP2+GM-CSF and 91 received GM-CSF alone. The groups were well-matched for clinicopathologic characteristics. Toxicities have been minimal. The Kaplan-Meier estimated 5-year DFS rate in the ITT analyses was 88% (95% CI:78-94%) in vaccinated vs. 81% (95% CI:69-89%) (P = 0.43) in control patients after a 34 month median follow-up. In the per-treatment analysis, the estimated 5-year DFS rates were 94% (95% CI:83-98%) and 85% (73-92%) (P = 0.17). In IHC 3+/FISH+ patients, the estimated 5-year DFS rate was 94% (82-98%) in vaccinated patients (n = 51) vs. 89% (71-96%) in control patients (n = 50), (P = 0.86) in the ITT analyses and 100% vs. 89% (71-96%) in vaccinated vs. control patients in the per-treatment analyses (P = 0.08). While the overall ITT analysis did not demonstrate benefit to vaccination, this trial confirmed that the GP2 vaccine is safe and suggests that vaccination may have clinical activity, particularly in patients with HER2 overexpression who received the full vaccine series (ie per-treatment group). PMID:27589688

  20. The Public Repository of Xenografts (ProXe) enables discovery and randomized phase II-like trials in mice

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Elizabeth C.; Murakami, Mark A.; Christodoulou, Alexandra; Christie, Amanda L.; Köster, Johannes; DeSouza, Tiffany A.; Morgan, Elizabeth A.; Kallgren, Scott P.; Liu, Huiyun; Wu, Shuo-Chieh; Plana, Olivia; Montero, Joan; Stevenson, Kristen E.; Rao, Prakash; Vadhi, Raga; Andreeff, Michael; Armand, Philippe; Ballen, Karen K.; Barzaghi-Rinaudo, Patrizia; Cahill, Sarah; Clark, Rachael A.; Cooke, Vesselina G.; Davids, Matthew S.; DeAngelo, Daniel J.; Dorfman, David M.; Eaton, Hilary; Ebert, Benjamin L.; Etchin, Julia; Firestone, Brant; Fisher, David C.; Freedman, Arnold S.; Galinsky, Ilene A.; Gao, Hui; Garcia, Jacqueline S.; Garnache-Ottou, Francine; Graubert, Timothy A.; Gutierrez, Alejandro; Halilovic, Ensar; Harris, Marian H.; Herbert, Zachary T.; Horwitz, Steven M.; Inghirami, Giorgio; Intlekoffer, Andrew M.; Ito, Moriko; Izraeli, Shai; Jacobsen, Eric D.; Jacobson, Caron A.; Jeay, Sébastien; Jeremias, Irmela; Kelliher, Michelle A.; Koch, Raphael; Konopleva, Marina; Kopp, Nadja; Kornblau, Steven M.; Kung, Andrew L.; Kupper, Thomas S.; LaBoeuf, Nicole; LaCasce, Ann S.; Lees, Emma; Li, Loretta S.; Look, A. Thomas; Murakami, Masato; Muschen, Markus; Neuberg, Donna; Ng, Samuel Y.; Odejide, Oreofe O.; Orkin, Stuart H.; Paquette, Rachel R.; Place, Andrew E.; Roderick, Justine E.; Ryan, Jeremy A.; Sallan, Stephen E.; Shoji, Brent; Silverman, Lewis B.; Soiffer, Robert J.; Steensma, David P.; Stegmaier, Kimberly; Stone, Richard M.; Tamburini, Jerome; Thorner, Aaron R.; van Hummelen, Paul; Wadleigh, Martha; Wiesmann, Marion; Weng, Andrew P.; Wuerthner, Jens U.; Williams, David A.; Wollison, Bruce M.; Lane, Andrew A.; Letai, Anthony; Bertagnolli, Monica M.; Ritz, Jerome; Brown, Myles; Long, Henry; Aster, Jon C.; Shipp, Margaret A.; Griffin, James D.; Weinstock, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Over 90% of drugs with preclinical activity fail in human trials, largely due to insufficient efficacy. We hypothesized that adequately powered trials of patient-derived xenografts (PDX) in mice could efficiently define therapeutic activity across heterogeneous tumors. To address this hypothesis, we established a large, publically available repository of well-characterized leukemia and lymphoma PDXs that undergo orthotopic engraftment called the Public Repository of Xenografts (PRoXe; www.proxe.org). PRoXe includes all de-identified information relevant to the primary specimens and the PDXs derived from them. Using this repository, we demonstrate that large studies of acute leukemia PDXs that mimic human randomized clinical trials can characterize drug efficacy and generate transcriptional, functional and proteomic biomarkers in both treatment-naïve and relapsed/refractory disease. PMID:27070704

  1. Phase II clinical trials with time-to-event endpoints: optimal two-stage designs with one-sample log-rank test.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Minjung; Jung, Sin-Ho

    2014-05-30

    Phase II clinical trials are often conducted to determine whether a new treatment is sufficiently promising to warrant a major controlled clinical evaluation against a standard therapy. We consider single-arm phase II clinical trials with right censored survival time responses where the ordinary one-sample logrank test is commonly used for testing the treatment efficacy. For planning such clinical trials, this paper presents two-stage designs that are optimal in the sense that the expected sample size is minimized if the new regimen has low efficacy subject to constraints of the type I and type II errors. Two-stage designs, which minimize the maximal sample size, are also determined. Optimal and minimax designs for a range of design parameters are tabulated along with examples.

  2. A randomized phase II study of the telomerase inhibitor imetelstat as maintenance therapy for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Chiappori, A A; Kolevska, T; Spigel, D R; Hager, S; Rarick, M; Gadgeel, S; Blais, N; Von Pawel, J; Hart, L; Reck, M; Bassett, E; Burington, B; Schiller, J H

    2015-02-01

    Continuation or 'switch' maintenance therapy is commonly used in patients with advancd non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, we evaluated the efficacy of the telomerase inhibitor, imetelstat, as switch maintenance therapy in patients with advanced NSCLC. The primary end point of this open-label, randomized phase II study was progression-free survival (PFS). Patients with non-progressive, advanced NSCLC after platinum-based doublet (first-line) chemotherapy (with or without bevacizumab), any histology, with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-1 were eligible. Randomization was 2 : 1 in favor of imetelstat, administered at 9.4 mg/kg on days 1 and 8 of a 21-day cycle, or observation. Telomere length (TL) biomarker exploratory analysis was carried out in tumor tissue by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and telomerase fluorescence in situ hybridization. Of 116 patients enrolled, 114 were evaluable. Grade 3/4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia were more frequent with imetelstat. Median PFS was 2.8 and 2.6 months for imetelstat-treated versus control [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.844; 95% CI 0.54-1.31; P = 0.446]. Median survival time favored imetelstat (14.3 versus 11.5 months), although not significantly (HR = 0.68; 95% CI 0.41-1.12; P = 0.129). Exploratory analysis demonstrated a trend toward longer median PFS (HR = 0.43; 95% CI 0.14-1.3; P = 0.124) and overall survival (OS; HR = 0.41; 95% CI 0.11-1.46; P = 0.155) in imetelstat-treated patients with short TL, but no improvement in median PFS and OS in patients with long TL (HR = 0.86; 95% CI 0.39-1.88; and HR = 0.51; 95% CI 0.2-1.28; P = 0.145). Maintenance imetelstat failed to improve PFS in advanced NSCLC patients responding to first-line therapy. There was a trend toward a improvement in median PFS and OS in patients with short TL. Short TL as a predictive biomarker will require further investigation for the clinical development of imetelstat. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf

  3. Randomized phase II study of 5-fluorouracil hepatic arterial infusion with or without antineoplastons as an adjuvant therapy after hepatectomy for liver metastases from colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Yutaka; Matono, Keiko; Tsuda, Hideaki; Ushijima, Masataka; Uchida, Shinji; Akagi, Yoshito; Shirouzu, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Antineoplastons are naturally occurring peptides and amino acid derivatives found in human blood and urine. Antineoplaston A10 and AS2-1 reportedly control neoplastic growth and do not significantly inhibit normal cell growth. Antineoplastons contain 3-phenylacetylamino-2, 6-piperidinedione (A10), phenylacetylglutamine plus phenylacetylisoglutamine (A10-I), and phenylacetylglutamine plus phenylacetate (AS2-1). This open label, non- blinded randomized phase II study compared the efficacy of hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) with 5-fluorouracil,with or without antineoplastons as a postoperative therapy for colorectal metastasis to the liver. Sixty-five patients with histologically confirmed metastatic colon adenocarcinoma in liver, who had undergone hepatectomy, and/or thermal ablation for liver metastases were enrolled between 1998- 2004 in Kurume University Hospital. Patients were randomly assigned to receive systemic antineoplastons (A10-I infusion followed by per-oral AS2-1) plus HAI (AN arm) or HAI alone (control arm) based on the number of metastases and presence/ absence of extra-hepatic metastasis at the time of surgery. Primary endpoint was cancer-specific survival (CSS); secondary endpoints were relapse-free survival (RFS), status and extent of recurrence, salvage surgery (rate) and toxicity. Overall survival was not statistically improved (p=0.105) in the AN arm (n=32). RFS was not significant (p=0.343). Nevertheless, the CSS rate was significantly higher in the AN arm versus the control arm (n=33) with a median survival time 67 months (95%CI 43-not calculated) versus 39 months (95%CI 28-47) (p=0.037) and 5 year CSS rate 60% versus 32% respectively. Cancer recurred more often in a single organ than in multiple organs in the AN arm versus the control arm. The limited extent of recurrent tumours in the AN arm meant more patients remained eligible for salvage surgery. Major adverse effects of antineoplastons were fullness of the stomach and phlebitis. No

  4. A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter phase II trial of Allisartan Isoproxil in essential hypertensive population at low-medium risk.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Li, Xiao-hui; Huang, Zhi-jun; Yang, Guo-ping; Zhang, Guo-gang; Zhao, Shui-ping; Guo, Ying; Lu, Shi-juan; Ma, Jian-lin; Meng, Fan-bo; Chen, Ping; Yuan, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) is a well-tolerated class of antihypertensive agents, exhibiting effective antihypertensive and cardiovascular protective function. The objective of the study was to examine the efficacy and safety of Allisartan Isoproxil, a newly developed, selective, nonpeptide blocker of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R), in essential hypertensive patients at low-medium risk. A Phase II prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial comparing Allisartan Isoproxil 240mg versus placebo was conducted in essential hypertensive patients at low-medium risk at 8 sites in China. After a 2-week placebo baseline period, 275 patients received once-daily treatment with Allisartan Isoproxil 240mg or placebo randomly for 8 weeks. Systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) was measured at week 2, 4 and 8. By the end of treatment, mean reductions from baseline of SBP and DBP in Allisartan Isoproxil and placebo groups were 14.5/10.4 and 8.3/7.7 mmHg, respectively (P<0.01). The rate of effective blood pressure control in Allisartan Isoproxil group was significantly higher than in placebo group at week 4 (61.3% vs 50.0%, P<0.05) and week 8 (67.2% vs 48.6%, P<0.01). In terms of safety and tolerability, there were no report of death and serious adverse event (SAE) in all subjects. There was no difference of frequency between two groups in adverse event (AE) and adverse drug reaction (ADR) (P>0.05). No one withdraw because of an ADR in two groups. 124 patients received additional 56 weeks treatment with Allisartan Isoproxil and 84 of them completed the study. The rate of effective BP control kept up to 80% since week 24. No significant clinical change was observed and ADRs were generally mild or moderate during the long-term study. Allisartan Isoproxil 240mg was effective and safe for essential hypertension patients at low-medium risk. http://www.chictr.org/cn/ ChiCTR-TRC-10000886.

  5. Randomized phase II study of nab-paclitaxel as first-line chemotherapy in patients with HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Kenji; Inoue, Kenichi; Masuda, Norikazu; Takao, Shintaro; Kashiwaba, Masahiro; Tokuda, Yutaka; Iwata, Hiroji; Yamamoto, Naohito; Aogi, Kenjiro; Saeki, Toshiaki; Nakayama, Takahiro; Sato, Nobuaki; Toyama, Tatsuya; Ishida, Takanori; Arioka, Hitoshi; Saito, Mitsue; Ohno, Shinji; Yamauchi, Hideko; Yamada, Kimito; Watanabe, Junichiro; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro

    2017-05-01

    Weekly administration of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) has been shown to be a safe and effective treatment for metastatic breast cancer (MBC) in clinical studies. We conducted a multicenter, randomized, open-label phase II study to compare the efficacy and safety of weekly nab-paclitaxel and docetaxel in Japanese patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative MBC. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Patients were randomized to receive nab-paclitaxel (150 mg/m(2) nab-paclitaxel once per week for 3 of 4 weeks; n = 100) or docetaxel (75 mg/m(2) docetaxel every 3 weeks; n = 100). The median PFS by independent radiologist assessment was 9.8 months (90% confidence interval [CI]: 8.5-11.2) for nab-paclitaxel and 11.2 months (90% CI: 8.4-13.8) for docetaxel (hazard ratio: 1.25, P = 0.363), and the median overall survival was 42.4 months and 34.0 months, respectively. The overall response rate was 56.1% for nab-paclitaxel and 52.5% for docetaxel. Adverse events in both treatment arms were similar to previous reports. Neutropenia was the most common adverse event in both arms, with 35.0% of patients in the nab-paclitaxel arm and 89.0% in the docetaxel arm experiencing grade 4 neutropenia. Grade 3 peripheral sensory neuropathy occurred in 22.0% of patients in the nab-paclitaxel and 5.0% in the docetaxel arm. In this study, although weekly nab-paclitaxel 150 mg/m(2) did not show superiority in PFS compared with docetaxel, efficacy outcomes were similar in patients treated with weekly nab-paclitaxel and docetaxel. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  6. Randomized Phase II Study of 5-Fluorouracil Hepatic Arterial Infusion with or without Antineoplastons as an Adjuvant Therapy after Hepatectomy for Liver Metastases from Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ogata, Yutaka; Matono, Keiko; Tsuda, Hideaki; Ushijima, Masataka; Uchida, Shinji; Akagi, Yoshito; Shirouzu, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Background Antineoplastons are naturally occurring peptides and amino acid derivatives found in human blood and urine. Antineoplaston A10 and AS2-1 reportedly control neoplastic growth and do not significantly inhibit normal cell growth. Antineoplastons contain 3-phenylacetylamino-2, 6-piperidinedione (A10), phenylacetylglutamine plus phenylacetylisoglutamine (A10-I), and phenylacetylglutamine plus phenylacetate (AS2-1). This open label, non- blinded randomized phase II study compared the efficacy of hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) with 5-fluorouracil,with or without antineoplastons as a postoperative therapy for colorectal metastasis to the liver. Methods Sixty-five patients with histologically confirmed metastatic colon adenocarcinoma in liver, who had undergone hepatectomy, and/or thermal ablation for liver metastases were enrolled between 1998- 2004 in Kurume University Hospital. Patients were randomly assigned to receive systemic antineoplastons (A10-I infusion followed by per-oral AS2-1) plus HAI (AN arm) or HAI alone (control arm) based on the number of metastases and presence/ absence of extra-hepatic metastasis at the time of surgery. Primary endpoint was cancer-specific survival (CSS); secondary endpoints were relapse-free survival (RFS), status and extent of recurrence, salvage surgery (rate) and toxicity. Findings Overall survival was not statistically improved (p=0.105) in the AN arm (n=32). RFS was not significant (p=0.343). Nevertheless, the CSS rate was significantly higher in the AN arm versus the control arm (n=33) with a median survival time 67 months (95%CI 43-not calculated) versus 39 months (95%CI 28-47) (p=0.037) and 5 year CSS rate 60% versus 32% respectively. Cancer recurred more often in a single organ than in multiple organs in the AN arm versus the control arm. The limited extent of recurrent tumours in the AN arm meant more patients remained eligible for salvage surgery. Major adverse effects of antineoplastons were fullness of the

  7. Sequencing of Sipuleucel-T and Androgen Deprivation Therapy in Men with Hormone-Sensitive Biochemically Recurrent Prostate Cancer: A Phase II Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Antonarakis, Emmanuel S; Kibel, Adam S; Yu, Evan Y; Karsh, Lawrence I; Elfiky, Aymen; Shore, Neal D; Vogelzang, Nicholas J; Corman, John M; Millard, Frederick E; Maher, Johnathan C; Chang, Nancy N; DeVries, Todd; Sheikh, Nadeem A; Drake, Charles G

    2016-11-10

    Purpose: STAND, a randomized, phase II, open-label trial (NCT01431391), assessed sequencing of sipuleucel-T (an autologous cellular immunotherapy) with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in biochemically recurrent prostate cancer (BRPC) patients at high risk for metastasis.Experimental Design: Men with BRPC following prostatectomy and/or radiotherapy, a PSA doubling time ≤12 months, and no metastasis were enrolled. Patients were randomized (34/arm) to sipuleucel-T followed by ADT (started 2 weeks after sipuleucel-T completion), or ADT followed by sipuleucel-T (started 12 weeks after ADT initiation); ADT continued for 12 months in both arms. The primary endpoint was PA2024-specific T-cell response [enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT)] over time.Results: PA2024-specific ELISPOT responses over time were similar between groups, except at week 6, where responses were higher with sipuleucel-T→ADT versus ADT→sipuleucel-T (P = 0.013). PA2024-specific T-cell proliferation responses, averaged across time points, were approximately 2-fold higher with sipuleucel-T→ADT versus ADT→sipuleucel-T (P = 0.001). PA2024-specific cellular and humoral responses and prostatic acid phosphatase-specific humoral responses increased significantly versus baseline (P < 0.001) and were maintained for 24 months (both arms). Median time-to-PSA recurrence was similar between arms (21.8 vs. 22.6 months, P = 0.357). Development of a PA2024-specific humoral response correlated with prolonged time-to-PSA progression (HR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.08-0.67; P = 0.007). Sipuleucel-T with ADT was generally well tolerated.Conclusions: Sipuleucel-T→ADT appears to induce greater antitumor immune responses than the reverse sequence. These results warrant further investigation to determine whether this sequence leads to improved clinical outcomes, as well as the independent contribution of ADT alone in terms of immune activation. Clin Cancer Res; 1-9. ©2016 AACR.

  8. Minimizing the Maximum Expected Sample Size in Two-Stage Phase II Clinical Trials with Continuous Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Wason, James M. S.; Mander, Adrian P.

    2012-01-01

    Two-stage designs are commonly used for Phase II trials. Optimal two-stage designs have the lowest expected sample size for a specific treatment effect, for example, the null value, but can perform poorly if the true treatment effect differs. Here we introduce a design for continuous treatment responses that minimizes the maximum expected sample size across all possible treatment effects. The proposed design performs well for a wider range of treatment effects and so is useful for Phase II trials. We compare the design to a previously used optimal design and show it has superior expected sample size properties. PMID:22651118

  9. Phase I/randomized phase II study of afatinib, an irreversible ErbB family blocker, with or without protracted temozolomide in adults with recurrent glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Reardon, David A; Nabors, Louis B; Mason, Warren P; Perry, James R; Shapiro, William; Kavan, Petr; Mathieu, David; Phuphanich, Surasak; Cseh, Agnieszka; Fu, Yali; Cong, Julie; Wind, Sven; Eisenstat, David D

    2015-03-01

    This phase I/II trial evaluated the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and pharmacokinetics of afatinib plus temozolomide as well as the efficacy and safety of afatinib as monotherapy (A) or with temozolomide (AT) vs temozolomide monotherapy (T) in patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GBM). Phase I followed a traditional 3 + 3 dose-escalation design to determine MTD. Treatment cohorts were: afatinib 20, 40, and 50 mg/day (plus temozolomide 75 mg/m(2)/day for 21 days per 28-day cycle). In phase II, participants were randomized (stratified by age and KPS) to receive A, T or AT; A was dosed at 40 mg/day and T at 75 mg/m(2) for 21 of 28 days. Primary endpoint was progression-free survival rate at 6 months (PFS-6). Participants were treated until intolerable adverse events (AEs) or disease progression. Recommended phase II dose was 40 mg/day (A) + T based on safety data from phase I (n = 32). Most frequent AEs in phase II (n = 119) were diarrhea (71% [A], 82% [AT]) and rash (71% [A] and 69% [AT]). Afatinib and temozolomide pharmacokinetics were unaffected by coadministration. Independently assessed PFS-6 rate was 3% (A), 10% (AT), and 23% (T). Median PFS was longer in afatinib-treated participants with epidermal growth factor receptor (EFGR) vIII-positive tumors versus EGFRvIII-negative tumors. Best overall response included partial response in 1 (A), 2 (AT), and 4 (T) participants and stable disease in 14 (A), 14 (AT), and 21 (T) participants. Afatinib has a manageable safety profile but limited single-agent activity in unselected recurrent GBM patients. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Phase II multicenter clinical trial of pulmonary metastasectomy and isolated lung perfusion with melphalan in patients with resectable lung metastases.

    PubMed

    den Hengst, Willem A; Hendriks, Jeroen M H; Balduyck, Bram; Rodrigus, Inez; Vermorken, Jan B; Lardon, Filip; Versteegh, Michel I M; Braun, Jerry; Gelderblom, Hans; Schramel, Franz M N H; Van Boven, Wim-Jan; Van Putte, Bart P; Birim, Özcan; Maat, Alexander P W M; Van Schil, Paul E Y

    2014-10-01

    The 5-year overall survival rate of patients undergoing complete surgical resection of pulmonary metastases (PM) from colorectal cancer (CRC) and sarcoma remains low (20-50%). Local recurrence rate is high (48-66%). Isolated lung perfusion (ILuP) allows the delivery of high-dose locoregional chemotherapy with minimal systemic leakage to improve local control. From 2006 to 2011, 50 patients, 28 male, median age 57 years (15-76), with PM from CRC (n = 30) or sarcoma (n = 20) were included in a phase II clinical trial conducted in four cardiothoracic surgical centers. In total, 62 ILuP procedures were performed, 12 bilaterally, with 45 mg of melphalan at 37°C, followed by resection of all palpable PM. Survival was calculated according to the Kaplan-Meier method. Operative mortality was 0%, and 90-day morbidity was mainly respiratory (grade 3: 42%, grade 4: 2%). After a median follow-up of 24 months (3-63 mo), 18 patients died, two without recurrence. Thirty patients had recurrent disease. Median time to local pulmonary progression was not reached. The 3-year overall survival and disease-free survival were 57% ± 9% and 36% ± 8%, respectively. Lung function data showed a decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 second and diffusing capacity of the alveolocapillary membrane of 21.6% and 25.8% after 1 month, and 10.4% and 11.3% after 12 months, compared with preoperative values. Compared with historical series of PM resection without ILuP, favorable results are obtained in terms of local control without long-term adverse effects. These data support the further investigation of ILuP as additional treatment in patients with resectable PM from CRC or sarcoma.

  11. Readability and Content Assessment of Informed Consent Forms for Phase II-IV Clinical Trials in China.

    PubMed

    Wen, Gaiyan; Liu, Xinchun; Huang, Lihua; Shu, Jingxian; Xu, Nana; Chen, Ruifang; Huang, Zhijun; Yang, Guoping; Wang, Xiaomin; Xiang, Yuxia; Lu, Yao; Yuan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    To explore the readability and content integrity of informed consent forms (ICFs) used in China and to compare the quality of Chinese local ICFs with that of international ICFs. The length, readability and content of 155 consent documents from phase II-IV drug clinical trials from the Third Xiangya Hospital Ethics Committee from November 2009 to January 2015 were evaluated. Reading difficulty was tested using a readability formula adapted for the Chinese language. An ICF checklist containing 27 required elements was successfully constructed to evaluate content integrity. The description of alternatives to participation was assessed. The quality of ICFs from different sponsorships were also compared. Among the 155 evaluable trials, the ICFs had a median length of 5286 words, corresponding to 7 pages. The median readability score was 4.31 (4.02-4.41), with 63.9% at the 2nd level and 36.1% at the 3rd level. Five of the 27 elements were frequently neglected. The average score for the description of alternatives to participation was 1.06, and 27.7% of the ICFs did not mention any alternatives. Compared with Chinese local ICFs, international ICFs were longer, more readable and contained more of the required elements (P < 0.05). The ICFs used in China were difficult to read for most participants. These forms had poor description of alternatives to participation, and failed to provide a high degree of information disclosure, including an explanation of informed consent, follow-up processing of the data/sample, inclusion/exclusion criteria, double blinding, and unpredictable risks. International ICFs had better readability and content integrity than Chinese local ICFs. More efforts should thus be made to improve the quality of consent documents in China.

  12. Readability and Content Assessment of Informed Consent Forms for Phase II-IV Clinical Trials in China

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Gaiyan; Liu, Xinchun; Huang, Lihua; Shu, Jingxian; Xu, Nana; Chen, Ruifang; Huang, Zhijun; Yang, Guoping; Wang, Xiaomin; Xiang, Yuxia; Lu, Yao; Yuan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To explore the readability and content integrity of informed consent forms (ICFs) used in China and to compare the quality of Chinese local ICFs with that of international ICFs. Methods The length, readability and content of 155 consent documents from phase II-IV drug clinical trials from the Third Xiangya Hospital Ethics Committee from November 2009 to January 2015 were evaluated. Reading difficulty was tested using a readability formula adapted for the Chinese language. An ICF checklist containing 27 required elements was successfully constructed to evaluate content integrity. The description of alternatives to participation was assessed. The quality of ICFs from different sponsorships were also compared. Results Among the 155 evaluable trials, the ICFs had a median length of 5286 words, corresponding to 7 pages. The median readability score was 4.31 (4.02–4.41), with 63.9% at the 2nd level and 36.1% at the 3rd level. Five of the 27 elements were frequently neglected. The average score for the description of alternatives to participation was 1.06, and 27.7% of the ICFs did not mention any alternatives. Compared with Chinese local ICFs, international ICFs were longer, more readable and contained more of the required elements (P < 0.05). Conclusion The ICFs used in China were difficult to read for most participants. These forms had poor description of alternatives to participation, and failed to provide a high degree of information disclosure, including an explanation of informed consent, follow-up processing of the data/sample, inclusion/exclusion criteria, double blinding, and unpredictable risks. International ICFs had better readability and content integrity than Chinese local ICFs. More efforts should thus be made to improve the quality of consent documents in China. PMID:27701471

  13. Treatment of transsphincteric fistula-in-ano with growth factors from autologous platelets: results of a phase II clinical trial.

    PubMed

    de la Portilla, F; Segura-Sampedro, J J; Reyes-Díaz, M L; Maestre, M V; Cabrera, A M; Jimenez-Rodríguez, R M; Vázquez-Monchul, J M; Diaz-Pavón, J M; Padillo-Ruiz, F J

    2017-07-29

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate to the safety, feasibility and efficacy of a novel treatment for transsphincteric cryptoglandular fistula: injection of autologous plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) into the fistula tract accompanied by sealing using a fibrin plug created from the activated platelet-poor fraction of the same plasma. This article is a prospective, phase II clinical trial. The procedure was externally audited. Thirty-six patients diagnosed with transsphincteric fistula-in-ano were included. All patients underwent follow-up examinations at 1 week and again at 3, 6 and 12 months after discharge. Main outcome measures safety (number of adverse events), feasibility and effectiveness of the treatment. A total of 36 patients received the study treatment, with the procedure found to be feasible in all patients. A total of seven adverse events (AE) related to the injected product or surgical procedure were identified in 4 of 36 patients. At the end of the follow-up period (12 months), 33.3% of patients (12/36) had achieved complete fistula healing and 11.1% of patients (4/36) had achieved partial healing. In total, this amounted to 44.4% of patients (16/36) being asymptomatic at final follow-up. In successfully healed patients, a gradual reduction in pain was observed, as measured using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) (p = 0.0278). Compared to baseline, a significant improvement in Wexner score was seen in patients achieving total or partial healing of the fistula (p = 0.0195). The study treatment was safe and feasible, with apparently modest efficacy rates. Continence and pain improvement following treatment may be considered predictive factors for healing.

  14. Multi-Institutional Phase II Clinical Study of Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer in East and Southeast Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Shingo; Ohno, Tatsuya; Thephamongkhol, Kullathorn; Chansilpa, Yaowalak

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of concurrent chemoradiotherapy using weekly cisplatin for patients with locally advanced cervical cancer in East and Southeast Asia, a multi-institutional Phase II clinical study was conducted among eight Asian countries. Methods and Materials: Between April 2003 and March 2006, 120 patients (60 with bulky Stage IIB and 60 with Stage IIIB) with previously untreated squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix were enrolled in the present study. Radiotherapy consisted of pelvic external beam radiotherapy (total dose, 50 Gy) and either high-dose-rate or low-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy according to institutional practice. The planned Point A dose was 24-28 Gy in four fractions for high-dose-rate-intracavitary brachytherapy and 40-45 Gy in one to two fractions for low-dose-rate-intracavitary brachytherapy. Five cycles of weekly cisplatin (40 mg/m{sup 2}) were administered during the radiotherapy course. Results: All patients were eligible for the study. The median follow-up was 27.3 months. Of the 120 patients, 100 (83%) received four or five cycles of chemotherapy. Acute Grade 3 leukopenia was observed in 21% of the patients, and Grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity was observed in 6%. No patient failed to complete the radiotherapy course because of toxicity. The 2-year local control and overall survival rate for all patients was 87.1% and 79.6%, respectively. The 2-year major late rectal and bladder complication rate was 2.5% and 0%, respectively. Conclusion: The results have suggested that concurrent chemoradiotherapy using weekly cisplatin is feasible and effective for patients with locally advanced cervical cancer in East and Southeast Asia.

  15. Paclitaxel injection concentrate for nanodispersion versus nab-paclitaxel in women with metastatic breast cancer: a multicenter, randomized, comparative phase II/III study.

    PubMed

    Jain, Minish M; Gupte, Smita U; Patil, Shekhar G; Pathak, Anand B; Deshmukh, Chetan D; Bhatt, Niraj; Haritha, Chiramana; Govind Babu, K; Bondarde, Shailesh A; Digumarti, Raghunadharao; Bajpai, Jyoti; Kumar, Ravi; Bakshi, Ashish V; Bhattacharya, Gouri Sankar; Patil, Poonam; Subramanian, Sundaram; Vaid, Ashok K; Desai, Chirag J; Khopade, Ajay; Chimote, Geetanjali; Bapsy, Poonamalle P; Bhowmik, Shravanti

    2016-02-01

    Paclitaxel is widely used in the treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Formulations of paclitaxel contain surfactants and solvents or albumin derived from human blood. The use of co-solvents such as polyoxyethylated castor oil is thought to contribute to toxicity profile and hypersensitivity reactions as well as leaching of plasticizers from polyvinyl chloride bags and infusion sets. Currently, nab-paclitaxel, an albumin-bound paclitaxel in nanometer range continues to be the preferred taxane formulation used in clinic. This study (CTRI/2010/091/001116) investigated the efficacy and tolerability of a polyoxyethylated castor oil- and albumin-free formulation of paclitaxel [paclitaxel injection concentrate for nanodispersion (PICN)] compared with nab-paclitaxel in women with refractory MBC. The current study was a multicenter, open-label, parallel-group, randomized, comparative phase II/III trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of PICN (260 mg/m(2) [n = 64] and 295 mg/m(2) [n = 58] every 3 weeks) compared with nab-paclitaxel (260 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks [n = 58]) in women 18 and 70 years old with confirmed MBC. Overall response rate (ORR) was assessed with imaging every 2 cycles. An independent analysis of radiologic data was performed for evaluable patients. Progression-free survival (PFS) was a secondary efficacy measure. Independent radiologist-assessed ORRs in the evaluable population of women aged ≥70 years were 35, 49, and 43 % in the PICN 260 mg/m(2), PICN 295 mg/m(2), and nab-paclitaxel 260 mg/m(2) arms, respectively. Median PFS in the evaluable population was 23, 35, and 34 weeks in the PICN 260 mg/m(2), PICN 295 mg/m(2), and nab-paclitaxel 260 mg/m(2) arms, respectively. Adverse events occurred in similar proportions of patients across treatment arms. Hypersensitivity reactions were not frequently observed with the clinical use of PICN across the treatment cohorts. In women with metastatic breast cancer, PICN at 260 and 295 mg/m(2

  16. Spliceosomal peptide P140 for immunotherapy of systemic lupus erythematosus: results of an early phase II clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Muller, Sylviane; Monneaux, Fanny; Schall, Nicolas; Rashkov, Rasho K; Oparanov, Boycho A; Wiesel, Philippe; Geiger, Jean-Marie; Zimmer, Robert

    2008-12-01

    To assess the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of spliceosomal peptide P140 (IPP-201101; sequence 131-151 of the U1-70K protein phosphorylated at Ser140), which is recognized by lupus CD4+ T cells, in the treatment of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). An open-label, dose-escalation phase II study was conducted in two centers in Bulgaria. Twenty patients (2 male and 18 female) with moderately active SLE received 3 subcutaneous (SC) administrations of a clinical batch of P140 peptide at 2-week intervals. Clinical evaluation was performed using approved scales. A panel of autoantibodies, including antinuclear antibodies, antibodies to extractable nuclear antigens (U1 RNP, SmD1, Ro/SSA, La/SSB), and antibodies to double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA), chromatin, cardiolipin, and peptides of the U1-70K protein, was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The plasma levels of C-reactive protein, total Ig, IgG, IgG subclasses, IgM, IgA, and IgE, and of the cytokines interleukin-2 and tumor necrosis factor alpha were measured by ELISA and nephelometry. IgG anti-dsDNA antibody levels decreased by at least 20% in 7 of 10 patients who received 3 x 200 microg IPP-201101 (group 1), but only in 1 patient in the group receiving 3 x 1,000 microg IPP-201101 (group 2). Physician's global assessment of disease activity scores and scores on the SLE Disease Activity Index were significantly decreased in group 1. The changes occurred progressively in the population of responders, increased in magnitude during the treatment period, and were sustained. No clinical or biologic adverse effects were observed in the individuals, except for some local irritation at the highest concentration. IPP-201101 was found to be safe and well tolerated by subjects. Three SC doses of IPP-201101 at 200 microg significantly improved the clinical and biologic status of lupus patients.

  17. Phase II trial of hypofractionated VMAT-based treatment for early stage breast cancer: 2-year toxicity and clinical results.

    PubMed

    De Rose, Fiorenza; Fogliata, Antonella; Franceschini, Davide; Navarria, Piera; Villa, Elisa; Iftode, Cristina; D'Agostino, Giuseppe; Cozzi, Luca; Lobefalo, Francesca; Mancosu, Pietro; Tomatis, Stefano; Scorsetti, Marta

    2016-09-17

    To report toxicity and early clinical outcomes of hypofractionated simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) approach with Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) as adjuvant treatment after breast-conserving surgery. Patients presenting early-stage breast cancer were enrolled in a phase II trial. age > 18 years old, invasive cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), Stage I-II (T < 3 cm and N ≤ 3), breast-conserving surgery without oncoplastic reconstruction. Any systemic therapy was allowed in neoadjuvant or adjuvant setting. All patients underwent VMAT-SIB technique to irradiate the whole breast and the tumor bed. Doses to whole breast and surgical bed were 40.5 Gy and 48 Gy, respectively, delivered in 15 fractions over 3 weeks. Acute and late skin toxicities were recorded. Cosmetic outcome was assessed as excellent/good or fair/poor. The present study focused on results of a cohort of 144 patients with a minimum follow-up of 24 months (median 37, range 24-55 months). Median age was 62 years old (range 30-88). All patients had an invasive carcinoma (no patients with DCIS were present in this subset). At one year, the highest reported skin toxicity was G1, in 14 % of the patients; this data dropped to 4 % at the last follow-up, after more than 2 years. Breast pain was recorded in 21.6 % of the patients 6 months after treatment, while it was present in 3.5 % of the patients at the last follow-up, showing a significant improvement with time. Correlation between liponecrosis and boost target volume was found not significant. Breast pain was correlated with breast volume. No pulmonary or cardiological toxicities were recorded. After an early evaluation of clinical outcomes, only one case presented disease relapse, as liver metastases. The 3-week VMAT-SIB course as adjuvant treatment after breast-conserving surgery showed to be well tolerated and was associated with optimal local control. Long-term follow-up data are needed to assess late toxicity

  18. Improved Estrogen Receptor Assessment by PET Using the Novel Radiotracer 4FMFES in ER+ Breast Cancer Patients: an Ongoing Phase II Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Michel; Lavallée, Éric; Phoenix, Serge; Ouellet, René; Senta, Helena; van Lier, Johan E; Guérin, Brigitte; Lecomte, Roger; Turcotte, Éric E

    2017-08-10

    Following encouraging preclinical and human dosimetry results for the novel estrogen receptor (ER) positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer 4-fluoro-11β-methoxy-16α-[(18)F]fluoroestradiol (4FMFES), a phase II clinical trial was initiated to compare the PET imaging diagnostic potential of 4FMFES to 16α-[(18)F]fluoroestradiol (FES) in ER positive (ER+) breast cancer patients. Methods: Patients diagnosed with ER+ breast cancer (n = 31) were recruited for this study, including six patients that undertook mastectomy and/or axillary node dissection. For each patient, FES- and 4FMFES-PET/CT scans were done sequentially (within a week) and in random order. One hour following injection of either radiotracer, a head-to-thigh static scan with 2 minutes acquisition per bed position was obtained. Blood samples were taken at different times following injection to assess each tracer metabolism by reverse-phase thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The mean standardized uptake values (SUVMean) of non-specific tissues and the maximum SUV (SUVMax) of the tumor were evaluated for each detected lesion, and tumor-to-non-specific organs ratios were calculated. Results: Blood metabolite analysis 60 minutes after injection of the tracer showed a 2.5-fold increase in metabolic stability of 4FMFES over FES. While for most foci 4FMFES-PET scored similar SUVMax values as compared to FES-PET, tumor contrast improved substantially in all cases. Lower uptake was consistently observed in non-specific tissues for 4FMFES, notably a 4-fold decrease in blood pool activity as compared to FES. Consequently, image quality was considerably improved using 4FMFES, with lower overall background. As a result, 4FMFES successfully identified 9 more lesions than FES. Conclusion: This phase II study with ER+ breast cancer patients shows that 4FMFES-PET achieves lower non-specific signal and better tumor contrast than FES-PET resulting in improved diagnostic confidence and lower false negative diagnoses

  19. Phase II randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of whole-brain irradiation with concomitant chloroquine for brain metastases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose Chloroquine (CLQ), an antimalarial drug, has a lysosomotropic effect associated with increased radiationsensibility, which is mediated by the leakage of hydrolytic enzymes, increased apoptosis, autophagy and increased oxidative stress in vitro. In this phase II study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of radiosensibilization using CLQ concomitant with 30 Gray (Gy) of whole-brain irradiation (WBI) to treat patients with brain metastases (BM) from solid tumors. Methods Seventy-three eligible patients were randomized. Thirty-nine patients received WBI (30 Gy in 10 fractions over 2 weeks) concomitant with 150 mg of CLQ for 4 weeks (the CLQ arm). Thirty-four patients received the same schedule of WBI concomitant with a placebo for 4 weeks (the control arm). All the patients were evaluated for quality of life (QoL) using the EORTC Quality of Life (QoL) Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) (Mexican version) before beginning radiotherapy and one month later. Results The overall response rate (ORR) was 54% for the CLQ arm and 55% for the control arm (p=0.92). The progression-free survival of brain metastases (BMPFS) rates at one year were 83.9% (95% CI 69.4-98.4) for the CLQ arm and 55.1% (95% CI 33.6-77.6) for the control arm. Treatment with CLQ was independently associated with increased BMPFS (RR 0.31,95% CI [0.1-0.9], p=0.046).The only factor that was independently associated with increased overall survival (OS) was the presence of< 4 brain metastases (RR 1.9, 95% CI [1.12-3.3], p=0.017). WBI was associated with improvements in cognitive and emotional function but also with worsened nausea in both patients groups. No differences in QoL or toxicity were found between the study arms. Conclusion Treatment with CLQ plus WBI improved the control of BM (compared with the control arm) with no increase in toxicity; however, CLQ did not improve the RR or OS. A phase III clinical trial is warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:24010771

  20. Immunogenicity and safety of Fluzone(®) intradermal and high-dose influenza vaccines in older adults ≥65 years of age: a randomized, controlled, phase II trial.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Peter; Gorse, Geoffrey J; Strout, Cynthia B; Sperling, Malcolm; Greenberg, David P; Ozol-Godfrey, Ayca; DiazGranados, Carlos; Landolfi, Victoria

    2014-05-01

    We conducted a randomized, controlled, multicenter, phase II study to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of an investigational intradermal (ID) trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) and a high-dose (HD) intramuscular (IM) TIV in older adults (≥65 years of age). Older adult subjects were immunized with ID vaccine containing either 15μg hemagglutinin (HA)/strain (n=636) or 21μg HA/strain (n=634), with HD IM vaccine containing 60μg HA/strain (n=320), or with standard-dose (SD) IM vaccine (Fluzone(®); 15μg HA/strain; n=319). For comparison, younger adults (18-49 years of age) were immunized with SD IM vaccine. In older adults, post-vaccination geometric mean titers induced by the ID vaccines were superior to those induced by the SD IM vaccine for the A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 strains and non-inferior for the B strain. Seroconversion rates induced by the ID vaccines were superior to those induced by the SD IM vaccine in older adults for the A/H1N1 and B strains and non-inferior for the A/H3N2 strain. Results did not differ significantly for the two ID vaccine dosages. Post-vaccination geometric mean titers, seroconversion rates, and most seroprotection rates were significantly higher in HD vaccine recipients than in older adult recipients of the SD IM or ID vaccines and, for most measures, were comparable to those of younger adult SD IM vaccine recipients. Injection-site reactions, but not systemic reactions or unsolicited adverse events, were more common with the ID vaccines than with the IM vaccines. No treatment-related serious adverse events were reported. This study demonstrated that: (1) the ID and HD vaccines were well-tolerated and more immunogenic than the SD IM vaccine in older adults; (2) the HD vaccine was more immunogenic than the ID vaccines in older adults; and (3) the HD vaccine in older adults and the SD IM vaccine in younger adults elicited comparable antibody responses (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier no.: NCT00551031).

  1. RECAST (Remote Ischemic Conditioning After Stroke Trial): A Pilot Randomized Placebo Controlled Phase II Trial in Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    England, Timothy J; Hedstrom, Amanda; O'Sullivan, Saoirse; Donnelly, Richard; Barrett, David A; Sarmad, Sarir; Sprigg, Nikola; Bath, Philip M

    2017-05-01

    Repeated episodes of limb ischemia and reperfusion (remote ischemic conditioning [RIC]) may improve outcome after acute stroke. We performed a pilot blinded placebo-controlled trial in patients with acute ischemic stroke, randomized 1:1 to receive 4 cycles of RIC within 24 hours of ictus. The primary outcome was tolerability and feasibility. Secondary outcomes included safety, clinical efficacy (day 90), putative biomarkers (pre- and post-intervention, day 4), and exploratory hemodynamic measures. Twenty-six patients (13 RIC and 13 sham) were recruited 15.8 hours (SD 6.2) post-onset, age 76.2 years (SD 10.5), blood pressure 159/83 mm Hg (SD 25/11), and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score 5 (interquartile range, 3.75-9.25). RIC was well tolerated with 49 out of 52 cycles completed in full. Three patients experienced vascular events in the sham group: 2 ischemic strokes and 2 myocardial infarcts versus none in the RIC group (P=0.076, log-rank test). Compared with sham, there was a significant decrease in day 90 NIHSS score in the RIC group, median NIHSS score 1 (interquartile range, 0.5-5) versus 3 (interquartile range, 2-9.5; P=0.04); RIC augmented plasma HSP27 (heat shock protein 27; P<0.05, repeated 2-way ANOVA) and phosphorylated HSP27 (P<0.001) but not plasma S100-β, matrix metalloproteinase-9, endocannabinoids, or arterial compliance. RIC after acute stroke is well tolerated and appears safe and feasible. RIC may improve neurological outcome, and protective mechanisms may be mediated through HSP27. A larger trial is warranted. URL: http://www.isrctn.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN86672015. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation for Intensive Care Unit–Acquired Weakness: Protocol and Methodological Implications for a Randomized, Sham-Controlled, Phase II Trial

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Alexander D.; Brower, Roy G.; Palmer, Jeffrey B.; Fan, Eddy; Zanni, Jennifer M.; Ciesla, Nancy D.; Feldman, Dorianne R.; Korupolu, Radha; Needham, Dale M.

    2012-01-01

    Background As the population ages and critical care advances, a growing number of survivors of critical illness will be at risk for intensive care unit (ICU)–acquired weakness. Bed rest, which is common in the ICU, causes adverse effects, including muscle weakness. Consequently, patients need ICU-based interventions focused on the muscular system. Although emerging evidence supports the benefits of early rehabilitation during mechanical ventilation, additional therapies may be beneficial. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), which can provide some muscular activity even very early during critical illness, is a promising modality for patients in the ICU. Objective The objectives of this article are to discuss the implications of bed rest for patients with critical illness, summarize recent studies of early rehabilitation and NMES in the ICU, and describe a protocol for a randomized, phase II pilot study of NMES in patients receiving mechanical ventilation. Design The study was a randomized, sham-controlled, concealed, phase II pilot study with caregivers and outcome assessors blinded to the treatment allocation. Setting The study setting will be a medical ICU. Participants The study participants will be patients who are receiving mechanical ventilation for 1 day or more, who are expected to stay in the ICU for an additional 2 days or more, and who meet no exclusion criteria. Intervention The intervention will be NMES (versus a sham [control] intervention) applied to the quadriceps, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius muscles for 60 minutes per day. Measurements Lower-extremity muscle strength at hospital discharge will be the primary outcome measure. Limitations Muscle strength is a surrogate measure, not a patient-centered outcome. The assessments will not include laboratory, genetic, or histological measures aimed at a mechanistic understanding of NMES. The optimal duration or dose of NMES is unclear. Conclusions If NMES is beneficial, the results of

  3. Treatment of Sarcopenia with Bimagrumab: Results from a Phase II, Randomized, Controlled, Proof-of-Concept Study.

    PubMed

    Rooks, Daniel; Praestgaard, Jens; Hariry, Sam; Laurent, Didier; Petricoul, Olivier; Perry, Robert G; Lach-Trifilieff, Estelle; Roubenoff, Ronenn

    2017-09-01

    To assess the effects of bimagrumab on skeletal muscle mass and function in older adults with sarcopenia and mobility limitations. A 24-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm, proof-of-concept study. Five centers in the United States. Community-dwelling adults (N = 40) aged 65 and older with gait speed between 0.4 and 1.0 m/s over 4 m and an appendicular skeletal muscle index of 7.25 kg/m(2) or less for men and 5.67 kg/m(2) or less for women. Intravenous bimagrumab 30 mg/kg (n = 19) or placebo (n = 21). Change from baseline in thigh muscle volume (TMV), subcutaneous and intermuscular fat, appendicular and total lean body mass, grip strength, gait speed, and 6-minute walk distance (6MWD). Thirty-two (80%) participants completed the study. TMV increased by Week 2, was sustained throughout the treatment period, and remained above baseline at the end of study in bimagrumab-treated participants, whereas there was no change with placebo treatment (Week 2: 5.15 ± 2.19% vs -0.34 ± 2.59%, P < .001; Week 4: 6.12 ± 2.56% vs 0.16 ± 3.42%, P < .001; Week 8: 8.01 ± 3.70% vs 0.35 ± 3.32%, P < .001; Week 16: 7.72 ± 5.31% vs 0.42 ± 5.14%, P < .001; Week 24: 4.80 ± 5.81% vs -1.01 ± 4.43%, P = .002). Participants with slower walking speed at baseline receiving bimagrumab had clinically meaningful and statistically significantly greater improvements in gait speed (mean 0.15 m/s, P = .009) and 6MWD (mean 82 m, P = .022) than those receiving placebo at Week 16. Adverse events in the bimagrumab group included muscle-related symptoms, acne, and diarrhea, most of which were mild in severity and resolved by the end of study. Treatment with bimagrumab over 16 weeks increased muscle mass and strength in older adults with sarcopenia and improved mobility in those with slow walking speed. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  4. Prediction and prevention of thromboembolic events with enoxaparin in cancer patients with elevated tissue factor-bearing microparticles: a randomized-controlled phase II trial (the Microtec study).

    PubMed

    Zwicker, Jeffrey I; Liebman, Howard A; Bauer, Kenneth A; Caughey, Thomas; Campigotto, Federico; Rosovsky, Rachel; Mantha, Simon; Kessler, Craig M; Eneman, Jonathan; Raghavan, Vidya; Lenz, Heinz-Joseph; Bullock, Andrea; Buchbinder, Elizabeth; Neuberg, Donna; Furie, Bruce

    2013-02-01

    Elevated levels of circulating tissue factor-bearing microparticles (TFMP) have been associated with an increased risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE) in cancer patients. We performed a randomized phase II study to evaluate the cumulative incidence of VTE in advanced cancer patients with lower levels of TFMP not receiving thromboprophylaxis and those with higher levels of circulating TFMP randomized to enoxaparin or observation. The cumulative incidence of VTE at 2 months in the higher TFMP group randomized to enoxaparin (N = 23) was 5·6% while the higher TFMP group observation arm (N = 11) was 27·3% (Gray test P = 0·06). The cumulative incidence of VTE in the low TFMP was 7·2% (N = 32). No major haemorrhages were observed in the enoxaparin arm. The median survival for patients with higher levels of TFMP followed by observation was 11·8 months compared with 17·8 months on enoxaparin (P = 0·58). In a prospective randomized trial, increased numbers of circulating TFMP detected by impedance flow cytometry identified cancer patients with a high incidence of VTE. Enoxaparin demonstrated a clear trend towards reducing the rate of VTE in patients with elevated levels of TFMP, with an overall rate of VTE similar in magnitude to the lower TFMP group. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. PREDICTION AND PREVENTION OF THROMBOEMBOLIC EVENTS WITH ENOXAPARIN IN CANCER PATIENTS WITH ELEVATED TISSUE FACTOR-BEARING MICROPARTICLES: A RANDOMIZED-CONTROLLED PHASE II TRIAL (THE MICROTEC STUDY)

    PubMed Central

    Zwicker, JI; Liebman, HA; Bauer, KA; Caughey, T; Campigotto, F; Rosovsky, R; Mantha, S; Kessler, CM; Eneman, J; Raghavan, V; Lenz, HJ; Bullock, A; Buchbinder, B; Neuberg, D; Furie, B

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Elevated levels of circulating tissue factor-bearing microparticles (TFMP) have been associated with an increased risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE) in cancer patients. We performed a randomized phase II study to evaluate the cumulative incidence of VTE in advanced cancer patients with lower levels of TFMP not receiving thromboprophylaxis and those with higher levels of circulating TFMP randomized to enoxaparin or observation. The cumulative incidence of VTE at 2 months in the higher TFMP group randomized to enoxaparin (N=23) was 5.6% while the higher TFMP group observation arm (N=11) was 27.3% (Gray test P=0.06). The cumulative incidence of VTE in the low TFMP was 7.2% (N=32). No major haemorrhages were observed in the enoxaparin arm. The median survival for patients with higher levels of TFMP followed by observation was 11.8 months compared with 17.8 months on enoxaparin (P=0.58). In a prospective randomized trial, increased numbers of circulating TFMP detected by impedance flow cytometry identified cancer patients with a high incidence of VTE. Enoxaparin demonstrated a clear trend towards reducing the rate of VTE in patients with elevated levels of TFMP, with an overall rate of VTE similar in magnitude to the lower TFMP group. PMID:23240761

  6. Overall Survival Analysis From a Randomized Phase II Study of Axitinib With or Without Dose Titration in First-Line Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rini, Brian I; Tomita, Yoshihiko; Melichar, Bohuslav; Ueda, Takeshi; Grünwald, Viktor; Fishman, Mayer N; Uemura, Hirotsugu; Oya, Mototsugu; Bair, Angel H; Andrews, Glen I; Rosbrook, Brad; Jonasch, Eric

    2016-12-01

    In a randomized phase II trial in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), objective response rate was significantly higher with axitinib versus placebo titration (54% vs. 34%; 1-sided P = .019). Treatment-naive patients with mRCC (n = 213) received axitinib 5 mg twice per day (b.i.d.) for 4 weeks. Patients meeting dose titration criteria were randomized to receive axitinib 5 mg b.i.d. with axitinib or placebo titration (n = 56 each); 91 patients ineligible for randomization continued axitinib 5 mg b.i.d.; 10 discontinued before randomization. Median overall survival (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 42.7 months (24.7-not estimable) with axitinib titration versus 30.4 months (23.7-45.0) with placebo titration (stratified hazard ratio, 0.785; 95% CI, 0.485-1.272; 1-sided P = .162), and 41.6 months (95% CI, 33.0-not estimable) in nonrandomized patients. Safety data were consistent with previous reports. Median overall survival was numerically longer in patients with first-line mRCC who received axitinib versus placebo titration. No new safety signal was observed after long-term axitinib treatment in first-line mRCC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Randomized Phase II Trial of High-Dose Melatonin and Radiation Therapy for RPA Class 2 Patients With Brain Metastases (RTOG 0119)

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, Lawrence . E-mail: Berklb@moffitt.usf.edu; Berkey, Brian; Rich, Tyvin; Hrushesky, William; Gallagher, Michael; Kudrimoti, Mahesh; McGarry, Ronald C.; Suh, John; Mehta, Minesh

    2007-07-01

    Purpose: To determine if high-dose melatonin for Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) Class 2 patients with brain metastases improved survival over historical controls, and to determine if the time of day melatonin was given affected its toxicity or efficacy. RTOG 0119 was a phase II randomized trial for this group of patients. Methods and Materials: RTOG RPA Class 2 patients with brain metastases were randomized to 20 mg of melatonin, given either in the morning (8-9 AM) or in the evening (8-9 PM). All patients received radiation therapy (30 Gy in 10 fractions) in the afternoon. Melatonin was continued until neurologic deterioration or death. The primary endpoint was overall survival time. Neurologic deterioration, as reflected by the Mini-Mental Status Examination, was also measured. Results: Neither of the randomized groups had survival distributions that differed significantly from the historic controls of patients treated with whole-brain radiotherapy. The median survivals of the morning and evening melatonin treatments were 3.4 and 2.8 months, while the RTOG historical control survival was 4.1 months. Conclusions: High-dose melatonin did not show any beneficial effect in this group of patients.

  8. Phase II, Randomized, Open-Label Study of Pegfilgrastim-Supported VDC/IE Chemotherapy in Pediatric Sarcoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Spunt, Sheri L.; Irving, Helen; Frost, Jami; Sender, Leonard; Guo, Matthew; Yang, Bing-Bing; Dreiling, Lyndah; Santana, Victor M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This multicenter, randomized, open-label study evaluated the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of a single subcutaneous pegfilgrastim injection with daily subcutaneous filgrastim administration in pediatric patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy for sarcoma. Patients and Methods Forty-four patients with previously untreated, biopsy-proven sarcoma stratified into three age groups (0-5, 6-11, and 12-21 years) were randomly assigned in a 6:1 randomization ratio to receive a single pegfilgrastim dose of 100 μg/kg (n = 38) or daily filgrastim doses of 5 μg/kg (n = 6) after chemotherapy (cycles 1 and 3: vincristine-doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide; cycles 2 and 4: ifosfamide-etoposide). The duration of grade 4 neutropenia, time to neutrophil recovery, incidence of febrile neutropenia, and adverse events were recorded. Results Pegfilgrastim and filgrastim were similar for all efficacy and safety end points, and their pharmacokinetic profiles were consistent with those in adults. Younger children experienced more protracted neutropenia and had higher median pegfilgrastim exposure than older children. Conclusion A single dose of pegfilgrastim at 100 μg/kg administered once per chemotherapy cycle is comparable to daily injections of filgrastim at 5 μg/kg for pediatric sarcoma patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy. PMID:20142595

  9. A phase II clinical trial of a dental health education program delivered by aboriginal health workers to prevent early childhood caries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is a widespread problem in Australian Aboriginal communities causing severe pain and sepsis. In addition dental services are difficult to access for many Aboriginal children and trying to obtain care can be stressful for the parents. The control of dental caries has been identified as a key indictor in the reduction of Indigenous disadvantage. Thus, there is a need for new approaches to prevent ECC, which reflect the cultural norms of Aboriginal communities. Methods/Design This is a Phase II single arm trial designed to gather information on the effectiveness of a dental health education program for Aboriginal children aged 6 months, followed over 2 years. The program will deliver advice from Aboriginal Health Workers on tooth brushing, diet and the use of fluoride toothpaste to Aboriginal families. Six waves of data collection will be conducted to enable estimates of change in parental knowledge and their views on the acceptability of the program. The Aboriginal Health Workers will also be interviewed to record their views on the acceptability and program feasibility. Clinical data on the child participants will be recorded when they are 30 months old and compared with a reference population of similar children when the study began. Latent variable modeling will be used to interpret the intervention effects on disease outcome. Discussion The research project will identify barriers to the implementation of a family centered Aboriginal oral health strategy, as well as the development of evidence to assist in the planning of a Phase III cluster randomized study. Trial registration ACTRN12612000712808 PMID:22909327

  10. Intermittent Chemotherapy as a Platform for Testing Novel Agents in Patients With Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: A Department of Defense Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Consortium Randomized Phase II Trial of Intermittent Docetaxel With Prednisone With or Without Maintenance GM-CSF.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Rahul R; Beer, Tomasz M; Weinberg, Vivian K; Higano, Celestia; Taplin, Mary-Ellen; Ryan, Charles J; Lin, Amy M; Alumkal, Joshi; Graff, Julie N; Nordquist, Luke T; Herrera, Isheen; Small, Eric J

    2015-06-01

    Immunotherapy with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), an agent that previously demonstrated antitumor activity, was evaluated within an intermittent chemotherapy framework of docetaxel with prednisone (D+P) in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). mCRPC patients with ≥ 50% prostate-specific antigen (PSA) decline after 6 cycles of D+P were randomized to either GM-CSF or observation (Obs). At disease progression (PD), D+P was reinitiated for 6 cycles followed by the same "off chemotherapy" regimen in patients eligible for chemotherapy interruption. The sequence was repeated until PD during chemotherapy, lack of PSA response to chemotherapy, or unacceptable toxicity. The primary end point was time to chemotherapy resistance (TTCR). Of 125 patients enrolled, 52 (42%) experienced ≥ 50% PSA decline on induction D+P and were randomized to GM-CSF (n = 27) or Obs (n = 25). The median time to PD was 3.3 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.4-3.5) and 1.5 months (95% CI, 1.5-2.4) during the initial course of GM-CSF and Obs, respectively. Twelve of 26 (46%) patients responded to a second course of D+P. Eleven randomized patients (21%) experienced PD during chemotherapy, precluding accurate assessment of TTCR. The remaining 41 randomized patients discontinued study for lack of PSA response to chemotherapy (n = 8), patient choice to not restart chemotherapy with PSA PD (n = 13), toxicity (n = 7), or study withdrawal (n = 13). Conducting a prospective study in mCRPC with maintenance immunotherapy within the framework of intermittent chemotherapy was feasible. The use of PSA instead of radiographic end points limited the number of evaluable patients. This study provides important insight into designing contemporary intermittent chemotherapy trials with maintenance immunotherapy in patients with advanced prostate cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A phase II trial of combined treatment of endoscopic mucosal resection and chemoradiotherapy for clinical stage I esophageal carcinoma: Japan Clinical Oncology Group Study JCOG0508.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Yukinori; Muto, Manabu; Minashi, Keiko; Boku, Narikazu; Fukuda, Haruhiko

    2009-10-01

    Standard treatment for clinical stage I esophageal cancer with submucosal invasion (T1b) has been surgical resection. We conducted a Phase II trial to evaluate the efficacy and the safety of combined treatment of endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and chemoradiotherapy for clinical stage I (T1b) esophageal cancer. Patients diagnosed as having clinical stage I (T1b) esophageal cancer which is considered to be resectable by EMR are eligible. When pathological examination of the EMR specimen confirms T1b tumor with negative or positive resection margin, the patient undergoes chemoradiotherapy. The study continues until 82 patients with T1b tumor with negative resection margin are enrolled from 20 institutions. The primary endpoint is 3-year overall survival (OS) in pT1b cases with negative resection margin. The secondary endpoints are 3-year OS and progression-free survival in all eligible cases, OS in pT1a-MM cases with margin-negative, complications of EMR and adverse events of chemoradiotherapy. The data from this trial will be expected to provide a non-surgical treatment option to the patients with clinical stage I (T1b) esophageal cancer.

  12. A randomized phase II study to evaluate tacrolimus in combination with sirolimus or methotrexate after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Pidala, Joseph; Kim, Jongphil; Jim, Heather; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamed A.; Nishihori, Taiga; Fernandez, Hugo F.; Tomblyn, Marcie; Perez, Lia; Perkins, Janelle; Xu, Mian; Janssen, William E.; Veerapathran, Anandaraman; Betts, Brian C.; Locke, Frederick L.; Ayala, Ernesto; Field, Teresa; Ochoa, Leonel; Alsina, Melissa; Anasetti, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Background There is evidence suggesting that sirolimus, in combination with tacrolimus, is active in the prevention of graft-versus-host disease. Sirolimus-based immune suppression may suppress alloreactive T cells, while sparing the survival and function of regulatory T cells. Design and Methods We conducted a randomized trial to compare the impact of sirolimus/tacrolimus against that of methotrexate/tacrolimus on the prevention of graft-versus-host disease and regulatory T-cell reconstitution. Results Seventy-four patients were randomized 1:1 to sirolimus/tacrolimus or methotrexate/tacrolimus, stratified for type of donor (sibling or unrelated) and the patients' age. The rate of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease at 100 days was 43% (95% CI: 27-59%) in the sirolimus/tacrolimus group and 89% (95% CI: 72-96%) in the methotrexate/tacrolimus group (P<0.001). The rate of moderate/severe chronic graft-versus-host disease was 24% (95% CI: 7-47%) in the sirolimus/tacrolimus group and 64% (95% CI: 41-79%) in the methotrexate/tacrolimus group (P=0.008). Overall survival and patient-reported quality of life did not differ between the two groups. On days 30 and 90 post-transplant, sirolimus-treated patients had a significantly greater proportion of regulatory T cells among the CD4+ cells in the peripheral blood, and isolated regulatory T cells were functional. Conclusions These data demonstrate that sirolimus/tacrolimus prevents grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease and moderate-severe chronic graft-versus-host disease more effectively than does methotrexate/tacrolimus, and supports regulatory T-cell reconstitution following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Trial registration: (NCT00803010) PMID:22689677

  13. Amino-acid PET versus MRI guided re-irradiation in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GLIAA) - protocol of a randomized phase II trial (NOA 10/ARO 2013-1).

    PubMed

    Oehlke, Oliver; Mix, Michael; Graf, Erika; Schimek-Jasch, Tanja; Nestle, Ursula; Götz, Irina; Schneider-Fuchs, Sabine; Weyerbrock, Astrid; Mader, Irina; Baumert, Brigitta G; Short, Susan C; Meyer, Philipp T; Weber, Wolfgang A; Grosu, Anca-Ligia

    2016-10-05

    The higher specificity of amino-acid positron emission tomography (AA-PET) in the diagnosis of gliomas, as well as in the differentiation between recurrence and treatment-related alterations, in comparison to contrast enhancement in T1-weighted MRI was demonstrated in many studies and is the rationale for their implementation into radiation oncology treatment planning. Several clinical trials have demonstrated the significant differences between AA-PET and standard MRI concerning the definition of the gross tumor volume (GTV). A small single-center non-randomized prospective study in patients with recurrent high grade gliomas treated with stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy (SFRT) showed a significant improvement in survival when AA-PET was integrated in target volume delineation, in comparison to patients treated based on CT/MRI alone. This protocol describes a prospective, open label, randomized, multi-center phase II trial designed to test if radiotherapy target volume delineation based on FET-PET leads to improvement in progression free survival (PFS) in patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) treated with re-irradiation, compared to target volume delineation based on T1Gd-MRI. The target sample size is 200 randomized patients with a 1:1 allocation ratio to both arms. The primary endpoint (PFS) is determined by serial MRI scans, supplemented by AA-PET-scans and/or biopsy/surgery if suspicious of progression. Secondary endpoints include overall survival (OS), locally controlled survival (time to local progression or death), volumetric assessment of GTV delineated by either method, topography of progression in relation to MRI- or PET-derived target volumes, rate of long term survivors (>1 year), localization of necrosis after re-irradiation, quality of life (QoL) assessed by the EORTC QLQ-C15 PAL questionnaire, evaluation of safety of FET-application in AA-PET imaging and toxicity of re-irradiation. This is a protocol of a randomized phase II trial

  14. A randomized phase II trial of SRL172 (Mycobacterium vaccae) +/- low-dose interleukin-2 in the treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, S; Guile, K; John, J; Clarke, I A; Diffley, J; Donnellan, P; Michael, A; Szlosarek, P; Dalgleish, A G

    2003-08-01

    We conducted a randomized phase II trial of SRL172 (Mycobacterium vaccae) +/- low-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) as treatment for stage IV malignant melanoma. The objectives were to establish the safety and efficacy of SRL172 with and without IL-2. All patients had measurable metastatic disease and none received concurrent chemotherapy, radiotherapy, corticosteroids or any other investigational agent. Sixteen patients were randomized into each arm of the trial prior to closure. The trial was halted prematurely when no responses were seen in the first 16 patients receiving SRL172 alone, predicting a response rate of less than 20%. Three partial remissions were seen in the 16 patients receiving SRL172 + IL-2. These patients remained on monthly SRL172 + IL-2, with disease progression at 12, 15 and 23 months. They continued on the trial regimen following surgical management of their disease progression. This trial provides preliminary evidence of a new, non-toxic, immunotherapeutic regimen in the management of malignant melanoma. Further trials are required to establish a definitive response rate and to compare the combination regimen with the regimen of low-dose IL-2 used in this trial. A biological basis for the responses seen in the SRL172 + IL-2 arm also needs to be established.

  15. Randomized phase II trial of selenomethionine as a modulator of efficacy and toxicity of chemoradiation in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

    PubMed Central

    Mix, Michael; Singh, Anurag K; Tills, Michael; Dibaj, Shiva; Groman, Adrienne; Jaggernauth, Wainwright; Rustum, Youcef; Jameson, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether selenomethionine (SLM) reduces mucositis incidence in patients with head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) undergoing concurrent chemoradiation (CRT). METHODS: In this multi-institutional, randomized, double-blind phase II trial, patients with Stage III or IV HNSCC received SLM 3600 μg/m2 or placebo twice daily for 7 d prior to CRT, once daily during CRT, and daily for 3 wk following CRT. CRT consisted of 70 Gy at 2 Gy per fraction with cisplatin 100 mg/m2 IV on days 1, 22, and 43. RESULTS: Eighteen patients were randomized, 10 received SLM, and there were no differences in baseline factors. There was no difference in mucositis or patient-reported side effects between groups. There was no difference in overall or relapse-free survival at 12 mo. CONCLUSION: Addition of SLM to CRT for HNSCC was well-tolerated but did not lower the incidence of severe mucositis or improve quality of life or survival outcomes. PMID:26468453

  16. Superior efficacy of calcipotriene and betamethasone dipropionate aerosol foam versus ointment in patients with psoriasis vulgaris--A randomized phase II study.

    PubMed

    Koo, John; Tyring, Stephen; Werschler, William P; Bruce, Suzanne; Olesen, Martin; Villumsen, John; Bagel, Jerry

    2016-01-01

    An aerosol foam formulation of fixed combination calcipotriene 0.005% (as hydrate; Cal) plus betamethasone dipropionate 0.064% (BD) was developed to improve psoriasis treatment. To compare the efficacy and safety of Cal/BD aerosol foam with Cal/BD ointment after 4 weeks. In this Phase II, multicenter, investigator-blind, 4-week trial, adult patients with psoriasis vulgaris were randomized to Cal/BD aerosol foam, Cal/BD ointment, aerosol foam vehicle or ointment vehicle (3:3:1:1). The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of patients at week 4 who achieved treatment success (clear or almost clear with at least a two-step improvement) according to the physician's global assessment of disease severity. In total, 376 patients were randomized. At week 4, significantly more patients using Cal/BD aerosol foam achieved treatment success (54.6% versus 43.0% [ointment]; p = 0.025); mean modified (excluding the head, which was not treated) psoriasis area and severity index score was significantly different between Cal/BD aerosol foam and Cal/BD ointment (mean difference -0.6; p = 0.005). Rapid, continuous itch relief occurred with both active treatments. One adverse drug reaction was reported with Cal/BD aerosol foam (application site itch). Cal/BD aerosol foam demonstrates significantly greater efficacy and similar tolerability compared with Cal/BD ointment for psoriasis treatment.

  17. Superior efficacy of calcipotriene and betamethasone dipropionate aerosol foam versus ointment in patients with psoriasis vulgaris – A randomized phase II study

    PubMed Central

    Koo, John; Tyring, Stephen; Werschler, William P.; Bruce, Suzanne; Olesen, Martin; Villumsen, John; Bagel, Jerry

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: An aerosol foam formulation of fixed combination calcipotriene 0.005% (as hydrate; Cal) plus betamethasone dipropionate 0.064% (BD) was developed to improve psoriasis treatment. Objectives: To compare the efficacy and safety of Cal/BD aerosol foam with Cal/BD ointment after 4 weeks. Methods: In this Phase II, multicenter, investigator-blind, 4-week trial, adult patients with psoriasis vulgaris were randomized to Cal/BD aerosol foam, Cal/BD ointment, aerosol foam vehicle or ointment vehicle (3:3:1:1). The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of patients at week 4 who achieved treatment success (clear or almost clear with at least a two-step improvement) according to the physician’s global assessment of disease severity. Results: In total, 376 patients were randomized. At week 4, significantly more patients using Cal/BD aerosol foam achieved treatment success (54.6% versus 43.0% [ointment]; p = 0.025); mean modified (excluding the head, which was not treated) psoriasis area and severity index score was significantly different between Cal/BD aerosol foam and Cal/BD ointment (mean difference –0.6; p = 0.005). Rapid, continuous itch relief occurred with both active treatments. One adverse drug reaction was reported with Cal/BD aerosol foam (application site itch). Conclusions: Cal/BD aerosol foam demonstrates significantly greater efficacy and similar tolerability compared with Cal/BD ointment for psoriasis treatment. PMID:26444907

  18. Randomized phase II trial of cyclophosphamide and the oral poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor veliparib in patients with recurrent, advanced triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kummar, Shivaani; Wade, James L; Oza, Amit M; Sullivan, Daniel; Chen, Alice P; Gandara, David R; Ji, Jiuping; Kinders, Robert J; Wang, Lihua; Allen, Deborah; Coyne, Geraldine O'Sullivan; Steinberg, Seth M; Doroshow, James H

    2016-06-01

    Background In tumors carrying BRCA mutations, DNA damage caused by standard cytotoxic chemotherapy can be potentiated by poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase (PARP) inhibitors, leading to increased cell death through synthetic lethality. Individuals carrying mutations in BRCA have an increased incidence of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). In order to assess the role of PARP inhibition in the treatment of TNBC, we conducted a randomized phase II trial of the combination of veliparib, a small molecule PARP inhibitor, with the cytotoxic agent cyclophosphamide versus cyclophosphamide alone in patients with refractory TNBC. Methods Adult patients with TNBC were randomized to receive oral cyclophosphamide 50 mg once daily with or without oral veliparib at 60 mg daily in 21-day cycles. Patients on the cyclophosphamide arm could crossover to the combination arm at disease progression. Results Forty-five patients were enrolled; 18 received cyclophosphamide alone and 21 received the combination as their initial treatment regimen. Lymphopenia was the most common grade 3/4 toxicity noted in both arms. One patient in the cyclophosphamide alone arm, and 2 in the combination arm had objective responses. Response rates and median progression free survival did not significantly differ between both treatment arms. Conclusion The addition of veliparib to cyclophosphamide, at the dose and schedule evaluated, did not improve the response rate over cyclophosphamide treatment alone in patients with heavily pre-treated triple-negative breast cancer.

  19. Two cilengitide regimens in combination with standard treatment for patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma and unmethylated MGMT gene promoter: results of the open-label, controlled, randomized phase II CORE study

    PubMed Central

    Nabors, L. Burt; Fink, Karen L.; Mikkelsen, Tom; Grujicic, Danica; Tarnawski, Rafal; Nam, Do Hyun; Mazurkiewicz, Maria; Salacz, Michael; Ashby, Lynn; Zagonel, Vittorina; Depenni, Roberta; Perry, James R.; Hicking, Christine; Picard, Martin; Hegi, Monika E.; Lhermitte, Benoit; Reardon, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Survival outcomes for patients with glioblastoma remain poor, particularly for patients with unmethylated O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) gene promoter. This phase II, randomized, open-label, multicenter trial investigated the efficacy and safety of 2 dose regimens of the selective integrin inhibitor cilengitide combined with standard chemoradiotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma and an unmethylated MGMT promoter. Methods Overall, 265 patients were randomized (1:1:1) to standard cilengitide (2000 mg 2×/wk; n = 88), intensive cilengitide (2000 mg 5×/wk during wk 1−6, thereafter 2×/wk; n = 88), or a control arm (chemoradiotherapy alone; n = 89). Cilengitide was administered intravenously in combination with daily temozolomide (TMZ) and concomitant radiotherapy (RT; wk 1−6), followed by TMZ maintenance therapy (TMZ/RT→TMZ). The primary endpoint was overall survival; secondary endpoints included progression-free survival, pharmacokinetics, and safety and tolerability. Results Median overall survival was 16.3 months in the standard cilengitide arm (hazard ratio [HR], 0.686; 95% CI: 0.484, 0.972; P = .032) and 14.5 months in the intensive cilengitide arm (HR, 0.858; 95% CI: 0.612, 1.204; P = .3771) versus 13.4 months in the control arm. Median progression-free survival assessed per independent review committee was 5.6 months (HR, 0.822; 95% CI: 0.595, 1.134) and 5.9 months (HR, 0.794; 95% CI: 0.575, 1.096) in the standard and intensive cilengitide arms, respectively, versus 4.1 months in the control arm. Cilengitide was well tolerated. Conclusions Standard and intensive cilengitide dose regimens were well tolerated in combination with TMZ/RT→TMZ. Inconsistent overall survival and progression-free survival outcomes and a limited sample size did not allow firm conclusions regarding clinical efficacy in this exploratory phase II study. PMID:25762461

  20. Phase II, open-label, randomized, multicenter study comparing the efficacy and safety of olaparib, a poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor, and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in patients with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations and recurrent ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Stan B; Lubinski, Jan; Matulonis, Ursula; Ang, Joo Ern; Gourley, Charlie; Karlan, Beth Y; Amnon, Amit; Bell-McGuinn, Katherine M; Chen, Lee-May; Friedlander, Michael; Safra, Tamar; Vergote, Ignace; Wickens, Mark; Lowe, Elizabeth S; Carmichael, James; Kaufman, Bella

    2012-02-01

    Olaparib (AZD2281), an orally active poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor that induces synthetic lethality in BRCA1- or BRCA2-deficient cells, has shown promising clinical efficacy in nonrandomized phase II trials in patients with ovarian cancer with BRCA1 or BRCA2 deficiency. We assessed the comparative efficacy and safety of olaparib and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) in this patient population. In this multicenter, open-label, randomized, phase II study, patients with ovarian cancer that recurred within 12 months of prior platinum therapy and with confirmed germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations were enrolled. Patients were assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to olaparib 200 mg twice per day or 400 mg twice per day continuously or PLD 50 mg/m(2) intravenously every 28 days. The primary efficacy end point was Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) -assessed progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary end points included objective response rate (ORR) and safety. Ninety-seven patients were randomly assigned. Median PFS was 6.5 months (95% CI, 5.5 to 10.1 months), 8.8 months (95% CI, 5.4 to 9.2 months), and 7.1 months (95% CI, 3.7 to 10.7 months) for the olaparib 200 mg, olaparib 400 mg, and PLD groups, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in PFS (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.51 to 1.56; P = .66) for combined olaparib doses versus PLD. RECIST-assessed ORRs were 25%, 31%, and 18% for olaparib 200 mg, olaparib 400 mg, and PLD, respectively; differences were not statistically significant. Tolerability of both treatments was as expected based on previous trials. The efficacy of olaparib was consistent with previous studies. However, the efficacy of PLD was greater than expected. Olaparib 400 mg twice per day is a suitable dose to explore in further studies in this patient population.

  1. A Phase II Randomized Trial Of Lycopene-Rich Tomato Extract Among Men With High-Grade Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Gann, Peter H.; Deaton, Ryan J.; Rueter, Erika Enk; van Breemen, Richard B.; Nonn, Larisa; Macias, Virgilia; Han, Misop; Ananthanarayanan, Viju

    2015-01-01

    Background A diverse body of evidence suggests that lycopene might inhibit prostate cancer development. We conducted a 6-month repeat biopsy randomized trial among men with HGPIN. Here we report results for serum lycopene, PSA and IGF proteins, histopathological review, and tissue markers for proliferation (MCM-2) and cell cycle inhibition (p27). Methods Participants consumed placebo or tomato extract capsules containing 30 mg/day lycopene. Pre- and post-treatment biopsies were immunostained and digitally scored. Serum lycopene was determined by LC-MS-MS. In secondary analyses, pathologists blindly reviewed each biopsy to score histological features. Results 58 men completed the trial. Serum lycopene increased 0.55 μmol/L with treatment and declined 0.29 μmol/L with placebo. We observed no meaningful differences in PSA, IGF-1 or IGFBP3 concentrations between groups, nor any differences in expression of MCM-2 or p27 in epithelial nuclei. Prevalences of cancer, HGPIN, atrophy or inflammation post-treatment were similar; however, more extensive atrophy and less extensive HGPIN was more common in the lycopene group. Conclusions Despite large differences in serum lycopene following intervention, no treatment effects were apparent on either the serum or benign tissue endpoints. Larger studies are warranted to determine whether changes observed in extent of HGPIN and focal atrophy can be replicated. PMID:26422197

  2. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II study of eculizumab in patients with refractory generalized myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Howard, James F; Barohn, Richard J; Cutter, Gary R; Freimer, Miriam; Juel, Vern C; Mozaffar, Tahseen; Mellion, Michelle L; Benatar, Michael G; Farrugia, Maria Elena; Wang, Jing Jing; Malhotra, Suneil S; Kissel, John T

    2013-07-01

    Complement activation at the neuromuscular junction is a primary cause of acetylcholine receptor loss and failure of neuromuscular transmission in myasthenia gravis (MG). Eculizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody, blocks the formation of terminal complement complex by specifically preventing the enzymatic cleavage of complement 5 (C5). This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial involving 14 patients with severe, refractory generalized MG (gMG). Six of 7 patients treated with eculizumab for 16 weeks (86%) achieved the primary endpoint of a 3-point reduction in the quantitative myasthenia gravis (QMG) score. Examining both treatment periods, the overall change in mean QMG total score was significantly different between eculizumab and placebo (P = 0.0144). After assessing data obtained from all visits, the overall change in mean QMG total score from baseline was found to be significantly different between eculizumab and placebo (P < 0.0001). Eculizumab was well tolerated. The data suggest that eculizumab may have a role in treating severe, refractory MG. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. An Open-Label, Randomized Phase II Trial of Personalized Peptide Vaccination in Patients with Bladder Cancer that Progressed after Platinum-Based Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Masanori; Matsumoto, Kazumasa; Uemura, Hirotsugu; Arai, Gaku; Eto, Masatoshi; Naito, Seiji; Ohyama, Chikara; Nasu, Yasutomo; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Moriya, Fukuko; Suekane, Shigetaka; Matsueda, Satoko; Komatsu, Nobukazu; Sasada, Tetsuro; Yamada, Akira; Kakuma, Tatsuyuki; Itoh, Kyogo

    2016-01-01

    The prognosis of platinum-based chemotherapy-resistant metastatic urothelial cancer of the bladder remains poor. Personalized selection of the right peptides for each patient could be a novel approach for a cancer vaccine to boost anticancer immunity. In this randomized, open-label, phase II study, patients ages ≥18 years with progressive bladder cancer after first-line platinum-based chemotherapy were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive personalized peptide vaccination (PPV) plus best supportive care (BSC) or BSC. PPV treatment used a maximum of four peptides chosen from 31 candidate peptides according to human leukocyte antigen types and peptide-reactive IgG titers, for 12 s.c. injections (8 injections, weekly; 4 injections, bi-weekly). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS), immune response, and toxicity. Eighty patients were randomly assigned to receive either PPV plus BSC (n = 39) or BSC (n = 41). No significant improvement in PFS was noted [HR, 0.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.4-1.2, P = 0.17]. For the secondary endpoints, PPV plus BSC significantly prolonged OS compared with BSC (HR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.34-0.99, P = 0.049), with median OS of 7.9 months (95% CI, 3.5-12.0) in the PPV plus BSC and 4.1 months (95% CI, 2.8-6.9) in the BSC. PPV treatment was well tolerated, without serious adverse drug reactions. PPV could not prolong PFS, but OS appeared to be improved with low toxicity and immune responses. Further large-scale, randomized trials are needed to confirm these results. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Randomized Multicenter Phase II Trial Comparing Two Schedules of Etirinotecan Pegol (NKTR-102) in Women With Recurrent Platinum-Resistant/Refractory Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vergote, Ignace B.; Garcia, Agustin; Micha, John; Pippitt, Charles; Bendell, Johanna; Spitz, Daniel; Reed, Nicholas; Dark, Graham; Fracasso, Paula M.; Ibrahim, Emad N.; Armenio, Vincent A.; Duska, Linda; Poole, Chris; Gennigens, Christine; Dirix, Luc Y.; Leung, Abraham C.F.; Zhao, Carol; Soufi-Mahjoubi, Raoudha; Rustin, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Etirinotecan pegol (NKTR-102) is a unique, long-acting topoisomerase-I inhibitor with prolonged systemic exposure to SN38 (7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin), the active metabolite of irinotecan. This randomized phase II trial investigated two dosing schedules of etirinotecan pegol in patients with platinum-resistant/refractory ovarian carcinoma. Patients and Methods A total of 71 eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive etirinotecan pegol 145 mg/m2 every 14 or 21 days until progression or unacceptable adverse events (AEs). The primary end point was objective response rate (ORR) by RECIST (version 1.0). Secondary end points included response by Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup criteria, duration of ORR, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Results The overall confirmed ORR was 20% (95% CI, 10% to 30%): 20% for once every 14 days, and 19% for once every 21 days. Median response duration was 4.1 months for once every 14 days and 4.0 months for once every 21 days. Median PFS for every 14 and every 21 days was 4.1 and 5.3 months, respectively, and median OS was 10.0 and 11.7 months, respectively. Etirinotecan pegol was well tolerated, with the most common grade 3 to 4 AEs being dehydration (24%) and diarrhea (23%). Diarrhea, dehydration, nausea, and neutropenia were less frequent with the schedule of once every 21 days than with that of once every 14 days. Conclusion Both schedules of etirinotecan pegol showed activity in patients with heavily pretreated ovarian cancer, with encouraging ORR and PFS rates. The schedule of once every 21 days was better tolerated and had slightly longer PFS and OS rates. The treatment schedule of etirinotecan pegol 145 mg/m2 once every 21 days was selected for the expanded phase II study and is preferred for future phase III studies. These findings provide support to directly compare etirinotecan pegol versus one of the approved drugs (eg, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin or topotecan) in platinum

  5. Randomized multicenter phase II trial comparing two schedules of etirinotecan pegol (NKTR-102) in women with recurrent platinum-resistant/refractory epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Vergote, Ignace B; Garcia, Agustin; Micha, John; Pippitt, Charles; Bendell, Johanna; Spitz, Daniel; Reed, Nicholas; Dark, Graham; Fracasso, Paula M; Ibrahim, Emad N; Armenio, Vincent A; Duska, Linda; Poole, Chris; Gennigens, Christine; Dirix, Luc Y; Leung, Abraham C F; Zhao, Carol; Soufi-Mahjoubi, Raoudha; Rustin, Gordon

    2013-11-10

    Etirinotecan pegol (NKTR-102) is a unique, long-acting topoisomerase-I inhibitor with prolonged systemic exposure to SN38 (7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin), the active metabolite of irinotecan. This randomized phase II trial investigated two dosing schedules of etirinotecan pegol in patients with platinum-resistant/refractory ovarian carcinoma. A total of 71 eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive etirinotecan pegol 145 mg/m(2) every 14 or 21 days until progression or unacceptable adverse events (AEs). The primary end point was objective response rate (ORR) by RECIST (version 1.0). Secondary end points included response by Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup criteria, duration of ORR, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). The overall confirmed ORR was 20% (95% CI, 10% to 30%): 20% for once every 14 days, and 19% for once every 21 days. Median response duration was 4.1 months for once every 14 days and 4.0 months for once every 21 days. Median PFS for every 14 and every 21 days was 4.1 and 5.3 months, respectively, and median OS was 10.0 and 11.7 months, respectively. Etirinotecan pegol was well tolerated, with the most common grade 3 to 4 AEs being dehydration (24%) and diarrhea (23%). Diarrhea, dehydration, nausea, and neutropenia were less frequent with the schedule of once every 21 days than with that of once every 14 days. Both schedules of etirinotecan pegol showed activity in patients with heavily pretreated ovarian cancer, with encouraging ORR and PFS rates. The schedule of once every 21 days was better tolerated and had slightly longer PFS and OS rates. The treatment schedule of etirinotecan pegol 145 mg/m(2) once every 21 days was selected for the expanded phase II study and is preferred for future phase III studies. These findings provide support to directly compare etirinotecan pegol versus one of the approved drugs (eg, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin or topotecan) in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer.

  6. Bevacizumab and temozolomide versus temozolomide alone as neoadjuvant treatment in unresected glioblastoma: the GENOM 009 randomized phase II trial.

    PubMed

    Balana, Carmen; De Las Penas, Ramon; Sepúlveda, Juan Manuel; Gil-Gil, Miguel J; Luque, Raquel; Gallego, Oscar; Carrato, Cristina; Sanz, Carolina; Reynes, Gaspar; Herrero, Ana; Ramirez, Jose Luis; Pérez-Segura, Pedro; Berrocal, Alfonso; Vieitez, Jose Maria; Garcia, Almudena; Vazquez-Estevez, Sergio; Peralta, Sergi; Fernandez, Isaura; Henriquez, Ivan; Martinez-Garcia, Maria; De la Cruz, Juan Jose; Capellades, Jaume; Giner, Pilar; Villà, Salvador

    2016-05-01

    We sought to determine the impact of bevacizumab on reduction of tumor size prior to chemoradiotherapy in unresected glioblastoma patients. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive temozolomide (TMZ arm) or temozolomide plus bevacizumab (TMZ + BEV arm). In both arms, neoadjuvant treatment was temozolomide (85 mg/m(2), days 1-21, two 28-day cycles), concurrent radiation plus temozolomide, and six cycles of adjuvant temozolomide. In the TMZ + BEV arm, bevacizumab (10 mg/kg) was added on days 1 and 15 of each neoadjuvant cycle and on days 1, 15 and 30 of concurrent treatment. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed response to neoadjuvant treatment. Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and the impact on outcome of MGMT methylation in tumor and serum. One hundred and two patients were included; 43 in the TMZ arm and 44 in the TMZ + BEV arm were evaluable for response. Results favored the TMZ + BEV arm in terms of objective response (3 [6.7 %] vs. 11 [22.9 %]; odds ratio 4.2; P = 0.04). PFS and OS were longer in the TMZ + BEV arm, though the difference did not reach statistical significance. MGMT methylation in tumor, but not in serum, was associated with outcome. More patients experienced toxicities in the TMZ + BEV than in the TMZ arm (P = 0.06). The combination of bevacizumab plus temozolomide is more active than temozolomide alone and may well confer benefit in terms of tumor shrinkage in unresected patients albeit at the expense of greater toxicity.

  7. A randomized multicenter Phase II study of perioperative tiotropium intervention in gastric cancer patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Fushida, Sachio; Oyama, Katsunobu; Kaji, Masahide; Hirono, Yasuo; Kinoshita, Jun; Tsukada, Tomoya; Nezuka, Hideaki; Nakano, Tatsuo; Noto, Masahiro; Nishijima, Koji; Fujimura, Takashi; Ohta, Tetsuo

    2015-01-01

    Tiotropium, a long-acting inhaled anticholinergic drug, has been widely used in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the issue of whether perioperative tiotropium improves postoperative outcomes for gastric cancer patients with COPD remains unclear. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of perioperative tiotropium intervention for gastric cancer patients with COPD. Eighty-four gastric cancer patients with mild-to-moderate COPD were randomly assigned to receive perioperative pulmonary rehabilitation alone (control group) or pulmonary rehabilitation with 18 µg of tiotropium once daily (tiotropium group). The patients in the tiotropium group received tiotropium for more than 1 week before surgery and for 2 weeks after surgery. Spirometry was performed prior to group assignment and at 2 weeks after surgery. Postoperative complications, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, forced vital capacity, and the ratio of forced expiratory volume in second to forced vital capacity (%) were compared between the two groups. There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of age, body mass index, smoking, gastrectomy incision, operation time, and bleeding volume (all P>0.05). Postoperative complications and pulmonary functions did not differ significantly between the control and tiotropium groups. A subgroup analysis of gastric cancer patients with moderate COPD showed that perioperative tiotropium intervention significantly decreased the rate of postoperative complications compared with the control group (P=0.046). However, even after gastrectomy, many patients with mild COPD in both the control and tiotropium groups showed improved pulmonary function. Although perioperative tiotropium intervention had no significant effects in gastric cancer patients with mild COPD, it may be beneficial in those with moderate COPD. Therefore, the next prospective study should further evaluate perioperative tiotropium

  8. Concurrent or sequential letrozole with adjuvant breast radiotherapy: final results of the CO-HO-RT phase II randomized trial†

    PubMed Central

    Bourgier, C.; Kerns, S.; Gourgou, S.; Lemanski, C.; Gutowski, M.; Fenoglietto, P.; Romieu, G.; Crompton, N.; Lacombe, J.; Pèlegrin, A.; Ozsahin, M.; Rosenstein, B.; Azria, D.

    2016-01-01

    Background We present here final clinical results of the COHORT trial and both translational sub-studies aiming at identifying patients at risk of radiation-induced subcutaneous fibrosis (RISF): (i) radiation-induced lymphocyte apoptosis (RILA) and (ii) candidates of certain single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Patients and methods Post-menopausal patients with stage I–II breast cancer (n = 150) were enrolled and assigned to either concurrent (arm A) or sequential radiotherapy (RT)-letrozole (arm B). Among them, 121 were eligible for RILA and SNP assays. Grade ≥2 RISF were the primary end point. Secondary end points were lung and heart events and carcinologic outcome. RILA was performed to predict differences in RISF between individuals. A genome-wide association study was performed to identify SNPs associated with RILA and RISF. Analyses were done by intention to treat. Results After a median follow-up of 74 months, 5 patients developed a grade ≥2 RISF. No significant difference was observed between arms A and B. Neither grade ≥2 lung nor symptomatic cardiac toxicity was observed. Median RILA value of the five patients who had grade ≥2 RISF was significantly lower compared with those who developed grade ≤1 RISF (6.9% versus 13%, P = 0.02). Two SNPs were identified as being significantly associated with RILA: rs1182531 (P = 4.2 × 10−9) and rs1182532 (P = 3.6 × 10−8); both located within the PHACTR3 gene on chromosome 20q13.33. Conclusions With long-term follow-up, letrozole can safely be delivered concomitantly with adjuvant breast RT. Translational sub-studies showed that high RILA values were correlated with patients who did not develop RISF. Registered clinical trial NCT00208273. PMID:26681684

  9. Efficacy and safety of thalidomide for the treatment of severe recurrent epistaxis in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: results of a prospective phase II clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Invernizzi, Rosangela; Quaglia, Federica; Klersy, Caherine; Pagella, Fabio; Ornati, Federica; Chu, Francesco; Matti, Elina; Spinozzi, Giuseppe; Plumitallo, Sara; Grignani, Pierangela; Olivieri, Carla; Bastia, Raffaella; Bellistri, Francesca; Danesino, Cesare; Benazzo, Marco; Balduini, Carlo L

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a genetic disease that leads to multiregional angiodysplasia. Severe recurrent epistaxis is the most common presentation, frequently leading to severe anemia. Multiple therapeutic approaches have been tried, but they are largely palliative with variable results.We aimed to assess the efficacy of thalidomide in reducing epistaxis in patients with HHT refractory to standard therapy. Methods HHT patients with severe recurrent epistaxis refractory to mini-invasive surgical procedures were included in an open label, phase II, prospective, non-randomized, single-centre study. Thalidomide was administered at a starting dose of 50 mg/day orally. In the event of no response, thalidomide dosage was increased by 50 mg/day every four weeks until response to a maximum dose of 200 mg/day. After response achievement, patients were treated for eight to16 additional weeks. Monthly follow-up was based on the epistaxis severity score and transfusion need, with adverse events being reported (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01485224). Findings Thirty-one patients, mean age 62∙6 (SD 11∙1) years, were enrolled (median follow-up 15∙9 months, 25th-75th 10∙1-22∙3). Treatment induced cessation of bleeding in three cases (9∙7%) and a significant decrease in all epistaxis parameters in 28 cases (90∙3%). Twenty-five patients (80∙7%) obtained remission with 50 mg/day of thalidomide, five (16∙1%) with 100 mg/day and one (3∙2%) with 150 mg/day. Treatment significantly increased hemoglobin levels (p<0∙001), and abolished or greatly decreased the transfusion need (p<0∙001).Only nonserious, grade I, adverse effects were observed, including constipation and drowsiness. Median time to relapse after the end of therapy was 6∙4 months. No correlation was found between genetic or clinical features and response to thalidomide or toxicity. Interpretation Low-dose thalidomide is safe and very effective in reducing

  10. Randomized Phase II Study of Clofarabine-Based Consolidation for Younger Adults With Acute Myeloid Leukemia in First Remission.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Xavier; de Botton, Stéphane; Chevret, Sylvie; Caillot, Denis; Raffoux, Emmanuel; Lemasle, Emilie; Marolleau, Jean-Pierre; Berthon, Céline; Pigneux, Arnaud; Vey, Norbert; Reman, Oumedaly; Simon, Marc; Recher, Christian; Cahn, Jean-Yves; Hermine, Olivier; Castaigne, Sylvie; Celli-Lebras, Karine; Ifrah, Norbert; Preudhomme, Claude; Terré, Christine; Dombret, Hervé

    2017-02-21

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a clofarabine-based combination (CLARA) versus conventional high-dose cytarabine (HDAC) as postremission chemotherapy in younger patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Patients and Methods Patients age 18 to 59 years old with intermediate- or unfavorable-risk AML in first remission and no identified donor for allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (SCT) were eligible. Two hundred twenty-one patients were randomly assigned to receive three CLARA or three HDAC consolidation cycles. The primary end point was relapse-free survival (RFS). To handle the confounding effect of SCT that could occur in patients with late donor identification, hazard ratios (HRs) of events were adjusted on the time-dependent treatment × SCT interaction term. Results At 2 years, RFS was 58.5% (95% CI, 49% to 67%) in the CLARA arm and 46.5% (95% CI, 37% to 55%) in the HDAC arm. Overall, 110 patients (55 in each arm) received SCT in first remission. On the basis of a multivariable Cox-adjusted treatment × SCT interaction, the HR of CLARA over HDAC before or in absence of SCT was 0.65 (95% CI, 0.43 to 0.98; P = .041). In a sensitivity analysis, when patients who received SCT in first remission were censored at SCT time, 2-year RFS was 53.3% (95% CI, 39% to 66%) in the CLARA arm and 31.0% (95% CI, 19% to 43%) in the HDAC arm (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.41 to 0.98; P = .043). Gain in RFS could be related to the lower cumulative incidence of relapse observed in the CLARA arm versus the HDAC arm (33.9% v 46.4% at 2 years, respectively; cause-specific HR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.94; P = .025). CLARA cycles were associated with higher hematologic and nonhematologic toxicity than HDAC cycles. Conclusion These results suggest that CLARA might be considered as a new chemotherapy option in younger patients with AML in first remission.

  11. Feasibility and Efficacy of the Nintendo Wii Gaming System to Improve Balance Performance Post-Stroke: Protocol of a Phase II Randomized Controlled Trial in an Inpatient Rehabilitation Setting.

    PubMed

    Bower, Kelly J; Clark, Ross A; McGinley, Jennifer L; Martin, Clarissa L; Miller, Kimberly J

    2013-04-01

    Balance deficits following stroke are common and debilitating. Commercially available gaming systems, such as the Nintendo(®) (Kyoto, Japan) Wii™, have been widely adopted clinically; however, there is limited evidence supporting their feasibility and efficacy for improving balance performance following stroke. The aim of this trial is to investigate the clinical feasibility and efficacy of using the Nintendo Wii gaming system as an adjunct to standard care to improve balance performance following stroke in an inpatient rehabilitation setting. Thirty participants undergoing inpatient stroke rehabilitation will be recruited into this Phase II, single-blind, randomized controlled trial. Participants will be allocated into a Balance or Upper Limb Group, and both groups will perform activities using the Nintendo Wii in addition to their standard care. Participants will attend three 45-minute sessions per week, for a minimum of 2 and a maximum of 4 weeks. The main focus of the study is to investigate the feasibility of the intervention protocol. This will be evaluated through recruitment, retention, adherence, acceptability, and safety. The Step Test and Functional Reach Test will be the primary efficacy outcomes. Secondary outcomes will include force platform, mobility, and upper limb measures. Assessments will occur at baseline, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks after study entry. To the authors' knowledge, this will be the largest randomized clinical trial to investigate the feasibility and efficacy of the Nintendo Wii gaming system for improving balance performance in a stroke population. The results will inform the design of a Phase III multicenter trial.

  12. Treatment with pentosan polysulphate in patients with MPS I: results from an open label, randomized, monocentric phase II study.

    PubMed

    Hennermann, Julia B; Gökce, Seyfullah; Solyom, Alexander; Mengel, Eugen; Schuchman, Edward H; Simonaro, Calogera M

    2016-11-01

    Current treatment options for MPS I have limited effects on some organs, including the skeletal system. In MPS animal models pentosan polysulphate (PPS) reduces the concentrations of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in tissues and body fluids and improves cartilaginous and osseous pathologies. The goals of this study were to investigate primarily the safety and secondary the clinical effects, concerning mobility and pain, of PPS treatment in MPS I patients. Four MPS I-Hurler-Scheie/-Scheie patients aged 35.6 ± 6.4 years with one male were included in the study. All patients were on enzyme replacement therapy since 9.45 ± 3.75 years. PPS was applied subcutaneously in two patients with 1 mg/kg and in two patients with 2 mg/kg, weekly for 12 weeks and then biweekly for 12 weeks. The 24-week treatment with PPS was well tolerated by all patients. Urinary GAG concentrations were reduced from 4.13 ± 1.17 at baseline to 2.69 ± 0.36 mg/mmol creatinine after 24-week treatment with 1 mg/kg PPS, and from 6.71 ± 0.62 to 2.65 ± 0.09 mg/mmol creatinine with 2 mg/kg PPS. An improvement in range of motion was noted in three out of four patients. The pain intensity score was reduced from 4.5 ± 1.77 at baseline to 1.8 ± 0.47 after 24-week treatment with 1 mg/kg PPS; patients with 2 mg/kg PPS already had minimal pain at the start of the study. In conclusion, PPS treatment in a small number of adult MPS I patients was well tolerated and resulted in a significant reduction of urinary GAG excretion and in an improvement of joint mobility and pain.

  13. A randomized, placebo-controlled phase ii study evaluating the reduction of neutropenia and febrile neutropenia in patients with colorectal cancer receiving pegfilgrastim with every-2-week chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hecht, J Randolph; Pillai, Madhavan; Gollard, Russell; Heim, William; Swan, Forrest; Patel, Ravi; Dreiling, Lyndah; Mo, May; Malik, Imtiaz

    2010-04-01

    Adding irinotecan and/or oxaliplatin to every-2-week 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)/leucovorin (LV) prolongs survival in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) but increases neutropenia frequency. Pegfilgrastim is indicated to decrease infection as manifested by febrile neutropenia (FN) in patients receiving chemotherapy at > 14-day intervals. This randomized, placebo-controlled phase II study examined pegfilgrastim efficacy and safety in patients with CRC receiving every-2-week chemotherapy. Patients with CRC were randomized 1:1 to pegfilgrastim 6 mg or placebo administered per-cycle on day 4. Randomization was stratified by chemotherapy regimen (patients received every-2-week FOLFOX4 [5-FU/LV/oxaliplatin], FOLFIRI [5-FU/LV/irinotecan], or FOIL [5-FU/LV/oxaliplatin/irinotecan] at physician discretion). The primary endpoint was incidence of grade 3/4 neutropenia. Secondary endpoints included incidence of grade 3/4 FN and adverse events. After 4 cycles of study treatment, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were followed for

  14. Chemoradiation, surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy versus induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiation and surgery: long-term results of the Spanish GCR-3 phase II randomized trial†.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Martos, C; Garcia-Albeniz, X; Pericay, C; Maurel, J; Aparicio, J; Montagut, C; Safont, M J; Salud, A; Vera, R; Massuti, B; Escudero, P; Alonso, V; Bosch, C; Martin, M; Minsky, B D

    2015-08-01

    The primary results of our phase II randomized trial suggested that compared with conventional preoperative chemoradiation (CRT), the addition of chemotherapy (CT) before CRT and surgery allows most patients receive their planned treatment with a better toxicity profile without compromising the pathological complete response and complete resection rates. We now report the 5-year outcomes. Patients with distal or middle third, T3-T4 and/or N+ rectal adenocarcinoma selected by magnetic resonance imaging, were randomly assigned to arm A-preoperative CRT followed by surgery and four cycles of postoperative adjuvant capecitabine and oxaliplatin (CAPOX)-or arm B-four cycles of CAPOX followed by CRT and surgery. The following 5-year actuarial outcomes were assessed: the cumulative incidence of local relapse (LR) and distant metastases (DM), disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS). A total of 108 eligible patients were randomly assigned to arm A (n = 52) or arm B (n = 56). With a median follow-up of 69.5 months, 5-year DFS was 64% in arm A and 62% in arm B (P = 0.85) and 5-year OS was 78% in arm A and 75% in arm B (P = 0.64). The 5-year cumulative incidence of LR was 2% and 5% (P = 0.61) and 5-year cumulative incidence of DM was 21% and 23%; (P = 0.79) in arms A and B, respectively. Both treatment approaches yield similar outcomes. Given the lower acute toxicity and improved compliance with induction CT compared with adjuvant CT, integrating effective systemic therapy before CRT and surgery is a promising strategy and should be examined in phase III trials. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. PRECEDENT: a randomized phase II trial comparing vintafolide (EC145) and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) in combination versus PLD alone in patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Naumann, R Wendel; Coleman, Robert L; Burger, Robert A; Sausville, Edward A; Kutarska, Elzbieta; Ghamande, Sharad A; Gabrail, Nashat Y; Depasquale, Stephen E; Nowara, Elzbieta; Gilbert, Lucy; Gersh, Robert H; Teneriello, Michael G; Harb, Wael A; Konstantinopoulos, Panagiotis A; Penson, Richard T; Symanowski, James T; Lovejoy, Chandra D; Leamon, Christopher P; Morgenstern, David E; Messmann, Richard A

    2013-12-10

    Vintafolide (EC145) is a folic acid-desacetylvinblastine conjugate that binds to the folate receptor (FR), which is expressed on the majority of epithelial ovarian cancers. This randomized phase II trial evaluated vintafolide combined with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) compared with PLD alone. The utility of an FR-targeted imaging agent, (99m)Tc-etarfolatide (EC20), in selecting patients likely to benefit from vintafolide was also examined. Women with recurrent platinum-resistant ovarian cancer who had undergone ≤ two prior cytotoxic regimens were randomly assigned at a 2:1 ratio to PLD (50 mg/m(2) intravenously [IV] once every 28 days) with or without vintafolide (2.5 mg IV three times per week during weeks 1 and 3). Etarfolatide scanning was optional. The primary objective was to compare progression-free survival (PFS) between the groups. The intent-to-treat population comprised 149 patients. Median PFS was 5.0 and 2.7 months for the vintafolide plus PLD and PLD-alone arms, respectively (hazard ratio [HR], 0.63; 95% CI, 0.41 to 0.96; P = .031). The greatest benefit was observed in patients with 100% of lesions positive for FR, with median PFS of 5.5 compared with 1.5 months for PLD alone (HR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.17 to 0.85; P = .013). The group of patients with FR-positive disease (10% to 90%) experienced some PFS improvement (HR, 0.873), whereas patients with disease that did not express FR experienced no PFS benefit (HR, 1.806). Vintafolide plus PLD is the first combination to demonstrate an improvement over standard therapy in a randomized trial of patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. Etarfolatide can identify patients likely to benefit from vintafolide.

  16. Phase II Randomized Study of Plitidepsin (Aplidin), Alone or in Association with L-carnitine, in Patients with Unresectable Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Schöffski, Patrick; Guillem, Vincente; Garcia, Margarita; Rivera, Fernando; Tabernero, Josep; Cullell, Martin; Lopez-Martin, Jose Antonio; Pollard, Patricia; Dumez, Herlinde; del Muro, Xavier Garcia; Paz-Ares, Luis

    2009-01-01

    This randomized phase II study evaluated two schedules of the marine compound Plitidepsin with or without co-administration of L-carnitine in patients with renal cell carcinoma. Patients had adequate performance status and organ function. The primary endpoint was the rate of disease control (no progression) at 12 weeks (RECIST). Other endpoints included the response rate and time dependent efficacy measures. The trial also assessed the efficacy of L-carnitine to prevent Plitidepsin-related toxicity. The two regimes given as 24 hour infusion every two weeks showed hints of antitumoral activity. Disease control at 12 weeks was 15.8% in Arm A (5mg/m2, no L-carnitine) and 11,1% in Arm B (7mg/m2 with L-carnitine). Two partial responses were observed in Arm A (19 patients), none in Arm B (20 patients). Both schedules had the same progression-free interval (2.1 months). The median overall survival was 7.0 and 7.6 months. The safety profile was similar in both arms of the trial and adverse events were mainly mild to moderate (NCI CTC version 2.0). Increasing the dose to 7mg/m2 did not increase the treatment efficacy but the incidence of transaminase and CPK elevations and serious AEs. Coadministration of L-carnitine did not prevent muscular toxicity or CPK-elevation associated with Plitidepsin. PMID:19370171

  17. Phase II randomized study of Plitidepsin (Aplidin), alone or in association with L-carnitine, in patients with unresectable advanced renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Schöffski, Patrick; Guillem, Vincente; Garcia, Margarita; Rivera, Fernando; Tabernero, Josep; Cullell, Martin; Lopez-Martin, Jose Antonio; Pollard, Patricia; Dumez, Herlinde; del Muro, Xavier Garcia; Paz-Ares, Luis

    2009-01-01

    This randomized phase II study evaluated two schedules of the marine compound Plitidepsin with or without co-administration of L-carnitine in patients with renal cell carcinoma. Patients had adequate performance status and organ function. The primary endpoint was the rate of disease control (no progression) at 12 weeks (RECIST). Other endpoints included the response rate and time dependent efficacy measures. The trial also assessed the efficacy of L-carnitine to prevent Plitidepsin-related toxicity. The two regimes given as 24 hour infusion every two weeks showed hints of antitumoral activity. Disease control at 12 weeks was 15.8% in Arm A (5mg/m2, no L-carnitine) and 11,1% in Arm B (7 mg/m2 with L-carnitine). Two partial responses were observed in Arm A (19 patients), none in Arm B (20 patients). Both schedules had the same progression-free interval (2.1 months). The median overall survival was 7.0 and 7.6 months. The safety profile was similar in both arms of the trial and adverse events were mainly mild to moderate (NCI CTC version 2.0). Increasing the dose to 7 mg/m2 did not increase the treatment efficacy but the incidence of transaminase and CPK elevations and serious AEs. Coadministration of L-carnitine did not prevent muscular toxicity or CPK-elevation associated with Plitidepsin.

  18. Valproic Acid, a Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, in Combination with Paclitaxel for Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer: Results of a Multicenter Randomized Controlled Phase II/III Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pugliese, Mariateresa; Gallo, Marco; Brignardello, Enrico; Milla, Paola; Orlandi, Fabio; Limone, Paolo Piero; Arvat, Emanuela; Boccuzzi, Giuseppe; Piovesan, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) has a median survival less than 5 months and, to date, no effective therapy exists. Taxanes have recently been stated as the main drug treatment for ATC, and the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid efficiently potentiates the effects of paclitaxel in vitro. Based on these data, this trial assessed the efficacy and safety of the combination of paclitaxel and valproic acid for the treatment of ATC. This was a randomized, controlled phase II/III trial, performed on 25 ATC patients across 5 centers in northwest Italy. The experimental arm received the combination of paclitaxel (80 mg/m2/weekly) and valproic acid (1,000 mg/day); the control arm received paclitaxel alone. Overall survival and disease progression, evaluated in terms of progression-free survival, were the primary outcomes. The secondary outcome was the pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel. The coadministration of valproic acid did not influence the pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel. Neither median survival nor median time to progression was statistically different in the two arms. Median survival of operated-on patients was significantly better than that of patients who were not operated on. The present trial demonstrates that the addition of valproic acid to paclitaxel has no effect on overall survival and disease progression of ATC patients. This trial is registered with EudraCT 2008-005221-11. PMID:27766105

  19. Phase II, Randomized, Placebo-controlled, 90-day Study of Emixustat HCL in Geographic Atrophy Associated with Dry Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Dugel, Pravin U.; Novack, Roger L.; Csaky, Karl G.; Richmond, Preston P.; Birch, David G.; Kubota, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study assessed the safety, tolerability, and pharmacodynamics of emixustat hydrochloride (ACU-4429), a novel visual cycle modulator, in subjects with geographic atrophy (GA) associated with dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods Subjects were randomly assigned to oral emixustat (2, 5, 7, or 10 mg once daily) or placebo (3:1 ratio) for 90 days. Recovery of rod photoreceptor sensitivity following a photobleach was measured by electroretinography. Safety evaluations included analysis of adverse events (AEs) and ophthalmic examinations. Results Seventy-two subjects (54 emixustat, 18 placebo) were evaluated. Emixustat suppressed rod photoreceptor sensitivity in a dose-dependent manner. Suppression plateaued by Day 14, and was reversible within 7-14 days after drug cessation. No systemic AEs of concern were noted. Dose-related ocular AEs (chromatopsia, 57% emixustat vs. 17% placebo; and delayed dark adaptation, 48% emixustat vs. 6% placebo) were mild to moderate, and the majority resolved on study or within 7-14 days after study drug cessation. Conclusions In this phase II study, emixustat produced a dose-dependent, reversible effect on rod function, and an ocular AE profile that is consistent with the proposed mechanism of action. These results support further testing of emixustat for the treatment of GA associated with dry AMD. PMID:25932553

  20. Randomized, placebo-controlled phase II trial of heat-killed Mycobacterium vaccae (Longcom batch) formulated as an oral pill (V7)

    PubMed Central

    Efremenko, Yuri V; Butov, Dmytro A; Prihoda, Natalia D; Zaitzeva, Svetlana I; Yurchenko, Larisa V; Sokolenko, Nina I; Butova, Tetyana S; Stepanenko, Anna L; Kutsyna, Galyna A; Jirathitikal, Vichai; Bourinbaiar, Aldar S

    2013-01-01

    One-month Phase II trial was conducted in 43 sputum smear-positive patients with pulmonary tuberculosis randomized into treatment (n = 22) and placebo (n = 21) arms to investigate the safety and efficacy of an orally-administered therapeutic TB vaccine (V7) containing 10 μg of heat-killed Mycobacterium vaccae provided by Longcom company. Immunotherapy and control groups comprised 8 newly diagnosed (1stDx TB; 18.6%), 6 re-treated (RTB; 14%), and 29 multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB; 67.4%) cases distributed at 5:4:13 and 3:2:16 ratios, respectively. Both arms received conventional TB drugs administered under directly observed therapy. The average weight gain in V7 arm was modest, but statistically significant (0.6 kg; p = 0.004), while placebo patients lost 0.1 kg (p = 0.77). Except defervescence and increased lymphocyte percentage, other secondary endpoints such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), leukocyte counts and hemoglobin content were not significantly affected. In control patients only one secondary endpoint, ESR, has improved. After one month mycobacterial clearance in sputum smears was observed in 31.8% (p = 0.03) and 9.5% (p = 0.83) of patients on V7 and placebo. However, the difference between outcomes in two arms was below significance threshold (p = 0.07). Thus, larger population of patients with prolonged follow-up is required to support these preliminary findings. PMID:23782489

  1. Phase II evaluation of clinical coding schemes: completeness, taxonomy, mapping, definitions, and clarity. CPRI Work Group on Codes and Structures.

    PubMed

    Campbell, J R; Carpenter, P; Sneiderman, C; Cohn, S; Chute, C G; Warren, J

    1997-01-01

    To compare three potential sources of controlled clinical terminology (READ codes version 3.1, SNOMED International, and Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) version 1.6) relative to attributes of completeness, clinical taxonomy, administrative mapping, term definitions and clarity (duplicate coding rate). The authors assembled 1929 source concept records from a variety of clinical information taken from four medical centers across the United States. The source data included medical as well as ample nursing terminology. The source records were coded in each scheme by an investigator and checked by the coding scheme owner. The codings were then scored by an independent panel of clinicians for acceptability. Codes were checked for definitions provided with the scheme. Codes for a random sample of source records were analyzed by an investigator for "parent" and "child" codes within the scheme. Parent and child pairs were scored by an independent panel of medical informatics specialists for clinical acceptability. Administrative and billing code mapping from the published scheme were reviewed for all coded records and analyzed by independent reviewers for accuracy. The investigator for each scheme exhaustively searched a sample of coded records for duplications. SNOMED was judged to be significantly more complete in coding the source material than the other schemes (SNOMED* 70%; READ 57%; UMLS 50%; *p < .00001). SNOMED also had a richer clinical taxonomy judged by the number of acceptable first-degree relatives per coded concept (SNOMED* 4.56, UMLS 3.17; READ 2.14, *p < .005). Only the UMLS provided any definitions; these were found for 49% of records which had a coding assignment. READ and UMLS had better administrative mappings (composite score: READ* 40.6%; UMLS* 36.1%; SNOMED 20.7%, *p < .00001), and SNOMED had substantially more duplications of coding assignments (duplication rate: READ 0%; UMLS 4.2%; SNOMED* 13.9%, *p < .004) associated with a loss of clarity

  2. Oral 5-aminolevulinic acid mediated photodynamic diagnosis using fluorescence cystoscopy for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer: A randomized, double-blind, multicentre phase II/III study.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Keiji; Anai, Satoshi; Fujimoto, Kiyohide; Hirao, Yoshihiko; Furuse, Hiroshi; Kai, Fumitake; Ozono, Seiichiro; Hara, Takahiko; Matsuyama, Hideyasu; Oyama, Masafumi; Ueno, Munehisa; Fukuhara, Hideo; Narukawa, Mamoru; Shuin, Taro

    2015-06-01

    Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) following transurethral administration of a hexalated form of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), 5-ALA hexyl ester, is widely performed in Western countries. In this study, effectiveness and safety of the oral administration of 5-ALA is assessed in a phase II/III study of PDD for NMIBC in comparison to those of conventional white-light endoscopic diagnosis. Patients with NMIBC were allocated to two groups that were orally administered 10 and 20 mg/kg of 5-ALA under the double-blind condition. Effectiveness was evaluated by setting the primary endpoint to sensitivity. Safety was also analyzed. Moreover, clinically recommended doses of 5-ALA was also investigated as an investigator-initiated multicenter cooperative clinical trial in which five medical institutions participated. All 62 enrolled patients completed the clinical trial. The sensitivities of PDD were higher (84.4 and 75.8% in the 10 and 20 m g/kg-groups, respectively) than those of conventional endoscopic diagnosis (67.5 and 47.6%, respectively) (p = 0.014 and p < 0.001, respectively). Five episodes of serious adverse events developed in four patients; whereas a causal relationship with the investigational agent was ruled out in all episodes. This investigator-initiated clinical trial confirmed the effectiveness and safety of PDD for NMIBC following oral administration of 5-ALA. Both doses of 5-ALA may be clinically applicable; however, the rate of detecting tumors only by PDD was higher in the 20 mg/kg-group suggesting that this dose would be more useful. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Randomized Phase II Trial Investigating the Effect of Platelet Function Inhibition on Circulating Tumor Cells in Patients With Metastatic Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Roop, Ryan P.; Naughton, Michael J.; Van Poznak, Catherine; Schneider, Jochen G.; Lammers, Philip E.; Pluard, Timothy J.; Johnson, Farley; Eby, Charles S.; Weilbaecher, Katherine N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Blockade of platelet activation and aggregation can inhibit metastasis in preclinical models and is associated with cancer prevention. To test whether disruption of platelet function with clopidogrel and aspirin would decrease the number of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in patients with metastatic breast cancer, a randomized phase II study was performed. Methods Patients with metastatic breast cancer who were not currently receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy were eligible. Patients were randomized to receive either clopidogrel and aspirin or to a control group receiving no treatment. Phlebotomy was performed at baseline, at 2 and 4 weeks, and monthly thereafter to obtain specimens to assess CTC, platelet aggregation, and thrombin activity. The primary end point was the proportion of patients with detectable CTCs at 1 month. Results Forty-eight patients were enrolled and 42 were evaluable at 1 month. Baseline CTC numbers were ≥ 5 in 13% and ≥ 1 in 65% of patients. Despite adequate platelet function inhibition in the treatment group, the proportion of patients with detectable CTCs was similar between the clopidogrel/aspirin and control groups at baseline (P = .21) and 4 weeks (P = .75), showing no treatment effect. Measured endogenous thrombin potential did not correlate with CTC number. No bleeding-related serious adverse events (SAEs) occurred. Conclusion The baseline CTC numbers were lower than expected, decreasing the ability to detect an impact of platelet inhibition on CTCs. Clopidogrel and aspirin were well tolerated. Future studies evaluating the potential therapeutic role of antiplatelet therapy in breast cancer remain of interest, and they may be informed by these results. PMID:24267729

  4. Immunogenicity and safety of a tetravalent dengue vaccine in healthy adults in India: A randomized, observer-blind, placebo-controlled phase II trial.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Anand Prakash; Agarkhedkar, Sharad; Chhatwal, Jugesh; Narayan, Arun; Ganguly, Satyabrata; Wartel, T Anh; Bouckenooghe, Alain; Menezes, Josemund

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that is endemic in India. We evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of recombinant, live-attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) in Indian adults. In this observer-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, Phase II study, adults aged 18-45 years were randomized 2:1 to receive CYD-TDV or placebo at 0, 6 and 12 months in sub-cutaneous administration. Immunogenicity was assessed using a 50% plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT50) at baseline and 28 days after each study injection. 189 participants were enrolled (CYD-TDV [n = 128]; placebo, [n = 61]). At baseline, seropositivity rates for dengue serotypes 1, 2, 3 and 4 ranged from 77.0% to 86.9%. Seropositivity rates for each serotype increased after each CYD-TDV injection with a more pronounced increase after the first injection. In the CYD-TDV group, geometric mean titres (GMTs) were 2.38 to 6.11-fold higher after the third injection compared with baseline but remained similar to baseline in the placebo group. In the CYD-TDV group, the GMTs were 1.66 to 4.95-fold higher and 9.23 to 24.6-fold higher after the third injection compared with baseline in those who were dengue seropositive and dengue seronegative, respectively. Pain was the most commonly reported solicited injection site reaction after the first injection in both the CYD-TDV (6.3%) and placebo groups (4.9%), but occurred less frequently after subsequent injections. No serious adverse events were vaccine-related, no immediate unsolicited adverse events, and no virologically-confirmed cases of dengue, were reported during the study. The immunogenicity and safety of CYD-TDV was satisfactory in both dengue seropositive and seronegative Indian adults.

  5. Randomized phase II trial of nimotuzumab plus irinotecan versus irinotecan alone as second-line therapy for patients with advanced gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Taroh; Lee, Kyung Hee; Rha, Sun Young; Sasaki, Yasutsuna; Park, Se Hoon; Komatsu, Yoshito; Yasui, Hirofumi; Kim, Tae-You; Yamaguchi, Kensei; Fuse, Nozomu; Yamada, Yasuhide; Ura, Takashi; Kim, Si-Young; Munakata, Masaki; Saitoh, Soh; Nishio, Kazuto; Morita, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Eriko; Zhang, Qingwei; Kim, Jung-mi; Kim, Yeul Hong; Sakata, Yuh

    2015-10-01

    This multicenter, randomized phase II trial was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of nimotuzumab plus irinotecan (N-IRI) versus irinotecan alone (IRI) in patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC) showing disease progression after previous 5-fluorouracil-based therapy. Irinotecan-naive patients (n = 82) received N-IRI (nimotuzumab 400 mg weekly plus irinotecan 150 mg/m(2) biweekly) or IRI (irinotecan 150 mg/m(2) biweekly) until disease progression. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS), and the secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS), response rate (RR), safety, tolerability, and the correlation between efficacy and tumor epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression. Of 83 patients, 40 and 43 patients were randomly assigned to the N-IRI and IRI groups, respectively. In the N-IRI/IRI treatment group, median PFS was 73.0/85.0 days (P = 0.5668), and median OS and RR at 18 months were 250.5/232.0 days (P = 0.9778) and 18.4/10.3 %, respectively. Median PFS and OS in the EGFR 2+/3+ subgroups were 118.5/59.0 and 358.5/229.5 days, respectively. The RR was 33.3/0.0 % in the N-IRI/IRI treatment group. The incidence of grade 3 or higher adverse events was 77.5/64.3 %. No adverse events of grade 3 or higher skin rash or grade 3 or higher infusion-related reaction were reported. There was no superiority of N-IRI over IRI alone in terms of PFS in 5-fluorouracil-refractory AGC patients. However, N-IRI showed potential improvement in the EGFR 2+/3+ subgroup based on improved RR, PFS, and OS.

  6. Sequential FOLFIRI.3 + Gemcitabine Improves Health-Related Quality of Life Deterioration-Free Survival of Patients with Metastatic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: A Randomized Phase II Trial

    PubMed Central

    Anota, Amélie; Mouillet, Guillaume; Trouilloud, Isabelle; Dupont-Gossart, Anne-Claire; Artru, Pascal; Lecomte, Thierry; Zaanan, Aziz; Gauthier, Mélanie; Fein, Francine; Dubreuil, Olivier; Paget-Bailly, Sophie; Taieb, Julien; Bonnetain, Franck

    2015-01-01

    Background A randomized multicenter phase II trial was conducted to assess the sequential treatment strategy using FOLFIRI.3 and gemcitabine alternately (Arm 2) compared to gemcitabine alone (Arm 1) in patients with metastatic non pre-treated pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The primary endpoint was the progression-free survival (PFS) rate at 6 months. It concludes that the sequential treatment strategy appears to be feasible and effective with a PFS rate of 43.5% in Arm 2 at 6 months (26.1% in Arm 1). This paper reports the results of the longitudinal analysis of the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) as a secondary endpoint of this study. Methods HRQoL was evaluated using the EORTC QLQ-C30 at baseline and every two months until the end of the study or death. HRQoL deterioration-free survival (QFS) was defined as the time from randomization to a first significant deterioration as compared to the baseline score with no further significant improvement, or death. A propensity score was estimated comparing characteristics of partial and complete responders. Analyses were repeated with inverse probability weighting method using the propensity score. Multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to identify independent factors influencing QFS. Results 98 patients were included between 2007 and 2011. Adjusting on the propensity score, patients of Arm 2 presented a longer QFS of Global Health Status (Hazard Ratio: 0.52 [0.31-0.85]), emotional functioning (0.35 [0.21–0.59]) and pain (0.50 [0.31 – 0.81]) than those of Arm 1. Conclusion Patients of Arm 2 presented a better HRQoL with a longer QFS than those of Arm 1. Moreover, the propensity score method allows to take into account the missing data depending on patients’ characteristics. Trial registration information Eudract N° 2006-005703-34. (Name of the Trial: FIRGEM). PMID:26010884

  7. A Randomized, Phase II, Biomarker-Selected Study Comparing Erlotinib to Erlotinib Intercalated With Chemotherapy in First-Line Therapy for Advanced Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Fred R.; Kabbinavar, Fairooz; Eisen, Tim; Martins, Renato; Schnell, Fredrick M.; Dziadziuszko, Rafal; Richardson, Katherine; Richardson, Frank; Wacker, Bret; Sternberg, David W.; Rusk, Jason; Franklin, Wilbur A.; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; Bunn, Paul A.; Camidge, D. Ross

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Erlotinib prolongs survival in patients with advanced non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We report the results of a randomized, phase II study of erlotinib alone or intercalated with chemotherapy (CT + erlotinib) in chemotherapy-naïve patients with advanced NSCLC who were positive for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) protein expression and/or with high EGFR gene copy number. Patients and Methods A total of 143 patients were randomly assigned to either erlotinib 150 mg daily orally until disease progression (PD) occurred or to chemotherapy with paclitaxel 200 mg/m2 intravenously (IV) and carboplatin dosed by creatinine clearance (AUC 6) IV on day 1 intercalated with erlotinib 150 mg orally on days 2 through 15 every 3 weeks for four cycles followed by erlotinib 150 mg orally until PD occurred (CT + erlotinib). The primary end point was 6-month progression-free survival (PFS); secondary end points included response rate, PFS, and survival. EGFR, KRAS mutation, EGFR fluorescent in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, and E-cadherin and vimentin protein levels were also assessed. Results Six-month PFS rates were 26% and 31% for the two arms (CT + erlotinib and erlotinib alone, respectively). Both were less than the historical control of 45% (P = .001 and P = .011, respectively). Median PFS times were 4.57 and 2.69 months, respectively. Patients with tumors harboring EGFR activating mutations fared better on erlotinib alone (median PFS, 18.2 months v 4.9 months for CT + erlotinib). Conclusion The feasibility of a multicenter biomarker-driven study was demonstrated, but neither treatment arms exceeded historical controls. This study does not support combined chemotherapy and erlotinib in first-line treatment of EGFR-selected advanced NSCLC, and the patients with tumors harboring EGFR mutations had a better outcome on erlotinib alone. PMID:21825259

  8. Feasibility and acceptability of a phase II randomized pharmacologic intervention for methamphetamine dependence in high-risk men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Das, Moupali; Santos, Deirdre; Matheson, Tim; Santos, Glenn-Milo; Chu, Priscilla; Vittinghoff, Eric; Shoptaw, Steve; Colfax, Grant N.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether actively using, methamphetamine (meth)-dependent men who have sex with men (MSM) could be enrolled and retained in a pharmacologic intervention trial, and the degree to which participants would adhere to study procedures, including medication adherence. Study design Phase II randomized, double-blind trial of bupropion vs. placebo. Methods Thirty meth-dependent, sexually active MSM were randomized to receive daily bupropion XL 300 mg or placebo for 12 weeks. Participants received weekly substance use counseling, provided weekly urine specimens, and completed monthly audio-computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) behavioral risk assessments. Adherence was measured by medication event monitoring systems (MEMS) caps (the number of distinct MEMS cap openings divided by the number of expected doses) and self-report. Results Ninety percent completed the trial: 89% of monthly ACASIs were completed, 81% of study visits were attended, and 81% of urine samples were collected. Adherence by MEMS cap was 60% and by self-report was 81% and did not differ significantly by treatment assignment. The median number of positive urine samples was 5.5 out of a possible 11 (50%). Participants in both arms reported similar declines in the median number of sex partners (P = 0.52). No serious adverse events occurred and there were no significant differences in adverse events by treatment assignment (P = 0.11). Conclusions It is feasible to enroll and retain actively using, meth-dependent MSM in a pharmacologic intervention. Bupropion was well tolerated. Study participation and retention rates were high, however, study drug medication adherence was only moderate. Findings support a larger trial with improved adherence support to evaluate the efficacy of bupropion and other pharmacologic interventions for meth dependence in this population. PMID:20397286

  9. A Randomized Phase II Trial of Short-Course Androgen Deprivation Therapy With or Without Bevacizumab for Patients With Recurrent Prostate Cancer After Definitive Local Therapy

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Rana R.; Zurita, Amado J.; Werner, Lillian; Bruce, Justine Y.; Carducci, Michael A.; Stein, Mark N.; Heath, Elisabeth I.; Hussain, Arif; Tran, Hai T.; Sweeney, Christopher J.; Ross, Robert W.; Kantoff, Philip W.; Slovin, Susan F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Patients with recurrent prostate cancer after local treatment make up a heterogeneous population for whom androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the usual treatment. The purpose of this randomized phase II trial was to investigate the efficacy and toxicity of short-course ADT with or without bevacizumab in men with hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. Patients and Methods Eligible patients had an increasing prostate-specific antigen (PSA) of ≤ 50 ng/mL and PSA doubling time of less than 18 months. Patients had either no metastases or low burden, asymptomatic metastases (lymph nodes < 3 cm and five or fewer bone metastases). Patients were randomly assigned 2:1 to a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist, bicalutamide and bevacizumab or ADT alone, for 6 months. The primary end point was PSA relapse-free survival (RFS). Relapse was defined as a PSA of more than 0.2 ng/mL for prostatectomy patients or PSA of more than 2.0 ng/mL for primary radiation therapy patients. Results Sixty-six patients received ADT + bevacizumab and 36 received ADT alone. Patients receiving ADT + bevacizumab had a statistically significant improvement in RFS compared with patients treated with ADT alone (13.3 months for ADT + bevacizumab v 10.2 months for ADT alone; hazard ratio, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.29 to 0.77; log-rank P = .002). Hypertension was the most common adverse event in patients receiving ADT + bevacizumab (36%). Conclusion ADT combined with bevacizumab resulted in an improved RFS for patients with hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. Long-term follow-up is needed to determine whether some patients have a durable PSA response and are able to remain off ADT for prolonged periods. Our data provide rationale for combining vascular endothelial growth factor–targeting therapy with ADT in hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. PMID:27044933

  10. Effect of Eischens Yoga During Radiation Therapy on Prostate Cancer Patient Symptoms and Quality of Life: A Randomized Phase II Trial.

    PubMed

    Ben-Josef, Avital Mazar; Chen, Jerry; Wileyto, Paul; Doucette, Abigail; Bekelman, Justin; Christodouleas, John; Deville, Curtiland; Vapiwala, Neha

    2017-08-01

    A randomized phase II study was performed to measure the potential therapeutic effects of yoga on fatigue, erectile dysfunction, urinary incontinence, and overall quality of life (QOL) in prostate cancer (PCa) patients undergoing external beam radiation therapy (RT). The participants were randomized to yoga and no-yoga cohorts (1:1). Twice-weekly yoga interventions were offered throughout the 6- to 9-week courses of RT. Comparisons of standardized assessments were performed between the 2 cohorts for the primary endpoint of fatigue and the secondary endpoints of erectile dysfunction, urinary incontinence, and QOL before, during, and after RT. From October 2014 to January 2016, 68 eligible PCa patients underwent informed consent and agreed to participate in the study. Of the 68 patients, 18 withdrew early, mostly because of treatment schedule-related time constraints, resulting in 22 and 28 patients in the yoga and no-yoga groups, respectively. Throughout treatment, those in the yoga arm reported less fatigue than those in the control arm, with global fatigue, effect of fatigue, and severity of fatigue subscales showing statistically significant interactions (P<.0001). The sexual health scores (International Index of Erectile Function Questionnaire) also displayed a statistically significant interaction (P=.0333). The International Prostate Symptom Score revealed a statistically significant effect of time (P<.0001) but no significant effect of treatment (P=.1022). The QOL measures had mixed results, with yoga having a significant time by treatment effect on the emotional, physical, and social scores but not on functional scores. A structured yoga intervention of twice-weekly classes during a course of RT was associated with a significant reduction in pre-existing and RT-related fatigue and urinary and sexual dysfunction in PCa patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. New film-coated tablet formulation of deferasirox is well tolerated in patients with thalassemia or lower-risk MDS: Results of the randomized, phase II ECLIPSE study.

    PubMed

    Taher, Ali T; Origa, Raffaella; Perrotta, Silverio; Kourakli, Alexandra; Ruffo, Giovan Battista; Kattamis, Antonis; Goh, Ai-Sim; Cortoos, Annelore; Huang, Vicky; Weill, Marine; Merino Herranz, Raquel; Porter, John B

    2017-01-31

    Once-daily deferasirox dispersible tablets (DT) have a well-defined safety and efficacy profile and, compared with parenteral deferoxamine, provide greater patient adherence, satisfaction, and quality of life. However, barriers still exist to optimal adherence, including gastrointestinal tolerability and palatability, leading to development of a new film-coated tablet (FCT) formulation that can be swallowed with a light meal, without the need to disperse into a suspension prior to consumption. The randomized, open-label, phase II ECLIPSE study evaluated the safety of deferasirox DT and FCT formulations over 24 weeks in chelation-naïve or pre-treated patients aged ≥10 years, with transfusion-dependent thalassemia or IPSS-R very-low-, low-, or intermediate-risk myelodysplastic syndromes. One hundred seventy-three patients were randomized 1:1 to DT (n = 86) or FCT (n = 87). Adverse events (overall), consistent with the known deferasirox safety profile, were reported in similar proportions of patients for each formulation (DT 89.5%; FCT 89.7%), with a lower frequency of severe events observed in patients receiving FCT (19.5% vs. 25.6% DT). Laboratory parameters (serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and urine protein/creatinine ratio) generally remained stable throughout the study. Patient-reported outcomes showed greater adherence and satisfaction, better palatability and fewer concerns with FCT than DT. Treatment compliance by pill count was higher with FCT (92.9%) than with DT (85.3%). This analysis suggests deferasirox FCT offers an improved formulation with enhanced patient satisfaction, which may improve adherence, thereby reducing frequency and severity of iron overload-related complications.

  12. Randomized Phase II Study of the X-linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis (XIAP) Antisense AEG35156 in Combination With Sorafenib in Patients With Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC).

    PubMed

    Lee, Francis A S; Zee, Benny Chung-Ying; Cheung, Foon Yiu; Kwong, Philip; Chiang, Chi Leung; Leung, Kwong Chuen; Siu, Steven W K; Lee, Conrad; Lai, Maria; Kwok, Chloe; Chong, Marc; Jolivet, Jacques; Tung, Steward

    2016-12-01

    This multicenter, randomized, open-label, phase II trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of AEG35156 in addition to sorafenib in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), as compared with sorafenib alone. Eligible patients were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive AEG35156 (300 mg weekly intravenous infusion) in combination with sorafenib (400 mg twice daily orally) or sorafenib alone. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Other endpoints include overall survival (OS), objective response rates (ORR), and safety profile. A total of 51 patients were enrolled; of them, 48 were evaluable. At a median follow-up of 16.2 months, the median PFS and OS were 4.0 months (95% CI, 1.2-4.1) and 6.5 months (95% CI, 3.9-11.5) for combination arm, and 2.6 (95% CI, 1.2-5.4) and 5.4 months (95% CI, 4.3-11.2) for sorafenib arm. Patients who had the study treatment interrupted or had dose modifications according to protocol did significantly better, in terms of PFS and OS, than those who had no dose reduction in combination arm and those in sorafenib arm. The ORR based on Choi and RECIST criteria were 16.1% and 9.7% in combination arm, respectively. The ORR was 0 in control arm. One drug-related serious adverse event of hypersensitivity occurred in the combination arm, whereas 2 gastrointestinal serious adverse events in the sorafenib arm. AEG35156 in combination with sorafenib showed additional activity in terms of ORR and was well tolerated. The benefit on PFS is moderate but more apparent in the dose-reduced subgroups.

  13. Efficacy of thalidomide for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A phase II open label clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    STOMMEL, ELIJAH W.; COHEN, JEFFREY A.; FADUL, CAMILO E.; COGBILL, CHRISTOPHER H.; GRABER, DAVID J.; KINGMAN, LINDA; MACKENZIE, TODD; SMITH, JACQUELINE Y. CHANNON; HARRIS, BRENT T.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroinflammation through the cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We conducted a preliminary phase II trial of thalidomide, which reduces levels of TNF-α pre-transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally in vivo and has been shown to prolong disease duration and extend the lifespan of transgenic animal models of ALS. Patients who met diagnostic criteria for ALS received thalidomide at escalating doses to a target dose of 400 mg/day. The primary endpoints in the trial were the ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS) and pulmonary function testing (PFT) curves after nine months of thalidomide treatment that were compared to historical controls. Secondary endpoints were: survival stratified for newly diagnosed and progressive disease, toxicity, quality of life, and serum cytokine measurements. Twenty-three patients were enrolled, but only 18 were evaluable for the primary outcome. There was no improvement in the ALSFRS or PFT compared to historical controls. Thalidomide had several side-effects in our ALS patients. There was no significant shift in cytokine profile after treatment compared to baseline. In conclusion, treatment of ALS with the TNF-α inhibitor, thalidomide, does not appear to effectively modulate disease progression and can cause adverse effects. PMID:19922130

  14. Randomized two-stage Phase II clinical trial designs based on Barnard's exact test.

    PubMed

    Shan, Guogen; Ma, Changxing; Hutson, Alan D; Wilding, Gregory E

    2013-01-01

    In areas such as oncology, two-stage designs are often preferred as compared to one-stage designs due to the ability to stop the trial early when faced with evidence of lack of sufficient efficacy and the associated sample size savings. We present exact two-stage designs based on Barnard's exact test for differences in proportions and compare the designs to those proposed by Kepner ( 2010 ) and Jung ( 2010 ). In addition, we present tables of decision rules under a variety of assumed realities for use in trial planning. The procedure is recommended for use due to the substantial sample size savings experienced.

  15. Early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx: Radiotherapy vs. Trans-Oral Robotic Surgery (ORATOR) – study protocol for a randomized phase II trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) has markedly increased over the last three decades due to newly found associations with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Primary radiotherapy (RT) is the treatment of choice for OPSCC at most centers, and over the last decade, the addition of concurrent chemotherapy has led to a significant improvement in survival, but at the cost of increased acute and late toxicity. Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) has emerged as a promising alternative treatment, with preliminary case series demonstrating encouraging oncologic, functional, and quality of life (QOL) outcomes. However, comparisons of TORS and RT in a non-randomized fashion are susceptible to bias. The goal of this randomized phase II study is to compare QOL, functional outcomes, toxicity profiles, and survival following primary RT (± chemotherapy) vs. TORS (± adjuvant [chemo] RT) in patients with OPSCC. Methods/Design The target patient population comprises OPSCC patients who would be unlikely to require chemotherapy post-resection: Tumor stage T1-T2 with likely negative margins at surgery; Nodal stage N0-2, ≤3 cm in size, with no evidence of extranodal extension on imaging. Participants will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio between Arm 1 (RT ± chemotherapy) and Arm 2 (TORS ± adjuvant [chemo] RT). In Arm 1, patients with N0 disease will receive RT alone, whereas N1-2 patients will receive concurrent chemoradiation. In Arm 2, patients will undergo TORS along with selective neck dissections, which may be staged. Pathologic high-risk features will be used to determine the requirement for adjuvant radiotherapy +/- chemotherapy. The primary endpoint is QOL score using the M.D. Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI), with secondary endpoints including survival, toxicity, other QOL outcomes, and swallowing function. A sample of 68 patients is required. Discussion This study, if successful, will provide a much-needed randomized

  16. Efficacy and safety of rebamipide liquid for chemoradiotherapy-induced oral mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group phase II study.

    PubMed

    Yokota, T; Ogawa, T; Takahashi, S; Okami, K; Fujii, T; Tanaka, K; Iwae, S; Ota, I; Ueda, T; Monden, N; Matsuura, K; Kojima, H; Ueda, S; Sasaki, K; Fujimoto, Y; Hasegawa, Y; Beppu, T; Nishimori, H; Hirano, S; Naka, Y; Matsushima, Y; Fujii, M; Tahara, M

    2017-05-05

    Recent preclinical and phase I studies have reported that rebamipide decreased the severity of chemoradiotherapy-induced oral mucositis in patients with oral cancer. This placebo-controlled randomized phase II study assessed the clinical benefit of rebamipide in reducing the incidence of severe chemoradiotherapy-induced oral mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). Patients aged 20-75 years with HNC who were scheduled to receive chemoradiotherapy were enrolled. Patients were randomized to receive rebamipide 2% liquid, rebamipide 4% liquid, or placebo. The primary endpoint was the incidence of grade ≥ 3 oral mucositis determined by clinical examination and assessed by central review according to the Common Terminology Criteria of Adverse Events version 3.0. Secondary endpoints were the time to onset of grade ≥ 3 oral mucositis and the incidence of functional impairment (grade ≥ 3) based on the evaluation by the Oral Mucositis Evaluation Committee. From April 2014 to August 2015, 97 patients with HNC were enrolled, of whom 94 received treatment. The incidence of grade ≥ 3 oral mucositis was 29% and 25% in the rebamipide 2% and 4% groups, respectively, compared with 39% in the placebo group. The proportion of patients who did not develop grade ≥ 3 oral mucositis by day 50 of treatment was 57.9% in the placebo group, whereas the proportion was 68.0% in the rebamipide 2% group and 71.3% in the rebamipide 4% group. The incidences of adverse events potentially related to the study drug were 16%, 26%, and 13% in the placebo, rebamipide 2%, and rebamipide 4% groups, respectively. There was no significant difference in treatment compliance among the groups. The present phase II study suggests that mouth washing with rebamipide may be effective and safe for patients with HNC receiving chemoradiotherapy, and 4% liquid is the optimal dose of rebamipide. ClinicalTrials.gov under the identifier NCT02085460 (the date of trial registration: March

  17. Using phase II data for the analysis of phase III studies: An application in rare diseases.

    PubMed

    Wandel, Simon; Neuenschwander, Beat; Röver, Christian; Friede, Tim

    2017-06-01

    Clinical research and drug development in orphan diseases are challenging, since large-scale randomized studies are difficult to conduct. Formally synthesizing the evidence is therefore of great value, yet this is rarely done in the drug-approval process. Phase III designs that make better use of phase II data can facilitate drug development in orphan diseases. A Bayesian meta-analytic approach is used to inform the phase III study with phase II data. It is particularly attractive, since uncertainty of between-trial heterogeneity can be dealt with probabilistically, which is critical if the number of studies is small. Furthermore, it allows quantifying and discounting the phase II data through the predictive distribution relevant for phase III. A phase III design is proposed which uses the phase II data and considers approval based on a phase III interim analysis. The design is illustrated with a non-inferiority case study from a Food and Drug Administration approval in herpetic keratitis (an orphan disease). Design operating characteristics are compared to those of a traditional design, which ignores the phase II data. An analysis of the phase II data reveals good but insufficient evidence for non-inferiority, highlighting the need for a phase III study. For the phase III study supported by phase II data, the interim analysis is based on half of the patients. For this design, the meta-analytic interim results are conclusive and would justify approval. In contrast, based on the phase III data only, interim results are inconclusive and require further evidence. To accelerate drug development for orphan diseases, innovative study designs and appropriate methodology are needed. Taking advantage of randomized phase II data when analyzing phase III studies looks promising because the evidence from phase II supports informed decision-making. The implementation of the Bayesian design is straightforward with public software such as R.

  18. Integrated safety profile of single-agent carfilzomib: experience from 526 patients enrolled in 4 phase II clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Siegel, David; Martin, Thomas; Nooka, Ajay; Harvey, R Donald; Vij, Ravi; Niesvizky, Ruben; Badros, Ashraf Z; Jagannath, Sundar; McCulloch, Leanne; Rajangam, Kanya; Lonial, Sagar

    2013-11-01

    Carfilzomib, a selective proteasome inhibitor, was approved in 2012 for the treatment of relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma. Safety data for single-agent carfilzomib have been analyzed for 526 patients with advanced multiple myeloma who took part in one of 4 phase II studies (PX-171-003-A0, PX-171-003-A1, PX-171-004, and PX-171-005). Overall analyses of adverse events and treatment modifications are presented, as well as specific analyses of adverse events by organ system. Overall, the most common adverse events of any grade included fatigue (55.5%), anemia (46.8%), and nausea (44.9%). In the grouped analyses, any grade adverse events were reported in 22.1% for any cardiac (7.2% cardiac failure), 69.0% for any respiratory (42.2% dyspnea), and 33.1% for any grouped renal impairment adverse event (24.1% increased serum creatinine). The most common non-hematologic adverse events were generally Grade 1 or 2 in severity, while Grade 3/4 adverse events were primarily hematologic and mostly reversible. There was no evidence of cumulative bone marrow suppression, either neutropenia or thrombocytopenia, and febrile neutropenia occurred infrequently (1.1%). Notably, the incidence of peripheral neuropathy was low overall (13.9%), including patients with baseline peripheral neuropathy (12.7%). Additionally, the incidence of discontinuations or dose reductions attributable to adverse events was low. These data demonstrate that single-agent carfilzomib has an acceptable safety profile in heavily pre-treated patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. The tolerable safety profile allows for administration of full-dose carfilzomib, both for extended periods and in a wide spectrum of patients with advanced multiple myeloma, including those with pre-existing comorbidities.

  19. A phase II study of gefitinib monotherapy in advanced esophageal adenocarcinoma: evidence of gene expression, cellular, and clinical response.

    PubMed

    Ferry, David R; Anderson, Mark; Beddard, Kate; Tomlinson, Simon; Atherfold, Paul; Obszynska, Jolanta; Harrison, Rebecca; Jankowski, Janusz

    2007-10-01

    At presentation, most cases of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus (ACE) are inoperable. Although chemotherapy can prolong survival, patients eventually die as a result of refractory disease. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is almost universally expressed in ACE and is a negative prognostic factor. This open-label, two-center, noncomparative, two-part phase II trial assessed the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib (500 mg/d) in patients with advanced, inoperable ACE. The primary end point was tumor response. The effect of EGFR inhibition was also evaluated by gene expression analysis of tumor biopsies taken before gefitinib treatment and 28 days after. Twenty-seven patients were recruited and evaluable for tumor response and safety. Three patients had a partial response and seven had stable disease, giving a disease control rate (partial response + stable disease) of 37%. Drug-related adverse events were generally mild: diarrhea in 19 (grade 3 in three) and rash in 19 (grade 3 in five) patients, and there were no grade 4 drug-related adverse events. Microarray experiments on tumor biopsies showed that gefitinib also down-regulated oncogenes associated with tumor progression. Ki67 (a marker of tumor growth) expression decreased in five of seven biopsies taken before and after treatment. Gefitinib (500 mg/d) is an active and generally well-tolerated treatment for ACE. Studies on endoscopic biopsies are feasible and indicate that gefitinib inhibits both gene expression and cellular biology at 500 mg/d, and these may provide surrogate end points for predictive biomarkers. Further trials of gefitinib are warranted, particularly as patient response seems to be durable and current second-line chemotherapy options have no proven ability to prolong life.

  20. Phase II--clinical trial with biodegradable subdermal contraceptive implant Capronor (4.0-cm single implant). Indian Council of Medical Research Task Force on Hormonal Contraception.

    PubMed

    1991-10-01

    The subdermal biodegradable contraceptive implant Capronor (4.0 cm) was implanted in 41 women to observe the efficacy and side effects. Only one pregnancy was reported at 10 months of use, and the life table continuation rate at 12 months was 82.2 per 100 users. No serious clinical side effects were reported during the study period. The menstrual pattern was disrupted during the first 3 months of implant use in two-thirds of the women which improved by the end of 12 months of use. The results of this Phase II study suggest that Capronor is a safe and effective long-acting contraceptive. These findings need to be confirmed in a Phase III clinical trial on a larger sample size.

  1. Clinical, molecular and immune analysis of dabrafenib and trametinib in metastatic melanoma patients that progressed on BRAF inhibitor monotherapy: a phase II clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guo; McQuade, Jennifer L.; Panka, David J.; Hudgens, Courtney W.; Amin-Mansour, Ali; Mu, Xinmeng Jasmine; Bahl, Samira; Jane-Valbuena, Judit; Wani, Khalida M.; Reuben, Alexandre; Creasy, Caitlyn A.; Jiang, Hong; Cooper, Zachary A.; Roszik, Jason; Bassett, Roland L.; Joon, Aron Y.; Simpson, Lauren M.; Mouton, Rosalind D.; Glitza, Isabella C.; Patel, Sapna P.; Hwu, Wen-Jen; Amaria, Rodabe N.; Diab, Adi; Hwu, Patrick; Lazar, Alexander J.; Wargo, Jennifer A.; Garraway, Levi A.; Tetzlaff, Michael T.; Sullivan, Ryan J.; Kim, Kevin B.; Davies, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Importance Combined treatment with dabrafenib and trametinib (CombiDT) achieves clinical responses in only ~15% of BRAF inhibitor (BRAFi)-refractory metastatic melanoma patients, in contrast to the high activity observed in BRAFi-naïve patients. Identifying correlates of response and mechanisms of resistance in this population will facilitate clinical management and rational therapeutic development. Objective To determine correlates of benefit from CombiDT therapy in BRAFi-refractory metastatic melanoma patients. Design Single-center, single-arm prospective phase II study of CombiDT in patients with BRAFV600 metastatic melanoma resistant to BRAFi monotherapy conducted between September 2012 and October 2014. Setting University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. Participants 28 patients were screened and 23 enrolled. Key eligibility criteria included: BRAFV600 metastatic melanoma, prior BRAFi monotherapy, measurable disease (RECIST 1.1), and accessible tumor for biopsy. Intervention Patients were treated with dabrafenib (150 mg twice daily) and trametinib (2 mg daily) continuously until disease progression or intolerance. All participants underwent a mandatory baseline biopsy, and optional biopsies were performed on-treatment and at progression. Whole-exome sequencing, RT-PCR for BRAF splicing, RNAseq and IHC were performed on tumor samples, and blood was analyzed for levels of circulating BRAFV600. Main outcome measures Primary endpoint was overall response rate (ORR). Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were secondary clinical endpoints. Results Among evaluable patients, the confirmed ORR was 10%, disease control rate (DCR) was 45%, and median PFS was 13 weeks. Clinical benefit was associated with duration of prior BRAFi >6 months (DCR 73% vs. 11% for ≤6 months, p=0.02) and decrease in circulating BRAFV600 at day 8 of cycle 1 (DCR 75% vs. 18% for no decrease, p=0.015), but not by pre-treatment MAPK pathway mutations or activation. On

  2. Nimotuzumab plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a multicenter, randomized, open-label Phase II study.

    PubMed

    Babu, K Govind; Prabhash, Kumar; Vaid, Ashok K; Sirohi, Bhawna; Diwakar, Ravi B; Rao, Raghunadha; Kar, Madhuchanda; Malhotra, Hemant; Nag, Shona; Goswami, Chanchal; Raina, Vinod; Mohan, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of nimotuzumab in combination with chemotherapy (docetaxel and carboplatin) versus chemotherapy alone in patients with stage IIIB/IV non-small-cell lung cancer. This multicenter, open-label, Phase II study randomized 110 patients to receive nimotuzumab plus chemotherapy (nimotuzumab group) or chemotherapy alone (control group), and comprised concomitant, maintenance, and follow-up phases. Nimotuzumab 200 mg was administered once weekly for 13 weeks during the first two phases with four cycles of chemotherapy and docetaxel 75 mg/m(2) and carboplatin (area under the curve 5 mg/mL*min) every 3 weeks for a maximum of four cycles during the concomitant phase. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (sum of complete response and partial response). Secondary endpoints, ie, overall survival and progression-free survival, were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Efficacy was evaluated on the intent-to-treat and efficacy-evaluable sets. Safety was assessed from adverse event and serious adverse event data. The objective response rate was significantly higher in the nimotuzumab group than in the control group in the intent-to-treat population (54% versus 34.5%; P=0.04). A complete response and partial response were achieved in 3.6% and 50% of patients, respectively, in the nimotuzumab group, and in 4% and 30.9% of patients, respectively, in the control group. No significant differences in median progression-free survival and overall survival were observed. Safety profiles were comparable between the two groups. Nimotuzumab plus chemotherapy significantly improved the objective response rate as compared with chemotherapy alone. The combination was safe and well tolerated in patients with stage IIIB/IV non-small-cell lung cancer.

  3. Nimotuzumab plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a multicenter, randomized, open-label Phase II study

    PubMed Central

    Babu, K Govind; Prabhash, Kumar; Vaid, Ashok K; Sirohi, Bhawna; Diwakar, Ravi B; Rao, Raghunadha; Kar, Madhuchanda; Malhotra, Hemant; Nag, Shona; Goswami, Chanchal; Raina, Vinod; Mohan, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of nimotuzumab in combination with chemotherapy (docetaxel and carboplatin) versus chemotherapy alone in patients with stage IIIB/IV non-small-cell lung cancer. Methods This multicenter, open-label, Phase II study randomized 110 patients to receive nimotuzumab plus chemotherapy (nimotuzumab group) or chemotherapy alone (control group), and comprised concomitant, maintenance, and follow-up phases. Nimotuzumab 200 mg was administered once weekly for 13 weeks during the first two phases with four cycles of chemotherapy and docetaxel 75 mg/m2 and carboplatin (area under the curve 5 mg/mL*min) every 3 weeks for a maximum of four cycles during the concomitant phase. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (sum of complete response and partial response). Secondary endpoints, ie, overall survival and progression-free survival, were estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Efficacy was evaluated on the intent-to-treat and efficacy-evaluable sets. Safety was assessed from adverse event and serious adverse event data. Results The objective response rate was significantly higher in the nimotuzumab group than in the control group in the intent-to-treat population (54% versus 34.5%; P=0.04). A complete response and partial response were achieved in 3.6% and 50% of patients, respectively, in the nimotuzumab group, and in 4% and 30.9% of patients, respectively, in the control group. No significant differences in median progression-free survival and overall survival were observed. Safety profiles were comparable between the two groups. Conclusion Nimotuzumab plus chemotherapy significantly improved the objective response rate as compared with chemotherapy alone. The combination was safe and well tolerated in patients with stage IIIB/IV non-small-cell lung cancer. PMID:24966687

  4. Maintenance treatment of Uracil and Tegafur (UFT) in responders following first-line fluorouracil-based chemotherapy in metastatic gastric cancer: a randomized phase II study.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenhua; Zhao, Xiaoying; Wang, Huijie; Liu, Xin; Zhao, Xinmin; Huang, Mingzhu; Qiu, Lixin; Zhang, Wen; Chen, Zhiyu; Guo, Weijian; Li, Jin; Zhu, Xiaodong

    2017-06-06

    Maintenance therapy proves to be effective in advanced lung and breast cancer after initial chemotherapy. The purpose of this phase II study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Uracil and Tegafur (UFT) maintenance in metastatic gastric cancer patients following the first-line fluorouracil-based chemotherapy. Metastatic gastric cancer patients with stable disease or a better response after the completion of first-line chemotherapy were randomized to oral UFT (360mg/m2 × 2 weeks) every 3 weeks until disease progression/intolerable toxicity or to observation (OBS). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS); the secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and safety. The trial was closed after the interim analysis of the 58 enrolled (120 planned) patients. Median PFS was not improved in the UFT group compared with the OBS group (3.2 months versus 3.6 months, P = 0.752), as well as the median OS (14.2 months for both, P = 0.983). However, subgroup analysis showed that low baseline hemoglobin (< 120 g/L) was associated with poorer PFS with maintenance therapy (P = 0.032), while the normal hemoglobin patients benefit from the UFT treatment (P = 0.008). Grade 3 to 4 toxicities in the UFT group were anemia (3.4%), thrombocytopenia (3.4%) and diarrhea (6.9%). This trial did not show superiority of UFT maintenance in non-selected patients responding to fluorouracil-based first-line chemotherapy. The normal hemoglobin level at baseline is a predictive biomarker for favorable patient subsets from the maintenance treatment.

  5. Randomized open-label phase II study comparing oxycodone-naloxone with oxycodone in early return of gastrointestinal function after laparoscopic colorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Creamer, F; Balfour, A; Nimmo, S; Foo, I; Norrie, J D; Williams, L J; Fearon, K C; Paterson, H M

    2017-01-01

    Combined oral modified-release oxycodone-naloxone may reduce opioid-induced postoperative gut dysfunction. This study examined the feasibility of a randomized trial of oxycodone-naloxone within the context of enhanced recovery for laparoscopic colorectal resection. In a single-centre open-label phase II feasibility study, patients received analgesia based on either oxycodone-naloxone or oxycodone. Primary endpoints were recruitment, retention and protocol compliance. Secondary endpoints included a composite endpoint of gut function (tolerance of solid food, low nausea/vomiting score, passage of flatus or faeces). Eighty-two patients were screened and 62 randomized (76 per cent); the attrition rate was 19 per cent (12 of 62), leaving 50 patients who received the allocated intervention with 100 per cent follow-up and retention (modified intention-to-treat cohort). Protocol compliance was more than 90 per cent. Return of gut function by day 3 was similar in the two groups: 13 (48 per cent) of 27 in the oxycodone-naloxone group and 15 (65 per cent) of 23 in the control group (95 per cent c.i. for difference -10·0 to 40·7 per cent; P = 0·264). However, patients in the oxycodone-naloxone group had a shorter time to first bowel movement (mean(s.d.) 87(38) h versus 111(37) h in the control group; 95 per cent c.i. for difference 2·3 to 45·4 h, P = 0·031) and reduced total (oral plus parenteral) opioid consumption (mean(s.d.) 78(36) versus 94(56) mg respectively; 95 per cent c.i. for difference -10·2 to 42·8 mg, P = 0·222). High participation, retention and protocol compliance confirmed feasibility. Potential benefits of oxycodone-naloxone in reducing time to bowel movement and total opioid consumption could be tested in a randomized trial. Registration number: NCT02109640 (https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/). © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Paclitaxel plus valproic acid versus paclitaxel alone as second- or third-line therapy for advanced gastric cancer: a randomized Phase II trial

    PubMed Central

    Fushida, Sachio; Kinoshita, Jun; Kaji, Masahide; Oyama, Katsunobu; Hirono, Yasuo; Tsukada, Tomoya; Fujimura, Takashi; Ohta, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Background Weekly paclitaxel (wPTX) is the preferred second-line chemotherapy for gastric cancer in Japan. Histone deacetylase inhibitors have been shown to decrease proliferation through cell-cycle arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. One histone deacetylase inhibitor, valproic acid (VPA), also inhibits tumor growth by inducing apoptosis and enhances the efficacy of paclitaxel (PTX), shown in a murine gastric cancer model. This Phase II trial was designed to evaluate the benefits of adding VPA to wPTX in patients with gastric cancer refractory to first-line treatment with fluoropyrimidine. Patients and methods The patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive PTX 80 mg/m2 intravenously on days 1, 8, and 15, every 4 weeks, or a dose of PTX plus VPA taken everyday at 7.5 mg/kg twice daily. Random assignment was carried out at the data center with a minimization method adjusted by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (0–1 vs 2), prior chemotherapy (first-line vs second-line), and measurable lesions (presence vs absence). The primary end point was the overall survival (OS) rate, and the secondary end points were the progression-free survival rate and safety analysis. Results Sixty-six patients were randomly assigned to receive wPTX (n=33) or wPTX plus VPA (n=33). The median OS was 9.8 months in the wPTX group and 8.7 months in the wPTX plus VPA group (hazard ratio 1.19; 95% CI 0.702–2.026; P=0.51). The median progression-free survival was 4.5 months in the wPTX group and 3.0 months in the wPTX plus VPA group (hazard ratio 1.29; 95% CI 0.753–2.211; P=0.35). Grade 3–4 adverse events were neutropenia (3.1%), pneumonia (1.6%), liver injury (1.6%), brain infarction (1.6%), and rupture of aorta (1.6%). Conclusion No statistically significant difference was observed between wPTX and wPTX plus VPA for OS. PMID:27524882

  7. Paclitaxel plus valproic acid versus paclitaxel alone as second- or third-line therapy for advanced gastric cancer: a randomized Phase II trial.

    PubMed

    Fushida, Sachio; Kinoshita, Jun; Kaji, Masahide; Oyama, Katsunobu; Hirono, Yasuo; Tsukada, Tomoya; Fujimura, Takashi; Ohta, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Weekly paclitaxel (wPTX) is the preferred second-line chemotherapy for gastric cancer in Japan. Histone deacetylase inhibitors have been shown to decrease proliferation through cell-cycle arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. One histone deacetylase inhibitor, valproic acid (VPA), also inhibits tumor growth by inducing apoptosis and enhances the efficacy of paclitaxel (PTX), shown in a murine gastric cancer model. This Phase II trial was designed to evaluate the benefits of adding VPA to wPTX in patients with gastric cancer refractory to first-line treatment with fluoropyrimidine. The patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive PTX 80 mg/m(2) intravenously on days 1, 8, and 15, every 4 weeks, or a dose of PTX plus VPA taken everyday at 7.5 mg/kg twice daily. Random assignment was carried out at the data center with a minimization method adjusted by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (0-1 vs 2), prior chemotherapy (first-line vs second-line), and measurable lesions (presence vs absence). The primary end point was the overall survival (OS) rate, and the secondary end points were the progression-free survival rate and safety analysis. Sixty-six patients were randomly assigned to receive wPTX (n=33) or wPTX plus VPA (n=33). The median OS was 9.8 months in the wPTX group and 8.7 months in the wPTX plus VPA group (hazard ratio 1.19; 95% CI 0.702-2.026; P=0.51). The median progression-free survival was 4.5 months in the wPTX group and 3.0 months in the wPTX plus VPA group (hazard ratio 1.29; 95% CI 0.753-2.211; P=0.35). Grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropenia (3.1%), pneumonia (1.6%), liver injury (1.6%), brain infarction (1.6%), and rupture of aorta (1.6%). No statistically significant difference was observed between wPTX and wPTX plus VPA for OS.

  8. Efficacy and safety of retinol palmitate ophthalmic solution in the treatment of dry eye: a Japanese Phase II clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Toshida, Hiroshi; Funaki, Toshinari; Ono, Koichi; Tabuchi, Nobuhito; Watanabe, Sota; Seki, Tamotsu; Otake, Hiroshi; Kato, Takuji; Ebihara, Nobuyuki; Murakami, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of the administration of retinol palmitate (VApal) ophthalmic solution (500 IU/mL) for the treatment of patients with dry eye. Patients and methods This study included 66 patients with dry eye. After a 2-week washout period, patients were randomized (1:1) into either a VApal ophthalmic solution or a placebo group, and a single drop of either solution was administered six times daily for 4 weeks. Efficacy measures were 12 subjective symptoms, rose bengal (RB) and fluorescein staining scores, tear film breakup time, and tear secretion. Safety measures included clinical blood and urine analyses and adverse event recordings. Results In comparisons of the two groups, the mean change in RB staining score from baseline was significantly lower in the VApal group at 2 and 4 weeks (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). Furthermore, the fluorescein clearance rate (fluorescein staining score) was significantly higher in the VApal group at 4 weeks (P<0.05). The VApal group showed a significant improvement in blurred vision at 1 and 2 weeks (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively), and the mean change in the total score for subjective symptoms from baseline was significantly lower in the VApal group at 1 week (P<0.05). In before- and after-intervention comparisons, the fluorescein and RB staining scores showed improvement in both groups. Improvement was noted for 11 subjective symptoms in the VApal group and for seven symptoms in the placebo group. No significant differences in adverse events and reactions were found between the groups. Conclusion VApal ophthalmic solution (500 IU/mL) is safe and effective for the treatment of patients with dry eye. PMID:28694687

  9. A Phase II Clinical Trial of CPI-613 in Patients with Relapsed or Refractory Small Cell Lung Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pardee, Timothy S.; Petty, William J.; Bonomi, Marcelo; Alistar, Angela; Lamar, Zanetta S.; Isom, Scott; Chan, Michael D.; Miller, Antonius A.; Ruiz, Jimmy

    2016-01-01

    Background Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a common lung cancer which presents with extensive stage disease at time of diagnosis in two-thirds of patients. For treatment of advanced disease, traditional platinum doublet chemotherapy induces response rates up to 80% but with few durable responses. CPI-613 is a novel anti-cancer agent that selectively inhibits the altered form of mitochondrial energy metabolism in tumor cells. Methods We evaluated CPI-613 with a single-arm, open-label phase II study in patients with relapsed or refractory SCLC. CPI-613 was given at a dose of 3,000 mg/m2 on days 1 and 4 of weeks 1–3 of 4 week cycle. The primary outcome was response rate as assessed by CT imaging using RECIST v1.1 criteria. Secondary outcomes were progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and toxicity. Twelve patients were accrued (median age 57yo) who had previously received between 1 and 4 lines of chemotherapy (median 1) for SCLC with a treatment-free interval of less than 60 days in 9 of the 12 patients. Results No complete or partial responses were seen. Ten patients (83%) progressed as best response and 2 (17%) were not evaluable for response. Median time to progression was 1.7 months (range 0.7 to 1.8 months). Eleven patients (92%) died with median overall survival of 4.3 months (range 1.2 to 18.2 months). The study was closed early due to lack of efficacy. Of note, three out of three patients who progressed after CPI-613 and were subsequently treated with standard topotecan then demonstrated treatment response with survival for 18.2, 7.4, and 5.1 months. We conducted laboratory studies which found synergy in-vitro for CPI-613 with topotecan. Conclusions Single agent CPI-613 had no efficacy in this study. Further study of CPI 613 in combination with a topoisomerase inhibitor is warranted. PMID:27732654

  10. A randomized phase II trial of erlotinib vs. S-1 as a third- or fourth-line therapy for patients with wild-type EGFR non-small cell lung cancer (HOT1002).

    PubMed

    Ikezawa, Yasuyuki; Asahina, Hajime; Oizumi, Satoshi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Takamura, Kei; Kawai, Yasutaka; Yamada, Noriyuki; Harada, Toshiyuki; Kinoshita, Ichiro; Fujita, Yuka; Miyauchi, Eisaku; Ogi, Takahiro; Amano, Toraji; Furuta, Megumi; Sakakibara-Konishi, Jun; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Dosaka-Akita, Hirotoshi; Isobe, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Masaharu

    2017-09-13

    A high proportion of patients with wild-type EGFR non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receive third-line therapy and beyond, with no prospective randomized trials addressing the issue. This study aimed to select the most suitable regimen as a third- or fourth-line therapy for wild-type EGFR NSCLC. This multicenter, randomized phase II study in Japan included patients with recurrent or advanced NSCLC with wild-type or unknown EGFR, who progressed after two or three previous chemotherapies. The patients were randomly assigned to erlotinib (150 mg/day, days 1-21) or S-1 (80-120 mg/day, days 1-14) every 3 weeks until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was disease control rate (DCR). The secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), toxicity, and quality of life (QOL). From 2011 to 2016, 37 patients were randomly assigned to receive erlotinib (E arm, n = 19) and S-1 (S arm, n = 18). This study was terminated prematurely because of poor patient accrual. DCR/ORR were 42.1%/15.8% in the E arm and 66.7%/16.7% in the S arm. Median PFS/OS were 1.6 months/8.0 months in the E arm and 3.3 months/12.2 months in the S arm. In both groups, the most commonly reported grade 3-4 toxicities were fatigue, anorexia, and nausea. One grade 5 pneumonitis occurred in the S arm. No significant difference was seen in QOL. S-1 as a third- or fourth-line therapy for wild-type EGFR NSCLC showed numerically better clinical outcomes than erlotinib. UMIN000005308.

  11. Rebamipide (OPC-12759) in the treatment of dry eye: a randomized, double-masked, multicenter, placebo-controlled phase II study.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Shigeru; Awamura, Saki; Oshiden, Kazuhide; Nakamichi, Norihiro; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Yokoi, Norihiko

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the dose response for efficacy of 1% and 2% rebamipide ophthalmic suspension compared with placebo in patients with dry eye. A randomized, double-masked, multicenter, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, dose-response phase II study. A total of 308 patients with dry eye. After a 2-week screening period, patients were randomized to receive placebo or 1% rebamipide or 2% rebamipide administered as 1 drop in each eye 4 times daily for 4 weeks. The primary objective end point was change in fluorescein corneal staining (FCS) score from baseline to last observation carried forward (LOCF). Secondary objective end points were lissamine green conjunctival staining (LGCS) score, tear film break-up time (TBUT), and the Schirmer's test. Secondary subjective end points included dry eye-related ocular symptoms (foreign body sensation, dryness, photophobia, eye pain, and blurred vision) score and patients' overall treatment impression score. Rebamipide dose response was observed in FCS, LGCS, and TBUT scores. Both 1% and 2% rebamipide were significantly more effective than the placebo in terms of the change from baseline to LOCF for FCS, LGCS, and TBUT scores. There was no significant difference between the rebamipide and placebo groups from baseline to LOCF in Schirmer's test values, and dose response was not observed. In the predefined dry eye subpopulation with a baseline FCS score of 10 to 15, the mean change from baseline in the 2% rebamipide group was larger than that in the 1% rebamipide group. Change from baseline to LOCF for all 5 dry eye-related ocular symptom scores and patients' overall treatment impression showed significant improvements in the 1% and 2% rebamipide groups compared with the placebo group, except for photophobia in the 1% rebamipide group. No deaths or drug-related serious adverse events occurred in any treatment group. The incidence of ocular abnormalities was similar across the rebamipide and placebo groups. Rebamipide was effective in

  12. A FDG-PET driven consolidation strategy in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: Final results of a randomized phase II study.

    PubMed

    Casasnovas, Rene-Olivier; Ysebaert, Loic; Thieblemont, Catherine; Bachy, Emmanuel; Feugier, Pierre; Delmer, Alain; Tricot, Sabine; Gabarre, Jean; Andre, Marc; Fruchart, Christophe; Mounier, Nicolas; Delarue, Richard; Meignan, Michel; Berriolo-Riedinger, Alina; Bardet, Stephane; Emile, Jean-Francois; Jais, Jean-Philippe; Haioun, Corinne; Tilly, Herve; Morschhauser, Franck

    2017-07-12

    Dose-dense induction and upfront consolidation with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) remain controversial issues when treating high-risk diffuse large B cell lymphoma patients. GELA designed a randomized phase II trial evaluating the efficacy of either R-ACVBP or R-CHOP14 induction and a PET-driven ASCT or standard immunochemotherapy (SIC) consolidation in aaIPI2-3 patients. PET was done at baseline, after 2 (PET2) and 4 induction cycles (PET4) and centrally assessed using international harmonization project (IHP) criteria. PET2-/PET4- patients were assigned SIC, PET2+/PET4- ASCT and PET4+ patients treated with investigator' choice. The primary end-point was the 2007 international working group CR rate after induction. ΔSUVmax PET assessment was explored. 211 patients were randomized to R-ACVBP (n=109) or R-CHOP14 (n=102). PET4-/CR rates were 53/47% with R-ACVBP and 41/39% with R-CHOP14 (CR 95%CI: 38%-67% v 28%-54%; p=0.076). Consolidation in the R-ACVBP and R-CHOP14 arms was SIC in 26% and 23% of patients and ASCT in 28% and 18%, respectively. PET4 positivity was higher with R-CHOP14 (54% v 41%; p=0.08) leading to more salvage therapy (37% v 26%; p=0.07) and lower EFS (4y-EFS= 31% v 43%; p<0.01) but PFS and OS were similar in both arms. PET2-/PET4- and PET2+/PET4- patients had similar outcome. Using ΔSUVmax, 79% patients were PET2-/PET4-. ΔSUVmaxPET0-4>70% was associated with better outcome (4y-PFS: 84% v 35%; 4y-OS: 91% v 57%, p<0.0001) whatever the consolidation. Superiority of R-ACVBP over R-CHOP14 was not established as IHP criteria did not properly reflect disease control. ΔSUVmax may help better select patients needing alternative to SIC, including ASCT. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Hematology.

  13. [Three-year follow-up of 12 patients with prostate cancer treated with monthly degarelix in a phase II clinical trial].

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Senji; Hayashi, Natsuho; Yagi, Mayu; Ookubo, Teppei; Muto, Akinori; Sugano, Osamu; Numahata, Kenji; Bilim, Vladimir; Hoshi, Kiyotugu; Sasagawa, Isoji

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of degarelix, a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone(LH-RH)antagonist, in patients with prostate cancer(PCa)were evaluated in a phase II, open-label, multicenter clinical trial. In this trial, a total of 13 patients were accrued at the Yamagata Prefectural Central Hospital from 2007 to 2008. The median age was 80 years(range, 65-85 years), and clinical stages were T1c, T2, T3, and T4 in 1, 4, 6, and 2 patients, respectively. Nodal(N)status was N0 in 9 patients and N1 in 4 patients. Distant metastases were absent(M0)in 12 patients and present(M1b)in 1 patient. The median prostate- specific antigen(PSA)level was 29.1 ng/mL(range, 6.3-427 ng/mL). All but one patient, who died of an unrelated cause, received a monthly dose(80 or 160mg)of degarelix for 12 months and were followed-up for 3 years. The PSA level declined in all patients. One patient died of an unrelated cause during the phase II trial. After completion of the phase II trial, 5 patients were treated with combined and rogen blockade(CAB)(leuprolide plus anti-androgen therapy), 2 patients were treated with single-agent leuprolide, 2 patients received single-agent bicalutamide, and 1 patient was followed-up without additional treatment. Radical prostatectomy was performed in 2 patients. Among the 5 patients treated with CAB, 2 died of metastatic cancer. CAB was effective in suppressing PSA levels in 3 patients. In 1 patient with T3aN1M1b PCa, colon cancer with lung metastases was detected during the follow-up period. Treatment with chemotherapy for colon cancer was effective in suppressing PSA levels for 12 months. In 1 patient with cT3aN1M0 PCa, the PSA level declined to <0.02 ng/mL, and a reduction in size of the prostate gland and metastatic lymph nodes was observed. This effect persisted for 3.5 years after the completion of the 12-month degarelix regimen, and no additional treatment was required.

  14. Assessment of analytical methods used to measure changes in body composition in the elderly and recommendations for their use in phase II clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Lustgarten, M S; Fielding, R A

    2011-05-01

    It is estimated that in the next 20 years, the amount of people greater than 65 years of age will rise from 40 to 70 million, and will account for 19% of the total population. Age-related decreases in muscle mass and function, known as sarcopenia, have been shown to be related to functional limitation, frailty and an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Therefore, with an increasing elderly population, interventions that can improve muscle mass content and/or function are essential. However, analytical techniques used for measurement of muscle mass in young subjects may not be valid for use in the elderly. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to examine the applied specificity and accuracy of methods that are commonly used for measurement of muscle mass in aged subjects, and, to propose specific recommendations for the use of body composition measures in phase II clinical trials of function-promoting anabolic therapies.

  15. ASSESSMENT OF ANALYTICAL METHODS USED TO MEASURE CHANGES IN BODY COMPOSITION IN THE ELDERLY AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THEIR USE IN PHASE II CLINICAL TRIALS

    PubMed Central

    Lustgarten, M.S.; Fielding, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    It is estimated that in the next 20 years, the amount of people greater than 65 years of age will rise from 40 to 70 million, and will account for 19% of the total population. Age-related decreases in muscle mass and function, known as sarcopenia, have been shown to be related to functional limitation, frailty and an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Therefore, with an increasing elderly population, interventions that can improve muscle mass content and/or function are essential. However, analytical techniques used for measurement of muscle mass in young subjects may not be valid for use in the elderly. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to examine the applied specificity and accuracy of methods that are commonly used for measurement of muscle mass in aged subjects, and, to propose specific recommendations for the use of body composition measures in phase II clinical trials of function-promoting anabolic therapies. PMID:21528163

  16. Pharmacokinetics of tiotropium administered by Respimat(®) in asthma patients: Analysis of pooled data from Phase II and III clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ashish; Kerstjens, Huib A M; Aalbers, René; Moroni-Zentgraf, Petra; Weber, Benjamin; Dahl, Ronald

    2017-02-01

    Tiotropium is a long-acting inhaled antimuscarinic bronchodilator that has recently received marketing authorization for the indication of asthma with dose delivery via the Respimat(®) inhaler, in addition to its widely established role in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This report presents a combined analysis of tiotropium plasma and urine pharmacokinetics at steady state from 8 Phase II/III clinical trials in asthma and delineates the effects of patient characteristics on systemic exposure based on the parameters fe0-24,ss (fraction of dose excreted unchanged in urine over 24 h post-dose at steady-state) and dose-normalized AUCtau,ss and Cmax,ss. Pharmacokinetics were also compared between asthma and COPD, incorporating data from 3 COPD Phase II/III clinical trials. Tiotropium pharmacokinetics in asthma were dose-proportional up to 5 μg dosed once daily. The following factors showed no statistically significant effects on tiotropium systemic exposure in asthma based on analysis of geometric mean ratios and 90% confidence intervals: age, asthma severity, lung function, reversibility testing, allergy status, smoking history, geographical region, and posology (5 μg once daily or 2.5 μg twice daily via Respimat(®)). Asian patients showed a moderately but significantly higher systemic exposure compared to White or Black patients. However, no differences in safety by race were observed. Total systemic exposure (AUCtau,ss) was similar between asthma and COPD, but Cmax,ss was 52% lower in asthma patients compared to COPD. It is concluded that in asthma, patient characteristics have no relevant effect on tiotropium systemic exposure. Since systemic exposure to inhaled drugs is an indicator of safety, the lower Cmax,ss compared to COPD is not considered a concern for tiotropium therapy of asthma.

  17. Phase I and phase II objective response rates are correlated in pediatric cancer trials: an argument for better clinical trial efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Jonathan C.; Huang, Peng; Cohen, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    While many phase I trials report tumor response, formal analysis of efficacy is deferred to phase II. We reviewed paired phase I and II pediatric oncology trials to ascertain the relationship between phase I and II objective response (OR%). Single-agent phase I trials were paired with corresponding phase II trials (comparable study drug, dosing schedule, and population). Phase I trials without efficacy data or a matching phase II trial were excluded. OR% was tabulated for all trials, and phase II authors' subjective conclusions regarding efficacy were documented. 35 pairs of trials were analyzed. The correlation between phase I and II OR% was 0.93. Between phase II studies with a “positive” conclusion versus a “negative” one, there was a statistically significant difference in mean phase I OR% (32.0% vs. 4.5%, p < 0.001). Thirteen phase II studies were undertaken despite phase I OR% of 0%; only one had a “positive” conclusion, and none exceeded OR% of 15%. Objective response rates are highly correlated between phase I and II pediatric oncology trials. Though not a formal measure of drug efficacy, phase I OR% may provide an estimate of phase II response, inform phase II study design, and should be given greater consideration. PMID:27164535

  18. Safety and Efficacy of Autologous CD34+ Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells Transduced with an Anti-Tat Ribozyme in a Multi-Center, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Phase II Gene Therapy Trial for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuyasu, Ronald T; Merigan, Thomas C; Carr, Andrew; Zack, Jerome A; Winters, Mark A; Workman, Cassy; Bloch, Mark; Lalezari, Jacob; Becker, Stephen; Thornton, Lorna; Akil, Bisher; Khanlou, Homayoon; Finlayson, Robert; McFarlane, Robert; Smith, Don E; Garsia, Roger; Ma, David; Law, Matthew; Murray, John M.; von Kalle, Christof; Ely, Julie A; Patino, Sharon M; Knop, Alison E; Wong, Philip; Todd, Alison V; Haughton, Margaret; Fuery, Caroline; Macpherson, Janet L; Symonds, Geoff P; Evans, Louise A; Pond, Susan M; Cooper, David A

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Gene transfer has potential as a once-only treatment that reduces viral load, preserves the immune system, and avoids lifetime highly active antiretroviral therapy. This study, the first randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase II cell-delivered gene transfer clinical trial, was conducted in 74 HIV-1 infected adults who received a tat/vpr specific anti-HIV ribozyme (OZ1) or placebo delivered in autologous CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells. There were no OZ1-related adverse events. There was no statistical difference in viral load between the OZ1 and placebo group at the primary end-point (average at weeks 47 and 48) but time weighted areas under the curve from weeks 40-48 and 40-100 were significantly lower in the OZ1 group. Throughout the 100 weeks, CD4+ lymphocyte counts were higher in the OZ1 group. This study provides the first indication that cell-delivered gene transfer is safe and biologically active in HIV patients and can be developed as a conventional therapeutic product. PMID:19219022

  19. Reactogenicity, safety and immunogenicity of a protein-based pneumococcal vaccine in Gambian children aged 2-4 years: A phase II randomized study.

    PubMed

    Odutola, A; Ota, M O; Ogundare, E O; Antonio, M; Owiafe, P; Worwui, A; Greenwood, B; Alderson, M; Traskine, M; Verlant, V; Dobbelaere, K; Borys, D

    2016-01-01

    Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have been successful in preventing invasive pneumococcal disease but effectiveness has been challenged by replacement of vaccine serotypes with non-vaccine serotypes. Vaccines targeting common pneumococcal protein(s) found in most/all pneumococci may overcome this limitation. This phase II study assessed safety and immunogenicity of a new protein-based pneumococcal vaccine containing polysaccharide conjugates of 10 pneumococcal serotypes combined with pneumolysin toxoid(dPly) and pneumococcal histidine triad protein D(PhtD) (PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD-30) in African children. 120 Gambian children (2-4 years, not previously vaccinated against Streptococcus pneumoniae) randomized (1:1) received a single dose of PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD-30 or PCV13. Adverse events occurring over 4 d post-vaccination were reported, and blood samples obtained pre- and 1-month post-vaccination. Serious adverse events were reported for 6 months post-vaccination. Solicited local and systemic adverse events were reported at similar frequency in each group. One child (PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD-30 group) reported a grade 3 local reaction to vaccination. Haematological and biochemical parameters seemed similar pre- and 1-month post-vaccination in each group. High pre-vaccination Ply and PhtD antibody concentrations were observed in each group, but only increased in PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD-30 vaccinees one month post-vaccination. One month post-vaccination, for each vaccine serotype ≥96.2% of PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD-30 vaccinees had serotype-specific polysaccharide antibody concentrations ≥0.20µg/mL except serotypes 6B (80.8%) and 23F (65.4%), and ≥94.1% had OPA titres of ≥8 except serotypes 1 (51.9%), 5 (38.5%) and 6B (78.0%), within ranges seen in PCV13-vaccinated children. A single dose of PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD-30 vaccine, administered to Gambian children aged 2-4 y not previously vaccinated with a pneumococcal vaccine, was well-tolerated and immunogenic.

  20. Effects of Simulated Surface Effect Ship Motions on Crew Habitability. Phase II. Volume 5. Clinical Medical Effects on Volunteers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-01

    psychiatrist or a clinical psychologist under his supervision. In addition to a standard clinical psychi- atric interview, the Bender - Gestalt test , the...be- cause of the small sample and because of the many variations of the test conditions, the fol- lowing findings are presented. In all sea state...were excluded by the experimental design. CONCLUSIONS (1) These data indicate that a majority of the subjects tested were able to function for varying

  1. Audiovisual biofeedback breathing guidance for lung cancer patients receiving radiotherapy: a multi-institutional phase II randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Sean; O'Brien, Ricky; Makhija, Kuldeep; Hegi-Johnson, Fiona; Ludbrook, Jane; Rezo, Angela; Tse, Regina; Eade, Thomas; Yeghiaian-Alvandi, Roland; Gebski, Val; Keall, Paul J

    2015-07-18

    There is a clear link between irregular breathing and errors in medical imaging and radiation treatment. The audiovisual biofeedback system is an advanced form of respiratory guidance that has previously demonstrated to facilitate regular patient breathing. The clinical benefits of audiovisual biofeedback will be investigated in an upcoming multi-institutional, randomised, and stratified clinical trial recruiting a total of 75 lung cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. To comprehensively perform a clinical evaluation of the audiovisual biofeedback system, a multi-institutional study will be performed. Our methodological framework will be based on the widely used Technology Acceptance Model, which gives qualitative scales for two specific variables, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, which are fundamental determinants for user acceptance. A total of 75 lung cancer patients will be recruited across seven radiation oncology departments across Australia. Patients will be randomised in a 2:1 ratio, with 2/3 of the patients being recruited into the intervention arm and 1/3 in the control arm. 2:1 randomisation is appropriate as within the interventional arm there is a screening procedure where only patients whose breathing is more regular with audiovisual biofeedback will continue to use this system for their imaging and treatment procedures. Patients within the intervention arm whose free breathing is more regular than audiovisual biofeedback in the screen procedure will remain in the intervention arm of the study but their imaging and treatment procedures will be performed without audiovisual biofeedback. Patients will also be stratified by treating institution and for treatment intent (palliative vs. radical) to ensure similar balance in the arms across the sites. Patients and hospital staff operating the audiovisual biofeedback system will complete questionnaires to assess their experience with audiovisual biofeedback. The objectives of this

  2. Beating the Odds: Successful Establishment of a Phase II/III Clinical Research Trial in Resource-Poor Liberia during the Largest-Ever Ebola Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Doe-Anderson, J; Baseler, B; Driscoll, P; Johnson, M; Lysander, J; McNay, L; Njoh, WS; Smolskis, M; Wehrlen, L; Zuckerman, J

    2016-01-01

    It has been argued that a country such as Liberia, not fully recovered from the devastation of decades of civil unrest, lacked the appropriate ethical and regulatory framework, basic human and health care services, and infrastructure to carry out clinical trials according to international standards of quality during a public health emergency. However, as Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea were being ravaged by the largest and most devastating Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak ever recorded, the topic of conducting clinical trials of experimental vaccine and treatment candidates in these resource-poor countries generated the keen interest and concern of scientists, researchers, physicians, bioethicists, philanthropists, and even politicians. Decisive action on behalf of the Liberian government, and a timely positive and supportive response from the United States (U.S.) government, led to the formation of PREVAIL (Partnership for Research on Ebola Vaccines in Liberia) – a clinical research partnership between the two governments. Within a span of 12 weeks, this partnership accomplished the unimaginable: the successful initiation of a Phase II/III vaccine clinical trial for EVD in Liberia. This paper will discuss the dynamics of the research collaboration, barriers encountered, breakthroughs realized, key elements of success, and lessons learned in the process. PMID:28042619

  3. International Phase II clinical trial of CBTPsych: A standalone Internet social anxiety treatment for adults who stutter.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Ross; O'Brian, Sue; Lowe, Robyn; Packman, Ann; Onslow, Mark

    2016-06-01

    CBTPsych is an individualized, fully automated, standalone Internet treatment program that requires no clinical contact or support. It is designed specifically for those who stutter. Two preliminary trials demonstrated that it may be efficacious for treating the social anxiety commonly associated with stuttering. However, both trials involved pre- and post-treatment assessment at a speech clinic. This contact may have increased compliance, commitment and adherence with the program. The present study sought to establish the effectiveness of CBTPsych in a large international trial with no contact of any kind from researchers or clinicians. Participants were 267 adults with a reported history of stuttering who were given a maximum of 5 months access to CBTPsych. Pre- and post-treatment functioning was assessed within the online program with a range of psychometric measures. Forty-nine participants (18.4%) completed all seven modules of CBTPsych and completed the post-treatment online assessments. That compliance rate was far superior to similar community trials of self-directed Internet mental health programs. Completion of the program was associated with large, statistically and clinically significant reductions for all measures. The reductions were similar to those obtained in earlier trials of CBTPsych, and those obtained in trials of in-clinic CBT with an expert clinician. CBTPsych is a promising individualized treatment for social anxiety for a proportion of adults who stutter, which requires no health care costs in terms of clinician contact or support. The reader will be able to: (a) discuss the reasons for investigating CBTPsych without any clinical contact; (b) describe the main components of the CBTPsych treatment; (c) summarize the results of this clinical trial; (d) describe how the results might affect clinical practice, if at all. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Phase II Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Schuknecht, Nate; White, David; Hoste, Graeme

    2014-09-11

    The SkyTrough DSP will advance the state-of-the-art in parabolic troughs for utility applications, with a larger aperture, higher operating temperature, and lower cost. The goal of this project was to develop a parabolic trough collector that enables solar electricity generation in the 2020 marketplace for a 216MWe nameplate baseload power plant. This plant requires an LCOE of 9¢/kWhe, given a capacity factor of 75%, a fossil fuel limit of 15%, a fossil fuel cost of $6.75/MMBtu, $25.00/kWht thermal storage cost, and a domestic installation corresponding to Daggett, CA. The result of our optimization was a trough design of larger aperture and operating temperature than has been fielded in large, utility scale parabolic trough applications: 7.6m width x 150m SCA length (1,118m2 aperture), with four 90mm diameter × 4.7m receivers per mirror module and an operating temperature of 500°C. The results from physical modeling in the System Advisory Model indicate that, for a capacity factor of 75%: The LCOE will be 8.87¢/kWhe. SkyFuel examined the design of almost every parabolic trough component from a perspective of load and performance at aperture areas from 500 to 2,900m2. Aperture-dependent design was combined with fixed quotations for similar parts from the commercialized SkyTrough product, and established an installed cost of $130/m2 in 2020. This project was conducted in two phases. Phase I was a preliminary design, culminating in an optimum trough size and further improvement of an advanced polymeric reflective material. This phase was completed in October of 2011. Phase II has been the detailed engineering design and component testing, which culminated in the fabrication and testing of a single mirror module. Phase II is complete, and this document presents a summary of the comprehensive work.

  5. Phase II/III weekly nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine or carboplatin versus gemcitabine/carboplatin as first-line treatment of patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (the tnAcity study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Yardley, Denise A; Brufsky, Adam; Coleman, Robert E; Conte, Pierfranco F; Cortes, Javier; Glück, Stefan; Nabholtz, Jean-Mark A; O'Shaughnessy, Joyce; Beck, Robert M; Ko, Amy; Renschler, Markus F; Barton, Debora; Harbeck, Nadia

    2015-12-16

    Triple-negative breast cancer is an aggressive disease with unmet clinical needs. In a phase III study of patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer, first-line gemcitabine/carboplatin resulted in a median progression-free survival of 4.6 months. nab-paclitaxel-based regimens (with gemcitabine or carboplatin±bevacizumab) also demonstrated efficacy and safety in first-line phase II trials of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative metastatic breast cancer. In this international, multicenter, open-label, randomized phase II/III trial, the efficacy and safety of first-line nab-paclitaxel with gemcitabine or with carboplatin will be compared with gemcitabine/carboplatin (control arm) for metastatic triple-negative breast cancer. In the phase II portion, 240 patients with measurable metastatic triple-negative breast cancer and treatment-naive for metastatic disease will be randomized 1:1:1 (stratified by disease-free interval: ≤1 versus>1 year) to nab-paclitaxel 125 mg/m2 plus gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2, nab-paclitaxel 125 mg/m2 plus carboplatin area under the curve 2 mg×min/mL, or gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 plus carboplatin area under the curve 2 mg×min/mL, all given on days 1 and 8 of a 21-day cycle. Investigator-assessed progression-free survival (primary endpoint), overall response rate, overall survival, and safety will be assessed. A ranking algorithm of five efficacy and safety parameters will be used to pick the "winner" of the nab-paclitaxel regimens. In the phase III portion, 550 patients will be randomized 1:1 (stratified by disease-free interval: ≤1 versus >1 year, and prior adjuvant/neoadjuvant taxane use) to the nab-paclitaxel combination arm selected from the phase II portion or to the control arm. Patients in phase II will not be part of the phase III population. The phase III primary endpoint is blinded, independently-assessed progression-free survival; secondary endpoints include blinded, independently-assessed overall response

  6. Comparative effectiveness of combined therapy inhibiting EGFR and VEGF pathways in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a meta-analysis of 16 phase II/III randomized trials

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Shangli; Wu, Tongwei; Yan, Guangyue; Cheng, Sijin; Cui, Kang; Xi, Ying; Qi, Xiaolong; Zhang, Jie; Ma, Wang

    2017-01-01

    Background & Aims Combined therapy inhibiting EGFR and VEGF pathways is becoming a promising therapy in the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), however, with controversy. The study aims to compare the efficacy of combined inhibition therapy versus control therapy (including placebo, single EGFR inhibition and single VEGF inhibition) in patients with advanced NSCLC. Materials and Methods An adequate literature search in EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) and European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO) was conducted. Phase II or III randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared effectiveness between combined inhibition therapy and control therapy in patients with advanced NSCLC were eligible. The endpoint was overall response rate (ORR), progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Results Sixteen phase II or III RCTs involving a total of 7,109 patients were included. The results indicated that the combined inhibition therapy significantly increased the ORR (OR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.36-1.87, p<0.00001; I2 = 36%) when compared to control therapy. In the subgroup analysis, the combined inhibition therapy clearly increased the ORR (OR = 2.04, 95% CI = 1.60-2.60, p<0.00001; I2 = 0%) and improved the PFS (HR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.71-0.85, p<0.00001;I2 = 0%) when compared with the placebo, and similar results was detected when compared with the single EGFR inhibition in terms of ORR (OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.12-1.74, p = 0.003; I2 = 30%) and PFS (HR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.67-0.81, p<0.0001; I2 = 50%). No obvious difference was found between the combined inhibition therapy and single VEGF inhibition in term of ORR, however, combined inhibition therapy significantly decreased the PFS when compared to the single VEGF inhibition therapy (HR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.34-2.17, p<0.0001; I2 = 50%). Besides, no significant difference was observed between the combined inhibition therapy

  7. Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter Phase II Study of Onartuzumab Plus Bevacizumab Versus Placebo Plus Bevacizumab in Patients With Recurrent Glioblastoma: Efficacy, Safety, and Hepatocyte Growth Factor and O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase Biomarker Analyses.

    PubMed

    Cloughesy, Timothy; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Belda-Iniesta, Cristóbal; Recht, Lawrence; Brandes, Alba A; Pineda, Estela; Mikkelsen, Tom; Chinot, Olivier L; Balana, Carmen; Macdonald, David R; Westphal, Manfred; Hopkins, Kirsten; Weller, Michael; Bais, Carlos; Sandmann, Thomas; Bruey, Jean-Marie; Koeppen, Hartmut; Liu, Bo; Verret, Wendy; Phan, See-Chun; Shames, David S

    2017-01-20

    Purpose Bevacizumab regimens are approved for the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma in many countries. Aberrant mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (MET) expression has been reported in glioblastoma and may contribute to bevacizumab resistance. The phase II study GO27819 investigated the monovalent MET inhibitor onartuzumab plus bevacizumab (Ona + Bev) versus placebo plus bevacizumab (Pla + Bev) in recurrent glioblastoma. Methods At first recurrence after chemoradiation, bevacizumab-naïve patients with glioblastoma were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive Ona (15 mg/kg, once every 3 weeks) + Bev (15 mg/kg, once every 3 weeks) or Pla + Bev until disease progression. The primary end point was progression-free survival by response assessment in neuro-oncology criteria. Secondary end points were overall survival, objective response rate, duration of response, and safety. Exploratory biomarker analyses correlated efficacy with expression levels of MET ligand hepatocyte growth factor, O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase promoter methylation, and glioblastoma subtype. Results Among 129 patients enrolled (Ona + Bev, n = 64; Pla + Bev, n = 65), baseline characteristics were balanced. The median progression-free survival was 3.9 months for Ona + Bev versus 2.9 months for Pla + Bev (hazard ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.56; P = .7444). The median overall survival was 8.8 months for Ona + Bev and 12.6 months for Pla + Bev (hazard ratio, 1.45; 95% CI, 0.88 to 2.37; P = .1389). Grade ≥ 3 adverse events were reported in 38.5% of patients who received Ona + Bev and 35.9% of patients who received Pla + Bev. Exploratory biomarker analyses suggested that patients with high expression of hepatocyte growth factor or unmethylated O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase may benefit from Ona + Bev. Conclusion There was no evidence of further clinical benefit with the addition of onartuzumab to bevacizumab compared with bevacizumab plus placebo in unselected patients with

  8. Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, phase II trial to assess the safety and efficacy of ceftolozane-tazobactam plus metronidazole compared with meropenem in adult patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections.

    PubMed

    Lucasti, Christopher; Hershberger, Ellie; Miller, Benjamin; Yankelev, Sara; Steenbergen, Judith; Friedland, Ian; Solomkin, Joseph

    2014-09-01

    Ceftolozane-tazobactam (TOL-TAZ) is a novel antibacterial with activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other common Gram-negative pathogens, including extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, that are associated with complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs). This prospective, double-blind, randomized, multicenter, phase II trial assessed patient clinical and microbiological responses to and the safety of TOL-TAZ plus metronidazole compared with those of meropenem. Hospitalized adults with cIAIs that required surgical intervention were randomized (2:1) to receive intravenous (i.v.) TOL-TAZ (1.5 g [containing 1,000 mg TOL and 500 mg TAZ] every 8 h [q8h]) with or without i.v. metronidazole (500 mg q8h) or i.v. meropenem (1 g q8h) for 4 to 7 days. The primary endpoint was the clinical response at the test-of-cure visit in the microbiologically modified intent-to-treat (mMITT) and microbiologically evaluable (ME) populations. Secondary measures included the patients' microbiological response and safety. In total, 82 patients received TOL-TAZ (90.2% with metronidazole), and 39 received meropenem. For the mMITT population, clinical cure was seen in 83.6% of the patients (51/61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 71.9 to 91.8) who received TOL-TAZ and 96.0% of the patients (24/25; 95% CI, 79.6 to 99.9) who received meropenem (difference, -12.4%; 95% CI, -34.9% to 11.1%); in the ME population, clinical cure was seen in 88.7% and 95.8% of the patients (difference, -7.1%; 95% CI, -30.7% to 16.9%) who received TOL-TAZ and meropenem, respectively. TOL-TAZ demonstrated microbiological success against Escherichia coli (89.5%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (100%), and P. aeruginosa (100%). The adverse event rates were similar in the groups (50.0% with TOL-TAZ and 48.8% with meropenem). TOL-TAZ in combination with metronidazole was well tolerated and resulted in clinical and microbiological success rates supportive of further clinical development in

  9. Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Phase II Trial To Assess the Safety and Efficacy of Ceftolozane-Tazobactam plus Metronidazole Compared with Meropenem in Adult Patients with Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Hershberger, Ellie; Miller, Benjamin; Yankelev, Sara; Steenbergen, Judith; Friedland, Ian; Solomkin, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Ceftolozane-tazobactam (TOL-TAZ) is a novel antibacterial with activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other common Gram-negative pathogens, including extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, that are associated with complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs). This prospective, double-blind, randomized, multicenter, phase II trial assessed patient clinical and microbiological responses to and the safety of TOL-TAZ plus metronidazole compared with those of meropenem. Hospitalized adults with cIAIs that required surgical intervention were randomized (2:1) to receive intravenous (i.v.) TOL-TAZ (1.5 g [containing 1,000 mg TOL and 500 mg TAZ] every 8 h [q8h]) with or without i.v. metronidazole (500 mg q8h) or i.v. meropenem (1 g q8h) for 4 to 7 days. The primary endpoint was the clinical response at the test-of-cure visit in the microbiologically modified intent-to-treat (mMITT) and microbiologically evaluable (ME) populations. Secondary measures included the patients' microbiological response and safety. In total, 82 patients received TOL-TAZ (90.2% with metronidazole), and 39 received meropenem. For the mMITT population, clinical cure was seen in 83.6% of the patients (51/61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 71.9 to 91.8) who received TOL-TAZ and 96.0% of the patients (24/25; 95% CI, 79.6 to 99.9) who received meropenem (difference, −12.4%; 95% CI, −34.9% to 11.1%); in the ME population, clinical cure was seen in 88.7% and 95.8% of the patients (difference, −7.1%; 95% CI, −30.7% to 16.9%) who received TOL-TAZ and meropenem, respectively. TOL-TAZ demonstrated microbiological success against Escherichia coli (89.5%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (100%), and P. aeruginosa (100%). The adverse event rates were similar in the groups (50.0% with TOL-TAZ and 48.8% with meropenem). TOL-TAZ in combination with metronidazole was well tolerated and resulted in clinical and microbiological success rates supportive of further clinical development in

  10. Free fatty acid receptor agonists for the treatment of type 2 diabetes: drugs in preclinical to phase II clinical development.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Qiu, Qianqian; Geng, Xinqian; Yang, Jianyong; Huang, Wenlong; Qian, Hai

    2016-08-01

    The alarming prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) stimulated the exploitation of new antidiabetic drugs with extended durability and enhanced safety. In this regard, the free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1) and FFA4 have emerged as attractive targets in the last decade. FFA1 has prominent advantages in promoting insulin and incretin secretion while FFA4 shows great potential in incretin secretion, insulin sensitization and anti-inflammatory effects. Herein, the authors focus specifically on FFA1 and FFA4 agonists in clinical trials and preclinical development. LY2922470, P11187 and SHR0534 are currently active in clinical trials while the CNX-011-67, SAR1, DS-1558 and BMS-986118 are in preclinical phase. The information for this review is retrieved from Integrity, Scifinder, Espacenet and clinicaltrials.gov databases. Current proof-of-concept in clinical trials suggests that FFA1 agonists have a significant improvement for T2DM without the risk of hypoglycemia. However, there are still several challenging problems including the mechanism of the receptor and the efficacy and safety of the ligands.

  11. AT-55FINAL ANALYSIS OF THE BELOB TRIAL (A RANDOMIZED PHASE II STUDY ON BEVACIZUMAB VERSUS BEVACIZUMAB PLUS LOMUSTINE VERSUS LOMUSTINE SINGLE AGENT IN RECURRENT GLIOBLASTOMA) AND FIRST RADIOLOGY REVIEW RESULTS

    PubMed Central

    Taal, Walter; Enting, Roelien; Taphoorn, Martin; Smits, Marion; Dubbink, Hendrikus; Beerepoot, Laurens; Hanse, Monique; Bralten, Linda; Oosterkamp, Hendrika; Walenkamp, Annemiek; Buter, Jan; Honkoop, Aafke; Boerman, Dolf; de Vos, Filip; Bromberg, Jacoline; Vernhout, Rene; van der Holt, Bronno; van den Bent, Martin

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Bevacizumab (BEV) is widely used in recurrent glioblastoma, alone or in combination with other agents. There is however no controlled trial to support this use. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a Dutch multicenter randomized phase II study patients were assigned to BEV 10 mg/kg day 1, 15 and 29 iv, BEV 10 mg/kg day 1, 15 and 29 iv in combination with 110 mg/m2 lomustine orally on day 1, or lomustine 110 mg/m2 orally on day 1, in a 6- weekly schedule . Eligible were patients with histologically proven glioblastoma, first recurrence after chemo-irradiation with temozolomide, having concluded radiotherapy more than 3 months ago, with adequate bone marrow, renal and hepatic function, and WHO performance status (PS) 0-2. Primary endpoint was 9 months overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Between December 2009 and November 2011, 148 eligible patients were enrolled . Median age was 57 years (range, 24-77) and median WHO PS was 1. After a preplanned safety review after the first 8 patients the lomustine dose in the combination arm was reduced to 90 mg/m2, 44 patients were treated at this dose level. 130 patients were evaluable for response. Nine month OS [95% confidence interval] was 43% [29, 57] in the lomustine arm, 38% [25, 51] in the BEV arm, and 59% [43, 72] in the BEV/lomustine 90 arm. Objective response rate (complete or partial response) by local investigator was 5% in the lomustine arm, 38% in the BEV arm and 34% in the BEV/lomustine 90 arm. CONCLUSION: The combination bevacizumab/lomustine warrants further investigation, and is currently investigated in the randomized controlled phase III EORTC trial 26101. At the meeting the analysis based on IDH and MGMT status and the first results on the radiology review, pattern of progression and clinical impact of isolated T2/FLAIR progression will be presented.

  12. Multicenter, randomized, open-label Phase II study comparing S-1 alternate-day oral therapy with the standard daily regimen as a first-line treatment in patients with unresectable advanced pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Yamaue, Hiroki; Shimizu, Atsushi; Hagiwara, Yasuhiro; Sho, Masayuki; Yanagimoto, Hiroaki; Nakamori, Shoji; Ueno, Hideki; Ishii, Hiroshi; Kitano, Masayuki; Sugimori, Kazuya; Maguchi, Hiroyuki; Ohkawa, Shinichi; Imaoka, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Daisuke; Ueda, Kazuki; Nebiki, Hiroko; Nagakawa, Tatsuya; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Yokota, Isao; Ohashi, Yasuo; Shirasaka, Tetsuhiko

    2017-04-01

    Non-inferiority for overall survival (OS) following alternate-day treatment with the oral anticancer drug S-1 compared with standard daily treatment was assessed in Japanese patients with unresectable advanced pancreatic cancer in a multicenter, randomized, phase II study. This trial was registered at the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (no. 000008604). Chemotherapy-naïve patients with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer were randomly assigned 2:1 to treatment with alternate-day (twice daily on alternate days from days 1 through 42 of a 42-day cycle) or daily (twice daily on days 1 through 28 of a 42-day cycle) treatment with S-1. The primary endpoint was OS. Secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), time to treatment failure, response rate, quality of life assessments, and safety. A total of 190 patients were enrolled, of which 185 were included in the final analysis (alternate-day: 121; daily: 64). Median OS was 9.4 for the alternate-day group and 10.4 months for the daily group [hazard ratio (HR), 1.19; 95% credible interval, 0.86 to 1.64], indicating that non-inferiority of alternate-day treatment to daily treatment was not demonstrated. Median PFS was 3.0 for the alternate-day group and 4.2 months for the daily group (HR, 1.65; 95% credible interval, 1.20-2.29). The incidence of anorexia, fatigue, neutrophils, pigmentation, and pneumonitis was lower in alternate-day treatment compared with daily treatment. S-1 for advanced pancreatic cancer should be taken daily as recommended, based on the decreased OS and PFS and marginal improvement in safety observed in the alternate-day group.

  13. A Phase II Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Safety and Efficacy Study of Lenalidomide in Lumbar Radicular Pain with a Long-Term Open-Label Extension Phase.

    PubMed

    Manning, Donald C; Gimbel, Joseph; Wertz, Robert; Rauck, Richard; Cooper, Alyse; Zeldis, Jerome B; Levinsky, Dale M

    2017-03-01

    This phase II study assessed lenalidomide efficacy and safety. Three-phase core study: 14-day prerandomization, 12-week treatment, and 52-week open-label extension. Fourteen US centers from July 2005 to July 2007. Chronic lumbar radicular pain patients without history of nerve injury or deficit. Subjects were randomized (1:1) to double-blind treatment with lenalidomide 10 mg or placebo once daily for 12 weeks, followed by a 52-week open-label extension. A 12-week, single-center, randomized-withdrawal (1:2, lenalidomide:placebo), exploratory study with open-label extension was undertaken in 12 subjects from the core extension who were naïve to neuropathic medications and with at least a two-point decrease from baseline average daily Pain Intensity-Numerical Rating Scale score. Of 180 subjects enrolled, 176 had at least one postbaseline measure; 132 completed the 12-week treatment phase. In the core study, no statistically significant difference in Pain Intensity-Numerical Rating Scale mean change (-0.02, P  =   0.958) was observed at week 12 between lenalidomide and placebo; proportions achieving pain reduction at week 12 and other secondary measures were comparable between lenalidomide and placebo. In the exploratory study, week 12 mean changes in Pain Intensity-Numerical Rating Scale scores were -0.05 (lenalidomide: N = 3) and 2.11 (placebo: N = 8). Mean changes in Brief Pain Inventory-short form interference scores were -3.33 and 8.38, respectively; scores at six months were maintained or decreased in 10 of 12 subjects. While this study does not support lenalidomide use in an unselected lumbar radicular pain population, an immunomodulating agent may relieve pain in select subjects naïve to neuropathic pain medications. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00120120.

  14. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitors in phase I and phase II clinical trials for non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Karachaliou, Niki; Santarpia, Mariacarmela; Gonzalez Cao, Maria; Teixido, Cristina; Sosa, Aaron E; Berenguer, Jordi; Rodriguez Capote, Alejandra; Altavilla, Giuseppe; Rosell, Rafael

    2017-06-01

    Crizotinib is a first-in-class ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), which has proven its superiority over standard platinum-based chemotherapy for the first-line therapy of ALK-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. The development of acquired resistance to crizotinib represents an ongoing challenge with the central nervous system being one of the most common sites of relapse. Ceritinib and alectinib are approved second-generation ALK TKIs. Several novel ALK inhibitors, more potent and with different selectivity compared to crizotinib, are currently in development. Areas covered: This review will focus on new ALK inhibitors, currently in phase 1 or 2 clinical studies. We will also comment on the mechanisms of resistance to ALK inhibition and the strategies to delay or overcome resistance. Expert opinion: The therapeutic management of ALK-rearranged NSCLC has been greatly improved. Next-generation ALK inhibitors have shown differential potency against ALK rearrangements and ALK resistance mutations. The molecular profile of the tumor at the time of disease progression to crizotinib is crucial for the sequencing of novel ALK TKIs. Ongoing clinical studies will address key issues, including the optimal therapeutic algorithm and whether combinational approaches are more effective than single ALK inhibition for the outcome of ALK-rearranged NSCLC patients.

  15. A phase II study of clinical activity of SCH 717454 (robatumumab) in patients with relapsed osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Bielack, Stefan S.; Gorlick, Richard G.; Skubitz, Keith; Daw, Najat C.; Herzog, Cynthia E.; Monge, Odd R.; Lassaletta, Alvaro; Boldrini, Erica; Pápai, Zsuzanna; Rubino, Joseph; Pathiraja, Kumudu; Hille, Darcy A.; Ayers, Mark; Yao, Siu‐Long; Nebozhyn, Michael; Lu, Brian; Mauro, David

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Robatumumab (19D12; MK‐7454 otherwise known as SCH717454) is a fully human antibody that binds to and inhibits insulin‐like growth factor receptor‐1 (IGF‐1R). This multiinstitutional study (P04720) determined the safety and clinical efficacy of robatumumab in three separate patient groups with resectable osteosarcoma metastases (Group 1), unresectable osteosarcoma metastases (Group 2), and Ewing sarcoma metastases (Group 3). Procedure Robatumumab infusions were administered every 2 weeks and were well tolerated with minimal toxicity. Centrally reviewed response data were available for 144 patients. Results Low disease burden was important for osteosarcoma response: three of 31 patients had complete response or partial response (PR) by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) in resectable patients (Group 1) versus zero of 29 in unresectable patients (Group 2); median overall survival was 20 months in Group 1 versus 8.2 months in Group 2. In centrally reviewed patients with Ewing sarcoma with PET‐CT data (N = 84/115), there were six PR, 23 stable disease, and 55 progression of disease by RECIST at 2 months. Patients with Ewing sarcoma had a median overall survival of 6.9 months. However, responding patients with Ewing sarcoma were allowed to continue on treatment after study closure. A minority of patients with metastatic Ewing sarcoma showed clinical responses and have remained healthy after receiving 25–115 doses of robatumumab with remissions of >4 years duration (N = 6). Conclusions These findings show that although the IGF‐1R remains an attractive treatment target, additional research is needed to identify responders and/or means to achieve durable remissions in order to successfully exploit IGF‐1R signal blockade in Ewing sarcoma (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00617890). PMID:27362300

  16. A Phase II, Randomized Study on an Investigational DTPw-HBV/Hib-MenAC Conjugate Vaccine Administered to Infants in Northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Abraham; Forgor, Abudulai Adams; Chandramohan, Daniel; Reed, Zarifah; Binka, Fred; Bevilacqua, Cornelia; Boutriau, Dominique; Greenwood, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Background Combining meningococcal vaccination with routine immunization in infancy may reduce the burden of meningococcal meningitis, especially in the meningitis belt of Africa. We have evaluated the immunogenicity, persistence of immune response, immune memory and safety of an investigational DTPw-HBV/Hib-MenAC conjugate vaccine given to infants in Northern Ghana. Methods and Findings In this phase II, double blind, randomized, controlled study, 280 infants were primed with DTPw-HBV/Hib-MenAC or DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccines at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age. At 12 months of age, children in each group received a challenge dose of serogroup A+C polysaccharides. Antibody responses were assessed pre, and one month-post dose 3 of the priming schedule and pre and 1 month after administration of the challenge dose. One month post-dose 3, 87.8% and 88.2% of subjects in the study group had bactericidal meningococcal serogroup A (SBA-MenA) and meningococcal serogroup C (SBA-MenC) antibody titres ≥1∶8 respectively. Seroprotection/seropositivity rates to the 5 antigens administered in the routine EPI schedule were non-inferior in children in the study group compared to those in the control group. The percentages of subjects in the study group with persisting SBA-MenA titres ≥ 1∶8 or SBA-MenC titres ≥1∶8 at the age of 12 months prior to challenge were significantly higher than in control group (47.7% vs 25.7% and 56.4% vs 5.1% respectively). The administration of 10 μg of serogroup A polysaccharide increased the SBA-MenA GMT by 14.0-fold in the DTPW-HBV/HibMenAC-group compared to a 3.8 fold increase in the control-group. Corresponding fold-increases in SBA-MenC titres following challenge with 10 μg of group C polysaccharide were 18.8 and 1.9 respectively. Reactogenicity following primary vaccination or the administration of the challenge dose was similar in both groups, except for swelling (Grade 3) after primary vaccination which was more frequent in children in the

  17. A multicenter phase II prospective clinical trial of glucocorticoid for patients with untreated IgG4-related disease.

    PubMed

    Masaki, Yasufumi; Matsui, Shoko; Saeki, Takako; Tsuboi, Hiroto; Hirata, Shintaro; Izumi, Yasumori; Miyashita, Taiichiro; Fujikawa, Keita; Dobashi, Hiroaki; Susaki, Kentaro; Morimoto, Hisanori; Takagi, Kazutaka; Kawano, Mitsuhiro; Origuchi, Tomoki; Wada, Yoko; Takahashi, Naoki; Horikoshi, Masanobu; Ogishima, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Yasunori; Kawanami, Takafumi; Kawanami Iwao, Haruka; Sakai, Tomoyuki; Fujita, Yoshimasa; Fukushima, Toshihiro; Saito, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Ritsuro; Morikawa, Yuko; Yoshino, Tadashi; Nakamura, Shigeo; Kojima, Masaru; Kurose, Nozomu; Sato, Yasuharu; Tanaka, Yoshiya; Sugai, Susumu; Sumida, Takayuki

    2017-09-01

    Although glucocorticoids are effective for patients with IgG4-related disease, the treatment has not yet been standardized. Therefore, the treatment strategy should be established. Patients who fulfilled the comprehensive diagnostic criteria for definite IgG4-related disease were started on prednisolone (0.6 mg/kg body weight) with the dose reduced every two weeks. The subsequent maintenance dose and need for prednisolone were determined for individual patients. The primary endpoint was the complete remission (CR) rate at one year. Secondary endpoints included overall response rate (ORR), the maintenance dose, the relapse rate, and adverse events. This study enrolled 61 patients. After clinicopathological review, three patients were excluded, and one, 13, and 44 patients were diagnosed with probable, possible, and definite IgG4-related disease, respectively. Of the 44 patients with definite IgG4-RD, 29 (65.9%) achieved CR, and the ORR was 93.2%. No patient was refractory to primary treatment. The most frequent adverse events were glucose intolerance. Six patients relapsed. Glucocorticoid treatment is usually effective for patients with IgG4-RD, and we should examine the possibility of other disorders when a patient is glucocorticoid refractory. Some patients are misdiagnosed, making central clinicopathological review of diagnosis very important in conducting clinical studies.

  18. Phase II, randomized, open, controlled study of AS03-adjuvanted H5N1 pre-pandemic influenza vaccine in children aged 3 to 9 years: follow-up of safety and immunogenicity persistence at 24 months post-vaccination.

    PubMed

    Díez-Domingo, Javier; Baldó, José-María; Planelles-Catarino, Maria Victoria; Garcés-Sánchez, María; Ubeda, Isabel; Jubert-Rosich, Angels; Marès, Josep; Garcia-Corbeira, Pilar; Moris, Philippe; Teko, Maurice; Vanden Abeele, Carline; Gillard, Paul

    2015-03-01

    An AS03-adjuvanted H5N1 influenza vaccine elicited broad and persistent immune responses with an acceptable safety profile up to 6 months following the first vaccination in children aged 3-9 years. In this follow-up of the Phase II study, we report immunogenicity persistence and safety at 24 months post-vaccination in children aged 3-9 years. The randomized, open-label study assessed two doses of H5N1 A/Vietnam/1194/2004 influenza vaccine (1·9 μg or 3·75 μg hemagglutinin antigen) formulated with AS03A or AS03B (11·89 mg or 5·93 mg tocopherol, respectively). Control groups received seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine. Safety was assessed prospectively and included potential immune-mediated diseases (pIMDs). Immunogenicity was assessed by hemagglutination-inhibition assay 12 and 24 months after vaccination; cross-reactivity and cell-mediated responses were also assessed. (NCT00502593). The safety population included 405 children. Over 24 months, five events fulfilled the criteria for pIMDs, of which four occurred in H5N1 vaccine recipients, including uveitis (n = 1) and autoimmune hepatitis (n = 1), which were considered to be vaccine-related. Overall, safety profiles of the vaccines were clinically acceptable. Humoral immune responses at 12 and 24 months were reduced versus those observed after the second dose of vaccine, although still within the range of those observed after the first dose. Persistence of cell-mediated immunity was strong, and CD4(+) T cells with a TH 1 profile were observed. Two doses of an AS03-adjuvanted H5N1 influenza vaccine in children showed low but persistent humoral immune responses and a strong persistence of cell-mediated immunity, with clinically acceptable safety profiles up to 24 months following first vaccination. © 2014 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Clinically Effective Treatment of Fibromyalgia Pain With High-Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Phase II Open-Label Dose Optimization.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Saavedra, Laura; Gebodh, Nigel; Bikson, Marom; Diaz-Cruz, Camilo; Brandao, Rivail; Coutinho, Livia; Truong, Dennis; Datta, Abhishek; Shani-Hershkovich, Revital; Weiss, Michal; Laufer, Ilan; Reches, Amit; Peremen, Ziv; Geva, Amir; Parra, Lucas C; Fregni, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Despite promising preliminary results in treating fibromyalgia (FM) pain, no neuromodulation technique has been adopted in clinical practice because of limited efficacy, low response rate, or poor tolerability. This phase II open-label trial aims to define a methodology for a clinically effective treatment of pain in FM by establishing treatment protocols and screening procedures to maximize efficacy and response rate. High-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) provides targeted subthreshold brain stimulation, combining tolerability with specificity. We aimed to establish the number of HD-tDCS sessions required to achieve a 50% FM pain reduction, and to characterize the biometrics of the response, including brain network activation pain scores of contact heat-evoked potentials. We report a clinically significant benefit of a 50% pain reduction in half (n = 7) of the patients (N = 14), with responders and nonresponders alike benefiting from a cumulative effect of treatment, reflected in significant pain reduction (P = .035) as well as improved quality of life (P = .001) over time. We also report an aggregate 6-week response rate of 50% of patients and estimate 15 as the median number of HD-tDCS sessions to reach clinically meaningful outcomes. The methodology for a pivotal FM neuromodulation clinical trial with individualized treatment is thus supported. Registered in Clinicaltrials.gov under registry number NCT01842009. In this article, an optimized protocol for the treatment of fibromyalgia pain with targeted subthreshold brain stimulation using high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation is outlined. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Phase II clinical trial of neoadjuvant therapy with carboplatin plus paclitaxel for locally advanced triple-negative breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Ma, Wen-yue; Zhang, Pin; Zhang, Bai-lin; Wang, Xiang; Xu, Xiao-zhou; Zheng, Shan; Wang, Jia-yu; Cai, Rui-gang; Yuan, Peng; Ma, Fei; Fan, Ying; Xu, Bing-he

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the efficacy, safety and survival of combination of carboplatin plus paclitaxel as neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) for patients with locally advanced triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), and explore an optimal regimen for TNBC. Patients with core needle biopsy confirmed pathological diagnosis of IIA ∼ IIIC invasive breast cancer, negative for estrogen and progesterone receptors and HER2 by immunohistochemistry, and with indication for NACT were eligible in this study. The biopsy tumor tissues were tested for CK5/6, CK14, EGFR and Ki67. The patients received paclitaxel 175 mg/m(2) on day 1, carboplatin at an area under the curve 5 mg×min/ml on day 2 of every 21 days. The clinical response was evaluated every 2 cycles according to Standard RECIST 1.0 criteria and surgery was done after four to six cycles. Pathological complete remission (pCR) was defined if absence of invasive tumor in the breast and axillary lymph nodes samples or residual carcinoma in situ only. Overall, thirty-one patients were enrolled from January 2008 to November 2010. The median age was 51 years and 83.9% of the patients were diagnosed as stage IIB to IIIC diseases. 30 Patients completed chemotherapy as planed while one patient changed regimen due to paclitaxel allergy. Twenty-eight patients could be evaluated for clinical efficacy, of which CR, PR, SD, PD were achieved in 4, 20, 3 and 1 women, respectively. The objective response rate was 85.7%. The expression rate of CK5/6, CK14 and EGFR were 88.9% (24/27), 59.3% (16/27) and 63% (17/27), respectively. Among 27 patients who received modified radical mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery, 11 patients obtained pCR, with a pCR rate of 40.7% (95%CI 22.2% - 59.3%). Five of six CK5/6- and CK14-positive patients achieved pCR. All the 31 patients could be evaluated for toxicity according to the NCI-CTC v3.0 criteria. The major toxicities were neutropenia (93.5%), vomiting (45.2%) and ALT/AST increase (32.3%), and grade 3

  1. A phase II study of sorafenib in recurrent and/or metastatic salivary gland carcinomas: Translational analyses and clinical impact.

    PubMed

    Locati, L D; Perrone, F; Cortelazzi, B; Bergamini, C; Bossi, P; Civelli, E; Morosi, C; Lo Vullo, S; Imbimbo, M; Quattrone, P; Dagrada, G P; Granata, R; Resteghini, C; Mirabile, A; Alfieri, S; Orlandi, E; Mariani, L; Saibene, G; Pilotti, S; Licitra, L

    2016-12-01

    Pre-clinical and clinical evidence suggests a rationale for the use of anti-angiogenic agents, including sorafenib, in recurrent and/or metastatic salivary gland carcinomas (RMSGCs). This study evaluates the activity of sorafenib in patients with RMSGCs and also investigates whether the activity of sorafenib could be related to its main tailored targets (i.e. BRAF, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 [VEGFR2], platelet-derived growth factor receptor α [PDGFRα] and β, RET, KIT). Patients received sorafenib at 400 mg BID. The primary end-point was response rate (RR) including complete response or partial response (PR); secondary end-points included RR according to Choi criteria, disease control rate (DCR), overall survival (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS). Thirty-seven patients (19 adenoid cystic cancers, ACC) were enrolled. Six PRs were recorded. RR was 16% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6-32; 11% in ACC and 22% in non-ACC). Choi criteria could be applied in 30 out of 37 cases with a RR of 50% (95% CI: 31-69%); DCR was 76% (95% CI: 59-88%). Incidence of ≥G3 adverse events was 29.7%. Median PFS and OS for the entire population were 5.9 months and 23.4 months, respectively. Median PFS and OS were 8.9 and 26.4 months for ACC versus 4.2 and 12.3 months for non-ACC patients. All the cases showed expression of PDGFRβ in the stroma and VEGFR2 in endothelial cells; PDGFRα positivity was found in the stroma of four (27%) cases. All except for two cases showed no PDGFRβ, VEGFR2 and PDGFRα expression in the tumour cells. KIT expression was restricted to ACC and a weak RET expression was limited to one adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified (NOS). No BRAF mutation was found. No correlation was observed between the sorafenib activity and the expression of its markers although all six responders (two ACC, one adenocarcinoma, NOS, one salivary duct cancer [SDC], one high-grade mucoepidermoid [HG-MEC] and one poorly-differentiated cancer) are enriched

  2. An adaptive, phase II, dose-finding clinical trial design to evaluate L-carnitine in the treatment of septic shock based on efficacy and predictive probability of subsequent phase III success.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Roger J; Viele, Kert; Broglio, Kristine; Berry, Scott M; Jones, Alan E

    2013-07-01

    Sepsis is the tenth leading cause of death in the United States. Despite extensive research, mortality rates for sepsis have not substantially improved in the last several decades. We describe an innovative phase II clinical trial design for evaluating the addition of L-carnitine to the treatment of vasopressor-dependent septic shock. The design incorporates a variety of features to increase efficiency, including a normal dynamic linear dose-response model, adaptive randomization, and early stopping for futility or success based on the probability that a future phase III trial using a 28-day mortality outcome would be successful. Trial design and computer simulation of a trial to be conducted in the emergency department and ICU. Proposed to study intravenous L-carnitine. The proposed trial uses an early endpoint, the 48-hour change in Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, to drive adaptive randomization and dose selection. We use existing data to model the expected relationship between the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment change and the 28-day mortality to determine the trial's operating characteristics using Monte Carlo simulation. The resulting trial efficiently identifies the best dose of L-carnitine and provides clear guidance regarding whether to continue development into phase III.

  3. An Adaptive, Phase II, Dose-Finding Clinical Trial Design to Evaluate l-Carnitine in the Treatment of Septic Shock Based on Efficacy and Predictive Probability of Subsequent Phase III Success

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Roger J.; Viele, Kert; Broglio, Kristine; Berry, Scott M.; Jones, Alan E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Sepsis is the tenth leading cause of death in the United States. Despite extensive research, mortality rates for sepsis have not substantially improved in the last several decades. We describe an innovative phase II clinical trial design for evaluating the addition of l-carnitine to the treatment of vasopressor-dependent septic shock. Design The design incorporates a variety of features to increase efficiency, including a normal dynamic linear dose–response model, adaptive randomization, and early stopping for futility or success based on the probability that a future phase III trial using a 28-day mortality outcome would be successful. Setting Trial design and computer simulation of a trial to be conducted in the emergency department and ICU. Interventions Proposed to study intravenous l-carnitine. Measurements The proposed trial uses an early endpoint, the 48-hour change in Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, to drive adaptive randomization and dose selection. Main Results We use existing data to model the expected relationship between the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment change and the 28-day mortality to determine the trial's operating characteristics using Monte Carlo simulation. Conclusions The resulting trial efficiently identifies the best dose of l-carnitine and provides clear guidance regarding whether to continue development into phase III. PMID:23514753

  4. A Prospective, Multicenter, Randomized Phase II Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Eculizumab in Patients with Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS): Protocol of Japanese Eculizumab Trial for GBS (JET-GBS)

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Nobuko; Sato, Yasunori; Nagashima, Kengo; Katayama, Kanako; Sekiguchi, Yukari; Iwai, Yuta; Amino, Hiroshi; Suichi, Tomoki; Yokota, Takanori; Nishida, Yoichiro; Kohara, Nobuo; Hirata, Koichi; Nishiyama, Kazutoshi; Yabe, Ichiro; Kaida, Ken-Ichi; Suzuki, Norihiro; Nodera, Hiroyuki; Tsuji, Shoji; Koike, Haruki; Kira, Jun-Ichi; Hanaoka, Hideki; Kusunoki, Susumu; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an immune-mediated neuropathy that causes acute flaccid paralysis. Immunoglobulin and plasma exchange are established treatments for GBS; however, a substantial number of patients, particularly those with severe disease, have poor recovery and residual deficits. Recent studies suggest that complement activation plays a pivotal role in GBS-associated axonal degeneration, and eculizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that specifically binds to complement component 5 and potently inhibits complement activation. Objective This clinical trial aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of eculizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against complement component 5, for treatment of GBS. Methods The Japanese Eculizumab Trial for GBS (JET-GBS) is a prospective, multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized phase II study conducted at 13 tertiary neurology centers and is funded by the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development. A total of 33 GBS patients unable to walk independently within 2 weeks from symptom onset (Hughes functional grade 3-5) were randomized at a 2:1 ratio to receive either intravenous eculizumab (900 mg/day) or placebo once weekly for 4 weeks, followed by 20 weeks of follow-up. The primary endpoint for efficacy is the proportion of patients who regain their ability to walk without aid at 4 weeks after the first dose of the study treatment, while primary safety outcomes are the incidence of adverse events and serious adverse events during the trial. Results Enrollment for the trial began in August 2015. This trial is still ongoing. All participants have been enrolled, and follow-up will be completed in October 2016. Conclusions This study is the first to investigate the efficacy and safety of eculizumab for GBS. In case of a positive result, we will plan a phase III trial to investigate this issue in a larger number of patients. ClinicalTrial UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN

  5. Evaluation of plitidepsin in patients with primary myelofibrosis and post polycythemia vera/essential thrombocythemia myelofibrosis: results of preclinical studies and a phase II clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Pardanani, A; Tefferi, A; Guglielmelli, P; Bogani, C; Bartalucci, N; Rodríguez, J; Extremera, S; Pérez, I; Alfaro, V; Vannucchi, A M

    2015-01-01

    Previous data established that plitidepsin, a cyclic depsipeptide, exerted activity in a mouse model of myelofibrosis (MF). New preclinical experiments reported herein found that low nanomolar plitidepsin concentrations potently inhibited the proliferation of JAK2V617F-mutated cell lines and reduced colony formation by CD34+ cells of individuals with MF, at least in part through modulation of p27 levels. Cells of MF patients had significantly reduced p27 content, that were modestly increased upon plitidepsin exposure. On these premise, an exploratory phase II trial evaluated plitidepsin 5 mg/m2 3-h intravenous infusion administered on days 1 and 15 every 4 weeks (q4wk). Response rate (RR) according to the International Working Group for Myelofibrosis Research and Treatment consensus criteria was 9.1% (95% CI, 0.2–41.3%) in 11 evaluable patients during the first trial stage. The single responder achieved a red cell transfusion independence and stable disease was reported in nine additional patients (81.8%). Eight patients underwent a short-lasting improvement of splenomegaly. In conclusion, plitidepsin 5 mg/m2 3-h infusion q4wk was well tolerated but had a modest activity in patients with primary, post-polycythaemia vera or post-essential thrombocythaemia MF. Therefore, this trial was prematurely terminated and we concluded that further clinical trials with plitidepsin as single agent in MF are not warranted. PMID:25768401

  6. Evaluation of plitidepsin in patients with primary myelofibrosis and post polycythemia vera/essential thrombocythemia myelofibrosis: results of preclinical studies and a phase II clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Pardanani, A; Tefferi, A; Guglielmelli, P; Bogani, C; Bartalucci, N; Rodríguez, J; Extremera, S; Pérez, I; Alfaro, V; Vannucchi, A M

    2015-03-13

    Previous data established that plitidepsin, a cyclic depsipeptide, exerted activity in a mouse model of myelofibrosis (MF). New preclinical experiments reported herein found that low nanomolar plitidepsin concentrations potently inhibited the proliferation of JAK2V617F-mutated cell lines and reduced colony formation by CD34+ cells of individuals with MF, at least in part through modulation of p27 levels. Cells of MF patients had significantly reduced p27 content, that were modestly increased upon plitidepsin exposure. On these premise, an exploratory phase II trial evaluated plitidepsin 5 mg/m(2) 3-h intravenous infusion administered on days 1 and 15 every 4 weeks (q4wk). Response rate (RR) according to the International Working Group for Myelofibrosis Research and Treatment consensus criteria was 9.1% (95% CI, 0.2-41.3%) in 11 evaluable patients during the first trial stage. The single responder achieved a red cell transfusion independence and stable disease was reported in nine additional patients (81.8%). Eight patients underwent a short-lasting improvement of splenomegaly. In conclusion, plitidepsin 5 mg/m(2) 3-h infusion q4wk was well tolerated but had a modest activity in patients with primary, post-polycythaemia vera or post-essential thrombocythaemia MF. Therefore, this trial was prematurely terminated and we concluded that further clinical trials with plitidepsin as single agent in MF are not warranted.

  7. Mature Results of the Ottawa Phase II Study of Intermittent Androgen-Suppression Therapy in Prostate Cancer: Clinical Predictors of Outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, Shawn . E-mail: smalone@ottawahospital.on.ca; Perry, Gad; Eapen, Libni; Segal, Roanne; Gallant, Victor; Dahrouge, Simone; Crook, Juanita; Spaans, Johanna N.

    2007-07-01

    Purpose: To present the mature experience of a phase II trial of intermittent androgen suppression (IAS). Methods and Materials: Intermittent androgen-suppression therapy was initiated in prostate-cancer patients to delay hormone resistance and minimize potential side effects of androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT). Patients received cyclical periods of ADT and observation (off-treatment interval [OTI]). Androgen-deprivation therapy was reinitiated when the level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) rose above 10 ng/ml, or for disease progression. Associations between clinical factors and eligibility for OTI were measured. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to determine factors predicting the duration of OTIs. Results: Ninety-five patients completed 187 cycles of treatment. The median duration of OTIs was 8.5 months. Patients with higher PSA and metastatic disease were less likely to be eligible for the first OTI (p < 0.01). In multivariate analysis, patients with higher PSA and local relapse had significantly longer OTIs (p < 0.01) compared with metastatic patients. The median time to withdrawal from the study was 37 months. Conclusions: Intermittent androgen suppression appears to be a favorable treatment option for patients with biochemically (according to level of PSA) or locally recurrent prostate cancer with favorable long-term survival, a high probability of eligibility for OTIs, and durable OTIs.

  8. Options Study - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2010-09-01

    The Options Study has been conducted for the purpose of evaluating the potential of alternative integrated nuclear fuel cycle options to favorably address the issues associated with a continuing or expanding use of nuclear power in the United States. The study produced information that can be used to inform decisions identifying potential directions for research and development on such fuel cycle options. An integrated nuclear fuel cycle option is defined in this study as including all aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, from obtaining natural resources for fuel to the ultimate disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) or radioactive wastes. Issues such as nuclear waste management, especially the increasing inventory of used nuclear fuel, the current uncertainty about used fuel disposal, and the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation have contributed to the reluctance to expand the use of nuclear power, even though it is recognized that nuclear power is a safe and reliable method of producing electricity. In this Options Study, current, evolutionary, and revolutionary nuclear energy options were all considered, including the use of uranium and thorium, and both once-through and recycle approaches. Available information has been collected and reviewed in order to evaluate the ability of an option to clearly address the challenges associated with the current implementation and potential expansion of commercial nuclear power in the United States. This Options Study is a comprehensive consideration and review of fuel cycle and technology options, including those for disposal, and is not constrained by any limitations that may be imposed by economics, technical maturity, past policy, or speculated future conditions. This Phase II report is intended to be used in conjunction with the Phase I report, and much information in that report is not repeated here, although some information has been updated to reflect recent developments. The focus in this Options Study was to

  9. Polyphenon E, non-futile at neuroprotection in multiple sclerosis but unpredictably hepatotoxic: Phase I single group and phase II randomized placebo-controlled studies.

    PubMed

    Lovera, Jesus; Ramos, Alexander; Devier, Deidre; Garrison, Virginia; Kovner, Blake; Reza, Tara; Koop, Dennis; Rooney, William; Foundas, Anne; Bourdette, Dennis

    2015-11-15

    Phase I (PhI): assess the safety of Polyphenon E in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) and determine the futility of Polyphenon E as a neuroprotective agent. Correlate plasma levels of EGCG with neuroprotective effects. Phase II (PhII): Further assess safety and confirm the neuroprotective effects of Polyphenon E. PhI: single group futility study. PhII: parallel group randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Recruitment area (both studies): LSU MS Center, New Orleans, LA and general public from surrounding areas. Inclusion criteria (both studies): 1) MS per 2005 McDonald criteria; 2) relapsing remitting or secondary progressive MS; 3) stable for six months prior to enrollment on either no therapy or glatiramer acetate (GA) for the PhI study and on either on GA or Interferon β for the PhII study. Exclusion criteria (both studies): 1) complete bone marrow ablation or alentuzumab use at any time; 2) mitoxantrone, cyclophosphamide, natalizumab or fingolimod use in the prior nine months; 3) liver problems or significant medical problems. PhI: Polyphenon E, a green tea extract containing 50% of the antioxidant Epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG), two capsules twice daily (200mg of EGCG per capsule; total daily dose 800mg) for six months. PhII: Polyphenon E or matching placebo capsules, same dose for one year. Only the research pharmacist knew treatment assignment and she randomized participants (one-to-one, stratified by GA or Interferon β, blocks of 4 or 6). Outcome evaluators did not discuss side effects with participants. PhI: 1) adverse events (AE); 2) futility: decrease in N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) from baseline to six months of 10% or more; 3) association between EGCG plasma levels and change in NAA. PhII: 1) AEs; 2) difference in the rate of change of NAA-levels over twelve months.We measured NAA using a point resolved magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging sequence (TE30/TR2000) on a 10cm×10cm×1cm volume of interest (VOI) located just superior to the

  10. Polyphenon E, Non-futile at Neuroprotection in Multiple Sclerosis but Unpredictably Hepatotoxic: Phase I Single Group and Phase II Randomized Placebo-Controlled Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lovera, Jesus; Ramos, Alexander; Devier, Deidre; Garrison, Virginia; Kovner, Blake; Reza, Tara; Koop, Dennis; Rooney, William; Foundas, Anne; Bourdette, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Phase I (PhI): assess the safety of Polyphenon E in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) and determine the futility of Polyphenon E as a neuroprotective agent. Correlate plasma levels of EGCG with neuroprotective effects. Phase II (PhII): Further assess safety and confirm the neuroprotective effects of Polyphenon E. Design PhI: single group futility study. PhII: parallel group randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Participants Recruitment area (both studies) LSU MS Center, New Orleans, LA and general public from surrounding areas. Inclusion criteria (both studies) 1) MS per 2005 McDonald criteria; 2) relapsing remitting or secondary progressive MS; 3) stable for six months prior to enrollment on either no therapy or glatiramer acetate (GA) for the PhI study and on either on GA or Interferon β for the PhII study. Exclusion criteria (both studies) 1) complete bone marrow ablation or alentuzumab use at any time; 2) mitoxantrone, cyclophosphamide, natalizumab or fingolimod use in the prior nine months; 3) liver problems or significant medical problems. Interventions PhI: Polyphenon E, a green tea extract containing 50% of the antioxidant Epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG), two capsules twice daily (200 mg of EGCG per capsule; total daily dose 800mg) for six months. PhII: Polyphenon E or matching placebo capsules, same dose for one year. Only the research pharmacist knew treatment assignment and she randomized participants (one-to-one, stratified by GA or Interferon β, blocks of 4 or 6). Outcome evaluators did not discuss side effects with participants. Outcome measures PhI: 1) adverse events (AE); 2) futility: decrease in N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) from baseline to six months of 10% or more; 3) association between EGCG plasma levels and change in NAA. PhII: 1) AEs; 2) difference in the rate of change of NAA-levels over twelve months. We measured NAA using a point resolved magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging sequence (TE30/TR2000) on a 10cm × 10

  11. Randomized Phase II Study of Trabectedin and Doxorubicin Compared With Doxorubicin Alone as First-Line Treatment in Patients With Advanced Soft Tissue Sarcomas: A Spanish Group for Research on Sarcoma Study.

    PubMed

    Martin-Broto, Javier; Pousa, Antonio López; de Las Peñas, Ramón; García Del Muro, Xavier; Gutierrez, Antonio; Martinez-Trufero, Javier; Cruz, Josefina; Alvarez, Rosa; Cubedo, Ricardo; Redondo, Andrés; Maurel, Joan; Carrasco, Juan A; López-Martin, José A; Sala, Ángeles; Meana, José Andrés; Ramos, Rafael; Martinez-Serra, Jordi; Lopez-Guerrero, José A; Sevilla, Isabel; Balaña, Carmen; Vaz, Ángeles; De Juan, Ana; Alemany, Regina; Poveda, Andrés

    2016-07-01

    Doxorubicin and trabectedin are considered active drugs in soft tissue sarcoma (STS). The combination of both drugs was hypothesized to be advantageous and safe on the basis of preclinical evidence and a previous phase I trial, respectively. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcome of trabectedin plus doxorubicin with doxorubicin as first-line treatment of advanced STS patients. In this open-label randomized phase II trial, the main end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Trabectedin 1.1 mg/m(2) in a 3-hour infusion plus doxorubicin 60 mg/m(2) as the experimental arm and doxorubicin 75 mg/m(2) as the control arm were administered for up to six cycles. Translational research was planned to correlate the expression of apoptotic and DNA repair genes with clinical outcome. In 115 randomly assigned patients, the median PFS was 5.5 months in the control arm and 5.7 months in the experimental arm (hazard ratio, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.71; P = .45) in the intent-to-treat analysis. The trial was stopped for futility after the interim analysis, because the results in the experimental arm showed the risk reduction for the main end point to be < 9.64%. The proportion of patients with grade 3 or 4 thrombocytopenia, asthenia, and liver toxicity was significantly higher in the experimental arm. FAS and p53 were shown to be prognostic factors for PFS (7.0 months if FAS+ and p53-; 3.4 months if FAS+/p53+ or FAS-/p53-; and 0.7 months if FAS- and p53+; P < .001) and for overall survival. Trabectedin plus doxorubicin did not show superiority over doxorubicin alone as first-line treatment of advanced STS. The prognostic role of apoptotic key genes, FAS and p53, was shown to be robust enough to continue this research line. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  12. Combined, concurrent, and sequential administration of seasonal influenza and MF59-adjuvanted A/H5N1 vaccines: a phase II randomized, controlled trial of immunogenicity and safety in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Pio; Caicedo, Yolanda; Sierra, Alexandra; Tilman, Sandrine; Banzhoff, Angelika; Clemens, Ralf

    2011-06-15

    We performed a phase II randomized, controlled, open-label, single-center study (Centros de Estudios de Infectología Pediátrica, Colombia) to examine the feasibility of combined administration of seasonal and MF59-adjuvanted A/H5N1 influenza vaccines using extemporaneous mixing or simultaneous administration. The primary objective of the study was to assess the immunogenicity of seasonal influenza and A/H5N1 vaccines using European licensure criteria (Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use [CHMP]); the secondary objective was to assess vaccine reactogenicity and safety. In 401 healthy 18-40-year-old subjects, both vaccines were immunogenic in all settings; the vaccine for seasonal influenza met all CHMP criteria, unaffected by coadministration of A/H5N1 vaccine in separate or mixed injections. Likewise, the immunogenicity of A/H5N1 vaccine was unaffected by seasonal influenza vaccination, with hemagglutination inhibition seroprotection rates of 28%-40% after 1 dose and 67%-80% after 2 doses, sufficient to meet CHMP criteria. Solicited local and systemic adverse events were mainly mild to moderate. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported during the study period. These data demonstrate that seasonal and MF59-adjuvanted A/H5N1 influenza vaccines can be given as a mixed injection or by simultaneous separate injections without affecting immunogenicity or safety, supporting the feasibility of incorporating prepandemic MF59-adjuvanted A/H5N1 vaccines into seasonal influenza vaccination programs and the development of tetravalent influenza vaccines, including pandemic strains. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00481065.

  13. Cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil, and cetuximab (PFE) with or without cilengitide in recurrent/metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: results of the randomized phase I/II ADVANTAGE trial (phase II part).

    PubMed

    Vermorken, J B; Peyrade, F; Krauss, J; Mesía, R; Remenar, E; Gauler, T C; Keilholz, U; Delord, J P; Schafhausen, P; Erfán, J; Brümmendorf, T H; Iglesias, L; Bethe, U; Hicking, C; Clement, P M

    2014-03-01

    Recurrent and/or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (R/M-SCCHN) overexpresses αvβ5 integrin. Cilengitide selectively inhibits αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrins and is investigated as a treatment strategy. The phase I/II study ADVANTAGE evaluated cilengitide combined with cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil, and cetuximab (PFE) in R/M-SCCHN. The phase II part reported here was an open-label, randomized, controlled trial investigating progression-free survival (PFS). Patients received up to six cycles of PFE alone or combined with cilengitide 2000 mg once (CIL1W) or twice (CIL2W) weekly. Thereafter, patients received maintenance therapy (cilengitide arms: cilengitide plus cetuximab; PFE-alone arm: cetuximab only) until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. One hundred and eighty-two patients were treated. Median PFS per investigator read was similar for CIL1W + PFE, CIL2W + PFE, and PFE alone (6.4, 5.6, and 5.7 months, respectively). Accordingly, median overall survival and objective response rates were not improved with cilengitide (12.4 months/47%, 10.6 months/27%, and 11.6 months/36%, respectively). No clinically meaningful safety differences were observed between groups. None of the tested biomarkers (expression of integrins, CD31, Ki-67, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, vascular endothelial-cadherin, type IV collagen, epidermal growth factor receptor, or p16 for human papillomavirus) were predictive of outcome. Neither of the cilengitide-containing regimens demonstrated a PFS benefit over PFE alone in R/M-SCCHN patients.

  14. Cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil, and cetuximab (PFE) with or without cilengitide in recurrent/metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: results of the randomized phase I/II ADVANTAGE trial (phase II part)

    PubMed Central

    Vermorken, J. B.; Peyrade, F.; Krauss, J.; Mesía, R.; Remenar, E.; Gauler, T. C.; Keilholz, U.; Delord, J. P.; Schafhausen, P.; Erfán, J.; Brümmendorf, T. H.; Iglesias, L.; Bethe, U.; Hicking, C.; Clement, P. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recurrent and/or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (R/M-SCCHN) overexpresses αvβ5 integrin. Cilengitide selectively inhibits αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrins and is investigated as a treatment strategy. Patients and methods The phase I/II study ADVANTAGE evaluated cilengitide combined with cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil, and cetuximab (PFE) in R/M-SCCHN. The phase II part reported here was an open-label, randomized, controlled trial investigating progression-free survival (PFS). Patients received up to six cycles of PFE alone or combined with cilengitide 2000 mg once (CIL1W) or twice (CIL2W) weekly. Thereafter, patients received maintenance therapy (cilengitide arms: cilengitide plus cetuximab; PFE-alone arm: cetuximab only) until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Results One hundred and eighty-two patients were treated. Median PFS per investigator read was similar for CIL1W + PFE, CIL2W + PFE, and PFE alone (6.4, 5.6, and 5.7 months, respectively). Accordingly, median overall survival and objective response rates were not improved with cilengitide (12.4 months/47%, 10.6 months/27%, and 11.6 months/36%, respectively). No clinically meaningful safety differences were observed between groups. None of the tested biomarkers (expression of integrins, CD31, Ki-67, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, vascular endothelial-cadherin, type IV collagen, epidermal growth factor receptor, or p16 for human papillomavirus) were predictive of outcome. Conclusion Neither of the cilengitide-containing regimens demonstrated a PFS benefit over PFE alone in R/M-SCCHN patients. PMID:24567516

  15. Bone Marrow-sparing Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With Concurrent Cisplatin For Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer: An International Multicenter Phase II Clinical Trial (INTERTECC-2).

    PubMed

    Mell, Loren K; Sirák, Igor; Wei, Lichun; Tarnawski, Rafal; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Yashar, Catheryn M; McHale, Michael T; Xu, Ronghui; Honerkamp-Smith, Gordon; Carmona, Ruben; Wright, Mary; Williamson, Casey W; Kasaová, Linda; Li, Nan; Kry, Stephen; Michalski, Jeff; Bosch, Walter; Straube, William; Schwarz, Julie; Lowenstein, Jessica; Jiang, Steve B; Saenz, Cheryl C; Plaxe, Steve; Einck, John; Khorprasert, Chonlakiet; Koonings, Paul; Harrison, Terry; Shi, Mei; Mundt, A J

    2017-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) reduces acute hematologic and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity for patients with locoregionally advanced cervical cancer. We enrolled patients with stage IB-IVA cervical carcinoma in a single-arm phase II trial involving 8 centers internationally. All patients received weekly cisplatin concurrently with once-daily IMRT, followed by intracavitary brachytherapy, as indicated. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of either acute grade ≥3 neutropenia or clinically significant GI toxicity within 30 days of completing chemoradiation therapy. A preplanned subgroup analysis tested the hypothesis that positron emission tomography-based image-guided IMRT (IG-IMRT) would lower the risk of acute neutropenia. We also longitudinally assessed patients' changes in quality of life. From October 2011 to April 2015, 83 patients met the eligibility criteria and initiated protocol therapy. The median follow-up was 26.0 months. The incidence of any primary event was 26.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 18.2%-36.9%), significantly lower than the 40% incidence hypothesized a priori from historical data (P=.012). The incidence of grade ≥3 neutropenia and clinically significant GI toxicity was 19.3% (95% CI 12.2%-29.0%) and 12.0% (95% CI 6.7%-20.8%), respectively. Compared with patients treated without IG-IMRT (n=48), those treated with IG-IMRT (n=35) had a significantly lower incidence of grade ≥3 neutropenia (8.6% vs 27.1%; 2-sided χ(2)P=.035) and nonsignificantly lower incidence of grade ≥3 leukopenia (25.7% vs 41.7%; P=.13) and any grade ≥3 hematologic toxicity (31.4% vs 43.8%; P=.25). IMRT reduces acute hematologic and GI toxicity compared with standard treatment, with promising therapeutic outcomes. Positron emission tomography IG-IMRT reduces the incidence of acute neutropenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Pharmacodynamic markers and clinical results from the Phase II Study of the SMAC-Mimetic Birinapant in Women with Relapsed Platinum-Resistant or Refractory Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jin-Qiu; Herrmann, Michelle A.; Lee, Jung-min; Kohn, Elise C.; O’Sullivan, Ciara C.; Jordan, Elizabeth; Houston, Nicole; Takebe, Naoko; Kinders, Robert J.; Cao, Liang; Peer, Cody J.; Figg, W. Douglas; Annunziata, Christina M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Inhibitors of Apoptosis Proteins (IAPs) are key regulators of apoptosis, and are frequently dysregulated in ovarian cancer. We hypothesized that blocking IAPs with birinapant would increase tumor cell death resulting in objective response for women with platinum-refractory and resistant ovarian cancer. Methods In this phase II CTEP-sponsored study, patients received birinapant 47mg/m2 on days 1, 8, 15 of 28-day cycles. Pharmacokinetics were obtained in cycle 1. Plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and percutaneous tumor biopsies were collected prior to cycle 1, and after 6 weeks. The primary endpoint was objective response or progression-free survival lasting greater than 6 months in a mini-max design. Results Eleven patients received birinapant, after which accrual was terminated for lack of clinical benefit. Birinapant was well-tolerated, with predominantly grade 2 adverse events (AE) and one grade 3 lymphopenia. Pre-treatment biopsies and PBMCs were collected; paired post-treatment biopsies and PBMC were collected from 7 and 10 patients, respectively. There was consistent downregulation of cIAP1 in tumor (P=0.016) and PBMC (P<0.01). Pro-caspase3 also decreased in tumors (P=0.031) and PBMC (P<0.01); cleaved caspase3 co-localized with gamma-H2AX in tumors after birinapant exposure. Peripheral T- and B-cells decreased significantly post-treatment, but NK-cells did not (P=0.04, P=0.05, P=0.43 respectively). Conclusion Birinapant shows consistent target suppression in vivo, without single agent anti-tumor activity in this small population. Single agent pharmacodynamics were necessary to understand drug mechanism of action and set the stage for rational combination therapy. Preclinical studies are ongoing to identify optimal synergistic combinations for future clinical trials. PMID:26566079

  17. A randomized double-blind, non-inferiority Phase II trial, comparing dapaconazole tosylate 2% cream with ketoconazole 2% cream in the treatment of Pityriasis versicolor.

    PubMed

    Gobbato, André Alves Moraes; Babadópulos, Tainah; Gobbato, Cintia Aparecida Rodrigues Santiago; Ilha, Jaime de Oliveira; Gagliano-Jucá, Thiago; De Nucci, Gilberto

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of a new antifungal imidazole, dapaconazole tosylate, in the treatment of Pityriasis versicolor (PV). Sixty patients with clinical and mycological diagnosis of PV were randomly assigned to receive either 1 g dapaconazole tosylate 2% cream or 1 g ketoconazole 2% cream. Treatments were applied once a day for 28 days. A dermatologist evaluated efficacy and safety daily, and weekly laboratorial tests were performed. The primary end point was a clinical and mycological cure of lesions after 28 days of treatment. The secondary end point was the time to clinical healing assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Log-rank testing. Fifty-three patients adhered to protocol rules. Clinical and mycological cure was achieved in 84.6% (22/26) and 92.6% (25/27) of patients treated with ketoconazole and dapaconazole, respectively (difference [effect size] = 8.0%, Standard error of difference: 8.69%, 95% CI: -6.3 to 22.3%). Median time to healing was 23.5 and 21 days for ketoconazole and dapaconazole, respectively (p = 0.126). Adverse events occurred only in ketoconazole-treated patients (13%; 4/30). Dapaconazole tosylate is non-inferior to ketoconazole when used at a dose of 20 mg/day for 28 consecutive days for the treatment of PV. Dapaconazole also demonstrated a good safety profile.

  18. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0247: A Randomized Phase II Study of Neoadjuvant Capecitabine and Irinotecan or Capecitabine and Oxaliplatin With Concurrent Radiotherapy for Patients With Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Stuart J.; Winter, Kathryn; Meropol, Neal J.; Anne, Pramila Rani; Kachnic, Lisa; Rashid, Asif; Watson, James C.; Mitchell, Edith; Pollock, Jondavid; Lee, Robert Jeffrey; Haddock, Michael; Erickson, Beth A.; Willett, Christopher G.

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the rate of pathologic complete response (pCR) and the toxicity of two neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (chemoRT) regimens for Stage T3-T4 rectal cancer in a randomized Phase II study. Methods and Materials: Patients with Stage T3 or T4 rectal cancer of <12 cm from the anal verge were randomized to preoperative RT (50.4 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions) with concurrent capecitabine (1,200 mg/m{sup 2}/d Mondays through Friday) and irinotecan (50 mg/m{sup 2} weekly in four doses) (Arm 1) or concurrent capecitabine (1,650 mg/m{sup 2}/d Monday through Friday) and oxaliplatin (50 mg/m{sup 2} weekly in five doses) (Arm 2). Surgery was performed 4-8 weeks after chemoRT, and adjuvant chemotherapy 4-6 weeks after surgery. The primary endpoint was the pCR rate, requiring 48 evaluable patients per arm. Results: A total of 146 patients were enrolled. The protocol chemotherapy was modified because of excessive gastrointestinal toxicity after treatment of 35 patients; 96 were assessed for the primary endpoint-the final regimen described above. The patient characteristics were similar for both arms. After chemoRT, the rate of tumor downstaging was 52% and 60% and the rate of nodal downstaging (excluding N0 patients) was 46% and 40%, for Arms 1 and 2, respectively. The pCR rate for Arm 1 was 10% and for Arm 2 was 21%. For Arm 1 and 2, the preoperative chemoRT rate of Grade 3-4 hematologic toxicity was 9% and 4% and the rate of Grade 3-4 nonhematologic toxicity was 26% and 27%, respectively. Conclusions: Preoperative chemoRT with capecitabine plus oxaliplatin for distal rectal cancer has significant clinical activity (10 of 48 pCRs) and acceptable toxicity. This regimen is currently being evaluated in a Phase III randomized trial (National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project R04).

  19. Randomized, Double-Blind Phase II Trial With Prospective Classification by ATM Protein Level to Evaluate the Efficacy and Tolerability of Olaparib Plus Paclitaxel in Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bang, Yung-Jue; Im, Seock-Ah; Lee, Keun-Wook; Cho, Jae Yong; Song, Eun-Kee; Lee, Kyung Hee; Kim, Yeul Hong; Park, Joon Oh; Chun, Hoo Geun; Zang, Dae Young; Fielding, Anitra; Rowbottom, Jacqui; Hodgson, Darren; O'Connor, Mark J; Yin, Xiaolu; Kim, Woo Ho

    2015-11-20

    Gastric cancer cell lines, particularly those with low levels of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), a key activator of DNA damage response, are sensitive to the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor olaparib. We compared the efficacy of olaparib plus paclitaxel (olaparib/paclitaxel) with paclitaxel alone in patients with recurrent or metastatic gastric cancer and assessed whether low ATM expression is predictive of improved clinical outcome for olaparib/paclitaxel. In this phase II, double-blind study (Study 39; NCT01063517), patients were randomly assigned to oral olaparib 100 mg twice per day (tablets) plus paclitaxel (80 mg/m(2) per day intravenously on days 1, 8, and 15 of every 28-day cycle) or placebo plus paclitaxel (placebo/paclitaxel), followed by maintenance monotherapy with olaparib (200 mg twice per day) or placebo. The study population was enriched to 50% for patients with low or undetectable ATM levels (ATMlow). Primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). One hundred twenty-three of 124 randomly assigned patients received treatment (olaparib/paclitaxel, n = 61; placebo/paclitaxel, n = 62). The screening prevalence of ATMlow patients was 14%. Olaparib/paclitaxel did not lead to a significant improvement in PFS versus placebo/paclitaxel (overall population: hazard ratio [HR], 0.80; median PFS, 3.91 v 3.55 months, respectively; ATMlow population: HR, 0.74; median PFS, 5.29 v 3.68 months, respectively). However, olaparib/paclitaxel significantly improved overall survival (OS) versus placebo/paclitaxel in both the overall population (HR, 0.56; 80% CI, 0.41 to 0.75; P = .005; median OS, 13.1 v 8.3 months, respectively) and the ATMlow population (HR, 0.35; 80% CI, 0.22 to 0.56; P = .002; median OS, not reached v 8.2 months, respectively). Olaparib/paclitaxel was generally well tolerated, with no unexpected safety findings. Olaparib/paclitaxel is active in the treatment of patients with metastatic gastric cancer, with a greater OS benefit in

  20. Phase II Clinical Trial of Gefitinib for the Treatment of Chemonaïve Patients with Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer with Poor Performance Status

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Nagla Abdel; Musaad, Salma; Zarzour, Ahmad; Patil, Sadanand; Jazieh, Abdul Rahman

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have no curative treatment options; therefore, improving their quality of life (QOL) is an important goal. Gefitinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor, is a safe oral agent that may be of benefit to a specific population of NSCLC. PATIENTS AND METHODS A Phase II clinical trial included chemonaïve patients with advanced NSCLC and poor performance status (PS). Response rate, progression-free survival, overall survival, QOL using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy – Lung (FACT-L) questionnaire, and Trial Outcome Index (TOI) were evaluated. RESULTS Twelve out of 19 enrolled patients were evaluable. The median age for the evaluable patients was 68.8 years (59.7–74.6). Out of all the patients, 7 (58.3%) had adenocarcinoma and 5 (41.7%) had squamous cell carcinoma. The median duration of treatment was 62.5 days (26.5–115.0) in the evaluable patients. Grade 3/4 toxicities included fatigue, rash, diarrhea, and nausea. One patient had partial response, eight patients had stable disease (SD), and three patients progressed. The median overall survival for the evaluable population was 4.9 months (2.3–16). The median progression-free survival was 3.7 months (1.9–6.6). TOI was marginally associated with the overall survival, with a hazard ratio of 0.92 (95% confidence interval: 0.84, 1.0) (P = 0.061). FACT-L score and the TOI were highly correlated (r = 0.96, P < 0.0001). TOI scores were higher in African Americans compared to Caucasians and increased with age. CONCLUSION Our results suggest that gefitinib use in patients with NSCLC and poor PS may improve the QOL of older patients and African American patients. PMID:25520566

  1. Effect of paracetamol (acetaminophen) and ibuprofen on body temperature in acute ischemic stroke PISA, a phase II double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial [ISRCTN98608690

    PubMed Central

    Dippel, Diederik WJ; van Breda, Eric J; van der Worp, H Bart; van Gemert, H Maarten A; Meijer, Ron J; Kappelle, L Jaap; Koudstaal, Peter J

    2003-01-01

    Background Body temperature is a strong predictor of outcome in acute stroke. In a previous randomized trial we observed that treatment with high-dose acetaminophen (paracetamol) led to a reduction of body temperature in patients with acute ischemic stroke, even when they had no fever. The purpose of the present trial was to study whether this effect of acetaminophen could be reproduced, and whether ibuprofen would have a similar, or even stronger effect. Methods Seventy-five patients with acute ischemic stroke confined to the anterior circulation were randomized to treatment with either 1000 mg acetaminophen, 400 mg ibuprofen, or placebo, given 6 times daily during 5 days. Treatment was started within 24 hours from the onset of symptoms. Body temperatures were measured at 2-hour intervals during the first 24 hours, and at 6-hour intervals thereafter. Results No difference in body temperature at 24 hours was observed between the three treatment groups. However, treatment with high-dose acetaminophen resulted in a 0.3°C larger reduction in body temperature from baseline than placebo treatment (95% CI: 0.0 to 0.6 °C). Acetaminophen had no significant effect on body temperature during the subsequent four days compared to placebo, and ibuprofen had no statistically significant effect on body temperature during the entire study period. Conclusions Treatment with a daily dose of 6000 mg acetaminophen results in a small, but potentially worthwhile decrease in body temperature after acute ischemic stroke, even in normothermic and subfebrile patients. Further large randomized clinical trials are needed to study whether early reduction of body temperature leads to improved outcome. PMID:12657165

  2. A randomized phase II trial of interleukin-2 in combination with four different doses of bryostatin-1 in patients with renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Amy C; Harlin, Helena; Karrison, Theodore; Vogelzang, Nicholas J; Knost, James A; Kugler, John W; Lester, Eric; Vokes, Everett; Gajewski, Thomas F; Stadler, Walter M

    2006-03-01

    Bryostatin-1 is a PKC modulator with direct anti-tumor activity and immunomodulatory properties. We combined different doses of Bryostatin-1 with IL-2 to determine effects on clinical response rate and T cell phenotype in patients with advanced kidney cancer. IL-2 naïve patients were given 11 x 10(6) IU subcutaneously of IL-2 on days 1-4, 8-11, and 15-18 of every 28-day cycle. Twenty four patients were randomized to treatment cohorts of 5, 15 or 25 mcg/m2 of Bryostatin-1 on days 1, 8 and 15, starting in the second cycle. An additional nine, non-randomized patients were given 35 mcg/m2. Lymphocytes were analyzed for number, activation status, and production of IL-2, IL-4 and IFN-gamma. Response evaluation was performed every 3 cycles. Common grade 3 toxicities included fatigue (5), nausea/vomiting (5), myopathy (3), dyspnea (3), and syncope (3). Four patients, in the two highest dose cohorts, demonstrated evidence of tumor shrinkage, although there was only 1 objective PR. The median time to progression was 104 days (95% CI 88-120) and the median survival was 452 days (95% CI = 424-480). There was no significant boosting effect of Bryostatin-1 on lymphocytes. The addition of Bryostatin-1 to IL-2 was well tolerated, but the overall response rate was low (3.2%), indicating that further studies with this combination are not warranted.

  3. A Phase II Randomized, Double‐Blind, Placebo‐Controlled Study of Simtuzumab or Placebo in Combination with Gemcitabine for the First‐Line Treatment of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wainberg, Zev A.; Hecht, J. Randolph; Vyushkov, Dmitry; Dong, Hua; Bendell, Johanna; Kudrik, Fred

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Lessons Learned. The safety profile in the gemcitabine/simtuzumab group was similar to that in the gemcitabine/placebo group.The addition of simtuzumab to gemcitabine does not improve clinical outcomes in patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma Background. The humanized IgG4 monoclonal antibody simtuzumab inhibits the extracellular matrix‐remodeling enzyme lysyl oxidase‐like 2 maintaining pathological stroma in tumors. Methods. Adult patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma (mPaCa) were randomly assigned to receive intravenous gemcitabine, 1,000 mg/m2, in combination with 200 or 700 mg simtuzumab or placebo. Primary endpoint was progression‐free survival (PFS), secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS), objective response rate (ORR), and safety. Results. Of 240 patients, 80 were randomly assigned to gemcitabine/simtuzumab 700 mg, 79 to gemcitabine/simtuzumab 200 mg, and 81 to gemcitabine/placebo. After a median follow‐up of 3.0, 1.9, and 3.4 months for gemcitabine/simtuzumab 700 mg, gemcitabine/simtuzumab 200 mg, and gemcitabine/placebo, respectively, the median PFS was 3.7 months (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 95% confidence interval [CI], p value vs placebo: 1.09 [0.74–1.61]; p = .73), 3.5 months (1.13 [0.76–1.66], p = .61]), and 3.7 months, respectively. Median OS was 7.6 months (0.83 [0.57–1.22]; p = .28), 5.9 months (1.07 [0.73–1.55]; p = .69), and 5.7 months, respectively. ORRs were 13.9%, 14.5%, and 23.5%, respectively. Simtuzumab was well tolerated. Conclusion. The addition of simtuzumab to gemcitabine did not improve clinical outcomes in patients with mPaCa. PMID:28246206

  4. Relationship between physician-adjudicated adverse events and patient-reported health-related quality of life in a phase II clinical trial (NCT01143402) of patients with metastatic uveal melanoma.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Thomas M; Hay, Jennifer L; Shoushtari, Alexander; Li, Yuelin; Paucar, Daniel J; Smith, Sloane C; Kudchadkar, Ragini R; Doyle, Austin; Sosman, Jeffrey A; Quevedo, Jorge Fernando; Milhem, Mohammed M; Joshua, Anthony M; Linette, Gerald P; Gajewski, Thomas F; Lutzky, Jose; Lawson, David H; Lao, Christopher D; Flynn, Patrick J; Albertini, Mark R; Sato, Takami; Lewis, Karl; Marr, Brian; Abramson, David H; Dickson, Mark Andrew; Schwartz, Gary K; Carvajal, Richard D

    2017-03-01

    Clinical trials commonly use physician-adjudicated adverse event (AE) assessment via the common terminology criteria for adverse events (CTCAE) for decision-making. Patient-reported health-related quality of life (HRQoL) data are becoming more frequent in oncology; however, the relationship between physician-adjudicated AE assessment and HRQoL is understudied. Data from a phase II trial (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01143402) where patients with metastatic uveal melanoma were randomized to receive selumetinib, an oral MEK inhibitor, or chemotherapy were analyzed. Patients reported HRQoL at baseline, after 1 month, and end of treatment (n = 118), whereas physicians adjudicated AEs via CTCAE. Mean HRQoL scores were compared between patient randomization arms, as well as between those patients who did/did not receive dose modifications. Ninety-four percent had a CTCAE grade ≥1 for at least one treatment-associated AE, with 18% undergoing dose modification due to toxicity. Mean HRQoL scores did not significantly differ at each of the three time points. Patient and physician-adjudicated reports of nausea were significantly correlated at the start (r = 0.31, p < 0.01) and end of treatment (r = 0.42, p < 0.05). There were no significant correlations between need for dose modification and HRQoL scores. Despite the high rate of physician-adjudicated AEs and need for dose modifications with selumetinib, patient-reported HRQoL was not impacted by treatment. Since HRQoL did not differ in the subgroup of patients who received dosage reductions due to AEs, patients may be willing to tolerate select AEs without dose modification (if medically appropriate). More research is needed to determine how to best integrate HRQoL data into clinical trial conduct.

  5. A randomized phase II study of the MEK1/MEK2 inhibitor trametinib (GSK1120212) compared with docetaxel in KRAS-mutant advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC)†

    PubMed Central

    Blumenschein, G. R.; Smit, E. F.; Planchard, D.; Kim, D.-W.; Cadranel, J.; De Pas, T.; Dunphy, F.; Udud, K.; Ahn, M.-J.; Hanna, N. H.; Kim, J.-H.; Mazieres, J.; Kim, S.-W.; Baas, P.; Rappold, E.; Redhu, S.; Puski, A.; Wu, F. S.; Jänne, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background KRAS mutations are detected in 25% of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and no targeted therapies are approved for this subset population. Trametinib, a selective allosteric inhibitor of MEK1/MEK2, demonstrated preclinical and clinical activity in KRAS-mutant NSCLC. We report a phase II trial comparing trametinib with docetaxel in patients with advanced KRAS-mutant NSCLC. Patients and methods Eligible patients with histologically confirmed KRAS-mutant NSCLC previously treated with one prior platinum-based chemotherapy were randomly assigned in a ratio of 2 : 1 to trametinib (2 mg orally once daily) or docetaxel (75 mg/m2 i.v. every 3 weeks). Crossover to the other arm after disease progression was allowed. Primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). The study was prematurely terminated after the interim analysis of 92 PFS events, which showed the comparison of trametinib versus docetaxel for PFS crossed the futility boundary. Results One hundred and twenty-nine patients with KRAS-mutant NSCLC were randomized; of which, 86 patients received trametinib and 43 received docetaxel. Median PFS was 12 weeks in the trametinib arm and 11 weeks in the docetaxel arm (hazard ratio [HR] 1.14; 95% CI 0.75–1.75; P = 0.5197). Median overall survival, while the data are immature, was 8 months in the trametinib arm and was not reached in the docetaxel arm (HR 0.97; 95% CI 0.52–1.83; P = 0.934). There were 10 (12%) partial responses (PRs) in the trametinib arm and 5 (12%) PRs in the docetaxel arm (P = 1.0000). The most frequent adverse events (AEs) in ≥20% of trametinib patients were rash, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and fatigue. The most frequent grade 3 treatment-related AEs in the trametinib arm were hypertension, rash, diarrhea, and asthenia. Conclusion Trametinib showed similar PFS and a response rate as docetaxel in patients with previously treated KRAS-mutant-positive NSCLC. Clinicaltrials.gov registration number NCT01362296. PMID:25722381

  6. Immunogenicity and Safety of H5N1 A/Vietnam/1194/2004 (Clade 1) AS03-adjuvanted prepandemic candidate influenza vaccines in children aged 3 to 9 years: a phase ii, randomized, open, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Díez-Domingo, Javier; Garcés-Sanchez, Maria; Baldó, José-María; Planelles, María Victoria; Ubeda, Isabel; JuBert, Angels; Marés, Josep; Moris, Philippe; Garcia-Corbeira, Pilar; Dramé, Mamadou; Gillard, Paul

    2010-06-01

    The development of vaccines against pandemic influenza viruses for use in children is a public health priority. In this phase II, randomized, open study, the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of H5N1 A/Vietnam/1194/2004 (NIBRG-14) (clade 1) prepandemic influenza vaccine were assessed in children aged 3 to 5 and 6 to 9 years. Children were randomized to receive 2 doses, given 21 days apart, of A/Vietnam/1194/2004 vaccine containing 1.9 microg or 3.75 microg hemagglutinin antigen (HA), adjuvanted with a tocopherol-based oil-in-water emulsion (AS03) containing 11.86 mg (AS03(A)) or 5.93 mg (AS03(B)) tocopherol. Control groups received 2 doses of trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV). Humoral immune responses, reactogenicity, and safety were the primary outcome measures; cross-reactivity and cell-mediated responses were also assessed (NCT00502593). Between 49 and 51 children in each age stratum (aged 3-5 and 6-9 years) received H5N1 vaccine, and between 17 and 18 children in each age stratum received TIV. After the second dose, recipients of H5N1 vaccine (1.9 microg HA/AS03(B), 3.75 microg HA/AS03(B), and 3.75 microg HA/AS03(A)) achieved humoral antibody titers against the vaccine-homologous strain, which fulfilled the United States influenza vaccines licensure criteria for immunogenicity. With the exception of 1 child, there were no H5N1 immune responses in children who received TIV. The most frequent injection-site event was pain in all groups, and the H5N1 vaccine had a clinically acceptable reactogenicity and safety profile. Exploratory analyses in children aged 3 to 5 years indicated that the induction of CD4 T-cell responses polarized in favor of a T-helper 1 profile. The results showed that 2 doses of AS03-adjuvanted H5N1 influenza vaccine at antigen-sparing doses of 1.9 microg or 3.75 microg HA elicited broad and persistent immune responses with acceptable reactogenicity, and without safety concerns, in children aged 3 to 9 years.

  7. Ethnic difference in hematological toxicity in patients with non-small cell lung cancer treated with chemotherapy: a pooled analysis on Asian versus non-Asian in phase II and III clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Yoshikazu; Kawaguchi, Tomoya; Kubo, Akihito; Ando, Masahiko; Shiraishi, Junji; Isa, Shun-ichi; Tsuji, Taisuke; Tsujino, Kazuyuki; Ou, Sai-Hong I; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Takada, Minoru

    2011-11-01

    There are a large number of global clinical trials ongoing for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Ethnic difference in toxicity has not been adequately studied. We performed a systematic search in PubMed for randomized phase II and III trials of NSCLC from January 2000 to December 2009, examining ethnic difference in hematological toxicity due to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Ethnicity was classified into Asian and non-Asian. We chose three treatment regimens used for NSCLC globally: cisplatin plus gemcitabine (CG), cisplatin plus vinorelbine (CV), and carboplatin plus paclitaxel (CP). We applied sensitivity analysis to examine unreported ethnic differences in hematological toxicities by changing the percentage of Asian patients from 0 to 18% in trials reported from the United States and Europe. We identified 12 phase II trials and 38 phase III trials of NSCLC with a total of 11,271 patients. Among these, 14 trials had reported ethnic origins. Grade 3/4 toxicities were more frequently observed in the Asian studies. On the basis of sensitivity analysis, odds ratio of grade 3/4 neutropenia was significantly higher in Asian patients than non-Asian, when treated with CG (OR = 1.55-3.45, p < 0.001), CV (OR = 2.99-4.43, p < 0.001), and CP (OR = 4.79-6.22, p < 0.001). Grade 3/4 anemia was also significantly higher in Asians with CG (OR = 3.10-3.27, p < 0.001), CV (OR = 1.99-2.43, p < 0.001), and CP (OR = 1.34-1.52, p < 0.001-0.004). However, no significant difference was observed in thrombocytopenia with CG (OR = 0.66-2.04, p < 0.001-1.000), CV (OR = 0.42-0.57, p = 0.097-0.323), or CP (OR = 1.21-1.39, p = 0.114-0.152). Severe hematological toxicity was frequently observed in Asian patients compared with non-Asian (mostly whites) in the treatment of chemotherapy for NSCLC.

  8. Combination treatment with mirabegron and solifenacin in patients with overactive bladder: exploratory responder analyses of efficacy and evaluation of patient-reported outcomes from a randomized, double-blind, factorial, dose-ranging, Phase II study (SYMPHONY).

    PubMed

    Abrams, P; Kelleher, C; Staskin, D; Kay, R; Martan, A; Mincik, I; Newgreen, D; Ridder, A; Paireddy, A; van Maanen, R

    2017-05-01

    This large dose-ranging study explored the benefits of different combinations of mirabegron and solifenacin on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), based on patient-reported outcomes (PROs), and patients ('responders') achieving clinically meaningful improvements in efficacy and HRQoL. SYMPHONY (NCT01340027) was a Phase II, placebo- and monotherapy-controlled, dose-ranging, 12-week trial. Adult patients with overactive bladder (OAB) for ≥3 months were randomized to 1 of 12 groups: 6 combination (solifenacin 2.5/5/10 mg + mirabegron 25/50 mg), 5 monotherapy (solifenacin 2.5/5/10 mg, or mirabegron 25/50 mg), or placebo. Change from baseline to end of treatment was assessed, versus placebo and solifenacin 5 mg in: PROs (OAB-q [Symptom Bother/total HRQoL] and Patient Perception of Bladder Condition score), and responders achieving minimally important differences (MIDs) in PROs and predetermined clinically meaningful improvements in efficacy (e.g. <8 micturitions/24 h). Changes in PROs and responders were analysed using an ANCOVA model and logistic regression, respectively. The Full Analysis Set included 1278 patients. Combination therapy of solifenacin 5/10 mg + mirabegron 25/50 mg significantly improved PROs versus solifenacin 5 mg and placebo, and significantly more responders achieved MIDs in PROs and efficacy. Micturition frequency normalization was approximately twofold greater with 10 + 25 mg (OR 2.06 [95 % CI 1.11, 3.84; p = 0.023]) and 5 + 50 mg (OR 1.91 [95 % CI 1.14, 3.21; p = 0.015]) versus solifenacin 5 mg. Combining mirabegron 25/50 mg and solifenacin 5/10 mg improves objective and subjective efficacy outcomes compared with placebo or solifenacin 5 mg.

  9. SWOG S0925: A Randomized Phase II Study of Androgen Deprivation Combined With Cixutumumab Versus Androgen Deprivation Alone in Patients With New Metastatic Hormone-Sensitive Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Evan Y; Li, Hongli; Higano, Celestia S; Agarwal, Neeraj; Pal, Sumanta K; Alva, Ajjai; Heath, Elisabeth I; Lam, Elaine T; Gupta, Shilpa; Lilly, Michael B; Inoue, Yoshio; Chi, Kim N; Vogelzang, Nicholas J; Quinn, David I; Cheng, Heather H; Plymate, Stephen R; Hussain, Maha; Tangen, Catherine M; Thompson, Ian M

    2015-05-10

    Cixutumumab, formerly IMC-A12, is a recombinant human monoclonal immunoglobulin G1 antibody that targets insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR). Cixutumumab was synergistic with castration in a hormone-sensitive prostate cancer xenograft model. Patients with new metastatic prostate cancer were randomly assigned within 30 days of initiating androgen deprivation (AD) to cixutumumab added to a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist with bicalutamide versus AD alone. With 180 patients and one-sided alpha of 0.10, there would be 90% power to detect an absolute 20% difference in undetectable prostate-specific antigen (PSA; ≤ 0.2 ng/mL) rate at 28 weeks (relative risk, 1.44); this end point was previously strongly correlated with survival. Secondary end points included the proportion of patients with PSA > 4.0 ng/mL, safety and tolerability, circulating tumor cell (CTC) levels, and seven plasma IGF-IR biomarkers. Fisher's exact test was used for the primary end point, and extended Mantel-Haenszel χ(2) test was used for three PSA response categories. The trial accrued 210 eligible patients (105 randomly assigned to each arm). Patient characteristics were similar in both arms. Undetectable PSA rate was 42 (40.0%) of 105 for cixutumumab plus AD and 34 (32.3%) of 105 for AD alone (relative risk, 1.24; one-sided P = .16). Lower baseline CTCs (0 v 1 to 4 v ≥ 5/7.5 mL whole blood) were associated with higher rate of PSA response (three categories; P = .036) in 39 evaluable patients. IGF-IR biomarkers were not correlated with PSA outcome, and cixutumumab did not significantly change these biomarker levels. Cixutumumab plus AD did not significantly increase the undetectable PSA rate in men with new metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. CTCs at baseline may carry prognostic value. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  10. Phase II Randomized Trial of Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy to Decrease Surgical Site Infection in Patients Undergoing Laparotomy for Gastrointestinal, Pancreatic, and Peritoneal Surface Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Perry; Blackham, Aaron U; Lewis, Stacey; Clark, Clancy J; Howerton, Russell; Mogal, Harveshp D; Dodson, Rebecca M; Russell, Gregory B; Levine, Edward A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Surgical site infections (SSIs) remain a major source of morbidity and cost after resection of intra-abdominal malignancies. Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has been reported to significantly reduce SSIs when applied to the closed laparotomy incision. This article reports the results of a randomized clinical trial examining the effect of NPWT on SSI rates in surgical oncology patients with increased risk for infectious complications. STUDY DESIGN From 2012 to 2016, two hundred and sixty-five patients who underwent open resection of intra-abdominal neoplasms were stratified into 3 groups: gastrointestinal (n = 57), pancreas (n = 73), or peritoneal surface (n = 135) malignancy. They were randomized to receive NPWT or standard surgical dressing (SSD) applied to the incision from postoperative days 1 through 4. Primary outcomes of combined incisional (superficial and deep) SSI rates were assessed up to 30 days after surgery. RESULTS There were no significant differences in superficial SSIs (12.8% vs 12.9%; p > 0.99) or deep SSI (3.0% vs 3.0%; p > 0.99) rates between the SSD and NPWT groups, respectively. When stratified by type of surgery, there were still no differences in combined incisional SSI rates for gastrointestinal (25% vs 24%; p > 0.99), pancreas (22% vs 22%; p > 0.99), and peritoneal surface malignancy (9% vs 9%; p > 0.99) patients. When performing univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis of demographic and operative factors for the development of combined incisional SSI, the only independent predictors were preoperative albumin (p = 0.0031) and type of operation (p = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS Use of NPWT did not significantly reduce incisional SSI rates in patients having open resection of gastrointestinal, pancreatic, or peritoneal surface malignancies. Based on these results, at this time NPWT cannot be recommended as a therapeutic intervention to decrease infectious complications in these patient populations. PMID:28088597

  11. A phase II randomized trial of induction chemotherapy versus no induction chemotherapy followed by preoperative chemoradiation in patients with esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ajani, J. A.; Xiao, L.; Roth, J. A.; Hofstetter, W. L.; Walsh, G.; Komaki, R.; Liao, Z.; Rice, D. C.; Vaporciyan, A. A.; Maru, D. M.; Lee, J. H.; Bhutani, M. S.; Eid, A.; Yao, J. C.; Phan, A. P.; Halpin, A.; Suzuki, A.; Taketa, T.; Thall, P. F.; Swisher, S. G.

    2013-01-01

    Background The contribution of induction chemotherapy (IC) before preoperative chemoradiation for esophageal cancer (EC) is not known. We hypothesized that IC would increase the rate of pathologic complete response (pathCR). Methods Trimodality-eligibile patients were randomized to receive no IC (Arm A) or IC (oxaliplatin/FU; Arm B) before oxaliplatin/FU/radiation. Surgery was attempted ∼5–6 weeks after chemoradiation. The pathCR rate, post-surgery 30-day mortality, overall survival (OS), and toxic effects were assessed. Bayesian methods and Fisher's exact test were used. Results One hundred twenty-six patients were randomized dynamically to balance the two arms for histology, baseline stage, gender, race, and age. Fifty-five patients in Arm A and 54 in Arm B underwent surgery. The median actuarial OS for all patients (54 deaths) was 45.62 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 27.63–NA], with median OS 45.62 months (95% CI 25.56–NA) in Arm A and 43.68 months (95% CI 27.63–NA) in Arm B (P = 0.69). The pathCR rate in Arm A was 13% (7 of 55) and 26% (14 of 54) in Arm B (two-sided Fisher's exact test, P = 0.094). Safety was similar in both arms. Conclusions These data suggest that IC produces non-significant increase in the pathCR rate and does not prolong OS. Further development of IC before chemoradiation may not be beneficial. Clinical trial no.: NCT 00525915 (www.clinicaltrials.gov). PMID:23975663

  12. EXpanding Treatment for Existing Neurological Disease (EXTEND): An Open-Label Phase II Clinical Trial of Hydroxyurea Treatment in Sickle Cell Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Little, Courtney R; Reid, Marvin E; Soares, Deanne P; Taylor-Bryan, Carolyn; Knight-Madden, Jennifer M; Stuber, Susan E; Badaloo, Asha V; Aldred, Karen; Wisdom-Phipps, Margaret E; Latham, Teresa; Ware, Russell E

    2016-01-01

    Background Cerebral vasculopathy in sickle cell anemia (SCA) begins in childhood and features intracranial arterial stenosis with high risk of ischemic stroke. Stroke risk can be reduced by transcranial doppler (TCD) screening and chronic transfusion therapy; however, this approach is impractical in many developing countries. Accumulating evidence supports the use of hydroxyurea for the prevention and treatment of cerebrovascular disease in children with SCA. Recently we reported that hydroxyurea significantly reduced the conversion from conditional TCD velocities to abnormal velocities; whether hydroxyurea can be used for children with newly diagnosed severe cerebrovascular disease in place of starting transfusion therapy remains unknown. Objective The primary objective of the EXpanding Treatment for Existing Neurological Disease (EXTEND) trial is to investigate the effect of open label hydroxyurea on the maximum time-averaged mean velocity (TAMV) after 18 months of treatment compared to the pre-treatment value. Secondary objectives include the effects of hydroxyurea on serial TCD velocities, the incidence of neurological and non-neurological events, quality of life (QOL), body composition and metabolism, toxicity and treatment response, changes to brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), genetic and serologic markers of disease severity, and cognitive and pulmonary function. Methods This prospective Phase II trial will enroll children with SCA in Jamaica, between the ages of 2 and 17 years, with either conditional (170-199 cm/sec) or abnormal (≥ 200 cm/sec) TCD velocities. Oral hydroxyurea will be administered daily and escalated to the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Participants will be seen in the Sickle Cell Unit (SCU) in Kingston, Jamaica monthly until achieving MTD, and then every 3 months. TCD will be performed every 6 months. Results Currently, 43 participants have been enrolled out of a projected 50. There was one

  13. Phase II Study of Temsirolimus in Women With Recurrent or Metastatic Endometrial Cancer: A Trial of the NCIC Clinical Trials Group

    PubMed Central

    Oza, Amit M.; Elit, Laurie; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Kamel-Reid, Suzanne; Biagi, Jim; Provencher, Diane Michele; Gotlieb, Walter H.; Hoskins, Paul J.; Ghatage, Prafull; Tonkin, Katia S.; Mackay, Helen J.; Mazurka, John; Sederias, Joana; Ivy, Percy; Dancey, Janet E.; Eisenhauer, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a tumor suppressor gene, and loss of function mutations are common and appear to be important in the pathogenesis of endometrial carcinomas. Loss of PTEN causes deregulated phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/serine-threonine kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) signaling which may provide neoplastic cells with a selective survival advantage by enhancing angiogenesis, protein translation, and cell cycle progression. Temsirolimus, an ester derivative of rapamycin that inhibits mTOR, was evaluated in this setting. Patients and Methods Sequential phase II studies evaluated single-agent activity of temsirolimus in women with recurrent or metastatic chemotherapy-naive or chemotherapy-treated endometrial cancer. Temsirolimus 25 mg intravenously was administered weekly in 4-week cycles. Results In the chemotherapy-naive group, 33 patients received a median of four cycles (range, one to 23 cycles). Of the 29 patients evaluable for response, four (14%) had an independently confirmed partial response and 20 (69%) had stable disease as best response, with a median duration of 5.1 months (range, 3.7 to 18.4 months) and 9.7 months (range, 2.1 to 14.6 months). Only five patients (18%) had progressive disease. In the chemotherapy-treated group, 27 patients received a median of three cycles (range, one to six cycles). Of the 25 patients evaluable for response, one (4%) had an independently confirmed partial response, and 12 patients (48%) had stable disease, with a median duration of 4.3 months (range, 3.6 to 4.9 months) and 3.7 months (range, 2.4 to 23.2 months). PTEN loss (immunohistochemistry and mutational analysis) and molecular markers of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway did not correlate with the clinical outcome. Conclusion mTOR inhibition with temsirolimus has encouraging single-agent activity in endometrial cancer which is higher in chemotherapy-naive patients than in chemotherapy-treated patients and is independent of PTEN

  14. A phase II randomised double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial investigating the efficacy and safety of ProstateEZE Max: a herbal medicine preparation for the management of symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Coulson, Samantha; Rao, Amanda; Beck, Shoshannah L; Steels, Elizabeth; Gramotnev, Helen; Vitetta, Luis

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ProstateEZE Max, an orally dosed herbal preparation containing Cucurbita pepo, Epilobium parviflorum, lycopene, Pygeum africanum and Serenoa repens in the management of symptoms of medically diagnosed benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH). This was a short-term phase II randomized double-blind placebo controlled clinical trial. The trial was conducted on 57 otherwise healthy males aged 40-80 years that presented with medically diagnosed BPH. The trial participants were assigned to receive 3 months of treatment (1 capsule per day) with either the herbal preparation (n = 32) or a matched placebo capsule (n = 25). The primary outcome measure was the international prostate specific score (IPSS) measured at baseline, 1, 2 and 3 months. The secondary outcomes were the specific questions of the IPSS and day-time and night-time urinary frequency. There was a significant reduction in IPSS total median score in the active group of 36% as compared to 8% for the placebo group, during the 3-months intervention (p < 0.05). The day-time urinary frequency in the active group also showed a significant reduction over the 3-months intervention (7.0-5.9 times per day, a reduction of 15.6% compared to no significant reduction change for the placebo group (6.2-6.3 times per day) (p < 0.03). The night-time urinary frequency was also significantly reduced in the active group (2.9-1.8, 39.3% compared to placebo (2.8-2.6 times, 7%) (p < 0.004). The herbal preparation (ProstateEZE Max) was shown to be well tolerated and have a significant positive effect on physical symptoms of BPH when taken over 3 months, a clinically significant outcome in otherwise healthy men. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A randomized, multicenter, phase II/III study to determine the optimal dose and to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pegteograstim (GCPGC) on chemotherapy-induced neutropenia compared to pegfilgrastim in breast cancer patients: KCSG PC10-09.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki Hyeong; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Moon Hee; Han, Hye Sook; Lim, Joo Han; Park, Keon Uk; Park, In Hae; Cho, Eun Kyung; Yoon, So Young; Kim, Jee Hyun; Choi, In Sil; Park, Jae Hoo; Choi, Young Jin; Kim, Hee-Jun; Jung, Kyung Hae; Kim, Si-Young; Oh, Do-Youn; Im, Seock-Ah

    2016-04-01

    Pegylated granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is frequently used to prevent febrile neutropenia (FN) in patients undergoing chemotherapy with a high risk of myelosuppression. This phase II/III study was conducted to determine the adequate dose of pegteograstim, a new formulation of pegylated G-CSF, and to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pegteograstim compared to pegfilgrastim. In the phase II part, 60 breast cancer patients who were undergoing DA (docetaxel and doxorubicin) or TAC (docetaxel, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide) chemotherapy were randomly selected to receive a single subcutaneous injection of 3.6 or 6.0 mg pegteograstim on day 2 of each chemotherapy cycle. The phase III part was seamlessly started to compare the dose of pegteograstim at selected in phase II with 6.0 mg pegfilgrastim in 117 breast cancer patients. The primary endpoint of both the phase II and III parts was the duration of grade 4 neutropenia in the chemotherapy cycle 1. The mean duration of grade 4 neutropenia for the 3.6 mg pegteograstim (n = 33) was similar to that for the 6.0 mg pegteograstim (n = 26) (1.97 ± 1.79 days vs. 1.54 ± 0.95 days, p = 0.33). The 6.0 mg pegteograstim was selected to be compared with the 6.0 mg pegfilgrastim in the phase III part. In the phase III part, the primary analysis revealed that the efficacy of pegteograstim (n = 56) was non-inferior to that of pegfilgrastim (n = 59) [duration of grade 4 neutropenia, 1.64 ± 1.18 days vs. 1.80 ± 1.05 days; difference, -0.15 ± 1.11 (p = 0.36, 97.5 % confidence intervals = 0.57 and 0.26)]. The time to the absolute neutrophil count (ANC) recovery of pegteograstim (≥2000/μL) was significantly shorter than that of pegfilgrastim (8.85 ± 1.45 days vs. 9.83 ± 1.20 days, p < 0.0001). Other secondary endpoints showed no significant difference between the two groups. The safety profiles of the two groups did not differ significantly. Pegteograstim was shown to be as effective as pegfilgrastim in the

  16. Randomized phase II study of docetaxel plus estramustine and single-agent docetaxel in patients with metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Eymard, J-C; Priou, F; Zannetti, A; Ravaud, A; Lepillé, D; Kerbrat, P; Gomez, P; Paule, B; Genet, D; Hérait, P; Ecstein-Fraïssé, E; Joly, F

    2007-06-01

    Docetaxel (Taxotere)-based regimens are the new standard therapy in advanced hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). A synergistic activity has been shown with docetaxel in combination with estramustine in vitro; however, the benefit of this combination remains controversial in clinical practice. We assessed the activity and safety of docetaxel alone and docetaxel-estramustine in HRPC. Patients (n = 92) with metastatic HRPC and rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) while receiving androgen suppression were randomized to 3-weekly treatment with either docetaxel 75 mg/m(2), day 1 (D), or docetaxel 70 mg/m(2), day 2, plus oral estramustine 280 mg twice daily, days 1-5 (DE). Ninety-one patients were treated (DE 47, D 44). A PSA response occurred in 68% (primary endpoint met) and 30% of patients, respectively. Median PSA response duration was 6.0 months in both groups. Median time to progression was 5.7 and 2.9 months, and median survival was 19.3 and 17.8 months in the DE and D arms, respectively. Hematologic and non-hematologic toxic effects were mild and similar in both arms. One patient in each group withdrew due to toxicity. Quality of life was similar in both groups. Combining estramustine with docetaxel in this schedule is an active and well-tolerated treatment option in HRPC.

  17. Clonal Evolutionary Analysis during HER2 Blockade in HER2-Positive Inflammatory Breast Cancer: A Phase II Open-Label Clinical Trial of Afatinib +/- Vinorelbine

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Ramona; Arpornwirat, Wichit; Chitapanarux, Imjai; Ganju, Vinod; Im, Seock-Ah; Kim, Sung-Bae; Dechaphunkul, Arunee; Maneechavakajorn, Jedzada; Spector, Neil; Yau, Thomas; Afrit, Mehdi; Ahmed, Slim Ben; Johnston, Stephen R.; Gibson, Neil; Herrero, Javier; Swanton, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Background Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare, aggressive form of breast cancer associated with HER2 amplification, with high risk of metastasis and an estimated median survival of 2.9 y. We performed an open-label, single-arm phase II clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01325428) to investigate the efficacy and safety of afatinib, an irreversible ErbB family inhibitor, alone and in combination with vinorelbine in patients with HER2-positive IBC. This trial included prospectively planned exome analysis before and after afatinib monotherapy. Methods and Findings HER2-positive IBC patients received afatinib 40 mg daily until progression, and thereafter afatinib 40 mg daily and intravenous vinorelbine 25 mg/m2 weekly. The primary endpoint was clinical benefit; secondary endpoints were objective response (OR), duration of OR, and progression-free survival (PFS). Of 26 patients treated with afatinib monotherapy, clinical benefit was achieved in 9 patients (35%), 0 of 7 trastuzumab-treated patients and 9 of 19 trastuzumab-naïve patients. Following disease progression, 10 patients received afatinib plus vinorelbine, and clinical benefit was achieved in 2 of 4 trastuzumab-treated and 0 of 6 trastuzumab-naïve patients. All patients had treatment-related adverse events (AEs). Whole-exome sequencing of tumour biopsies taken before treatment and following disease progression on afatinib monotherapy was performed to assess the mutational landscape of IBC and evolutionary trajectories during therapy. Compared to a cohort of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) patients with HER2-positive non-IBC, HER2-positive IBC patients had significantly higher mutational and neoantigenic burden, more frequent gain-of-function TP53 mutations and a recurrent 11q13.5 amplification overlapping PAK1. Planned exploratory analysis revealed that trastuzumab-naïve patients with tumours harbouring somatic activation of PI3K/Akt signalling had significantly shorter PFS compared to those without

  18. Melatonin analgesia is associated with improvement of the descending endogenous pain-modulating system in fibromyalgia: a phase II, randomized, double-dummy, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Central disinhibition is a mechanism involved in the physiopathology of fibromyalgia. Melatonin can improve sleep quality, pain and pain threshold. We hypothesized that treatment with melatonin alone or in combination with amitriptyline would be superior to amitriptyline alone in modifying the endogenous pain-modulating system (PMS) as quantified by conditional pain modulation (CPM), and this change in CPM could be associated with serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). We also tested whether melatonin improves the clinical symptoms of pain, pain threshold and sleep quality. Methods Sixty-three females, aged 18 to 65, were randomized to receive bedtime amitriptyline (25 mg) (n = 21), melatonin (10 mg) (n = 21) or melatonin (10 mg) + amitriptyline (25 mg) (n = 21) for a period of six weeks. The descending PMS was assessed with the CPM-TASK. It was assessed the pain score on the Visual Analog Scale (VAS 0-100 mm), the score on Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), heat pain threshold (HPT), sleep quality and BDNF serum. Delta values (post- minus pre-treatment) were used to compare the treatment effect. The outcomes variables were collected before, one and six weeks after initiating treatment. Results Melatonin alone or in combination with amitriptyline reduced significantly pain on the VAS compared with amitriptyline alone (P < 0.01). The delta values on the VAS scores were-12.85 (19.93),-17.37 (18.69) and-20.93 (12.23) in the amitriptyline, melatonin and melatonin+amitriptyline groups, respectively. Melatonin alone and in combination increased the inhibitory PMS as assessed by the Numerical Pain Scale [NPS(0-10)] reduction during the CPM-TASK:-2.4 (2.04) melatonin + amitriptyline,-2.65 (1.68) melatonin, and-1.04 (2.06) amitriptyline, (P < 0.05). Melatonin + amitriptyline treated displayed better results than melatonin and amitriptyline alone in terms of FIQ and PPT improvement (P < 0.05, fort both

  19. Efficacy, safety, and tolerability of once-daily abediterol in patients with stable, persistent asthma: a Phase II, randomized, 7-day, crossover study.

    PubMed

    Beier, Jutta; Fuhr, Rainard; Seoane, Beatriz; Massana, Eric; de Miquel, Gonzalo; Pujol, Helena; Ruiz, Sandrine

    2017-10-01

    Abediterol is a once-daily, long-acting β2 -adrenergic agonist in development for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We assessed the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of three dose levels of abediterol, given once daily for 7 days in patients with stable, persistent asthma. This was an ascending-dose, three-period incomplete crossover study design investigating three dose levels of abediterol versus placebo (EudraCT No. 2008-003732-38). Twenty-eight male patients (25-59 years) were randomized to one of four treatment sequences (1:1:1:1). Follow-up was 7 days after final treatment. Spirometry was performed regularly up to 24 h postdose Day 1, up to 36 h postdose Day 7, and at follow-up. Vital signs, 12-lead electrocardiogram, and clinical laboratory tests were recorded throughout. Abediterol 2.5, 5, and 10 μg provided clinically and statistically significant improvements from baseline (predose, Day 1) in trough forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1 ) versus placebo on Day 7 (primary endpoint) of 334, 365, and 294 mL, respectively (all P < 0.01), and peak FEV1 versus placebo on Day 7 of 364 (P < 0.001), 403 (P < 0.001), and 375 mL (P < 0.01), respectively. Days 1 and 7 area under the curve (AUC) parameters within each abediterol group were similar for AUC0-6 , AUC0-12 , AUC0-24 , and AUC12-24 , with dose-dependent effects observed on Day 1. Abediterol (2.5-10 μg) demonstrated a good safety and tolerability profile. Abediterol 2.5, 5, and 10 μg once daily achieved statistically and clinically significant improvements in pulmonary function versus placebo over 7 days and demonstrated a safety and tolerability profile comparable with placebo. © 2017 The Authors. Pharmacology Research & Perspectives published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd, British Pharmacological Society and American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  20. A phase II clinical study to assess the feasibility of self and partner anal examinations to detect anal canal abnormalities including anal cancer.

    PubMed

    Nyitray, Alan G; Hicks, Joseph T; Hwang, Lu-Yu; Baraniuk, Sarah; White, Margaret; Millas, Stefanos; Onwuka, Nkechi; Zhang, Xiaotao; Brown, Eric L; Ross, Michael W; Chiao, Elizabeth Y

    2017-08-23

    Anal cancer is a common cancer among men who have sex with men (MSM); however, there is no standard screening protocol for anal cancer. We conducted a phase II clinical trial to assess the feasibility of teaching MSM to recognise palpable masses in the anal canal which is a common sign of anal cancer in men. A clinician skilled in performing digital anorectal examinations (DARE) used a pelvic manikin to train 200 MSM, aged 27-78 years, how to do a self-anal examination (SAE) for singles or a partner anal examination (PAE) for couples. The clinician then performed a DARE without immediately disclosing results, after which the man or couple performed an SAE or PAE, respectively. Percentage agreement with the clinician DARE in addition to sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for the SAE, PAE and overall. Men had a median age of 52 years, 42.5% were African American and 60.5% were HIV positive. DARE detected abnormalities in 12 men while the men's SAE/PAEs detected 9 of these. A total of 93.0% of men classified the health of their anal canal correctly (95% CI 89.5 to 96.5). Overall percentage agreement, sensitivity and specificity were 93.0%, 75.0% and 94.2%, respectively, while PPV and NPV were 45.0% and 98.3%, respectively. The six men who detected the abnormality had nodules/masses ≥3 mm in size. More than half of men (60.5%) reported never checking their anus for an abnormality; however, after performing an SAE/PAE, 93.0% said they would repeat it in the future. These results suggest that tumours of ≥3 mm may be detectable by self or partner palpation among MSM and encourage further investigation given literature suggesting a high cure rate for anal cancer tumours ≤10 mm. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Phase II safety and clinical comparison with single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging for detection of coronary artery disease: flurpiridaz F 18 positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Berman, Daniel S; Maddahi, Jamshid; Tamarappoo, B K; Czernin, Johannes; Taillefer, Raymond; Udelson, James E; Gibson, C Michael; Devine, Marybeth; Lazewatsky, Joel; Bhat, Gajanan; Washburn, Dana

    2013-01-29

    This was a phase II trial to assess flurpiridaz F 18 for safety and compare its diagnostic performance for positron emission tomography (PET) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with Tc-99m single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) MPI with regard to image quality, interpretative certainty, defect magnitude, and detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) (≥50% stenosis) on invasive coronary angiography (ICA). In pre-clinical and phase I studies, flurpiridaz F 18 has shown characteristics of an essentially ideal MPI tracer. One hundred forty-three patients from 21 centers underwent rest-stress PET and Tc-99m SPECT MPI. Eighty-six patients underwent ICA, and 39 had low-likelihood of CAD. Images were scored by 3 independent, blinded readers. A higher percentage of images were rated as excellent/good on PET versus SPECT on stress (99.2% vs. 88.5%, p < 0.01) and rest (96.9% vs. 66.4, p < 0.01) images. Diagnostic certainty of interpretation (percentage of cases with definitely abnormal/normal interpretation) was higher for PET versus SPECT (90.8% vs. 70.9%, p < 0.01). In 86 patients who underwent ICA, sensitivity of PET was higher than SPECT (78.8% vs. 61.5%, respectively, p = 0.02). Specificity was not significantly different (PET: 76.5% vs. SPECT: 73.5%). Receiver-operating characteristic curve area was 0.82 ± 0.05 for PET and 0.70 ± 0.06 for SPECT (p = 0.04). Normalcy rate was 89.7% with PET and 97.4% with SPECT (p = NS). In patients with CAD on ICA, the magnitude of reversible defects was greater with PET than SPECT (p = 0.008). Extensive safety assessment revealed that flurpiridaz F 18 was safe in this cohort. In this phase 2 trial, PET MPI with flurpiridaz F 18 was safe and superior to SPECT MPI for image quality, interpretative certainty, and overall CAD diagnosis. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A phase II trial (AGO 2.11) in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer: a randomized multicenter trial with sunitinib (SU11248) to evaluate dosage, schedule, tolerability, toxicity and effectiveness of a multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor monotherapy.

    PubMed

    Baumann, K H; du Bois, A; Meier, W; Rau, J; Wimberger, P; Sehouli, J; Kurzeder, C; Hilpert, F; Hasenburg, A; Canzler, U; Hanker, L C; Hillemanns, P; Richter, B; Wollschlaeger, K; Dewitz, T; Bauerschlag, D; Wagner, U

    2012-09-01

    Recurrent platinum-resistant ovarian cancer usually has a poor outcome with conventional chemotherapeutic therapy and new treatment modalities are warranted. This phase II study was conducted to evaluate sunitinib, an oral antiangiogenic multitargeted tyrosin kinase inhibitor, in this setting. The primary end point of this randomized phase II trial was the objective response rate according to RECIST criteria and/or Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup CA125 response criteria to sunitinib in patients with recurrent platinum-resistant ovarian cancer who were pretreated with up to three chemotherapies. A selection design was employed to compare two schedules of sunitinib (arm 1: 50 mg sunitinib daily orally for 28 days followed by 14 days off drug; and arm 2: 37.5 mg sunitinib administered daily continuously). Of 73 patients enrolled, 36 patients were randomly allocated to the noncontinuous treatment arm (arm 1) and 37 patients were randomly allocated to the continuous treatment arm (arm 2). The mean age was 58.8 and 58.5 years, respectively. We observed six responders (complete response + partial response) in arm 1 (16.7%) and 2 responders in arm 2 (5.4%). The median progression-free survival (arm 1: 4.8 [2.9-8.1] months; arm 2: 2.9 [2.9-5.1] months) and the median overall survival (arm 1: 13.6 [7.0-23.2] months; arm 2: 13.7 [8.4-25.6] months) revealed no significant difference. Adverse events included fatigue as well as cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and abdominal symptoms, hematologic and hepatic laboratory abnormalities. Pattern and frequency of adverse events revealed no substantial differences between both treatment groups. Sunitinib treatment is feasible and moderately active in relapsed platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. The noncontinuous treatment schedule should be chosen for further studies in ovarian cancer.

  3. Volasertib Versus Chemotherapy in Platinum-Resistant or -Refractory Ovarian Cancer: A Randomized Phase II Groupe des Investigateurs Nationaux pour l'Etude des Cancers de l'Ovaire Study.

    PubMed

    Pujade-Lauraine, Eric; Selle, Frédéric; Weber, Béatrice; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle-Laure; Vergote, Ignace; Sufliarsky, Jozef; Del Campo, Josep Maria; Lortholary, Alain; Lesoin, Anne; Follana, Philippe; Freyer, Gilles; Pardo, Beatriz; Vidal, Laura; Tholander, Bengt; Gladieff, Laurence; Sassi, Mouna; Garin-Chesa, Pilar; Nazabadioko, Serge; Marzin, Kristell; Pilz, Korinna; Joly, Florence

    2016-03-01

    Volasertib is a potent and selective cell-cycle kinase inhibitor that induces mitotic arrest and apoptosis by targeting Polo-like kinase. This phase II trial evaluated volasertib or single-agent chemotherapy in patients with platinum-resistant or -refractory ovarian cancer who experienced failure after treatment with two or three therapy lines. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either volasertib 300 mg by intravenous infusion every 3 weeks or an investigator's choice of single-agent, nonplatinum, cytotoxic chemotherapy. The primary end point was 24-week disease control rate. Secondary end points included best overall response, progression-free survival (PFS), safety, quality of life, and exploratory biomarker analyses. Of the 109 patients receiving treatment, 54 received volasertib and 55 received chemotherapy; demographics were well balanced. The 24-week disease control rates for volasertib and chemotherapy were 30.6% (95% CI, 18.0% to 43.2%) and 43.1% (95% CI, 29.6% to 56.7%), respectively, with partial responses in seven (13.0%) and eight (14.5%) patients, respectively. Median PFS was 13.1 weeks and 20.6 weeks for volasertib and chemotherapy (hazard ratio, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.66 to 1.53). Six patients (11%) receiving volasertib achieved PFS fore more than 1 year, whereas no patient receiving chemotherapy achieved PFS greater than 1 year. No relationship between the expression of the biomarkers tested and their response was determined. Patients treated with volasertib experienced more grade 3 and 4 drug-related hematologic adverse events (AEs) and fewer nonhematologic AEs than did patients receiving chemotherapy. Discontinuation resulting from AEs occurred in seven (13.0%) and 15 (27.3%) patients in the volasertib and chemotherapy arms, respectively. Both arms showed similar effects on quality of life. Single-agent volasertib showed antitumor activity in patients with ovarian cancer. AEs in patients receiving volasertib were mainly hematologic and manageable

  4. Results of Phase II Randomized Study of Low-Dose Decitabine with or without Valproic Acid in Patients with Myelodysplastic Syndrome and Acute Myelogenous Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Jean Pierre; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Huang, Xuelin; Cortes, Jorge; Ravandi, Farhad; Jabbour, Elias; Borthakur, Gautam; Brandt, Mark; Pierce, Sherry; Kantarjian, Hagop

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypomethylating agents have shown activity in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Pre-clinical and single-arm trials have suggested that adding histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors may synergize the epigenetic modulation of hypomethylating agents and improve treatment results. Study Aim To evaluate the possible benefit of adding valproic acid, an HDAC inhibitor, to decitabine, in the treatment of MDS and AML. Methods Patients with higher risk MDS or with AML and age 60 years or older were eligible. Patients were randomized in a Bayesian response-adaptive design to decitabine 20mg/m2 intravenously (IV) daily for 5 days or to decitabine with valproic acid 50mg/1kg orally daily for 7 days. Courses were repeated every 4 to 6 weeks. A maximum of 150 patients were to be treated. Results A total of 149 patients were treated on study, including 87 patients with MDS and 62 patients with AML. The median age was 69 years (range 20 to 89 years; 42% ≥ 70 years). Overall, 34% of patients achieved CR and 55% had an objective response. The median survival was 11.9 months and the estimated 2-year survival rate was 27%. Outcome was not different with the addition of valproic acid to decitabine versus decitabine alone in relation to CR, overall response, or survival. Subset analyses did not demonstrate a benefit within the MDS or AML categories. Toxicities were higher with the combination, in particular neurotoxicity. Conclusions Adding valproic acid to decitabine was not associated with improved outcome in the treatment of MDS or elderly AML. Future therapies may consider combining hypomethylating agents with better HDAC inhibitors and using different schedules. PMID:25336333

  5. Randomized, phase II, placebo-controlled trial of onartuzumab and/or bevacizumab in combination with weekly paclitaxel in patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Diéras, V; Campone, M; Yardley, D A; Romieu, G; Valero, V; Isakoff, S J; Koeppen, H; Wilson, T R; Xiao, Y; Shames, D S; Mocci, S; Chen, M; Schmid, P

    2015-09-01

    Increased hepatocyte growth factor/MET signaling is associated with an aggressive phenotype and poor prognosis in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). We evaluated the benefit of adding onartuzumab, a monoclonal anti-MET antibody, to paclitaxel with/without bevacizumab in patients with TNBC. Women with metastatic TNBC were randomized to receive onartuzumab plus placebo plus weekly paclitaxel (OP; n = 60) or onartuzumab plus bevacizumab plus paclitaxel (OBP; n = 63) or placebo plus bevacizumab plus paclitaxel (BP; n = 62). The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS); additional end points included overall survival (OS), objective response rate (ORR), and safety. This trial was hypothesis generating and did not have power to detect minimum clinically meaningful differences between treatment arms. There was no improvement in PFS with the addition of onartuzumab to BP [hazard ratio (HR), 1.08; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.69-1.70]; the risk of a PFS event was higher with OP than with BP (HR, 1.74; 95% CI 1.13-2.68). Most patients had MET-negative tumors (88%); PAM50 subtype analysis showed basal-like tumors in 68% of samples. ORR was higher in the bevacizumab arms (OBP: 42.2%; 95% CI 28.6-57.1; BP: 54.7%; 95% CI 41.0-68.4) compared with OP (27.5%; 95% CI 15.9-40.6). Median OS was shorter with OBP (HR, 1.36; 95% CI 0.75-2.46) and OP (HR, 1.92; 95% CI 1.03-3.59), than with BP. Peripheral edema was more frequent in the onartuzumab arms (OBP, 51.8%; OP, 58.6%) versus BP (17.7%). This study did not show a clinical benefit of the addition of onartuzumab to paclitaxel with/without bevacizumab in patients with predominantly MET-negative TNBC. NCT01186991. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Analysis of the Yield of Phase II Combination Therapy Trials in Medical Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Maitland, Michael L.; Hudoba, Christine; Snider, Kelly L.; Ratain, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Phase II clinical studies screen for treatment regimens that improve patient care, but screening combination regimens is especially challenging. We hypothesized that recognized flaws of single arm trials could be magnified in combination treatment studies, leading to many reported positive phase II trials but a low fraction resulting practice-changing phase III trials. Experimental Design We searched medline and identified 363 combination chemotherapy clinical trials published in 2001 and 2002. Studies were rated as positive, negative, or inconclusive based on standardized review of abstract and text. The Web of Science Index (Thomson Reuters, NY, NY) was searched for all articles published between 2003 and October 2007 that cited at least one of these 363 published trials. Results Of 363 published phase II combination chemotherapy trials, 262 (0.72) were declared to be positive. Among 3760 unique subsequent citing papers, 20 reported randomized phase III trials of the same combination in the same disease as the source paper, and 10 of these resulted in improved standards of care. Estimating from these data, the likelihood that a published, positive phase II combination chemotherapy trial will result in a subsequent trial demonstrating an improvement in standard of care within five years was 0.038 [95% confidence interval- 0.016, 0.064]. Conclusions The contributory value of combination chemotherapy phase II trials performed by 2001-02 standards is low despite the participation of more than 16,000 subjects. Future phase II studies of combination regimens require better methods to screen for treatments most likely to improve standards of care. PMID:20837695

  7. A randomized Phase II study of veliparib with temozolomide or carboplatin/paclitaxel versus placebo with carboplatin/paclitaxel in BRCA1/2 metastatic breast cancer: design and rationale.

    PubMed

    Isakoff, Steven J; Puhalla, Shannon; Domchek, Susan M; Friedlander, Michael; Kaufman, Bella; Robson, Mark; Telli, Melinda L; Diéras, Véronique; Han, Hyo Sook; Garber, Judy E; Johnson, Eric F; Maag, David; Qin, Qin; Giranda, Vincent L; Shepherd, Stacie P

    2017-02-01

    Veliparib is an orally administered poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor that is being studied in Phase I-III clinical trials, including Phase III studies in non-small-cell lung cancer, ovarian cancer and breast cancer. Tumor cells with deleterious BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations are deficient in homologous recombination DNA repair and are intrinsically sensitive to platinum therapy and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors. We describe herein the design and rationale of a Phase II trial investigating whether the addition of veliparib to temozolomide or carboplatin/paclitaxel provides clinical benefit over carboplatin/paclitaxel with placebo in patients with locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer harboring a deleterious BRCA1 or BRCA2 germline mutation (Trial registration: EudraCT 2011-002913-12, NCT01506609).

  8. Treatment of Plaque-Type Psoriasis With Oral CF101: Data from a Phase II/III Multicenter, Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    David, Michael; Gospodinov, Dimitar Konstantinov; Gheorghe, Nicola; Mateev, Grisha Stefanov; Rusinova, Mariyana Venelinova; Hristakieva, Evgeniya; Solovastru, Laura Gheuca; Patel, Rita V; Giurcaneanu, Calin; Hitova, Mariela Chepileva; Purcaru, Anca Ioana; Horia, Beti; Tsingov, Iliya Iliev; Yankova, Rumyana Kaloferova; Kadurina, Miroslava Ilieva; Ramon, Michael; Rotaru, Maria; Simionescu, Olga; Benea, Vasile; Demerdjieva, Zdravka Velichkova; Cosgarea, Maria Rodica; Morariu, Horia Silviu; Michael, Ziv; Cristodor, Patricia; Nica, Carmen; Silverman, Michael H; Bristol, David R; Harpaz, Zivit; Farbstein, Motti; Cohen, Shira; Fishman, Pnina

    2016-08-01

    CF101, an adenosine A3 receptor agonist, is an orally bioavailable small molecule drug presenting an anti-psoriatic effect demonstrated in a Phase 2 clinical trial in psoriasis patients.
    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of CF101 treatment in a Phase 2/3 study in patients with moderate to severe plaque-type psoriasis.
    This multicenter, double-blind, 2-segment, placebo-controlled study randomized subjects with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis to CF101 1 or 2 mg, or placebo twice daily. At either week 12 (Segment 1) or 16 (Segment 2), the placebo group crossed over to CF101 BID through week 32 in an open-label fashion. At week 12, following an interim analysis, the CF101 1mg group was discontinued due to futility. The primary endpoint was proportion of patients achieving ≥75% improvement in Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI 75). Efficacy testing was performed using the Cochran-Mantel Haenszel test, the primary analysis of PASI 75 was performed at the 0.035 significance level.
    CF101 had an excellent safety profile at all tested dosages with a profile similar to the placebo group. The most common adverse events were infections and gastrointestinal events, and there was no cumulative intolerance over the 32-week dosing period. The study did not meet the primary endpoint of PASI 75 at week 12 (2 mg: 8.5% vs. placebo: 6.9%, P=0.621). However, at week 32, PASI mean percent improvement with CF101 2 mg was 57% (P<0.001) compared to baseline, with linear improvement in PASI 50 (63.5%), 75 (35.5%), 90 (24.7%), and 100 (10.6%).
    Oral CF101 was found to be safe and very well tolerated, demonstrating evidence of efficacy in patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis through 32 weeks of treatment.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(8):931-938.

  9. A Phase II, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled, Dose-Response Trial of the Melatonin Effect on the Pain Threshold of Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Stefani, Luciana Cadore; Muller, Suzana; Torres, Iraci L. S.; Razzolini, Bruna; Rozisky, Joanna R.; Fregni, Felipe; Markus, Regina; Caumo, Wolnei

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested that melatonin may produce antinociception through peripheral and central mechanisms. Based on the preliminary encouraging results of studies of the effects of melatonin on pain modulation, the important question has been raised of whether there is a dose relationship in humans of melatonin on pain modulation. Objective The objective was to evaluate the analgesic dose response of the effects of melatonin on pressure and heat pain threshold and tolerance and the sedative effects. Methods Sixty-one healthy subjects aged 19 to 47 y were randomized into one of four groups: placebo, 0.05 mg/kg sublingual melatonin, 0.15 mg/kg sublingual melatonin or 0.25 mg/kg sublingual melatonin. We determine the pressure pain threshold (PPT) and the pressure pain tolerance (PPTo). Quantitative sensory testing (QST) was used to measure the heat pain threshold (HPT) and the heat pain tolerance (HPTo). Sedation was assessed with a visual analogue scale and bispectral analysis. Results Serum plasma melatonin levels were directly proportional to the melatonin doses given to each subject. We observed a significant effect associated with dose group. Post hoc analysis indicated significant differences between the placebo vs. the intermediate (0.15 mg/kg) and the highest (0.25 mg/kg) melatonin doses for all pain threshold and sedation level tests. A linear regression model indicated a significant association between the serum melatonin concentrations and changes in pain threshold and pain tolerance (R2 = 0.492 for HPT, R2 = 0.538 for PPT, R2 = 0.558 for HPTo and R2 = 0.584 for PPTo). Conclusions The present data indicate that sublingual melatonin exerts well-defined dose-dependent antinociceptive activity. There is a correlation between the plasma melatonin drug concentration and acute changes in the pain threshold. These results provide additional support for the investigation of melatonin as an analgesic agent. Brazilian Clinical

  10. Administration of Adult Human Bone Marrow-Derived, Cultured, Pooled, Allogeneic Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Critical Limb Ischemia Due to Buerger's Disease: Phase II Study Report Suggests Clinical Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pawan K; Krishna, Murali; Chullikana, Anoop; Desai, Sanjay; Murugesan, Rajkumar; Dutta, Santanu; Sarkar, Uday; Raju, Radhakrishnan; Dhar, Anita; Parakh, Rajiv; Jeyaseelan, Lakshmanan; Viswanathan, Pachaiyappan; Vellotare, Prasanth Kulapurathu; Seetharam, Raviraja N; Thej, Charan; Rengasamy, Mathiyazhagan; Balasubramanian, Sudha; Majumdar, Anish S

    2017-03-01

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) due to Buerger's disease is a major unmet medical need with a high incidence of morbidity. This phase II, prospective, nonrandomized, open-label, multicentric, dose-ranging study was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of i.m. injection of adult human bone marrow-derived, cultured, pooled, allogeneic mesenchymal stromal cells (BMMSC) in CLI due to Buerger's disease. Patients were allocated to three groups: 1 and 2 million cells/kg body weight (36 patients each) and standard of care (SOC) (18 patients). BMMSCs were administered as 40-60 injections in the calf muscle and locally, around the ulcer. Most patients were young (age range, 38-42 years) and ex-smokers, and all patients had at least one ulcer. Both the primary endpoints-reduction in rest pain (0.3 units per month [SE, 0.13]) and healing of ulcers (11% decrease in size per month [SE, 0.05])-were significantly better in the group receiving 2 million cells/kg body weight than in the SOC arm. Improvement in secondary endpoints, such as ankle brachial pressure index (0.03 [SE, 0.01] unit increase per month) and total walking distance (1.03 [SE, 0.02] times higher per month), were also significant in the group receiving 2 million cells/kg as compared with the SOC arm. Adverse events reported were remotely related or unrelated to BMMSCs. In conclusion, i.m. administration of BMMSC at a dose of 2 million cells/kg showed clinical benefit and may be the best regimen in patients with CLI due to Buerger's disease. However, further randomized controlled trials are required to confirm the most appropriate dose. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:689-699.

  11. Using Quality of Life Measures in a Phase I Clinical Trial of Noni in Patients with Advanced Cancer to Select a Phase II Dose

    PubMed Central

    Issell, Brian F.; Gotay, Carolyn C.; Pagano, Ian; Franke, A. Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We conducted a Phase I study of noni in patients with advanced cancer. Quality of life measures were examined as an alternate way to select a Phase II dose of this popular dietary supplement. Patients and Methods Starting at two capsules twice daily (2 grams), the dose suggested for marketed products, dose levels were escalated by 2 grams daily in cohorts of at least five patients until a maximum tolerated dose was found. Patients completed QLQ-C30 Quality of Life, and the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI), questionnaires at baseline and at four week intervals. Scopoletin was measured in blood and urine collected at baseline and at approximately four week intervals. Results Fifty-one patients were enrolled at seven dose levels. Seven capsules four times daily (14 grams) was the maximum tolerated dose. No dose limiting toxicity was found but four of eight patients at this level withdrew from the study due to the challenges of ingesting so many capsules. There was a dose response for self reported physical functioning and the control of pain and fatigue. Patients taking four capsules four times daily experienced less fatigue than patients taking lower or higher doses. A relationship between noni dose and blood and urinary scopoletin concentrations was found. Conclusion Measuring quality of life to determine a dose for subsequent Phase II testing is feasible. A noni dose of four capsules four times daily (8 grams) is recommended for Phase II testing where controlling fatigue and maintaining physical function is the efficacy of interest. Scopoletin is a measurable noni ingredient for pharmacokinetic studies in patients with cancer. PMID:22435516

  12. PEPCOL: a GERCOR randomized phase II study of nanoliposomal irinotecan PEP02 (MM-398) or irinotecan with leucovorin/5-fluorouracil as second-line therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Chibaudel, Benoist; Maindrault-Gœbel, Frédérique; Bachet, Jean-Baptiste; Louvet, Christophe; Khalil, Ahmed; Dupuis, Olivier; Hammel, Pascal; Garcia, Marie-Line; Bennamoun, Mostefa; Brusquant, David; Tournigand, Christophe; André, Thierry; Arbaud, Claire; Larsen, Annette K; Wang, Yi-Wen; Yeh, C Grace; Bonnetain, Franck; de Gramont, Aimery

    2016-04-01

    A multicenter, open-label, noncomparative, randomized phase II study (PEPCOL) was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the irinotecan or PEP02 (MM-398, nanoliposomal irinotecan) with leucovorin (LV)/5-fluorouracil (5-FU) combination as second-line treatment in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Patients with unresectable mCRC who had failed one prior oxaliplatin-based first-line therapy were randomized toirinotecan with LV/5-FU (FOLFIRI) or PEP02 with LV/5-FU (FUPEP; PEP02 80 mg/m(2) with LV 400 mg/m(2) on day 1 and 5-FU 2400 mg/m(2) on days 1-2). Bevacizumab (5 mg/kg, biweekly) was allowed in both arms. The primary endpoint was 2-month response rate (RR). Fifty-five patients were randomized (FOLFIRI, n = 27; FUPEP, n = 28). In the intent-to-treat population (n = 55), 2-month RR response rate was observed in two (7.4%) and three (10.7%) patients in the FOLFIRI and FUPEP arms, respectively. The most common grade 3-4 adverse events reported in the respective FOLFIRI and FUPEP arms were diarrhea (33% vs. 21%), neutropenia (30% vs. 11%), mucositis (11% vs. 11%), and grade 2 alopecia (26% vs. 25%). FUPEP has activity and acceptable safety profile in oxaliplatin-pretreated mCRC patients.

  13. Randomized Phase II Study of Cabazitaxel Versus Methotrexate in Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Previously Treated With Platinum-Based Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Van Maanen, Aline; Vandenbulcke, Jean-Marie; Filleul, Bertrand; Seront, Emmanuel; D’Hondt, Lionel; Lonchay, Christophe; Holbrechts, Stéphane; Boegner, Petra; Brohee, Dany; Dequanter, Didier; Louviaux, Ingrid; Sautois, Brieuc; Whenham, Nicolas; Berchem, Guy; Vanderschueren, Brigitte; Fontaine, Christel; Schmitz, Sandra; Gillain, Aline; Schoonjans, Joelle; Rottey, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Lessons Learned Cabazitaxel has activity in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) and taxane-resistant cell lines. For the first time, cabazitaxel was investigated in incurable patients with recurrent SCCHN. Patients were randomly assigned to cabazitaxel every 3 weeks or weekly methotrexate. This phase II study did not meet its primary endpoint. Cabazitaxel has low activity in SCCHN. The toxicity profile in this population also was not favorable owing to the high rate of febrile neutropenia observed (17%). Background. Cabazitaxel is a second-generation taxane that improves the survival of patients with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer following docetaxel therapy. Cabazitaxel has activity in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) and taxane-resistant cell lines. In this randomized phase II trial, we investigated cabazitaxel in patients with recurrent SCCHN. Methods. Patients with incurable SCCHN with progression after platinum-based therapy were randomly assigned to cabazitaxel every 3 weeks (cycle 1, 20 mg/m2, increased to 25 mg/m2 for subsequent cycles in the absence of nonhematological adverse events [AEs] greater than grade 2 and hematological AEs greater than grade 3) or methotrexate (40 mg/m2/week). The patients were stratified according to their performance status and previous platinum-based chemotherapy for palliation versus curative intent. The primary endpoint was the progression-free survival rate (PFSR) at 18 weeks. Results. Of the 101 patients, 53 and 48, with a median age of 58.0 years (range, 41–80), were randomly assigned to cabazitaxel or methotrexate, respectively. The PFSR at 18 weeks was 13.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5%–25%) for cabazitaxel and 8.3% (95% CI, 2%–20%) for methotrexate. The median progression-free survival was 1.9 months in both arms. The median overall survival was 5.0 and 3.6 months for cabazitaxel and methotrexate, respectively. More patients experienced serious adverse

  14. Evaluation of the antipruritic effects of topical pimecrolimus in non-atopic prurigo nodularis: results of a randomized, hydrocortisone-controlled, double-blind phase II trial.

    PubMed

    Siepmann, Dorothee; Lotts, Tobias; Blome, Christine; Braeutigam, Matthias; Phan, Ngoc Quan; Butterfass-Bahloul, Trude; Augustin, Matthias; Luger, Thomas A; Ständer, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    In the treatment of atopic dermatitis, pimecrolimus has high antipruritic effects. To investigate the efficacy of 1% pimecrolimus cream in comparison to 1% hydrocortisone cream in non-atopic prurigo nodularis (PN). A randomized, controlled, double-blind study with intraindividual randomization was done in 30 patients (17 females, 13 males; mean age 58.5 years) with PN. Pruritus intensity decreased significantly (p < 0.001) on both treated sides as early as after 10 days of treatment; scratch lesions improved (p < 0.001). Quality of life as assessed by the Dermatology Life Quality Index improved significantly. However, a significant advantage of pimecrolimus over hydrocortisone was not found. The results suggest that the non-steroid pimecrolimus is an effective alternative for PN treatment.

  15. Phase II clinical study of BC-3781, a pleuromutilin antibiotic, in treatment of patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections.

    PubMed

    Prince, W T; Ivezic-Schoenfeld, Z; Lell, C; Tack, K J; Novak, R; Obermayr, F; Talbot, G H

    2013-05-01

    This study investigated the potential of the novel systemic pleuromutilin antibiotic BC-3781 to treat patients with an acute bacterial skin and skin structure infection (ABSSSI) caused by a Gram-positive pathogen. Patients were randomized to intravenous BC-3781 100 mg, BC-3781 150 mg, or vancomycin 1 g every 12 h. Response to treatment was assessed daily and at test of cure (TOC). The primary endpoint was the clinical success rate at TOC in the modified intent-to-treat (MITT) and clinically evaluable (CE) analysis populations. Baseline characteristics, including the frequency of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), were comparable between the different treatment groups. Of 210 patients randomized, 186 (88.6%) patients completed the study. Clinical success at TOC in the CE population occurred in 54 (90.0%) patients in the BC-3781 100-mg group, 48 (88.9%) in the BC-3781 150-mg group, and 47 (92.2%) in the vancomycin group. At day 3, the clinical response rate was similar across the three treatment groups. Six patients discontinued study medication following an adverse event. The incidence rate for drug-related adverse events was lower for patients receiving BC-3781 (34.3% and 39.4% in the 100-mg and 150-mg groups, respectively) than those receiving vancomycin (53.0%). When BC-3781 was used to treat ABSSSIs caused by a Gram-positive pathogen, including MRSA, clinical success rates were comparable to those of the comparator, vancomycin. BC-3781 was generally well tolerated. These results provide the first proof of concept for the systemic use of a pleuromutilin antibiotic for the treatment of ABSSSIs.

  16. Phase II Clinical Study of BC-3781, a Pleuromutilin Antibiotic, in Treatment of Patients with Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections

    PubMed Central

    Ivezic-Schoenfeld, Z.; Lell, C.; Tack, K. J.; Novak, R.; Obermayr, F.; Talbot, G. H.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the potential of the novel systemic pleuromutilin antibiotic BC-3781 to treat patients with an acute bacterial skin and skin structure infection (ABSSSI) caused by a Gram-positive pathogen. Patients were randomized to intravenous BC-3781 100 mg, BC-3781 150 mg, or vancomycin 1 g every 12 h. Response to treatment was assessed daily and at test of cure (TOC). The primary endpoint was the clinical success rate at TOC in the modified intent-to-treat (MITT) and clinically evaluable (CE) analysis populations. Baseline characteristics, including the frequency of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), were comparable between the different treatment groups. Of 210 patients randomized, 186 (88.6%) patients completed the study. Clinical success at TOC in the CE population occurred in 54 (90.0%) patients in the BC-3781 100-mg group, 48 (88.9%) in the BC-3781 150-mg group, and 47 (92.2%) in the vancomycin group. At day 3, the clinical response rate was similar across the three treatment groups. Six patients discontinued study medication following an adverse event. The incidence rate for drug-related adverse events was lower for patients receiving BC-3781 (34.3% and 39.4% in the 100-mg and 150-mg groups, respectively) than those receiving vancomycin (53.0%). When BC-3781 was used to treat ABSSSIs caused by a Gram-positive pathogen, including MRSA, clinical success rates were comparable to those of the comparator, vancomycin. BC-3781 was generally well tolerated. These results provide the first proof of concept for the systemic use of a pleuromutilin antibiotic for the treatment of ABSSSIs. PMID:23422913

  17. A randomized phase II study of stem cell mobilization with cyclophosphamide+G-CSF or G-CSF alone after lenalidomide-based induction in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Silvennoinen, R; Anttila, P; Säily, M; Lundan, T; Heiskanen, J; Siitonen, T M; Kakko, S; Putkonen, M; Ollikainen, H; Terävä, V; Kutila, A; Launonen, K; Räsänen, A; Sikiö, A; Suominen, M; Bazia, P; Kananen, K; Selander, T; Kuittinen, T; Remes, K; Jantunen, E

    2016-03-01

    The most common means of mobilizing autologous stem cells is G-CSF alone or combined with cyclophosphamide (CY) to obtain sufficient CD34+ cells for one to two transplants. There are few prospective, randomized studies investigating mobilization regimens in multiple myeloma (MM), especially after lenalidomide-based induction. We designed this prospective, randomized study to compare low-dose CY 2 g/m2 +G-CSF (arm A) and G-CSF alone (arm B) after lenalidomide-based up-front induction in MM. Of the 80 initially randomized patients, 69 patients were evaluable, 34 and 35 patients in arms A and B, respectively. The primary end point was the proportion of patients achieving a yield of ⩾3 × 10(6)/kg CD34+ cells with 1-2 aphereses, which was achieved in 94% and 77% in arms A and B, respectively (P=0.084). The median number of aphereses needed to reach the yield of ⩾3 × 10(6)/kg was lower in arm A than in arm B (1 vs. 2, P=0.035). Two patients needed plerixafor in arm A and five patients in arm B (P=0.428). Although CY-based mobilization was more effective, G-CSF alone was successful in a great majority of patients to reach the defined collection target after three cycles of lenalidomide-based induction.

  18. A randomized phase II study of stem cell mobilization with cyclophosphamide+G-CSF or G-CSF alone after lenalidomide-based induction in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Silvennoinen, R; Anttila, P; Säily, M; Lundan, T; Heiskanen, J; Siitonen, T M; Kakko, S; Putkonen, M; Ollikainen, H; Terävä, V; Kutila, A; Launonen, K; Räsänen, A; Sikiö, A; Suominen, M; Bazia, P; Kananen, K; Selander, T; Kuittinen, T; Remes, K; Jantunen, E

    2016-01-01

    The most common means of mobilizing autologous stem cells is G-CSF alone or combined with cyclophosphamide (CY) to obtain sufficient CD34+ cells for one to two transplants. There are few prospective, randomized studies investigating mobilization regimens in multiple myeloma (MM), especially after lenalidomide-based induction. We designed this prospective, randomized study to compare low-dose CY 2 g/m2+G-CSF (arm A) and G-CSF alone (arm B) after lenalidomide-based up-front induction in MM. Of the 80 initially randomized patients, 69 patients were evaluable, 34 and 35 patients in arms A and B, respectively. The primary end point was the proportion of patients achieving a yield of ⩾3 × 106/kg CD34+ cells with 1−2 aphereses, which was achieved in 94% and 77% in arms A and B, respectively (P=0.084). The median number of aphereses needed to reach the yield of ⩾3 × 106/kg was lower in arm A than in arm B (1 vs 2, P=0.035). Two patients needed plerixafor in arm A and five patients in arm B (P=0.428). Although CY-based mobilization was more effective, G-CSF alone was successful in a great majority of patients to reach the defined collection target after three cycles of lenalidomide-based induction. PMID:26437056

  19. A randomized phase II trial of personalized peptide vaccine plus low dose estramustine phosphate (EMP) versus standard dose EMP in patients with castration resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Masanori; Kakuma, Tatsuyuki; Uemura, Hirotsugu; Nasu, Yasutomo; Kumon, Hiromi; Hirao, Yasuhiko; Moriya, Fukuko; Suekane, Shigetaka; Matsuoka, Kei; Komatsu, Nobukazu; Shichijo, Shigeki; Yamada, Akira; Itoh, Kyogo

    2010-07-01

    Personalized peptide vaccination (PPV) combined with chemotherapy could be a novel approach for many cancer patients. In this randomized study, we evaluated the anti-tumor effect and safety of PPV plus low-dose estramustine phosphate (EMP) as compared to standard-dose EMP for HLA-A2- or -A24-positive patients with castration resistant prostate cancer. Patients were randomized into groups receiving either PPV plus low-dose EMP (280 mg/day) or standard-dose EMP (560 mg/day). After disease progression, patients were switched to the opposite regime. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). We randomly assigned 28 patients to receive PPV plus low-dose EMP and 29 patients to receive standard-dose EMP. Nineteen events in the PPV group and 20 events in the EMP group occurred during the first treatment. Median PFS for the first treatment was 8.5 months in the PPV group and 2.8 months in the EMP group with a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.28 (95% CI, 0.14-0.61; log-rank P = 0.0012), while there was no difference for median PFS for the second treatment. The HR for overall survival was 0.3 (95% CI, 0.1-0.91) in favor of the PPV plus low-dose EMP group (log-rank, P = 0.0328). The PPV plus low-dose EMP was well tolerated without major adverse effects and with increased levels of IgG and cytotoxic-T cell responses to the vaccinated peptides. PPV plus low-dose EMP was associated with an improvement in PSA-based PFS as compared to the standard-dose EMP alone.

  20. SCOPE1: a randomised phase II/III multicentre clinical trial of definitive chemoradiation, with or without cetuximab, in carcinoma of the oesophagus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Chemoradiotherapy is the standard of care for patients with oesophageal cancer unsuitable for surgery due to the presence of co-morbidity or extent of disease, and is a standard treatment option for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus. Modern regimens of chemoradiotherapy can lead to significant long-term survival. However the majority of patients will die of their disease, most commonly with local progression/recurrence of their tumours. Cetuximab may overcome one of the principal mechanisms of tumour radio-resistance, namely tumour repopulation, in patients treated with chemoradiotherapy. The purpose of this research is first to determine whether the addition of cetuximab to definitive chemoradiotherapy for treatment of patients with non-metastatic carcinoma of the oesophagus is active (in terms of failure-free rate), safe, and feasible within the context of a multi-centre randomised controlled trial in the UK. If the first stage is successful then the trial will continue to accrue sufficient patients to establish whether the addition of cetuximab to the standard treatment improves overall survival. Methods/Design SCOPE1 is a two arm, open, randomised multicentre Phase II/III trial. Eligible patients will have histologically confirmed carcinoma of the oesophagus and have been chosen to receive definitive chemoradiotherapy by an accredited multidisciplinary team including a specialist Upper GI surgeon. 420 patients will be randomised to receive definitive chemoradiotherapy with or without cetuximab using a 1:1 allocation ratio. During Phase II of the study, the trial will assess safety (toxicity), activity (failure-free rate) and feasibility (recruitment rate and protocol dose modifications/delays) in 90 patients in the experimental arm. If the experimental arm is found to be active, safe, and feasible by the Independent Data Monitoring Committee then recruitment will continue into Phase III. This second stage will recruit a further

  1. Randomized phase II trial of BCDT [carmustine (BCNU), cisplatin, dacarbazine (DTIC) and tamoxifen] with or without interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) and interleukin (IL-2) in patients with metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Johnston, S R; Constenla, D O; Moore, J; Atkinson, H; A'Hern, R P; Dadian, G; Riches, P G; Gore, M E

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate in a randomized phase II trial the efficacy and toxicity of combination biochemotherapy compared with chemotherapy alone in patients with metastatic melanoma. Sixty-five patients with metastatic melanoma (ECOG performance status 0 or 1) were randomized to receive intravenous BCNU 100 mg m(-2) (day 1, alternate courses), cisplatin 25 mg m(-2) (days 1-3), DTIC 220 mg m(-2) (days 1-3) and oral tamoxifen 40 mg (BCDT regimen) with (n = 35) or without (n = 30) subcutaneous interleukin 2 (IL-2) 18 x 10(6) iu t.d.s. (day - 2), 9 x 10(6) iu b.d. (day - 1 and 0) and interferon 2 alpha (IFN-alpha) 9 MU (days 1-3). Evidence for immune activation was determined by flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes. Treatment was repeated every 4 weeks up to six courses depending on response. The overall response rate of BCDT with IL-2/IFN-alpha was 23% [95% confidence interval (CI) 10-40%] with one complete response (CR) and seven partial responses (PR), and for BCDT alone 27% (95% CI 12-46%) with eight PRs; the median durations of response were 2.8 months and 2.5 months respectively. Sites of response were similar in both groups. There was no difference between the two groups in progression-free survival or overall survival (median survival 5 months for BCDT with IL-2/IFNalpha and 5.5 months for BCDT alone). Although 3 days of subcutaneous IL-2 resulted in significant lymphopenia, evidence of immune activation was indicated by a significant rise in the percentage of CD56- (NK cells) and CD3/HLA-DR-positive (activated T cells) subsets, without any change in the percentage of CD4 or CD4 T-cell subsets. Toxicity assessment revealed a significantly higher incidence of severe thrombocytopenia in patients treated with combination chemotherapy than with chemotherapy alone (37% vs 13%, P = 0.03) and a higher incidence of grade 3/4 flu-like symptoms (20% vs 10%) and fatigue (26% vs 13%). The addition of subcutaneous IL-2 and IFNalpha to

  2. Randomized phase II trial of BCDT [carmustine (BCNU), cisplatin, dacarbazine (DTIC) and tamoxifen] with or without interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) and interleukin (IL-2) in patients with metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, S. R.; Constenla, D. O.; Moore, J.; Atkinson, H.; A'Hern, R. P.; Dadian, G.; Riches, P. G.; Gore, M. E.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate in a randomized phase II trial the efficacy and toxicity of combination biochemotherapy compared with chemotherapy alone in patients with metastatic melanoma. Sixty-five patients with metastatic melanoma (ECOG performance status 0 or 1) were randomized to receive intravenous BCNU 100 mg m(-2) (day 1, alternate courses), cisplatin 25 mg m(-2) (days 1-3), DTIC 220 mg m(-2) (days 1-3) and oral tamoxifen 40 mg (BCDT regimen) with (n = 35) or without (n = 30) subcutaneous interleukin 2 (IL-2) 18 x 10(6) iu t.d.s. (day - 2), 9 x 10(6) iu b.d. (day - 1 and 0) and interferon 2 alpha (IFN-alpha) 9 MU (days 1-3). Evidence for immune activation was determined by flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes. Treatment was repeated every 4 weeks up to six courses depending on response. The overall response rate of BCDT with IL-2/IFN-alpha was 23% [95% confidence interval (CI) 10-40%] with one complete response (CR) and seven partial responses (PR), and for BCDT alone 27% (95% CI 12-46%) with eight PRs; the median durations of response were 2.8 months and 2.5 months respectively. Sites of response were similar in both groups. There was no difference between the two groups in progression-free survival or overall survival (median survival 5 months for BCDT with IL-2/IFNalpha and 5.5 months for BCDT alone). Although 3 days of subcutaneous IL-2 resulted in significant lymphopenia, evidence of immune activation was indicated by a significant rise in the percentage of CD56- (NK cells) and CD3/HLA-DR-positive (activated T cells) subsets, without any change in the percentage of CD4 or CD4 T-cell subsets. Toxicity assessment revealed a significantly higher incidence of severe thrombocytopenia in patients treated with combination chemotherapy than with chemotherapy alone (37% vs 13%, P = 0.03) and a higher incidence of grade 3/4 flu-like symptoms (20% vs 10%) and fatigue (26% vs 13%). The addition of subcutaneous IL-2 and IFNalpha to

  3. Sorafenib with or without everolimus in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): a randomized multicenter, multinational phase II trial (SAKK 77/08 and SASL 29).

    PubMed

    Koeberle, D; Dufour, J-F; Demeter, G; Li, Q; Ribi, K; Samaras, P; Saletti, P; Roth, A D; Horber, D; Buehlmann, M; Wagner, A D; Montemurro, M; Lakatos, G; Feilchenfeldt, J; Peck-Radosavljevic, M; Rauch, D; Tschanz, B; Bodoky, G

    2016-05-01

    Sorafenib (S), a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is the standard of care for first-line systemic treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Everolimus (E) is a potent inhibitor of mTOR, a pathway frequently activated in HCC. Preclinical data suggest that the combination S + E has additive effects compared with single-agent S. Patients with unresectable or metastatic HCC and Child-Pugh ≤7 liver dysfunction were randomized to receive daily S 800 mg alone or with E 5 mg until progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary end point was progression-free survival at 12 weeks (PFS12). The secondary end points included response rate, PFS, time to progression (TTP), overall survival (OS), duration of disease stabilization (DDS), safety, and quality-of-life (QoL) assessments. A total of 106 patients were randomized: 46 patients received S and 60 patients received S + E. Ninety-three patients were assessable for the primary end point and 105 patients for the safety analysis. The PFS12 rate was 70% [95% confidence interval (CI) 54-83] and 68% (95% CI 53-81) in patients randomized to S and S + E, respectively. The RECIST (mRECIST) response rate was 0% (23%) in the S arm and 10% (35%) in the S + E arm. Median PFS (6.6 versus 5.7 months), TTP (7.6 versus 6.3 months), DDS (6.7 versus 6.7 months), and OS (10 versus 12 months) were similar in the S and S + E arms, respectively. Grade 3/4 adverse events occurred in 72% and 86% of patients in arm S and arm S + E, respectively. Patients had similar QoL scores over time, except for a greater worsening in physical well-being and mood in the arm S + E. No evidence was found that S + E improves the efficacy compared with S alone. Combining 5 mg E with full-dose S is feasible, but more toxic than S alone. Further testing of this drug combination in molecularly unselected HCCs appears unwarranted. NCT01005199. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical

  4. Guided self-help concreteness training as an intervention for major depression in primary care: a Phase II randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Watkins, E R; Taylor, R S; Byng, R; Baeyens, C; Read, R; Pearson, K; Watson, L

    2012-07-01

    The development of widely accessible, effective psychological interventions for depression is a priority. This randomized trial provides the first controlled data on an innovative cognitive bias modification (CBM) training guided self-help intervention for depression. One hundred and twenty-one consecutively recruited participants meeting criteria for current major depression were randomly allocated to treatment as usual (TAU) or to TAU plus concreteness training (CNT) guided self-help or to TAU plus relaxation training (RT) guided self-help. CNT involved repeated practice at mental exercises designed to switch patients from an unhelpful abstract thinking habit to a helpful concrete thinking habit, thereby targeting depressogenic cognitive processes (rumination, overgeneralization). The addition of CNT to TAU significantly improved depressive symptoms at post-treatment [mean difference on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD) 4.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29-7.26], 3- and 6-month follow-ups, and for rumination and overgeneralization post-treatment. There was no difference in the reduction of symptoms between CNT and RT (mean difference on the HAMD 1.98, 95% CI -1.14 to 5.11), although CNT significantly reduced rumination and overgeneralization relative to RT post-treatment, suggesting a specific benefit on these cognitive processes. This study provides preliminary evidence that CNT guided self-help may be a useful addition to TAU in treating major depression in primary care, although the effect was not significantly different from an existing active treatment (RT) matched for structural and common factors. Because of its relative brevity and distinct format, it may have value as an additional innovative approach to increase the accessibility of treatment choices for depression.

  5. SWOG S0925: A Randomized Phase II Study of Androgen Deprivation Combined With Cixutumumab Versus Androgen Deprivation Alone in Patients With New Metastatic Hormone-Sensitive Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Evan Y.; Li, Hongli; Higano, Celestia S.; Agarwal, Neeraj; Pal, Sumanta K.; Alva, Ajjai; Heath, Elisabeth I.; Lam, Elaine T.; Gupta, Shilpa; Lilly, Michael B.; Inoue, Yoshio; Chi, Kim N.; Vogelzang, Nicholas J.; Quinn, David I.; Cheng, Heather H.; Plymate, Stephen R.; Hussain, Maha; Tangen, Catherine M.; Thompson, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cixutumumab, formerly IMC-A12, is a recombinant human monoclonal immunoglobulin G1 antibody that targets insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR). Cixutumumab was synergistic with castration in a hormone-sensitive prostate cancer xenograft model. Patients and Methods Patients with new metastatic prostate cancer were randomly assigned within 30 days of initiating androgen deprivation (AD) to cixutumumab added to a luteinizing hormone–releasing hormone agonist with bicalutamide versus AD alone. With 180 patients and one-sided alpha of 0.10, there would be 90% power to detect an absolute 20% difference in undetectable prostate-specific antigen (PSA; ≤ 0.2 ng/mL) rate at 28 weeks (relative risk, 1.44); this end point was previously strongly correlated with survival. Secondary end points included the proportion of patients with PSA > 4.0 ng/mL, safety and tolerability, circulating tumor cell (CTC) levels, and seven plasma IGF-IR biomarkers. Fisher's exact test was used for the primary end point, and extended Mantel-Haenszel χ2 test was used for three PSA response categories. Results The trial accrued 210 eligible patients (105 randomly assigned to each arm). Patient characteristics were similar in both arms. Undetectable PSA rate was 42 (40.0%) of 105 for cixutumumab plus AD and 34 (32.3%) of 105 for AD alone (relative risk, 1.24; one-sided P = .16). Lower baseline CTCs (0 v 1 to 4 v ≥ 5/7.5 mL whole blood) were associated with higher rate of PSA response (three categories; P = .036) in 39 evaluable patients. IGF-IR biomarkers were not correlated with PSA outcome, and cixutumumab did not significantly change these biomarker levels. Conclusion Cixutumumab plus AD did not significantly increase the undetectable PSA rate in men with new metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. CTCs at baseline may carry prognostic value. PMID:25847934

  6. Hydroxyurea with or without imatinib in the treatment of recurrent or progressive meningiomas: a randomized phase II trial by Gruppo Italiano Cooperativo di Neuro-Oncologia (GICNO).

    PubMed

    Mazza, Elena; Brandes, Alba; Zanon, Silvia; Eoli, Marika; Lombardi, Giuseppe; Faedi, Marina; Franceschi, Enrico; Reni, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxyurea (HU) is among the most widely used salvage therapies in progressive meningiomas. Platelet-derived growth factor receptors are expressed in virtually all meningiomas. Imatinib sensitizes transformed cells to the cytotoxic effects of chemotherapeutic agents that interfere with DNA metabolism. The combination of HU with imatinib yielded intriguing results in recurrent malignant glioma. The current trial addressed the activity of this association against meningioma. Patients with recurrent or progressive WHO grade I-III meningioma, without therapeutic indication for surgery, radiotherapy, or stereotactic radiosurgery, aged 18-75 years, ECOG performance status 0-2, and not on enzyme-inducing anti-epileptic drugs were randomized to receive HU 500 mg BID ± imatinib 400 mg QD until progression, unacceptable toxicity, or patient's refusal. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival rate at 9 months (PFS-9). Between September 2009 and February 2012, 15 patients were randomized to receive HU + imatinib (N = 7; Arm A) or HU alone (N = 8; Arm B). Afterward the trial was prematurely closed due to slow enrollment rate. PFS-9 (A/B) was 0/75%, and median PFS was 4/19.5 months. Median and 2-year overall survival (A/B) rates were: 6/27.5 months; 28.5/75%, respectively. Main G3-4 toxicities were: G3 neutropenia in 1/0, G4 headache in 1/1, and G3 vomiting in 1/0. The conduction of a study in recurrent or progressive meningioma remains a challenge. Given the limited number of patients enrolled, no firm conclusions can be drawn about the combination of imatinib and HU. The optimal systemic therapy for meningioma failing surgery and radiation has yet to be identified.

  7. CALGB 80403 (Alliance)/E1206: A Randomized Phase II Study of Three Chemotherapy Regimens Plus Cetuximab in Metastatic Esophageal and Gastroesophageal Junction Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Burtness, Barbara Ann; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Ye, Xing; Douglas, Kathe; Ilson, David H.; Villaflor, Victoria Meucci; Cohen, Steven J.; Mayer, Robert J.; Venook, Alan; Benson, Al Bowen; Goldberg, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the optimal chemotherapy backbone for testing in future US cooperative group studies for metastatic esophageal and gastroesophageal junction cancers. Cetuximab was added to each treatment arm based on promising preclinical data. Patients and Methods Patients with previously untreated metastatic esophageal or gastroesophageal junction cancer were randomly assigned at a one-to-one-to-one ratio to epirubicin, cisplatin, and continuous-infusion fluorouracil (ECF), irinotecan plus cisplatin (IC), or FOLFOX (oxaliplatin, leucovorin, and bolus and infusional fluorouracil). All treatment programs included cetuximab once per week. The primary end point was response rate. Secondary outcomes included overall survival, progression-free survival, time to treatment failure, and safety. As prespecified, primary and secondary analyses were conducted only among patients with adenocarcinoma. Results This study randomly assigned 245 patients, including 222 with adenocarcinoma. Among patients with adenocarcinoma, response rate was 60.9% (95% CI, 47.9 to 72.8) for ECF plus cetuximab, 45.0% (95% CI, 33.0 to 57.0) for IC plus cetuximab, and 54.3% (95% CI, 42.0 to 66.2) for FOLFOX plus cetuximab. Median overall survival was 11.6, 8.6, and 11.8 months; median progression-free survival was 7.1, 4.9, and 6.8 months; and median time to treatment failure was 5.6, 4.3, and 6.7 months for each of these arms, respectively. FOLFOX plus cetuximab required fewer treatment modifications compared with ECF plus cetuximab and IC plus cetuximab (P = .013), and fewer patients were removed from treatment because of an adverse event or experienced treatment-related death. Conclusion In combination with cetuximab, ECF and FOLFOX had similar efficacy, but FOLFOX was better tolerated. Although differences were nonsignificant, IC plus cetuximab seemed to be the least effective and most toxic of the three regimens tested. PMID:27382098

  8. A Phase II Randomized, Controlled Trial of S-Adenosylmethionine in Reducing Serum α-Fetoprotein in Patients with Hepatitis C Cirrhosis and Elevated AFP.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Timothy R; Osann, Kathryn; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Pimstone, Neville; Hoefs, John C; Hu, Ke-Qin; Hassanein, Tarek; Boyer, Thomas D; Kong, Lorene; Chen, Wen-Pin; Richmond, Ellen; Gonzalez, Rachel; Rodriguez, Luz M; Meyskens, Frank L

    2015-09-01

    In animal models of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), deficiency of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) increased the risk of HCC whereas administration of SAMe reduced HCC. The aim of this trial was to determine whether oral SAMe administration to patients with hepatitis C cirrhosis would decrease serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) level, a biomarker of HCC risk in hepatitis C. This was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of SAMe, up to 2.4 g/d, for 24 weeks as compared with placebo among subjects with hepatitis C cirrhosis and a mildly elevated serum AFP. Primary outcome was change in AFP between baseline and week 24. Secondary outcomes included changes in routine tests of liver function and injury, other biomarkers of HCC risk, SAMe metabolites, markers of oxidative stress, and quality of life. One hundred ten subjects were randomized and 87 (44 SAMe and 43 placebo) completed treatment. There was no difference in the change in AFP during 24 weeks among subjects receiving SAMe as compared with placebo. Changes in markers of liver function, liver injury, and hepatitis C viral level were not significantly different between groups. Similarly, SAMe did not change markers of oxidative stress or serum glutathione level. SAMe blood level increased significantly among subjects receiving SAMe. Changes in quality of life did not differ between groups. Overall, this trial did not find that SAMe treatment improved serum AFP in subjects with advanced hepatitis C cirrhosis and a mildly elevated AFP. SAMe did not improve tests of liver function or injury or markers of oxidative stress or antioxidant potential.

  9. Using quality of life measures in a Phase I clinical trial of noni in patients with advanced cancer to select a Phase II dose.

    PubMed

    Issell, Brian F; Gotay, Carolyn C; Pagano, Ian; Franke, Adrian A

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT. The purpose of this study was to determine a maximum tolerated dose of noni in cancer patients and whether an optimal quality of life-sustaining dose could be identified as an alternative way to select a dose for subsequent Phase II efficacy trials. Dose levels started at two capsules twice daily (2 g), the suggested dose for the marketed product, and were escalated by 2 g daily in cohorts of at least five patients until a maximum tolerated dose was found. Patients completed subscales of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 quality of life (physical functioning, pain, and fatigue) the brief fatigue inventory (BFI), questionnaires at baseline and at approximately 4-week intervals. Blood and urine were collected at baseline and at approximately 4-week intervals for measurement of scopoletin. Fifty-one patients were enrolled at seven dose levels. The maximum tolerated dose was six capsules four times daily (12 g). Although no dose-limiting toxicity was found, seven of eight patients at the next level (14 g), withdrew due to the challenges of ingesting so many capsules. There were dose-related differences in self-reported physical functioning and pain and fatigue control. Overall, patients taking three or four capsules four times daily experienced better outcomes than patients taking lower or higher doses. Blood and urinary scopoletin concentrations related to noni dose. We concluded that it is feasible to use quality of life measures to select a Phase II dose. Three or four capsules four times daily (6-8 g) is recommended when controlling fatigue, pain, and maintaining physical function are the efficacies of interest. Scopoletin, a bioactive component of noni fruit extract, is measurable in blood and urine following noni ingestion and can be used to study the pharmacokinetics of noni in cancer patients.

  10. A randomized phase II study of carboplatin with weekly or every-3-week nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (abraxane) in patients with extensive-stage small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Grilley-Olson, Juneko E; Keedy, Vicki L; Sandler, Alan; Moore, Dominic T; Socinski, Mark A; Stinchcombe, Thomas E

    2015-02-01

    Platinum plus etoposide is the standard therapy for extensive-stage small cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC) and is associated with significant myelosuppression. We hypothesized that the combination of carboplatin and nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) would be better tolerated. We investigated carboplatin with nab-paclitaxel on every-3-week and weekly schedules. This noncomparative randomized phase II trial used a two-stage design. The primary objective was objective response rate, and secondary objectives were progression-free survival, overall survival, and toxicity. Patients with ES-SCLC and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status ≤2 and no prior chemotherapy were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to arm A (carboplatin area under the curve [AUC] of 6 on day 1 and nab-paclitaxel of 300 mg/m(2) on day 1 every 3 weeks) or arm B (carboplatin AUC of 6 on day 1 and nab-paclitaxel 100 mg/m(2) on days 1, 8, and 15 every 21 days). Response was assessed after every two cycles. Patients required frequent dose reductions, treatment delays, and omission of the weekly therapy. The trial was closed because of slow accrual. Carboplatin and nab-paclitaxel demonstrated activity in ES-SCLC but required frequent dose adjustments. ©AlphaMed Press; the data published online to support this summary is the property of the authors.

  11. A Phase II, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Siltuximab (Anti-IL-6 mAb) and Bortezomib versus Bortezomib Alone in Patients with Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Orlowski, Robert Z.; Gercheva, Liana; Williams, Cathy; Sutherland, Heather; Robak, Tadeusz; Masszi, Tamás; Goranova-Marinova, Vesselina; Dimopoulos, Meletios A.; Cavenagh, James D.; Špička, Ivan; Maiolino, Angelo; Suvorov, Alexander; Bladé, Joan; Samoylova, Olga; Puchalski, Thomas A.; Reddy, Manjula; Bandekar, Rajesh; van de Velde, Helgi; Xie, Hong; Rossi, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    We compared the safety and efficacy of siltuximab (S), an anti-interleukin-6 chimeric monoclonal antibody, plus bortezomib (B) with placebo (plc)+B in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma in a randomized phase II study. Siltuximab was given by 6 mg/kg IV every 2 weeks. On progression, B was discontinued and high-dose dexamethasone could be added to S/plc. Response and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed pre-dexamethasone by EBMT criteria. For the 281 randomized patients, median PFS for S+B and plc+B was 8.0 and 7.6 months (HR 0.869, p=0.345), overall response rate was 55% vs. 47% (p=0.213), complete response rate was 11% vs. 7%, and median overall survival (OS) was 30.8 vs. 36.8 months (HR 1.353, p=0.103). Sustained suppression of C-reactive protein, a marker reflective of inhibition of interleukin-6 activity, was seen with S+B. Siltuximab did not affect B pharmacokinetics. S/plc discontinuation (75% vs. 66%), grade ≥3 neutropenia (49% vs. 29%), thrombocytopenia (48% vs. 34%), and all-grade infections (62% vs. 49%) occurred more frequently with S+B. The addition of siltuximab to bortezomib did not appear to improve PFS or OS despite a numerical increase in response rate in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. PMID:25294016

  12. Treatment rationale and study design for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II study evaluating onartuzumab (MetMAb) in combination with bevacizumab plus mFOLFOX-6 in patients with previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Bendell, Johanna C; Ervin, Thomas J; Gallinson, David; Singh, Jaswinder; Wallace, James A; Saleh, Mansoor N; Vallone, Marcy; Phan, See-Chun; Hack, Stephen P

    2013-09-01

    Dysregulation of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/MET pathway is associated with poor prognosis, more aggressive biological characteristics of the tumor, and shortened survival in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Onartuzumab (MetMAb) is a recombinant humanized monovalent monoclonal antibody directed against MET. We present the treatment rationale and protocol for an ongoing randomized multicenter placebo-controlled phase II study designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of MetMAb combined with bevacizumab and mFOLFOX-6 (5-fluoruracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin). Eligible patients with previously untreated mCRC are randomized 1:1 to either mFOLFOX-6 combined with bevacizumab and placebo followed by 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin plus bevacizumab and placebo or mFOLFOX6, bevacizumab plus MetMAb followed by 5 FU/LV, bevacizumab, and MetMAb. The primary end point of this study is progression-free survival (PFS) in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population. Secondary end points include overall survival (OS), objective response rate, and safety. Subanalyses will be performed to evaluate the effect of MET receptor expression on study primary and secondary end points. Correlative studies will be performed on tissue- and blood-derived biomarkers related to both HGF/MET signaling and other associated pathway markers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. One-week administration of hydroxytyrosol to humans does not activate Phase II enzymes.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Maria Carmen; Tomé-Carneiro, Joao; Burgos-Ramos, Emma; Loria Kohen, Viviana; Espinosa, Maria Isabel; Herranz, Jesus; Visioli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The notion that (poly)phenols act as direct free radical scavengers is being challenged by mere chemical and biochemical considerations such as bioavailability and intracellular concentrations. An alternative hypothesis that is gaining considerable traction is that (poly)phenols are processed by the body as xenobiotics via the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE signaling axis, leading to the induction of Phase II enzymes. However, there are no solid human data to confirm this interesting supposition. In this study, we tested the activities of hydroxytyrosol (HT) on Phase II enzymes' expression in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. We tested two HT doses, i.e. 5 and 25mg/d, vs. placebo following a Latin square design. We report that HT is well tolerated but does not significantly modify Phase II enzyme expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Moreover, we were unable to record significant effects on a variety of surrogate markers of cardiovascular disease such as lipid profile and inflammation and oxidation markers. Available evidence indicates that the "hormesis hypothesis" that (poly)phenols activate Phase II enzymes requires solid human confirmation that might be provided by future trials. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT02273622). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A phase II/III randomized study to compare the efficacy and safety of rigosertib plus gemcitabine versus gemcitabine alone in patients with previously untreated metastatic pancreatic cancer†

    PubMed Central

    O'Neil, B. H.; Scott, A. J.; Ma, W. W.; Cohen, S. J.; Aisner, D. L.; Menter, A. R.; Tejani, M. A.; Cho, J. K.; Granfortuna, J.; Coveler, L.; Olowokure, O. O.; Baranda, J. C.; Cusnir, M.; Phillip, P.; Boles, J.; Nazemzadeh, R.; Rarick, M.; Cohen, D. J.; Radford, J.; Fehrenbacher, L.; Bajaj, R.; Bathini, V.; Fanta, P.; Berlin, J.; McRee, A. J.; Maguire, R.; Wilhelm, F.; Maniar, M.; Jimeno, A.; Gomes, C. L.; Messersmith, W. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rigosertib (ON 01910.Na), a first-in-class Ras mimetic and small-molecule inhibitor of multiple signaling pathways including polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), has shown efficacy in preclinical pancreatic cancer models. In this study, rigosertib was assessed in combination with gemcitabine in patients with treatment-naïve metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Materials and methods Patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma were randomized in a 2:1 fashion to gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 weekly for 3 weeks of a 4-week cycle plus rigosertib 1800 mg/m2 via 2-h continuous IV infusions given twice weekly for 3 weeks of a 4-week cycle (RIG + GEM) versus gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 weekly for 3 weeks in a 4-week cycle (GEM). Results A total of 160 patients were enrolled globally and randomly assigned to RIG + GEM (106 patients) or GEM (54). The most common