Science.gov

Sample records for phased waveguide array

  1. Phased array antenna matching: Simulation and optimization of a planar phased array of circular waveguide elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudgeon, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    A computerized simulation of a planar phased array of circular waveguide elements is reported using mutual coupling and wide angle impedance matching in phased arrays. Special emphasis is given to circular polarization. The aforementioned computer program has as variable inputs: frequency, polarization, grid geometry, element size, dielectric waveguide fill, dielectric plugs in the waveguide for impedance matching, and dielectric sheets covering the array surface for the purpose of wide angle impedance matching. Parameter combinations are found which produce reflection peaks interior to grating lobes, while dielectric cover sheets are successfully employed to extend the usable scan range of a phased array. The most exciting results came from the application of computer aided optimization techniques to the design of this type of array.

  2. Improved arrayed-waveguide-grating layout avoiding systematic phase errors.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Nur; Sun, Fei; Sengo, Gabriel; Wörhoff, Kerstin; Driessen, Alfred; de Ridder, René M; Pollnau, Markus

    2011-04-25

    We present a detailed description of an improved arrayed-waveguide-grating (AWG) layout for both, low and high diffraction orders. The novel layout presents identical bends across the entire array; in this way systematic phase errors arising from different bends that are inherent to conventional AWG designs are completely eliminated. In addition, for high-order AWGs our design results in more than 50% reduction of the occupied area on the wafer. We present an experimental characterization of a low-order device fabricated according to this geometry. The device has a resolution of 5.5 nm, low intrinsic losses (< 2 dB) in the wavelength region of interest for the application, and is polarization insensitive over a wide spectral range of 215 nm.

  3. Analysis and synthesis of (SAR) waveguide phased array antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, H. J.

    1994-02-01

    This report describes work performed due to ESA contract No. 101 34/93/NL/PB. Started is with a literature study on dual polarized waveguide radiators, resulting in the choice for the open ended square waveguide. After a thorough description of the mode matching infinite waveguide array analysis method - including finiteness effects - that forms the basis for all further described analysis and synthesis methods, the accuracy of the analysis software is validated by comparison with measurements on two realized antennas. These antennas have centered irises in the waveguide apertures and a dielectric wide angle impedance matching sheet in front of the antenna. A synthesis method, using simulated annealing and downhill simplex, is described next and different antenna designs, based on the analysis of a single element in an infinite array environment, are presented. Next, designs of subarrays are presented. Shown is the paramount importance of including the array environment in the design of a subarray. A microstrip patch waveguide exciter and subarray feeding network are discussed and the depth of the waveguide radiator is estimated. Chosen is a rectangular grid array with waveguides of 2.5 cm depth without irises and without dielectric sheet, grouped in linear 8 elements subarrays.

  4. Active phase correction of high resolution silicon photonic arrayed waveguide gratings.

    PubMed

    Gehl, M; Trotter, D; Starbuck, A; Pomerene, A; Lentine, A L; DeRose, C

    2017-03-20

    Arrayed waveguide gratings provide flexible spectral filtering functionality for integrated photonic applications. Achieving narrow channel spacing requires long optical path lengths which can greatly increase the footprint of devices. High index contrast waveguides, such as those fabricated in silicon-on-insulator wafers, allow tight waveguide bends which can be used to create much more compact designs. Both the long optical path lengths and the high index contrast contribute to significant optical phase error as light propagates through the device. Therefore, silicon photonic arrayed waveguide gratings require active or passive phase correction following fabrication. Here we present the design and fabrication of compact silicon photonic arrayed waveguide gratings with channel spacings of 50, 10 and 1 GHz. The largest device, with 11 channels of 1 GHz spacing, has a footprint of only 1.1 cm2. Using integrated thermo-optic phase shifters, the phase error is actively corrected. We present two methods of phase error correction and demonstrate state-of-the-art cross-talk performance for high index contrast arrayed waveguide gratings. As a demonstration of possible applications, we perform RF channelization with 1 GHz resolution. Additionally, we generate unique spectral filters by applying non-zero phase offsets calculated by the Gerchberg Saxton algorithm.

  5. Active phase correction of high resolution silicon photonic arrayed waveguide gratings

    DOE PAGES

    Gehl, M.; Trotter, D.; Starbuck, A.; ...

    2017-03-10

    Arrayed waveguide gratings provide flexible spectral filtering functionality for integrated photonic applications. Achieving narrow channel spacing requires long optical path lengths which can greatly increase the footprint of devices. High index contrast waveguides, such as those fabricated in silicon-on-insulator wafers, allow tight waveguide bends which can be used to create much more compact designs. Both the long optical path lengths and the high index contrast contribute to significant optical phase error as light propagates through the device. Thus, silicon photonic arrayed waveguide gratings require active or passive phase correction following fabrication. We present the design and fabrication of compact siliconmore » photonic arrayed waveguide gratings with channel spacings of 50, 10 and 1 GHz. The largest device, with 11 channels of 1 GHz spacing, has a footprint of only 1.1 cm 2. Using integrated thermo-optic phase shifters, the phase error is actively corrected. We present two methods of phase error correction and demonstrate state-of-the-art cross-talk performance for high index contrast arrayed waveguide gratings. As a demonstration of possible applications, we perform RF channelization with 1 GHz resolution. In addition, we generate unique spectral filters by applying non-zero phase offsets calculated by the Gerchberg Saxton algorithm.« less

  6. Arrayed waveguide Sagnac interferometer.

    PubMed

    Capmany, José; Muñoz, Pascual; Sales, Salvador; Pastor, Daniel; Ortega, Beatriz; Martinez, Alfonso

    2003-02-01

    We present a novel device, an arrayed waveguide Sagnac interferometer, that combines the flexibility of arrayed waveguides and the wide application range of fiber or integrated optics Sagnac loops. We form the device by closing an array of wavelength-selective light paths provided by two arrayed waveguides with a single 2 x 2 coupler in a Sagnac configuration. The equations that describe the device's operation in general conditions are derived. A preliminary experimental demonstration is provided of a fiber prototype in passive operation that shows good agreement with the expected theoretical performance. Potential applications of the device in nonlinear operation are outlined and discussed.

  7. Unidirectional waveguide grating antennas with uniform emission for optical phased arrays.

    PubMed

    Raval, Manan; Poulton, Christopher V; Watts, Michael R

    2017-07-01

    We demonstrate millimeter-scale optical waveguide grating antennas with unidirectional emission for integrated optical phased arrays. Unidirectional emission eliminates the fundamental problem of blind spots in the element factor of a phased array caused by reflections of antenna radiation within the substrate. Over 90% directionality is demonstrated using a design consisting of two silicon nitride layers. Furthermore, the perturbation strength along the antenna is apodized to achieve uniform emission for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, on a millimeter scale. This allows for a high effective aperture and receiving efficiency. The emission profile of the measured 3 mm long antenna has a standard deviation of 8.65% of the mean. These antennas are state of the art and will allow for integrated optical phased arrays with blind-spot-free high transmission output power and high receiving efficiency for LIDAR and free-space communication systems.

  8. Intensity dynamics in a waveguide array laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Mingming; Williams, Matthew O.; Kutz, J. Nathan; Silverman, Kevin L.; Mirin, Richard P.; Cundiff, Steven T.

    2011-02-01

    We consider experimentally and theoretically the optical field dynamics of a five-emitter laser array subject to a ramped injection current. We have achieved experimentally an array that produces a robust oscillatory power output with a nearly constant π phase shift between the oscillations from each waveguide. The output power also decreases linearly as a function of waveguide number. Those behaviors persisted for pump currents varying between 380 and 500 mA with only a slight change in phase. Of note is the fact that the fundamental frequency of oscillation increases with injection current, and higher harmonics are produced above a threshold current of approximately 380 mA. Experimental observations and theoretical predictions are in agreement. A low dimensional model was also developed and the impact of the nonuniform injection current studied. A nonuniform injection current is capable of shifting the bifurcations of the waveguide array providing a valuable method of array tuning without additional gain or structural alterations to the array.

  9. Slotted Polyimide-Aerogel-Filled-Waveguide Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez-Solis, Rafael A.; Pacheco, Hector L.; Miranda, Felix A.; Meador, Mary Ann B.

    2013-01-01

    This presentation discussed the potential advantages of developing Slotted Waveguide Arrays using polyimide aerogels. Polyimide (PI) aerogels offer great promise as an enabling technology for lightweight aerospace antenna systems. PI aerogels are highly porous solids possessing low density and low dielectric permittivity combined with good mechanical properties. For slotted waveguide array applications, there are significant advantages in mass that more than compensate for the slightly higher loss of the aerogel filled waveguide when compared to state of practice commercial waveguide.

  10. Slotted Polyimide-Aerogel-Filled-Waveguide Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez-Solis, Rafael A.; Pacheco, Hector L.; Miranda, Felix A.; Meador, Mary Ann B.

    2013-01-01

    Polyimide aerogels were considered to serve as a filling for millimeter-wave waveguides. While these waveguides present a slightly higher loss than hollow waveguides, they have less losses than Duroid substrate integrated waveguides (less than 0.15 dB at Ka-band, in a 20 mm section), and exhibit an order of magnitude of mass reduction when compared to commercial waveguides. A Ka-band slotted aerogel-filled-waveguide array was designed, which provided the same gain (9 dBi) as its standard waveguide counterpart, and a slotted aerogel-filled-waveguide array using folded-slots was designed for comparison, obtaining a gain of 9 dB and a bandwidth of 590 MHz.

  11. High-contrast grating hollow-core waveguide splitter applied to optical phased array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Che; Xue, Ping; Zhang, Hanxing; Chen, Te; Peng, Chao; Hu, Weiwei

    2014-11-01

    A novel hollow-core (HW) Y-branch waveguide splitter based on high-contrast grating (HCG) is presented. We calculated and designed the HCG-HW splitter using Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA). Finite-different timedomain (FDTD) simulation shows that the splitter has a broad bandwidth and the branching loss is as low as 0.23 dB. Fabrication is accomplished with standard Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) process. The experimental measurement results indicate its good performance on beam splitting near the central wavelength λ = 1550 nm with a total insertion loss of 7.0 dB.

  12. Planar waveguide integrated spatial filter array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Jun; Dimov, Fedor; Lyon, Richard; Rakuljic, Neven; Griffo, Chris; Xia, Xiaowei; Arik, Engin

    2013-09-01

    An innovative integrated spatial filter array (iSFA) was developed for the nulling interferometer for the detection of earth-like planets and life beyond our solar system. The coherent iSFA comprised a 2D planar lightwave circuit (PLC) array coupled with a pair of 2D lenslet arrays in a hexagonal grid to achieve the optimum fill factor and throughput. The silica-on-silicon waveguide mode field diameter and numerical aperture (NA) were designed to match with the Airy disc and NA of the microlens for optimum coupling. The lenslet array was coated with a chromium pinhole array at the focal plane to pass the single-mode waveguide but attenuate the higher modes. We assembled a 32 by 30 array by stacking 32 chips that were produced by photolithography from a 6-in. silicon wafer. Each chip has 30 planar waveguides. The PLC array is inherently polarization-maintaining (PM) and requires much less alignment in contrast to a fiber array, where each PM fiber must be placed individually and oriented correctly. The PLC array offers better scalability than the fiber bundle array for large arrays of over 1,000 waveguides.

  13. Nanoparticle sorting in silicon waveguide arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, H. T.; Zhang, Y.; Chin, L. K.; Yap, P. H.; Wang, K.; Ser, W.; Liu, A. Q.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents the optical fractionation of nanoparticles in silicon waveguide arrays. The optical lattice is generated by evanescent coupling in silicon waveguide arrays. The hotspot size is tunable by changing the refractive index of surrounding liquids. In the experiment, 0.2-μm and 0.5-μm particles are separated with a recovery rate of 95.76%. This near-field approach is a promising candidate for manipulating nanoscale biomolecules and is anticipated to benefit the biomedical applications such as exosome purification, DNA optical mapping, cell-cell interaction, etc.

  14. Evanescent wave coupling in terahertz waveguide arrays.

    PubMed

    Reichel, K S; Sakoda, N; Mendis, R; Mittleman, D M

    2013-07-15

    We study energy transfer among an array of identical finite-width parallel-plate waveguides in close proximity, via evanescent wave coupling of broadband terahertz waves. We observe stronger coupling with larger plate separations and longer propagation paths. This work establishes a platform to investigate new opportunities for THz components and devices based on evanescent wave coupling.

  15. Holographic Waveguide Array Rollable Display.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-04-01

    scale lithography for fabrication. Projection systems offer large images, in the range of 40 - 60 inches diagonal, and both front-view and rear-view...Boulder, CO, and a l-D array of digital micromirrors ( DMD ) from Texas Instruments. The linear format permits simple driving electronics and high...TI’s DMD , or a CMOS-SLM. A collimated laser beaming (combine three colors) or a collimated white light beam from a high intensity halogen lamp can be

  16. Dark and bright blocker soliton interaction in defocusing waveguide arrays.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Eugene; Rüter, Christian E; Stepić, Milutin; Shandarov, Vladimir; Kip, Detlef

    2006-11-13

    We experimentally demonstrate the interaction of an optical probe beam with both bright and dark blocker solitons formed with low optical light power in a saturable defocusing waveguide array in photorefractive lithium niobate. A phase insensitive interaction of the beams is achieved by means of counterpropagating light waves. Partial and full reflection (blocking) of the probe beam on the positive or negative light-induced defect is obtained, respectively, in good agreement with numerical simulations.

  17. Optically interconnected phased arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Kunath, Richard R.

    1988-01-01

    Phased-array antennas are required for many future NASA missions. They will provide agile electronic beam forming for communications and tracking in the range of 1 to 100 GHz. Such phased arrays are expected to use several hundred GaAs monolithic integrated circuits (MMICs) as transmitting and receiving elements. However, the interconnections of these elements by conventional coaxial cables and waveguides add weight, reduce flexibility, and increase electrical interference. Alternative interconnections based on optical fibers, optical processing, and holography are under evaluation as possible solutions. In this paper, the current status of these techniques is described. Since high-frequency optical components such as photodetectors, lasers, and modulators are key elements in these interconnections, their performance and limitations are discussed.

  18. Coupled ridge waveguide distributed feedback quantum cascade laser arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ying-Hui; Zhang, Jin-Chuan, E-mail: zhangjinchuan@semi.ac.cn; Yan, Fang-Liang

    2015-04-06

    A coupled ridge waveguide quantum cascade laser (QCL) array consisting of fifteen elements with parallel integration was presented. In-phase fundamental mode operation in each element is secured by both the index-guided nature of the ridge and delicate loss management by properly designed geometries of the ridges and interspaces. Single-lobe lateral far-field with a nearly diffraction limited beam pattern was obtained. By incorporating a one-dimensional buried distributed feedback grating, the in-phase-operating coupled ridge waveguide QCL design provides an efficient solution to obtaining high output power and stable single longitudinal mode emission. The simplicity of this structure and fabrication process makes thismore » approach attractive to many practical applications.« less

  19. Rectification of light refraction in curved waveguide arrays.

    PubMed

    Longhi, Stefano

    2009-02-15

    An "optical ratchet" for discretized light in photonic lattices, which enables observing rectification of light refraction at any input beam conditions, is theoretically presented, and a possible experimental implementation based on periodically curved zigzag waveguide arrays is proposed.

  20. Directional emissivity from two-dimensional infrared waveguide arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burckel, D. Bruce; Davids, Paul S.; Finnegan, Patrick S.; Figueiredo, Pedro N.; Ginn, James C.

    2015-09-01

    Fabrication and optical characterization of surfaces covered with open-ended metallic waveguides are presented along with numerical modeling of these structures. Both modeling and measurement of the structures indicate that the 2-D array of 3D metallic waveguides modify both the direction and spectral content of the emissivity, resulting in directionality normal to the surface due to the optical axis of the waveguides and spectrally narrow emissivity due to the lateral dimensions of the waveguides. Furthermore, the optical behavior of these structures is placed in the broader context of other structured emission/absorption surfaces such as organ pipe modes, surface plasmon modes, and coherent thermal emission from gratings.

  1. Microwave beamed power technology improvement. [magnetrons and slotted waveguide arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. C.

    1980-01-01

    The magnetron directional amplifier was tested for (1) phase shift and power output as a function of gain, anode current, and anode voltage, (2) background noise and harmonics in the output, (3) long life potential of the magnetron cathode, and (4) high operational efficiency. Examples of results were an adequate range of current and voltage over which 20 dB of amplification could be obtained, spectral noise density 155 dB below the carrier, 81.7% overall efficiency, and potential cathode life of 50 years in a design for solar power satellite use. A fabrication method was used to fabricate a 64 slot, 30 in square slotted waveguide array module from 0.020 in thick aluminum sheet. The test results on the array are discussed.

  2. Excitation of a Parallel Plate Waveguide by an Array of Rectangular Waveguides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rengarajan, Sembiam

    2011-01-01

    This work addresses the problem of excitation of a parallel plate waveguide by an array of rectangular waveguides that arises in applications such as the continuous transverse stub (CTS) antenna and dual-polarized parabolic cylindrical reflector antennas excited by a scanning line source. In order to design the junction region between the parallel plate waveguide and the linear array of rectangular waveguides, waveguide sizes have to be chosen so that the input match is adequate for the range of scan angles for both polarizations. Electromagnetic wave scattered by the junction of a parallel plate waveguide by an array of rectangular waveguides is analyzed by formulating coupled integral equations for the aperture electric field at the junction. The integral equations are solved by the method of moments. In order to make the computational process efficient and accurate, the method of weighted averaging was used to evaluate rapidly oscillating integrals encountered in the moment matrix. In addition, the real axis spectral integral is evaluated in a deformed contour for speed and accuracy. The MoM results for a large finite array have been validated by comparing its reflection coefficients with corresponding results for an infinite array generated by the commercial finite element code, HFSS. Once the aperture electric field is determined by MoM, the input reflection coefficients at each waveguide port, and coupling for each polarization over the range of useful scan angles, are easily obtained. Results for the input impedance and coupling characteristics for both the vertical and horizontal polarizations are presented over a range of scan angles. It is shown that the scan range is limited to about 35 for both polarizations and therefore the optimum waveguide is a square of size equal to about 0.62 free space wavelength.

  3. Projecting light beams with 3D waveguide arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespi, Andrea; Bragheri, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Free-space light beams with complex intensity patterns, or non-trivial phase structure, are demanded in diverse fields, ranging from classical and quantum optical communications, to manipulation and imaging of microparticles and cells. Static or dynamic spatial light modulators, acting on the phase or intensity of an incoming light wave, are the conventional choices to produce beams with such non-trivial characteristics. However, interfacing these devices with optical fibers or integrated optical circuits often requires difficult alignment or cumbersome optical setups. Here we explore theoretically and with numerical simulations the potentialities of directly using the output of engineered three-dimensional waveguide arrays, illuminated with linearly polarized light, to project light beams with peculiar structures. We investigate through a collection of illustrative configurations the far field distribution, showing the possibility to achieve orbital angular momentum, or to produce elaborate intensity or phase patterns with several singularity points. We also simulate the propagation of the projected beam, showing the possibility to concentrate light. We note that these devices should be at reach of current technology, thus perspectives are open for the generation of complex free-space optical beams from integrated waveguide circuits.

  4. Metal slit array Fresnel lens for wavelength-scale optical coupling to nanophotonic waveguides.

    PubMed

    Jung, Young Jin; Park, Dongwon; Koo, Sukmo; Yu, Sunkyu; Park, Namkyoo

    2009-10-12

    We propose a novel metal slit array Fresnel lens for wavelength-scale optical coupling into a nanophotonic waveguide. Using the plasmonic waveguide structure in Fresnel lens form, a much wider beam acceptance angle and wavelength-scale working distance of the lens was realized compared to a conventional dielectric Fresnel lens. By applying the plasmon waveguide dispersion relation to a phased antenna array model, we also develop and analyze design rules and parameters for the suggested metal slit Fresnel lens. Numerical assessment of the suggested structure shows excellent coupling efficiency (up to 59%) of the 10 mum free-space Gaussian beam to the 0.36 mum Si waveguide within a working distance of a few mum.

  5. Optical analogue of relativistic Dirac solitons in binary waveguide arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, Truong X., E-mail: truong.tran@mpl.mpg.de; Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky str. 1, 91058 Erlangen; Longhi, Stefano

    2014-01-15

    We study analytically and numerically an optical analogue of Dirac solitons in binary waveguide arrays in the presence of Kerr nonlinearity. Pseudo-relativistic soliton solutions of the coupled-mode equations describing dynamics in the array are analytically derived. We demonstrate that with the found soliton solutions, the coupled mode equations can be converted into the nonlinear relativistic 1D Dirac equation. This paves the way for using binary waveguide arrays as a classical simulator of quantum nonlinear effects arising from the Dirac equation, something that is thought to be impossible to achieve in conventional (i.e. linear) quantum field theory. -- Highlights: •An opticalmore » analogue of Dirac solitons in nonlinear binary waveguide arrays is suggested. •Analytical solutions to pseudo-relativistic solitons are presented. •A correspondence of optical coupled-mode equations with the nonlinear relativistic Dirac equation is established.« less

  6. Copper nanorod array assisted silicon waveguide polarization beam splitter

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangsik; Qi, Minghao

    2014-01-01

    We present the design of a three-dimensional (3D) polarization beam splitter (PBS) with a copper nanorod array placed between two silicon waveguides. The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of a metal nanorod array selectively cross-couples transverse electric (TE) mode to the coupler waveguide, while transverse magnetic (TM) mode passes through the original input waveguide without coupling. An ultra-compact and broadband PBS compared to all-dielectric devices is achieved with the LSPR. The output ports of waveguides are designed to support either TM or TE mode only to enhance the extinction ratios. Compared to silver, copper is fully compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. PMID:24787839

  7. Copper nanorod array assisted silicon waveguide polarization beam splitter.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangsik; Qi, Minghao

    2014-04-21

    We present the design of a three-dimensional (3D) polarization beam splitter (PBS) with a copper nanorod array placed between two silicon waveguides. The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of a metal nanorod array selectively cross-couples transverse electric (TE) mode to the coupler waveguide, while transverse magnetic (TM) mode passes through the original input waveguide without coupling. An ultra-compact and broadband PBS compared to all-dielectric devices is achieved with the LSPR. The output ports of waveguides are designed to support either TM or TE mode only to enhance the extinction ratios. Compared to silver, copper is fully compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology.

  8. Color waveguide transparent screen using lens array holographic optical element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Siqi; Sun, Peng; Wang, Chang; Zheng, Zhenrong

    2017-11-01

    A color transparent screen was designed in this paper, a planar glass was used as a waveguide structure and the lens array holographic optical element (HOE) was used as a display unit. The lens array HOE was exposed by two coherent beams. One was the reference wave which directly illuminated on the holographic material and the other was modulated by the micro lens array. The lens array HOE can display the images with see-through abilities. Unlike the conventional lens array HOE, a planar glass was adopted as the waveguide in the experiment. The projecting light was totally internal-reflected in the planar glass to eliminate the undesired zero-order diffracted light. By using waveguide, it also brings advantage of compact structure. Colorful display can be realized in our system as the holographic materials were capable for multi-wavelength display. In this paper, a color transparent screen utilizing the lens array HOE and waveguide were designed. Experiment results showed a circular display area on the transparent screen. The diameter of the area is 20 mm and it achieved the pixel resolution of 100 μm. This simple and effective method could be an alternative in the augment reality (AR) applications, such as transparent phone and television.

  9. Coherent centres for light amplification in coupled waveguide arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Aditya; Kumar, Sunil

    2018-07-01

    In the study of optical lattices of waveguides, incorporation of nearest neighbour coupling and controllable nonlinearity can result in many interesting phenomena such as discrete diffraction, Anderson localization, diffusive transport, self-defocusing, discrete spatial solitons and discrete photonic resonances. The question of reflecting boundaries at the surfaces has been ignored most often. In the present study, we have shown through a simple one-dimensional waveguide array that light propagation gets completely modified along the length if effects from reflecting boundaries are also considered. We have shown only by considering the coupling on between neighbouring waveguides that there are periodic maximum power centres along the length of the excited waveguides which can be desirable for placing optical amplifiers in short or long distance communication and other applications.

  10. Novel analytical approach for strongly coupled waveguide arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohli, Niharika; Srivastava, Sangeeta; Sharma, Enakshi K.

    2018-02-01

    Coupled Mode theory and Variational methods are the most extensively used analytical methods for the study of coupled optical waveguides. In this paper we have discussed a variation of the Ritz Galerkin Variational method (RGVM) wherein the trial field is a superposition of an orthogonal basis set which in turn is generated from superposition of the individual waveguide modal fields using Gram Schmidt Orthogonalization Procedure (GSOP). The conventional coupled mode theory (CCMT), a modified coupled mode theory (MCMT) incorporating interaction terms that are neglected in CCMT, and an RGVM using orthogonal basis set (RG-GSOP) are compared for waveguide arrays of different materials. The exact effective indices values for these planar waveguide arrays are also studied. The different materials have their index-contrasts ranging between the GaAs/ AlGaAs system to Si/SiO2 system. It has been shown that the error in the effective indices values obtained from MCMT and CCMT is higher than RGVM-GSOP especially in the case of higher index-contrast. Therefore, for accurate calculations of the modal characteristics of planar waveguide arrays, even at higher index-contrasts, RGVM-GSOP is the best choice. Moreover, we obtain obviously orthogonal supermode fields and Hermitian matrix from RGVM-GSOP.

  11. Discrete elliptic solitons in two-dimensional waveguide arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Fangwei; Dong, Liangwei; Wang, Jiandong; Cai, Tian; Li, Yong-Ping

    2005-04-01

    The fundamental properties of discrete elliptic solitons (DESs) in the two-dimensional waveguide arrays were studied. The DESs show nontrivial spatial structures in their parameters space due to the introduction of the new freedom of ellipticity, and their stability is closely linked to their propagation directions in the transverse plane.

  12. Capillary Array Waveguide Amplified Fluorescence Detector for mHealth

    PubMed Central

    Balsam, Joshua; Bruck, Hugh Alan; Rasooly, Avraham

    2013-01-01

    Mobile Health (mHealth) analytical technologies are potentially useful for carrying out modern medical diagnostics in resource-poor settings. Effective mHealth devices for underserved populations need to be simple, low cost, and portable. Although cell phone cameras have been used for biodetection, their sensitivity is a limiting factor because currently it is too low to be effective for many mHealth applications, which depend on detection of weak fluorescent signals. To improve the sensitivity of portable phones, a capillary tube array was developed to amplify fluorescence signals using their waveguide properties. An array configured with 36 capillary tubes was demonstrated to have a ~100X increase in sensitivity, lowering the limit of detection (LOD) of mobile phones from 1000 nM to 10 nM for fluorescein. To confirm that the amplification was due to waveguide behavior, we coated the external surfaces of the capillaries with silver. The silver coating interfered with the waveguide behavior and diminished the fluorescence signal, thereby proving that the waveguide behavior was the main mechanism for enhancing optical sensitivity. The optical configuration described here is novel in several ways. First, the use of capillaries waveguide properties to improve detection of weak florescence signal is new. Second we describe here a three dimensional illumination system, while conventional angular laser waveguide illumination is spot (or line), which is functionally one-dimensional illumination, can illuminate only a single capillary or a single column (when a line generator is used) of capillaries and thus inherently limits the multiplexing capability of detection. The planar illumination demonstrated in this work enables illumination of a two dimensional capillary array (e.g. x columns and y rows of capillaries). In addition, the waveguide light propagation via the capillary wall provides a third dimension for illumination along the axis of the capillaries. Such an

  13. RF waveguide phase-directed power combiners

    SciTech Connect

    Nantista, Christopher D.; Dolgashev, Valery A.; Tantawi, Sami G.

    2017-05-02

    High power RF phase-directed power combiners include magic H hybrid and/or superhybrid circuits oriented in orthogonal H-planes and connected using E-plane bends and/or twists to produce compact 3D waveguide circuits, including 8.times.8 and 16.times.16 combiners. Using phase control at the input ports, RF power can be directed to a single output port, enabling fast switching between output ports for applications such as multi-angle radiation therapy.

  14. Discrete Vector Solitons in Kerr Nonlinear Waveguide Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Joachim; Hudock, Jared; Christodoulides, Demetrios; Stegeman, George; Silberberg, Y.; Morandotti, R.; Aitchison, J. S.

    2003-10-01

    We report the first experimental observation of discrete vector solitons in AlGaAs nonlinear waveguide arrays. These self-trapped states are possible through the coexistence of two orthogonally polarized fields and are stable in spite of the presence of four-wave mixing effects. We demonstrate that at sufficiently high power levels the two polarizations lock into a highly localized vector discrete soliton that would have been otherwise impossible in the absence of either one of these two components.

  15. The NMR phased array.

    PubMed

    Roemer, P B; Edelstein, W A; Hayes, C E; Souza, S P; Mueller, O M

    1990-11-01

    We describe methods for simultaneously acquiring and subsequently combining data from a multitude of closely positioned NMR receiving coils. The approach is conceptually similar to phased array radar and ultrasound and hence we call our techniques the "NMR phased array." The NMR phased array offers the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and resolution of a small surface coil over fields-of-view (FOV) normally associated with body imaging with no increase in imaging time. The NMR phased array can be applied to both imaging and spectroscopy for all pulse sequences. The problematic interactions among nearby surface coils is eliminated (a) by overlapping adjacent coils to give zero mutual inductance, hence zero interaction, and (b) by attaching low input impedance preamplifiers to all coils, thus eliminating interference among next nearest and more distant neighbors. We derive an algorithm for combining the data from the phased array elements to yield an image with optimum SNR. Other techniques which are easier to implement at the cost of lower SNR are explored. Phased array imaging is demonstrated with high resolution (512 x 512, 48-cm FOV, and 32-cm FOV) spin-echo images of the thoracic and lumbar spine. Data were acquired from four-element linear spine arrays, the first made of 12-cm square coils and the second made of 8-cm square coils. When compared with images from a single 15 x 30-cm rectangular coil and identical imaging parameters, the phased array yields a 2X and 3X higher SNR at the depth of the spine (approximately 7 cm).

  16. An analog of photon-assisted tunneling in a periodically modulated waveguide array

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liping; Luo, Xiaobing; Yang, Xiaoxue; Wang, Mei; Lü, Xinyou; Wu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically report an analog of photon-assisted tunneling (PAT) originated from dark Floquet state in a periodically driven lattice array without a static biased potential by studying a three-channel waveguide system in a non-high-frequency regime. This analog of PAT can be achieved by only periodically modulating the top waveguide and adjusting the distance between the bottom and its adjacent waveguide. It is numerically shown that the PAT resonances also exist in the five-channel waveguide system and probably exist in the waveguide arrays with other odd numbers of waveguides, but they will become weak as the number of waveguides increases. With origin different from traditional PAT, this type of PAT found in our work is closely linked to the existence of the zero-energy (dark) Floquet states. It is readily observable under currently accessible experimental conditions and may be useful for controlling light propagation in waveguide arrays. PMID:27767189

  17. Optical phased arrays with evanescently-coupled antennas

    DOEpatents

    Sun, Jie; Watts, Michael R; Yaacobi, Ami; Timurdogan, Erman

    2015-03-24

    An optical phased array formed of a large number of nanophotonic antenna elements can be used to project complex images into the far field. These nanophotonic phased arrays, including the nanophotonic antenna elements and waveguides, can be formed on a single chip of silicon using complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) processes. Directional couplers evanescently couple light from the waveguides to the nanophotonic antenna elements, which emit the light as beams with phases and amplitudes selected so that the emitted beams interfere in the far field to produce the desired pattern. In some cases, each antenna in the phased array may be optically coupled to a corresponding variable delay line, such as a thermo-optically tuned waveguide or a liquid-filled cell, which can be used to vary the phase of the antenna's output (and the resulting far-field interference pattern).

  18. Multibeam Phased Array Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popovic, Zoya; Romisch, Stefania; Rondineau, Sebastien

    2004-01-01

    In this study, a new architecture for Ka-band multi-beam arrays was developed and demonstrated experimentally. The goal of the investigation was to demonstrate a new architecture that has the potential of reducing the cost as compared to standard expensive phased array technology. The goals of this specific part of the project, as stated in the yearly statement of work in the original proposal are: 1. Investigate bounds on performance of multi-beam lens arrays in terms of beamwidths, volume (size), isolation between beams, number of simultaneous beams, etc. 2. Design a small-scale array to demonstrate the principle. The array will be designed for operation around 3OGHz (Ka-band), with two 10-degree beamwidth beams. 3. Investigate most appropriate way to accomplish fine-tuning of the beam pointing within 5 degrees around the main beam pointing angle.

  19. Quantum model of light transmission in array waveguide gratings.

    PubMed

    Capmany, J; Mora, J; Fernández-Pousa, C R; Muñoz, P

    2013-06-17

    We develop, to the best of our knowledge, the first model for an array waveguide grating (AWG) device subject to quantum inputs and analyze its basic transformation functionalities for single-photon states. A commercial, cyclic AWG is experimentally characterized with weak input coherent states as a means of exploring its behaviour under realistic quantum detection. In particular it is shown the existence of a cutoff value of the average photon number below which quantum crosstalk between AWG ports is negligible with respect to dark counts. These results can be useful when considering the application of AWG devices to integrated quantum photonic systems.

  20. Arrays of Carbon Nanotubes as RF Filters in Waveguides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppe, Daniel; Hunt, Brian; Hoenk, Michael; Noca, Flavio; Xu, Jimmy

    2003-01-01

    Brushlike arrays of carbon nanotubes embedded in microstrip waveguides provide highly efficient (high-Q) mechanical resonators that will enable ultraminiature radio-frequency (RF) integrated circuits. In its basic form, this invention is an RF filter based on a carbon nanotube array embedded in a microstrip (or coplanar) waveguide, as shown in Figure 1. In addition, arrays of these nanotube-based RF filters can be used as an RF filter bank. Applications of this new nanotube array device include a variety of communications and signal-processing technologies. High-Q resonators are essential for stable, low-noise communications, and radar applications. Mechanical oscillators can exhibit orders of magnitude higher Qs than electronic resonant circuits, which are limited by resistive losses. This has motivated the development of a variety of mechanical resonators, including bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonators, surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators, and Si and SiC micromachined resonators (known as microelectromechanical systems or MEMS). There is also a strong push to extend the resonant frequencies of these oscillators into the GHz regime of state-of-the-art electronics. Unfortunately, the BAW and SAW devices tend to be large and are not easily integrated into electronic circuits. MEMS structures have been integrated into circuits, but efforts to extend MEMS resonant frequencies into the GHz regime have been difficult because of scaling problems with the capacitively-coupled drive and readout. In contrast, the proposed devices would be much smaller and hence could be more readily incorporated into advanced RF (more specifically, microwave) integrated circuits.

  1. Phased array ghost elimination.

    PubMed

    Kellman, Peter; McVeigh, Elliot R

    2006-05-01

    Parallel imaging may be applied to cancel ghosts caused by a variety of distortion mechanisms, including distortions such as off-resonance or local flow, which are space variant. Phased array combining coefficients may be calculated that null ghost artifacts at known locations based on a constrained optimization, which optimizes SNR subject to the nulling constraint. The resultant phased array ghost elimination (PAGE) technique is similar to the method known as sensitivity encoding (SENSE) used for accelerated imaging; however, in this formulation is applied to full field-of-view (FOV) images. The phased array method for ghost elimination may result in greater flexibility in designing acquisition strategies. For example, in multi-shot EPI applications ghosts are typically mitigated by the use of an interleaved phase encode acquisition order. An alternative strategy is to use a sequential, non-interleaved phase encode order and cancel the resultant ghosts using PAGE parallel imaging. Cancellation of ghosts by means of phased array processing makes sequential, non-interleaved phase encode acquisition order practical, and permits a reduction in repetition time, TR, by eliminating the need for echo-shifting. Sequential, non-interleaved phase encode order has benefits of reduced distortion due to off-resonance, in-plane flow and EPI delay misalignment. Furthermore, the use of EPI with PAGE has inherent fat-water separation and has been used to provide off-resonance correction using a technique referred to as lipid elimination with an echo-shifting N/2-ghost acquisition (LEENA), and may further generalized using the multi-point Dixon method. Other applications of PAGE include cancelling ghosts which arise due to amplitude or phase variation during the approach to steady state. Parallel imaging requires estimates of the complex coil sensitivities. In vivo estimates may be derived by temporally varying the phase encode ordering to obtain a full k-space dataset in a scheme

  2. Phased array ghost elimination

    PubMed Central

    Kellman, Peter; McVeigh, Elliot R.

    2007-01-01

    Parallel imaging may be applied to cancel ghosts caused by a variety of distortion mechanisms, including distortions such as off-resonance or local flow, which are space variant. Phased array combining coefficients may be calculated that null ghost artifacts at known locations based on a constrained optimization, which optimizes SNR subject to the nulling constraint. The resultant phased array ghost elimination (PAGE) technique is similar to the method known as sensitivity encoding (SENSE) used for accelerated imaging; however, in this formulation is applied to full field-of-view (FOV) images. The phased array method for ghost elimination may result in greater flexibility in designing acquisition strategies. For example, in multi-shot EPI applications ghosts are typically mitigated by the use of an interleaved phase encode acquisition order. An alternative strategy is to use a sequential, non-interleaved phase encode order and cancel the resultant ghosts using PAGE parallel imaging. Cancellation of ghosts by means of phased array processing makes sequential, non-interleaved phase encode acquisition order practical, and permits a reduction in repetition time, TR, by eliminating the need for echo-shifting. Sequential, non-interleaved phase encode order has benefits of reduced distortion due to off-resonance, in-plane flow and EPI delay misalignment. Furthermore, the use of EPI with PAGE has inherent fat-water separation and has been used to provide off-resonance correction using a technique referred to as lipid elimination with an echo-shifting N/2-ghost acquisition (LEENA), and may further generalized using the multi-point Dixon method. Other applications of PAGE include cancelling ghosts which arise due to amplitude or phase variation during the approach to steady state. Parallel imaging requires estimates of the complex coil sensitivities. In vivo estimates may be derived by temporally varying the phase encode ordering to obtain a full k-space dataset in a scheme

  3. Phased-array-fed antenna configuration study. Volume 1: Technology assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorbello, R. M.; Zaghloul, A. I.; Lee, B. S.; Siddiqi, S.; Geller, B. D.; Gerson, H. I.; Srinivas, D. N.

    1983-01-01

    The status of the technologies for phased-array-fed dual reflector systems is reviewed. The different aspects of these technologies, including optical performances, phased array systems, problems encountered in phased array design, beamforming networks, MMIC design and its incorporation into waveguide systems, reflector antenna structures, and reflector deployment mechanisms are addressed.

  4. Nonlinear waves in subwavelength waveguide arrays: evanescent bands and the "phoenix soliton".

    PubMed

    Peleg, Or; Segev, Mordechai; Bartal, Guy; Christodoulides, Demetrios N; Moiseyev, Nimrod

    2009-04-24

    We formulate wave propagation in arrays of subwavelength waveguides with sharp index contrasts and demonstrate the collapse of bands into evanescent modes and lattice solitons with superluminal phase velocity. We find a self-reviving soliton ("phoenix soliton") comprised of coupled forward- and backward-propagating light, originating solely from evanescent bands. In the linear regime, all Bloch waves comprising this beam decay, whereas a proper nonlinearity assembles them into a propagating self-trapped beam. Finally, we simulate the dynamics of such a beam and observe breakup into temporal pulses, indicating a new kind of slow-light gap solitons, trapped in time and in one transverse dimension.

  5. Temperature-fluctuation-sensitive accumulative effect of the phase measurement errors in low-coherence interferometry in characterizing arrayed waveguide gratings.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Changyun; Wei, Bing; Yang, Longzhi; Wang, Gencheng; Wang, Yuehai; Jiang, Xiaoqing; Li, Yubo; Yang, Jianyi

    2015-09-20

    We investigate the accumulative effect of the phase measurement errors in characterizing optical multipath components by low-coherence interferometry. The accumulative effect is caused by the fluctuation of the environment temperature, which leads to the variation of the refractive index of the device under test. The resulting phase measurement errors accumulate with the increasing of the phase difference between the two interferometer arms. Our experiments were carried out to demonstrate that the accumulative effect is still obvious even though the thermo-optical coefficient of the device under test is quite small. Shortening the measurement time to reduce the fluctuation of the environment temperature can effectively restrain the accumulative effect. The experiments show that when the scanning speed increases to 4.8 mm/s, the slope of the phase measurement errors decreases to 5.52×10(-8), which means the accumulative effect can be ignored.

  6. Quasi-Phase-Matched Supercontinuum Generation in Photonic Waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickstein, Daniel D.; Kerber, Grace C.; Carlson, David R.; Chang, Lin; Westly, Daron; Srinivasan, Kartik; Kowligy, Abijith; Bowers, John E.; Diddams, Scott A.; Papp, Scott B.

    2018-02-01

    Supercontinuum generation (SCG) in integrated photonic waveguides is a versatile source of broadband light, and the generated spectrum is largely determined by the phase-matching conditions. Here we show that quasi-phase-matching via periodic modulations of the waveguide structure provides a useful mechanism to control the evolution of ultrafast pulses during supercontinuum generation. We experimentally demonstrate a quasi-phase-matched supercontinuum to the TE20 and TE00 waveguide modes, which enhances the intensity of the SCG in specific spectral regions by as much as 20 dB. We utilize higher-order quasi-phase-matching (up to the 16th order) to enhance the intensity in numerous locations across the spectrum. Quasi-phase-matching adds a unique dimension to the design space for SCG waveguides, allowing the spectrum to be engineered for specific applications.

  7. Pascal Liquid Phase in Electronic Waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczyk, M.; Briggeman, M.; Tylan-Tyler, A.; Huang, M.; Tian, B.; Pekker, D.; Lee, J.-W.; Lee, H.; Eom, C.-B.; Levy, J.

    Clean one-dimensional electron transport has been observed in very few material systems. The development of exceptionally clean electron waveguides formed at the interface between complex oxides LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 enables low-dimensional transport to be explored with newfound flexibility. This material system not only supports ballistic 1D transport, but possesses a rich phase diagram and strong attractive electron-electron interactions which are not present in other solid-state systems. Here we report an unusual phenomenon in which quantized conductance increases by steps that themselves increase sequentially in multiples of e2 / h . The overall conductance exhibits a Pascal-like sequence: 1, 3, 6, 10... e2 / h , which we ascribe to ballistic transport of 1, 2, 3, 4 ... bunches of electrons. We will discuss how subband degeneracies can occur in non-interacting models that have carefully tuned parameters. Strong attractive interactions are required, however, for these subbands to lock together. This Pascal liquid phase provides a striking example of the consequences of strong attractive interactions in low-dimensional environments. We gratefully acknowledge financial support from AFOSR (FA9550-12-1- 0057 (JL) and FA9550-12-1-0342 (CBE)), ONR N00014-15-1-2847 (JL), and NSF DMR-1234096 (CBE).

  8. ZnO nanotube waveguide arrays on graphene films for local optical excitation on biological cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Hyeonjun; Kwak, Hankyul; Song, Minho S.; Ha, Go Eun; Park, Jongwoo; Tchoe, Youngbin; Hyun, Jerome K.; Park, Hye Yoon; Cheong, Eunji; Yi, Gyu-Chul

    2017-04-01

    We report on scalable and position-controlled optical nanoprobe arrays using ZnO nanotube waveguides on graphene films for use in local optical excitation. For the waveguide fabrication, position-controlled and well-ordered ZnO nanotube arrays were grown on chemical vapor deposited graphene films with a submicron patterned mask layer and Au prepared between the interspace of nanotubes. Mammalian cells were cultured on the nanotube waveguide arrays and were locally excited by light illuminated through the nanotubes. Fluorescence and optogenetic signals could be excited through the optical nanoprobes. This method offers the ability to investigate cellular behavior with a high spatial resolution that surpasses the current limitation.

  9. UAVSAR Phased Array Aperture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, Neil; Zawadzki, Mark; Sadowy, Greg; Oakes, Eric; Brown, Kyle; Hodges, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a patch antenna array for an L-band repeat-pass interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) instrument that is to be flown on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The antenna operates at a center frequency of 1.2575 GHz and with a bandwidth of 80 MHz, consistent with a number of radar instruments that JPL has previously flown. The antenna is designed to radiate orthogonal linear polarizations in order to facilitate fully-polarimetric measurements. Beam-pointing requirements for repeat-pass SAR interferometry necessitate electronic scanning in azimuth over a range of -20degrees in order to compensate for aircraft yaw. Beam-steering is accomplished by transmit/receive (T/R) modules and a beamforming network implemented in a stripline circuit board. This paper, while providing an overview of phased array architecture, focuses on the electromagnetic design of the antenna tiles and associated interconnects. An important aspect of the design of this antenna is that it has an amplitude taper of 10dB in the elevation direction. This is to reduce multipath reflections from the wing that would otherwise be detrimental to interferometric radar measurements. This taper is provided by coupling networks in the interconnect circuits as opposed to attenuating the output of the T/R modules. Details are given of material choices and fabrication techniques that meet the demanding environmental conditions that the antenna must operate in. Predicted array performance is reported in terms of co-polarized and crosspolarized far-field antenna patterns, and also in terms of active reflection coefficient.

  10. Manipulation of a two-photon state in a χ(2)-modulated nonlinear waveguide array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Xu, P.; Lu, L. L.; Zhu, S. N.

    2014-10-01

    We propose to engineer the quantum state in a high-dimensional Hilbert space by taking advantage of a χ(2)-modulated nonlinear waveguide array. By varying the pump condition and the waveguide array length, the momentum correlation between the signal and idler photons can be manipulated, exhibiting bunching, antibunching, and the evolution between these two states, which are characterized by the Schmidt number. We find the Schmidt number is dependent on a structure parameter, namely the ratio of the array length and the number of channels pumped. By designing the linear profile waveguide array, the degree of spatial entanglement shows a periodic relationship with the slope of linear profile, during which a high degree of position-bunching state is suggested. The two-photon self-focusing effect is disclosed when the χ(2) modulation in the waveguide array contains a parabolic profile, which can be designed for efficient coupling between a waveguide array and fibers. These results shed light on a feasible way to achieve desirable quantum state on a single waveguide chip by a compact engineering of χ(2) and also suggest a degree of freedom for quantum walk and other related applications.

  11. Two-photon Anderson localization in a disordered quadratic waveguide array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Y. F.; Xu, P.; Lu, L. L.; Zhong, M. L.; Zhu, S. N.

    2016-05-01

    We theoretically investigate two-photon Anderson localization in a χ (2) waveguide array with off-diagonal disorder. The nonlinear parametric down-conversion process would enhance both the single-photon and the two-photon Anderson localization. In the strong disorder regime, the two-photon position correlation exhibits a bunching distribution around the pumped waveguides, which is independent of pumping conditions and geometrical structures of waveguide arrays. Quadratic nonlinearity can be supplied as a new ingredient for Anderson localization. Also, our results pave the way for engineering quantum states through nonlinear quantum walks.

  12. Nonlinear dynamics of solitary and optically injected two-element laser arrays with four different waveguide structures: a numerical study.

    PubMed

    Li, Nianqiang; Susanto, H; Cemlyn, B R; Henning, I D; Adams, M J

    2018-02-19

    We study the nonlinear dynamics of solitary and optically injected two-element laser arrays with a range of waveguide structures. The analysis is performed with a detailed direct numerical simulation, where high-resolution dynamic maps are generated to identify regions of dynamic instability in the parameter space of interest. Our combined one- and two-parameter bifurcation analysis uncovers globally diverse dynamical regimes (steady-state, oscillation, and chaos) in the solitary laser arrays, which are greatly influenced by static design waveguiding structures, the amplitude-phase coupling factor of the electric field, i.e. the linewidth-enhancement factor, as well as the control parameter, e.g. the pump rate. When external optical injection is introduced to one element of the arrays, we show that the whole system can be either injection-locked simultaneously or display rich, different dynamics outside the locking region. The effect of optical injection is to significantly modify the nature and the regions of nonlinear dynamics from those found in the solitary case. We also show similarities and differences (asymmetry) between the oscillation amplitude of the two elements of the array in specific well-defined regions, which hold for all the waveguiding structures considered. Our findings pave the way to a better understanding of dynamic instability in large arrays of lasers.

  13. Optical waveguide circuit board with a surface-mounted optical receiver array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, J. E.; Levesque, Harold; Savov, Emil; Horwitz, Fred; Booth, Bruce L.; Marchegiano, Joseph E.

    1994-03-01

    A photonic circuit board is fabricated for potential application to interchip and interboard parallel optical links. The board comprises photolithographically patterned polymer optical waveguides on a conventional glass-epoxy electrical circuit board and a surface-mounted integrated circuit (IC) package that optically and electrically couples to an optoelectronic IC. The waveguide circuits include eight-channel arrays of straights, cross-throughs, curves, self- aligning interconnects to multi-fiber ribbon, and out-of-plane turning mirrors. A coherent, fused bundle of optical fibers couples light between 45-deg waveguide mirrors and a GaAs receiver array in the IC package. The fiber bundle is easily aligned to the mirrors and the receivers and is amenable to surface mounting and hermetic sealing. The waveguide-receiver- array board achieved error-free data rates up to 1.25 Gbits/s per channel, and modal noise was shown to be negligible.

  14. Controlling propagation and coupling of waveguide modes using phase-gradient metasurfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhaoyi; Kim, Myoung -Hwan; Wang, Cheng

    Here, research on two-dimensional designer optical structures, or metasurfaces, has mainly focused on controlling the wavefronts of light propagating in free space. Here, we show that gradient metasurface structures consisting of phased arrays of plasmonic or dielectric nanoantennas can be used to control guided waves via strong optical scattering at subwavelength intervals. Based on this design principle, we experimentally demonstrate waveguide mode converters, polarization rotators and waveguide devices supporting asymmetric optical power transmission. We also demonstrate all-dielectric on-chip polarization rotators based on phased arrays of Mie resonators with negligible insertion losses. Our gradient metasurfaces can enable small-footprint, broadband and low-lossmore » photonic integrated devices.« less

  15. Controlling propagation and coupling of waveguide modes using phase-gradient metasurfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Zhaoyi; Kim, Myoung -Hwan; Wang, Cheng; ...

    2017-04-17

    Here, research on two-dimensional designer optical structures, or metasurfaces, has mainly focused on controlling the wavefronts of light propagating in free space. Here, we show that gradient metasurface structures consisting of phased arrays of plasmonic or dielectric nanoantennas can be used to control guided waves via strong optical scattering at subwavelength intervals. Based on this design principle, we experimentally demonstrate waveguide mode converters, polarization rotators and waveguide devices supporting asymmetric optical power transmission. We also demonstrate all-dielectric on-chip polarization rotators based on phased arrays of Mie resonators with negligible insertion losses. Our gradient metasurfaces can enable small-footprint, broadband and low-lossmore » photonic integrated devices.« less

  16. Silicon graphene waveguide tunable broadband microwave photonics phase shifter.

    PubMed

    Capmany, José; Domenech, David; Muñoz, Pascual

    2014-04-07

    We propose the use of silicon graphene waveguides to implement a tunable broadband microwave photonics phase shifter based on integrated ring cavities. Numerical computation results show the feasibility for broadband operation over 40 GHz bandwidth and full 360° radiofrequency phase-shift with a modest voltage excursion of 0.12 volt.

  17. Optoelectronic Infrastructure for Radio Frequency and Optical Phased Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cai, Jianhong

    2015-01-01

    Optoelectronic integrated circuits offer radiation-hardened solutions for satellite systems in addition to improved size, weight, power, and bandwidth characteristics. ODIS, Inc., has developed optoelectronic integrated circuit technology for sensing and data transfer in phased arrays. The technology applies integrated components (lasers, amplifiers, modulators, detectors, and optical waveguide switches) to a radio frequency (RF) array with true time delay for beamsteering. Optical beamsteering is achieved by controlling the current in a two-dimensional (2D) array. In this project, ODIS integrated key components to produce common RF-optical aperture operation.

  18. Distributed phased array architecture study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourgeois, Brian

    1987-01-01

    Variations in amplifiers and phase shifters can cause degraded antenna performance, depending also on the environmental conditions and antenna array architecture. The implementation of distributed phased array hardware was studied with the aid of the DISTAR computer program as a simulation tool. This simulation provides guidance in hardware simulation. Both hard and soft failures of the amplifiers in the T/R modules are modeled. Hard failures are catastrophic: no power is transmitted to the antenna elements. Noncatastrophic or soft failures are modeled as a modified Gaussian distribution. The resulting amplitude characteristics then determine the array excitation coefficients. The phase characteristics take on a uniform distribution. Pattern characteristics such as antenna gain, half power beamwidth, mainbeam phase errors, sidelobe levels, and beam pointing errors were studied as functions of amplifier and phase shifter variations. General specifications for amplifier and phase shifter tolerances in various architecture configurations for C band and S band were determined.

  19. Phased Arrays 1985 Symposium - Proceedings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    have served the logic industry well, and appropriate versions can do the same for micruwdve drid millimeter * wave technology, An aspect of phased...continuing revolutions of the logic industry and the microwave monolithic integrated circuit community are bringing relevant technology closer to the array...monolithic phased array antennas, and discuss their relative advantages and disadvantages . Considerations such as bandwidth, maxianiru scan range, feed

  20. Large Phased Array Radar Using Networked Small Parabolic Reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amoozegar, Farid

    2006-01-01

    Multifunction phased array systems with radar, telecom, and imaging applications have already been established for flat plate phased arrays of dipoles, or waveguides. In this paper the design trades and candidate options for combining the radar and telecom functions of the Deep Space Network (DSN) into a single large transmit array of small parabolic reflectors will be discussed. In particular the effect of combing the radar and telecom functions on the sizes of individual antenna apertures and the corresponding spacing between the antenna elements of the array will be analyzed. A heterogeneous architecture for the DSN large transmit array is proposed to meet the radar and telecom requirements while considering the budget, scheduling, and strategic planning constrains.

  1. Polymeric waveguide array with 45 degree slopes fabricated by bottom side tilted exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xiaohui; Dou, Xinyuan; Wang, Alan X.; Chen, Ray T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper demonstrated a practical fabrication process of polymeric waveguide array (12 channels) with 50μm(W)×50μm(H)×23mm(L) dimension and mirror embedded 45° degree slopes for vertical coupling purpose. The entire process contained three main parts: a SU8 pre-mold with 45° slope, a PDMS mold and the final waveguide array device. The key step of fabricating the pre-mold included a bottom side tilted exposure of SU8 photo resist. By placing the sample upside down, tilting by 58.7° and immersing into DI water, the ultraviolet (UV) beam that shined vertically was directed to go through from the bottom of the glass substrate into top side SU8 resist with 45° angle to form the surface. This method was able to guarantee no-gap contact between the mask pattern and the photo resist when exposing. By comparing the process complexity and achieved structure of the top and bottom side exposure, the later was proved to be a promising method for making high quality tilted structure without any tailing effect. The reversed PDMS mold was then fabricated on the SU8 pre-mold. The PDMS mold was used to imprint the cladding layer of the waveguide array. After metal deposition, core filling and top cladding layer coating, the final polymeric waveguide array device was achieved. For performance evaluation, 850nm laser beam from VCSEL was modulated to 10Gbps signals and vertically coupled into the waveguide array. The eye diagrams revealed high Q factor when transmitting signals along these waveguide array.

  2. Quasi-phase matching and quantum control of high harmonic generation in waveguides using counterpropagating beams

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Xiaoshi; Lytle, Amy L.; Cohen, Oren; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret M.

    2010-11-09

    All-optical quasi-phase matching (QPM) uses a train of counterpropagating pulses to enhance high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in a hollow waveguide. A pump pulse enters one end of the waveguide, and causes HHG in the waveguide. The counterpropagation pulses enter the other end of the waveguide and interact with the pump pulses to cause QPM within the waveguide, enhancing the HHG.

  3. Broadband arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers on indium phosphide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rausch, Kameron

    2005-11-01

    Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing (CWDM) is becoming a popular way to increase the optical throughput of fibers for short to medium haul networks at a reduced cost. The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) has defined the CWDM network to consist of eighteen channels with channel spacings of 20 nm starting at 1270 nm and ending at 1610 nm. Four and eight channel AWGs suitable for CWDM were fabricated using a versatile S-shape design novel to InP. The standard horseshoe layout will not work on semiconductor for AWGs with a free spectral range (FSR) larger than 30 nm. The AWG design provides operation insensitive to thermal and polarization fluctuations; which is key for low cost operation and packaging. It will be shown that, refractive index changes over the large operating wavelength band produced negligible effects in the transmission spectrum. Standard AWG design assumes refractive index is a constant over the operating wavelength band. As a result, the output waveguide separations are held constant on the second star coupler. As the channel number increases, secondary focal dispersion caused from a changing refractive index can have detrimental effects on performance. A new design method will be introduced which includes refractive index dispersion by allowing the output waveguide separations to vary. The new design is consistent with standard design but is applicable in materials with a linear index dispersion over an arbitrarily large wavelength band. Lastly, a method for increasing the transmission using multimode waveguides is discussed. Traditionally, single mode waveguides are required in order to prevent higher order waveguide modes creating ghost images in the output spectrum. Using bend loss and waveguide junction offsets, higher order modes can be filtered from the output, thereby eliminating ghost images and at the same time, increase transmission.

  4. The design of H- and V-pol waveguide slot array feeds for a scanned offset dual-polarized reflectarray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zawadzki, Mark; Rengarajan, Sembiam; Hodges, Richard E.

    2005-01-01

    While the design of waveguide slot arrays in not new, this particular design effort shows that very good results can be achieved on a first attempt using established slot array design techniques and commercial software for the waveguide power divider network. The presentation will discuss this design process in detail.

  5. Phase-locked laser array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botez, Dan (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A phase-locked laser array comprises a body of semiconductor material having means for defining a plurality of substantially parallel lasing zones which are spaced an effective distance apart so that the modes of the adjacent lasing zones are phase-locked to one another. One of the array electrodes comprises a plurality of electrical contacts to the body between the lasing zones. These contacts provide an enhanced current density profile and thus an increase in the gain in the regions between the lasing zones so that zero degree phase-shift operation between adjacent lasing zones is achievable.

  6. Wavelength selective switch array employing silica-based waveguide frontend with integrated polarization diversity optics.

    PubMed

    Sakamaki, Yohei; Shikama, Kota; Ikuma, Yuichiro; Suzuki, Kenya

    2017-08-21

    We propose a waveguide frontend with integrated polarization diversity optics for a wavelength selective switch (WSS) array with a liquid crystal on silicon switching engine to simplify the free space optics configuration and the alignment process in optical modules. The polarization diversity function is realized by the integration of a waveguide-type polarization beam splitter and a polarization rotating half-wave plate in a beam launcher using silica-based planar lightwave circuit technology. We confirmed experimentally the feasibility of using our proposed waveguide frontend in a two-in-one 1 × 20 WSS. The experimental results show that the fabricated waveguide frontend provides a polarization diversity function without any degradation in optical performance.

  7. Patterned synthesis of ZnO nanorod arrays for nanoplasmonic waveguide applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamson, Thomas L.; Khan, Sahar; Wang, Zhifei; Zhang, Yun-Kai; Yu, Yong; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Xu, Huizhong

    2018-03-01

    We report the patterned synthesis of ZnO nanorod arrays of diameters between 50 nm and 130 nm and various spacings. This was achieved by patterning hole arrays in a polymethyl methacrylate layer with electron beam lithography, followed by chemical synthesis of ZnO nanorods in the patterned holes using the hydrothermal method. The fabrication of ZnO nanorod waveguide arrays is also demonstrated by embedding the nanorods in a silver film using the electroplating process. Optical transmission measurement through the nanorod waveguide arrays is performed and strong resonant transmission of visible light is observed. We have found the resonance shifts to a longer wavelength with increasing nanorod diameter. Furthermore, the resonance wavelength is independent of the nanowaveguide array period, indicating the observed resonant transmission is the effect of a single ZnO nanorod waveguide. These nanorod waveguides may be used in single-molecule imaging and sensing as a result of the nanoscopic profile of the light transmitted through the nanorods and the controlled locations of these nanoscale light sources.

  8. Improved Modeling of Open Waveguide Aperture Radiators for use in Conformal Antenna Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Gregory James

    Open waveguide apertures have been used as radiating elements in conformal arrays. Individual radiating element model patterns are used in constructing overall array models. The existing models for these aperture radiating elements may not accurately predict the array pattern for TEM waves which are not on boresight for each radiating element. In particular, surrounding structures can affect the far field patterns of these apertures, which ultimately affects the overall array pattern. New models of open waveguide apertures are developed here with the goal of accounting for the surrounding structure effects on the aperture far field patterns such that the new models make accurate pattern predictions. These aperture patterns (both E plane and H plane) are measured in an anechoic chamber and the manner in which they deviate from existing model patterns are studied. Using these measurements as a basis, existing models for both E and H planes are updated with new factors and terms which allow the prediction of far field open waveguide aperture patterns with improved accuracy. These new and improved individual radiator models are then used to predict overall conformal array patterns. Arrays of open waveguide apertures are constructed and measured in a similar fashion to the individual aperture measurements. These measured array patterns are compared with the newly modeled array patterns to verify the improved accuracy of the new models as compared with the performance of existing models in making array far field pattern predictions. The array pattern lobe characteristics are then studied for predicting fully circularly conformal arrays of varying radii. The lobe metrics that are tracked are angular location and magnitude as the radii of the conformal arrays are varied. A constructed, measured array that is close to conforming to a circular surface is compared with a fully circularly conformal modeled array pattern prediction, with the predicted lobe angular locations and

  9. Optical microwave filter based on spectral slicing by use of arrayed waveguide gratings.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Daniel; Ortega, Beatriz; Capmany, José; Sales, Salvador; Martinez, Alfonso; Muñoz, Pascual

    2003-10-01

    We have experimentally demonstrated a new optical signal processor based on the use of arrayed waveguide gratings. The structure exploits the concept of spectral slicing combined with the use of an optical dispersive medium. The approach presents increased flexibility from previous slicing-based structures in terms of tunability, reconfiguration, and apodization of the samples or coefficients of the transversal optical filter.

  10. Scan blindness in infinite phased arrays of printed dipoles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pozar, D. M.; Schaubert, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive study of infinite phased arrays of printed dipole antennas is presented, with emphasis on the scan blindness phenomenon. A rigorous and efficient moment method procedure is used to calculate the array impedance versus scan angle. Data are presented for the input reflection coefficient for various element spacings and substrate parameters. A simple theory, based on coupling from Floquet modes to surface wave modes on the substrate, is shown to predict the occurrence of scan blindness. Measurements from a waveguide simulator of a blindness condition confirm the theory.

  11. Liquid crystal waveguides: new devices enabled by >1000 waves of optical phase control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Scott R.; Farca, George; Rommel, Scott D.; Johnson, Seth; Anderson, Michael H.

    2010-02-01

    A new electro-optic waveguide platform, which provides unprecedented voltage control over optical phase delays (> 2mm), with very low loss (< 0.5 dB/cm) and rapid response time (sub millisecond), will be presented. This technology, developed by Vescent Photonics, is based upon a unique liquid-crystal waveguide geometry, which exploits the tremendous electro-optic response of liquid crystals while circumventing their historic limitations. The waveguide geometry provides nematic relaxation speeds in the 10's of microseconds and LC scattering losses that are reduced by orders of magnitude from bulk transmissive LC optics. The exceedingly large optical phase delays accessible with this technology enable the design and construction of a new class of previously unrealizable photonic devices. Examples include: 2-D analog non-mechanical beamsteerers, chip-scale widely tunable lasers, chip-scale Fourier transform spectrometer (< 5 nm resolution demonstrated), widely tunable micro-ring resonators, tunable lenses, ultra-low power (< 5 microWatts) optical switches, true optical time delay devices for phased array antennas, and many more. All of these devices may benefit from established manufacturing technologies and ultimately may be as inexpensive as a calculator display. Furthermore, this new integrated photonic architecture has applications in a wide array of commercial and defense markets including: remote sensing, micro-LADAR, OCT, FSO, laser illumination, phased array radar, etc. Performance attributes of several example devices and application data will be presented. In particular, we will present a non-mechanical beamsteerer that steers light in both the horizontal and vertical dimensions.

  12. Arrays of strongly coupled atoms in a one-dimensional waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruostekoski, Janne; Javanainen, Juha

    2017-09-01

    We study the cooperative optical coupling between regularly spaced atoms in a one-dimensional waveguide using decompositions to subradiant and super-radiant collective excitation eigenmodes, direct numerical solutions, and analytical transfer-matrix methods. We illustrate how the spectrum of transmitted light through the waveguide, including the emergence of narrow Fano resonances, can be understood by the resonance features of the eigenmodes. We describe a method based on super-radiant and subradiant modes to engineer the optical response of the waveguide and to store light. The stopping of light is obtained by transferring an atomic excitation to a subradiant collective mode with the zero radiative resonance linewidth by controlling the level shift of an atom in the waveguide. Moreover, we obtain an exact analytic solution for the transmitted light through the waveguide for the case of a regular lattice of atoms and provide a simple description of how the light transmission may present large resonance shifts when the lattice spacing is close, but not exactly equal, to half of the wavelength of the light. Experimental imperfections such as fluctuations of the positions of the atoms and loss of light from the waveguide are easily quantified in the numerical simulations, which produce the natural result that the optical response of the atomic array tends toward the response of a gas with random atomic positions.

  13. A new method for multi-bit and qudit transfer based on commensurate waveguide arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovic, J.; Veerman, J. J. P.

    2018-05-01

    The faithful state transfer is an important requirement in the construction of classical and quantum computers. While the high-speed transfer is realized by optical-fibre interconnects, its implementation in integrated optical circuits is affected by cross-talk. The cross-talk between densely packed optical waveguides limits the transfer fidelity and distorts the signal in each channel, thus severely impeding the parallel transfer of states such as classical registers, multiple qubits and qudits. Here, we leverage on the suitably engineered cross-talk between waveguides to achieve the parallel transfer on optical chip. Waveguide coupling coefficients are designed to yield commensurate eigenvalues of the array and hence, periodic revivals of the input state. While, in general, polynomially complex, the inverse eigenvalue problem permits analytic solutions for small number of waveguides. We present exact solutions for arrays of up to nine waveguides and use them to design realistic buses for multi-(qu)bit and qudit transfer. Advantages and limitations of the proposed solution are discussed in the context of available fabrication techniques.

  14. Phased Array Feeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, J. Richard; Bradley, Richard F.; Brisken, Walter F.; Cotton, William D.; Emerson, Darrel T.; Kerr, Anthony R.; Lacasse, Richard J.; Morgan, Matthew A.; Napier, Peter J.; Norrod, Roger D.; Payne, John M.; Pospieszalski, Marian W.; Symmes, Arthur; Thompson, A. Richard; Webber, John C.

    2009-03-01

    This white paper offers cautionary observations about the planning and development of new, large radio astronomy instruments. Complexity is a strong cost driver so every effort should be made to assign differing science requirements to different instruments and probably different sites. The appeal of shared resources is generally not realized in practice and can often be counterproductive. Instrument optimization is much more difficult with longer lists of requirements, and the development process is longer and less efficient. More complex instruments are necessarily further behind the technology state of the art because of longer development times. Including technology R&D in the construction phase of projects is a growing trend that leads to higher risks, cost overruns, schedule delays, and project de-scoping. There are no technology breakthroughs just over the horizon that will suddenly bring down the cost of collecting area. Advances come largely through careful attention to detail in the adoption of new technology provided by industry and the commercial market. Radio astronomy instrumentation has a very bright future, but a vigorous long-term R&D program not tied directly to specific projects needs to be restored, fostered, and preserved.

  15. Silicon waveguide optical switch with embedded phase change material.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kevin J; Hallman, Kent A; Haglund, Richard F; Weiss, Sharon M

    2017-10-30

    Phase-change materials (PCMs) have emerged as promising active elements in silicon (Si) photonic systems. In this work, we design, fabricate, and characterize a hybrid Si-PCM optical switch. By integrating vanadium dioxide (a PCM) within a Si photonic waveguide, in a non-resonant geometry, we achieve ~10 dB broadband optical contrast with a PCM length of 500 nm using thermal actuation.

  16. A Computer-Aided Approach for Designing Edge-Slot Waveguide Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosselin, Renee Brian

    2003-01-01

    Traditional techniques for designing resonant edge-slot waveguide arrays have required an iterative trial-and-error process of measuring slot data from several prototypes. Since very little meaningful data has been published, this technology remains relatively immature and prohibitive for many smaller programs that could benefit from some advantages this antenna has to offer. A new Computer-Aided Design technique for designing resonant edge-slot waveguide arrays was used to successfuliy design such an X-band radiometer antenna for the NASA Light Rainfall Radiometer (LRR) instrument. Having the ability to rapidly create such an extremely accurate and efficient antenna design without the need to manufacture prototypes has also enabled inexpensive research that promises to improve the system-level performance of microwave radiometers for upcoming space-flight missions. This paper will present details of the LRR antenna design and describe some other current edge-slot array accomplishments at Goddard Space Flight Center.

  17. Automated Array Assembly, Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carbajal, B. G.

    1979-01-01

    The Automated Array Assembly Task, Phase 2 of the Low Cost Silicon Solar Array Project is a process development task. The contract provides for the fabrication of modules from large area tandem junction cells (TJC). During this quarter, effort was focused on the design of a large area, approximately 36 sq cm, TJC and process verification runs. The large area TJC design was optimized for minimum I squared R power losses. In the TJM activity, the cell-module interfaces were defined, module substrates were formed and heat treated and clad metal interconnect strips were fabricated.

  18. Airborne electronically steerable phased array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The results are presented of the second stage of a program for the design and development of a phased array capable of simultaneous and separate transmission and reception of radio frequency signals at S-band frequencies. The design goals of this stage were the development of three major areas of interest required for the final prototype model. These areas are the construction and testing of the low-weight, full-scale 128-element array of antenna elements, the development of the RF manifold feed system, and the construction and testing of a working module containing diplexer and transmit and receive circuits.

  19. Three-Dimensional Waveguide Arrays for Coupling Between Fiber-Optic Connectors and Surface-Mounted Optoelectronic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiramatsu, Seiki; Kinoshita, Masao

    2005-09-01

    This paper describes the fabrication of novel surface-mountable waveguide connectors and presents test results for them. To ensure more highly integrated and low-cost fabrication, we propose new three-dimensional (3-D) waveguide arrays that feature two-dimensionally integrated optical inputs/outputs and optical path redirection. A wafer-level stack and lamination process was used to fabricate the waveguide arrays. Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and photodiodes were directly mounted on the arrays and combined with mechanical transferable ferrule using active alignment. With the help of a flip-chip bonder, the waveguide connectors were mounted on a printed circuit board by solder bumps. Using mechanical transferable connectors, which can easily plug into the waveguide connectors, we obtained multi-gigabits-per-second transmission performance.

  20. Vapor-Redissolution Technique for Reduction of POLYMER/Si Arrayed Waveguide Grating Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haiming; Zhang, Daming; Qin, Zhenkun; Ma, Chunsheng

    An efficient vapor-redissolution technique is used to greatly reduce sidewall scattering loss in the polymer arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) fabricated on a silicon substrate. Smoother sidewalls are achieved and verified by scanning electron microscopy. Reduction of sidewall scattering loss is further measured for the loss measurement of both straight waveguides and AWG devices. The sidewall loss in straight polymer waveguide is decreased by 2.1 dB/cm, the insertion loss of our AWG device is reduced by about 5.5 dB for the central channel and 6.7 dB for the edge channels, the crosstalk is reduced by 2.5 dB, and 3-dB bandwidth is narrowed by 0.05 nm after the vapor-redissoluton treatment.

  1. Demonstration of an optical phased array using electro-optic polymer phase shifters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Yoshikuni; Motoyama, Yasushi; Tanaka, Katsu; Machida, Kenji; Yamada, Toshiki; Otomo, Akira; Kikuchi, Hiroshi

    2018-03-01

    We have been investigating an optical phased array (OPA) using electro-optic (EO) polymers in phase shifters to achieve ultrafast optical beam steering. In this paper, we describe the basic structures of the OPA using EO polymer phase shifters and show the beam steering capability of the OPA. The designed OPA has a multimode interference (MMI) beam splitter and 8-channel polymer waveguides with EO polymer phase shifters. We compare 1 × 8 MMI and cascaded 1 × 2 MMI beam splitters numerically and experimentally, and then obtain uniform intensity outputs from the 1 × 8 beam splitter. We fabricate the EO polymer OPA with a 1 × 8 MMI beam splitter to prevent intensity dispersion due to radiation loss in bending waveguides. We also evaluate the optical beam steering capability of the fabricated OPA and found a 2.7° deflection of far-field patterns when applying a voltage difference of 25 V in adjacent phase shifters.

  2. Phase sensitive amplification in integrated waveguides (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Jochen B.; Zhang, Youngbin; Husko, Chad A.; LeFrancois, Simon; Eggleton, Benjamin J.

    2017-02-01

    Phase sensitive amplification (PSA) is an attractive technology for integrated all-optical signal processing, due to it's potential for noiseless amplification, phase regeneration and generation of squeezed light. In this talk I will review our results on implementing four-wave-mixing based PSA inside integrated photonic devices. In particular I will discuss PSA in chalcogenide ridge waveguides and silicon slow-light photonic crystals. We achieve PSA in both pump- and signal-degenerate schemes with maximum extinction ratios of 11 (silicon) and 18 (chalcogenide) dB. I will further discuss the influence of two-photon absorption and free carrier effects on the performance of silicon-based PSAs.

  3. Cabling design for phased arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruger, I. D.; Turkiewicz, L.

    1972-01-01

    The ribbon-cabling system used for the AEGIS phased array which provides minimum cable bulk, complete EMI shielding, rugged mechanical design, repeatable electrical characteristics, and ease of assembly and maintenance is described. The ribbon cables are 0.040-inch thick, and in widths up to 2 1/2 inches. Their terminations are molded connectors that can be grouped in a three-tier arrangement, with cable branching accomplished by a matrix-welding technique.

  4. Free space and waveguide Talbot effect: phase relations and planar light circuit applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikkhah, H.; Zheng, Q.; Hasan, I.; Abdul-Majid, S.; Hall, T. J.

    2012-10-01

    Optical fields that are periodic in the transverse plane self-image periodically as they propagate along the optical axis: a phenomenon known as the Talbot effect. A transfer matrix may be defined that relates the amplitude and phase of point sources placed on a particular grid at the input to their respective multiple images at an image plane. The free-space Talbot effect may be mapped to the waveguide Talbot effect. Applying this mapping to the transfer matrix enables the prediction of the phase and amplitude relations between the ports of a Multimode Interference (MMI) coupler- a planar waveguide device. The transfer matrix approach has not previously been applied to the free-space case and its mapping to the waveguide case provides greater clarity and physical insight into the phase relationships than previous treatments. The paper first introduces the underlying physics of the Talbot effect in free space with emphasis on the positions along the optical axis at which images occur; their multiplicity; and their relative phase relations determined by the Gauss Quadratic Sum of number theory. The analysis is then adapted to predict the phase relationships between the ports of an MMI. These phase relationships are critical to planar light circuit (PLC) applications such as 90° optical hybrids for coherent optical receiver front-ends, external optical I-Q modulators for coherent optical transmitters; and optical phased array switches. These applications are illustrated by results obtained from devices that have been fabricated and tested by the PTLab in Si micro-photonic integration platforms.

  5. Study on fabrication technology of silicon-based silica array waveguide grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yanjun; Dong, Lianhe; Leng, Yanbing

    2009-05-01

    Array waveguide grating (AWG) is an important plane optical element in dense wavelength division multiplex/demultiplex system. There are many virtue, channel quantity larger,lower loss, lower crosstalk, size smaller and high reliability etc. This article describs AWG fabrication technics utilizing IC(Integrated Circles) techniques, based on sixteen channel Silicon-Based Silica Array Waveguide Grating, put emphasis on discussing doping and deposition of waveguide core film,technics theory and interrelated parameter condition of photoetch and ion etching. Experiment result indicates that it depens on electrode structure, energy of radio-frequency electrode gas component, pressure ,flowing speed and substrate temperature by CVD depositing film .During depositing waveguide film by PE-CVD, the silicon is not reacted, When temperature becomes lower,it is reacted and it is easy to realize the control of film thickness and time with a result of film thickness uniformity reaching about 4% after optimizing deposition parameter and condition. We get the result of high etching speed rate, outline zoom, and side frame smooth by photoresist/Cr multiple mask and optimizing etching technics.

  6. FIBER AND INTEGRATED OPTICS: Bandgap modes in a coupled waveguide array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usievich, B. A.; Nurligareev, D. Kh; Svetikov, V. V.; Sychugov, V. A.

    2009-08-01

    This work examines a waveguide array that consists of ten Nb2O5/SiO2 double layers and supports a 0.63-μm surface wave. The deposition of a Nb2O5 capping layer on top of the waveguide array enables a marked increase in the wave field intensity on its surface. The efficiency of surface-wave excitation in the Kretschmann configuration can be optimised by adjusting the number of double layers. We analyse the behaviour of the Bragg mode in relation to the thickness of the layer exposed to air and the transition of this mode from the second allowed band to the first through the bandgap of the system. In addition, the conventional leaky mode converts to a surface mode and then to a guided mode.

  7. Blending of phased array data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duijster, Arno; van Groenestijn, Gert-Jan; van Neer, Paul; Blacquière, Gerrit; Volker, Arno

    2018-04-01

    The use of phased arrays is growing in the non-destructive testing industry and the trend is towards large 2D arrays, but due to limitations, it is currently not possible to record the signals from all elements, resulting in aliased data. In the past, we have presented a data interpolation scheme `beyond spatial aliasing' to overcome this aliasing. In this paper, we present a different approach: blending and deblending of data. On the hardware side, groups of receivers are blended (grouped) in only a few transmit/recording channels. This allows for transmission and recording with all elements, in a shorter acquisition time and with less channels. On the data processing side, this blended data is deblended (separated) by transforming it to a different domain and applying an iterative filtering and thresholding. Two different filtering methods are compared: f-k filtering and wavefield extrapolation filtering. The deblending and filtering methods are demonstrated on simulated experimental data. The wavefield extrapolation filtering proves to outperform f-k filtering. The wavefield extrapolation method can deal with groups of up to 24 receivers, in a phased array of 48 × 48 elements.

  8. Quantum correlation of path-entangled two-photon states in waveguide arrays with defects

    SciTech Connect

    Dou, Yiling; Xu, Lei; Han, Bin

    We study the quantum correlation of path-entangled states of two photons in coupled one-dimensional waveguide arrays with lattice defects. Both off-diagonal and diagonal defects are considered, which show different effects on the quantum correlation of path-entangled two-photon states. Two-photon bunching or anti-bunching effects can be observed and controlled. The two photons are found to have a tendency to bunch at the side lobes with a repulsive off-diagonal defect, and the path-entanglement of the input two-photon state can be preserved during the propagation. We also found that defect modes may play an important role on the two-photon correlation of path-entangled statesmore » in the waveguide arrays. Due to the quantum interference effect, intriguing evolution dynamics of the two-photon correlation matrix elements with oscillation frequencies being either twice of or the same as that of a classical light wave, depending on the position of the correlation matrix element, is observed. Our results show that it is possible to manipulate the two-photon correlation properties of path-entangled states in waveguide arrays with lattice defects.« less

  9. Adaptive ground implemented phase array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearing, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The simulation of an adaptive ground implemented phased array of five antenna elements is reported for a very high frequency system design that is tolerant to the radio frequency interference environment encountered by a tracking data relay satellite. Signals originating from satellites are received by the VHF ring array and both horizontal and vertical polarizations from each of the five elements are multiplexed and transmitted down to ground station. A panel on the transmitting end of the simulation chamber contains up to 10 S-band RFI sources along with the desired signal to simulate the dynamic relationship between user and TDRS. The 10 input channels are summed, and desired and interference signals are separated and corrected until the resultant sum signal-to-interference ratio is maximized. Testing performed with this simulation equipment demonstrates good correlation between predicted and actual results.

  10. Geometrical optimization of the transmission and dispersion properties of arrayed waveguide gratings using two stigmatic point mountings.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, P; Pastor, D; Capmany, J; Martínez, A

    2003-09-22

    In this paper, the procedure to optimize flat-top Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG) devices in terms of transmission and dispersion properties is presented. The systematic procedure consists on the stigmatization and minimization of the Light Path Function (LPF) used in classic planar spectrograph theory. The resulting geometry arrangement for the Arrayed Waveguides (AW) and the Output Waveguides (OW) is not the classical Rowland mounting, but an arbitrary geometry arrangement. Simulation using previous published enhanced modeling show how this geometry reduces the passband ripple, asymmetry and dispersion, in a design example.

  11. Enhanced Electro-Optic Phase Shifts in Suspended Waveguides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-18

    section,” J. Lightwave. Technol. (16), 1851–1853 (1998). 9. T . Ikegami , “Reflectivity of mode at facet and oscillation mode in double-heterostructure...Enhanced Electro-Optic Phase Shifts in Suspended Waveguides T . H. Stievater,1 D. Park,1 W. S. Rabinovich,1 M. W. Pruessner,1, S. Kanakaraju,2 C. J. K... T . H. Stievater, W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, and S. C. Binari, “A Surface-Normal Coupled- Quantum-Well Modulator at 1.55 Microns,” IEEE

  12. Array of Laminated Waveguides for Implementation in LTCC Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    Novembre 2004, pp 581-589. [ 13 ] Clénet, M., “Study of a Ka-Band Yagi-like antenna array buried in LTCC material”, JINA, 12-14 November 2002, Nice...public release, distribution unlimited 13 . SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The original document contains color images. 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16...2.3.1 Excitation coefficients ....................................................................... 13 2.3.2 Boresight radiation patterns

  13. Imaging phased telescope array study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, James E.

    1989-01-01

    The problems encountered in obtaining a wide field-of-view with large, space-based direct imaging phased telescope arrays were considered. After defining some of the critical systems issues, previous relevant work in the literature was reviewed and summarized. An extensive list was made of potential error sources and the error sources were categorized in the form of an error budget tree including optical design errors, optical fabrication errors, assembly and alignment errors, and environmental errors. After choosing a top level image quality requirment as a goal, a preliminary tops-down error budget allocation was performed; then, based upon engineering experience, detailed analysis, or data from the literature, a bottoms-up error budget reallocation was performed in an attempt to achieve an equitable distribution of difficulty in satisfying the various allocations. This exercise provided a realistic allocation for residual off-axis optical design errors in the presence of state-of-the-art optical fabrication and alignment errors. Three different computational techniques were developed for computing the image degradation of phased telescope arrays due to aberrations of the individual telescopes. Parametric studies and sensitivity analyses were then performed for a variety of subaperture configurations and telescope design parameters in an attempt to determine how the off-axis performance of a phased telescope array varies as the telescopes are scaled up in size. The Air Force Weapons Laboratory (AFWL) multipurpose telescope testbed (MMTT) configuration was analyzed in detail with regard to image degradation due to field curvature and distortion of the individual telescopes as they are scaled up in size.

  14. Optical beam forming techniques for phased array antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Te-Kao; Chandler, C.

    1993-01-01

    Conventional phased array antennas using waveguide or coax for signal distribution are impractical for large scale implementation on satellites or spacecraft because they exhibit prohibitively large system size, heavy weight, high attenuation loss, limited bandwidth, sensitivity to electromagnetic interference (EMI) temperature drifts and phase instability. However, optical beam forming systems are smaller, lighter, and more flexible. Three optical beam forming techniques are identified as applicable to large spaceborne phased array antennas. They are (1) the optical fiber replacement of conventional RF phased array distribution and control components, (2) spatial beam forming, and (3) optical beam splitting with integrated quasi-optical components. The optical fiber replacement and the spatial beam forming approaches were pursued by many organizations. Two new optical beam forming architectures are presented. Both architectures involve monolithic integration of the antenna radiating elements with quasi-optical grid detector arrays. The advantages of the grid detector array in the optical process are the higher power handling capability and the dynamic range. One architecture involves a modified version of the original spatial beam forming approach. The basic difference is the spatial light modulator (SLM) device for controlling the aperture field distribution. The original liquid crystal light valve SLM is replaced by an optical shuffling SLM, which was demonstrated for the 'smart pixel' technology. The advantages are the capability of generating the agile beams of a phased array antenna and to provide simultaneous transmit and receive functions. The second architecture considered is the optical beam splitting approach. This architecture involves an alternative amplitude control for each antenna element with an optical beam power divider comprised of mirrors and beam splitters. It also implements the quasi-optical grid phase shifter for phase control and grid

  15. Harmonic Bloch and dipole oscillations and their transition in elliptical optical waveguide arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Yun San; Zheng, Ming Jie; Yu, Kin Wah

    2011-03-01

    We have studied harmonic oscillations in an elliptical optical waveguide array in which the couplings between neighboring waveguides are varied in accord with a Kac matrix so that the propagation constant eigenvalues can take equally spaced values. As a result, the long-living optical Bloch oscillation (BO) and dipole oscillation (DO) are obtained. Moreover, when a linear gradient in the propagation constant is applied, we achieve a switching from DO to BO and vice versa by ramping up or down the gradient profile]. The various optical oscillations as well as their switching are investigated by field evolution analysis and confirmed by Hamiltonian optics. The equally spaced eigenvalues in the propagation constant allow viable applications in transmitting images, switching and routing of optical signals. Work supported by the General Research Fund of the Hong Kong SAR Government.

  16. Phase-shifter using submicron silicon waveguide couplers with ultra-small electro-mechanical actuator.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Taro; Takahashi, Kazunori; Kanamori, Yoshiaki; Hane, Kazuhiro

    2010-03-29

    Phase shifter is an important part of optical waveguide circuits as used in interferometer. However, it is not always easy to generate a large phase shift in a small region. Here, a variable phase-shifter operating as delay-line of silicon waveguide was designed and fabricated by silicon micromachining. The proposed phase-shifter consists of a freestanding submicron-wide silicon waveguide with two waveguide couplers and an ultrasmall silicon comb-drive actuator. The position of the freestanding waveguide is moved by the actuator to vary the total optical path. Phase-shift was measured in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer to be 3.0pi at the displacement of 1.0 mum at the voltage of 31 V. The dimension of the fabricated device is 50microm wide and 85microm long.

  17. Delamination Detection Using Guided Wave Phased Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tian, Zhenhua; Yu, Lingyu; Leckey, Cara

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a method for detecting multiple delaminations in composite laminates using non-contact phased arrays. The phased arrays are implemented with a non-contact scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV). The array imaging algorithm is performed in the frequency domain where both the guided wave dispersion effect and direction dependent wave properties are considered. By using the non-contact SLDV array with a frequency domain imaging algorithm, an intensity image of the composite plate can be generated for delamination detection. For the proof of concept, a laboratory test is performed using a non-contact phased array to detect two delaminations (created through quasi-static impact test) at different locations in a composite plate. Using the non-contact phased array and frequency domain imaging, the two impact-induced delaminations are successfully detected. This study shows that the non-contact phased array method is a potentially effective method for rapid delamination inspection in large composite structures.

  18. THz wavefront manipulation based on metal waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Mengru; Lang, Tingting; Shen, Changyu; Shi, Guohua; Han, Zhanghua

    2018-07-01

    In this paper, two waveguiding structures for arbitrary wavefront manipulation in the terahertz spectral region were proposed, designed and characterized. The first structure consists of parallel stack copper plates forming an array of parallel-plate waveguides (PPWGs). The second structure is three-dimensional metal rectangular waveguides array. The phase delay of the input wave after passing through the waveguide array is mainly determined by the effective index of the waveguides. Therefore, the waveguide array can be engineered using different core width distribution to generate any desired light beam. Examples, working at the frequency of 0.3 THz show that good focusing phenomenon with different focus lengths and spot sizes were observed, as well as arbitrarily tilted propagation of incident plane waves. The structure introduces a new method to perform wavefront manipulation, and can be utilized in many important applications in terahertz imaging and communication systems.

  19. All-optical LAN architectures based on arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woesner, Hagen

    1998-10-01

    The paper presents optical LAN topologies which are made possible using an Arrayed Waveguide Grating Multiplexer (AWGM) instead of a passive star coupler to interconnect stations in an all-optical LAN. Due to the collision-free nature of an AWGM it offers the n-fold bandwidth compared to the star coupler. Virtual ring topologies appear (one ring on each wavelength) if the number of stations attached to the AWGM is a prime number. A method to construct larger networks using Cayley graphs is shown. An access protocol to avoid collisions on the proposed network is outlined.

  20. Phased Array Theory and Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    Generalized Array Coordinates 2. Linear, Planar and Circular Art -ays 3. Periodic fwo Dimensional ^rras 4. Grating Lobe Lattices 5. 1’llenienl...formal and low profile antennas, antennas for limited sector coverage, and wide- band array feeds. To aid designers, there is an attempt to give ...ol Vol. 2, Elliott gives convenient formulas lor the directivity of Imear dipole arrays, and derives an especially simple form tor arrays

  1. FIBER AND INTEGRATED OPTICS: Nonlinearity of a channel-waveguide phase modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parygin, V. N.; Zhmakin, I. N.; Baglikov, V. B.

    1993-09-01

    The phase velocity of light in a channel waveguide using a LiNbO3 crystal is analyzed as a function of the voltage applied to the crystal. A refinement of the method of an effective refractive index is proposed. This refinement makes it possible to use the method near the cutoff for a waveguide mode. At voltages on the order of 10 V, the nonlinearity of the phase characteristic amounts to ~ 5 · 10- 4 of the linear phase shift.

  2. CWG - MUTUAL COUPLING PROGRAM FOR CIRCULAR WAVEGUIDE-FED APERTURE ARRAY (IBM PC VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, M. C.

    1994-01-01

    Mutual Coupling Program for Circular Waveguide-fed Aperture Array (CWG) was developed to calculate the electromagnetic interaction between elements of an antenna array of circular apertures with specified aperture field distributions. The field distributions were assumed to be a superposition of the modes which could exist in a circular waveguide. Various external media were included to provide flexibility of use, for example, the flexibility to determine the effects of dielectric covers (i.e., thermal protection system tiles) upon the impedance of aperture type antennas. The impedance and radiation characteristics of planar array antennas depend upon the mutual interaction between all the elements of the array. These interactions are influenced by several parameters (e.g., the array grid geometry, the geometry and excitation of each array element, the medium outside the array, and the internal network feeding the array.) For the class of array antenna whose radiating elements consist of small holes in a flat conducting plate, the electromagnetic problem can be divided into two parts, the internal and the external. In solving the external problem for an array of circular apertures, CWG will compute the mutual interaction between various combinations of circular modal distributions and apertures. CWG computes the mutual coupling between various modes assumed to exist in circular apertures that are located in a flat conducting plane of infinite dimensions. The apertures can radiate into free space, a homogeneous medium, a multilayered region or a reflecting surface. These apertures are assumed to be excited by one or more modes corresponding to the modal distributions in circular waveguides of the same cross sections as the apertures. The apertures may be of different sizes and also of different polarizations. However, the program assumes that each aperture field contains the same modal distributions, and calculates the complex scattering matrix between all mode and

  3. CWG - MUTUAL COUPLING PROGRAM FOR CIRCULAR WAVEGUIDE-FED APERTURE ARRAY (VAX VMS VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, M. C.

    1994-01-01

    Mutual Coupling Program for Circular Waveguide-fed Aperture Array (CWG) was developed to calculate the electromagnetic interaction between elements of an antenna array of circular apertures with specified aperture field distributions. The field distributions were assumed to be a superposition of the modes which could exist in a circular waveguide. Various external media were included to provide flexibility of use, for example, the flexibility to determine the effects of dielectric covers (i.e., thermal protection system tiles) upon the impedance of aperture type antennas. The impedance and radiation characteristics of planar array antennas depend upon the mutual interaction between all the elements of the array. These interactions are influenced by several parameters (e.g., the array grid geometry, the geometry and excitation of each array element, the medium outside the array, and the internal network feeding the array.) For the class of array antenna whose radiating elements consist of small holes in a flat conducting plate, the electromagnetic problem can be divided into two parts, the internal and the external. In solving the external problem for an array of circular apertures, CWG will compute the mutual interaction between various combinations of circular modal distributions and apertures. CWG computes the mutual coupling between various modes assumed to exist in circular apertures that are located in a flat conducting plane of infinite dimensions. The apertures can radiate into free space, a homogeneous medium, a multilayered region or a reflecting surface. These apertures are assumed to be excited by one or more modes corresponding to the modal distributions in circular waveguides of the same cross sections as the apertures. The apertures may be of different sizes and also of different polarizations. However, the program assumes that each aperture field contains the same modal distributions, and calculates the complex scattering matrix between all mode and

  4. Low threshold all-optical crossbar switch on GaAs-GaAlAs channel waveguide arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Kostrzewski, Andrew

    1994-09-01

    During the Phase 2 project entitled 'Low Threshold All-Optical Crossbar Switch on GaAs - GaAlAs Channel Waveguide Array,' Physical Optics Corporation (POC) developed the basic principles for the fabrication of all-optical crossbar switches. Based on this development. POC fabricated a 2 x 2 GaAs/GaAlAs switch that changes the direction of incident light with minimum insertion loss and nonlinear distortion. This unique technology can be used in both analog and digital networks. The applications of this technology are widespread. Because the all-optical network does not have any speed limitations (RC time constant), POC's approach will be beneficial to SONET networks, phased array radar networks, very high speed oscilloscopes, all-optical networks, IR countermeasure systems, BER equipment, and the fast growing video conferencing network market. The novel all-optical crossbar switch developed in this program will solve interconnect problems. and will be a key component in the widely proposed all-optical 200 Gb/s SONET/ATM networks.

  5. From Vision to Reality: 50 Years of Phased Array Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-30

    This paper cites the most prominent U.S.-deployed phased array radars as viewed by one phased-array radar advocate. Key words: radar, antenna array...phased array, phased array radar, radar antennas , array I. INTRODUCTION I welcome the opportunity to talk with today’s phased array engineers and...their test site in Fullerton, CA in the mid-1960s and was impressed by the size of the antennas . Eight apertures were deployed on each ship to

  6. Nonlinear defect localized modes and composite gray and anti-gray solitons in one-dimensional waveguide arrays with dual-flip defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan; Guan, Yefeng; Li, Hai; Luo, Zhihuan; Mai, Zhijie

    2017-08-01

    We study families of stationary nonlinear localized modes and composite gray and anti-gray solitons in a one-dimensional linear waveguide array with dual phase-flip nonlinear point defects. Unstaggered fundamental and dipole bright modes are studied when the defect nonlinearity is self-focusing. For the fundamental modes, symmetric and asymmetric nonlinear modes are found. Their stable areas are studied using different defect coefficients and their total power. For the nonlinear dipole modes, the stability conditions of this type of mode are also identified by different defect coefficients and the total power. When the defect nonlinearity is replaced by the self-defocusing one, staggered fundamental and dipole bright modes are created. Finally, if we replace the linear waveguide with a full nonlinear waveguide, a new type of gray and anti-gray solitons, which are constructed by a kink and anti-kink pair, can be supported by such dual phase-flip defects. In contrast to the usual gray and anti-gray solitons formed by a single kink, their backgrounds on either side of the gray hole or bright hump have the same phase.

  7. Multidimensional microstructured photonic device based on all-solid waveguide array fiber and magnetic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Yinping; Ma, Xixi; He, Yong; Zhang, Hongmin; Yang, Xiaoping; Yao, Jianquan

    2017-01-01

    An all-solid waveguide array fiber (WAF) is one kind of special microstructured optical fiber in which the higher-index rods are periodically distributed in a low-index silica host to form the transverse two-dimensional photonic crystal. In this paper, one kind of multidimensional microstructured optical fiber photonic device is proposed by using electric arc discharge method to fabricate periodic tapers along the fiber axis. By tuning the applied magnetic field intensity, the propagation characteristics of the all-solid WAF integrated with magnetic fluid are periodically modulated in both radial and axial directions. Experimental results show that the wavelength changes little while the transmission loss increases for an applied magnetic field intensity range from 0 to 500 Oe. The magnetic field sensitivity is 0.055 dB/Oe within the linear range from 50 to 300 Oe. Meanwhile, the all-solid WAF has very similar thermal expansion coefficient for both high- and low-refractive index glasses, and thermal drifts have a little effect on the mode profile. The results show that the temperature-induced transmission loss is <0.3 dB from 26°C to 44°C. Further tuning coherent coupling of waveguides and controlling light propagation, the all-solid WAF would be found great potential applications to develop new micro-nano photonic devices for optical communications and optical sensing applications.

  8. Monolithic integration of an InP-based 4 × 25 GHz photodiode array to an O-band arrayed waveguide grating demultiplexer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Han; Han, Qin; Lv, Qianqian; Pan, Pan; An, Junming; Yang, Xiaohong

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrate the monolithic integration of a uni-traveling carrier photodiode array with a 4 channel, O-band arrayed waveguide grating demultiplexer on the InP platform by the selective area growth technique. An extended coupling layer at the butt-joint is adopted to ensure both good fabrication compatibility and high photodiode quantum efficiency of 77%. The fabricated integrated chip exhibits a uniform bandwidth over 25 GHz for each channel and a crosstalk below -22 dB.

  9. Phased-array radar for airborne systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahim, Raghbir S.; Foshee, James J.; Chang, Kai

    2003-09-01

    Phased array antenna systems, which support high pulse rates and high transmit power, are well suited for radar and large-scale surveillance. Sensors and communication systems can function as the eyes and ears for ballistic missile defense applications, providing early warning of attack, target detection and identification, target tracking, and countermeasure decision. In such applications, active array radar systems that contain solid-state transmitter sources and low-noise preamplifiers for transmission and reception are preferred over the conventional radar antennas, because the phased array radar offers the advantages of power management and efficiency, reliability, signal reception, beam steering target detection. The current phased array radar designs are very large, complex and expensive and less efficient because of high RF losses in the phase control circuits used for beam scan. Several thousands of phase shifters and drivers may be required for a single system thus making the system very complex and expensive. This paper describes the phased array radar system based on high power T/R modules, wide-band radiating planar antenna elements and very low loss wide-band phase control circuits (requiring reduced power levels) for beam scan. The phase shifter design is based on micro-strip feed lines perturbed by the proximity of voltage controlled piezoelectric transducer (PET). Measured results have shown an added insertion loss of less than 1 dB for a phase shift of 450 degrees from 2 to 20 GHz. The new wideband phased array radar design provides significant reduction in size cost and weight. Compared to the conventional phased array systems, the cost saving is more than 15 to 1.

  10. Ultrasonic phased array controller for hyperthermia applications.

    PubMed

    Benkeser, P J; Pao, T L; Yoon, Y J

    1991-01-01

    Multiple and mechanically scanned ultrasound transducer systems have demonstrated the efficacy of using ultrasound to produce deep localized hyperthermia. The use of ultrasonic phased arrays has been proposed as an alternative to these systems. A phased array offers a more flexible approach to heating tumours in that the size, shape, and position of its focal region can be altered during the course of treatment in order to achieve the desired temperature distribution. This added flexibility comes at the cost of increased complexity of the hardware necessary to drive the transducer because each element requires its own amplifer with both phase and amplitude control. In order for phased arrays with large numbers of elements to be feasible for hyperthermia applications, the complexity of this circuitry must be minimized. This paper describes a circuit design which simplifies the electronics required to control a phased array transducer system for hyperthermia applications. The design is capable of controlling virtually any type of phased array transducer operating at frequencies less than 2 MHz. The system performance was verified through beam profile measurements using a 48-element tapered phased array transducer.

  11. Intracavitary ultrasound phased arrays for thermal therapies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, Erin

    Currently, the success of hyperthermia and thermal surgery treatments is limited by the technology used in the design and fabrication of clinical heating devices and the completeness of the thermometry systems used for guidance. For both hyperthermia and thermal surgery, electrically focused ultrasound generated by phased arrays provides a means of controlling localized energy deposition in body tissues. Intracavitary applicators can be used to bring the energy source close to a target volume, such as the prostate, thereby minimizing normal tissue damage. The work performed in this study was aimed at improving noninvasive prostate thermal therapies and utilized three research approaches: (1) Acoustic, thermal and optimization simulations, (2) Design and fabrication of multiple phased arrays, (3) Ex vivo and in vivo experimental testing of the heating capabilities of the phased arrays. As part of this study, a novel aperiodic phased array design was developed which resulted in a 30- 45% reduction in grating lobe levels when compared to conventional phased arrays. Measured acoustic fields generated by the constructed aperiodic arrays agreed closely with the fields predicted by the theoretical simulations and covered anatomically appropriate ranges. The power capabilities of these arrays were demonstrated to be sufficient for the purposes of hyperthermia and thermal surgery. The advantage of using phased arrays in place of fixed focus transducers was shown by demonstrating the ability of electronic scanning to increase the size of the necrosed tissue volume while providing a more uniform thermal dose, which can ultimately reduce patient treatment times. A theoretical study on the feasibility of MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) thermometry for noninvasive temperature feedback control was investigated as a means to improve transient and steady state temperature distributions achieved in hyperthermia treatments. MRI guided ex vivo and in vivo experiments demonstrated

  12. Full-mesh T- and O-band wavelength router based on arrayed waveguide gratings.

    PubMed

    Idris, Nazirul A; Yoshizawa, Katsumi; Tomomatsu, Yasunori; Sudo, Makoto; Hajikano, Tadashi; Kubo, Ryogo; Zervas, Georgios; Tsuda, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-11

    We propose an ultra-broadband full-mesh wavelength router supporting the T- and O-bands using 3 stages of cascaded arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs). The router architecture is based on a combination of waveband and channel routing by coarse and fine AWGs, respectively. We fabricated several T-band-specific silica-based AWGs and quantum dot semiconductor optical ampliers as part of the router, and demonstrated 10 Gbps data transmission for several wavelengths throughout a range of 7.4 THz. The power penalties were below 1 dB. Wavelength routing was also demonstrated, where tuning time within a 9.4-nm-wide waveband was below 400 ms.

  13. Suppression of Higher Order Modes in an Array of Cavities Using Waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shashkov, Ya. V.; Sobenin, N. P.; Bazyl, D. S.; Kaminskiy, V. I.; Mitrofanov, A. A.; Zobov, M. M.

    An application of additional harmonic cavities operating at multiplies of the main RF system frequency of 400 MHz is currently under discussionin the framework of the High Luminosity LHC upgrade program [1,2]. A structure consisting of two 800 MHz single cell superconducting cavities with grooved beam pipes coupled by drift tubes has been suggested for implementation. However, it is desirable to increase the number of single cells installed in one cryomodule in order to decrease the number of transitions between "warm" and "cold" parts of the collider vacuum chamber. Unfortunately, it can lead to the appearance of higher order modes (HOM) trapped between the cavities. In order to solve this problem the methods of HOM damping with rectangular waveguides connected to the drift tubes were investigated and compared. We describe the results obtained for arrays of 2, 4 and 8 cavitiesin this paper.

  14. Phased-array-fed antenna configuration study, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorbello, R. M.; Zaghloul, A. I.; Lee, B. S.; Siddiqi, S.; Geller, B. D.

    1983-01-01

    Increased capacity in future satellite systems can be achieved through antenna systems which provide multiplicity of frequency reuses at K sub a band. A number of antenna configurations which can provide multiple fixed spot beams and multiple independent spot scanning beams at 20 GHz are addressed. Each design incorporates a phased array with distributed MMIC amplifiers and phasesifters feeding a two reflector optical system. The tradeoffs required for the design of these systems and the corresponding performances are presented. Five final designs are studied. In so doing, a type of MMIC/waveguide transition is described, and measured results of the breadboard model are presented. Other hardware components developed are described. This includes a square orthomode transducer, a subarray fed with a beamforming network to measure scanning performance, and another subarray used to study mutual coupling considerations. Discussions of the advantages and disadvantages of the final design are included.

  15. Optically controlled phased-array antenna technology for space communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunath, Richard R.; Bhasin, Kul B.

    1988-01-01

    Using MMICs in phased-array applications above 20 GHz requires complex RF and control signal distribution systems. Conventional waveguide, coaxial cable, and microstrip methods are undesirable due to their high weight, high loss, limited mechanical flexibility and large volume. An attractive alternative to these transmission media, for RF and control signal distribution in MMIC phased-array antennas, is optical fiber. Presented are potential system architectures and their associated characteristics. The status of high frequency opto-electronic components needed to realize the potential system architectures is also discussed. It is concluded that an optical fiber network will reduce weight and complexity, and increase reliability and performance, but may require higher power.

  16. Light-propagation management in coupled waveguide arrays: Quantitative experimental and theoretical assessment from band structures to functional patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moison, Jean-Marie; Belabas, Nadia; Levenson, Juan Ariel; Minot, Christophe

    2012-09-01

    We assess the band structure of arrays of coupled optical waveguides both by ab initio calculations and by experiments, with an excellent quantitative agreement without any adjustable physical parameter. The band structures we obtain can deviate strongly from the expectations of the standard coupled mode theory approximation, but we describe them efficiently by a few parameters within an extended coupled mode theory. We also demonstrate that this description is in turn a firm and simple basis for accurate beam management in functional patterns of coupled waveguides, in full accordance with their design.

  17. High frequency GaAlAs modulator and photodetector for phased array antenna applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claspy, P. C.; Chorey, C. M.; Hill, S. M.; Bhasin, K. B.

    1988-01-01

    A waveguide Mach-Zehnder electro-optic modulator and an interdigitated photoconductive detector designed to operate at 820 nm, fabricated on different GaAlAs/GaAs heterostructure materials, are being investigated for use in optical interconnects in phased array antenna systems. Measured optical attenuation effects in the modulator are discussed and the observed modulation performance up to 1 GHz is presented. Measurements of detector frequency response are described and results presented.

  18. Automated Array Assembly, Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daiello, R. V.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of the overall program is to establish technological readiness and provide verification for the elements of a manufacturing sequence which would ultimately be suitable for the large-scale production of silicon solar-array modules at a selling price of less than $500/kW. A program and process plan for accomplishing this objective was developed and put into operation. Three junction-formation processes are shown; since cost analysis shows that they do not differ greatly in cost, each should be considered for technical merits and possible future cost reduction. The progress made in the various process steps of the plan is described, and conclusions are presented.

  19. Two-dimensional free-space beam steering with an optical phased array on silicon-on-insulator.

    PubMed

    Doylend, J K; Heck, M J R; Bovington, J T; Peters, J D; Coldren, L A; Bowers, J E

    2011-10-24

    We demonstrate a 16-channel, independently tuned waveguide surface grating optical phased array in silicon for two dimensional beam steering with a total field of view of 20° x 14°, beam width of 0.6° x 1.6°, and full-window background peak suppression of 10 dB. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  20. Array Phase Shifters: Theory and Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    While there are a myriad of applications for microwave phase shifters in instrumentation and metrology, power combining, amplifier linearization, and so on, the most prevalent use is in scanning phased-array antennas. And while this market continues to be dominated by military radar and tracking platforms, many commercial applications have emerged in the past decade or so. These new and potential applications span low-Earth-orbit (LEO) communications satellite constellations and collision warning radar, an aspect of the Intelligent Vehicle Highway System or Automated Highway System. In any case, the phase shifters represent a considerable portion of the overall antenna cost, with some estimates approaching 40 percent for receive arrays. Ferrite phase shifters continue to be the workhorse in military-phased arrays, and while there have been advances in thin film ferrite devices, the review of this device technology in the previous edition of this book is still highly relevant. This chapter will focus on three types of phase shifters that have matured in the past decade: GaAs MESFET monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC), micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), and thin film ferroelectric-based devices. A brief review of some novel devices including thin film ferrite phase shifters and superconducting switches for phase shifter applications will be provided. Finally, the effects of modulo 2 phase shift limitations, phase errors, and transient response on bit error rate degradation will be considered.

  1. Brazilian Decimetric Array (BDA) project - Phase II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, C.; Stephany, S.; Sawant, H. S.; Cecatto, J. R.; Fernandes, F. C. R.

    2010-02-01

    The configuration of the second phase of the Brazilian Decimetric Array (BDA), installed at Cachoeira Paulista, Brazil (Longitude 45° 0‧ 20″ W and Latitude 22° 41‧ 19″ S), is a T-shaped array where 21 antennas are being added to existing 5 antennas of the first phase. In the third phase, in each arm of the T array, four more antennas will be added and baselines will be increased to 2.5 × 1.25 km in east-west and south directions, respectively. The antennas will be equally spaced at the distances of 250 meters from the central antenna of the T-array. Also, the frequency range will be increased to 1.2-1.7, 2.8 and 5.6 GHz. The Second phase of the BDA should be operational by the middle of 2010 and will operate in the frequency range of (1.2-1.7) GHz for solar and non solar observations. Here, we present the characteristics of the second phase of the BDA project, details of the array configuration, the u-v coverage, the synthesized beam obtained for the proposed configuration.

  2. MWP phase shifters integrated in PbS-SU8 waveguides.

    PubMed

    Hervás, Javier; Suárez, Isaac; Pérez, Joaquín; Cantó, Pedro J Rodríguez; Abargues, Rafael; Martínez-Pastor, Juan P; Sales, Salvador; Capmany, José

    2015-06-01

    We present new kind of microwave phase shifters (MPS) based on dispersion of PbS colloidal quantum dots (QDs) in commercially available photoresist SU8 after a ligand exchange process. Ridge PbS-SU8 waveguides are implemented by integration of the nanocomposite in a silicon platform. When these waveguides are pumped at wavelengths below the band-gap of the PbS QDs, a phase shift in an optically conveyed (at 1550 nm) microwave signal is produced. The strong light confinement produced in the ridge waveguides allows an improvement of the phase shift as compared to the case of planar structures. Moreover, a novel ridge bilayer waveguide composed by a PbS-SU8 nanocomposite and a SU8 passive layer is proposed to decrease the propagation losses of the pump beam and in consequence to improve the microwave phase shift up to 36.5° at 25 GHz. Experimental results are reproduced by a theoretical model based on the slow light effect produced in a semiconductor waveguide due to the coherent population oscillations. The resulting device shows potential benefits respect to the current MPS technologies since it allows a fast tunability of the phase shift and a high level of integration due to its small size.

  3. Towards an integrated AlGaAs waveguide platform for phase and polarisation shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltese, G.; Halioua, Y.; Lemaître, A.; Gomez-Carbonell, C.; Karimi, E.; Banzer, P.; Ducci, S.

    2018-05-01

    We propose, design and fabricate an on-chip AlGaAs waveguide capable of generating a controlled phase delay of π/2 between the guided transverse electric and magnetic modes. These modes possess significantly strong longitudinal field components as a direct consequence of their strong lateral confinement in the waveguide. We demonstrate that the effect of the device on a linearly polarised input beam is the generation of a field, which is circularly polarised in its transverse components and carries a phase vortex in its longitudinal component. We believe that the discussed integrated platform enables the generation of light beams with tailored phase and polarisation distributions.

  4. MMIC Phased Array Demonstrations with ACTS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raquet, Charles A. (Compiler); Martzaklis, Konstantinos (Compiler); Zakrajsek, Robert J. (Compiler); Andro, Monty (Compiler); Turtle, John P.

    1996-01-01

    Over a one year period from May 1994 to May 1995, a number of demonstrations were conducted by the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) in which voice, data, and/or video links were established via NASA's advanced communications technology satellite (ACTS) between the ACTS link evaluation terminal (LET) in Cleveland, OH, and aeronautical and mobile or fixed Earth terminals having monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) phased array antenna systems. This paper describes four of these. In one, a duplex voice link between an aeronautical terminal on the LeRC Learjet and the ACTS was achieved. Two others demonstrated duplex voice (and in one case video as well) links between the ACTS and an Army vehicle. The fourth demonstrated a high data rate downlink from ACTS to a fixed terminal. Array antenna systems used in these demonstrations were developed by LeRC and featured LeRC and Air Force experimental arrays using gallium arsenide MMIC devices at each radiating element for electronic beam steering and distributed power amplification. The single 30 GHz transmit array was developed by NASA/LeRC and Texas Instruments. The three 20 GHz receive arrays were developed in a cooperative effort with the Air Force Rome Laboratory, taking advantage of existing Air Force array development contracts with Boeing and Lockheed Martin. The paper describes the four proof-of-concept arrays and the array control system. The system configured for each of the demonstrations is described, and results are discussed.

  5. Terahertz artificial material based on integrated metal-rod-array for phase sensitive fluid detection.

    PubMed

    You, Borwen; Chen, Ching-Yu; Yu, Chin-Ping; Liu, Tze-An; Hattori, Toshiaki; Lu, Ja-Yu

    2017-04-17

    A terahertz artificial material composed of metal rod array is experimentally investigated on its transmission spectral property and successfully incorporated into microfluidics as a miniaturized terahertz waveguide with an extended optical-path-length for label-free fluidic sensing. Theoretical and experimental characterizations of terahertz transmission spectra show that the wave guidance along the metal rod array originates from the resonance of transverse-electric-polarized waves within the metal rod slits. The extended optical path length along three layers of metal-rod-array enables terahertz waves sufficiently overlapping the fluid molecules embedded among the rods, leading to strongly enhanced phase change by approximately one order of magnitude compared with the blank metal-parallel-plate waveguide. Based on the enhanced phase sensitivity, three kinds of colorless liquid analytes, namely, acetone, methanol, and ethanol, with different dipole moments are identified in situ using the metal-rod-array-based microfluidic sensor. The detection limit in molecular amounts of a liquid analyte is experimentally demonstrated to be less than 0.1 mmol, corresponding to 2.7 μmol/mm2. The phase sensitive terahertz metal-rod-array-based sensor potentially has good adaptability in lab-chip technology for various practical applications, such as industrial toxic fluid detection and medical breath inspection.

  6. Automated Array Assembly, Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carbajal, B. G.

    1979-01-01

    The solar cell module process development activities in the areas of surface preparation are presented. The process step development was carried out on texture etching including the evolution of a conceptual process model for the texturing process; plasma etching; and diffusion studies that focused on doped polymer diffusion sources. Cell processing was carried out to test process steps and a simplified diode solar cell process was developed. Cell processing was also run to fabricate square cells to populate sample minimodules. Module fabrication featured the demonstration of a porcelainized steel glass structure that should exceed the 20 year life goal of the low cost silicon array program. High efficiency cell development was carried out in the development of the tandem junction cell and a modification of the TJC called the front surface field cell. Cell efficiencies in excess of 16 percent at AM1 have been attained with only modest fill factors. The transistor-like model was proposed that fits the cell performance and provides a guideline for future improvements in cell performance.

  7. Broadband acoustic phased array with subwavelength active tube array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Zhang-Zhao; Zhu, Yi-Fan; Zou, Xin-Ye; Cheng, Jian-Chun

    2018-02-01

    Acoustic metasurfaces provide a way to manipulate wavefronts at anomalous reflection or refraction angles through subwavelength structures. Here, based on the generalized Snell's refraction law for acoustic metasurfaces and the classical acoustic phased array (PA) theory, a broadband acoustic PA with a subwavelength active tube array has been proposed to form a special acoustic beam and to determine the directivity characteristics of the acoustic source. Theoretical analysis shows that the dispersionless wavefront manipulation can be realized by the gradient model of the active tube array, and a wide working frequency band can be obtained in practical applications from the simulated and experimental results. The numerical results of forming a special acoustic beam and establishing an acoustic focus model with an arbitrary focal position are consistent with the theoretical predictions. The experimental results agree well with the simulated results in the model of forming the acoustic beam of 45 ° . By combining acoustic metamaterials and conventional acoustic PA, the model of the active tube array paves a way to design a composite acoustic PA with high radiation efficiency and system robustness without the need for any complex circuit control system. This design concept is expected to be used in the design of ultrasonic therapy devices and high-efficiency transducers.

  8. Demonstration of Compact and Low-Loss Athermal Arrayed-Waveguide Grating Module Based on 2.5%-Δ Silica-Based Waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maru, Koichi; Abe, Yukio; Uetsuka, Hisato

    2008-10-01

    We demonstrated a compact and low-loss athermal arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) module utilizing silica-based planar lightwave circuit (PLC) technology. Spot-size converters based on a vertical ridge-waveguide taper were integrated with a 2.5%-Δ athermal AWG to reduce the loss at chip-to-fiber interface. Spot-size converters based on a segmented core were formed around resin-filled trenches for athermalization formed in the slab to reduce the diffraction loss at the trenches. A 16-channel athermal AWG module with 100-GHz channel spacing was fabricated. The use of a 2.5%-Δ athermal chip with a single-side fiber array enabled a compact package of the size of 41.6×16.6×4.5 mm3. Athermal characteristics and a small insertion loss of 3.5-3.8 dB were obtained by virtue of low fiber-to-chip coupling loss and athermalization with low excess loss.

  9. Supercontinuum generation in quadratic nonlinear waveguides without quasi-phase matching.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hairun; Zhou, Binbin; Steinert, Michael; Setzpfandt, Frank; Pertsch, Thomas; Chung, Hung-ping; Chen, Yen-Hung; Bache, Morten

    2015-02-15

    Supercontinuum generation (SCG) is most efficient when the solitons can be excited directly at the pump laser wavelength. Quadratic nonlinear waveguides may induce an effective negative Kerr nonlinearity, so temporal solitons can be directly generated in the normal (positive) dispersion regime overlapping with common ultrafast laser wavelengths. There is no need for waveguide dispersion engineering. Here, we experimentally demonstrate SCG in standard lithium niobate (LN) waveguides without quasi-phase matching (QPM), pumped with femtosecond pulses in the normal dispersion regime. The observed large bandwidths (even octave spanning), together with other experimental data, indicate that negative nonlinearity solitons are indeed excited, which is backed up by numerical simulations. The QPM-free design reduces production complexity, extends the maximum waveguide length, and limits undesired spectral resonances. Finally, nonlinear crystals can be used where QPM is inefficient or impossible, which is important for mid-IR SCG. QPM-free waveguides in mid-IR nonlinear crystals can support negative nonlinearity solitons, as these waveguides have a normal dispersion at the emission wavelengths of mid-IR ultrafast lasers.

  10. Phased Array Laser System (PALS).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-09

    6.2.1.6 Future Plans The planned expansion for MICROCODE includes adding further wave optical evaluation tools: OPD wavefront mapping, rms wavefront...BMCEN 1071.00 1 0.30 20810 NX 512 2 -0.10 3.35 -0.2 -0.3 -0.4 -8.5 PHASE WAVELENGHTS -0.6 -0.7 -0.8 -0.9 -1.0 O. -0.55 .0.39 -0.13 0.00 013 039 055...direction. Meanwhile, the pump boundary condition at the front of the cell and the Stokes bound- ary condition of growth from Stokes noise mainly from the

  11. Ka-Band Phased Array System Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, R.; Johnson, S.; Sands, O.; Lambert, K.

    2001-01-01

    Phased Array Antennas (PAAs) using patch-radiating elements are projected to transmit data at rates several orders of magnitude higher than currently offered with reflector-based systems. However, there are a number of potential sources of degradation in the Bit Error Rate (BER) performance of the communications link that are unique to PAA-based links. Short spacing of radiating elements can induce mutual coupling between radiating elements, long spacing can induce grating lobes, modulo 2 pi phase errors can add to Inter Symbol Interference (ISI), phase shifters and power divider network introduce losses into the system. This paper describes efforts underway to test and evaluate the effects of the performance degrading features of phased-array antennas when used in a high data rate modulation link. The tests and evaluations described here uncover the interaction between the electrical characteristics of a PAA and the BER performance of a communication link.

  12. Ultrasonic fingerprinting by phased array transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sednev, D.; Kataeva, O.; Abramets, V.; Pushenko, P.; Tverdokhlebova, T.

    2016-06-01

    Increasing quantity of spent nuclear fuel that must be under national and international control requires a novel approach to safeguard techniques and equipment. One of the proposed approaches is utilize intrinsic features of casks with spent fuel. In this article an application of a phased array ultrasonic method is considered. This study describes an experimental results on ultrasonic fingerprinting of austenitic steel seam weld.

  13. Waveguide resonance mode response of stacked structures of metallic sub-wavelength slit arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokuda, Yasunori; Takano, Keisuke; Sakaguchi, Koichiro; Kato, Kosaku; Nakajima, Makoto; Akiyama, Koichi

    2018-05-01

    Detailed measurements of the optical properties of two-tier systems composed of metallic plates perforated with periodic sub-wavelength slit patterns were carried out using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. We demonstrate that the transmission properties observed experimentally for various configurations can be reproduced successfully by simulations based on the finite-differential time-domain method. Fabry-Perot-like waveguide resonance mode behaviors specific to this quasi-dielectric system were then investigated. For structures with no lateral displacement between the slit-array plates, mode disappearance phenomena, which are caused by destructive interference between the odd-order mode and the blue- or red-shifted even-order modes, were observed experimentally. The uncommon behavior of the even-order modes was examined precisely to explain the slit-width dependence. For structures with half-pitched displacement between the plates, extraordinarily strong transmission was observed experimentally, even when the optical paths were shut off. This result was interpreted in terms of the propagation of surface plasmon polaritons through very thin and labyrinthine spacings that inevitably exist between the metallic plates. Furthermore, the optical mode disappearance phenomena are revealed to be characterized by anticrossing of the two mixing modes formed by even- and odd-order modes. These experimental observations that are supported theoretically are indispensable to the practical use of this type of artificial dielectric and are expected to encourage interest in optical mode behaviors that are not typically observed in conventional dielectric systems.

  14. Dirac equation in 2-dimensional curved spacetime, particle creation, and coupled waveguide arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Koke, Christian, E-mail: christian.koke@stud.uni-heidelberg.de; Noh, Changsuk, E-mail: changsuk@kias.re.kr; Angelakis, Dimitris G., E-mail: dimitris.angelakis@gmail.com

    When quantum fields are coupled to gravitational fields, spontaneous particle creation may occur similarly to when they are coupled to external electromagnetic fields. A gravitational field can be incorporated as a background spacetime if the back-action of matter on the field can be neglected, resulting in modifications of the Dirac or Klein–Gordon equations for elementary fermions and bosons respectively. The semi-classical description predicts particle creation in many situations, including the expanding-universe scenario, near the event horizon of a black hole (the Hawking effect), and an accelerating observer in flat spacetime (the Unruh effect). In this work, we give a pedagogicalmore » introduction to the Dirac equation in a general 2D spacetime and show examples of spinor wave packet dynamics in flat and curved background spacetimes. In particular, we cover the phenomenon of particle creation in a time-dependent metric. Photonic analogs of these effects are then proposed, where classical light propagating in an array of coupled waveguides provides a visualisation of the Dirac spinor propagating in a curved 2D spacetime background. The extent to which such a single-particle description can be said to mimic particle creation is discussed.« less

  15. High-aggregate-capacity visible light communication links using stacked multimode polymer waveguides and micro-pixelated LED arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamiedakis, N.; McKendry, J. J. D.; Xie, E.; Gu, E.; Dawson, M. D.; Penty, R. V.; White, I. H.

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, light emitting diodes (LEDs) have gained renewed interest for use in visible light communication links (VLC) owing to their potential use as both high-quality power-efficient illumination sources as well as low-cost optical transmitters in free-space and guided-wave links. Applications that can benefit from their use include optical wireless systems (LiFi and Internet of Things), in-home and automotive networks, optical USBs and short-reach low-cost optical interconnects. However, VLC links suffer from the limited LED bandwidth (typically 100 MHz). As a result, a combination of novel LED devices, advanced modulation formats and multiplexing methods are employed to overcome this limitation and achieve high-speed (>1 Gb/s) data transmission over such links. In this work, we present recent advances in the formation of high-aggregate-capacity low cost guided wave VLC links using stacked polymer multimode waveguides and matching micro-pixelated LED (μLED) arrays. μLEDs have been shown to exhibit larger bandwidths (>200 MHz) than conventional broad-area LEDs and can be formed in large array configurations, while multimode polymer waveguides enable the formation of low-cost optical links onto standard PCBs. Here, three- and four-layered stacks of multimode waveguides, as well as matching GaN μLED arrays, are fabricated in order to generate high-density yet low-cost optical interconnects. Different waveguide topologies are implemented and are investigated in terms of loss and crosstalk performance. The initial results presented herein demonstrate good intrinsic crosstalk performance and indicate the potential to achieve >= 0.5 Tb/s/mm2 aggregate interconnection capacity using this low-cost technology.

  16. Phased array performance evaluation with photoelastic visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Ginzel, Robert; Dao, Gavin

    2014-02-18

    New instrumentation and a widening range of phased array transducer options are affording the industry a greater potential. Visualization of the complex wave components using the photoelastic system can greatly enhance understanding of the generated signals. Diffraction, mode conversion and wave front interaction, together with beam forming for linear, sectorial and matrix arrays, will be viewed using the photoelastic system. Beam focus and steering performance will be shown with a range of embedded and surface targets within glass samples. This paper will present principles and sound field images using this visualization system.

  17. Phased array-fed antenna configuration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crosswell, W. F.; Ball, D. E.; Taylor, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    The scope of this contract entails a configuration study for a phased array fed transmit antenna operating in the frequency band of 17.7 to 20.2 GHz. This initial contract provides a basis for understanding the design limitations and advantages of advanced phased array and cluster feeds (both utilizing intergral MMIC modules) illuminating folded reflector optics (both near field and focused types). Design parametric analyses are performed utilizing as constraints the objective secondary performance requirements of the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (Table 1.0). The output of the study provides design information which serves as a data base for future active phased array fed antenna studies such as detailed designs required to support the development of a ground tested breadboard. In general, this study is significant because it provides the antenna community with an understanding of the basic principles which govern near field phased scanned feed effects on secondary reflector system performance. Although several articles have been written on analysis procedures and results for these systems, the authors of this report have observed phenomenon of near field antenna systems not previously documented. Because the physical justification for the exhibited performance is provided herein, the findings of this study add a new dimension to the available knowledge of the subject matter.

  18. Signature of phase singularities in diffusive regimes in disordered waveguide lattices: interplay and qualitative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Somnath

    2018-05-01

    Co-existence and interplay between mesoscopic light dynamics with singular optics in spatially random but temporally coherent disordered waveguide lattices is reported. Two CW light beams of 1.55 micron operating wavelength are launched as inputs to 1D waveguide lattices with controllable weak disorder in refractive index profile. Direct observation of phase singularities in the speckle pattern along the length is numerically demonstrated. Quantitative analysis of onset of such singular behavior and diffusive wave propagation is analyzed for the first time.

  19. Signature of phase singularities in diffusive regimes in disordered waveguide lattices: interplay and qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Somnath

    2018-05-10

    Coexistence and interplay between mesoscopic light dynamics with singular optics in spatially disordered waveguide lattices are reported. Two CW light beams of a 1.55 μm operating wavelength are launched as inputs to 1D waveguide lattices with controllable weak disorder in a complex refractive index profile. Direct observation of phase singularities in the speckle pattern along the length is numerically demonstrated. Quantitative analysis of the onset of such singular behavior and diffusive wave propagation is analyzed for the first time, to the best of our knowledge.

  20. 16-channel arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) demultiplexer design on SOI wafer for application in CWDM-PON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhari, Nurjuliana; Menon, P. Susthitha; Ehsan, Abang Annuar; Shaari, Sahbudin

    2015-01-01

    Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG) functioning as a demultiplexer is designed on SOI platform with rib waveguide structure to be utilized in coarse wavelength division multiplexing-passive optical network (CWDM-PON) systems. Two design approaches; conventional and tapered configuration of AWG was developed with channel spacing of 20 nm that covers the standard transmission spectrum of CWDM ranging from 1311 nm to 1611 nm. The performance of insertion loss for tapered configuration offered the lowest insertion loss of 0.77 dB but the adjacent crosstalk gave non-significant relation for both designs. With average channel spacing of 20.4 nm, the nominal central wavelength of this design is close to the standard CWDM wavelength grid over 484 nm free spectrum range (FSR).

  1. Ultra-wideband microwave absorber by connecting multiple absorption bands of two different-sized hyperbolic metamaterial waveguide arrays.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiang; Long, Chang; Li, Junhao; Zhu, Hua; Chen, Lin; Guan, Jianguo; Li, Xun

    2015-10-19

    Microwave absorbers have important applications in various areas including stealth, camouflage, and antenna. Here, we have designed an ultra-broadband light absorber by integrating two different-sized tapered hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) waveguides, each of which has wide but different absorption bands due to broadband slow-light response, into a unit cell. Both the numerical and experimental results demonstrate that in such a design strategy, the low absorption bands between high absorption bands with a single-sized tapered HMM waveguide array can be effectively eliminated, resulting in a largely expanded absorption bandwidth ranging from 2.3 to 40 GHz. The presented ultra-broadband light absorber is also insensitive to polarization and robust against incident angle. Our results offer a further step in developing practical artificial electromagnetic absorbers, which will impact a broad range of applications at microwave frequencies.

  2. A grating coupler with a trapezoidal hole array for perfectly vertical light coupling between optical fibers and waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizutani, Akio; Eto, Yohei; Kikuta, Hisao

    2017-12-01

    A grating coupler with a trapezoidal hole array was designed and fabricated for perfectly vertical light coupling between a single-mode optical fiber and a silicon waveguide on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate. The grating coupler with an efficiency of 53% was computationally designed at a 1.1-µm-thick buried oxide (BOX) layer. The grating coupler and silicon waveguide were fabricated on the SOI substrate with a 3.0-µm-thick BOX layer by a single full-etch process. The measured coupling efficiency was 24% for TE-polarized light at 1528 nm wavelength, which was 0.69 times of the calculated coupling efficiency for the 3.0-µm-thick BOX layer.

  3. Fabrication and demonstration of 1 × 8 silicon-silica multi-chip switch based on optical phased array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayose, Satomi; Hashizume, Yasuaki; Itoh, Mikitaka

    2016-08-01

    We experimentally demonstrated a 1 × 8 silicon-silica hybrid thermo-optic switch based on an optical phased array using a multi-chip integration technique. The switch consists of a silicon chip with optical phase shifters and two silica-based planar lightwave circuit (PLC) chips composed of optical couplers and fiber connections. We adopted a rib waveguide as the silicon waveguide to reduce the coupling loss and increase the alignment tolerance for coupling between silicon and silica waveguides. As a result, we achieved a fast switching response of 81 µs, a high extinction ratio of over 18 dB and a low insertion loss of 4.9-8.1 dB including a silicon-silica coupling loss of 0.5 ± 0.3 dB at a wavelength of 1.55 µm.

  4. Dynamic high pressure measurements using a Fiber Bragg Grating probe and an arrayed waveguide grating spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbarin, Y.; Lefrançois, A.; Magne, S.; Woirin, K.; Sinatti, F.; Osmont, A.; Luc, J.

    2016-08-01

    High pressure shock profiles are monitored using a long Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG). Such thin probe, with a diameter of typically 150 μm, can be inserted directly into targets for shock plate experiments. The shocked FBG's portion is stressed under compression, which increases its optical group index and shortens its grating period. Placed along the 2D symmetrical axis of the cylindrical target, the second effect is stronger and the reflected spectrum shifts towards the shorter wavelengths. The dynamic evolution of FBG spectra is recorded with a customized Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG) spectrometer covering the C+L band. The AWG provides 40 channels of 200-GHz spacing with a special flattop design. The output channels are fiber-connected to photoreceivers (bandwidth: DC - 400 MHz or 10 kHz - 2 GHz). The experimental setup was a symmetric impact, completed in a 110-mm diameter single-stage gas gun with Aluminum (6061T6) impactors and targets. The FBG's central wavelength was 1605 nm to cover the pressure range of 0 - 8 GPa. The FBG was 50-mm long as well as the target's thickness. The 20-mm thick impactor maintains a shock within the target over a distance of 30 mm. For the impact at 522 m/s, the sustained pressure of 3.6 GPa, which resulted in a Bragg shift of (26.2 +/- 1.5) nm, is measured and retrieved with respectively thin-film gauges and the hydrodynamic code Ouranos. The shock sensitivity of the FBG is about 7 nm/GPa, but it decreases with the pressure level. The overall spectra evolution is in good agreement with the numerical simulations.

  5. Control of small phased-array antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doland, G. D.

    1978-01-01

    Series of reports, patent descriptions, calculator programs, and other literature describes antenna control and steering apparatus for seven-element phased array. Though series contains information specific to particular system, it illustrates methods that can be applied to antennas with greater or fewer numbers of elements. Included are programs for calculating beam parameters and design functions and information to interfacing digital controller to beam-steering apparatus.

  6. Wideband Monolithic Tile for Reconfigurable Phased Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-01

    has been developed for Reconfigurable Phased Array applications. Low loss and high isolation interconnection of switches within the radiating...there is no ground to connect shunt elements to. An integral part of the design was bias control. Mesa resistors are used for biasing. MIM...highest in resistance had the best performance over bandwidth because of reduced capacitive loading of the “off” arms of the Quad Switch on the central

  7. On the (Frequency) Modulation of Coupled Oscillator Arrays in Phased Array Beam Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pogorzelski, R.; Acorn, J.; Zawadzki, M.

    2000-01-01

    It has been shown that arrays of voltage controlled oscillators coupled to nearest neighbors can be used to produce useful aperture phase distributions for phased array antennas. However, placing information of the transmitted signal requires that the oscillations be modulated.

  8. Wavelength-tunable filter utilizing non-cyclic arrayed waveguide grating to create colorless, directionless, contentionless ROADMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niwa, Masaki; Takashina, Shoichi; Mori, Yojiro; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Sato, Ken-ichi; Watanabe, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    With the continuous increase in Internet traffic, reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexers (ROADMs) have been widely adopted in the core and metro core networks. Current ROADMs, however, allow only static operation. To realize future dynamic optical-network services, and to minimize any human intervention in network operation, the optical signal add/drop part should have colorless/directionless/contentionless (C/D/C) capabilities. This is possible with matrix switches or a combination of splitter-switches and optical tunable filters. The scale of the matrix switch increases with the square of the number of supported channels, and hence, the matrix-switch-based architecture is not suitable for creating future large-scale ROADMs. In contrast, the numbers of splitter ports, switches, and tunable filters increase linearly with the number of supported channels, and hence the tunable-filter-based architecture will support all future traffic. So far, we have succeeded in fabricating a compact tunable filter that consists of multi-stage cyclic arrayed-waveguide gratings (AWGs) and switches by using planar-lightwave-circuit (PLC) technologies. However, this multistage configuration suffers from large insertion loss and filter narrowing. Moreover, power-consuming temperature control is necessary since it is difficult to make cyclic AWGs athermal. We propose here novel tunable-filter architecture that sandwiches a single-stage non-cyclic athermal AWG having flatter-topped passbands between small-scale switches. With this configuration, the optical tunable filter attains low insertion loss, large passband bandwidths, low power consumption, compactness, and high cost-effectiveness. A prototype is monolithically fabricated with PLC technologies and its excellent performance is experimentally confirmed utilizing 80-channel 30-GBaud dual-polarization quadrature phase-shift-keying (QPSK) signals.

  9. A Ku band 5 bit MEMS phase shifter for active electronically steerable phased array applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Anesh K.; Gautam, Ashu K.; Farinelli, Paola; Dutta, Asudeb; Singh, S. G.

    2015-03-01

    The design, fabrication and measurement of a 5 bit Ku band MEMS phase shifter in different configurations, i.e. a coplanar waveguide and microstrip, are presented in this work. The development architecture is based on the hybrid approach of switched and loaded line topologies. All the switches are monolithically manufactured on a 200 µm high resistivity silicon substrate using 4 inch diameter wafers. The first three bits (180°, 90° and 45°) are realized using switched microstrip lines and series ohmic MEMS switches whereas the fourth and fifth bits (22.5° and 11.25°) consist of microstrip line sections loaded by shunt ohmic MEMS devices. Individual bits are fabricated and evaluated for performance and the monolithic device is a 5 bit Ku band (16-18 GHz) phase shifter with very low average insertion loss of the order of 3.3 dB and a return loss better than 15 dB over the 32 states with a chip area of 44 mm2. A total phase shift of 348.75° with phase accuracy within 3° is achieved over all of the states. The performance of individual bits has been optimized in order to achieve an integrated performance so that they can be implemented into active electronically steerable antennas for phased array applications.

  10. Cross-phase modulation-induced spectral broadening in silicon waveguides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanbing; Husko, Chad; Lefrancois, Simon; Rey, Isabella H; Krauss, Thomas F; Schröder, Jochen; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2016-01-11

    We analytically and experimentally investigate cross-phase modulation (XPM) in silicon waveguides. In contrast to the well known result in pure Kerr media, the spectral broadening ratio of XPM to self-phase modulation is not two in the presence of either two-photon absorption (TPA) or free carriers. The physical origin of this change is different for each effect. In the case of TPA, this nonlinear absorption attenuates and slightly modifies the pulse shape due to differential absorption in the pulse peak and wings. When free carriers are present two different mechanisms modify the dynamics. First, free-carrier absorption performs a similar role to TPA, but is additionally asymmetric due to the delayed free-carrier response. Second, free-carrier dispersion induces an asymmetric blue phase shift which competes directly with the symmetric Kerr-induced XPM red shift. We confirm this analysis with pump-probe experiments in a silicon photonic crystal waveguide.

  11. Photonic Multitasking Interleaved Si Nanoantenna Phased Array.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dianmin; Holsteen, Aaron L; Maguid, Elhanan; Wetzstein, Gordon; Kik, Pieter G; Hasman, Erez; Brongersma, Mark L

    2016-12-14

    Metasurfaces provide unprecedented control over light propagation by imparting local, space-variant phase changes on an incident electromagnetic wave. They can improve the performance of conventional optical elements and facilitate the creation of optical components with new functionalities and form factors. Here, we build on knowledge from shared aperture phased array antennas and Si-based gradient metasurfaces to realize various multifunctional metasurfaces capable of achieving multiple distinct functions within a single surface region. As a key point, we demonstrate that interleaving multiple optical elements can be accomplished without reducing the aperture of each subelement. Multifunctional optical elements constructed from Si-based gradient metasurface are realized, including axial and lateral multifocus geometric phase metasurface lenses. We further demonstrate multiwavelength color imaging with a high spatial resolution. Finally, optical imaging functionality with simultaneous color separation has been obtained by using multifunctional metasurfaces, which opens up new opportunities for the field of advanced imaging and display.

  12. Phase discriminating capacitive array sensor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor); Rahim, Wadi (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A phase discriminating capacitive sensor array system which provides multiple sensor elements which are maintained at a phase and amplitude based on a frequency reference provided by a single frequency stabilized oscillator. Sensor signals provided by the multiple sensor elements are controlled by multiple phase control units, which correspond to the multiple sensor elements, to adjust the sensor signals from the multiple sensor elements based on the frequency reference. The adjustment made to the sensor signals is indicated by output signals which indicate the proximity of the object. The output signals may also indicate the closing speed of the object based on the rate of change of the adjustment made, and the edges of the object based on a sudden decrease in the adjustment made.

  13. A phased antenna array for surface plasmons

    PubMed Central

    Dikken, Dirk Jan W.; Korterik, Jeroen P.; Segerink, Frans B.; Herek, Jennifer L.; Prangsma, Jord C.

    2016-01-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons are electromagnetic waves that propagate tightly bound to metal surfaces. The concentration of the electromagnetic field at the surface as well as the short wavelength of surface plasmons enable sensitive detection methods and miniaturization of optics. We present an optical frequency plasmonic analog to the phased antenna array as it is well known in radar technology and radio astronomy. Individual holes in a thick gold film act as dipolar emitters of surface plasmon polaritons whose phase is controlled individually using a digital spatial light modulator. We show experimentally, using a phase sensitive near-field microscope, that this optical system allows accurate directional emission of surface waves. This compact and flexible method allows for dynamically shaping the propagation of plasmons and holds promise for nanophotonic applications employing propagating surface plasmons. PMID:27121099

  14. Phased Antenna Array for Global Navigation Satellite System Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turbiner, Dmitry (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems and methods for phased array antennas are described. Supports for phased array antennas can be constructed by 3D printing. The array elements and combiner network can be constructed by conducting wire. Different parameters of the antenna, like the gain and directivity, can be controlled by selection of the appropriate design, and by electrical steering. Phased array antennas may be used for radio occultation measurements.

  15. Silicon-on-insulator multimode-interference waveguide-based arrayed optical tweezers (SMART) for two-dimensional microparticle trapping and manipulation.

    PubMed

    Lei, Ting; Poon, Andrew W

    2013-01-28

    We demonstrate two-dimensional optical trapping and manipulation of 1 μm and 2.2 μm polystyrene particles in an 18 μm-thick fluidic cell at a wavelength of 1565 nm using the recently proposed Silicon-on-insulator Multimode-interference (MMI) waveguide-based ARrayed optical Tweezers (SMART) technique. The key component is a 100 μm square-core silicon waveguide with mm length. By tuning the fiber-coupling position at the MMI waveguide input facet, we demonstrate various patterns of arrayed optical tweezers that enable optical trapping and manipulation of particles. We numerically simulate the physical mechanisms involved in the arrayed trap, including the optical force, the heat transfer and the thermal-induced microfluidic flow.

  16. Low-loss bloch wave guiding in open structures and highly compact efficient waveguide-crossing arrays

    DOEpatents

    Popovic, Milos

    2011-03-08

    Low-loss waveguide structures may comprise a multimode waveguide supporting a periodic light intensity pattern, and attachments disposed at the waveguide adjacent low-intensity regions of the light intensity pattern.

  17. Hyperthermia phased arrays pre-treatment evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bardati, Fernando; Tognolatti, Piero

    2016-12-01

    In the hyperthermia treatment of deep-seated tumours by a phased array of radiofrequency (RF) antennas, heatability will be investigated in terms of power-to-tumour and other figures-of-merit of hyperthermia treatments to be optimised. The assumption is that each source is individually constrained to not exceed a maximal nominal power. The nominal power may differ from a source to another as a physical limit or an operative modality. Under such constraint, new procedures for the maximisation of (i) power-to-tumour, (ii) heating efficiency and, in general, (iii) power ratios as tumour-heating selectivity are proposed. (iv) The problem whether a tumour is equally heatable after turning off some antennas is addressed as array thinning. An array of eight dipoles arranged on two lines around a head/neck is introduced to perform a numerical analysis. The achievable power-to-tumour according to the new optimizations and other performance indices adopted from the literature is tested against values of power that can be found to be sufficient for heating tumours to clinical temperatures. New solutions to data rendering in hyperthermia heating are proposed.

  18. Unidirectional reflectionless phenomenon in ultracompact non-Hermitian plasmonic waveguide system based on phase coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cong; Bai, Ruiping; Gu, Xintong; Jin, Yingjiu; Qiao Zhang, Ying; Jin, Xing Ri; Zhang, Shou; Lee, YoungPak

    2017-12-01

    Unidirectional reflectionless phenomenon is theoretically investigated based on phase coupling in an ultracompact non-Hermitian plasmonic waveguide system, which consists of two metal-insulator-metal (MIM) stub resonators side coupled to a MIM plasmonic waveguide. By appropriately tuning the phase difference between two stub resonators, the reflectivity for forward direction reaches to 0.91 and backward direction is close to 0 at the exception point (EP), while the backward absorption reaches to 0.98 and the forward absorption is close to 0.05. Hence, the unidirectional coherent perfect absorption (CPA) is realized at the vicinity of EP. This work will provide potential applications in the filter, sensor, plasmonic diode-like device, and so on.

  19. Quasi-phase-matched χ(3 )-parametric interactions in sinusoidally tapered waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Mohammed F.

    2018-01-01

    In this article, I show how periodically tapered waveguides can be employed as efficient quasi-phase-matching schemes for four-wave mixing parametric processes in third-order nonlinear materials. As an example, a thorough study of enhancing third-harmonic generation in sinusoidally tapered fibers has been conducted. The quasi-phase-matching condition has been obtained for nonlinear parametric interactions in these structures using Fourier-series analysis. The dependencies of the conversion efficiency of the third harmonic on the modulation amplitude, tapering period, longitudinal-propagation direction, and pump wavelength have been studied. In comparison to uniform waveguides, the conversion efficiency has been enhanced by orders of magnitudes. I envisage that this work will have a great impact in the field of guided nonlinear optics using centrosymmetric materials.

  20. Ghost artifact cancellation using phased array processing.

    PubMed

    Kellman, P; McVeigh, E R

    2001-08-01

    In this article, a method for phased array combining is formulated which may be used to cancel ghosts caused by a variety of distortion mechanisms, including space variant distortions such as local flow or off-resonance. This method is based on a constrained optimization, which optimizes SNR subject to the constraint of nulling ghost artifacts at known locations. The resultant technique is similar to the method known as sensitivity encoding (SENSE) used for accelerated imaging; however, in this formulation it is applied to full field-of-view (FOV) images. The method is applied to multishot EPI with noninterleaved phase encode acquisition. A number of benefits, as compared to the conventional interleaved approach, are reduced distortion due to off-resonance, in-plane flow, and EPI delay misalignment, as well as eliminating the need for echo-shifting. Experimental results demonstrate the cancellation for both phantom as well as cardiac imaging examples.

  1. Ghost Artifact Cancellation Using Phased Array Processing

    PubMed Central

    Kellman, Peter; McVeigh, Elliot R.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, a method for phased array combining is formulated which may be used to cancel ghosts caused by a variety of distortion mechanisms, including space variant distortions such as local flow or off-resonance. This method is based on a constrained optimization, which optimizes SNR subject to the constraint of nulling ghost artifacts at known locations. The resultant technique is similar to the method known as sensitivity encoding (SENSE) used for accelerated imaging; however, in this formulation it is applied to full field-of-view (FOV) images. The method is applied to multishot EPI with noninterleaved phase encode acquisition. A number of benefits, as compared to the conventional interleaved approach, are reduced distortion due to off-resonance, in-plane flow, and EPI delay misalignment, as well as eliminating the need for echo-shifting. Experimental results demonstrate the cancellation for both phantom as well as cardiac imaging examples. PMID:11477638

  2. A 16-Channel Distributed-Feedback Laser Array with a Monolithic Integrated Arrayed Waveguide Grating Multiplexer for a Wavelength Division Multiplex-Passive Optical Network System Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jian-Yi; Chen, Xin; Zhou, Ning; Huang, Xiao-Dong; Cao, Ming-De; Liu, Wen

    2014-07-01

    A 16-channel distributed-feedback (DFB) laser array with a monolithic integrated arrayed waveguide grating multiplexer for a wavelength division multiplex-passive optical network system is fabricated by using the butt-joint metal organic chemical vapor deposition technology and nanoimpirnt technology. The results show that the threshold current is about 20-30 mA at 25°C. The DFB laser side output power is about 16 mW with a 150 mA injection current. The lasing wavelength is from 1550 nm to 1575 nm covering a more than 25 nm range with 200 GHz channel space. A more than 55 dB sidemode suppression ratio is obtained.

  3. Near- and Far-Field Characterization of Planar mm-Wave Antenna Arrays with Waveguide-to-Microstrip Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salhi, Mohammed Adnan; Kazemipour, Alireza; Gentille, Gennaro; Spirito, Marco; Kleine-Ostmann, Thomas; Schrader, Thorsten

    2016-09-01

    We present the design and characterization of planar mm-wave patch antenna arrays with waveguide-to-microstrip transition using both near- and far-field methods. The arrays were designed for metrological assessment of error sources in antenna measurement. One antenna was designed for the automotive radar frequency range at 77 GHz, while another was designed for the frequency of 94 GHz, which is used, e.g., for imaging radar applications. In addition to the antennas, a simple transition from rectangular waveguide WR-10 to planar microstrip line on Rogers 3003™ substrate has been designed based on probe coupling. For determination of the far-field radiation pattern of the antennas, we compare results from two different measurement methods to simulations. Both a far-field antenna measurement system and a planar near-field scanner with near-to-far-field transformation were used to determine the antenna diagrams. The fabricated antennas achieve a good matching and a good agreement between measured and simulated antenna diagrams. The results also show that the far-field scanner achieves more accurate measurement results with regard to simulations than the near-field scanner. The far-field antenna scanning system is built for metrological assessment and antenna calibration. The antennas are the first which were designed to be tested with the measurement system.

  4. Thermal imaging of plasma with a phased array antenna in QUEST

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Kishore, E-mail: mishra@triam.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Nagata, K.; Akimoto, R.

    2014-11-15

    A thermal imaging system to measure plasma Electron Bernstein Emission (EBE) emanating from the mode conversion region in overdense plasma is discussed. Unlike conventional ECE/EBE imaging, this diagnostics does not employ any active mechanical scanning mirrors or focusing optics to scan for the emission cones in plasma. Instead, a standard 3 × 3 waveguide array antenna is used as a passive receiver to collect emission from plasma and imaging reconstruction is done by accurate measurements of phase and intensity of these signals by heterodyne detection technique. A broadband noise source simulating the EBE, is installed near the expected mode conversionmore » region and its position is successfully reconstructed using phase array technique which is done in post processing.« less

  5. S-band antenna phased array communications system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delzer, D. R.; Chapman, J. E.; Griffin, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    The development of an S-band antenna phased array for spacecraft to spacecraft communication is discussed. The system requirements, antenna array subsystem design, and hardware implementation are examined. It is stated that the phased array approach offers the greatest simplicity and lowest cost. The objectives of the development contract are defined as: (1) design of a medium gain active phased array S-band communications antenna, (2) development and test of a model of a seven element planar array of radiating elements mounted in the appropriate cavity matrix, and (3) development and test of a breadboard transmit/receive microelectronics module.

  6. Joint stars phased array radar antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shnitkin, Harold

    1994-10-01

    The Joint STARS phased array radar system is capable of performing long range airborne surveillance and was used during the Persian Gulf war on two E8-A aircraft to fly many around-the-clock missions to monitor the Kuwait and Iraq battlefield from a safe distance behind the front lines. This paper is a follow-on to previous publications on the subject of the Joint STARS antenna and deals mainly with mission performance and technical aspects not previously covered. Radar data of troop movements and armament installations will be presented, a brief review of the antenna design is given, followed by technical discussions concerning the three-port interferometry, gain and sidelobe design approach, cost control, range test implementation and future improvements.

  7. Multiband Photonic Phased-Array Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Suning

    2015-01-01

    A multiband phased-array antenna (PAA) can reduce the number of antennas on shipboard platforms while offering significantly improved performance. Crystal Research, Inc., has developed a multiband photonic antenna that is based on a high-speed, optical, true-time-delay beamformer. It is capable of simultaneously steering multiple independent radio frequency (RF) beams in less than 1,000 nanoseconds. This high steering speed is 3 orders of magnitude faster than any existing optical beamformer. Unlike other approaches, this technology uses a single controlling device per operation band, eliminating the need for massive optical switches, laser diodes, and fiber Bragg gratings. More importantly, only one beamformer is needed for all antenna elements.

  8. Engineered Quasi-Phase Matching for Nonlinear Quantum Optics in Waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Camp, Mackenzie A.

    Entanglement is the hallmark of quantum mechanics. Quantum entanglement--putting two or more identical particles into a non-factorable state--has been leveraged for applications ranging from quantum computation and encryption to high-precision metrology. Entanglement is a practical engineering resource and a tool for sidestepping certain limitations of classical measurement and communication. Engineered nonlinear optical waveguides are an enabling technology for generating entangled photon pairs and manipulating the state of single photons. This dissertation reports on: i) frequency conversion of single photons from the mid-infrared to 843nm as a tool for incorporating quantum memories in quantum networks, ii) the design, fabrication, and test of a prototype broadband source of polarization and frequency entangled photons; and iii) a roadmap for further investigations of this source, including applications in quantum interferometry and high-precision optical metrology. The devices presented herein are quasi-phase-matched lithium niobate waveguides. Lithium niobate is a second-order nonlinear optical material and can mediate optical energy conversion to different wavelengths. This nonlinear effect is the basis of both quantum frequency conversion and entangled photon generation, and is enhanced by i) confining light in waveguides to increase conversion efficiency, and ii) quasi-phase matching, a technique for engineering the second-order nonlinear response by locally altering the direction of a material's polarization vector. Waveguides are formed by diffusing titanium into a lithium niobate wafer. Quasi-phase matching is achieved by electric field poling, with multiple stages of process development and optimization to fabricate the delicate structures necessary for broadband entangled photon generation. The results presented herein update and optimize past fabrication techniques, demonstrate novel optical devices, and propose future avenues for device development

  9. Waveguide modes in sparse III-V nanowire arrays for ultra-broadband tunable perfect absorbers (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fountaine, Katherine T.; Cheng, Wen-Hui; Bukowsky, Colton R.; Atwater, Harry A.

    2016-09-01

    Design of perfect absorbers and emitters has been a primary focus of the metamaterials community owing to their potential to enhance device efficiency and sensitivity in energy harvesting and sensing applications, specifically photovoltaics, thermal emission control, bolometers and photodetectors, to name a few. While reports of perfect absorbers/emitters for a specific frequency, wavevector, and polarization are ubiquitous, a broadband and polarization- and angle-insensitive perfect absorber remains a particular challenge. In this work, we report on directed optical design and fabrication of sparse III-V nanowire arrays as broadband, polarization- and angle-insensitive perfect absorbers and emitters. Specifically, we target response in the UV-Vis-NIR and NIR-SWIR-MWIR via two material systems, InP (Eg=1.34 eV) and InSb (Eg=0.17 eV), respectively. Herein, we present results on InP and InSb nanowire array broadband absorbers, supported by experiment, simulation and analytic theory. Electromagnetic simulations indicate that, with directed optical design, tapered nanowire arrays and multi-radii nanowire arrays with 5% fill fraction can achieve greater than 95% broadband absorption (λInP=400-900nm, λInSb=1.5-5.5µm), due to efficient excitation and interband transition-mediated attenuation of the HE11 waveguide mode. Experimentally-fabricated InP nanowire arrays embedded in PDMS achieved broadband, polarization- and angle-insensitive 90-95% absorption, limited primarily by reflection off the PDMS interface. Addition of a thin, planar VO2 layer above a sparse InSb nanowire array enables active thermal tunability in the infrared, effecting a 50% modulation, from 87% (insulating VO2) to 43% (metallic VO2) average absorption. These concepts and results along with photovoltaic and other optical and optoelectronic device applications will be discussed.

  10. Method and apparatus of wide-angle optical beamsteering from a nanoantenna phased array

    DOEpatents

    Davids, Paul; DeRose, Christopher; Rakich, Peter Thomas

    2015-08-11

    An optical beam-steering apparatus is provided. The apparatus includes one or more optical waveguides and at least one row of metallic nanoantenna elements overlying and electromagnetically coupled to a respective waveguide. In each such row, individual nanoantenna elements are spaced apart along an optical propagation axis of the waveguide so that there is an optical propagation phase delay between successive pairs of nanoantenna elements along the row. The apparatus also includes a respective single electric heating element in thermal contact with each of the waveguides. Each heating element is arranged to heat, substantially uniformly, at least that portion of its waveguide that directly underlies the corresponding row of nanoantenna elements.

  11. Quantum walks of correlated photon pairs in two-dimensional waveguide arrays.

    PubMed

    Poulios, Konstantinos; Keil, Robert; Fry, Daniel; Meinecke, Jasmin D A; Matthews, Jonathan C F; Politi, Alberto; Lobino, Mirko; Gräfe, Markus; Heinrich, Matthias; Nolte, Stefan; Szameit, Alexander; O'Brien, Jeremy L

    2014-04-11

    We demonstrate quantum walks of correlated photons in a two-dimensional network of directly laser written waveguides coupled in a "swiss cross" arrangement. The correlated detection events show high-visibility quantum interference and unique composite behavior: strong correlation and independence of the quantum walkers, between and within the planes of the cross. Violations of a classically defined inequality, for photons injected in the same plane and in orthogonal planes, reveal nonclassical behavior in a nonplanar structure.

  12. LOADED WAVEGUIDES

    DOEpatents

    Mullett, L.B.; Loach, B.G.; Adams, G.L.

    1958-06-24

    >Loaded waveguides are described for the propagation of electromagnetic waves with reduced phase velocities. A rectangular waveguide is dimensioned so as to cut-off the simple H/sub 01/ mode at the operating frequency. The waveguide is capacitance loaded, so as to reduce the phase velocity of the transmitted wave, by connecting an electrical conductor between directly opposite points in the major median plane on the narrower pair of waveguide walls. This conductor may take a corrugated shape or be an aperature member, the important factor being that the electrical length of the conductor is greater than one-half wavelength at the operating frequency. Prepared for the Second U.N. International ConferThe importance of nuclear standards is duscussed. A brief review of the international callaboration in this field is given. The proposal is made to let the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) coordinate the efforts from other groups. (W.D.M.)

  13. Cross-phase-modulation-induced temporal reflection and waveguiding of optical pulses

    DOE PAGES

    Plansinis, Brent W.; Donaldson, William R.; Agrawal, Govind P.

    2018-01-31

    Cross-phase modulation (XPM) is commonly viewed as a nonlinear process that chirps a probe pulse and modifies its spectrum when an intense pump pulse overlaps with it. Here we present an alternative view of XPM in which the pump pulse creates a moving refractive-index boundary that splits the probe pulse into two parts with distinct optical spectra through temporal reflection and refraction inside a dispersive nonlinear medium. The probe even undergoes a temporal version of total internal reflection for sufficiently intense pump pulses, a phenomenon that can be exploited for making temporal waveguides. In this paper we investigate the practicalmore » conditions under which XPM can be exploited for temporal reflection and waveguiding. The width and shape of pump pulses as well as the nature of medium dispersion at the pump and probe wavelength (normal versus anomalous) play important roles. A super-Gaussian shape of pump pulses is particularly helpful because of its relatively sharp edges. When the pump wavelength lies in the anomalous-dispersion regime, the pump pulse can form a soliton,whose unique properties can be exploited to advantage. We also discuss a potential application of XPM-induced temporal waveguides for compensating timing jitter.« less

  14. Cross-phase-modulation-induced temporal reflection and waveguiding of optical pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Plansinis, Brent W.; Donaldson, William R.; Agrawal, Govind P.

    Cross-phase modulation (XPM) is commonly viewed as a nonlinear process that chirps a probe pulse and modifies its spectrum when an intense pump pulse overlaps with it. Here we present an alternative view of XPM in which the pump pulse creates a moving refractive-index boundary that splits the probe pulse into two parts with distinct optical spectra through temporal reflection and refraction inside a dispersive nonlinear medium. The probe even undergoes a temporal version of total internal reflection for sufficiently intense pump pulses, a phenomenon that can be exploited for making temporal waveguides. In this paper we investigate the practicalmore » conditions under which XPM can be exploited for temporal reflection and waveguiding. The width and shape of pump pulses as well as the nature of medium dispersion at the pump and probe wavelength (normal versus anomalous) play important roles. A super-Gaussian shape of pump pulses is particularly helpful because of its relatively sharp edges. When the pump wavelength lies in the anomalous-dispersion regime, the pump pulse can form a soliton,whose unique properties can be exploited to advantage. We also discuss a potential application of XPM-induced temporal waveguides for compensating timing jitter.« less

  15. Multi-function all optical packet switch by periodic wavelength arrangement in an arrayed waveguide grating and wideband optical filters.

    PubMed

    Feng, Kai-Ming; Wu, Chung-Yu; Wen, Yu-Hsiang

    2012-01-16

    By utilizing the cyclic filtering function of an NxN arrayed waveguide grating (AWG), we propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel multi-function all optical packet switching (OPS) architecture by applying a periodical wavelength arrangement between the AWG in the optical routing/buffering unit and a set of wideband optical filters in the switched output ports to achieve the desired routing and buffering functions. The proposed OPS employs only one tunable wavelength converter at the input port to convert the input wavelength to a designated wavelength which reduces the number of active optical components and thus the complexity of the traffic control is simplified in the OPS. With the proposed OPS architecture, multiple optical packet switching functions, including arbitrary packet switching and buffering, first-in-first-out (FIFO) packet multiplexing, packet demultiplexing and packet add/drop multiplexing, have been successfully demonstrated.

  16. Microstrip technology and its application to phased array compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudgeon, J. E.; Daniels, W. D.

    1972-01-01

    A systematic analysis of mutual coupling compensation using microstrip techniques is presented. A method for behind-the-array coupling of a phased antenna array is investigated as to its feasibility. The matching scheme is tried on a rectangular array of one half lambda 2 dipoles, but it is not limited to this array element or geometry. In the example cited the values of discrete components necessary were so small an L-C network is needed for realization. Such L-C tanks might limit an otherwise broadband array match, however, this is not significant for this dipole array. Other areas investigated were balun feeding and power limits of spiral antenna elements.

  17. Integrated optical phased arrays for quasi-Bessel-beam generation.

    PubMed

    Notaros, Jelena; Poulton, Christopher V; Byrd, Matthew J; Raval, Manan; Watts, Michael R

    2017-09-01

    Integrated optical phased arrays for generating quasi-Bessel beams are proposed and experimentally demonstrated in a CMOS-compatible platform. Owing to their elongated central beams, Bessel beams have applications in a range of fields, including multiparticle trapping and laser lithography. In this Letter, continuous Bessel theory is manipulated to formulate the phase and amplitude conditions necessary for generating free-space-propagating Bessel-Gauss beams using on-chip optical phased arrays. Discussion of the effects of select phased array parameters on the generated beam's figures of merit is included. A one-dimensional splitter-tree-based phased array architecture is modified to enable arbitrary passive control of the array's element phase and amplitude distributions. This architecture is used to experimentally demonstrate on-chip quasi-Bessel-beam generation with a ∼14  mm Bessel length and ∼30  μm power full width at half maximum.

  18. Optimizing Satellite Communications With Adaptive and Phased Array Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingram, Mary Ann; Romanofsky, Robert; Lee, Richard Q.; Miranda, Felix; Popovic, Zoya; Langley, John; Barott, William C.; Ahmed, M. Usman; Mandl, Dan

    2004-01-01

    A new adaptive antenna array architecture for low-earth-orbiting satellite ground stations is being investigated. These ground stations are intended to have no moving parts and could potentially be operated in populated areas, where terrestrial interference is likely. The architecture includes multiple, moderately directive phased arrays. The phased arrays, each steered in the approximate direction of the satellite, are adaptively combined to enhance the Signal-to-Noise and Interference-Ratio (SNIR) of the desired satellite. The size of each phased array is to be traded-off with the number of phased arrays, to optimize cost, while meeting a bit-error-rate threshold. Also, two phased array architectures are being prototyped: a spacefed lens array and a reflect-array. If two co-channel satellites are in the field of view of the phased arrays, then multi-user detection techniques may enable simultaneous demodulation of the satellite signals, also known as Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA). We report on Phase I of the project, in which fixed directional elements are adaptively combined in a prototype to demodulate the S-band downlink of the EO-1 satellite, which is part of the New Millennium Program at NASA.

  19. Finite Ground Coplanar Waveguide Shunt MEMS Switches for Switched Line Phase Shifters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, George E.; Simons, Rainee N.; Scardelletti, Maximillian; Varaljay, Nicholas C.

    2000-01-01

    Switches with low insertion loss and high isolation are required for switched line phase shifters and the transmit/receive switch at the front end of communication systems. A Finite Ground Coplanar (FGC) waveguide capacitive, shunt MEMS switch has been implemented on high resistivity Si. The switch has demonstrated an insertion loss of less than 0.3 dB and a return loss greater than 15 dB from 10 to 20, GHz. The switch design, fabrication, and characteristics are presented.

  20. Ultrabroadband Phased-Array Receivers Based on Optical Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-26

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0121 Ultrabroadband Phased- array Receivers Based on Optical Techniques Christopher Schuetz UNIVERSITY OF DELAWARE Final Report...Jul 15 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ultrabroadband Phased- Array Receivers Based on Optical Techniques 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-12-1...receiver that enables us to capture and convert signals across an array using photonic modulators, routing these signals to a central location using

  1. A phased array bread board for future remote sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahn, R. W.; Schmidt, E.

    The next generation of SAR antennas will be of the active phased-array type. The ongoing development of a phased-array breadboard for remote sensing is described. Starting from a detailed system design, a functional representative breadboard was developed. The design and the performance of the breadboard are discussed.

  2. A Phased Array Coil for Human Cardiac Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Constantinides, Chris D.; Westgate, Charles R.; O'Dell, Walter G.; Zerhouni, Elias A.; McVeigh, Elliot R.

    2007-01-01

    A prototype cardiac phased array receiver coil was constructed that comprised a cylindrical array and a separate planar array. Both arrays had two coil loops with the same coil dimensions. Data acquisition with the cylindrical array placed on the human chest, and the planar array placed under the back, yielded an overall enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) over the entire heart by a factor of 1.1–2.85 over a commercially available flexible coil and a commercially available four-loop planar phased array coil. This improvement in SNR can be exploited in cardiac imaging to increase the spatial resolution and reduce the image acquisition time. PMID:7674903

  3. Reconfigurable Wave Velocity Transmission Lines for Phased Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Host, Nick; Chen, Chi-Chih; Volakis, John L.; Miranda, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Phased array antennas showcase many advantages over mechanically steered systems. However, they are also more complex, heavy and most importantly costly. This presentation paper presents a concept which overcomes these detrimental attributes by eliminating all of the phase array backend (including phase shifters). Instead, a wave velocity reconfigurable transmission line is used in a series fed array arrangement to allow phase shifting with one small (100mil) mechanical motion. Different configurations of the reconfigurable wave velocity transmission line are discussed and simulated and experimental results are presented.

  4. Plasmonic phased array feeder enabling ultra-fast beam steering at millimeter waves.

    PubMed

    Bonjour, R; Burla, M; Abrecht, F C; Welschen, S; Hoessbacher, C; Heni, W; Gebrewold, S A; Baeuerle, B; Josten, A; Salamin, Y; Haffner, C; Johnston, P V; Elder, D L; Leuchtmann, P; Hillerkuss, D; Fedoryshyn, Y; Dalton, L R; Hafner, C; Leuthold, J

    2016-10-31

    In this paper, we demonstrate an integrated microwave phoneeded for beamtonics phased array antenna feeder at 60 GHz with a record-low footprint. Our design is based on ultra-compact plasmonic phase modulators (active area <2.5µm2) that not only provide small size but also ultra-fast tuning speed. In our design, the integrated circuit footprint is in fact only limited by the contact pads of the electrodes and by the optical feeding waveguides. Using the high speed of the plasmonic modulators, we demonstrate beam steering with less than 1 ns reconfiguration time, i.e. the beam direction is reconfigured in-between 1 GBd transmitted symbols.

  5. Mid-infrared frequency comb generation via cascaded quadratic nonlinearities in quasi-phase-matched waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowligy, Abijith S.; Lind, Alex; Hickstein, Daniel D.; Carlson, David R.; Timmers, Henry; Nader, Nima; Cruz, Flavio C.; Ycas, Gabriel; Papp, Scott B.; Diddams, Scott A.

    2018-04-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a simple configuration for mid-infrared (MIR) frequency comb generation in quasi-phase-matched lithium niobate waveguides using the cascaded-$\\chi^{(2)}$ nonlinearity. With nanojoule-scale pulses from an Er:fiber laser, we observe octave-spanning supercontinuum in the near-infrared with dispersive-wave generation in the 2.5--3 $\\text{\\mu}$m region and intra-pulse difference-frequency generation in the 4--5 $\\text{\\mu}$m region. By engineering the quasi-phase-matched grating profiles, tunable, narrow-band MIR and broadband MIR spectra are both observed in this geometry. Finally, we perform numerical modeling using a nonlinear envelope equation, which shows good quantitative agreement with the experiment---and can be used to inform waveguide designs to tailor the MIR frequency combs. Our results identify a path to a simple single-branch approach to mid-infrared frequency comb generation in a compact platform using commercial Er:fiber technology.

  6. Mid-infrared frequency comb generation via cascaded quadratic nonlinearities in quasi-phase-matched waveguides.

    PubMed

    Kowligy, Abijith S; Lind, Alex; Hickstein, Daniel D; Carlson, David R; Timmers, Henry; Nader, Nima; Cruz, Flavio C; Ycas, Gabriel; Papp, Scott B; Diddams, Scott A

    2018-04-15

    We experimentally demonstrate a simple configuration for mid-infrared (MIR) frequency comb generation in quasi-phase-matched lithium niobate waveguides using the cascaded-χ (2) nonlinearity. With nanojoule-scale pulses from an Er:fiber laser, we observe octave-spanning supercontinuum in the near-infrared with dispersive wave generation in the 2.5-3 μm region and intrapulse difference frequency generation in the 4-5 μm region. By engineering the quasi-phase-matched grating profiles, tunable, narrowband MIR and broadband MIR spectra are both observed in this geometry. Finally, we perform numerical modeling using a nonlinear envelope equation, which shows good quantitative agreement with the experiment-and can be used to inform waveguide designs to tailor the MIR frequency combs. Our results identify a path to a simple single-branch approach to mid-infrared frequency comb generation in a compact platform using commercial Er:fiber technology.

  7. Signal detectability in diffusive media using phased arrays in conjunction with detector arrays.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dongyel; Kupinski, Matthew A

    2011-06-20

    We investigate Hotelling observer performance (i.e., signal detectability) of a phased array system for tasks of detecting small inhomogeneities and distinguishing adjacent abnormalities in uniform diffusive media. Unlike conventional phased array systems where a single detector is located on the interface between two sources, we consider a detector array, such as a CCD, on a phantom exit surface for calculating the Hotelling observer detectability. The signal detectability for adjacent small abnormalities (2 mm displacement) for the CCD-based phased array is related to the resolution of reconstructed images. Simulations show that acquiring high-dimensional data from a detector array in a phased array system dramatically improves the detectability for both tasks when compared to conventional single detector measurements, especially at low modulation frequencies. It is also observed in all studied cases that there exists the modulation frequency optimizing CCD-based phased array systems, where detectability for both tasks is consistently high. These results imply that the CCD-based phased array has the potential to achieve high resolution and signal detectability in tomographic diffusive imaging while operating at a very low modulation frequency. The effect of other configuration parameters, such as a detector pixel size, on the observer performance is also discussed.

  8. Microwave power transmitting phased array antenna research project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    An initial design study and the development results of an S band RF power transmitting phased array antenna experiment system are presented. The array was to be designed, constructed and instrumented to permit wireless power transmission technology evaluation measurements. The planned measurements were to provide data relative to the achievable performance in the state of the art of flexible surface, retrodirective arrays, as a step in technically evaluating the satellite power system concept for importing to earth, via microwave beams, the nearly continuous solar power available in geosynchronous orbit. Details of the microwave power transmitting phased array design, instrumentation approaches, system block diagrams, and measured component and breadboard characteristics achieved are presented.

  9. Coherent optical monolithic phased-array antenna steering system

    DOEpatents

    Hietala, Vincent M.; Kravitz, Stanley H.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    1994-01-01

    An optical-based RF beam steering system for phased-array antennas comprising a photonic integrated circuit (PIC). The system is based on optical heterodyning employed to produce microwave phase shifting by a monolithic PIC constructed entirely of passive components. Microwave power and control signal distribution to the antenna is accomplished by optical fiber, permitting physical separation of the PIC and its control functions from the antenna. The system reduces size, weight, complexity, and cost of phased-array antenna systems.

  10. Phase modulation in horizontal metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguides.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shiyang; Lo, G Q; Kwong, D L

    2013-04-08

    An extremely compact Si phase modulator is proposed and validated, which relies on effective modulation of the real part of modal index of horizontal metal-insulator-Si-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguides by a voltage applied between the metal cover and the Si core. Proof-of-concept devices are fabricated on silicon-on-insulator substrates using standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology using copper as the metal and thermal silicon dioxide as the insulator. A modulator with a 1-μm-long phase shifter inserted in an asymmetric Si Mach-Zehnder interferometer exhibits 9-dB extinction ratio under a 6-V/10-kHz voltage swing. Numerical simulations suggest that high speed and low driving voltage could be achieved by shortening the distance between the Si core and the n(+)-contact and by using a high-κ dielectric as the insulator, respectively.

  11. Zak phase induced multiband waveguide by two-dimensional photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuting; Xu, Tao; Xu, Yun Fei; Hang, Zhi Hong

    2017-08-15

    Interface states in photonic crystals provide efficient approaches to control the flow of light. Photonic Zak phase determines the bulk band properties of photonic crystals, and, by assembling two photonic crystals with different bulk band properties together, deterministic interface states can be realized. By translating each unit cell of a photonic crystal by half the lattice constant, another photonic crystal with identical common gaps but a different Zak phase at each photonic band can be created. By assembling these two photonic crystals together, multiband waveguide can thus be easily created and then experimentally characterized. Our experimental results have good agreement with numerical simulations, and the propagation properties of these measured interface states indicate that this new type of interface state will be a good candidate for future applications of optical communications.

  12. Phase and Frequency Control of Laser Arrays for Pulse Synthesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-02

    with the laser array to understand the phase noise of elements on a common heat sink, and the relationship between linewidth and feedback speed...spatial brightness operation of a phase-locked stripe -array diode laser,” Laser Phys. 22, 160 (2012). [2] J. R. Leger, “Lateral mode control of an AlGaAs...Jechow, D. Skoczowsky, and R. Menzel, “Multi-wavelength, high spatial brightness operation of a phase-locked stripe -array diode laser,” Laser Phys. 22

  13. Sound reflection by a resonator array in a multimode cylindrical waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapin, A. D.

    2012-09-01

    The paper considers the problem of scattering of the mth symmetric mode by an array of Q rings of identical, closely located Helmholtz resonators joined by necks to the walls of a wide circular pipe. The distance between rings is equal to half the wavelength of this mode at frequency ω, equal or close to the eigen-frequency of the resonator ring with allowance for the connected mass and interaction of neighboring rings via inhomogeneous modes. The coefficient of reflection of the mth mode from this grating array is calculated.

  14. Numerical study of phase conjugation in stimulated Brillouin scattering from an optical waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmberg, R. H.

    1983-05-01

    Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in a multimode optical waveguide is examined, and the parameters that affect the wavefront conjugation fidelity are studied. The nonlinear propagation code is briefly described and the calculated quantities are defined. The parameter study in the low reflectivity limit is described, and the effects of pump depletion are considered. The waveguide produced significantly higher fidelities than the focused configuration, in agreement with several experimental studies. The light scattered back through the phase aberrator exhibited a farfield intenstiy profile closely matching that of the incident beam; however, the nearfield intensity exhibited large and rapid spatial inhomogeneities across the entire aberrator, even for conjugation fidelities as high as 98 percent. In the absence of pump depletion, the fidelity increased with average pump intensity for amplitude gains up to around e to the 10th and then decreased slowly and monotonically with higher intensity. For all cases, pump depletion significantly enhanced the fidelity of the wavefront conjugation by inhibiting the small-scale pulling effect.

  15. Phased array-fed antenna configuration study: Technology assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croswell, W. F.; Ball, D. E.; Taylor, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    Spacecraft array fed reflector antenna systems were assessed for particular application to a multiple fixed spot beam/multiple scanning spot beam system. Reflector optics systems are reviewed in addition to an investigation of the feasibility of the use of monolithic microwave integrated circuit power amplifiers and phase shifters in each element of the array feed.

  16. Microwave scanning beam approach and landing system phased array antenna.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1971-09-01

    The design, operating instructions, detailed logic circuitry, and antenna test range results for the electronic circular scanning phased array developed at TSC (DOTSCAN) are described. Components developed for this effort are also described, and test...

  17. Rail flaw sizing using conventional and phased array ultrasonic testing.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-12-01

    An approach to detecting and characterizing internal defects in rail through the use of phased array ultrasonic testing has shown the potential to reduce the risk of missed defects and improve transverse defect characterization. : Transportation Tech...

  18. Concept of an interlaced phased array for beam switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, C. A.; Janardhanan, K. V.; Mukundan, K. K.; Shenoy, K. S. V.

    1990-04-01

    A novel concept is described for feeding and phasing a large linear array of N antenna elements using only three or five feed points and phase shifters and still achieving beam switching. The idea consists of drastically reducing the number of input points by interlacing a small number of serially fed subarrays which are suitably phased. This so-called interlaced phased array (IPA) concept was tested using an array of 15 four-element Yagi antennas with a spacing equal to 0.8 wavelengths and found feasible. Some of the distinct advantages of the IPA in comparison with a conventional system of beam switching are reduced power loss, reduced phasing errors, reduced cost, increased reliability resulting from greatly reduced number of phase shifters, and better symmetry of off-zenith beams.

  19. Photonic Waveguide Choke Joint with Absorptive Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollack, Edward J. (Inventor); U-Yen, Kongpop (Inventor); Chuss, David T. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A photonic waveguide choke includes a first waveguide flange member having periodic metal tiling pillars, a dissipative dielectric material positioned within an area between the periodic metal tiling pillars and a second waveguide flange member disposed to be coupled with the first waveguide flange member and in spaced-apart relationship separated by a gap. The first waveguide flange member has a substantially smooth surface, and the second waveguide flange member has an array of two-dimensional pillar structures formed therein.

  20. LASER APPLICATIONS AND OTHER TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS: Phase locking of the radiation of ring waveguide CO2 lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glova, A. F.; Lebedev, E. A.; Lysikov, A. Yu; Shchetnikov, S. B.

    1999-12-01

    Phase locking of the radiation of two ring waveguide CO2 lasers with a common cavity and unidirectional lasing was achieved for an output power of about 20 W. Measurements of the fringe visibility of the radiation intensity distributions in the far-field zone agreed qualitatively with the calculations for plane waves.

  1. Jet Noise Source Localization Using Linear Phased Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agboola, Ferni A.; Bridges, James

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted to further clarify the interpretation and application of linear phased array microphone results, for localizing aeroacoustics sources in aircraft exhaust jet. Two model engine nozzles were tested at varying power cycles with the array setup parallel to the jet axis. The array position was varied as well to determine best location for the array. The results showed that it is possible to resolve jet noise sources with bypass and other components separation. The results also showed that a focused near field image provides more realistic noise source localization at low to mid frequencies.

  2. Lithium niobate guided-wave beam former for steering phased-array antennas.

    PubMed

    Armenise, M N; Passaro, V M; Noviello, G

    1994-09-10

    We present the theoretical investigation, design, and simulation of a novel guided-wave optical processor for L-band-transmission beam forming in a linear array of phased active antennas. The proposed configuration includes two contradirectional surface acoustic-wave transducers, and it is based on a Y-cut, X-propagating Ti:LiNbO(3) planar waveguide supporting the lowest-order modes of both polarizations (TE(0) and TM(0)) at the free-space wavelength λ = 0.85 µm. A detailed comparison between the processor we propose and other optical and electronic architectures reported in the literature is carried out, exhibiting a number of significant advantages in terms of weight, total chip size, and power consumption, when the number of antenna elements is greater than 50.

  3. Silicon oxynitride-on-glass waveguide array refractometer with wide sensing range and integrated read-out (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viegas, Jaime; Mayeh, Mona; Srinivasan, Pradeep; Johnson, Eric G.; Marques, Paulo V. S.; Farahi, Faramarz

    2017-02-01

    In this work, a silicon oxynitride-on-silica refractometer is presented, based on sub-wavelength coupled arrayed waveguide interference, and capable of low-cost, high resolution, large scale deployment. The sensor has an experimental spectral sensitivity as high as 3200 nm/RIU, covering refractive indices ranging from 1 (air) up to 1.43 (oils). The sensor readout can be performed by standard spectrometers techniques of by pattern projection onto a camera, followed by optical pattern recognition. Positive identification of the refractive index of an unknown species is obtained by pattern cross-correlation with a look-up calibration table based algorithm. Given the lower contrast between core and cladding in such devices, higher mode overlap with single mode fiber is achieved, leading to a larger coupling efficiency and more relaxed alignment requirements as compared to silicon photonics platform. Also, the optical transparency of the sensor in the visible range allows the operation with light sources and camera detectors in the visible range, of much lower capital costs for a complete sensor system. Furthermore, the choice of refractive indices of core and cladding in the sensor head with integrated readout, allows the fabrication of the same device in polymers, for mass-production replication of disposable sensors.

  4. Solitary wave for a nonintegrable discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation in nonlinear optical waveguide arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Li-Yuan; Ji, Jia-Liang; Xu, Zong-Wei; Zhu, Zuo-Nong

    2018-03-01

    We study a nonintegrable discrete nonlinear Schrödinger (dNLS) equation with the term of nonlinear nearest-neighbor interaction occurred in nonlinear optical waveguide arrays. By using discrete Fourier transformation, we obtain numerical approximations of stationary and travelling solitary wave solutions of the nonintegrable dNLS equation. The analysis of stability of stationary solitary waves is performed. It is shown that the nonlinear nearest-neighbor interaction term has great influence on the form of solitary wave. The shape of solitary wave is important in the electric field propagating. If we neglect the nonlinear nearest-neighbor interaction term, much important information in the electric field propagating may be missed. Our numerical simulation also demonstrates the difference of chaos phenomenon between the nonintegrable dNLS equation with nonlinear nearest-neighbor interaction and another nonintegrable dNLS equation without the term. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11671255 and 11701510), the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness of Spain (Grant No. MTM2016-80276-P (AEI/FEDER, EU)), and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2017M621964).

  5. Response characterization of a fiber optic sensor array with dye-coated planar waveguide for detection of volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Sung; Yoon, Na-Rae; Kang, Byoung-Ho; Lee, Sang-Won; Gopalan, Sai-Anand; Jeong, Hyun-Min; Lee, Seung-Ha; Kwon, Dae-Hyuk; Kang, Shin-Won

    2014-07-01

    We have developed a multi-array side-polished optical-fiber gas sensor for the detection of volatile organic compound (VOC) gases. The side-polished optical-fiber coupled with a polymer planar waveguide (PWG) provides high sensitivity to alterations in refractive index. The PWG was fabricated by coating a solvatochromic dye with poly(vinylpyrrolidone). To confirm the effectiveness of the sensor, five different sensing membranes were fabricated by coating the side-polished optical-fiber using the solvatochromic dyes Reinhardt's dye, Nile red, 4-aminophthalimide, 4-amino-N-methylphthalimide, and 4-(dimethylamino)cinnamaldehyde, which have different polarities that cause changes in the effective refractive index of the sensing membrane owing to evanescent field coupling. The fabricated gas detection system was tested with five types of VOC gases, namely acetic acid, benzene, dimethylamine, ethanol, and toluene at concentrations of 1, 2,…,10 ppb. Second-regression and principal component analyses showed that the response properties of the proposed VOC gas sensor were linearly shifted bathochromically, and each gas showed different response characteristics.

  6. Focused terahertz waves generated by a phase velocity gradient in a parallel-plate waveguide.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Robert W; Monnai, Yasuaki; Mendis, Rajind; Mittleman, Daniel

    2015-10-19

    We demonstrate the focusing of a free-space THz beam emerging from a leaky parallel-plate waveguide (PPWG). Focusing is accomplished by grading the launch angle of the leaky wave using a PPWG with gradient plate separation. Inside the PPWG, the phase velocity of the guided TE1 mode exceeds the vacuum light speed, allowing the wave to leak into free space from a slit cut along the top plate. Since the leaky wave angle changes as the plate separation decreases, the beam divergence can be controlled by grading the plate separation along the propagation axis. We experimentally demonstrate focusing of the leaky wave at a selected location at frequencies of 100 GHz and 170 GHz, and compare our measurements with numerical simulations. The proposed concept can be valuable for implementing a flat and wide-aperture beam-former for THz communications systems.

  7. Wirelessly Networked Digital Phased Array: Analysis and Development of a Phase Synchronization Concept

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited WIRELESSLY NETWORKED...DIGITAL PHASED ARRAY: ANALYSIS AND DEVELOPMENT OF A PHASE SYNCHRONIZATION CONCEPT by Micael Grahn September 2007 Thesis Advisor...September 2007 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Wirelessly Networked Digital Phased Array: Analysis and

  8. Ka-Band Multibeam Aperture Phased Array Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Kacpura, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    Phased-array antenna systems offer many advantages to low-Earth-orbiting satellite systems. Their large scan angles and multibeam capabilities allow for vibration-free, rapid beam scanning and graceful degradation operation for high rate downlink of data to users on the ground. Technology advancements continue to reduce the power, weight, and cost of these systems to make phased arrays a competitive alternative in comparison to the gimbled reflector system commonly used in science missions. One effort to reduce the cost of phased arrays is the development of a Ka-band multibeam aperture (MBA) phased array by Boeing Corporation under a contract jointly by the NASA Glenn Research Center and the Office of Naval Research. The objective is to develop and demonstrate a space-qualifiable dual-beam Ka-band (26.5-GHz) phased-array antenna. The goals are to advance the state of the art in Ka-band active phased-array antennas and to develop and demonstrate multibeam transmission technology compatible with spacecraft in low Earth orbit to reduce the cost of future missions by retiring certain development risks. The frequency chosen is suitable for space-to-space and space-to-ground communication links. The phased-array antenna has a radiation pattern designed by combining a set of individual radiating elements, optimized with the type of radiating elements used, their positions in space, and the amplitude and phase of the currents feeding the elements. This arrangement produces a directional radiation pattern that is proportional to the number of individual radiating elements. The arrays of interest here can scan the main beam electronically with a computerized algorithm. The antenna is constructed using electronic components with no mechanical parts, and the steering is performed electronically, without any resulting vibration. The speed of the scanning is limited primarily by the control electronics. The radiation performance degrades gracefully if a portion of the elements

  9. Laser-phased-array beam steering based on crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Deng-cai; Zhao, Si-si; Wang, Da-yong; Wang, Zhi-yong; Zhang, Xiao-fei

    2011-06-01

    Laser-phased-array system provides an elegant means for achieving the inertial-free, high-resolution, rapid and random beam steering. In laser-phased-array system, phase controlling is the most important factor that impacts the system performance. A novel scheme is provided in this paper, the beam steering is accomplished by using crystal fiber array, the difference length between adjacent fiber is fixed. The phase difference between adjacent fiber decides the direction of the output beam. When the wavelength of the input fiber laser is tuned, the phase difference between the adjacent elements has changed. Therefore, the laser beam direction has changed and the beam steering has been accomplished. In this article, based on the proposed scheme, the steering angle of the laser beam is calculated and analyzed theoretically. Moreover, the far-field steering beam quality is discussed.

  10. An Agile Beam Transmit Array Using Coupled Oscillator Phase Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pogorzelski, Ronald S.; Scaramastra, Rocco P.; Huang, John; Beckon, Robert J.; Petree, Steve M.; Chavez, Cosme

    1993-01-01

    A few years ago York and colleagues suggested that injection locking of voltage controlled oscillators could be used to implement beam steering in a phased array [I]. The scheme makes use of the fact that when an oscillator is injection locked to an external signal, the phase difference between the output of the oscillator and the injection signal is governed by the difference between the injection frequency and the free running frequency of the oscillator (the frequency to which the oscillator is tuned). Thus, if voltage controlled oscillators (VCOs) are used, this phase difference is controlled by an applied voltage. Now, if a set of such oscillators are coupled to nearest neighbors, they can be made to mutually injection lock and oscillate as an ensemble. If they are all tuned to the same frequency, they will all oscillate in phase. Thus, if the outputs are connected to radiating elements forming a linear array, the antenna will radiate normal to the line of elements. Scanning is accomplished by antisymmetrically detuning the end oscillators in the array by application of a pair of appropriate voltages to their tuning ports. This results in a linear phase progression across the array which is just the phasing required to scan the beam. The scan angle is determined by the degree of detuning. We have constructed a seven element one dimensional agile beam array at S-band based on the above principle. Although, a few such arrays have been built in the past, this array possesses two unique features. First, the VCO MMICs have buffer amplifiers which isolate the output from the tuning circuit, and second, the oscillators are weakly coupled to each other at their resonant circuits rather than their outputs. This results in a convenient isolation between the oscillator array design and the radiating aperture design. An important parameter in the design is the so called coupling phase which determines the phase shift of the signals passing from one oscillator to its

  11. Polarimetry With Phased Array Antennas: Theoretical Framework and Definitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnick, Karl F.; Ivashina, Marianna V.; Wijnholds, Stefan J.; Maaskant, Rob

    2012-01-01

    For phased array receivers, the accuracy with which the polarization state of a received signal can be measured depends on the antenna configuration, array calibration process, and beamforming algorithms. A signal and noise model for a dual-polarized array is developed and related to standard polarimetric antenna figures of merit, and the ideal polarimetrically calibrated, maximum-sensitivity beamforming solution for a dual-polarized phased array feed is derived. A practical polarimetric beamformer solution that does not require exact knowledge of the array polarimetric response is shown to be equivalent to the optimal solution in the sense that when the practical beamformers are calibrated, the optimal solution is obtained. To provide a rough initial polarimetric calibration for the practical beamformer solution, an approximate single-source polarimetric calibration method is developed. The modeled instrumental polarization error for a dipole phased array feed with the practical beamformer solution and single-source polarimetric calibration was -10 dB or lower over the array field of view for elements with alignments perturbed by random rotations with 5 degree standard deviation.

  12. Theory for optimal design of waveguiding light concentrators in photovoltaic microcell arrays.

    PubMed

    Semichaevsky, Andrey V; Johnson, Harley T; Yoon, Jongseung; Nuzzo, Ralph G; Li, Lanfang; Rogers, John

    2011-06-10

    Efficiency of ultrathin flexible solar photovoltaic silicon microcell arrays can be significantly improved using nonimaging solar concentrators. A fluorophore is introduced to match the solar spectrum and the low-reflectivity wavelength range of Si, reduce the escape losses, and allow the nontracking operation. In this paper we optimize our solar concentrators using a luminescent/nonluminescent photon transport model. Key modeling results are compared quantitatively to experiments and are in good agreement with the latter. Our solar concentrator performance is not limited by the dye self-absorption. Bending deformations of the flexible solar collectors do not result in their indirect gain degradation compared to flat solar concentrators with the same projected area.

  13. Coax-to-channelised coplanar waveguide in-phase N-way, radial power divider

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, R. N.; Ponchak, G. E.

    1990-01-01

    A novel nonplanar, wideband power divider which makes use of a coax-to-CCPW transition is demonstrated. The transition utilizes a coaxial transformer whose outer conductor is slotted along the length for RF power division and also for exciting the CCPWs in equal amplitude and phase at the radial junction. The measured (8-16 GHz) excess insertion loss at the output ports is 0.5 dB for a four-way divider. The amplitude and phase balance are within 0.5 dB and 5 deg, respectively. The power divider should find applications in the feed network of phased arrays.

  14. Code-modulated interferometric imaging system using phased arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Vikas; Greene, Kevin; Floyd, Brian

    2016-05-01

    Millimeter-wave (mm-wave) imaging provides compelling capabilities for security screening, navigation, and bio- medical applications. Traditional scanned or focal-plane mm-wave imagers are bulky and costly. In contrast, phased-array hardware developed for mass-market wireless communications and automotive radar promise to be extremely low cost. In this work, we present techniques which can allow low-cost phased-array receivers to be reconfigured or re-purposed as interferometric imagers, removing the need for custom hardware and thereby reducing cost. Since traditional phased arrays power combine incoming signals prior to digitization, orthogonal code-modulation is applied to each incoming signal using phase shifters within each front-end and two-bit codes. These code-modulated signals can then be combined and processed coherently through a shared hardware path. Once digitized, visibility functions can be recovered through squaring and code-demultiplexing operations. Pro- vided that codes are selected such that the product of two orthogonal codes is a third unique and orthogonal code, it is possible to demultiplex complex visibility functions directly. As such, the proposed system modulates incoming signals but demodulates desired correlations. In this work, we present the operation of the system, a validation of its operation using behavioral models of a traditional phased array, and a benchmarking of the code-modulated interferometer against traditional interferometer and focal-plane arrays.

  15. Micromirror Array Control of a Phase-Locked Laser Diode Array

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-12-01

    Micromirror Intensity-Voltage Curve . From the intensity plot, maxima (Ix) and minima (IMN) are noted. If IMAX and IMn are known, A4 can be calculated for...of the micromirror array used. Mirror 9 600 500 E 400- S300- C, -0200 lOO_ 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Volts Figure 3b. Mirror Deflection Curve Corresponding...AFIT/GAP/ENP/95D-2 MICROMIRROR ARRAY CONTROL OF A PHASE-LOCKED LASER DIODE ARRAY THESIS Carl J. Christensen, Captain, USAF AFIT/GAP/ENP/95D-2

  16. Phased-Array Antenna With Optoelectronic Control Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunath, Richard R.; Shalkhauser, Kurt A.; Martzaklis, Konstantinos; Lee, Richard Q.; Downey, Alan N.; Simons, Rainee N.

    1995-01-01

    Prototype phased-array antenna features control of amplitude and phase at each radiating element. Amplitude- and phase-control signals transmitted on optical fiber to optoelectronic interface circuit (OEIC), then to monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) at each element. Offers advantages of flexible, rapid electronic steering and shaping of beams. Furthermore, greater number of elements, less overall performance of antenna degraded by malfunction in single element.

  17. The Potential of Phased Arrays for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogorzelski, Ronald J.

    2000-01-01

    Phased array antennas provide a set of operational capabilities which are very attractive for certain mission applications and not very attractive for others. Such antennas are by no means a panacea for telecommunications. In this paper the features of phased arrays are reviewed and their implications for space missions are considered in terms of benefits and costs. The primary capability provided by a phased array is electronic beam agility. The beam direction may be controlled at electronic speeds (vs. mechanical actuation) permitting time division multiplexing of multiple "users." Moreover, the beam direction can be varied over a full hemisphere (for a planar array). On the other hand, such antennas are typically much more complicated than the more commonly used reflectors and horns and this implies higher cost. In some applications, this increased cost must be accepted if the mission is to be carried out at all. The SIR-C radar is an example of such a case albeit not for deep space. Assuming for the sake of argument that the complexity and cost of a phased array can be significantly reduced, where can such antennas be of value in the future of planetary exploration? Potential applications to be discussed are planetary rovers, landers, and orbiters including both the areosynchronous and low orbit varieties. In addition, consideration is given to links from deep space to earth. As may be fairly obvious, the deep space link to earth would not benefit from the wide angle steering capability provided by a phase array whereas a rover could gain advantage from the capability to steer a beam anywhere in the sky. In the rover case, however, physical size of the aperture becomes a significant factor which, of course, has implications regarding the choice of frequency band. Recent research work concerning phased arrays has suggested that future phased arrays might be made less complex and, therefore, less costly. Successful realization of such phased arrays would enable

  18. Quantum-classical analogies in waveguide arrays: From Fourier transforms to ion-laser interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moya-Cessa, Héctor M.

    2018-04-01

    By using the fact that infinite and semi-infinite systems of differential equations may be casted as Schrödinger-like equations we show how quantum-classical analogies may be achieved. In particular we show how the analogies of ion-laser, functions of a phase operator and quantised-field-two-level-atom interactions may be emulated. We also show a realization of the fractional discrete Fourier transform.

  19. Novel Optical Processor for Phased Array Antenna.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-20

    parallel glass slide into the signal beam optical loop. The parallel glass acts like a variable phase shifter to the signal beam simulating phase drift...A list of possible designs are given as follows , _ _ Velocity fa (100dB/cm) Lumit Wavelength I M2I1 TeO2 Longi 4.2 /m/ns about 3 GHz 1.4 4m 34 Fast...subject to achievable acoustic frequency, the preferred materials are the slow shear wave in TeO2 , the fast shear wave in TeO2 or the shear waves in

  20. Sensor Fusion Techniques for Phased-Array Eddy Current and Phased-Array Ultrasound Data

    SciTech Connect

    Arrowood, Lloyd F.

    Sensor (or Data) fusion is the process of integrating multiple data sources to produce more consistent, accurate and comprehensive information than is provided by a single data source. Sensor fusion may also be used to combine multiple signals from a single modality to improve the performance of a particular inspection technique. Industrial nondestructive testing may utilize multiple sensors to acquire inspection data depending upon the object under inspection and the anticipated types of defects that can be identified. Sensor fusion can be performed at various levels of signal abstraction with each having its strengths and weaknesses. A multimodal data fusionmore » strategy first proposed by Heideklang and Shokouhi that combines spatially scattered detection locations to improve detection performance of surface-breaking and near-surface cracks in ferromagnetic metals is shown using a surface inspection example and is then extended for volumetric inspections. Utilizing data acquired from an Olympus Omniscan MX2 from both phased array eddy current and ultrasound probes on test phantoms, single and multilevel fusion techniques are employed to integrate signals from the two modalities. Preliminary results demonstrate how confidence in defect identification and interpretation benefit from sensor fusion techniques. Lastly, techniques for integrating data into radiographic and volumetric imagery from computed tomography are described and results are presented.« less

  1. Implementation of phased-array homework: Assessment and focused understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godshall, Stacy H.

    2012-02-01

    Students demonstrate different levels of understanding of material which often coincide with how diligent the students are with their daily preparation for class. Having students attempt homework problems prior to class enables them to be better prepared to ask specific questions about concepts and to perform on exams, as well as to develop as self learners. This paper will introduce "phased-array homework" that is a flexible system of assigning homework. In addition, this paper discusses resources for students that provide a scaffold for completing this type of homework. As the name of the homework system implies, phased-array homework (PAH) allows an instructor to shape and steer student understanding in much the same way that a phased-array antenna allows for the shaping and steering of a transmitted electromagnetic signal to yield its subsequent effective radiation pattern. Implementation method and results will be presented as well as student perspective on the system.

  2. Research on calibration error of carrier phase against antenna arraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ke; Hou, Xiaomin

    2016-11-01

    It is the technical difficulty of uplink antenna arraying that signals from various quarters can not be automatically aligned at the target in deep space. The size of the far-field power combining gain is directly determined by the accuracy of carrier phase calibration. It is necessary to analyze the entire arraying system in order to improve the accuracy of the phase calibration. This paper analyzes the factors affecting the calibration error of carrier phase of uplink antenna arraying system including the error of phase measurement and equipment, the error of the uplink channel phase shift, the position error of ground antenna, calibration receiver and target spacecraft, the error of the atmospheric turbulence disturbance. Discuss the spatial and temporal autocorrelation model of atmospheric disturbances. Each antenna of the uplink antenna arraying is no common reference signal for continuous calibration. So it must be a system of the periodic calibration. Calibration is refered to communication of one or more spacecrafts in a certain period. Because the deep space targets are not automatically aligned to multiplexing received signal. Therefore the aligned signal should be done in advance on the ground. Data is shown that the error can be controlled within the range of demand by the use of existing technology to meet the accuracy of carrier phase calibration. The total error can be controlled within a reasonable range.

  3. Phased Array Radar Network Experiment for Severe Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushio, T.; Kikuchi, H.; Mega, T.; Yoshikawa, E.; Mizutani, F.; Takahashi, N.

    2017-12-01

    Phased Array Weather Radar (PAWR) was firstly developed in 2012 by Osaka University and Toshiba under a grant of NICT using the Digital Beamforming Technique, and showed a impressive thunderstorm behavior with 30 second resolution. After that development, second PAWR was installed in Kobe city about 60 km away from the first PAWR site, and Tokyo Metropolitan University, Osaka Univeristy, Toshiba and the Osaka Local Government started a new project to develop the Osaka Urban Demonstration Network. The main sensor of the Osaka Network is a 2-node Phased Array Radar Network and lightning location system. Data products that are created both in local high performance computer and Toshiba Computer Cloud, include single and multi-radar data, vector wind, quantitative precipitation estimation, VIL, nowcasting, lightning location and analysis. Each radar node is calibarated by the baloon measurement and through the comparison with the GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement)/ DPR (Dual Frequency Space borne Radar) within 1 dB. The attenuated radar reflectivities obtained by the Phased Array Radar Network at X band are corrected based on the bayesian scheme proposed in Shimamura et al. [2016]. The obtained high resolution (every 30 seconds/ 100 elevation angles) 3D reflectivity and rain rate fields are used to nowcast the surface rain rate up to 30 minutes ahead. These new products are transferred to Osaka Local Government in operational mode and evaluated by several section in Osaka Prefecture. Furthermore, a new Phased Array Radar with polarimetric function has been developed in 2017, and will be operated in the fiscal year of 2017. In this presentation, Phased Array Radar, network architecuture, processing algorithm, evalution of the social experiment and first Multi-Prameter Phased Array Radar experiment are presented.

  4. Adaptive array technique for differential-phase reflectometry in QUEST

    SciTech Connect

    Idei, H., E-mail: idei@triam.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Hanada, K.; Zushi, H.

    2014-11-15

    A Phased Array Antenna (PAA) was considered as launching and receiving antennae in reflectometry to attain good directivity in its applied microwave range. A well-focused beam was obtained in a launching antenna application, and differential-phase evolution was properly measured by using a metal reflector plate in the proof-of-principle experiment at low power test facilities. Differential-phase evolution was also evaluated by using the PAA in the Q-shu University Experiment with Steady State Spherical Tokamak (QUEST). A beam-forming technique was applied in receiving phased-array antenna measurements. In the QUEST device that should be considered as a large oversized cavity, standing wave effectmore » was significantly observed with perturbed phase evolution. A new approach using derivative of measured field on propagating wavenumber was proposed to eliminate the standing wave effect.« less

  5. A Simplified Theory of Coupled Oscillator Array Phase Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pogorzelski, R. J.; York, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    Linear and planar arrays of coupled oscillators have been proposed as means of achieving high power rf sources through coherent spatial power combining. In such - applications, a uniform phase distribution over the aperture is desired. However, it has been shown that by detuning some of the oscillators away from the oscillation frequency of the ensemble of oscillators, one may achieve other useful aperture phase distributions. Notable among these are linear phase distributions resulting in steering of the output rf beam away from the broadside direction. The theory describing the operation of such arrays of coupled oscillators is quite complicated since the phenomena involved are inherently nonlinear. This has made it difficult to develop an intuitive understanding of the impact of oscillator tuning on phase control and has thus impeded practical application. In this work a simpl!fied theory is developed which facilitates intuitive understanding by establishing an analog of the phase control problem in terms of electrostatics.

  6. Phased-array sources based on nonlinear metamaterial nanocavities

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Omri; Campione, Salvatore; Benz, Alexander; Ravikumar, Arvind P.; Liu, Sheng; Luk, Ting S.; Kadlec, Emil A.; Shaner, Eric A.; Klem, John F.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Brener, Igal

    2015-01-01

    Coherent superposition of light from subwavelength sources is an attractive prospect for the manipulation of the direction, shape and polarization of optical beams. This phenomenon constitutes the basis of phased arrays, commonly used at microwave and radio frequencies. Here we propose a new concept for phased-array sources at infrared frequencies based on metamaterial nanocavities coupled to a highly nonlinear semiconductor heterostructure. Optical pumping of the nanocavity induces a localized, phase-locked, nonlinear resonant polarization that acts as a source feed for a higher-order resonance of the nanocavity. Varying the nanocavity design enables the production of beams with arbitrary shape and polarization. As an example, we demonstrate two second harmonic phased-array sources that perform two optical functions at the second harmonic wavelength (∼5 μm): a beam splitter and a polarizing beam splitter. Proper design of the nanocavity and nonlinear heterostructure will enable such phased arrays to span most of the infrared spectrum. PMID:26126879

  7. Phased-array sources based on nonlinear metamaterial nanocavities

    DOE PAGES

    Wolf, Omri; Campione, Salvatore; Benz, Alexander; ...

    2015-07-01

    Coherent superposition of light from subwavelength sources is an attractive prospect for the manipulation of the direction, shape and polarization of optical beams. This phenomenon constitutes the basis of phased arrays, commonly used at microwave and radio frequencies. Here we propose a new concept for phased-array sources at infrared frequencies based on metamaterial nanocavities coupled to a highly nonlinear semiconductor heterostructure. Optical pumping of the nanocavity induces a localized, phase-locked, nonlinear resonant polarization that acts as a source feed for a higher-order resonance of the nanocavity. Varying the nanocavity design enables the production of beams with arbitrary shape and polarization.more » As an example, we demonstrate two second harmonic phased-array sources that perform two optical functions at the second harmonic wavelength (~5 μm): a beam splitter and a polarizing beam splitter. As a result, proper design of the nanocavity and nonlinear heterostructure will enable such phased arrays to span most of the infrared spectrum.« less

  8. Phase-locked laser array through global antenna mutual coupling

    DOE PAGES

    Kao, Tsung -Yu; Reno, John L.; Hu, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Here, phase locking of an array of lasers is a highly effective way in beam shaping, to increase the output power, and to reduce lasing threshold. In this work, we present a novel phase-locking mechanism based on "antenna mutual coupling" wherein laser elements interact through far-field radiations with definite phase relations. This allows long-range global coupling among array elements to achieve robust 2-dimensional phase-locked laser array. The new scheme is ideal for lasers with deep sub-wavelength confined cavity such as nanolasers, where the divergent beam pattern could be used to form strong coupling among elements in the array. We experimentallymore » demonstrated such a scheme using sub-wavelength short-cavity surface-emitting lasers at terahertz frequency. More than 37 laser elements are phase-locked to each other, delivering up to 6.5 mW single-mode radiations at ~3 terahertz, with maximum 450-mW/A slope efficiency and near diffraction limit beam divergence.« less

  9. Hierarchical sinuous-antenna phased array for millimeter wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cukierman, Ari; Lee, Adrian T.; Raum, Christopher; Suzuki, Aritoki; Westbrook, Benjamin

    2018-03-01

    We present the design, fabrication, and measured performance of a hierarchical sinuous-antenna phased array coupled to superconducting transition-edge-sensor (TES) bolometers for millimeter wavelengths. The architecture allows for dual-polarization wideband sensitivity with a beam width that is approximately frequency-independent. We report on measurements of a prototype device, which uses three levels of triangular phased arrays to synthesize beams that are approximately constant in width across three frequency bands covering a 3:1 bandwidth. The array element is a lens-coupled sinuous antenna. The device consists of an array of hemispherical lenses coupled to a lithographed wafer, which integrates TESs, planar sinuous antennas, and microwave circuitry including band-defining filters. The approximately frequency-independent beam widths improve coupling to telescope optics and keep the sensitivity of an experiment close to optimal across a broad frequency range. The design can be straightforwardly modified for use with non-TES lithographed cryogenic detectors such as kinetic inductance detectors. Additionally, we report on the design and measurements of a broadband 180° hybrid that can simplify the design of future multichroic focal planes including but not limited to hierarchical phased arrays.

  10. Optical phased array configuration for an extremely large telescope.

    PubMed

    Meinel, Aden Baker; Meinel, Marjorie Pettit

    2004-01-20

    Extremely large telescopes are currently under consideration by several groups in several countries. Extrapolation of current technology up to 30 m indicates a cost of over dollars 1 billion. Innovative concepts are being explored to find significant cost reductions. We explore the concept of an Optical Phased Array (OPA) telescope. Each element of the OPA is a separate Cassegrain telescope. Collimated beams from the array are sent via an associated set of delay lines to a central beam combiner. This array of small telescope elements offers the possibility of starting with a low-cost array of a few rings of elements, adding structure and additional Cass elements until the desired diameter telescope is attained. We address the salient features of such an extremely large telescope and cost elements relative to more conventional options.

  11. An Overview of Recent Phased Array Measurements at NASA Glenn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podboy, Gary G.

    2008-01-01

    A review of measurements made at the NASA Glenn Research Center using an OptiNAV Array 48 phased array system is provided. Data were acquired on a series of round convergent and convergent-divergent nozzles using the Small Hot Jet Acoustic Rig. Tests were conducted over a range of jet operating conditions, including subsonic and supersonic and cold and hot jets. Phased array measurements were also acquired on a Williams International FJ44 engine. These measurements show how the noise generated by the engine is split between the inlet-radiated and exhaust-radiated components. The data also show inlet noise being reflected off of the inflow control device used during the test.

  12. MSAT-X phased array antenna adaptions to airborne applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparks, C.; Chung, H. H.; Peng, S. Y.

    1988-01-01

    The Mobile Satellite Experiment (MSAT-X) phased array antenna is being modified to meet future requirements. The proposed system consists of two high gain antennas mounted on each side of a fuselage, and a low gain antenna mounted on top of the fuselage. Each antenna is an electronically steered phased array based on the design of the MSAT-X antenna. A beamforming network is connected to the array elements via coaxial cables. It is essential that the proposed antenna system be able to provide an adequate communication link over the required space coverage, which is 360 degrees in azimuth and from 20 degrees below the horizon to the zenith in elevation. Alternative design concepts are suggested. Both open loop and closed loop backup capabilities are discussed. Typical antenna performance data are also included.

  13. Removing Background Noise with Phased Array Signal Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podboy, Gary; Stephens, David

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented from a test conducted to determine how well microphone phased array processing software could pull an acoustic signal out of background noise. The array consisted of 24 microphones in an aerodynamic fairing designed to be mounted in-flow. The processing was conducted using Functional Beam forming software developed by Optinav combined with cross spectral matrix subtraction. The test was conducted in the free-jet of the Nozzle Acoustic Test Rig at NASA GRC. The background noise was produced by the interaction of the free-jet flow with the solid surfaces in the flow. The acoustic signals were produced by acoustic drivers. The results show that the phased array processing was able to pull the acoustic signal out of the background noise provided the signal was no more than 20 dB below the background noise level measured using a conventional single microphone equipped with an aerodynamic forebody.

  14. A novel serrated columnar phased array ultrasonic transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Cheng; Sun, Zhenguo; Cai, Dong; Song, Hongwei; Chen, Qiang

    2016-02-01

    Traditionally, wedges are required to generate transverse waves in a solid specimen and mechanical rotation device is needed for interrogation of a specimen with a hollow bore, such as high speed railway locomotive axles, turbine rotors, etc. In order to eliminate the mechanical rotation process, a novel array pattern of phased array ultrasonic transducers named as serrated columnar phased array ultrasonic transducer (SCPAUT) is designed. The elementary transducers are planar rectangular, located on the outside surface of a cylinder. This layout is aimed to generate electrically rotating transverse waveforms so as to inspect the longitudinal cracks on the outside surface of a specimen which has a hollow bore at the center, such as the high speed railway locomotive axles. The general geometry of the SCPAUT and the inspection system are illustrated. A FEM model and mockup experiment has been carried out. The experiment results are in good agreement with the FEM simulation results.

  15. Phased Array Probe Optimization for the Inspection of Titanium Billets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasselkorde, E.; Cooper, I.; Wallace, P.; Lupien, V.

    2010-02-01

    The manufacturing process of titanium billets can produce multiple sub-surface defects that are particularly difficult to detect during the early stages of production. Failure to detect these defects can lead to subsequent in-service failure. A new and novel automated quality control system is being developed for the inspection of titanium billets destined for use in aerospace applications. The sensors will be deployed by an automated system to minimise the use of manual inspections, which should improve the quality and reliability of these critical inspections early on in the manufacturing process. This paper presents the first part of the work, which is the design and the simulation of the phased array ultrasonic inspection of the billets. A series of phased array transducers were designed to optimise the ultrasonic inspection of a ten inch diameter billet made from Titanium 6Al-4V. A comparison was performed between different probes including a 2D annular sectorial array.

  16. Weak-signal Phase Calibration Strategies for Large DSN Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Dayton L.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) is studying arrays of large numbers of small, mass-produced radio antennas as a cost-effective way to increase downlink sensitivity and data rates for future missions. An important issue for the operation of large arrays is the accuracy with which signals from hundreds of small antennas can be combined. This is particularly true at Ka band (32 GHz) where atmospheric phase variations can be large and rapidly changing. A number of algorithms exist to correct the phases of signals from individual antennas in the case where a spacecraft signal provides a useful signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on time scales shorter than the atmospheric coherence time. However, for very weak spacecraft signals it will be necessary to rely on background natural radio sources to maintain array phasing. Very weak signals could result from a spacecraft emergency or by design, such as direct-to-Earth data transmissions from distant planetary atmospheric or surface probes using only low gain antennas. This paper considers the parameter space where external real-time phase calibration will be necessary, and what this requires in terms of array configuration and signal processing. The inherent limitations of this technique are also discussed.

  17. Coordinated Radar Resource Management for Networked Phased Array Radars

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Coordinated radar resource management for networked phased array radars Peter W. Moo and Zhen Ding Radar Sensing & Exploitation Section Defence...15] P.W. Moo . Scheduling for multifunction radar via two-slope benefit functions. Radar, Sonar Navigation, IET, 5(8):884 –894, Oct. 2011. [16] M.I

  18. Interleaved array antenna technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This is the third phase of a program to establish an antenna concept for shuttle and free flying spacecraft earth resources experiments using Synthetic Aperture Radar. The feasibility of a plated graphite epoxy waveguide for a space antenna was evaluated. A quantity of flat panels and waveguides were developed, procured, and tested for electrical and mechanical properties. In addition, processes for the assembly of a unique waveguide array were investigated. Finally, trades between various configurations that would allow elevation (range) electronic scanning and that would minimize feed complexity for various RF bandwidths were made.

  19. Characteristics of phase-correcting fresnel zone plates and elliptical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiltse, James C.

    1994-02-01

    The primary area of activity has been concentrated on the investigations relating to Fresnel zone plate antennas. A secondary effort has dealt with the characteristics of propagation in waveguides of elliptical cross section. In both cases, applications at microwave and millimeter-wavelengths have been emphasized. Thorough literature searches were conducted, and the results are given in Appendices A and B. The zone plate work has dealt with both transmission and reflection types, and has included considering the off-axis-fed cases. In the latter case, the plate may consist of elliptical zones, rather than the usual circular configuration. In general, the characteristics studied include far-field patterns, focal region fields, off-axis performance, bandwidth, and aberrations. In the case of propagation in elliptical waveguides, the attenuation and modal properties were studied for enclosed metal waveguides, coaxial transmission lines, and various surface waveguides.

  20. Sub-wavelength grating mode transformers in silicon slab waveguides.

    PubMed

    Bock, Przemek J; Cheben, Pavel; Schmid, Jens H; Delâge, André; Xu, Dan-Xia; Janz, Siegfried; Hall, Trevor J

    2009-10-12

    We report on several new types of sub-wavelength grating (SWG) gradient index structures for efficient mode coupling in high index contrast slab waveguides. Using a SWG, an adiabatic transition is achieved at the interface between silicon-on-insulator waveguides of different geometries. The SWG transition region minimizes both fundamental mode mismatch loss and coupling to higher order modes. By creating the gradient effective index region in the direction of propagation, we demonstrate that efficient vertical mode transformation can be achieved between slab waveguides of different core thickness. The structures which we propose can be fabricated by a single etch step. Using 3D finite-difference time-domain simulations we study the loss, polarization dependence and the higher order mode excitation for two types (triangular and triangular-transverse) of SWG transition regions between silicon-on-insulator slab waveguides of different core thicknesses. We demonstrate two solutions to reduce the polarization dependent loss of these structures. Finally, we propose an implementation of SWG structures to reduce loss and higher order mode excitation between a slab waveguide and a phase array of an array waveguide grating (AWG). Compared to a conventional AWG, the loss is reduced from -1.4 dB to < -0.2 dB at the slab-array interface.

  1. Analysis of a Waveguide-Fed Metasurface Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David R.; Yurduseven, Okan; Mancera, Laura Pulido; Bowen, Patrick; Kundtz, Nathan B.

    2017-11-01

    The metasurface concept has emerged as an advantageous reconfigurable antenna architecture for beam forming and wave-front shaping, with applications that include satellite and terrestrial communications, radar, imaging, and wireless power transfer. The metasurface antenna consists of an array of metamaterial elements distributed over an electrically large structure, each subwavelength in dimension and with subwavelength separation between elements. In the antenna configuration we consider, the metasurface is excited by the fields from an attached waveguide. Each metamaterial element can be modeled as a polarizable dipole that couples the waveguide mode to radiation modes. Distinct from the phased array and electronically-scanned-antenna architectures, a dynamic metasurface antenna does not require active phase shifters and amplifiers but rather achieves reconfigurability by shifting the resonance frequency of each individual metamaterial element. We derive the basic properties of a one-dimensional waveguide-fed metasurface antenna in the approximation in which the metamaterial elements do not perturb the waveguide mode and are noninteracting. We derive analytical approximations for the array factors of the one-dimensional antenna, including the effective polarizabilities needed for amplitude-only, phase-only, and binary constraints. Using full-wave numerical simulations, we confirm the analysis, modeling waveguides with slots or complementary metamaterial elements patterned into one of the surfaces.

  2. Airborne ultrasonic phased arrays using ferroelectrets: a new fabrication approach.

    PubMed

    Ealo, Joao L; Camacho, Jorge J; Fritsch, Carlos

    2009-04-01

    In this work, a novel procedure that considerably simplifies the fabrication process of ferroelectret-based multielement array transducers is proposed and evaluated. Also, the potential of ferroelectrets being used as active material for air-coupled ultrasonic transducer design is demonstrated. The new construction method of multi-element transducers introduces 2 distinctive improvements. First, active ferroelectret material is not discretized into elements, and second, the need of structuring upper and/or lower electrodes in advance of the permanent polarization of the film is removed. The aperture discretization and the mechanical connection are achieved in one step using a through-thickness conductive tape. To validate the procedure, 2 linear array prototypes of 32 elements, with a pitch of 3.43 mm and a wide usable frequency range from 30 to 300 kHz, were built and evaluated using a commercial phased-array system. A low crosstalk among elements, below -30 dB, was measured by interferometry. Likewise, a homogeneous response of the array elements, with a maximum deviation of +/-1.8 dB, was obtained. Acoustic beam steering measurements were accomplished at different deflection angles using a calibrated microphone. The ultrasonic beam parameters, namely, lateral resolution, side lobe level, grating lobes, and focus depth, were congruent with theory. Acoustic images of a single reflector were obtained using one of the array elements as the receiver. Resulting images are also in accordance with numerical simulation, demonstrating the feasibility of using these arrays in pulse-echo mode. The proposed procedure simplifies the manufacturing of multidimensional arrays with arbitrary shape elements and not uniformly distributed. Furthermore, this concept can be extended to nonflat arrays as long as the transducer substrate conforms to a developable surface.

  3. Binary-Phase Fourier Gratings for Nonuniform Array Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Andrew S.; Crow, Robert W.; Ashley, Paul R.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a design method for a binary-phase Fourier grating that generates an array of spots with nonuniform, user-defined intensities symmetric about the zeroth order. Like the Dammann fanout grating approach, the binary-phase Fourier grating uses only two phase levels in its grating surface profile to generate the final spot array. Unlike the Dammann fanout grating approach, this method allows for the generation of nonuniform, user-defined intensities within the final fanout pattern. Restrictions governing the specification and realization of the array's individual spot intensities are discussed. Design methods used to realize the grating employ both simulated annealing and nonlinear optimization approaches to locate optimal solutions to the grating design problem. The end-use application driving this development operates in the near- to mid-infrared spectrum - allowing for higher resolution in grating specification and fabrication with respect to wavelength than may be available in visible spectrum applications. Fabrication of a grating generating a user-defined nine spot pattern is accomplished in GaAs for the near-infrared. Characterization of the grating is provided through the measurement of individual spot intensities, array uniformity, and overall efficiency. Final measurements are compared to calculated values with a discussion of the results.

  4. Design of photonic phased array switches using nano electromechanical systems on silicon-on-insulator integration platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Ali Abdulsattar

    This thesis presents an introduction to the design and simulation of a novel class of integrated photonic phased array switch elements. The main objective is to use nano-electromechanical (NEMS) based phase shifters of cascaded under-etched slot nanowires that are compact in size and require a small amount of power to operate them. The structure of the switch elements is organized such that it brings the phase shifting elements to the exterior sides of the photonic circuits. The transition slot couplers, used to interconnect the phase shifters, are designed to enable biasing one of the silicon beams of each phase shifter from an electrode located at the side of the phase shifter. The other silicon beam of each phase shifter is biased through the rest of the silicon structure of the switch element, which is taken as a ground. Phased array switch elements ranging from 2x2 up to 8x8 multiple-inputs/multiple-outputs (MIMO) are conveniently designed within reasonable footprints native to the current fabrication technologies. Chapter one presents the general layout of the various designs of the switch elements and demonstrates their novel features. This demonstration will show how waveguide disturbances in the interconnecting network from conventional switch elements can be avoided by adopting an innovative design. Some possible applications for the designed switch elements of different sizes and topologies are indicated throughout the chapter. Chapter two presents the design of the multimode interference (MMI) couplers used in the switch elements as splitters, combiners and waveguide crossovers. Simulation data and design methodologies for the multimode couplers of interest are detailed in this chapter. Chapter three presents the design and analysis of the NEMS-operated phase shifters. Both simulations and numerical analysis are utilized in the design of a 0°-180° capable NEMS-operated phase shifter. Additionally, the response of some of the designed photonic phased

  5. Brazilian Decimetre Array (Phase-1): Initial solar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, R.; Sawant, H. S.; Cecatto, J. R.; Faria, C.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Kathiravan, C.; Suryanarayana, G. S.

    An East-West one-dimensional radio interferometer array consisting of 5 parabolic dish antennas has been set-up at Cachoeira Paulista, Brazil (Longitude: 45°0'20″W, Latitude: 22°41'19″S) for observations of Sun and some of the strong sidereal sources by the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Brazil. This is Phase-1 of the proposed Brazilian Decimetre Array (BDA) and can be operated at any frequency in the range 1.2-1.7 GHz. The instrument is functional since November 2004 onwards at 1.6 GHz. The angular and temporal resolution at the above frequency range are ˜3' and 100 ms, respectively. We present here the initial solar observations carried out with this array.

  6. Satellite-borne active phased array techniques for mobile communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, P. G.; Forrest, J. R.

    1986-07-01

    This paper investigates the design of active phased arrays for communications satellites. In particular, consideration is given to the problems occurring when active arrays are required to produce multiple beams. There is a real need to keep the complexity of the array electronics to a minimum, but this conflicts with the desire to obtain the greatest possible freedom of control of the radiation pattern produced. The paper demonstrates a method of coping with the problem. Low-gain elements are used to provide design freedom and they are grouped into subarrays to limit the complexity of the rest of the system. With appropriate configurations of subarrays, greatly improved radiation pattern characteristics can be obtained and frequency reuse between multiple beams becomes feasible. A demonstration model of 108 microstrip patches grouped into 32 subarrays, operating at 12 GHz, has been constructed and verifies that the technique is effective.

  7. Optically addressed ultra-wideband phased antenna array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Jian

    Demands for high data rate and multifunctional apertures from both civilian and military users have motivated development of ultra-wideband (UWB) electrically steered phased arrays. Meanwhile, the need for large contiguous frequency is pushing operation of radio systems into the millimeter-wave (mm-wave) range. Therefore, modern radio systems require UWB performance from VHF to mm-wave. However, traditional electronic systems suffer many challenges that make achieving these requirements difficult. Several examples includes: voltage controlled oscillators (VCO) cannot provide a tunable range of several octaves, distribution of wideband local oscillator signals undergo high loss and dispersion through RF transmission lines, and antennas have very limited bandwidth or bulky sizes. Recently, RF photonics technology has drawn considerable attention because of its advantages over traditional systems, with the capability of offering extreme power efficiency, information capacity, frequency agility, and spatial beam diversity. A hybrid RF photonic communication system utilizing optical links and an RF transducer at the antenna potentially provides ultra-wideband data transmission, i.e., over 100 GHz. A successful implementation of such an optically addressed phased array requires addressing several key challenges. Photonic generation of an RF source with over a seven-octave bandwidth has been demonstrated in the last few years. However, one challenge which still remains is how to convey phased optical signals to downconversion modules and antennas. Therefore, a feed network with phase sweeping capability and low excessive phase noise needs to be developed. Another key challenge is to develop an ultra-wideband array antenna. Modern frontends require antennas to be compact, planar, and low-profile in addition to possessing broad bandwidth, conforming to stringent space, weight, cost, and power constraints. To address these issues, I will study broadband and miniaturization

  8. Wideband Low Side Lobe Aperture Coupled Patch Phased Array Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poduval, Dhruva

    Low profile printed antenna arrays with wide bandwidth, high gain, and low Side Lobe Level (SLL) are in great demand for current and future commercial and military communication systems and radar. Aperture coupled patch antennas have been proposed to obtain wide impedance bandwidths in the past. Aperture coupling is preferred particularly for phased arrays because of their advantage of integration to other active devices and circuits, e.g. phase shifters, power amplifiers, low noise amplifiers, mixers etc. However, when designing such arrays, the interplay between array performance characteristics, such as gain, side lobe level, back lobe level, mutual coupling etc. must be understood and optimized under multiple design constraints, e.g. substrate material properties and thicknesses, element to element spacing, and feed lines and their orientation and arrangements with respect to the antenna elements. The focus of this thesis is to investigate, design, and develop an aperture coupled patch array with wide operating bandwidth (30%), high gain (17.5 dBi), low side lobe level (20 dB), and high Forward to Backward (F/B) ratio (21.8 dB). The target frequency range is 2.4 to 3 GHz given its wide application in WLAN, LTE (Long Term Evolution) and other communication systems. Notwithstanding that the design concept can very well be adapted at other frequencies. Specifically, a 16 element, 4 by 4 planar microstrip patch array is designed using HFSS and experimentally developed and tested. Starting from mutual coupling minimization a corporate feeding scheme is designed to achieve the needed performance. To reduce the SLL the corporate feeding network is redesigned to obtain a specific amplitude taper. Studies are conducted to determine the optimum location for a metallic reflector under the feed line to improve the F/B. An experimental prototype of the antenna was built and tested validating and demonstrating the performance levels expected from simulation predictions

  9. Phased Arrays of Ground and Airborne Mobile Terminals for Satellite Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, John

    1996-01-01

    Phased array antenna is beginning to play an important in the arena of mobile/satellite communications. Two examples of mobile terminal phased arrays will be shown. Their technical background, challenges, and cost drivers will be discussed. A possible solution to combat some of the deficiencies of the conventional phased array by exploiting the phased reflectarray technology will be briefly presented.

  10. Quantum phases in circuit QED with a superconducting qubit array

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuanwei; Yu, Lixian; Liang, J. -Q; Chen, Gang; Jia, Suotang; Nori, Franco

    2014-01-01

    Circuit QED on a chip has become a powerful platform for simulating complex many-body physics. In this report, we realize a Dicke-Ising model with an antiferromagnetic nearest-neighbor spin-spin interaction in circuit QED with a superconducting qubit array. We show that this system exhibits a competition between the collective spin-photon interaction and the antiferromagnetic nearest-neighbor spin-spin interaction, and then predict four quantum phases, including: a paramagnetic normal phase, an antiferromagnetic normal phase, a paramagnetic superradiant phase, and an antiferromagnetic superradiant phase. The antiferromagnetic normal phase and the antiferromagnetic superradiant phase are new phases in many-body quantum optics. In the antiferromagnetic superradiant phase, both the antiferromagnetic and superradiant orders can coexist, and thus the system possesses symmetry. Moreover, we find an unconventional photon signature in this phase. In future experiments, these predicted quantum phases could be distinguished by detecting both the mean-photon number and the magnetization. PMID:24522250

  11. Phased Array Focusing for Acoustic Wireless Power Transfer.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Victor Farm-Guoo; Bedair, Sarah S; Lazarus, Nathan

    2018-01-01

    Wireless power transfer (WPT) through acoustic waves can achieve higher efficiencies than inductive coupling when the distance is above several times the transducer size. This paper demonstrates the use of ultrasonic phased arrays to focus power to receivers at arbitrary locations to increase the power transfer efficiency. Using a phased array consisting of 37 elements at a distance nearly 5 times the receiver transducer diameter, a factor of 2.6 increase in efficiency was achieved when compared to a case equivalent to a single large transducer with the same peak efficiency distance. The array has a total diameter of 7 cm, and transmits through air at 40 kHz to a 1.1-cm diameter receiver, achieving a peak overall efficiency of 4% at a distance of 5 cm. By adjusting the focal distance, the efficiency can also be maintained relatively constant at distances up to 9 cm. Numerical models were developed and shown to closely match the experimental energy transfer behavior; modeling results indicate that the efficiency can be further doubled by increasing the number of elements. For comparison, an inductive WPT system was also built with the diameters of the transmitting and receiving coils equivalent to the dimensions of the transmitting ultrasonic phased array and receiver transducer, and the acoustic WPT system achieved higher efficiencies than the inductive WPT system when the transmit-to-receive distance is above 5 cm. In addition, beam angle steering was demonstrated by using a simplified seven-element 1-D array, achieving power transfer less dependent on receiver placement.

  12. Experimental demonstration of conformal phased array antenna via transformation optics.

    PubMed

    Lei, Juan; Yang, Juxing; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Zhiya; Fu, Guang; Hao, Yang

    2018-02-28

    Transformation Optics has been proven a versatile technique for designing novel electromagnetic devices and it has much wider applicability in many subject areas related to general wave equations. Among them, quasi-conformal transformation optics (QCTO) can be applied to minimize anisotropy of transformed media and has opened up the possibility to the design of broadband antennas with arbitrary geometries. In this work, a wide-angle scanning conformal phased array based on all-dielectric QCTO lens is designed and experimentally demonstrated. Excited by the same current distribution as such in a conventional planar array, the conformal system in presence of QCTO lens can preserve the same radiation characteristics of a planar array with wide-angle beam-scanning and low side lobe level (SLL). Laplace's equation subject to Dirichlet-Neumann boundary conditions is adopted to construct the mapping between the virtual and physical spaces. The isotropic lens with graded refractive index is realized by all-dielectric holey structure after an effective parameter approximation. The measurements of the fabricated system agree well with the simulated results, which demonstrate its excellent wide-angle beam scanning performance. Such demonstration paves the way to a robust but efficient array synthesis, as well as multi-beam and beam forming realization of conformal arrays via transformation optics.

  13. AlGaAs phased array laser for optical communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, N. W.

    1989-01-01

    Phased locked arrays of multiple AlGaAs diode laser emitters were investigated both in edge emitting and surface emitting configurations. CSP edge emitter structures, coupled by either evanescent waves or Y-guides, could not achieve the required powers (greater than or similar to 500 mW) while maintaining a diffraction limited, single lobed output beam. Indeed, although the diffraction limit was achieved in this type of device, it was at low powers and in the double lobed radiation pattern characteristic of out-of-phase coupling. Grating surface emitting (GSE) arrays were, therefore, investigated with more promising results. The incorporation of second order gratings in distribute Bragg reflector (DBR) structures allows surface emission, and can be configured to allow injection locking and lateral coupling to populate 2-D arrays that should be able to reach power levels commensurate with the needs of high performance, free space optical communications levels. Also, a new amplitude modulation scheme was developed for GSE array operation.

  14. Wake Vortex Detection: Phased Microphone vs. Linear Infrasonic Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Qamar A.; Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Sullivan, Nicholas T.; Knight, Howard K.

    2014-01-01

    Sensor technologies can make a significant impact on the detection of aircraft-generated vortices in an air space of interest, typically in the approach or departure corridor. Current state-of-the art sensor technologies do not provide three-dimensional measurements needed for an operational system or even for wake vortex modeling to advance the understanding of vortex behavior. Most wake vortex sensor systems used today have been developed only for research applications and lack the reliability needed for continuous operation. The main challenges for the development of an operational sensor system are reliability, all-weather operation, and spatial coverage. Such a sensor has been sought for a period of last forty years. Acoustic sensors were first proposed and tested by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) early in 1970s for tracking wake vortices but these acoustic sensors suffered from high levels of ambient noise. Over a period of the last fifteen years, there has been renewed interest in studying noise generated by aircraft wake vortices, both numerically and experimentally. The German Aerospace Center (DLR) was the first to propose the application of a phased microphone array for the investigation of the noise sources of wake vortices. The concept was first demonstrated at Berlins Airport Schoenefeld in 2000. A second test was conducted in Tarbes, France, in 2002, where phased microphone arrays were applied to study the wake vortex noise of an Airbus 340. Similarly, microphone phased arrays and other opto-acoustic microphones were evaluated in a field test at the Denver International Airport in 2003. For the Tarbes and Denver tests, the wake trajectories of phased microphone arrays and lidar were compared as these were installed side by side. Due to a built-in pressure equalization vent these microphones were not suitable for capturing acoustic noise below 20 Hz. Our group at NASA Langley Research Center developed and installed an

  15. Development of High-Fill-Factor Large-Aperture Micromirrors for Agile Optical Phased Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-28

    Final Project Report Contract/Grant Title: Development of High-Fill-Factor Large-Aperture Micromirrors for Agile Optical Phased Arrays...factor (HFF) micromirror array (MMA) has been proposed, fabricated and tested. Optical-phased-array (OPA) beam steering based on the HFF MMA has also...electrically tuned to multiple 2. 1. Background High-fill-factor (HFF) micromirror arrays (MMAs) can form optical phased arrays (OPAs) for laser beam

  16. Ultrasonic Phased Array Simulations of Welded Components at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, D. J.; Tokars, R. P.; Martin, R. E.; Rauser, R. W.; Aldrin, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    Comprehensive and accurate inspections of welded components have become of increasing importance as NASA develops new hardware such as Ares rocket segments for future exploration missions. Simulation and modeling will play an increasing role in the future for nondestructive evaluation in order to better understand the physics of the inspection process, to prove or disprove the feasibility for an inspection method or inspection scenario, for inspection optimization, for better understanding of experimental results, and for assessment of probability of detection. This study presents simulation and experimental results for an ultrasonic phased array inspection of a critical welded structure important for NASA future exploration vehicles. Keywords: nondestructive evaluation, computational simulation, ultrasonics, weld, modeling, phased array

  17. Robotic inspection of fiber reinforced composites using phased array UT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetson, Jeffrey T.; De Odorico, Walter

    2014-02-01

    Ultrasound is the current NDE method of choice to inspect large fiber reinforced airframe structures. Over the last 15 years Cartesian based scanning machines using conventional ultrasound techniques have been employed by all airframe OEMs and their top tier suppliers to perform these inspections. Technical advances in both computing power and commercially available, multi-axis robots now facilitate a new generation of scanning machines. These machines use multiple end effector tools taking full advantage of phased array ultrasound technologies yielding substantial improvements in inspection quality and productivity. This paper outlines the general architecture for these new robotic scanning systems as well as details the variety of ultrasonic techniques available for use with them including advances such as wide area phased array scanning and sound field adaptation for non-flat, non-parallel surfaces.

  18. Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Phased Array Demonstrated With ACTS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) arrays developed by the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Air Force Rome Laboratory were demonstrated in aeronautical terminals and in mobile or fixed Earth terminals linked with NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). Four K/Ka-band experimental arrays were demonstrated between May 1994 and May 1995. Each array had GaAs MMIC devices at each radiating element for electronic beam steering and distributed power amplification. The 30-GHz transmit array used in uplinks to ACTS was developed by Lewis and Texas Instruments. The three 20-GHz receive arrays used in downlinks from ACTS were developed in cooperation with the Air Force Rome Laboratory, taking advantage of existing Air Force integrated-circuit, active-phased-array development contracts with the Boeing Company and Lockheed Martin Corporation. Four demonstrations, each related to an application of high interest to both commercial and Department of Defense organizations, were conducted. The location, type of link, and the data rate achieved for each of the applications is shown. In one demonstration-- an aeronautical terminal experiment called AERO-X--a duplex voice link between an aeronautical terminal on the Lewis Learjet and ACTS was achieved. Two others demonstrated duplex voice links (and in one case, interactive video links as well) between ACTS and an Army high-mobility, multipurpose wheeled vehicle (HMMWV, or "humvee"). In the fourth demonstration, the array was on a fixed mount and was electronically steered toward ACTS. Lewis served as project manager for all demonstrations and as overall system integrator. Lewis engineers developed the array system including a controller for open-loop tracking of ACTS during flight and HMMWV motion, as well as a laptop data display and recording system used in all demonstrations. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory supported the AERO-X program, providing elements of the ACTS Mobile Terminal. The successful

  19. Room-temperature subnanosecond waveguide lasers in Nd:YVO4 Q-switched by phase-change VO2: A comparison with 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Weijie; Li, Rang; Cheng, Chen; Chen, Yanxue; Lu, Qingming; Romero, Carolina; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R.; Hao, Xiaotao; Chen, Feng

    2017-04-01

    We report on room-temperature subnanosecond waveguide laser operation at 1064 nm in a Nd:YVO4 crystal waveguide through Q-switching of phase-change nanomaterial vanadium dioxide (VO2). The unique feature of VO2 nanomaterial from the insulating to metallic phases offers low-saturation-intensity nonlinear absorptions of light for subnanosecond pulse generation. The low-loss waveguide is fabricated by using the femtosecond laser writing with depressed cladding geometry. Under optical pump at 808 nm, efficient pulsed laser has been achieved in the Nd:YVO4 waveguide, reaching minimum pulse duration of 690 ps and maximum output average power of 66.7 mW. To compare the Q-switched laser performances by VO2 saturable absorber with those based on two-dimensional materials, the 1064-nm laser pulses have been realized in the same waveguide platform with either graphene or transition metal dichalcogenide (in this work, WS2) coated mirror. The results on 2D material Q-switched waveguide lasers have shown that the shortest pulses are with 22-ns duration, whilst the maximum output average powers reach ~161.9 mW. This work shows the obvious difference on the lasing properties based on phase-change material and 2D materials, and suggests potential applications of VO2 as low-cost saturable absorber for subnanosecond laser generation.

  20. Room-temperature subnanosecond waveguide lasers in Nd:YVO4 Q-switched by phase-change VO2: A comparison with 2D materials.

    PubMed

    Nie, Weijie; Li, Rang; Cheng, Chen; Chen, Yanxue; Lu, Qingming; Romero, Carolina; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R; Hao, Xiaotao; Chen, Feng

    2017-04-06

    We report on room-temperature subnanosecond waveguide laser operation at 1064 nm in a Nd:YVO 4 crystal waveguide through Q-switching of phase-change nanomaterial vanadium dioxide (VO 2 ). The unique feature of VO 2 nanomaterial from the insulating to metallic phases offers low-saturation-intensity nonlinear absorptions of light for subnanosecond pulse generation. The low-loss waveguide is fabricated by using the femtosecond laser writing with depressed cladding geometry. Under optical pump at 808 nm, efficient pulsed laser has been achieved in the Nd:YVO 4 waveguide, reaching minimum pulse duration of 690 ps and maximum output average power of 66.7 mW. To compare the Q-switched laser performances by VO 2 saturable absorber with those based on two-dimensional materials, the 1064-nm laser pulses have been realized in the same waveguide platform with either graphene or transition metal dichalcogenide (in this work, WS 2 ) coated mirror. The results on 2D material Q-switched waveguide lasers have shown that the shortest pulses are with 22-ns duration, whilst the maximum output average powers reach ~161.9 mW. This work shows the obvious difference on the lasing properties based on phase-change material and 2D materials, and suggests potential applications of VO 2 as low-cost saturable absorber for subnanosecond laser generation.

  1. Room-temperature subnanosecond waveguide lasers in Nd:YVO4 Q-switched by phase-change VO2: A comparison with 2D materials

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Weijie; Li, Rang; Cheng, Chen; Chen, Yanxue; Lu, Qingming; Romero, Carolina; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R.; Hao, Xiaotao; Chen, Feng

    2017-01-01

    We report on room-temperature subnanosecond waveguide laser operation at 1064 nm in a Nd:YVO4 crystal waveguide through Q-switching of phase-change nanomaterial vanadium dioxide (VO2). The unique feature of VO2 nanomaterial from the insulating to metallic phases offers low-saturation-intensity nonlinear absorptions of light for subnanosecond pulse generation. The low-loss waveguide is fabricated by using the femtosecond laser writing with depressed cladding geometry. Under optical pump at 808 nm, efficient pulsed laser has been achieved in the Nd:YVO4 waveguide, reaching minimum pulse duration of 690 ps and maximum output average power of 66.7 mW. To compare the Q-switched laser performances by VO2 saturable absorber with those based on two-dimensional materials, the 1064-nm laser pulses have been realized in the same waveguide platform with either graphene or transition metal dichalcogenide (in this work, WS2) coated mirror. The results on 2D material Q-switched waveguide lasers have shown that the shortest pulses are with 22-ns duration, whilst the maximum output average powers reach ~161.9 mW. This work shows the obvious difference on the lasing properties based on phase-change material and 2D materials, and suggests potential applications of VO2 as low-cost saturable absorber for subnanosecond laser generation. PMID:28383017

  2. Estimating Transmitted-Signal Phase Variations for Uplink Array Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paal, Leslie; Mukai, Ryan; Vilntrotter, Victor; Cornish, Timothy; Lee, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    A method of estimating phase drifts of microwave signals distributed to, and transmitted by, antennas in an array involves the use of the signals themselves as phase references. The method was conceived as part of the solution of the problem of maintaining precise phase calibration required for proper operation of an array of Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas on Earth used for communicating with distant spacecraft at frequencies between 7 and 8 GHz. The method could also be applied to purely terrestrial phased-array radar and other radio antenna array systems. In the DSN application, the electrical lengths (effective signal-propagation path lengths) of the various branches of the system for distributing the transmitted signals to the antennas are not precisely known, and they vary with time. The variations are attributable mostly to thermal expansion and contraction of fiber-optic and electrical signal cables and to a variety of causes associated with aging of signal-handling components. The variations are large enough to introduce large phase drifts at the signal frequency. It is necessary to measure and correct for these phase drifts in order to maintain phase calibration of the antennas. A prior method of measuring phase drifts involves the use of reference-frequency signals separate from the transmitted signals. A major impediment to accurate measurement of phase drifts over time by the prior method is the fact that although DSN reference-frequency sources separate from the transmitting signal sources are stable and accurate enough for most DSN purposes, they are not stable enough for use in maintaining phase calibrations, as required, to within a few degrees over times as long as days or possibly even weeks. By eliminating reliance on the reference-frequency subsystem, the present method overcomes this impediment. In a DSN array to which the present method applies (see figure), the microwave signals to be transmitted are generated by exciters in a signal

  3. Design of a hybrid As₂S₃-Ti:LiNbO₃ optical waveguide for phase-matched difference frequency generation at mid-infrared.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Madsen, Christi K

    2014-11-03

    Based on arsenic tri-sulfide films on titanium-diffused lithium niobate, we designed a hybrid optical waveguide for efficient mid-infrared emission by phase-matched difference frequency generation (DFG). The hybrid waveguide structure possesses a low-index magnesium fluoride buffer layer sandwiched between two high-index As(2)S(3) slabs, so that pump and signal waves are tightly confined by titanium-diffused waveguide while the DFG output idler wave at mid-infrared is confined by the whole hybrid waveguide structure. On a 1 mm-long hybrid waveguide pumped at 50 mW powers, a normalized power conversion efficiency of 20.52%W(-1)cm(-2) was theoretically predicted, which is the highest record for mid-infrared DFG waveguides based on lithium niobate crystal, to the best of our knowledge. Using a tunable near-infrared pump laser at 1.38-1.47 µm or a tunable signal laser at 1.95-2.15 µm, a broad mid-infrared tuning range from 4.0 µm to 4.9 µm can be achieved. Such hybrid optical waveguides are feasible for mid-infrared emission with mW powers and sub-nanometer linewidths.

  4. The T/R modules for phased-array antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peignet, Colette; Mancuso, Yves; Resneau, J. Claude

    1990-09-01

    The concept of phased array radar is critically dependent on the availability of compact, reliable and low power consuming Transmitter/Receiver (T/R) modules. An overview is given on two major programs actually at development stage within the Thomson group and on three major development axis (electrical concept optimization, packaging, and size reduction). The technical feasibility of the concept was proven and the three major axis were enlightened, based on reliability, power added efficiency, and RF tests optimization.

  5. Advanced Laboratory and Field Arrays (ALFA) OWC Phase 1 Test

    DOE Data Explorer

    Bret Bosma

    2016-11-07

    Data from Phase 1 testing of a single ALFA OWC device at the O.H. Hinsdale Wave Research Laboratory (HWRL) at Oregon State University in Fall of 2016. Contains two zip files of raw data, one of project data ("array"), and a diagram of the device with dimensions. A "readme" file in the project data archive under "Docs" helps to explains the project data.

  6. Comparison of Two Detection Combination Algorithms for Phased Array Radars

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    data were generated by a simulator of multi-function radar ( MFR ) and the combination algorithms are evaluated with the recorded simulation data. With...electronically scanned phased array Multi-Function Radar ( MFR ), is a type of radar whose transmitter and receiver functions are composed of numerous...small transmit/receive modules. An MFR can perform many functions previously performed by individual, dedicated radars for search, tracking and

  7. Phased-array laser radar: Concept and application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kadrmas, K. A.

    1973-01-01

    The design and construction of a coaxial transmitter-receiver combination was investigated. Major emphasis was placed on simple permanent optical alignment, transmitter-receiver field of view matching, use of a pulsed gas laser as a transmitter maximum optical efficiency, complete digital control of data acquisition, and optical mount pointing and tracking. Also a means of expanding the coaxial transmitter-receiver concept to allow phased-array lidar, par-lidar was described.

  8. Adaptive multibeam phased array design for a Spacelab experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noji, T. T.; Fass, S.; Fuoco, A. M.; Wang, C. D.

    1977-01-01

    The parametric tradeoff analyses and design for an Adaptive Multibeam Phased Array (AMPA) for a Spacelab experiment are described. This AMPA Experiment System was designed with particular emphasis to maximize channel capacity and minimize implementation and cost impacts for future austere maritime and aeronautical users, operating with a low gain hemispherical coverage antenna element, low effective radiated power, and low antenna gain-to-system noise temperature ratio.

  9. Large-Aperture Membrane Active Phased-Array Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karasik, Boris; McGrath, William; Leduc, Henry

    2009-01-01

    Large-aperture phased-array microwave antennas supported by membranes are being developed for use in spaceborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar systems. There may also be terrestrial uses for such antennas supported on stationary membranes, large balloons, and blimps. These antennas are expected to have areal mass densities of about 2 kg/sq m, satisfying a need for lightweight alternatives to conventional rigid phased-array antennas, which have typical areal mass densities between 8 and 15 kg/sq m. The differences in areal mass densities translate to substantial differences in total mass in contemplated applications involving aperture areas as large as 400 sq m. A membrane phased-array antenna includes patch antenna elements in a repeating pattern. All previously reported membrane antennas were passive antennas; this is the first active membrane antenna that includes transmitting/receiving (T/R) electronic circuits as integral parts. Other integral parts of the antenna include a network of radio-frequency (RF) feed lines (more specifically, a corporate feed network) and of bias and control lines, all in the form of flexible copper strip conductors on flexible polymeric membranes. Each unit cell of a prototype antenna (see Figure 1) contains a patch antenna element and a compact T/R module that is compatible with flexible membrane circuitry. There are two membrane layers separated by a 12.7-mm air gap. Each membrane layer is made from a commercially available flexible circuit material that, as supplied, comprises a 127-micron-thick polyimide dielectric layer clad on both sides with 17.5-micron-thick copper layers. The copper layers are patterned into RF, bias, and control conductors. The T/R module is located on the back side of the ground plane and is RF-coupled to the patch element via a slot. The T/R module is a hybrid multilayer module assembled and packaged independently and attached to the membrane array. At the time of reporting the information for

  10. PATL: A RFID Tag Localization based on Phased Array Antenna.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lanxin; Liang, Xiaoxuan; Huang, Zhangqin

    2017-03-15

    In RFID systems, how to detect the position precisely is an important and challenging research topic. In this paper, we propose a range-free 2D tag localization method based on phased array antenna, called PATL. This method takes advantage of the adjustable radiation angle of the phased array antenna to scan the surveillance region in turns. By using the statistics of the tags' number in different antenna beam directions, a weighting algorithm is used to calculate the position of the tag. This method can be applied to real-time location of multiple targets without usage of any reference tags or additional readers. Additionally, we present an optimized weighting method based on RSSI to increase the locating accuracy. We use a Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) UHF RFID reader which is integrated with a phased array antenna to evaluate our method. The experiment results from an indoor office environment demonstrate the average distance error of PATL is about 21 cm and the optimized approach achieves an accuracy of 13 cm. This novel 2D localization scheme is a simple, yet promising, solution that is especially applicable to the smart shelf visualized management in storage or retail area.

  11. PATL: A RFID Tag Localization based on Phased Array Antenna

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Lanxin; Liang, Xiaoxuan; Huang, Zhangqin

    2017-01-01

    In RFID systems, how to detect the position precisely is an important and challenging research topic. In this paper, we propose a range-free 2D tag localization method based on phased array antenna, called PATL. This method takes advantage of the adjustable radiation angle of the phased array antenna to scan the surveillance region in turns. By using the statistics of the tags’ number in different antenna beam directions, a weighting algorithm is used to calculate the position of the tag. This method can be applied to real-time location of multiple targets without usage of any reference tags or additional readers. Additionally, we present an optimized weighting method based on RSSI to increase the locating accuracy. We use a Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) UHF RFID reader which is integrated with a phased array antenna to evaluate our method. The experiment results from an indoor office environment demonstrate the average distance error of PATL is about 21 cm and the optimized approach achieves an accuracy of 13 cm. This novel 2D localization scheme is a simple, yet promising, solution that is especially applicable to the smart shelf visualized management in storage or retail area. PMID:28295014

  12. Control of complex components with Smart Flexible Phased Arrays.

    PubMed

    Casula, O; Poidevin, C; Cattiaux, G; Dumas, Ph

    2006-12-22

    The inspection is mainly performed in contact with ultrasonic wedge transducers; However, the shape cannot fit the changing geometries of components (butt weld, nozzle, elbow). The variable thickness of the coupling layer, between the wedge and the local surface, leads to beam distortions and losses of sensitivity. Previous studies have shown that these two phenomena contribute to reduce the inspection performances leading to shadow area, split beam.... Flexible phased arrays have been developed to fit the complex profile and improve such controls. The radiating surface is composed with independent piezoelectric elements mechanically assembled and a profilometer, embedded in the transducer, measures the local distortion. The computed shape is used by an algorithm to compute in real-time the adapted delay laws compensating the distortions of 2D or 3D profiles. Those delay laws are transferred to the real-time UT acquisition system, which applies them to the piezoelectric elements. This self-adaptive process preserves, during the scanning, the features of the focused beam (orientation and focal depth) in the specimen. To validate the concept of the Smart Flexible Phased Array Transducer, prototypes have been integrated to detect flaws machined in mock-ups with realistic irregular 2D and 3D shapes. Inspections have been carried out on samples showing the enhancement performances of the "Smart Flexible Phased Array" and validating the mechanical and acoustical behaviors of these probes.

  13. Phase transition in nonuniform Josephson arrays: Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozovik, Yu. E.; Pomirchy, L. M.

    1994-01-01

    Disordered 2D system with Josephson interactions is considered. Disordered XY-model describes the granular films, Josephson arrays etc. Two types of disorder are analyzed: (1) randomly diluted system: Josephson coupling constants J ij are equal to J with probability p or zero (bond percolation problem); (2) coupling constants J ij are positive and distributed randomly and uniformly in some interval either including the vicinity of zero or apart from it. These systems are simulated by Monte Carlo method. Behaviour of potential energy, specific heat, phase correlation function and helicity modulus are analyzed. The phase diagram of the diluted system in T c-p plane is obtained.

  14. Microwave scanning beam approach and landing system phased array antenna volume I

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1973-02-01

    The use of phased arrays for the proposed landing system (MLS) is discussed. Studies relating to ground reflections, near field focusing, and phased-array errors are presented. Two experimental antennas which were fabricated and tested are described....

  15. Microwave scanning beam approach and landing system phased array antenna : volume II

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1973-02-01

    The use of phased arrays for the proposed landing system (MLS) is discussed. Studies relating to ground reflections, near field focusing, and phased-array errors are presented. Two experimental antennas which were fabricated and tested are described....

  16. Generation of sub-optical-cycle, carrier-envelope-phase--insensitive, extreme-uv pulses via nonlinear stabilization in a waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, Arvinder S.; Gagnon, Etienne; Paul, Ariel

    2006-12-15

    We present evidence for a new regime of high-harmonic generation in a waveguide where bright, sub-optical-cycle, quasimonochromatic, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light is generated via a mechanism that is relatively insensitive to carrier-envelope phase fluctuations. The interplay between the transient plasma which determines the phase matching conditions and the instantaneous laser intensity which drives harmonic generation gives rise to a new nonlinear stabilization mechanism in the waveguide, localizing the phase-matched EUV emission to within sub-optical-cycle duration. The sub-optical-cycle EUV emission generated by this mechanism can also be selectively optimized in the spectral domain by simple tuning of parameters.

  17. Phased-array vector velocity estimation using transverse oscillations.

    PubMed

    Pihl, Michael J; Marcher, Jonne; Jensen, Jorgen A

    2012-12-01

    A method for estimating the 2-D vector velocity of blood using a phased-array transducer is presented. The approach is based on the transverse oscillation (TO) method. The purposes of this work are to expand the TO method to a phased-array geometry and to broaden the potential clinical applicability of the method. A phased-array transducer has a smaller footprint and a larger field of view than a linear array, and is therefore more suited for, e.g., cardiac imaging. The method relies on suitable TO fields, and a beamforming strategy employing diverging TO beams is proposed. The implementation of the TO method using a phased-array transducer for vector velocity estimation is evaluated through simulation and flow-rig measurements are acquired using an experimental scanner. The vast number of calculations needed to perform flow simulations makes the optimization of the TO fields a cumbersome process. Therefore, three performance metrics are proposed. They are calculated based on the complex TO spectrum of the combined TO fields. It is hypothesized that the performance metrics are related to the performance of the velocity estimates. The simulations show that the squared correlation values range from 0.79 to 0.92, indicating a correlation between the performance metrics of the TO spectrum and the velocity estimates. Because these performance metrics are much more readily computed, the TO fields can be optimized faster for improved velocity estimation of both simulations and measurements. For simulations of a parabolic flow at a depth of 10 cm, a relative (to the peak velocity) bias and standard deviation of 4% and 8%, respectively, are obtained. Overall, the simulations show that the TO method implemented on a phased-array transducer is robust with relative standard deviations around 10% in most cases. The flow-rig measurements show similar results. At a depth of 9.5 cm using 32 emissions per estimate, the relative standard deviation is 9% and the relative bias is -9

  18. Improved Phased Array Imaging of a Model Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dougherty, Robert P.; Podboy, Gary G.

    2010-01-01

    An advanced phased array system, OptiNav Array 48, and a new deconvolution algorithm, TIDY, have been used to make octave band images of supersonic and subsonic jet noise produced by the NASA Glenn Small Hot Jet Acoustic Rig (SHJAR). The results are much more detailed than previous jet noise images. Shock cell structures and the production of screech in an underexpanded supersonic jet are observed directly. Some trends are similar to observations using spherical and elliptic mirrors that partially informed the two-source model of jet noise, but the radial distribution of high frequency noise near the nozzle appears to differ from expectations of this model. The beamforming approach has been validated by agreement between the integrated image results and the conventional microphone data.

  19. Integrated phased array for wide-angle beam steering.

    PubMed

    Yaacobi, Ami; Sun, Jie; Moresco, Michele; Leake, Gerald; Coolbaugh, Douglas; Watts, Michael R

    2014-08-01

    We demonstrate an on-chip optical phased array fabricated in a CMOS compatible process with continuous, fast (100 kHz), wide-angle (51°) beam-steering suitable for applications such as low-cost LIDAR systems. The device demonstrates the largest (51°) beam-steering and beam-spacing to date while providing the ability to steer continuously over the entire range. Continuous steering is enabled by a cascaded phase shifting architecture utilizing, low power and small footprint, thermo-optic phase shifters. We demonstrate these results in the telecom C-band, but the same design can easily be adjusted for any wavelength between 1.2 and 3.5 μm.

  20. GaAs MMIC elements in phased-array antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, Regis F.

    1988-01-01

    Over the last six years NASA Lewis Research Center has carried out a program aimed at the development of advanced monolithic microwave integrated circuit technology, principally for use in phased-array antenna applications. Arising out of the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) program, the initial targets of the program were chips which operated at 30 and 20 GHz. Included in this group of activities were monolithic power modules with an output of 2 watts at GHz, variable phase shifters at both 20 and 30 GHz, low noise technology at 30 GHz, and a fully integrated (phase shifter, variable gain amplifier, power amplifier) transmit module at 20 GHz. Subsequent developments are centered on NASA mission requirements, particularly Space Station communications systems and deep space data communications.

  1. Resolving phase ambiguities in the calibration of redundant interferometric arrays: implications for array design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurien, Binoy G.; Tarokh, Vahid; Rachlin, Yaron; Shah, Vinay N.; Ashcom, Jonathan B.

    2016-10-01

    We provide new results enabling robust interferometric image reconstruction in the presence of unknown aperture piston variation via the technique of redundant spacing calibration (RSC). The RSC technique uses redundant measurements of the same interferometric baseline with different pairs of apertures to reveal the piston variation among these pairs. In both optical and radio interferometry, the presence of phase-wrapping ambiguities in the measurements is a fundamental issue that needs to be addressed for reliable image reconstruction. In this paper, we show that these ambiguities affect recently developed RSC phasor-based reconstruction approaches operating on the complex visibilities, as well as traditional phase-based approaches operating on their logarithm. We also derive new sufficient conditions for an interferometric array to be immune to these ambiguities in the sense that their effect can be rendered benign in image reconstruction. This property, which we call wrap-invariance, has implications for the reliability of imaging via classical three-baseline phase closures as well as generalized closures. We show that wrap-invariance is conferred upon arrays whose interferometric graph satisfies a certain cycle-free condition. For cases in which this condition is not satisfied, a simple algorithm is provided for identifying those graph cycles which prevent its satisfaction. We apply this algorithm to diagnose and correct a member of a pattern family popular in the literature.

  2. Manipulating Liquids With Acoustic Radiation Pressure Phased Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.

    1999-01-01

    High-intensity ultrasound waves can produce the effects of "Acoustic Radiation Pressure" (ARP) and "acoustic streaming." These effects can be used to propel liquid flows and to apply forces that can be used to move or manipulate floating objects or liquid surfaces. NASA's interest in ARP includes the remote-control agitation of liquids and the manipulation of bubbles and drops in liquid experiments and propellant systems. A high level of flexibility is attained by using a high-power acoustic phased array to generate, steer, and focus a beam of acoustic waves. This is called an Acoustic Radiation Pressure Phased Array, or ARPPA. In this approach, many acoustic transducer elements emit wavelets that converge into a single beam of sound waves. Electronically coordinating the timing, or "phase shift," of the acoustic waves makes it possible to form a beam with a predefined direction and focus. Therefore, a user can direct the ARP force at almost any desired point within a liquid volume. ARPPA lets experimenters manipulate objects anywhere in a test volume. This flexibility allow it to be used for multiple purposes, such as to agitate liquids, deploy and manipulate drops or bubbles, and even suppress sloshing in spacecraft propellant tanks.

  3. Tunable Picosecond Laser Pulses via the Contrast of Two Reverse Saturable Absorption Phases in a Waveguide Platform

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yang; Chen, Lianwei; Wang, Dong; Chen, Yanxue; Akhmadaliev, Shavkat; Zhou, Shengqiang; Hong, Minghui; Chen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    How to enhance the optical nonlinearity of saturable absorption materials is an important question to improve the functionality of various applications ranging from the high power laser to photonic computational devices. We demonstrate the saturable absorption (SA) of VO2 film attributed to the large difference of optical nonlinearities between the two states of the phase-transition materials (VO2). Such VO2 film demonstrated significantly improved performance with saturation intensity higher than other existing ultrathin saturable absorbers by 3 orders due to its unique nonlinear optical mechanisms in the ultrafast phase change process. Owing to this feature, a Q-switched pulsed laser was fabricated in a waveguide platform, which is the first time to achieve picosecond pulse duration and maintain high peak power. Furthermore, the emission of this VO2 waveguide laser can be flexibly switched between the continuous-wave (CW) and pulsed operation regimes by tuning the temperature of the VO2 film, which enables VO2-based miniature laser devices with unique and versatile functions. PMID:27188594

  4. Ultrasonic Phased Array Inspection Simulations of Welded Components at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, D. J.; Tokars, R. P.; Martin, R. E.; Rauser, R. W.; Aldrin, J. C.; Schumacher, E. J.

    2009-01-01

    Comprehensive and accurate inspections of welded components have become of increasing importance as NASA develops new hardware such as Ares rocket segments for future exploration missions. Simulation and modeling will play an increased role in the future for nondestructive evaluation in order to better understand the physics of the inspection process and help explain the experimental results. It will also help to prove or disprove the feasibility for an inspection method or inspection scenario, help optimize inspections, and allow to a first approximation limits of detectability. This study presents simulation and experimental results for an ultrasonic phased array inspection of a critical welded structure important for NASA future exploration vehicles.

  5. Novel Phased Array Scanning Employing A Single Feed Without Using Individual Phase Shifters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Host, Nicholas K.; Chen, Chi-Chih; Volakis, John L.; Miranda, Felix A.

    2012-01-01

    Phased arrays afford many advantages over mechanically steered systems. However, they are also more complex, heavy, and most of all costly. The high cost mainly originates from the complex feeding structure. This paper proposes a novel feeding scheme to eliminate all phase shifters and achieve scanning via one-dimensional motion. Beam scanning is achieved via a series fed array incorporating feeding transmission lines whose wave velocity can be mechanically adjusted. Along with the line design, ideal element impedances to be used in conjunction with the line are derived. Practical designs are shown which achieve scanning to +/-30deg from boresight. Finally, a prototype is fabricated and measured, demonstrating the concept.

  6. Frequency-degenerate phase-sensitive optical parametric amplification based on four-wave mixing in graphene–silicon slot waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhen; Liu, Hongjun; Huang, Nan; Wang, Zhaolu; Han, Jing

    2018-06-01

    The phase-sensitive amplification process of a hybrid graphene–silicon (HyGS) slot waveguide with trilayers of graphene is investigated in this paper. Numerical simulation shows that a relatively high extinction ratio (42 dB) is achieved, because of the ultrahigh nonlinear coefficients, with a waveguide length of only 680 µm. In addition, the graphene layer provides the possibility of modulating the phase status and gain of the output signal. This study is expected to be highly beneficial to applications such as integrated optics and graphene-related active optical devices.

  7. In-phased second harmonic wave array generation with intra-Talbot-cavity frequency-doubling.

    PubMed

    Hirosawa, Kenichi; Shohda, Fumio; Yanagisawa, Takayuki; Kannari, Fumihiko

    2015-03-23

    The Talbot cavity is one promising method to synchronize the phase of a laser array. However, it does not achieve the lowest array mode with the same phase but the highest array mode with the anti-phase between every two adjacent lasers, which is called out-phase locking. Consequently, their far-field images exhibit 2-peak profiles. We propose intra-Talbot-cavity frequency-doubling. By placing a nonlinear crystal in a Talbot cavity, the Talbot cavity generates an out-phased fundamental wave array, which is converted into an in-phase-locked second harmonic wave array at the nonlinear crystal. We demonstrate numerical calculations and experiments on intra-Talbot-cavity frequency-doubling and obtain an in-phase-locked second harmonic wave array for a Nd:YVO₄ array laser.

  8. Dynamic characteristics of far-field radiation of current modulated phase-locked diode laser arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, R. A.; Hartnett, K.

    1987-01-01

    A versatile and powerful streak camera/frame grabber system for studying the evolution of the near and far field radiation patterns of diode lasers was assembled and tested. Software needed to analyze and display the data acquired with the steak camera/frame grabber system was written and the total package used to record and perform preliminary analyses on the behavior of two types of laser, a ten emitter gain guided array and a flared waveguide Y-coupled array. Examples of the information which can be gathered with this system are presented.

  9. CryoPAF4: a cryogenic phased array feed design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locke, Lisa; Garcia, Dominic; Halman, Mark; Henke, Doug; Hovey, Gary; Jiang, Nianhua; Knee, Lewis; Lacy, Gordon; Loop, David; Rupen, Michael; Veidt, Bruce; Wierzbicki, Ramunas

    2016-07-01

    Phased array feed (PAF) receivers used on radio astronomy telescopes offer the promise of increased fields of view while maintaining the superlative performance attained with traditional single pixel feeds (SPFs). However, the much higher noise temperatures of room temperature PAFs compared to cryogenically-cooled SPFs have prevented their general adoption. Here we describe a conceptual design for a cryogenically cooled 2.8 - 5.18 GHz dual linear polarization PAF with estimated receiver temperature of 11 K. The cryogenic PAF receiver will comprise a 140 element Vivaldi antenna array and low-noise amplifiers housed in a 480 mm diameter cylindrical dewar covered with a RF transparent radome. A broadband two-section coaxial feed is integrated within each metal antenna element to withstand the cryogenic environment and to provide a 50 ohm impedance for connection to the rest of the receiver. The planned digital beamformer performs digitization, frequency band selection, beam forming and array covariance matrix calibration. Coupling to a 15 m offset Gregorian dual-reflector telescope, cryoPAF4 can expect to form 18 overlapping beams increasing the field of view by a factor of 8x compared to a single pixel receiver of equal system temperature.

  10. A simple uniformity test for ultrasound phased arrays.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Nicholas J; Woolley, Darren J

    2016-09-01

    It is difficult to test phased array ultrasound transducers for non functioning elements. We aimed to modify a widely performed test to improve its ease and effectiveness for these arrays. A paperclip was slowly moved along the transducer array, with the scanner operating in M-mode, imaging at a fundamental frequency with automatic gain and grey scale adjustment disabled. Non-functioning elements are identified by a dark vertical line in the image. The test was repeated several times for each transducer, looking for consistency of results. 2 transducers, with faults already shown by electronic transducer testing, were used to validate the method. 23 transducers in clinical use were tested. The results of the modified test on the 2 faulty transducers agreed closely with electronic transducer testing results. The test indicated faults in 5 of the 23 transducers in clinical use: 3 with a single failed element and 2 with non-uniform sensitivity. 1 transducer with non-uniform sensitivity had undergone lens repair; the new lens was visibly non-uniform in thickness and further testing showed a reduction in depth of penetration and a loss of elevational focus in comparison with a new transducer. The modified test is capable of detecting non-functioning elements. Further work is required to provide a better understanding of more subtle faults. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. All rights reserved.

  11. Generation and investigation of terahertz Airy beam realized using parallel-plate waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Mengru; Lang, Tingting; Shi, Guohua; Han, Zhanghua

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the launching of Airy beam in the terahertz region using waveguiding structures was proposed, designed and numerically characterized. By properly designing the waveguide slit width and the packing number in different sections of parallel-plate waveguides (PPWGs) array, arbitrary phase delay and lateral position-dependent amplitude transmission through the structure, required to realize the target Airy beam profile, can be easily fulfilled. Airy beams working at the frequency of 0.3 THz with good non-diffracting, self-bending, and self-healing features are demonstrated. This study represents a new alternative to scattering-based metasurface structures, and can be utilized in many modern applications.

  12. First experimental demonstration of self-synchronous phase locking of an optical array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shay, T. M.; Benham, Vincent; Baker, J. T.; Ward, Benjamin; Sanchez, Anthony D.; Culpepper, Mark A.; Pilkington, D.; Spring, Justin; Nelson, Douglas J.; Lu, Chunte A.

    2006-12-01

    A novel, highly accurate, all electronic technique for phase locking arrays of optical fibers is demonstrated. We report the first demonstration of the only electronic phase locking technique that doesn’t require a reference beam. The measured phase error is λ/20. Excellent phase locking has been demonstrated for fiber amplifier arrays.

  13. Project PARAS: Phased array radio astronomy from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuss, Kenneth; Hoffmann, Christopher; Dungan, Michael; Madden, Michael; Bendakhlia, Monia

    1992-01-01

    An orbiting radio telescope is proposed which, when operated in a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) scheme, would allow higher than currently available angular resolution and dynamic range in the maps and the ability to observe rapidly changing astronomical sources. Using passive phased array technology, the proposed design consists of 656 hexagonal modules forming a 150-m diameter antenna dish. Each observatory module is largely autonomous, having its own photovoltaic power supply and low-noise receiver and processor for phase shifting. The signals received by the modules are channeled via fiber optics to the central control computer in the central bus module. After processing and multiplexing, the data are transmitted to telemetry stations on the ground. The truss frame supporting each observatory panel is a novel hybrid structure consisting of a bottom graphite/epoxy tubular triangle and rigidized inflatable Kevlar tubes connecting the top observatory panel and the bottom triangle. Attitude control and station keeping functions will be performed by a system of momentum wheels in the bus and four propulsion modules located at the compass points on the periphery of the observatory dish. Each propulsion module has four monopropellant thrusters and four hydrazine arcjets, the latter supported by either a photovoltaic array or a radioisotope thermoelectric generator. The total mass of the spacecraft is about 20,500 kg.

  14. Phased array inspection of large size forged steel parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont-Marillia, Frederic; Jahazi, Mohammad; Belanger, Pierre

    2018-04-01

    High strength forged steel requires uncompromising quality to warrant advance performance for numerous critical applications. Ultrasonic inspection is commonly used in nondestructive testing to detect cracks and other defects. In steel blocks of relatively small dimensions (at least two directions not exceeding a few centimetres), phased array inspection is a trusted method to generate images of the inside of the blocks and therefore identify and size defects. However, casting of large size forged ingots introduces changes of mechanical parameters such as grain size, the Young's modulus, the Poisson's ratio, and the chemical composition. These heterogeneities affect the wave propagation, and consequently, the reliability of ultrasonic inspection and the imaging capabilities for these blocks. In this context, a custom phased array transducer designed for a 40-ton bainitic forged ingot was investigated. Following a previous study that provided local mechanical parameters for a similar block, two-dimensional simulations were made to compute the optimal transducer parameters including the pitch, width and number of elements. It appeared that depending on the number of elements, backwall reconstruction can generate high amplitude artefacts. Indeed, the large dimensions of the simulated block introduce numerous constructive interferences from backwall reflections which may lead to important artefacts. To increase image quality, the reconstruction algorithm was adapted and promising results were observed and compared with the scattering cone filter method available in the CIVA software.

  15. FIBER AND INTEGRATED OPTICS: Modulation of the phase and polarization of modes in a few-mode fiber waveguide subjected to axial deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belovolov, M. I.; Vitrik, O. B.; Dianov, Evgenii M.; Kulchin, Yurii N.; Obukh, V. F.

    1989-11-01

    An investigation was made of modulation of the phase and polarization of modes in a few-mode fiber waveguide subjected to axial deformation. The simplest and most convenient (for analysis) controlled interference pattern was obtained on addition, at the exit from a waveguide, of the fields of two modes of different order or of components of two orthogonally polarized waves of the same mode when an additional phase shift between these waves was induced by deformation. The two investigated schemes were suitable for the construction of simple and highly sensitive sensors capable of detecting small strains with characteristics which could be varied by suitable selection of the waveguide parameters and of the signal processing method.

  16. Phase 2: Array automated assembly task low cost silicon solar array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, G. T.

    1979-01-01

    Several microwave systems for use in solar cell fabrication were developed and experimentally tested. The first system used a standing wave rectangular waveguide horn applicator. Satisfactory results were achieved with this system for impedance matching and wafer surface heating uniformity. The second system utilized a resonant TM sub 011 mode cylindrical cavity but could not be employed due to its poor energy coupling efficiency. The third and fourth microwave systems utilized a circular waveguide operating in the TM sub 01 and TM sub 11 but had problems with impedance matching, efficiency, and field uniformity.

  17. Sparse aperiodic arrays for optical beam forming and LIDAR.

    PubMed

    Komljenovic, Tin; Helkey, Roger; Coldren, Larry; Bowers, John E

    2017-02-06

    We analyze optical phased arrays with aperiodic pitch and element-to-element spacing greater than one wavelength at channel counts exceeding hundreds of elements. We optimize the spacing between waveguides for highest side-mode suppression providing grating lobe free steering in full visible space while preserving the narrow beamwidth. Optimum waveguide placement strategies are derived and design guidelines for sparse (> 1.5 λ and > 3 λ average element spacing) optical phased arrays are given. Scaling to larger array areas by means of tiling is considered.

  18. Optimizing an ELF/VLF Phased Array at HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimaru, S.; Moore, R. C.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this study is to maximize the amplitude of 1-5 kHz ELF/VLF waves generated by ionospheric HF heating and measured at a ground-based ELF/VLF receiver. The optimization makes use of experimental observations performed during ELF/VLF wave generation experiments at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) Observatory in Gakona, Alaska. During these experiments, the amplitude, phase, and propagation delay of the ELF/VLF waves were carefully measured. The HF beam was aimed at 15 degrees zenith angle in 8 different azimuthal directions, equally spaced in a circle, while broadcasting a 3.25 MHz (X-mode) signal that was amplitude modulated (square wave) with a linear frequency-time chirp between 1 and 5 kHz. The experimental observations are used to provide reference amplitudes, phases, and propagation delays for ELF/VLF waves generated at these specific locations. The presented optimization accounts for the trade-off between duty cycle, heated area, and the distributed nature of the source region in order to construct a "most efficient" phased array. The amplitudes and phases generated by modulated heating at each location are combined in post-processing to find an optimal combination of duty cycle, heating location, and heating order.

  19. Phased Array Imaging of Complex-Geometry Composite Components.

    PubMed

    Brath, Alex J; Simonetti, Francesco

    2017-10-01

    Progress in computational fluid dynamics and the availability of new composite materials are driving major advances in the design of aerospace engine components which now have highly complex geometries optimized to maximize system performance. However, shape complexity poses significant challenges to traditional nondestructive evaluation methods whose sensitivity and selectivity rapidly decrease as surface curvature increases. In addition, new aerospace materials typically exhibit an intricate microstructure that further complicates the inspection. In this context, an attractive solution is offered by combining ultrasonic phased array (PA) technology with immersion testing. Here, the water column formed between the complex surface of the component and the flat face of a linear or matrix array probe ensures ideal acoustic coupling between the array and the component as the probe is continuously scanned to form a volumetric rendering of the part. While the immersion configuration is desirable for practical testing, the interpretation of the measured ultrasonic signals for image formation is complicated by reflection and refraction effects that occur at the water-component interface. To account for refraction, the geometry of the interface must first be reconstructed from the reflected signals and subsequently used to compute suitable delay laws to focus inside the component. These calculations are based on ray theory and can be computationally intensive. Moreover, strong reflections from the interface can lead to a thick dead zone beneath the surface of the component which limits sensitivity to shallow subsurface defects. This paper presents a general approach that combines advanced computing for rapid ray tracing in anisotropic media with a 256-channel parallel array architecture. The full-volume inspection of complex-shape components is enabled through the combination of both reflected and transmitted signals through the part using a pair of arrays held in a yoke

  20. Simulation of 20-channel, 50-GHz, Si3N4-based arrayed waveguide grating applying three different photonics tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajdošová, Lenka; Seyringer, Dana

    2017-02-01

    We present the design and simulation of 20-channel, 50-GHz Si3N4 based AWG using three different commercial photonics tools, namely PHASAR from Optiwave Systems Inc., APSS from Apollo Photonics Inc. and RSoft from Synopsys Inc. For this purpose we created identical waveguide structures and identical AWG layouts in these tools and performed BPM simulations. For the simulations the same calculation conditions were used. These AWGs were designed for TM-polarized light with an AWG central wavelength of 850 nm. The output of all simulations, the transmission characteristics, were used to calculate the transmission parameters defining the optical properties of the simulated AWGs. These parameters were summarized and compared with each other. The results feature very good correlation between the tools and are comparable to the designed parameters in AWG-Parameters tool.

  1. Means for phase locking the outputs of a surface emitting laser diode array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesh, James R. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An array of diode lasers, either a two-dimensional array of surface emitting lasers, or a linear array of stripe lasers, is phase locked by a diode laser through a hologram which focuses the output of the diode laser into a set of distinct, spatially separated beams, each one focused onto the back facet of a separate diode laser of the array. The outputs of the diode lasers thus form an emitted coherent beam out of the front of the array.

  2. Phased Array Beamforming and Imaging in Composite Laminates Using Guided Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tian, Zhenhua; Leckey, Cara A. C.; Yu, Lingyu

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the phased array beamforming and imaging using guided waves in anisotropic composite laminates. A generic phased array beamforming formula is presented, based on the classic delay-and-sum principle. The generic formula considers direction-dependent guided wave properties induced by the anisotropic material properties of composites. Moreover, the array beamforming and imaging are performed in frequency domain where the guided wave dispersion effect has been considered. The presented phased array method is implemented with a non-contact scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV) to detect multiple defects at different locations in an anisotropic composite plate. The array is constructed of scan points in a small area rapidly scanned by the SLDV. Using the phased array method, multiple defects at different locations are successfully detected. Our study shows that the guided wave phased array method is a potential effective method for rapid inspection of large composite structures.

  3. Evolutionary Design of a Phased Array Antenna Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Linden, Derek; Lohn, Jason

    2006-01-01

    We present an evolved S-band phased array antenna element design that meets the requirements of NASA's TDRS-C communications satellite scheduled for launch early next decade. The original specification called for two types of elements, one for receive only and one for transmit/receive. We were able to evolve a single element design that meets both specifications thereby simplifying the antenna and reducing testing and integration costs. The highest performance antenna found using a genetic algorithm and stochastic hill-climbing has been fabricated and tested. Laboratory results are largely consistent with simulation. Researchers have been investigating evolutionary antenna design and optimization since the early 1990s, and the field has grown in recent years its computer speed has increased and electromagnetic simulators have improved. Many antenna types have been investigated, including wire antennas, antenna arrays and quadrifilar helical antennas. In particular, our laboratory evolved a wire antenna design for NASA's Space Technology 5 (ST5) spacecraft. This antenna has been fabricated, tested, and is scheduled for launch on the three spacecraft in 2006.

  4. Fish-Eye Observing with Phased Array Radio Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijnholds, S. J.

    The radio astronomical community is currently developing and building several new radio telescopes based on phased array technology. These telescopes provide a large field-of-view, that may in principle span a full hemisphere. This makes calibration and imaging very challenging tasks due to the complex source structures and direction dependent radio wave propagation effects. In this thesis, calibration and imaging methods are developed based on least squares estimation of instrument and source parameters. Monte Carlo simulations and actual observations with several prototype show that this model based approach provides statistically and computationally efficient solutions. The error analysis provides a rigorous mathematical framework to assess the imaging performance of current and future radio telescopes in terms of the effective noise, which is the combined effect of propagated calibration errors, noise in the data and source confusion.

  5. Time-delayed directional beam phased array antenna

    DOEpatents

    Fund, Douglas Eugene; Cable, John William; Cecil, Tony Myron

    2004-10-19

    An antenna comprising a phased array of quadrifilar helix or other multifilar antenna elements and a time-delaying feed network adapted to feed the elements. The feed network can employ a plurality of coaxial cables that physically bridge a microstrip feed circuitry to feed power signals to the elements. The cables provide an incremental time delay which is related to their physical lengths, such that replacing cables having a first set of lengths with cables having a second set of lengths functions to change the time delay and shift or steer the antenna's main beam. Alternatively, the coaxial cables may be replaced with a programmable signal processor unit adapted to introduce the time delay using signal processing techniques applied to the power signals.

  6. Phased Array Mirror Extendible Large Aperture (PAMELA) Optics Adjustment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Scientists at Marshall's Adaptive Optics Lab demonstrate the Wave Front Sensor alignment using the Phased Array Mirror Extendible Large Aperture (PAMELA) optics adjustment. The primary objective of the PAMELA project is to develop methods for aligning and controlling adaptive optics segmented mirror systems. These systems can be used to acquire or project light energy. The Next Generation Space Telescope is an example of an energy acquisition system that will employ segmented mirrors. Light projection systems can also be used for power beaming and orbital debris removal. All segmented optical systems must be adjusted to provide maximum performance. PAMELA is an on going project that NASA is utilizing to investigate various methods for maximizing system performance.

  7. Discovering the Highest Energy Neutrinos Using a Radio Phased Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieregg, Abigail

    2018-06-01

    The detection of high energy neutrinos is an important step toward understanding the most energetic cosmic accelerators and would enable tests of fundamental physics at energy scales that cannot easily be achieved on Earth. IceCube has detected astrophysical neutrinos at lower energies, and at higher energies the best limits to date on the flux comes from IceCube and the ANITA experiment, a NASA balloon-borne radio telescope designed to detect coherent radio Cherenkov emission from cosmogenic ultra-high energy neutrinos. I will discuss a new radio phased array design that will push the achievable sensitivity and lower the energy threshold. I will discuss the initial deployment and performance of an 8-channel system in a ground-based experiment at the South Pole (ARA), and the plans for scaling to O(100) channels and lowering the power consumption for future balloon-borne and ground-based applications.

  8. Investigation of phase matching for third-harmonic generation in silicon slow light photonic crystal waveguides using Fourier optics.

    PubMed

    Monat, Christelle; Grillet, Christian; Corcoran, Bill; Moss, David J; Eggleton, Benjamin J; White, Thomas P; Krauss, Thomas F

    2010-03-29

    Using Fourier optics, we retrieve the wavevector dependence of the third-harmonic (green) light generated in a slow light silicon photonic crystal waveguide. We show that quasi-phase matching between the third-harmonic signal and the fundamental mode is provided in this geometry by coupling to the continuum of radiation modes above the light line. This process sustains third-harmonic generation with a relatively high efficiency and a substantial bandwidth limited only by the slow light window of the fundamental mode. The results give us insights into the physics of this nonlinear process in the presence of strong absorption and dispersion at visible wavelengths where bandstructure calculations are problematic. Since the characteristics (e.g. angular pattern) of the third-harmonic light primarily depend on the fundamental mode dispersion, they could be readily engineered.

  9. Optimization of pelvic heating rate distributions with electromagnetic phased arrays.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, K D; Geimer, S; Tang, J; Boyse, W E

    1999-01-01

    Deep heating of pelvic tumours with electromagnetic phased arrays has recently been reported to improve local tumour control when combined with radiotherapy in a randomized clinical trial despite the fact that rather modest elevations in tumour temperatures were achieved. It is reasonable to surmise that improvements in temperature elevation could lead to even better tumour response rates, motivating studies which attempt to explore the parameter space associated with heating rate delivery in the pelvis. Computational models which are based on detailed three-dimensional patient anatomy are readily available and lend themselves to this type of investigation. In this paper, volume average SAR is optimized in a predefined target volume subject to a maximum allowable volume average SAR outside this zone. Variables under study include the position of the target zone, the number and distribution of radiators and the applicator operating frequency. The results show a clear preference for increasing frequency beyond 100 MHz, which is typically applied clinically, especially as the number of antennae increases. Increasing both the number of antennae per circumferential distance around the patient, as well as the number of independently functioning antenna bands along the patient length, is important in this regard, although improvements were found to be more significant with increasing circumferential antenna density. However, there is considerable site specific variation and cases occur where lower numbers of antennae spread out over multiple longitudinal bands are more advantageous. The results presented here have been normalized relative to an optimized set of antenna array amplitudes and phases operating at 100 MHz which is a common clinical configuration. The intent is to provide some indications of avenues for improving the heating rate distributions achievable with current technology.

  10. Monolithic optical phased-array transceiver in a standard SOI CMOS process.

    PubMed

    Abediasl, Hooman; Hashemi, Hossein

    2015-03-09

    Monolithic microwave phased arrays are turning mainstream in automotive radars and high-speed wireless communications fulfilling Gordon Moores 1965 prophecy to this effect. Optical phased arrays enable imaging, lidar, display, sensing, and holography. Advancements in fabrication technology has led to monolithic nanophotonic phased arrays, albeit without independent phase and amplitude control ability, integration with electronic circuitry, or including receive and transmit functions. We report the first monolithic optical phased array transceiver with independent control of amplitude and phase for each element using electronic circuitry that is tightly integrated with the nanophotonic components on one substrate using a commercial foundry CMOS SOI process. The 8 × 8 phased array chip includes thermo-optical tunable phase shifters and attenuators, nano-photonic antennas, and dedicated control electronics realized using CMOS transistors. The complex chip includes over 300 distinct optical components and over 74,000 distinct electrical components achieving the highest level of integration for any electronic-photonic system.

  11. Guided-wave phase-matched second-harmonic generation in KTiOPO4 waveguide produced by swift heavy-ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yazhou; Jia, Yuechen; Akhmadaliev, Shavkat; Zhou, Shengqiang; Chen, Feng

    2014-11-01

    We report on the guided-wave second-harmonic generation in a KTiOPO4 nonlinear optical waveguide fabricated by a 17 MeV O5+ ion irradiation at a fluence of 1.5×1015 ions/cm2. The waveguide guides light along both TE and TM polarizations, which is suitable for phase-matching frequency doubling. Second harmonics of green light at a wavelength of 532 nm have been generated through the KTiOPO4 waveguide platform under an optical pump of fundamental wave at 1064 nm in both continuous-wave and pulsed regimes, reaching optical conversion efficiencies of 5.36%/W and 11.5%, respectively. The propagation losses have been determined to be ˜3.1 and ˜5.7 dB/cm for the TE and TM polarizations at a wavelength of 632.8 nm, respectively.

  12. Flat-Top Sector Beams Using Only Array Element Phase Weighting: A Metaheuristic Optimization Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-10

    IrwIn D. OlIn Flat-Top Sector Beams Using Only Array Element Phase Weighting: A Metaheuristic Optimization Approach Sotera Defense Solutions, Inc...2012 Formal Report Flat-Top Sector Beams Using Only Array Element Phase Weighting: A Metaheuristic Optimization Approach Irwin D. Olin* Naval...Manuscript approved June 30, 2012. 1 FLAT-TOP SECTOR BEAMS USING ONLY ARRAY ELEMENT PHASE WEIGHTING: A METAHEURISTIC

  13. Phase-locked laser array having a non-uniform spacing between lasing regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackley, Donald E. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A phase-locked semiconductor array wherein the lasing regions of the array are spaced an effective distance apart such that the modes of oscillation of the different lasing regions are phase-locked to one another. The center-to-center spacing between the lasing regions is non-uniform. This variation in spacing perturbs the preferred 180.degree. phase difference between adjacent lasing regions thereby providing an increased yield of arrays exhibiting a single-lobed, far-field radiation pattern.

  14. A Study of Phased Array Antennas for NASA's Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamnejad, Vahraz; Huang, John; Cesarone, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we briefly discuss various options but focus on the feasibility of the phased arrays as a viable option for this application. Of particular concern and consideration will be the cost, reliability, and performance compared to the present 70-meter antenna system, particularly the gain/noise temperature levels in the receive mode. Many alternative phased arrays including planar horizontal arrays, hybrid mechanically/electronically steered arrays, phased array of mechanically steered reflectors, multi-faceted planar arrays, phased array-fed lens antennas, and planar reflect-arrays are compared and their viability is assessed. Although they have many advantages including higher reliability, near-instantaneous beam switching or steering capability, the cost of such arrays is presently prohibitive and it is concluded that the only viable array options at the present are the arrays of a few or many small reflectors. The active planar phased arrays, however, may become feasible options in the next decade and can be considered for deployment in smaller configurations as supplementary options.

  15. Design of a high-speed optical dark-soliton detector using a phase-shifted waveguide Bragg grating in reflection.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Nam Quoc

    2007-12-01

    A theoretical study of a new application of a simple pi-phase-shifted waveguide Bragg grating (PSWBG) in reflection mode as a high-speed optical dark-soliton detector is presented. The PSWBG consists of two concatenated identical uniform waveguide Bragg gratings with a pi phase shift between them. The reflective PSWBG, with grating reflectivities equal to 0.9, a free spectral range of 1.91 THz, and a nonlinear phase response, can convert a 40 Gbit/s noisy dark-soliton signal into a high-quality 40 Gbit/s return-to-zero signal with a peak power level of approximately 17.5 dB greater than that by the existing Mach-Zehnder interferometer with free spectral range of 1.91 THz and a linear phase response.

  16. Frequency non-degenerate phase-sensitive optical parametric amplification based on four-wave-mixing in width-modulated silicon waveguides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaolu; Liu, Hongjun; Sun, Qibing; Huang, Nan; Li, Xuefeng

    2014-12-15

    A width-modulated silicon waveguide is proposed to realize non-degenerate phase sensitive optical parametric amplification. It is found that the relative phase at the input of the phase sensitive amplifier (PSA) θIn-PSA can be tuned by tailoring the width and length of the second segment of the width-modulated silicon waveguide, which will influence the gain in the parametric amplification process. The maximum gain of PSA is larger by 9 dB compared with the phase insensitive amplifier (PIA) gain, and the gain bandwidth of PSA is larger by 35 nm compared with the gain bandwidth of PIA. Our on-chip PSA can find important potential applications in highly integrated optical circuits for optical chip-to-chip communication and computers.

  17. Phased Array Technology with Phase and Amplitude Controlled Magnetron for Microwave Power Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, N.; Matsumoto, H.

    2004-12-01

    We need a microwave power transmitter with light weight and high DC-RF conversion efficiency for an economical SSPS (Space Solar Power System). We need a several g/W for a microwave power transmission (MPT) system with a phased array with 0.0001 degree of beam control accuracy (=tan-1 (100m/36,000km)) and over 80 % of DC-RF conversion efficiency when the weight of the 1GW-class SPS is below a several thousand ton - a several tens of thousand ton. We focus a microwave tube, especially magnetron by economical reason and by the amount of mass-production because it is commonly used for microwave oven in the world. At first, we have developed a phase controlled magnetron (PCM) with different technologies from what Dr. Brown developed. Next we have developed a phase and amplitude controlled magnetron (PACM). For the PACM, we add a feedback to magnetic field of the PCM with an external coil to control and stabilize amplitude of the microwave. We succeed to develop the PACM with below 10-6 of frequency stability and within 1 degree of an error in phase and within 1% of amplitude. We can control a phase and amplitude of the PACM and we have developed a phased array the PCMs. With the PCM technology, we have developed a small light weight MPT transmitter COMET (Compact Microwave Energy Transmitter) with consideration of heat radiation for space use and with consideration of mobility to space.

  18. PARAS program: Phased array radio astronomy from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakubowski, Antoni K.; Haynes, David A.; Nuss, Ken; Hoffmann, Chris; Madden, Michael; Dungan, Michael

    1992-01-01

    An orbiting radio telescope is proposed which, when operated in a Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBLI) scheme, would allow higher (than currently available) angular resolution and dynamic range in the maps, and the ability of observing rapidly changing astronomical sources. Using a passive phases array technology, the proposed design consists of 656 hexagonal modules forming a 150 meter diameter dish. Each observatory module is largely autonomous, having its own photovoltaic power supply and low-noise receiver and processor for phase shifting. The signals received by the modules are channeled via fiber optics to the central control computer in the central bus module. After processing and multiplexing, the data is transmitted to telemetry stations on the ground. The truss frame supporting each observatory pane is a hybrid structure consisting of a bottom graphite/epoxy tubular triangle and rigidized inflatable Kevlar tubes connecting the top observatory panel and bottom triangle. Attitude control and stationkeeping functions are performed by a system of momentum wheels in the bus and four propulsion modules located at the compass points on the periphery of the observatory dish. Each propulsion module has four monopropellant thrusters and six hydrazine arcjets, the latter supported by a nuclear reactor. The total mass of the spacecraft is 22,060 kg.

  19. PARAS program: Phased array radio astronomy from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubowski, Antoni K.; Haynes, David A.; Nuss, Ken; Hoffmann, Chris; Madden, Michael; Dungan, Michael

    1992-06-01

    An orbiting radio telescope is proposed which, when operated in a Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBLI) scheme, would allow higher (than currently available) angular resolution and dynamic range in the maps, and the ability of observing rapidly changing astronomical sources. Using a passive phases array technology, the proposed design consists of 656 hexagonal modules forming a 150 meter diameter dish. Each observatory module is largely autonomous, having its own photovoltaic power supply and low-noise receiver and processor for phase shifting. The signals received by the modules are channeled via fiber optics to the central control computer in the central bus module. After processing and multiplexing, the data is transmitted to telemetry stations on the ground. The truss frame supporting each observatory pane is a hybrid structure consisting of a bottom graphite/epoxy tubular triangle and rigidized inflatable Kevlar tubes connecting the top observatory panel and bottom triangle. Attitude control and stationkeeping functions are performed by a system of momentum wheels in the bus and four propulsion modules located at the compass points on the periphery of the observatory dish. Each propulsion module has four monopropellant thrusters and six hydrazine arcjets, the latter supported by a nuclear reactor. The total mass of the spacecraft is 22,060 kg.

  20. Airborne electronically steerable phased array. [steerable antennas - systems analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coats, R.

    1975-01-01

    Results of a study directed to the design of a lightweight high-gain, spaceborne communications array are presented. The array includes simultaneous transmission and receiving, automatic acquisition and tracking of a signal within a 60-degree cone from the array normal, and provides for independent forming of the transmit and receive beams. Application for this array is the space shuttle, space station, or any of the advanced manned (or unmanned) orbital vehicles. Performance specifications are also given.

  1. Silicon photonics thermal phase shifter with reduced temperature range

    DOEpatents

    Lentine, Anthony L; Kekatpure, Rohan D; DeRose, Christopher; Davids, Paul; Watts, Michael R

    2013-12-17

    Optical devices, phased array systems and methods of phase-shifting an input signal are provided. An optical device includes a microresonator and a waveguide for receiving an input optical signal. The waveguide includes a segment coupled to the microresonator with a coupling coefficient such that the waveguide is overcoupled to the microresonator. The microresonator received the input optical signal via the waveguide and phase-shifts the input optical signal to form an output optical signal. The output optical signal is coupled into the waveguide via the microresonator and transmitted by the waveguide. At an operating point of the optical device, the coupling coefficient is selected to reduce a change in an amplitude of the output optical signal and to increase a change in a phase of the output optical signal, relative to the input optical signal.

  2. Experimental demonstration of a phased-array antenna optically controlled with phase and time delays.

    PubMed

    Dolfi, D; Joffre, P; Antoine, J; Huignard, J P; Philippet, D; Granger, P

    1996-09-10

    The experimental demonstration and the far-field pattern characterization of an optically controlled phased-array antenna are described. It operates between 2.5 and 3.5 GHz and is made of 16 radiating elements. The optical control uses a two-dimensional architecture based on free-space propagation and on polarization switching by N spatial light modulators of p × p pixels. It provides 2(N-1) time-delay values and an analog control of the 0 to 2π phase for each of the p × p signals feeding the antenna (N = 5, p = 4).

  3. Low-temperature cross-talk magnetic-field sensor based on tapered all-solid waveguide-array fiber and magnetic fluids.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yinping; Ma, Xixi; Wu, Jixuan; Song, Binbin; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Kailiang; Liu, Bo; Yao, Jianquan

    2015-08-15

    A compact fiber-optic magnetic-field sensor based on tapered all-solid waveguide-array fiber (WAF) and magnetic fluid (MF) has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The tapered all-solid WAF is fabricated by using a fusion splicer, and the sensor is formed by immersing the tapered all-solid WAF into the MF. The transmission spectra have been measured and analyzed under different magnetic-field intensities. Experimental results show that the acquired magnetic-field sensitivity is 44.57 pm/Oe for a linear magnetic-field intensity range from 50 to 200 Oe. All-solid WAF has very similar thermal expansion coefficient for high- and low-refractive-index glasses, so mode profile is not affected by thermal drifts. Also, magnetically induced refractive-index changes into the ferrofluid are of the order of ∼5×10(-2), while the corresponding thermally induced refractive-index changes into the ferrofluid are expected to be lower. The temperature response has also been detected, and the temperature-induced wavelength shift perturbation is less than 0.3 nm from temperature of 26.9°C-44°C. The proposed magnetic-field sensor has such advantages as low temperature sensitivity, simple structure, and ease of fabrication. It also indicates that the magnetic-field sensor based on tapered all-solid WAF and MF is helpful to reduce temperature cross-sensitivity for the measurement of magnetic field.

  4. Phased array feed design technology for Large Aperture Microwave Radiometer (LAMR) Earth observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuman, H. K.

    1992-01-01

    An assessment of the potential and limitations of phased array antennas in space-based geophysical precision radiometry is described. Mathematical models exhibiting the dependence of system and scene temperatures and system sensitivity on phased array antenna parameters and components such as phase shifters and low noise amplifiers (LNA) are developed. Emphasis is given to minimum noise temperature designs wherein the LNA's are located at the array level, one per element or subarray. Two types of combiners are considered: array lenses (space feeds) and corporate networks. The result of a survey of suitable components and devices is described. The data obtained from that survey are used in conjunction with the mathematical models to yield an assessment of effective array antenna noise temperature for representative geostationary and low Earth orbit systems. Practical methods of calibrating a space-based, phased array radiometer are briefly addressed as well.

  5. Manipulation of Liquids Using Phased Array Generation of Acoustic Radiation Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A phased array of piezoelectric transducers is used to control and manipulate contained as well as uncontained fluids in space and earth applications. The transducers in the phased array are individually activated while being commonly controlled to produce acoustic radiation pressure and acoustic streaming. The phased array is activated to produce a single pulse, a pulse burst or a continuous pulse to agitate, segregate or manipulate liquids and gases. The phased array generated acoustic radiation pressure is also useful in manipulating a drop, a bubble or other object immersed in a liquid. The transducers can be arranged in any number of layouts including linear single or multi- dimensional, space curved and annular arrays. The individual transducers in the array are activated by a controller, preferably driven by a computer.

  6. Phase-locked, high power, mid-infrared quantum cascade laser arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, W.; Slivken, S.; Razeghi, M.

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate phase-locked, high power quantum cascade laser arrays, which are combined using a monolithic, tree array multimode interferometer, with emission wavelengths around 4.8 μm. A maximum output power of 15 W was achieved from an eight-element laser array, which has only a slightly higher threshold current density and a similar slope efficiency compared to a Fabry-Perot laser of the same length. Calculated multimode interferometer splitting loss is on the order of 0.27 dB for the in-phase supermode. In-phase supermode operation with nearly ideal behavior is demonstrated over the working current range of the array.

  7. Impact: a low cost, reconfigurable, digital beamforming common module building block for next generation phased arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, Lee; Hoffmann, Ted; Fulton, Caleb; Yeary, Mark; Saunders, Austin; Thompson, Dan; Chen, Bill; Guo, Alex; Murmann, Boris

    2015-05-01

    Phased array systems offer numerous advantages to the modern warfighter in multiple application spaces, including Radar, Electronic Warfare, Signals Intelligence, and Communications. However, a lack of commonality in the underlying technology base for DoD Phased Arrays has led to static systems with long development cycles, slow technology refreshes in response to emerging threats, and expensive, application-specific sub-components. The IMPACT module (Integrated Multi-use Phased Array Common Tile) is a multi-channel, reconfigurable, cost-effective beamformer that provides a common building block for multiple, disparate array applications.

  8. Four-to-one power combiner for 20 GHz phased array antenna using RADC MMIC phase shifters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The design and microwave simulation of two-to-one microstrip power combiners is described. The power combiners were designed for use in a four element phase array receive antenna subarray at 20 GHz. Four test circuits are described which were designed to enable testing of the power combiner and the four element phased array antenna. Test Circuit 1 enables measurement of the two-to-one power combiner. Test Circuit 2 enables measurement of the four-to-one power combiner. Test Circuit 3 enables measurement of a four element antenna array without phase shifting MMIC's in order to characterize the power combiner with the antenna patch-to-microstrip coaxial feedthroughs. Test circuit 4 is the four element phased array antenna including the RADC MMIC phase shifters and appropriate interconnects to provide bias voltages and control phase bits.

  9. Electrowetting lenses for compensating phase and curvature distortion in arrayed laser systems.

    PubMed

    Niederriter, Robert D; Watson, Alexander M; Zahreddine, Ramzi N; Cogswell, Carol J; Cormack, Robert H; Bright, Victor M; Gopinath, Juliet T

    2013-05-10

    We have demonstrated a one-dimensional array of individually addressable electrowetting tunable liquid lenses that compensate for more than one wave of phase distortion across a wavefront. We report a scheme for piston control using tunable liquid lens arrays in volume-bound cavities that alter the optical path length without affecting the wavefront curvature. Liquid lens arrays with separately tunable focus or phase control hold promise for laser communication systems and adaptive optics.

  10. A Methodology for Phased Array Radar Threshold Modeling Using the Advanced Propagation Model (APM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT 3079 October 2017 A Methodology for Phased Array Radar Threshold Modeling Using the Advanced Propagation Model (APM...Head 55190 Networks Division iii EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report summarizes the methodology developed to improve the radar threshold modeling...PHASED ARRAY RADAR CONFIGURATION ..................................................................... 1 3. METHODOLOGY

  11. Advanced Microstrip Antenna Developments : Volume I. Technology Studies for Aircraft Phased Arrays

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1981-06-01

    Work has continued on improvement of microstrip phased-array antenna technology since the first microstrip phased-array was flight-tested during the FAA 1974-1975 ATS-6 test program. The present development has extended this earlier work in three are...

  12. Simultaneous Transmit and Receive Performance of an 8-channel Digital Phased Array

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-16

    Lincoln Laboratory Lexington, Massachusetts, USA Abstract—The Aperture- Level Simultaneous Transmit and Re- ceive (ALSTAR) architecture enables extremely...In [1], the Aperture- Level Simultaneous Transmit and Receive (ALSTAR) architecture was proposed for achieving STAR using a fully digital phased array...Aperture- Level Simultaneous Transmit and Receive (ALSTAR) architecture enables STAR functionality in a digital phased array without the use of specialized

  13. Clustering and Network Analysis of Reverse Phase Protein Array Data.

    PubMed

    Byron, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Molecular profiling of proteins and phosphoproteins using a reverse phase protein array (RPPA) platform, with a panel of target-specific antibodies, enables the parallel, quantitative proteomic analysis of many biological samples in a microarray format. Hence, RPPA analysis can generate a high volume of multidimensional data that must be effectively interrogated and interpreted. A range of computational techniques for data mining can be applied to detect and explore data structure and to form functional predictions from large datasets. Here, two approaches for the computational analysis of RPPA data are detailed: the identification of similar patterns of protein expression by hierarchical cluster analysis and the modeling of protein interactions and signaling relationships by network analysis. The protocols use freely available, cross-platform software, are easy to implement, and do not require any programming expertise. Serving as data-driven starting points for further in-depth analysis, validation, and biological experimentation, these and related bioinformatic approaches can accelerate the functional interpretation of RPPA data.

  14. Matrix phased array (MPA) imaging technology for resistance spot welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Jeong K.; Gleeson, Sean T.

    2014-02-01

    A three-dimensional MPA probe has been incorporated with a high speed phased array electronic board to visualize nugget images of resistance spot welds. The primary application area of this battery operated portable MPA ultrasonic imaging system is in the automotive industry which a conventional destructive testing process is commonly adopted to check the quality of resistance spot welds in auto bodies. Considering an average of five-thousand spot welds in a medium size passenger vehicle, the amount of time and effort given to popping the welds and measuring nugget size are immeasurable in addition to the millions of dollars' worth of scrap metals recycled per plant per year. This wasteful labor intensive destructive testing process has become less reliable as auto body sheet metal has transitioned from thick and heavy mild steels to thin and light high strength steels. Consequently, the necessity of developing a non-destructive inspection methodology has become inevitable. In this paper, the fundamental aspects of the current 3-D probe design, data acquisition algorithms, and weld nugget imaging process are discussed.

  15. Matrix phased array (MPA) imaging technology for resistance spot welds

    SciTech Connect

    Na, Jeong K.; Gleeson, Sean T.

    2014-02-18

    A three-dimensional MPA probe has been incorporated with a high speed phased array electronic board to visualize nugget images of resistance spot welds. The primary application area of this battery operated portable MPA ultrasonic imaging system is in the automotive industry which a conventional destructive testing process is commonly adopted to check the quality of resistance spot welds in auto bodies. Considering an average of five-thousand spot welds in a medium size passenger vehicle, the amount of time and effort given to popping the welds and measuring nugget size are immeasurable in addition to the millions of dollars' worth ofmore » scrap metals recycled per plant per year. This wasteful labor intensive destructive testing process has become less reliable as auto body sheet metal has transitioned from thick and heavy mild steels to thin and light high strength steels. Consequently, the necessity of developing a non-destructive inspection methodology has become inevitable. In this paper, the fundamental aspects of the current 3-D probe design, data acquisition algorithms, and weld nugget imaging process are discussed.« less

  16. Spatial Normalization of Reverse Phase Protein Array Data

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Poorvi; Molinelli, Evan J.; Miller, Martin L.; Wang, Weiqing; Korkut, Anil; Liu, Wenbin; Ju, Zhenlin; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon; Sander, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Reverse phase protein arrays (RPPA) are an efficient, high-throughput, cost-effective method for the quantification of specific proteins in complex biological samples. The quality of RPPA data may be affected by various sources of error. One of these, spatial variation, is caused by uneven exposure of different parts of an RPPA slide to the reagents used in protein detection. We present a method for the determination and correction of systematic spatial variation in RPPA slides using positive control spots printed on each slide. The method uses a simple bi-linear interpolation technique to obtain a surface representing the spatial variation occurring across the dimensions of a slide. This surface is used to calculate correction factors that can normalize the relative protein concentrations of the samples on each slide. The adoption of the method results in increased agreement between technical and biological replicates of various tumor and cell-line derived samples. Further, in data from a study of the melanoma cell-line SKMEL-133, several slides that had previously been rejected because they had a coefficient of variation (CV) greater than 15%, are rescued by reduction of CV below this threshold in each case. The method is implemented in the R statistical programing language. It is compatible with MicroVigene and SuperCurve, packages commonly used in RPPA data analysis. The method is made available, along with suggestions for implementation, at http://bitbucket.org/rppa_preprocess/rppa_preprocess/src. PMID:25501559

  17. Low-Cost Phased Array Antenna for Sounding Rockets, Missiles, and Expendable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullinix, Daniel; Hall, Kenneth; Smith, Bruce; Corbin, Brian

    2012-01-01

    A low-cost beamformer phased array antenna has been developed for expendable launch vehicles, rockets, and missiles. It utilizes a conformal array antenna of ring or individual radiators (design varies depending on application) that is designed to be fed by the recently developed hybrid electrical/mechanical (vendor-supplied) phased array beamformer. The combination of these new array antennas and the hybrid beamformer results in a conformal phased array antenna that has significantly higher gain than traditional omni antennas, and costs an order of magnitude or more less than traditional phased array designs. Existing omnidirectional antennas for sounding rockets, missiles, and expendable launch vehicles (ELVs) do not have sufficient gain to support the required communication data rates via the space network. Missiles and smaller ELVs are often stabilized in flight by a fast (i.e. 4 Hz) roll rate. This fast roll rate, combined with vehicle attitude changes, greatly increases the complexity of the high-gain antenna beam-tracking problem. Phased arrays for larger ELVs with roll control are prohibitively expensive. Prior techniques involved a traditional fully electronic phased array solution, combined with highly complex and very fast inertial measurement unit phased array beamformers. The functional operation of this phased array is substantially different from traditional phased arrays in that it uses a hybrid electrical/mechanical beamformer that creates the relative time delays for steering the antenna beam via a small physical movement of variable delay lines. This movement is controlled via an innovative antenna control unit that accesses an internal measurement unit for vehicle attitude information, computes a beam-pointing angle to the target, then points the beam via a stepper motor controller. The stepper motor on the beamformer controls the beamformer variable delay lines that apply the appropriate time delays to the individual array elements to properly

  18. An Ultra-Wideband Millimeter-Wave Phased Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, Markus H.; Miranda, Felix A.; Volakis, John L.

    2016-01-01

    Wideband millimeter-wave arrays are of increasing importance due to their growing use in high data rate systems, including 5G communication networks. In this paper, we present a new class of ultra-wideband millimeter wave arrays that operate from nearly 20 GHz to 90 GHz. The array is based on tightly coupled dipoles. Feeding designs and fabrication challenges are presented, and a method for suppressing feed resonances is provided.

  19. Integration of Si-CMOS embedded photo detector array and mixed signal processing system with embedded optical waveguide input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Daeik D.; Thomas, Mikkel A.; Brooke, Martin A.; Jokerst, Nan M.

    2004-06-01

    Arrays of embedded bipolar junction transistor (BJT) photo detectors (PD) and a parallel mixed-signal processing system were fabricated as a silicon complementary metal oxide semiconductor (Si-CMOS) circuit for the integration optical sensors on the surface of the chip. The circuit was fabricated with AMI 1.5um n-well CMOS process and the embedded PNP BJT PD has a pixel size of 8um by 8um. BJT PD was chosen to take advantage of its higher gain amplification of photo current than that of PiN type detectors since the target application is a low-speed and high-sensitivity sensor. The photo current generated by BJT PD is manipulated by mixed-signal processing system, which consists of parallel first order low-pass delta-sigma oversampling analog-to-digital converters (ADC). There are 8 parallel ADCs on the chip and a group of 8 BJT PDs are selected with CMOS switches. An array of PD is composed of three or six groups of PDs depending on the number of rows.

  20. Fully Printed, Flexible, Phased Array Antenna for Lunar Surface Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subbaraman, Harish; Hen, Ray T.; Lu, Xuejun; Chen, Maggie Yihong

    2013-01-01

    NASAs future exploration missions focus on the manned exploration of the Moon, Mars, and beyond, which will rely heavily on the development of a reliable communications infrastructure from planetary surface-to-surface, surface-to-orbit, and back to Earth. Flexible antennas are highly desired in many scenarios. Active phased array antennas (active PAAs) with distributed control and processing electronics at the surface of an antenna aperture offer numerous advantages for radar communications. Large-area active PAAs on flexible substrates are of particular interest in NASA s space radars due to their efficient inflatable package that can be rolled up during transportation and deployed in space. Such an inflatable package significantly reduces stowage volume and mass. Because of these performance and packaging advantages, large-area inflatable active PAAs are highly desired in NASA s surface-to-orbit and surface-to-relay communications. To address the issues of flexible electronics, a room-temperature printing process of active phased-array antennas on a flexible Kapton substrate was developed. Field effect transistors (FETs) based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs), with many unique physical properties, were successfully proved feasible for the PAA system. This innovation is a new type of fully inkjet-printable, two-dimensional, high-frequency PAA on a flexible substrate at room temperature. The designed electronic circuit components, such as the FET switches in the phase shifter, metal interconnection lines, microstrip transmission lines, etc., are all printed using a special inkjet printer. Using the developed technology, entire 1x4, 2x2, and 4x4 PAA systems were developed, packaged, and demonstrated at 5.3 GHz. Several key solutions are addressed in this work to solve the fabrication issues. The source/drain contact is developed using droplets of silver ink printed on the source/drain areas prior to applying CNT thin-film. The wet silver ink droplets allow the silver to

  1. A design concept for an MMIC (Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit) microstrip phased array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Richard Q.; Smetana, Jerry; Acosta, Roberto

    1987-01-01

    A conceptual design for a microstrip phased array with monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) amplitude and phase controls is described. The MMIC devices used are 20 GHz variable power amplifiers and variable phase shifters recently developed by NASA contractors for applications in future Ka proposed design, which concept is for a general NxN element array of rectangular lattice geometry. Subarray excitation is incorporated in the MMIC phased array design to reduce the complexity of the beam forming network and the number of MMIC components required.

  2. Spectrally resolved modal characteristics of leaky-wave-coupled quantum cascade phase-locked laser arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigler, Chris; Gibson, Ricky; Boyle, Colin; Kirch, Jeremy D.; Lindberg, Donald; Earles, Thomas; Botez, Dan; Mawst, Luke J.; Bedford, Robert

    2018-01-01

    The modal characteristics of nonresonant five-element phase-locked arrays of 4.7-μm emitting quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) have been studied using spectrally resolved near- and far-field measurements and correlated with results of device simulation. Devices are fabricated by a two-step metal-organic chemical vapor deposition process and operate predominantly in an in-phase array mode near threshold, although become multimode at higher drive levels. The wide spectral bandwidth of the QCL's core region is found to be a factor in promoting multispatial-mode operation at high drive levels above threshold. An optimized resonant-array design is identified to allow sole in-phase array-mode operation to high drive levels above threshold, and indicates that for phase-locked laser arrays full spatial coherence to high output powers does not require full temporal coherence.

  3. Target tracking and pointing for arrays of phase-locked lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macasaet, Van P.; Hughes, Gary B.; Lubin, Philip; Madajian, Jonathan; Zhang, Qicheng; Griswold, Janelle; Kulkarni, Neeraj; Cohen, Alexander; Brashears, Travis

    2016-09-01

    Arrays of phase-locked lasers are envisioned for planetary defense and exploration systems. High-energy beams focused on a threatening asteroid evaporate surface material, creating a reactionary thrust that alters the asteroid's orbit. The same system could be used to probe an asteroid's composition, to search for unknown asteroids, and to propel interplanetary and interstellar spacecraft. Phased-array designs are capable of producing high beam intensity, and allow beam steering and beam profile manipulation. Modular designs allow ongoing addition of emitter elements to a growing array. This paper discusses pointing control for extensible laser arrays. Rough pointing is determined by spacecraft attitude control. Lateral movement of the laser emitter tips behind the optical elements provides intermediate pointing adjustment for individual array elements and beam steering. Precision beam steering and beam formation is accomplished by coordinated phase modulation across the array. Added cells are incorporated into the phase control scheme by precise alignment to local mechanical datums using fast, optical relative position sensors. Infrared target sensors are also positioned within the datum scheme, and provide information about the target vector relative to datum coordinates at each emitter. Multiple target sensors allow refined determination of the target normal plane, providing information to the phase controller for each emitter. As emitters and sensors are added, local position data allows accurate prediction of the relative global position of emitters across the array, providing additional constraints to the phase controllers. Mechanical design and associated phase control that is scalable for target distance and number of emitters is presented.

  4. Robustness of plasmon phased array nanoantennas to disorder

    PubMed Central

    Arango, Felipe Bernal; Thijssen, Rutger; Brenny, Benjamin; Coenen, Toon; Koenderink, A. Femius

    2015-01-01

    We present cathodoluminescence experiments that quantify the response of plasmonic Yagi-Uda antennas fabricated on one-dimensional silicon nitride waveguides as function of electron beam excitation position and emission wavelength. At the near-infrared antenna design wavelength cathodoluminescence signal robustly is strongest when exciting the antenna at the reflector element. Yet at just slightly shorter wavelengths the signal is highly variable from antenna to antenna and wavelength to wavelength. Hypothesizing that fabrication randomness is at play, we analyze the resilience of plasmon Yagi-Uda antennas to varations in element size of just 5 nm. While in our calculations the appearance of directivity is robust, both the obtained highest directivity and the wavelength at which it occurs vary markedly between realizations. The calculated local density of states is invariably high at the reflector for the design wavelength, but varies dramatically in spatial distribution for shorter wavelengths, consistent with the cathodoluminescence experiments. PMID:26038871

  5. NANOSTRUCTURED PLANAR WAVEGUIDE DEVICE FOR MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF HAZARDOUS COMPOUNDS IN WATER BY EVANESCENT SURFACE ENHANCED RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    Senspex, Inc. proposes to investigate a novel diagnostic tool based upon evanescent field planar waveguide sensing and complementary nanostructured mediated molecular vibration spectroscopy methods for rapid detection and analysis of hazardous biological and chemical targets i...

  6. Monolithic optical integrated control circuitry for GaAs MMIC-based phased arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, K. B.; Ponchak, G. E.; Kascak, T. J.

    1985-01-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs) monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC's) show promise in phased-array antenna applications for future space communications systems. Their efficient usage will depend on the control of amplitude and phase signals for each MMIC element in the phased array and in the low-loss radiofrequency feed. For a phased array contining several MMIC elements a complex system is required to control and feed each element. The characteristics of GaAs MMIC's for 20/30-GHz phased-array systems are discussed. The optical/MMIC interface and the desired characteristics of optical integrated circuits (OIC's) for such an interface are described. Anticipated fabrication considerations for eventual full monolithic integration of optical integrated circuits with MMIC's on a GaAs substrate are presented.

  7. Pulse-Echo Phased Array Ultrasonic Inspection of Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Pat H.

    2010-01-01

    A PRSEUS test article was subjected to controlled impact on the skin face followed by static and cyclic axial compressions. Phased array ultrasonic inspection was conducted before impact, and after each of the test conditions. A linear phased array probe with a manual X-Y scanner was used for interrogation. Ultrasound showed a delamination between the skin and stringer flange adjacent to the impact. As designed, the stitching in the flange arrested the lateral flaw formation. Subsequent ultrasonic data showed no delamination growth due to continued loading. Keywords: Phased Array, Ultrasonics, Composites, Out-of-Autoclave

  8. Apertif: A new phased-array feed for WSRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Elizabeth; Adebahr, Björn; de Blok, Willem J. G.; Hess, Kelley M.; Lucero, Danielle M.; Maccagni, Filippo; Morganti, Raffaella; Oosterloo, Tom A.; Ponomareva, Anastasia; Staveley-Smith, Lister; van der Hulst, J. M.; Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Verstappen, Joris

    2018-01-01

    Apertif is a phased-array feed for the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT), increasing the field of view of the telescope by a factor of twenty-five to 6.8 square degrees. In 2018, three legacy surveys will commence: a shallow imaging survey, a medium-deep imaging survey, and a pulsars and fast transients survey. The imaging surveys will be done in full polarization over the frequency range 1130-1430 MHz, which corresponds to redshifts of z=0-0.256 for neutral hydrogen (HI). The spectral resolution is 12.2 kHz, or an HI velocity resolution of 2.6 km/s at z=0 and 3.2 km/s at z=0.256. The full resolution images will have a beam size of 15"x15"/sin(declination), and tapered data products (i.e., 30" resolution images) will also be available. The footprints of the imaging surveys are chosen to maximize coverage of multi-wavelength datasets, including the Herschel Atlas North Galactic Pole field, HetDex region, plus coordination with MaNGA and planned WEAVE follow-up. The survey footprints were also chosen to probe different regions of interest, including the CVn region, Coma cluster, and Perseus-Pisces supercluster. The key science cases for the imaging surveys include understanding how galaxy properties depend on environment, the role of interactions and gas accretion and removal, understanding the smallest gas-rich galaxies, connecting cold gas to AGN, understanding the history of star formation and AGN activity in the faint radio continuum population, and studying magnetic fields in galaxies and large-scale structure. After a proprietary period, the survey data products will be publicly available through the Apertif Long Term Archive (ALTA). Up-to-date information on Apertif and the planned surveys can be found at www.apertif.nl.Commissioning of the Apertif instrument is underway. Here we will present results from the imaging commissioning, highlighting the capabilities of the instrument as related to the key science cases of the imaging surveys.

  9. Design and fabrication of a high temperature leading edge heating array, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Progress during a Phase 1 program to design a high temperature heating array is reported for environmentally testing full-scale shuttle leading edges (30 inch span, 6 to 15 inch radius) at flight heating rates and pressures. Heat transfer analyses of the heating array, individual modules, and the shuttle leading edge were performed, which influenced the array design, and the design, fabrication, and testing of a prototype heater module.

  10. Designing of a small wearable conformal phased array antenna for wireless communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Sayan

    In this thesis, a unique design of a self-adapting conformal phased-array antenna system for wireless communications is presented. The antenna system is comprised of one microstrip antenna array and a sensor circuit. A 1x4 printed microstrip patch antenna array was designed on a flexible substrate with a resonant frequency of 2.47 GHz. However, the performance of the antenna starts to degrade as the curvature of the surface of the substrate changes. To recover the performance of the system, a flexible sensor circuitry was designed. This sensor circuitry uses analog phase shifters, a flexible resistor and operational-amplifier circuitry to compensate the phase of each array element of the antenna. The proposed analytical method for phase compensation has been first verified by designing an RF test platform consisting of a microstrip antenna array, commercially available analog phase shifters, analog voltage attenuators, 4-port power dividers and amplifiers. The platform can be operated through a LabVIEW GUI interface using a 12-bit digital-to-analog converter. This test board was used to design and calibrate the sensor circuitry by observing the behavior of the antenna array system on surfaces with different curvatures. In particular, this phased array antenna system was designed to be used on the surface of a spacesuit or any other flexible prototype. This work was supported in part by the Defense Miroelectronics Activity (DMEA), NASA ND EPSCoR and DARPA/MTO.

  11. A 24-GHz portable FMCW radar with continuous beam steering phased array (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhengyu; Li, Changzhi

    2017-05-01

    A portable 24-GHz frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) radar with continuous beam steering phased array is presented. This board-level integrated radar system consists of a phased array antenna, a radar transceiver and a baseband. The phased array used by the receiver is a 4-element linear array. The beam of the phased array can be continuously steered with a range of ±30° on the H-plane through an array of vector controllers. The vector controller is based on the concept of vector sum with binary-phase-shift attenuators. Each vector controller is capable of independently controlling the phase and the amplitude of each element of the linear array. The radar transceiver is based on the six-port technique. A free-running voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) is controlled by an analog "sawtooth" voltage generator to produce frequency-modulated chirp signal. This chirp signal is used as the transmitter signal, as well as the local oscillator (LO) signal to drive the six-port circuit. The transmitter antenna is a single patch antenna. In the baseband, the beat signal of the FMCW radar is detected by the six-port circuit and then processed by a laptop in real time. Experiments have been performed to reveal the capabilities of the proposed radar system for applications including indoor inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging, vital sign detection, and short-range navigation, etc. (This abstract is for the profiles session.)

  12. Coupled-mode analysis of gain and wavelength oscillation characteristics of diode laser phased arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. K.; Ettenberg, M.; Ackley, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    The lasing wavelengths and gain characteristics of the modes of phase-locked arrays of channel-substrate-planar (CSP) lasers are presented. The gain values for the array modes are determined from complex coupling coefficients calculated using the fields of neighboring elements of the array. The computations show that, for index guided lasers which have nearly planar phase fronts, the highest order array mode will be preferred. The 'in-phase' or fundamental mode, which produces only one major lobe in the far-field radiation pattern, has the lowest modal gain of all array modes. The modal gain differential between the highest order and fundamental modes is less than 10/cm for weak coupling between the elements.

  13. Experimental demonstration of an optical phased array antenna for laser space communications.

    PubMed

    Neubert, W M; Kudielka, K H; Leeb, W R; Scholtz, A L

    1994-06-20

    The feasibility of an optical phased array antenna applicable for spaceborne laser communications was experimentally demonstrated. Heterodyne optical phase-locked loops provide for a defined phase relationship between the collimated output beams of three single-mode fibers. In the far field the beams interfere with a measured efficiency of 99%. The main lobe of the interference pattern can be moved by phase shifting the subaperture output beams. The setup permitted agile beam steering within an angular range of 1 mr and a response time of 0.7 ms. We propose an operational optical phased array antenna fed by seven lasers, featuring high transmit power and redundance.

  14. On-chip integratable all-optical quantizer using strong cross-phase modulation in a silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguide

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Zhe; Yuan, Jinhui; Zhang, Xianting; Sang, Xinzhu; Wang, Kuiru; Wu, Qiang; Yan, Binbin; Li, Feng; Zhou, Xian; Zhong, Kangping; Zhou, Guiyao; Yu, Chongxiu; Farrell, Gerald; Lu, Chao; Yaw Tam, Hwa; Wai, P. K. A.

    2016-01-01

    High performance all-optical quantizer based on silicon waveguide is believed to have significant applications in photonic integratable optical communication links, optical interconnection networks, and real-time signal processing systems. In this paper, we propose an integratable all-optical quantizer for on-chip and low power consumption all-optical analog-to-digital converters. The quantization is realized by the strong cross-phase modulation and interference in a silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) slot waveguide based Mach-Zehnder interferometer. By carefully designing the dimension of the SOH waveguide, large nonlinear coefficients up to 16,000 and 18,069 W−1/m for the pump and probe signals can be obtained respectively, along with a low pulse walk-off parameter of 66.7 fs/mm, and all-normal dispersion in the wavelength regime considered. Simulation results show that the phase shift of the probe signal can reach 8π at a low pump pulse peak power of 206 mW and propagation length of 5 mm such that a 4-bit all-optical quantizer can be realized. The corresponding signal-to-noise ratio is 23.42 dB and effective number of bit is 3.89-bit. PMID:26777054

  15. Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry PhasedArray Warning ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Electric Substation, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  16. Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry PhasedArray Warning ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Civil Engineering Storage Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  17. Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry PhasedArray Warning ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Satellite Communications Terminal, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  18. Two-dimensional beam steering using a thermo-optic silicon photonic optical phased array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinovich, William S.; Goetz, Peter G.; Pruessner, Marcel W.; Mahon, Rita; Ferraro, Mike S.; Park, Doe; Fleet, Erin; DePrenger, Michael J.

    2016-11-01

    Many components for free-space optical (FSO) communication systems have shrunken in size over the last decade. However, the steering systems have remained large and power hungry. Nonmechanical beam steering offers a path to reducing the size of these systems. Optical phased arrays can allow integrated beam steering elements. One of the most important aspects of an optical phased array technology is its scalability to a large number of elements. Silicon photonics can potentially offer this scalability using CMOS foundry techniques. A phased array that can steer in two dimensions using the thermo-optic effect is demonstrated. No wavelength tuning of the input laser is needed and the design allows a simple control system with only two inputs. A benchtop FSO link with the phased array in both transmit and receive mode is demonstrated.

  19. Development of components for an S-band phased array antenna subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The system requirements, module test data, and S-band phased array subsystem test data are discussed. Of the two approaches to achieving antenna gain (mechanically steered reflector or electronically steered phased array), the phased array approach offers the greatest simplicity and lowest cost (size, weight, power, and dollars) for this medium gain. A competitive system design is described as well as hardware evaluation which will lead to timely availability of this technology for implementing such a system. The objectives of the study were: to fabricate and test six engineering model transmit/receive microelectronics modules; to design, fabricate, and test one dc and logic multilayer manifold; and to integrate and test an S-band phased array antenna subsystem composed of antenna elements, seven T/R modules, RF manifolds and dc manifold.

  20. Phased Array Antenna Testbed Development at the NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Kevin M.; Kubat, Gregory; Johnson, Sandra K.; Anzic, Godfrey

    2003-01-01

    Ideal phased array antennas offer advantages for communication systems, such as wide-angle scanning and multibeam operation, which can be utilized in certain NASA applications. However, physically realizable, electronically steered, phased array antennas introduce additional system performance parameters, which must be included in the evaluation of the system. The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is currently conducting research to identify these parameters and to develop the tools necessary to measure them. One of these tools is a testbed where phased array antennas may be operated in an environment that simulates their use. This paper describes the development of the testbed and its use in characterizing a particular K-Band, phased array antenna.

  1. Phased Array Ultrasonic Sound Field Mapping in Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Susan L.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Cinson, Anthony D.

    2014-05-31

    This study maps the phased array-generated acoustic sound fields through three types of CASS microstructure in four specimens to quantitatively assess the beam formation effectiveness in these materials.

  2. New customizable phased array UT instrument opens door for furthering research and better industrial implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Dao, Gavin; Ginzel, Robert

    2014-02-18

    Phased array UT as an inspection technique in itself continues to gain wide acceptance. However, there is much room for improvement in terms of implementation of Phased Array (PA) technology for every unique NDT application across several industries (e.g. oil and petroleum, nuclear and power generation, steel manufacturing, etc.). Having full control of the phased array instrument and customizing a software solution is necessary for more seamless and efficient inspections, from setting the PA parameters, collecting data and reporting, to the final analysis. NDT researchers and academics also need a flexible and open platform to be able to control variousmore » aspects of the phased array process. A high performance instrument with advanced PA features, faster data rates, a smaller form factor, and capability to adapt to specific applications, will be discussed.« less

  3. Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry PhasedArray Warning ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Microwave Equipment Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  4. An Update on Phased Array Results Obtained on the GE Counter-Rotating Open Rotor Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podboy, Gary; Horvath, Csaba; Envia, Edmane

    2013-01-01

    Beamform maps have been generated from 1) simulated data generated by the LINPROP code and 2) actual experimental phased array data obtained on the GE Counter-rotating open rotor model. The beamform maps show that many of the tones in the experimental data come from their corresponding Mach radius. If the phased array points to the Mach radius associated with a tone then it is likely that the tone is a result of the loading and thickness noise on the blades. In this case, the phased array correctly points to where the noise is coming from and indicates the axial location of the loudest source in the image but not necessarily the correct vertical location. If the phased array does not point to the Mach radius associated with a tone then some mechanism other than loading and thickness noise may control the amplitude of the tone. In this case, the phased array may or may not point to the actual source. If the source is not rotating it is likely that the phased array points to the source. If the source is rotating it is likely that the phased array indicates the axial location of the loudest source but not necessarily the correct vertical location. These results indicate that you have to be careful in how you interpret phased array data obtained on an open rotor since they may show the tones coming from a location other than the source location. With a subsonic tip speed open rotor the tones can come form locations outboard of the blade tips. This has implications regarding noise shielding.

  5. Out-Phased Array Linearized Signaling (OPALS): A Practical Approach to Physical Layer Encryption

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-26

    Out-Phased Array Linearized Signaling ( OPALS ): A Practical Approach to Physical Layer Encryption Eric Tollefson, Bruce R. Jordan Jr., and Joseph D... OPALS ) which provides a practical approach to physical-layer encryption through spatial masking. Our approach modifies just the transmitter to employ...of the channel. With Out-Phased Array Linearized Signaling ( OPALS ), we propose a new masking technique that has some advantages of each of the

  6. Quantitative Phase Microscopy for Accurate Characterization of Microlens Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grilli, Simonetta; Miccio, Lisa; Merola, Francesco; Finizio, Andrea; Paturzo, Melania; Coppola, Sara; Vespini, Veronica; Ferraro, Pietro

    Microlens arrays are of fundamental importance in a wide variety of applications in optics and photonics. This chapter deals with an accurate digital holography-based characterization of both liquid and polymeric microlenses fabricated by an innovative pyro-electrowetting process. The actuation of liquid and polymeric films is obtained through the use of pyroelectric charges generated into polar dielectric lithium niobate crystals.

  7. Phased laser array with tailored spectral and coherence properties

    DOEpatents

    Messerly, Michael J [Danville, CA; Dawson, Jay W [Livermore, CA; Beach, Raymond J [Livermore, CA

    2011-03-29

    Architectures for coherently combining an array of fiber-based lasers are provided. By matching their lengths to within a few integer multiples of a wavelength, the spatial and temporal properties of a single large laser are replicated, while extending the average or peak pulsed power limit.

  8. Phased laser array with tailored spectral and coherence properties

    DOEpatents

    Messerly, Michael J; Dawson, Jay W; Beach, Raymond J

    2014-05-20

    Architectures for coherently combining an array of fiber-based lasers are provided. By matching their lengths to within a few integer multiples of a wavelength, the spatial and temporal properties of a single large laser are replicated, while extending the average or peak pulsed power limit.

  9. Progress and prospects of silicon-based design for optical phased array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Weiwei; Peng, Chao; Chang-Hasnain, Connie

    2016-03-01

    The high-speed, high-efficient, compact phase modulator array is indispensable in the Optical-phased array (OPA) which has been considered as a promising technology for realizing flexible and efficient beam steering. In our research, two methods are presented to utilize high-contrast grating (HCG) as high-efficient phase modulator. One is that HCG possesses high-Q resonances that origins from the cancellation of leaky waves. As a result, sharp resonance peaks appear on the reflection spectrum thus HCGs can be utilized as efficient phase shifters. Another is that low-Q mode HCG is utilized as ultra-lightweight mirror. With MEMS technology, small HCG displacement (~50 nm) leads to large phase change (~1.7π). Effective beam steering is achieved in Connie Chang-Hasnian's group. On the other hand, we theoretically and experimentally investigate the system design for silicon-based optical phased array, including the star coupler, phased array, emission elements and far-field patterns. Further, the non-uniform optical phased array is presented.

  10. Optical Phased Array Using Guided Resonance with Backside Reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horie, Yu (Inventor); Arbabi, Amir (Inventor); Faraon, Andrei (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Methods and systems for controlling the phase of electromagnetic waves are disclosed. A device can consist of a guided resonance grating layer, a spacer, and a reflector. A plurality of devices, arranged in a grid pattern, can control the phase of reflected electromagnetic phase, through refractive index control. Carrier injection, temperature control, and optical beams can be applied to control the refractive index.

  11. Optical phased array using guided resonance with backside reflectors

    SciTech Connect

    Horie, Yu; Arbabi, Amir; Faraon, Andrei

    2018-03-13

    Methods and systems for controlling the phase of electromagnetic waves are disclosed. A device can consist of a guided resonance grating layer, a spacer, and a reflector. A plurality of devices, arranged in a grid pattern, can control the phase of reflected electromagnetic phase, through refractive index control. Carrier injection, temperature control, and optical beams can be applied to control the refractive index.

  12. Optical phased array using guided resonance with backside reflectors

    DOEpatents

    Horie, Yu; Arbabi, Amir; Faraon, Andrei

    2016-11-01

    Methods and systems for controlling the phase of electromagnetic waves are disclosed. A device can consist of a guided resonance grating layer, a spacer, and a reflector. A plurality of devices, arranged in a grid pattern, can control the phase of reflected electromagnetic phase, through refractive index control. Carrier injection, temperature control, and optical beams can be applied to control the refractive index.

  13. Optical Phased Array Using Guided Resonance with Backside Reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horie, Yu (Inventor); Arbabi, Amir (Inventor); Faraon, Andrei (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Methods and systems for controlling the phase of electromagnetic waves are disclosed. A device can consist of a guided resonance grating layer, a spacer, and a reflector. A plurality of devices, arranged in a grid pattern, can control the phase of reflected electromagnetic phase, through refractive index control. Carrier injection, temperature control, and optical beams can be applied to control the refractive index.

  14. Absorbance characteristics of a liquid-phase gas sensor based on gas-permeable liquid core waveguides.

    PubMed

    Peng, Pei; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Li; Su, Shiguang; Wang, Jiahui

    2013-12-04

    The absorbance characteristics and influential factors on these characteristics for a liquid-phase gas sensor, which is based on gas-permeable liquid core waveguides (LCWs), are studied from theoretical and experimental viewpoints in this paper. According to theory, it is predicted that absorbance is proportional to the analyte concentration, sampling time, analyte diffusion coefficient, and geometric factor of this device when the depletion layer of the analyte is ignored. The experimental results are in agreement with the theoretical hypothesis. According to the experimental results, absorbance is time-dependent and increasing linearly over time after the requisite response time with a linear correlation coefficient r(2)>0.999. In the linear region, the rate of absorbance change (RAC) indicates improved linearity with sample concentration and a relative higher sensitivity than instantaneous absorbance does. By using a core liquid that is more affinitive to the analyte, reducing wall thickness and the inner diameter of the tubing, or increasing sample flow rate limitedly, the response time can be decreased and the sensitivity can be increased. However, increasing the LCW length can only enhance sensitivity and has no effect on response time. For liquid phase detection, there is a maximum flow rate, and the absorbance will decrease beyond the stated limit. Under experimental conditions, hexane as the LCW core solvent, a tubing wall thickness of 0.1 mm, a length of 10 cm, and a flow rate of 12 mL min(-1), the detection results for the aqueous benzene sample demonstrate a response time of 4 min. Additionally, the standard curve for the RAC versus concentration is RAC=0.0267c+0.0351 (AU min(-1)), with r(2)=0.9922 within concentrations of 0.5-3.0 mg L(-1). The relative error for 0.5 mg L(-1) benzene (n=6) is 7.4±3.7%, and the LOD is 0.04 mg L(-1). This research can provide theoretical and practical guides for liquid-phase gas sensor design and development based on a

  15. Study of phase-locked diode laser array and DFB/DBR surface emitting laser diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsin, Wei

    New types of phased-array and surface-emitting lasers are designed. The importance and approaches (or structures) of different phased array and surface emitting laser diodes are reviewed. The following are described: (1) a large optical cavity channel substrate planar laser array with layer thickness chirping; (2) a vertical cavity surface emitter with distributed feedback (DFB) optical cavity and a transverse junction buried heterostructure; (3) a microcavity distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) surface emitter; and (4) two surface emitting laser structures which utilized lateral current injection schemes to overcome the problems occurring in the vertical injection scheme.

  16. Propagation of a radial phased-locked Lorentz beam array in turbulent atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guoquan

    2011-11-21

    A radial phased-locked (PL) Lorentz beam array provides an appropriate theoretical model to describe a coherent diode laser array, which is an efficient radiation source for high-power beaming use. The propagation of a radial PL Lorentz beam array in turbulent atmosphere is investigated. Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel integral and some mathematical techniques, analytical formulae for the average intensity and the effective beam size of a radial PL Lorentz beam array are derived in turbulent atmosphere. The average intensity distribution and the spreading properties of a radial PL Lorentz beam array in turbulent atmosphere are numerically calculated. The influences of the beam parameters and the structure constant of the atmospheric turbulence on the propagation of a radial PL Lorentz beam array in turbulent atmosphere are discussed in detail. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  17. Array Automated Assembly Task Low Cost Silicon Solar Array Project, Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhee, S. S.; Jones, G. T.; Allison, K. L.

    1978-01-01

    Progress in the development of solar cells and module process steps for low-cost solar arrays is reported. Specific topics covered include: (1) a system to automatically measure solar cell electrical performance parameters; (2) automation of wafer surface preparation, printing, and plating; (3) laser inspection of mechanical defects of solar cells; and (4) a silicon antireflection coating system. Two solar cell process steps, laser trimming and holing automation and spray-on dopant junction formation, are described.

  18. Focused intracochlear electric stimulation with phased array channels.

    PubMed

    van den Honert, Chris; Kelsall, David C

    2007-06-01

    A method is described for producing focused intracochlear electric stimulation using an array of N electrodes. For each electrode site, N weights are computed that define the ratios of positive and negative electrode currents required to produce cancellation of the voltage within scala tympani at all of the N-1 other sites. Multiple sites can be stimulated simultaneously by superposition of their respective current vectors. The method allows N independent stimulus waveforms to be delivered to each of the N electrode sites without spatial overlap. Channel interaction from current spread associated with monopolar stimulation is substantially eliminated. The method operates by inverting the spread functions of individual monopoles as measured with the other electrodes. The method was implemented and validated with data from three human subjects implanted with 22-electrode perimodiolar arrays. Results indicate that (1) focusing is realizable with realistic precision; (2) focusing comes at the cost of increased total stimulation current; (3) uncanceled voltages that arise beyond the ends of the array are weak except when stimulating the two end channels; and (4) close perimodiolar positioning of the electrodes may be important for minimizing stimulation current and sensitivity to measurement errors.

  19. A Tikhonov Regularization Scheme for Focus Rotations with Focused Ultrasound Phased Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Alec; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2016-01-01

    Phased arrays have a wide range of applications in focused ultrasound therapy. By using an array of individually-driven transducer elements, it is possible to steer a focus through space electronically and compensate for acoustically heterogeneous media with phase delays. In this paper, the concept of focusing an ultrasound phased array is expanded to include a method to control the orientation of the focus using a Tikhonov regularization scheme. It is then shown that the Tikhonov regularization parameter used to solve the ill-posed focus rotation problem plays an important role in the balance between quality focusing and array efficiency. Finally, the technique is applied to the synthesis of multiple foci, showing that this method allows for multiple independent spatial rotations. PMID:27913323

  20. Two-phase interdigitated microelectrode arrays for electrokinetic transport of microparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bligh, Mathew; Stanley, Kevin G.; Hubbard, Ted; Kujath, Marek

    2008-05-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate long-range particle transport using linear two-phase interdigitated arrays with electrodes of equal size but with asymmetric spacing between them. We report net motion of 6 µm polystyrene spheres in an aqueous electrolyte and characterize the dependence of particle velocity on frequency, potential and phase, and show consistency with previous experiments that involved four-phase arrays producing AC electroosmotic and dielectrophoretic forces. We explore the effect of increasing the asymmetry of the electrode spacing and show that this decreases the performance of the array. We also examine the effect of increasing the overall scale of the array while maintaining geometric proportions and particle size and report that this also decreases the performance. We compare our results to previous analytical theoretical predictions and find general agreement.

  1. Optical techniques to feed and control GaAs MMIC modules for phased array antenna applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhasin, K. B.; Anzic, G.; Kunath, R. R.; Connolly, D. J.

    A complex signal distribution system is required to feed and control GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) for phased array antenna applications above 20 GHz. Each MMIC module will require one or more RF lines, one or more bias voltage lines, and digital lines to provide a minimum of 10 bits of combined phase and gain control information. In a closely spaced array, the routing of these multiple lines presents difficult topology problems as well as a high probability of signal interference. To overcome GaAs MMIC phased array signal distribution problems optical fibers interconnected to monolithically integrated optical components with GaAs MMIC array elements are proposed as a solution. System architecture considerations using optical fibers are described. The analog and digital optical links to respectively feed and control MMIC elements are analyzed. It is concluded that a fiber optic network will reduce weight and complexity, and increase reliability and performance, but higher power will be required.

  2. Optical techniques to feed and control GaAs MMIC modules for phased array antenna applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, K. B.; Anzic, G.; Kunath, R. R.; Connolly, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    A complex signal distribution system is required to feed and control GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) for phased array antenna applications above 20 GHz. Each MMIC module will require one or more RF lines, one or more bias voltage lines, and digital lines to provide a minimum of 10 bits of combined phase and gain control information. In a closely spaced array, the routing of these multiple lines presents difficult topology problems as well as a high probability of signal interference. To overcome GaAs MMIC phased array signal distribution problems optical fibers interconnected to monolithically integrated optical components with GaAs MMIC array elements are proposed as a solution. System architecture considerations using optical fibers are described. The analog and digital optical links to respectively feed and control MMIC elements are analyzed. It is concluded that a fiber optic network will reduce weight and complexity, and increase reliability and performance, but higher power will be required.

  3. A Tikhonov Regularization Scheme for Focus Rotations With Focused Ultrasound-Phased Arrays.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Alec; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2016-12-01

    Phased arrays have a wide range of applications in focused ultrasound therapy. By using an array of individually driven transducer elements, it is possible to steer a focus through space electronically and compensate for acoustically heterogeneous media with phase delays. In this paper, the concept of focusing an ultrasound-phased array is expanded to include a method to control the orientation of the focus using a Tikhonov regularization scheme. It is then shown that the Tikhonov regularization parameter used to solve the ill-posed focus rotation problem plays an important role in the balance between quality focusing and array efficiency. Finally, the technique is applied to the synthesis of multiple foci, showing that this method allows for multiple independent spatial rotations.

  4. The cross waveguide grating: proposal, theory and applications.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Pascual; Pastor, Daniel; Capmany, José

    2005-04-18

    In this paper a novel grating-like integrated optics device is proposed, the Cross Waveguide Grating (XWG). The device is based upon a modified configuration of a traditional Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG). The Arrayed Waveguides part is changed, as detailed along this document, giving the device both the ability of multi/demultiplexing and power splitting/coupling. Design examples and transfer function simulations show good agreement with the presented theory. Finally, some of the envisaged applications are outlined.

  5. Polymer Waveguide Fabrication Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramey, Delvan A.

    1985-01-01

    The ability of integrated optic systems to compete in signal processing aplications with more traditional analog and digital electronic systems is discussed. The Acousto-Optic Spectrum Analyzer is an example which motivated the particular work discussed herein. Provided real time processing is more critical than absolute accuracy, such integrated optic systems fulfill a design need. Fan-out waveguide arrays allow crosstalk in system detector arrays to be controlled without directly limiting system resolution. A polyurethane pattern definition process was developed in order to demonstrate fan-out arrays. This novel process is discussed, along with further research needs. Integrated optic system market penetration would be enhanced by development of commercial processes of this type.

  6. Inband radar cross section of phased arrays with parallel feeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flokas, Vassilios

    1994-06-01

    Approximate formulas for the inband radar cross section of arrays with parallel feeds are presented. To obtain the formulas, multiple reflections are neglected, and devices of the same type are assumed to have identical electrical performance. The approximate results were compared to the results obtained using a scattering matrix formulation. Both methods were in agreement in predicting RCS lobe positions, levels, and behavior with scanning. The advantages of the approximate method are its computational efficiency and its flexibility in handling an arbitrary number of coupler levels.

  7. Control, Filtering and Prediction for Phased Arrays in Directed Energy Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-30

    adaptive optics. 15. SUBJECT TERMS control, filtering, prediction, system identification, adaptive optics, laser beam pointing, target tracking, phase... laser beam control; furthermore, wavefront sensors are plagued by the difficulty of maintaining the required alignment and focusing in dynamic mission...developed new methods for filtering, prediction and system identification in adaptive optics for high energy laser systems including phased arrays. The

  8. Laser-ablative engineering of phase singularities in plasmonic metamaterial arrays for biosensing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Aristov, Andrey I.; Kabashin, Andrei V., E-mail: kabashin@lp3.univ-mrs.fr; Zywietz, Urs

    2014-02-17

    By using methods of laser-induced transfer combined with nanoparticle lithography, we design and fabricate large-area gold nanoparticle-based metamaterial arrays exhibiting extreme Heaviside-like phase jumps in reflected light due to a strong diffractive coupling of localized plasmons. When employed in sensing schemes, these phase singularities provide the sensitivity of 5 × 10{sup 4} deg. of phase shift per refractive index unit change that is comparable with best values reported for plasmonic biosensors. The implementation of sensor platforms on the basis of such metamaterial arrays promises a drastic improvement of sensitivity and cost efficiency of plasmonic biosensing devices.

  9. Fabrication and Testing of Binary-Phase Fourier Gratings for Nonuniform Array Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Andrew S.; Crow, Robert W.; Ashley, Paul R.; Nelson, Tom R., Jr.; Parker, Jack H.; Beecher, Elizabeth A.

    2004-01-01

    This effort describes the fabrication and testing of binary-phase Fourier gratings designed to generate an incoherent array of output source points with nonuniform user-defined intensities, symmetric about the zeroth order. Like Dammann fanout gratings, these binary-phase Fourier gratings employ only two phase levels to generate a defined output array. Unlike Dammann fanout gratings, these gratings generate an array of nonuniform, user-defined intensities when projected into the far-field regime. The paper describes the process of design, fabrication, and testing for two different version of the binary-phase grating; one designed for a 12 micron wavelength, referred to as the Long-Wavelength Infrared (LWIR) grating, and one designed for a 5 micron wavelength, referred to as the Mid-Wavelength Infrared Grating (MWIR).

  10. Resolving Phase Ambiguities in the Calibration of Redundant Interferometric Arrays: Implications for Array Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-04

    summary of the linear algebra involved. As we have seen, the RSC process begins with the interferometric phase measurement β, which due to wrapping will...mentary Divisors) in Section 2 and the following defi- nition of the matrix determinant. This definition is given in many linear algebra texts (see...principle solve for a particular solution of this system by arbitrarily setting two object phases (whose spatial frequencies are not co- linear ) and one

  11. Resolving phase ambiguities in the calibration of redundant interferometric arrays: implications for array design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-30

    matrix determinant. This definition is given in many linear algebra texts (see e.g. Bretscher (2001)). Definition 3.1 : Suppose we have an n-by-n...Processing, 2, 767 Blanchard P., Greenaway A., Anderton R., Appleby R., 1996, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 13, 1593 Bretscher O., 2001, Linear Algebra with...frequencies are not co- linear ) and one piston phase. This particular solution will then differ from the true solution by a phase ramp in the Fourier

  12. Resolving phase ambiguities in the calibration of redundant interferometric arrays: implications for array design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-18

    course of this paper, we will first iden- tify this ambiguity from a mathematical perspective, relate it to a particular physical structure (i.e. the...invariance to a physical condition on aperture place- ment is more intuitive when considering the raw phase mea- surements as opposed to their closures. For...to wrapping of the phase measure- ments. We have hence arrived at a a physical definition of a wrap-invariant pattern. We now apply Algorithm 1 to the

  13. Development of a Receiver Processor For UAV Video Signal Acquisition and Tracking Using Digital Phased Array Antenna

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    53 Figure 26. Image of the phased array antenna...................................................................54...69 Figure 38. Computation of correction angle from array factor and sum/difference beams...71 Figure 39. Front panel of the tracking algorithm

  14. Propagation of a phase-locked circular dark hollow beams array in a turbulent atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Pu; Wang, Xiaolin; Ma, Yanxing; Ma, Haotong; Xu, Xiaojun; Liu, Zejin

    2010-10-01

    The propagation of phase-locked circular dark hollow beams array in a turbulent atmosphere is studied. An analytical expression for the average intensity distribution at the receiving plane is obtained based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle. The effects of turbulence, dark parameter and beam order of the beams array on the intensity pattern are studied and analyzed. It is found that the intensity pattern of the phase-locked circular dark hollow beams array will evolve from a multiple-spot-pattern into a Gaussian beam spot under the isotropic influence of the turbulence. The intensity pattern of beam array with a larger dark parameter and beam order evolves into the Gaussian-shape faster with increasing propagation distance.

  15. Approximate Evaluation of Acoustical Focal Beams by Phased Array Probes for Austenitic Weld Inspections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kono, Naoyuki; Miki, Masahiro; Nakamura, Motoyuki; Ehara, Kazuya

    2007-03-01

    Phased array techniques are capable of the sensitive detection and precise sizing of flaws or cracks in components of nuclear power plants by using arbitrary focal beams with various depths, positions and angles. Aquantitative investigation of these focal beams is essential for the optimization of array probes, especially for austenitic weld inspection, in order to improve the detectability, sizing accuracy, and signal-to-noise ratio using these beams. In the present work, focal beams generated by phased array probes are calculated based on the Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction integral (FKDI) method, and an approximation formula between the actual focal depth and optical focal depth is proposed as an extension of the theory for conventional spherically focusing probes. The validity of the approximation formula for the array probes is confirmed by a comparison with simulation data using the FKDI method, and the experimental data.

  16. An RF phased array applicator designed for hyperthermia breast cancer treatments

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Liyong; McGough, Robert J; Arabe, Omar Ali; Samulski, Thaddeus V

    2007-01-01

    An RF phased array applicator has been constructed for hyperthermia treatments in the intact breast. This RF phased array consists of four antennas mounted on a Lexan water tank, and geometric focusing is employed so that each antenna points in the direction of the intended target. The operating frequency for this phased array is 140 MHz. The RF array has been characterized both by electric field measurements in a water tank and by electric field simulations using the finite-element method. The finite-element simulations are performed with HFSS software, where the mesh defined for finite-element calculations includes the geometry of the tank enclosure and four end-loaded dipole antennas. The material properties of the water tank enclosure and the antennas are also included in each simulation. The results of the finite-element simulations are compared to the measured values for this configuration, and the results, which include the effects of amplitude shading and phase shifting, show that the electric field predicted by finite-element simulations is similar to the measured field. Simulations also show that the contributions from standing waves are significant, which is consistent with measurement results. Simulated electric field and bio-heat transfer results are also computed within a simple 3D breast model. Temperature simulations show that, although peak temperatures are generated outside the simulated tumour target, this RF phased array applicator is an effective device for regional hyperthermia in the intact breast. PMID:16357427

  17. Theoretical analysis of phase locking in an array of globally coupled lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Vysotskii, D V; Elkin, N N; Napartovich, A P

    2013-09-30

    A model of an array of globally coupled fibre lasers, with the same fraction of the total output beam power injected into each laser, is considered. Phase self-locking of the laser array makes it possible to increase the brightness of the total output beam without any devices for controlling the phases of output beams, which significantly complicate the laser system. The spread of the laser optical lengths is several hundreds of wavelengths (or even more); within the theory of hollow cavities, this spread should lead to a fast decrease in the total power with an increase in the number ofmore » lasers. The presence of the active medium may reduce this drop to a great extent due to the self-tuning of the laser array radiation wavelength to a value providing a maximum gain for the array lasing mode. The optical length of each element is assumed to be random. The increase in the phase-locking efficiency due to the gain saturation is explained based on the probabilistic approach. An iterative procedure is developed to find the array output power in the presence of steady-state phase locking. Calculations for different values of small-signal gain and the output-power fraction spent on global coupling are performed. It is shown that, when this fraction amounts to ∼20 % – 30 %, phase locking of up to 20 fibre lasers can be implemented with an efficiency as high as 70 %. (control of laser radiation parameters)« less

  18. Automated Array Assembly, Phase 2. Low-cost Solar Array Project, Task 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, M.

    1978-01-01

    Work was done to verify the technological readiness of a select process sequence with respect to satisfying the Low Cost Solar Array Project objectives of meeting the designated goals of $.50 per peak watt in 1986 (1975 dollars). The sequence examined consisted of: (1) 3 inches diameter as-sawn Czochralski grown 1:0:0 silicon, (2) texture etching, (3) ion implanting, (4) laser annealing, (5) screen printing of ohmic contacts and (6) sprayed anti-reflective coatings. High volume production projections were made on the selected process sequence. Automated processing and movement of hardware at high rates were conceptualized to satisfy the PROJECT's 500 MW/yr capability. A production plan was formulated with flow diagrams integrating the various processes in the cell fabrication sequence.

  19. Directed liquid phase assembly of highly ordered metallic nanoparticle arrays

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Yueying; Dong, Nanyi; Fu, Shaofang; ...

    2014-04-01

    Directed assembly of nanomaterials is a promising route for the synthesis of advanced materials and devices. We demonstrate the directed-assembly of highly ordered two-dimensional arrays of hierarchical nanostructures with tunable size, spacing and composition. The directed assembly is achieved on lithographically patterned metal films that are subsequently pulse-laser melted; during the brief liquid lifetime, the pattened nanostructures assemble into highly ordered primary and secondary nanoparticles, with sizes below that which was originally patterned. Complementary fluid-dynamics simulations emulate the resultant patterns and show how the competition of capillary forces and liquid metal–solid substrate interaction potential drives the directed assembly. Lastly, asmore » an example of the enhanced functionality, a full-wave electromagnetic analysis has been performed to identify the nature of the supported plasmonic resonances.« less

  20. Meteorological Sensor Array (MSA)-Phase I. Volume 3 (Pre-Field Campaign Sensor Calibration)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    turbulence impact of the WSMR solar array. 4) Designing , developing, testing , and evaluating integrated Data Acquisition System (DAS) hardware and...ARL-TR-7362 ● JULY 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Meteorological Sensor Array (MSA)–Phase I, Volume 3 (Pre-Field Campaign...NOTICES Disclaimers The findings in this report are not to be construed as an official Department of the Army position unless so designated by

  1. Restoring Low Sidelobe Antenna Patterns with Failed Elements in a Phased Array Antenna

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-01

    optimum low sidelobes are demonstrated in several examples. Index Terms — Array signal processing, beams, linear algebra , phased arrays, shaped...represented by a linear combination of low sidelobe beamformers with no failed elements, ’s, in a neighborhood around under the constraint that the linear ...would expect that linear combinations of them in a neighborhood around would also have low sidelobes. The algorithms in this paper exploit this

  2. A flexible 70 MHz phase-controlled double waveguide system for hyperthermia treatment of superficial tumours with deep infiltration.

    PubMed

    van Stam, Gerard; Kok, H Petra; Hulshof, Maarten C C M; Kolff, M Willemijn; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; Sijbrands, Jan; Bakker, Akke; Zum Vörde Sive Vörding, Paul J; Oldenborg, Sabine; de Greef, Martijn; Rasch, Coen R N; Crezee, Hans

    2017-11-01

    Superficial tumours with deep infiltration in the upper 15 cm of the trunk cannot be treated adequately with existing hyperthermia systems. The aim of this study was to develop, characterise and evaluate a new flexible two-channel hyperthermia system (AMC-2) for tumours in this region. The two-channel AMC-2 system has two horizontally revolving and height adjustable 70 MHz waveguides. Three different interchangeable antennas with sizes 20 × 34, 15 × 34 and 8.5 × 34 cm were developed and their electrical properties were determined. The performance of the AMC-2 system was tested by measurements of the electric field distribution in a saline water filled elliptical phantom, using an electric field vector probe. Clinical feasibility was demonstrated by treatment of a melanoma in the axillary region. Phantom measurements showed a good performance for all waveguides. The large reflection of the smallest antenna has to be compensated by increased forward power. Field patterns become asymmetrical when using smaller top antennas, necessitating phase corrections. The clinical application showed that tumours deeper than 4 cm can be heated adequately. A median tumour temperature of 42 °C can be reached up to 12 cm depth with adequate antenna positioning and phase-amplitude steering. This 70 MHz AMC-2 waveguide system is a useful addition to existing loco-regional hyperthermia equipment as it is capable of heating axillary tumours and other tumours deeper than 4 cm.

  3. Transceiver-Phased Arrays for Human Brain Studies at 7 T

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes technological advances in high-field (7 T) transceiver-phased arrays developed for magnetic resonance imaging of the human brain. The first part of this work describes an 8-element inductively decoupled split elliptical transceiver-phased array with selectable geometry, which provides an easy and efficient way of compensating for changes in mutual inductive coupling associated with difference in loading due to variability in head shape and size. The second part of the work describes a double-row 16-element (2 × 8) transceiver array to extend the homogeneous transmit B1 profile in the longitudinal direction. Multiplexing eight transmit channels between the two rows of the array provides homogeneous excitation over the entire volume. The final section describes design and construction of a double-tuned 31P/1H 16-element (8 at each frequency) array. The array improves transmission efficiency and B1 homogeneity at 1H frequency in comparison with 31P/1H quadrature transverse electromagnetic volume coil. For 31P studies, the array also improves transmission efficiency (38%), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for central brain locations (20%) and provides substantially greater SNR (up to 400%) for peripheral locations. PMID:23516332

  4. Noise characteristics of passive components for phased array applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonmez, M. Kemal; Trew, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a comparative study on noise characteristics of basic power combining/dividing and phase shifting schemes are presented. The theoretical basics of thermal noise in a passive linear multiport are discussed. A new formalism is presented to describe the noise behavior of the passive circuits, and it is shown that the fundamental results are conveniently achieved using this description. The results of analyses concerning the noise behavior of basic power combining/dividing structures (the Wilkinson combiner, 90 deg hybrid coupler, hybrid ring coupler, and the Lange coupler) are presented. Three types of PIN-diode switch phase shifters are analyzed in terms of noise performance.

  5. Analysis and design of tunable wideband microwave photonics phase shifter based on Fabry-Perot cavity and Bragg mirrors in silicon-on-insulator waveguide.

    PubMed

    Qu, Pengfei; Zhou, Jingran; Chen, Weiyou; Li, Fumin; Li, Haibin; Liu, Caixia; Ruan, Shengping; Dong, Wei

    2010-04-20

    We designed a microwave (MW) photonics phase shifter, consisting of a Fabry-Perot filter, a phase modulation region (PMR), and distributed Bragg reflectors, in a silicon-on-insulator rib waveguide. The thermo-optics effect was employed to tune the PMR. It was theoretically demonstrated that the linear MW phase shift of 0-2pi could be achieved by a refractive index variation of 0-9.68x10(-3) in an ultrawideband (about 38?GHz-1.9?THz), and the corresponding tuning resolution was about 6.92 degrees / degrees C. The device had a very compact size. It could be easily integrated in silicon optoelectronic chips and expected to be widely used in the high-frequency MW photonics field.

  6. K-Band Phased Array Developed for Low- Earth-Orbit Satellite Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anzic, Godfrey

    1999-01-01

    Future rapid deployment of low- and medium-Earth-orbit satellite constellations that will offer various narrow- to wide-band wireless communications services will require phased-array antennas that feature wide-angle and superagile electronic steering of one or more antenna beams. Antennas, which employ monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC), are perfectly suited for this application. Under a cooperative agreement, an MMIC-based, K-band phased-array antenna is being developed with 50/50 cost sharing by the NASA Lewis Research Center and Raytheon Systems Company. The transmitting array, which will operate at 19 gigahertz (GHz), is a state-of-the-art design that features dual, independent, electronically steerable beam operation ( 42 ), a stand-alone thermal management, and a high-density tile architecture. This array can transmit 622 megabits per second (Mbps) in each beam from Earth orbit to small Earth terminals. The weight of the total array package is expected to be less than 8 lb. The tile integration technology (flip chip MMIC tile) chosen for this project represents a major advancement in phased-array engineering and holds much promise for reducing manufacturing costs.

  7. High Rate User Ka-Band Phased Array Antenna Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caroglanian, Armen; Perko, Kenneth; Seufert, Steve; Dod, Tom; Warshowsky, Jay; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The High Rate User Phased Array Antenna (HRUPAA) is a Ka-Band planar phased array designed by the Harris Corporation for the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The HRUPAA permits a satellite to downlink data either to a ground station or through the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The HRUPAA is scanned electronically by ground station / user satellite command over a 120 degree cone angle. The phased array has the advantage of not imparting attitude disturbances to the user spacecraft. The 288-element transmit-only array has distributed RF amplifiers integrated behind each of the printed patch antenna elements. The array has 33 dBW EIRP and is left-hand circularly polarized. An engineering model of a partially populated array has been developed and delivered to NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This report deals with the testing of the engineering model at the Goddard Antenna Range near-field and compact range facilities. The antenna specifications are described first, followed by the test plan and test results.

  8. PMN-PT Single-Crystal High-Frequency Kerfless Phased Array

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ruimin; Cabrera-Munoz, Nestor E.; Lam, Kwok Ho; Hsu, Hsiu-sheng; Zheng, Fan; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the design, fabrication, and characterization of a miniature high-frequency kerfless phased array prepared from a PMN-PT single crystal for forward-looking intravascular or endoscopic imaging applications. After lapping down to around 40 μm, the PMN-PT material was utilized to fabricate 32-element kerfless phased arrays using micromachining techniques. The aperture size of the active area was only 1.0 × 1.0 mm. The measured results showed that the array had a center frequency of 40 MHz, a bandwidth of 34% at −6 dB with a polymer matching layer, and an insertion loss of 20 dB at the center frequency. Phantom images were acquired and compared with simulated images. The results suggest that the feasibility of developing a phased array mounted at the tip of a forward-looking intravascular catheter or endoscope. The fabricated array exhibits much higher sensitivity than PZT ceramic-based arrays and demonstrates that PMN-PT is well suited for this application. PMID:24859667

  9. Wavefront sensing and adaptive control in phased array of fiber collimators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachinova, Svetlana L.; Vorontsov, Mikhail A.

    2011-03-01

    A new wavefront control approach for mitigation of atmospheric turbulence-induced wavefront phase aberrations in coherent fiber-array-based laser beam projection systems is introduced and analyzed. This approach is based on integration of wavefront sensing capabilities directly into the fiber-array transmitter aperture. In the coherent fiber array considered, we assume that each fiber collimator (subaperture) of the array is capable of precompensation of local (onsubaperture) wavefront phase tip and tilt aberrations using controllable rapid displacement of the tip of the delivery fiber at the collimating lens focal plane. In the technique proposed, this tip and tilt phase aberration control is based on maximization of the optical power received through the same fiber collimator using the stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) technique. The coordinates of the fiber tip after the local tip and tilt aberrations are mitigated correspond to the coordinates of the focal-spot centroid of the optical wave backscattered off the target. Similar to a conventional Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, phase function over the entire fiber-array aperture can then be retrieved using the coordinates obtained. The piston phases that are required for coherent combining (phase locking) of the outgoing beams at the target plane can be further calculated from the reconstructed wavefront phase. Results of analysis and numerical simulations are presented. Performance of adaptive precompensation of phase aberrations in this laser beam projection system type is compared for various system configurations characterized by the number of fiber collimators and atmospheric turbulence conditions. The wavefront control concept presented can be effectively applied for long-range laser beam projection scenarios for which the time delay related with the double-pass laser beam propagation to the target and back is compared or even exceeds the characteristic time of the atmospheric turbulence change

  10. Investigation of Truncated Waveguides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lourie, Nathan P.; Chuss, David T.; Henry, Ross M.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and performance of truncated circular and square waveguide cross-sections are presented. An emphasis is placed upon numerical and experimental validation of simple analytical formulae that describe the propagation properties of these structures. A test component, a 90-degree phase shifter, was fabricated and tested at 30 GHz. The concepts explored can be directly applied in the design, synthesis and optimization of components in the microwave to sub-millimeter wavebands.

  11. Phase-Array Approach to Optical Whispering Gallery Modulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strekalov, Dmitry

    2010-01-01

    This technology leverages the well-defined orbital number of a whispering gallery modulator (WGM) to expand the range of applications for such resonators. This property rigidly connects the phase variation of the field in this mode with the azimuthal angle between the coupling locations. A WGM with orbital momentum L has exactly L instant nodes around the circumference of the WGM resonator supporting such a mode. Therefore, in two locations separated by the arc alpha, the phase difference of such a field will be equal to phi= alpha L. Coupling the field out of such locations, and into a balanced interferometer, once can observe a complete constructive or distractive interference (or have any situation in between) depending on the angle alpha. Similarly, a mode L + delta L will pick up the phase phi + alpha delta L. In all applications of a WGM resonator as a modulator, the orbital numbers for the carrier and sidebands are different, and their differences delta L are known (usually, but not necessarily, delta L = 1). Therefore, the choice of the angle alpha, and of the interferometer arms difference, allows one to control the relative phase between different modes and to perform the conversion, separation, and filtering tasks necessary.

  12. SPM of nonlinear surface plasmon waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuee; Zhang, Xiaoping

    2008-10-01

    Pulse propagation equation of nonlinear dispersion surface plasmon waveguide is educed strictly from wave equation. The nonlinear coefficient is defined and then used to assess and compare the nonlinear characteristic of three popular 1-D surface plasmon waveguides: the single metal-dielectric interface, the metal slab bounded by dielectric and the dielectric slab bounded by metal. SPM (self-phase modulation) of the typical surface plasmon waveguide is predicted and discussed.

  13. Inspection of aircraft fastener holes using a conically shaped multi-element phased array probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selman, J. J.; Miller, J. T.; Moles, M. D. C.; Dupuis, O.; Herzog, P. G.

    2002-05-01

    A novel inspection technique is described using phased ultrasonic arrays to detect faying surface cracks in the first layer around the base of a fastener hole with fasteners installed. A unique phased array probe incorporates a matrix of ultrasonic elements arranged in a conical configuration encircling the fastener head. This arrangement permits deflection of the ultrasonic beam in three dimensions, and adapts to different hole diameters and skin thickness. Full circumferential scans are performed using a pre-programmed sequence of phased array focal laws. The inspection method uses pulse-echo at a variety of angles incident on the crack to thoroughly cover the fastener hole and surrounding area, and is designed to detect cracks as small as 0.030″ in length.

  14. Shack-Hartmann Phasing of Segmented Telescopes: Systematic Effects from Lenslet Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troy, Mitchell; Chanan, Gary; Roberts, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The segments in the Keck telescopes are routinely phased using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor with sub-apertures that span adjacent segments. However, one potential limitation to the absolute accuracy of this technique is that it relies on a lenslet array (or a single lens plus a prism array) to form the subimages. These optics have the potential to introduce wavefront errors and stray reflections at the subaperture level that will bias the phasing measurement. We present laboratory data to quantify this effect, using measured errors from Keck and two other lenslet arrays. In addition, as part of the design of the Thirty Meter Telescope Alignment and Phasing System we present a preliminary investigation of a lenslet-free approach that relies on Fresnel diffraction to form the subimages at the CCD. Such a technique has several advantages, including the elimination of lenslet aberrations.

  15. Antenna data storage concept for phased array radio astronomical instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunst, André W.; Kruithof, Gert H.

    2018-04-01

    Low frequency Radio Astronomy instruments like LOFAR and SKA-LOW use arrays of dipole antennas for the collection of radio signals from the sky. Due to the large number of antennas involved, the total data rate produced by all the antennas is enormous. Storage of the antenna data is both economically and technologically infeasible using the current state of the art storage technology. Therefore, real-time processing of the antenna voltage data using beam forming and correlation is applied to achieve a data reduction throughout the signal chain. However, most science could equally well be performed using an archive of raw antenna voltage data coming straight from the A/D converters instead of capturing and processing the antenna data in real time over and over again. Trends on storage and computing technology make such an approach feasible on a time scale of approximately 10 years. The benefits of such a system approach are more science output and a higher flexibility with respect to the science operations. In this paper we present a radically new system concept for a radio telescope based on storage of raw antenna data. LOFAR is used as an example for such a future instrument.

  16. Identifying equivalent sound sources from aeroacoustic simulations using a numerical phased array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pignier, Nicolas J.; O'Reilly, Ciarán J.; Boij, Susann

    2017-04-01

    An application of phased array methods to numerical data is presented, aimed at identifying equivalent flow sound sources from aeroacoustic simulations. Based on phased array data extracted from compressible flow simulations, sound source strengths are computed on a set of points in the source region using phased array techniques assuming monopole propagation. Two phased array techniques are used to compute the source strengths: an approach using a Moore-Penrose pseudo-inverse and a beamforming approach using dual linear programming (dual-LP) deconvolution. The first approach gives a model of correlated sources for the acoustic field generated from the flow expressed in a matrix of cross- and auto-power spectral values, whereas the second approach results in a model of uncorrelated sources expressed in a vector of auto-power spectral values. The accuracy of the equivalent source model is estimated by computing the acoustic spectrum at a far-field observer. The approach is tested first on an analytical case with known point sources. It is then applied to the example of the flow around a submerged air inlet. The far-field spectra obtained from the source models for two different flow conditions are in good agreement with the spectra obtained with a Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings integral, showing the accuracy of the source model from the observer's standpoint. Various configurations for the phased array and for the sources are used. The dual-LP beamforming approach shows better robustness to changes in the number of probes and sources than the pseudo-inverse approach. The good results obtained with this simulation case demonstrate the potential of the phased array approach as a modelling tool for aeroacoustic simulations.

  17. Phase-conjugate holographic lithography based on micromirror array recording.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yongjun; Hahn, Joonku; Lee, Byoungho

    2011-12-01

    We present phase-conjugate holographic lithography with a hologram recorded by a digital micromirror device (DMD) and a telecentric lens. In our lithography system, a phase-conjugate hologram is applied instead of conventional masks or reticles to form patterns. This method has the advantage of increasing focus range, and it is applicable to the formation of patterns on fairly uneven surfaces. The hologram pattern is dynamically generated by the DMD, and its resolution is mainly determined by the demagnification of the telecentric lens. We experimentally demonstrate that our holographic lithographic system has a large focus range, and it is feasible to make a large-area hologram by stitching each pattern generated by the DMD without a falling off in resolution. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  18. Whole-machine calibration approach for phased array radar with self-test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Kai; Yao, Zhi-Cheng; Zhang, Jin-Chang; Yang, Jian

    2017-06-01

    The performance of the missile-borne phased array radar is greatly influenced by the inter-channel amplitude and phase inconsistencies. In order to ensure its performance, the amplitude and the phase characteristics of radar should be calibrated. Commonly used methods mainly focus on antenna calibration, such as FFT, REV, etc. However, the radar channel also contains T / R components, channels, ADC and messenger. In order to achieve on-based phased array radar amplitude information for rapid machine calibration and compensation, we adopt a high-precision plane scanning test platform for phase amplitude test. A calibration approach for the whole channel system based on the radar frequency source test is proposed. Finally, the advantages and the application prospect of this approach are analysed.

  19. Fast Determination of the Element Excitation of an Active Phased Array Antenna

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    elementenexcitatie te, bepalen: de amplitude en fase van het elektrische ven-e veld moeten gemeten warden in slechts I richting in het verre veld van de ...Page 3 rapport no FEL-91-BO38 titel Een snelle bepaling van de excitatie van de elenienten van cen actieve phased array antenne auteur(s) I. J.G. van...van der Spek Onderzoek uItgevoerd door Ir. J.G. van Hezewijk SAMENVATIING (ONGERUBRICEERD) Het verre veld stralingsdiagram van een actieve phased array

  20. Multiple-access phased array antenna simulator for a digital beam-forming system investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Yu, John; Walton, Joanne C.; Perl, Thomas D.; Andro, Monty; Alexovich, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    Future versions of data relay satellite systems are currently being planned by NASA. Being given consideration for implementation are on-board digital beamforming techniques which will allow multiple users to simultaneously access a single S-band phased array antenna system. To investigate the potential performance of such a system, a laboratory simulator has been developed at NASA's Lewis Research Center. This paper describes the system simulator, and in particular, the requirements, design and performance of a key subsystem, the phased array antenna simulator, which provides realistic inputs to the digital processor including multiple signals, noise, and nonlinearities.

  1. Improved near-field characteristics of phased arrays for assessing concrete and cementitious materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooh, Shi-Chang; Azar, Lawrence

    1999-01-01

    The degradation of civil infrastructure has placed a focus on effective nondestructive evaluation techniques to correctly assess the condition of existing concrete structures. Conventional high frequency ultrasonic response are severely affected by scattering and material attenuation, resulting in weak and confusing signal returns. Therefore, low frequency ultrasonic transducers, which avoid this problem of wave attenuation, are commonly used for concrete with limited capabilities. The focus of this research is to ascertain some benefits and limitations of a low frequency ultrasonic phased array transducer. In this paper, we investigate a novel low-frequency ultrasonic phased array and the results of experimental feasibility test for practical condition assessment of concrete structures are reported.

  2. Ultrasonic Phased Array Inspection for an Isogrid Structural Element with Cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, D. J.; Tokars, R. P.; Martin, R. E.; Rauser, R. W.; Aldrin, J. C.; Schumacher, E. J.

    2010-01-01

    In this investigation, a T-shaped aluminum alloy isogrid stiffener element used in aerospace applications was inspected with ultrasonic phased array methods. The isogrid stiffener element had various crack configurations emanating from bolt holes. Computational simulation methods were used to mimic the experiments in order to help understand experimental results. The results of this study indicate that it is at least partly feasible to interrogate this type of geometry with the given flaw configurations using phased array ultrasonics. The simulation methods were critical in helping explain the experimental results and, with some limitation, can be used to predict inspection results.

  3. Ultrasonic Phased Array Inspection Experiments and Simulations for AN Isogrid Structural Element with Cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, D. J.; Tokars, R. P.; Martin, R. E.; Rauser, R. W.; Aldrin, J. C.; Schumacher, E. J.

    2010-02-01

    In this investigation, a T-shaped aluminum alloy isogrid stiffener element used in aerospace applications was inspected with ultrasonic phased array methods. The isogrid stiffener element had various crack configurations emanating from bolt holes. Computational simulation methods were used to mimic the experiments in order to help understand experimental results. The results of this study indicate that it is at least partly feasible to interrogate this type of geometry with the given flaw configurations using phased array ultrasonics. The simulation methods were critical in helping explain the experimental results and, with some limitation, can be used to predict inspection results.

  4. Liquid sodium testing of in-house phased array EMAT transducer for L-wave applications

    SciTech Connect

    Le Bourdais, F.; Le Polles, T.; Baque, F.

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes the development of an in-house phased array EMAT transducer for longitudinal wave inspection in liquid sodium. The work presented herein is part of an undergoing project aimed at improving in-service inspection techniques for the ASTRID reactor project. The design process of the phased array EMAT probe is briefly explained and followed by a review of experimental test results. We first present test results obtained in the laboratory while the last part of the paper describes the liquid sodium testing and the produced ultrasound images. (authors)

  5. Multiple-access phased array antenna simulator for a digital beam forming system investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Yu, John; Walton, Joanne C.; Perl, Thomas D.; Andro, Monty; Alexovich, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    Future versions of data relay satellite systems are currently being planned by NASA. Being given consideration for implementation are on-board digital beamforming techniques which will allow multiple users to simultaneously access a single S-band phased array antenna system. To investigate the potential performance of such a system, a laboratory simulator has been developed at NASA's Lewis Research Center. This paper describes the system simulator, and in particular, the requirements, design, and performance of a key subsystem, the phased array antenna simulator, which provides realistic inputs to the digital processor including multiple signals, noise, and nonlinearities.

  6. Method for Fabricating and Packaging an M.Times.N Phased-Array Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Xiaochuan (Inventor); Chen, Yihong (Inventor); Chen, Ray T. (Inventor); Subbaraman, Harish (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A method for fabricating an M.times.N, P-bit phased-array antenna on a flexible substrate is disclosed. The method comprising ink jet printing and hardening alignment marks, antenna elements, transmission lines, switches, an RF coupler, and multilayer interconnections onto the flexible substrate. The substrate of the M.times.N, P-bit phased-array antenna may comprise an integrated control circuit of printed electronic components such as, photovoltaic cells, batteries, resistors, capacitors, etc. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  7. Cost-effective optical switch matrix for microwave phased-array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pan, J. J.; Chia, S. L.; Li, W. Z.; Grove, C. H.

    1991-01-01

    An all-fiber (6x6) optical shutter switch matrix with the control system for microwave phased array has been demonstrated. The device offers the advantages of integrated configuration, low cost, low power consumption, small size, and light weight. The maximum extinction ratio (among 36 individual pixel) of this switch matrix at 840 nm is 24.2 dB, and the switching time is less than 120 microsec. In addition to phased array application, this low cost switch matrix is extremely attractive for fiber optic switching networks.

  8. Validating Phasing and Geometry of Large Focal Plane Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Standley, Shaun P.; Gautier, Thomas N.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Rabbette, Maura

    2011-01-01

    The Kepler Mission is designed to survey our region of the Milky Way galaxy to discover hundreds of Earth-sized and smaller planets in or near the habitable zone. The Kepler photometer is an array of 42 CCDs (charge-coupled devices) in the focal plane of a 95-cm Schmidt camera onboard the Kepler spacecraft. Each 50x25-mm CCD has 2,200 x 1,024 pixels. The CCDs accumulate photons and are read out every six seconds to prevent saturation. The data is integrated for 30 minutes, and then the pixel data is transferred to onboard storage. The data is subsequently encoded and transmitted to the ground. During End-to-End Information System (EEIS) testing of the Kepler Mission System (KMS), there was a need to verify that the pixels requested by the science team operationally were correctly collected, encoded, compressed, stored, and transmitted by the FS, and subsequently received, decoded, uncompressed, and displayed by the Ground Segment (GS) without the outputs of any CCD modules being flipped, mirrored, or otherwise corrupted during the extensive FS and GS processing. This would normally be done by projecting an image on the focal plane array (FPA), collecting the data in a flight-like way, and making a comparison between the original data and the data reconstructed by the science data system. Projecting a focused image onto the FPA through the telescope would normally involve using a collimator suspended over the telescope opening. There were several problems with this approach: the collimation equipment is elaborate and expensive; as conceived, it could only illuminate a limited section of the FPA (.25 percent) during a given test; the telescope cover would have to be deployed during testing to allow the image to be projected into the telescope; the equipment was bulky and difficult to situate in temperature-controlled environments; and given all the above, test setup, execution, and repeatability were significant concerns. Instead of using this complicated approach of

  9. Damage localization in aluminum plate with compact rectangular phased piezoelectric transducer array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zenghua; Sun, Kunming; Song, Guorong; He, Cunfu; Wu, Bin

    2016-03-01

    In this work, a detection method for the damage in plate-like structure with a compact rectangular phased piezoelectric transducer array of 16 piezoelectric elements was presented. This compact array can not only detect and locate a single defect (through hole) in plate, but also identify multi-defects (through holes and surface defect simulated by an iron pillar glued to the plate). The experiments proved that the compact rectangular phased transducer array could detect the full range of plate structures and implement multiple-defect detection simultaneously. The processing algorithm proposed in this paper contains two parts: signal filtering and damage imaging. The former part was used to remove noise from signals. Continuous wavelet transform was applicable to signal filtering. Continuous wavelet transform can provide a plot of wavelet coefficients and the signal with narrow frequency band can be easily extracted from the plot. The latter part of processing algorithm was to implement damage detection and localization. In order to accurately locate defects and improve the imaging quality, two images were obtained from amplitude and phase information. One image was obtained with the Total Focusing Method (TFM) and another phase image was obtained with the Sign Coherence Factor (SCF). Furthermore, an image compounding technique for compact rectangular phased piezoelectric transducer array was proposed in this paper. With the proposed technique, the compounded image can be obtained by combining TFM image with SCF image, thus greatly improving the resolution and contrast of image.

  10. Methods for determining infrasound phase velocity direction with an array of line sensors.

    PubMed

    Walker, Kristoffer T; Zumberge, Mark A; Hedlin, Michael A H; Shearer, Peter M

    2008-10-01

    Infrasound arrays typically consist of several microbarometers separated by distances that provide predictable signal time separations, forming the basis for processing techniques that estimate the phase velocity direction. The directional resolution depends on the noise level and is proportional to the number of these point sensors; additional sensors help attenuate noise and improve direction resolution. An alternative approach is to form an array of directional line sensors, each of which emulates a line of many microphones that instantaneously integrate pressure change. The instrument response is a function of the orientation of the line with respect to the signal wavefront. Real data recorded at the Piñon Flat Observatory in southern California and synthetic data show that this spectral property can be exploited with multiple line sensors to determine the phase velocity direction with a precision comparable to a larger aperture array of microbarometers. Three types of instrument-response-dependent beamforming and an array deconvolution technique are evaluated. The results imply that an array of five radial line sensors, with equal azimuthal separation and an aperture that depends on the frequency band of interest, provides directional resolution while requiring less space compared to an equally effective array of five microbarometers with rosette wind filters.

  11. Phased Array Noise Source Localization Measurements Made on a Williams International FJ44 Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podboy, Gary G.; Horvath, Csaba

    2010-01-01

    A 48-microphone planar phased array system was used to acquire noise source localization data on a full-scale Williams International FJ44 turbofan engine. Data were acquired with the array at three different locations relative to the engine, two on the side and one in front of the engine. At the two side locations the planar microphone array was parallel to the engine centerline; at the front location the array was perpendicular to the engine centerline. At each of the three locations, data were acquired at eleven different engine operating conditions ranging from engine idle to maximum (take off) speed. Data obtained with the array off to the side of the engine were spatially filtered to separate the inlet and nozzle noise. Tones occurring in the inlet and nozzle spectra were traced to the low and high speed spools within the engine. The phased array data indicate that the Inflow Control Device (ICD) used during this test was not acoustically transparent; instead, some of the noise emanating from the inlet reflected off of the inlet lip of the ICD. This reflection is a source of error for far field noise measurements made during the test. The data also indicate that a total temperature rake in the inlet of the engine is a source of fan noise.

  12. Simulation studies promote technological development of radiofrequency phased array hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Wust, P; Seebass, M; Nadobny, J; Deuflhard, P; Mönich, G; Felix, R

    1996-01-01

    A treatment planning program package for radiofrequency hyperthermia has been developed. It consists of software modules for processing three-dimensional computerized tomography (CT) data sets, manual segmentation, generation of tetrahedral grids, numerical calculation and optimisation of three-dimensional E field distributions using a volume surface integral equation algorithm as well as temperature distributions using an adaptive multilevel finite-elements code, and graphical tools for simultaneous representation of CT data and simulation results. Heat treatments are limited by hot spots in healthy tissues caused by E field maxima at electrical interfaces (bone/muscle). In order to reduce or avoid hot spots suitable objective functions are derived from power deposition patterns and temperature distributions, and are utilised to optimise antenna parameters (phases, amplitudes). The simulation and optimisation tools have been applied to estimate the improvements that could be reached by upgrades of the clinically used SIGMA-60 applicator (consisting of a single ring of four antenna pairs). The investigated upgrades are increased number of antennas and channels (triple-ring of 3 x 8 antennas and variation of antenna inclination. Significant improvement of index temperatures (1-2 degrees C) is achieved by upgrading the single ring to a triple ring with free phase selection for every antenna or antenna pair. Antenna amplitudes and inclinations proved as less important parameters.

  13. Synthesis of Conformal Phased Antenna Arrays With A Novel Multiobjective Invasive Weed Optimization Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wen Tao; Hei, Yong Qiang; Shi, Xiao Wei

    2018-04-01

    By virtue of the excellent aerodynamic performances, conformal phased arrays have been attracting considerable attention. However, for the synthesis of patterns with low/ultra-low sidelobes of the conventional conformal arrays, the obtained dynamic range ratios of amplitude excitations could be quite high, which results in stringent requirements on various error tolerances for practical implementation. Time-modulated array (TMA) has the advantages of low sidelobe and reduced dynamic range ratio requirement of amplitude excitations. This paper takes full advantages of conformal antenna arrays and time-modulated arrays. The active-element-pattern, including element mutual coupling and platform effects, is employed in the whole design process. To optimize the pulse durations and the switch-on instants of the time-modulated elements, multiobjective invasive weed optimization (MOIWO) algorithm based on the nondominated sorting of the solutions is proposed. A S-band 8-element cylindrical conformal array is designed and a S-band 16-element cylindrical-parabolic conformal array is constructed and tested at two different steering angles.

  14. Photonic crystal slab waveguides in moderate index contrast media: Generalized transverse Bragg waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burckel, David Bruce

    wavelength to period ratio. These optical results indicated a need for a deeper understanding of the confinement/guiding mechanisms in such waveguide structures. A simplification of the full 2-D problem to a more tractable "tilted 1-D" geometry led to the proposal of a new waveguide geometry, Generalized Transverse Bragg Waveguides (GTBW), as well as a new propagation mode characterized by spatial variation in both the transverse direction as well as the direction of propagation. GTBW demonstrate many of the same dispersion tunability traits exhibited in complete bandgap photonic crystal waveguides, under more modest fabrication demands, and moreover provide much insight into photonic crystal waveguide modes of all types. Generalized Transverse Bragg Waveguides are presented in terms of the standard physical properties associated with waveguides, including the dispersion relation, expressions for the spatial field profile, and the concepts of phase and group velocity. In addition, the proposal of at least one obvious application, semiconductor optical amplifiers, is offered.

  15. Phased laser array for generating a powerful laser beam

    DOEpatents

    Holzrichter, John F.; Ruggiero, Anthony J.

    2004-02-17

    A first injection laser signal and a first part of a reference laser beam are injected into a first laser element. At least one additional injection laser signal and at least one additional part of a reference laser beam are injected into at least one additional laser element. The first part of a reference laser beam and the at least one additional part of a reference laser beam are amplified and phase conjugated producing a first amplified output laser beam emanating from the first laser element and an additional amplified output laser beam emanating from the at least one additional laser element. The first amplified output laser beam and the additional amplified output laser beam are combined into a powerful laser beam.

  16. Phase-locked array of quantum cascade lasers with an integrated Talbot cavity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Jinchuan; Jia, Zhiwei; Zhao, Yue; Liu, Chuanwei; Liu, Yinghui; Zhai, Shenqiang; Ning, Zhuo; Xu, Xiangang; Liu, Fengqi

    2016-12-26

    We show a phase-locked array of three quantum cascade lasers with an integrated Talbot cavity at one side of the laser array. The coupling scheme is called diffraction coupling. By controlling the length of Talbot to be a quarter of Talbot distance (Zt/4), in-phase mode operation can be selected. The in-phase operation shows great modal stability under different injection currents, from the threshold current to the full power current. The far-field radiation pattern of the in-phase operation contains three lobes, one central maximum lobe and two side lobes. The interval between adjacent lobes is about 10.5°. The output power is about 1.5 times that of a single-ridge laser. Further studies should be taken to achieve better beam performance and reduce optical losses brought by the integrated Talbot cavity.

  17. Multilevel photonic modules for millimeter-wave phased-array antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolella, Arthur C.; Joshi, Abhay M.; Wright, James G.; Coryell, Louis A.

    1998-11-01

    Optical signal distribution for phased array antennas in communication system is advantageous to designers. By distributing the microwave and millimeter wave signal through optical fiber there is the potential for improved performance and lower weight. In addition when applied to communication satellites this weight saving translates into substantially reduced launch costs. The goal of the Phase I Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program is the development of multi-level photonic modules for phased array antennas. The proposed module with ultimately comprise of a monolithic, InGaAs/InP p-i-n photodetector-p-HEMT power amplifier, opto-electronic integrated circuit, that has 44 GHz bandwidth and output power of 50 mW integrated with a planar antenna. The photodetector will have a high quantum efficiency and will be front-illuminated, thereby improved optical performance. Under Phase I a module was developed using standard MIC technology with a high frequency coaxial feed interconnect.

  18. The optimization of self-phased arrays for diurnal motion tracking of synchronous satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theobold, D. M.; Hodge, D. B.

    1977-01-01

    The diurnal motion of a synchronous satellite necessitates mechanical tracking when a large aperture, high gain antenna is employed at the earth terminal. An alternative solution to this tracking problem is to use a self phased array consisting of a number of fixed pointed elements, each with moderate directivity. Non-mechanical tracking and adequate directive gain are achieved electronically by phase coherent summing of the element outputs. The element beamwidths provide overlapping area coverage of the satellite motion but introduce a diurnal variation into the array gain. The optimum element beamwidth and pointing direction of these elements can be obtained under the condition that the array gain is maximized simultaneously with the minimization of the diurnal variation.

  19. Theory of a Traveling Wave Feed for a Planar Slot Array Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rengarajan, Sembiam

    2012-01-01

    Planar arrays of waveguide-fed slots have been employed in many radar and remote sensing applications. Such arrays are designed in the standing wave configuration because of high efficiency. Traveling wave arrays can produce greater bandwidth at the expense of efficiency due to power loss in the load or loads. Traveling wave planar slot arrays may be designed with a long feed waveguide consisting of centered-inclined coupling slots. The feed waveguide is terminated in a matched load, and the element spacing in the feed waveguide is chosen to produce a beam squinted from the broadside. The traveling wave planar slot array consists of a long feed waveguide containing resonant-centered inclined coupling slots in the broad wall, coupling power into an array of stacked radiating waveguides orthogonal to it. The radiating waveguides consist of longitudinal offset radiating slots in a standing wave configuration. For the traveling wave feed of a planar slot array, one has to design the tilt angle and length of each coupling slot such that the amplitude and phase of excitation of each radiating waveguide are close to the desired values. The coupling slot spacing is chosen for an appropriate beam squint. Scattering matrix parameters of resonant coupling slots are used in the design process to produce appropriate excitations of radiating waveguides with constraints placed only on amplitudes. Since the radiating slots in each radiating waveguide are designed to produce a certain total admittance, the scattering (S) matrix of each coupling slot is reduced to a 2x2 matrix. Elements of each 2x2 S-matrix and the amount of coupling into the corresponding radiating waveguide are expressed in terms of the element S11. S matrices are converted into transmission (T) matrices, and the T matrices are multiplied to cascade the coupling slots and waveguide sections, starting from the load end and proceeding towards the source. While the use of non-resonant coupling slots may provide an

  20. Enhanced Lesion Visualization in Image-Guided Noninvasive Surgery With Ultrasound Phased Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    81, 1995. [4] N. Sanghvi et al., “Noninvasive surgery of prostate tissue by high-intensity focused ultrasound ,” IEEE Trans. UFFC, vol. 43, no. 6, pp...ENHANCED LESION VISUALIZATION IN IMAGE-GUIDED NONINVASIVE SURGERY WITH ULTRASOUND PHASED ARRAYS Hui Yao, Pornchai Phukpattaranont and Emad S. Ebbini...Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN 55455 Abstract- We describe dual-mode ultrasound phased

  1. Design of a K-Band Transmit Phased Array For Low Earth Orbit Satellite Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Thomas; Miller, Stephen; Kershner, Dennis; Anzic, Godfrey

    2000-01-01

    The design of a light weight, low cost phased array antenna is presented. Multilayer printed wiring board (PWB) technology is utilized for Radio Frequencies (RF) and DC/Logic manifold distribution. Transmit modules are soldered on one side and patch antenna elements are on the other, allowing the use of automated assembly processes. The 19 GHz antenna has two independently steerable beams, each capable of transferring data at 622 Mbps. A passive, self-contained phase change thermal management system is also presented.

  2. Two dimensional thermo-optic beam steering using a silicon photonic optical phased array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahon, Rita; Preussner, Marcel W.; Rabinovich, William S.; Goetz, Peter G.; Kozak, Dmitry A.; Ferraro, Mike S.; Murphy, James L.

    2016-03-01

    Components for free space optical communication terminals such as lasers, amplifiers, and receivers have all seen substantial reduction in both size and power consumption over the past several decades. However, pointing systems, such as fast steering mirrors and gimbals, have remained large, slow and power-hungry. Optical phased arrays provide a possible solution for non-mechanical beam steering devices that can be compact and lower in power. Silicon photonics is a promising technology for phased arrays because it has the potential to scale to many elements and may be compatible with CMOS technology thereby enabling batch fabrication. For most free space optical communication applications, two-dimensional beam steering is needed. To date, silicon photonic phased arrays have achieved two-dimensional steering by combining thermo-optic steering, in-plane, with wavelength tuning by means of an output grating to give angular tuning, out-of-plane. While this architecture might work for certain static communication links, it would be difficult to implement for moving platforms. Other approaches have required N2 controls for an NxN element phased array, which leads to complexity. Hence, in this work we demonstrate steering using the thermo-optic effect for both dimensions with a simplified steering mechanism requiring only two control signals, one for each steering dimension.

  3. A Parameterized Pattern-Error Objective for Large-Scale Phase-Only Array Pattern Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-21

    12 4.4 Example 3: Sector Beam w/ Nonuniform Amplitude...fixed uniform amplitude illumination, phase-only optimization can also find application to arrays with fixed but nonuniform tapers. Such fixed tapers...arbitrary element locations nonuniform FFT algorithms exist [43–45] that have the same asymptotic complexity as the conventional FFT, although the

  4. Projection-based estimation and nonuniformity correction of sensitivity profiles in phased-array surface coils.

    PubMed

    Yun, Sungdae; Kyriakos, Walid E; Chung, Jun-Young; Han, Yeji; Yoo, Seung-Schik; Park, Hyunwook

    2007-03-01

    To develop a novel approach for calculating the accurate sensitivity profiles of phased-array coils, resulting in correction of nonuniform intensity in parallel MRI. The proposed intensity-correction method estimates the accurate sensitivity profile of each channel of the phased-array coil. The sensitivity profile is estimated by fitting a nonlinear curve to every projection view through the imaged object. The nonlinear curve-fitting efficiently obtains the low-frequency sensitivity profile by eliminating the high-frequency image contents. Filtered back-projection (FBP) is then used to compute the estimates of the sensitivity profile of each channel. The method was applied to both phantom and brain images acquired from the phased-array coil. Intensity-corrected images from the proposed method had more uniform intensity than those obtained by the commonly used sum-of-squares (SOS) approach. With the use of the proposed correction method, the intensity variation was reduced to 6.1% from 13.1% of the SOS. When the proposed approach was applied to the computation of the sensitivity maps during sensitivity encoding (SENSE) reconstruction, it outperformed the SOS approach in terms of the reconstructed image uniformity. The proposed method is more effective at correcting the intensity nonuniformity of phased-array surface-coil images than the conventional SOS method. In addition, the method was shown to be resilient to noise and was successfully applied for image reconstruction in parallel imaging.

  5. Intrauterine transfusion with the use of phased array ultrasonography: a new technique.

    PubMed

    Frigoletto, F D; Birnholz, J C; Rothchild, S B; Finberg, H J; Umansky, I

    1978-06-01

    Continuous ultrasonic observation of needle placement for aspiration, biopsy, or catheter placement is a novel and specific use of phased array imaging. In the case of IUTx, catheter placement into the fetal peritoneal space is accomplished rapidly, with reduced risk of fetal trauma, and without exposure to ionizing radiation. Experience with 27 transfusions in 11 patients is presented.

  6. Improved Homogeneity of the Transmit Field by Simultaneous Transmission with Phased Array and Volume Coil

    PubMed Central

    Avdievich, Nikolai I.; Oh, Suk-Hoon; Hetherington, Hoby P.; Collins, Christopher M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To improve the homogeneity of transmit volume coils at high magnetic fields (≥ 4 T). Due to RF field/ tissue interactions at high fields, 4–8 T, the transmit profile from head-sized volume coils shows a distinctive pattern with relatively strong RF magnetic field B1 in the center of the brain. Materials and Methods In contrast to conventional volume coils at high field strengths, surface coil phased arrays can provide increased RF field strength peripherally. In theory, simultaneous transmission from these two devices could produce a more homogeneous transmission field. To minimize interactions between the phased array and the volume coil, counter rotating current (CRC) surface coils consisting of two parallel rings carrying opposite currents were used for the phased array. Results Numerical simulations and experimental data demonstrate that substantial improvements in transmit field homogeneity can be obtained. Conclusion We have demonstrated the feasibility of using simultaneous transmission with human head-sized volume coils and CRC phased arrays to improve homogeneity of the transmit RF B1 field for high-field MRI systems. PMID:20677280

  7. A novel phase assignment protocol and driving system for a high-density focused ultrasound array.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, R Erich; Yin, Xiangtao; Juste, Jose; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2007-04-01

    Currently, most phased-array systems intended for therapy are one-dimensional (1-D) and use between 5 and 200 elements, with a few two-dimensional (2-D) systems using several hundred elements. The move toward lambda/2 interelement spacing, which provides complete 3-D beam steering, would require a large number of closely spaced elements (0.15 mm to 3 mm). A solution to the resulting problem of cost and cable assembly size, which this study examines, is to quantize the phases available at the array input. By connecting elements with similar phases to a single wire, a significant reduction in the number of incoming lines can be achieved while maintaining focusing and beam steering capability. This study has explored the feasibility of such an approach using computer simulations and experiments with a test circuit driving a 100-element linear array. Simulation results demonstrated that adequate focusing can be obtained with only four phase signals without large increases in the grating lobes or the dimensions of the focus. Experiments showed that the method can be implemented in practice, and adequate focusing can be achieved with four phase signals with a reduction of 20% in the peak pressure amplitude squared when compared with the infinite-phase resolution case. Results indicate that the use of this technique would make it possible to drive more than 10,000 elements with 33 input lines. The implementation of this method could have a large impact on ultrasound therapy and diagnostic devices.

  8. Structural-electrical coupling optimisation for radiating and scattering performances of active phased array antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Congsi; Wang, Yan; Wang, Zhihai; Wang, Meng; Yuan, Shuai; Wang, Weifeng

    2018-04-01

    It is well known that calculating and reducing of radar cross section (RCS) of the active phased array antenna (APAA) are both difficult and complicated. It remains unresolved to balance the performance of the radiating and scattering when the RCS is reduced. Therefore, this paper develops a structure and scattering array factor coupling model of APAA based on the phase errors of radiated elements generated by structural distortion and installation error of the array. To obtain the optimal radiating and scattering performance, an integrated optimisation model is built to optimise the installation height of all the radiated elements in normal direction of the array, in which the particle swarm optimisation method is adopted and the gain loss and scattering array factor are selected as the fitness function. The simulation indicates that the proposed coupling model and integrated optimisation method can effectively decrease the RCS and that the necessary radiating performance can be simultaneously guaranteed, which demonstrate an important application value in engineering design and structural evaluation of APAA.

  9. Ultraino: An Open Phased-Array System for Narrowband Airborne Ultrasound Transmission.

    PubMed

    Marzo, Asier; Corkett, Tom; Drinkwater, Bruce W

    2018-01-01

    Modern ultrasonic phased-array controllers are electronic systems capable of delaying the transmitted or received signals of multiple transducers. Configurable transmit-receive array systems, capable of electronic steering and shaping of the beam in near real-time, are available commercially, for example, for medical imaging. However, emerging applications, such as ultrasonic haptics, parametric audio, or ultrasonic levitation, require only a small subset of the capabilities provided by the existing controllers. To meet this need, we present Ultraino, a modular, inexpensive, and open platform that provides hardware, software, and example applications specifically aimed at controlling the transmission of narrowband airborne ultrasound. Our system is composed of software, driver boards, and arrays that enable users to quickly and efficiently perform research in various emerging applications. The software can be used to define array geometries, simulate the acoustic field in real time, and control the connected driver boards. The driver board design is based on an Arduino Mega and can control 64 channels with a square wave of up to 17 Vpp and /5 phase resolution. Multiple boards can be chained together to increase the number of channels. The 40-kHz arrays with flat and spherical geometries are demonstrated for parametric audio generation, acoustic levitation, and haptic feedback.

  10. Evaluation of Methods for In-Situ Calibration of Field-Deployable Microphone Phased Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphreys, William M.; Lockard, David P.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Culliton, William G.; McSwain, Robert G.

    2017-01-01

    Current field-deployable microphone phased arrays for aeroacoustic flight testing require the placement of hundreds of individual sensors over a large area. Depending on the duration of the test campaign, the microphones may be required to stay deployed at the testing site for weeks or even months. This presents a challenge in regards to tracking the response (i.e., sensitivity) of the individual sensors as a function of time in order to evaluate the health of the array. To address this challenge, two different methods for in-situ tracking of microphone responses are described. The first relies on the use of an aerial sound source attached as a payload on a hovering small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS) vehicle. The second relies on the use of individually excited ground-based sound sources strategically placed throughout the array pattern. Testing of the two methods was performed in microphone array deployments conducted at Fort A.P. Hill in 2015 and at Edwards Air Force Base in 2016. The results indicate that the drift in individual sensor responses can be tracked reasonably well using both methods. Thus, in-situ response tracking methods are useful as a diagnostic tool for monitoring the health of a phased array during long duration deployments.

  11. DAMAS Processing for a Phased Array Study in the NASA Langley Jet Noise Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas F.; Humphreys, William M.; Plassman, Gerald e.

    2010-01-01

    A jet noise measurement study was conducted using a phased microphone array system for a range of jet nozzle configurations and flow conditions. The test effort included convergent and convergent/divergent single flow nozzles, as well as conventional and chevron dual-flow core and fan configurations. Cold jets were tested with and without wind tunnel co-flow, whereas, hot jets were tested only with co-flow. The intent of the measurement effort was to allow evaluation of new phased array technologies for their ability to separate and quantify distributions of jet noise sources. In the present paper, the array post-processing method focused upon is DAMAS (Deconvolution Approach for the Mapping of Acoustic Sources) for the quantitative determination of spatial distributions of noise sources. Jet noise is highly complex with stationary and convecting noise sources, convecting flows that are the sources themselves, and shock-related and screech noise for supersonic flow. The analysis presented in this paper addresses some processing details with DAMAS, for the array positioned at 90 (normal) to the jet. The paper demonstrates the applicability of DAMAS and how it indicates when strong coherence is present. Also, a new approach to calibrating the array focus and position is introduced and demonstrated.

  12. Graphene quantum dots modified silicon nanowire array for ultrasensitive detection in the gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, T. Y.; Duan, C. Y.; Zhu, Y. X.; Chen, Y. F.; Wang, Y.

    2017-03-01

    Si nanostructure-based gas detectors have attracted much attention due to their huge surface areas, relatively high carrier mobility, maneuverability for surface functionalization and compatibility to modern electronic industry. However, the unstable surface of Si, especially for the nanostructures in a corrosive atmosphere, hinders their sensitivity and reproducibility when used for detection in the gas phase. In this study, we proposed a novel strategy to fabricate a Si-based gas detector by using the vertically aligned Si nanowire (SiNW) array as a skeleton and platform, and decorated chemically inert graphene quantum dots (GQDs) to protect the SiNWs from oxidation and promote the carriers’ interaction with the analytes. The radial core-shell structures of the GQDs/SiNW array were then assembled into a resistor-based gas detection system and evaluated by using nitrogen dioxide (NO2) as the model analyte. Compared to the bare SiNW array, our novel sensor exhibited ultrahigh sensitivity for detecting trace amounts of NO2 with the concentration as low as 10 ppm in room temperature and an immensely reduced recovery time, which is of significant importance for their practical application. Meanwhile, strikingly, reproducibility and stability could also be achieved by showing no sensitivity decline after storing the GQDs/SiNW array in air for two weeks. Our results demonstrate that protecting the surface of the SiNW array with chemically inert GQDs is a feasible strategy to realize ultrasensitive detection in the gas phase.

  13. A K-Band Linear Phased Array Antenna Based on Ba(0.60)Sr(0.40)TiO3 Thin Film Phase Shifters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, R.; Bernhard, J.; Washington, G.; VanKeuls, F.; Miranda, F.; Cannedy, C.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes the development of a 23.675 GHz linear 16-element scanning phased array antenna based on thin ferroelectric film coupled microstripline phase shifters and microstrip patch radiators.

  14. Measurement of Phased Array Point Spread Functions for Use with Beamforming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahr, Chris; Zawodny, Nikolas S.; Bertolucci, Brandon; Woolwine, Kyle; Liu, Fei; Li, Juan; Sheplak, Mark; Cattafesta, Louis

    2011-01-01

    Microphone arrays can be used to localize and estimate the strengths of acoustic sources present in a region of interest. However, the array measurement of a region, or beam map, is not an accurate representation of the acoustic field in that region. The true acoustic field is convolved with the array s sampling response, or point spread function (PSF). Many techniques exist to remove the PSF's effect on the beam map via deconvolution. Currently these methods use a theoretical estimate of the array point spread function and perhaps account for installation offsets via determination of the microphone locations. This methodology fails to account for any reflections or scattering in the measurement setup and still requires both microphone magnitude and phase calibration, as well as a separate shear layer correction in an open-jet facility. The research presented seeks to investigate direct measurement of the array's PSF using a non-intrusive acoustic point source generated by a pulsed laser system. Experimental PSFs of the array are computed for different conditions to evaluate features such as shift-invariance, shear layers and model presence. Results show that experimental measurements trend with theory with regard to source offset. The source shows expected behavior due to shear layer refraction when observed in a flow, and application of a measured PSF to NACA 0012 aeroacoustic trailing-edge noise data shows a promising alternative to a classic shear layer correction method.

  15. Inspection design using 2D phased array, TFM and cueMAP software

    SciTech Connect

    McGilp, Ailidh; Dziewierz, Jerzy; Lardner, Tim

    2014-02-18

    A simulation suite, cueMAP, has been developed to facilitate the design of inspection processes and sparse 2D array configurations. At the core of cueMAP is a Total Focusing Method (TFM) imaging algorithm that enables computer assisted design of ultrasonic inspection scenarios, including the design of bespoke array configurations to match the inspection criteria. This in-house developed TFM code allows for interactive evaluation of image quality indicators of ultrasonic imaging performance when utilizing a 2D phased array working in FMC/TFM mode. The cueMAP software uses a series of TFM images to build a map of resolution, contrast and sensitivity of imagingmore » performance of a simulated reflector, swept across the inspection volume. The software takes into account probe properties, wedge or water standoff, and effects of specimen curvature. In the validation process of this new software package, two 2D arrays have been evaluated on 304n stainless steel samples, typical of the primary circuit in nuclear plants. Thick section samples have been inspected using a 1MHz 2D matrix array. Due to the processing efficiency of the software, the data collected from these array configurations has been used to investigate the influence sub-aperture operation on inspection performance.« less

  16. Reconfigurable Transmission Line for a Series-Fed Ku-Band Phased Array Using a Single Feed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Host, Nicholas K.; Chen, Chi-Chih; Volakis, John L.; Miranda. Felix, A.

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a novel approach to realize a lowcost phased array using a simple feeding mechanism. Specifically, a single coplanar stripline (CPS) transmission line is used to feed the antenna array elements. By controlling the CPS's dielectric properties using a movable dielectric plunger, scanning is achieved. Due to its simplicity, single feed, and no phase shifters, this approach leads to a dramatic reduction in cost which does not scale for larger arrays.

  17. GPS-Like Phasing Control of the Space Solar Power System Transmission Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Psiaki, Mark L.

    2003-01-01

    The problem of phasing of the Space Solar Power System's transmission array has been addressed by developing a GPS-like radio navigation system. The goal of this system is to provide power transmission phasing control for each node of the array that causes the power signals to add constructively at the ground reception station. The phasing control system operates in a distributed manner, which makes it practical to implement. A leader node and two radio navigation beacons are used to control the power transmission phasing of multiple follower nodes. The necessary one-way communications to the follower nodes are implemented using the RF beacon signals. The phasing control system uses differential carrier phase relative navigation/timing techniques. A special feature of the system is an integer ambiguity resolution procedure that periodically resolves carrier phase cycle count ambiguities via encoding of pseudo-random number codes on the power transmission signals. The system is capable of achieving phasing accuracies on the order of 3 mm down to 0.4 mm depending on whether the radio navigation beacons operate in the L or C bands.

  18. Manipulating electronic phase separation in strongly correlated oxides with an ordered array of antidots

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Kai; Du, Kai; Liu, Hao; ...

    2015-07-20

    The interesting transport and magnetic properties in manganites depend sensitively on the nucleation and growth of electronic phase-separated domains. In this paper, by fabricating antidot arrays in La 0.325Pr 0.3Ca 0.375MnO 3 (LPCMO) epitaxial thin films, we create ordered arrays of micrometer-sized ferromagnetic metallic (FMM) rings in the LPCMO films that lead to dramatically increased metal–insulator transition temperatures and reduced resistances. The FMM rings emerge from the edges of the antidots where the lattice symmetry is broken. Based on our Monte Carlo simulation, these FMM rings assist the nucleation and growth of FMM phase domains increasing the metal–insulator transition withmore » decreasing temperature or increasing magnetic field. Finally, this study points to a way in which electronic phase separation in manganites can be artificially controlled without changing chemical composition or applying external field.« less

  19. Deconvolution Methods and Systems for the Mapping of Acoustic Sources from Phased Microphone Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphreys, Jr., William M. (Inventor); Brooks, Thomas F. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Mapping coherent/incoherent acoustic sources as determined from a phased microphone array. A linear configuration of equations and unknowns are formed by accounting for a reciprocal influence of one or more cross-beamforming characteristics thereof at varying grid locations among the plurality of grid locations. An equation derived from the linear configuration of equations and unknowns can then be iteratively determined. The equation can be attained by the solution requirement of a constraint equivalent to the physical assumption that the coherent sources have only in phase coherence. The size of the problem may then be reduced using zoning methods. An optimized noise source distribution is then generated over an identified aeroacoustic source region associated with a phased microphone array (microphones arranged in an optimized grid pattern including a plurality of grid locations) in order to compile an output presentation thereof, thereby removing beamforming characteristics from the resulting output presentation.

  20. Image-guided ultrasound phased arrays are a disruptive technology for non-invasive therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynynen, Kullervo; Jones, Ryan M.

    2016-09-01

    Focused ultrasound offers a non-invasive way of depositing acoustic energy deep into the body, which can be harnessed for a broad spectrum of therapeutic purposes, including tissue ablation, the targeting of therapeutic agents, and stem cell delivery. Phased array transducers enable electronic control over the beam geometry and direction, and can be tailored to provide optimal energy deposition patterns for a given therapeutic application. Their use in combination with modern medical imaging for therapy guidance allows precise targeting, online monitoring, and post-treatment evaluation of the ultrasound-mediated bioeffects. In the past there have been some technical obstacles hindering the construction of large aperture, high-power, densely-populated phased arrays and, as a result, they have not been fully exploited for therapy delivery to date. However, recent research has made the construction of such arrays feasible, and it is expected that their continued development will both greatly improve the safety and efficacy of existing ultrasound therapies as well as enable treatments that are not currently possible with existing technology. This review will summarize the basic principles, current statures, and future potential of image-guided ultrasound phased arrays for therapy.

  1. Phased-Array Study of Dual-Flow Jet Noise: Effect of Nozzles and Mixers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soo Lee, Sang; Bridges, James

    2006-01-01

    A 16-microphone linear phased-array installed parallel to the jet axis and a 32-microphone azimuthal phased-array installed in the nozzle exit plane have been applied to identify the noise source distributions of nozzle exhaust systems with various internal mixers (lobed and axisymmetric) and nozzles (three different lengths). Measurements of velocity were also obtained using cross-stream stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV). Among the three nozzle lengths tested, the medium length nozzle was the quietest for all mixers at high frequency on the highest speed flow condition. Large differences in source strength distributions between nozzles and mixers occurred at or near the nozzle exit for this flow condition. The beamforming analyses from the azimuthal array for the 12-lobed mixer on the highest flow condition showed that the core flow and the lobe area were strong noise sources for the long and short nozzles. The 12 noisy spots associated with the lobe locations of the 12-lobed mixer with the long nozzle were very well detected for the frequencies 5 KHz and higher. Meanwhile, maps of the source strength of the axisymmetric splitter show that the outer shear layer was the most important noise source at most flow conditions. In general, there was a good correlation between the high turbulence regions from the PIV tests and the high noise source regions from the phased-array measurements.

  2. Image-guided ultrasound phased arrays are a disruptive technology for non-invasive therapy.

    PubMed

    Hynynen, Kullervo; Jones, Ryan M

    2016-09-07

    Focused ultrasound offers a non-invasive way of depositing acoustic energy deep into the body, which can be harnessed for a broad spectrum of therapeutic purposes, including tissue ablation, the targeting of therapeutic agents, and stem cell delivery. Phased array transducers enable electronic control over the beam geometry and direction, and can be tailored to provide optimal energy deposition patterns for a given therapeutic application. Their use in combination with modern medical imaging for therapy guidance allows precise targeting, online monitoring, and post-treatment evaluation of the ultrasound-mediated bioeffects. In the past there have been some technical obstacles hindering the construction of large aperture, high-power, densely-populated phased arrays and, as a result, they have not been fully exploited for therapy delivery to date. However, recent research has made the construction of such arrays feasible, and it is expected that their continued development will both greatly improve the safety and efficacy of existing ultrasound therapies as well as enable treatments that are not currently possible with existing technology. This review will summarize the basic principles, current statures, and future potential of image-guided ultrasound phased arrays for therapy.

  3. Report for simultaneous, multiple independently steered beam study for Airborne Electronically Steerable Phased Array (AESPA) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Design concepts of an array for the formation of multiple, simultaneous, independently pointed beams for satellite communication links were investigated through tradeoffs of various approaches which were conceived as possible solutions to the problem. After the preferred approach was selected, a more detailed design was configured and is presented as a candidate system that should be given further consideration for development leading to a preliminary design. This array uses an attenuator and a phase shifter with every element. The aperture excitation necessary to form the four beams is calculated and then placed across the array using these devices. Pattern analysis was performed for two beam and four beam cases with numerous patterns being presented. Parameter evaluation shown includes pointing accuracy and beam shape, sidelobe characteristics, gain control, and beam normalization. It was demonstrated that a 4 bit phase shifter and a 6 bit, 30 dB attenuator were sufficient to achieve adequate pattern performances. The phase amplitude steered multibeam array offers the flexibility of 1 to 4 beams with an increase in gain of 6 dB if only one beam is selected.

  4. Flexible, phase-matched, linear receive arrays for high-field MRI in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Goense, Jozien; Logothetis, Nikos K; Merkle, Hellmut

    2010-10-01

    High signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) are essential for high-resolution anatomical and functional MRI. Phased arrays are advantageous for this but have the drawback that they often have inflexible and bulky configurations. Particularly in experiments where functional MRI is combined with simultaneous electrophysiology, space constraints can be prohibitive. To this end we developed a highly flexible multiple receive element phased array for use on anesthetized monkeys. The elements are interchangeable and different sizes and combinations of coil elements can be used, for instance, combinations of single and overlapped elements. The preamplifiers including control electronics are detachable and can serve a variety of prefabricated and phase matched arrays of different configurations, allowing the elements to always be placed in close proximity to the area of interest. Optimizing performance of the individual elements ensured high SNR at the cortical surface as well as in deeper laying structures. Performance of a variety of arrangements of gapped linear arrays was evaluated at 4.7 and 7T in high-resolution anatomical and functional MRI. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Three Element Phased Array Coil for Imaging of Rat Spinal Cord at 7T

    PubMed Central

    Mogatadakala, Kishore V.; Bankson, James A.; Narayana, Ponnada A.

    2008-01-01

    In order to overcome some of the limitations of an implantable coil, including its invasive nature and limited spatial coverage, a three element phased array coil is described for high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of rat spinal cord. This coil allows imaging both thoracic and cervical segments of rat spinal cord. In the current design, coupling between the nearest neighbors was minimized by overlapping the coil elements. A simple capacitive network was used for decoupling the next neighbor elements. The dimensions of individual coils in the array were determined based on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measurements performed on a phantom with three different surface coils. SNR measurements on a phantom demonstrated higher SNR of the phased array coil relative to two different volume coils. In-vivo images acquired on rat spinal cord with our coil demonstrated excellent gray and white matter contrast. To evaluate the performance of the phased array coil under parallel imaging, g-factor maps were obtained for two different acceleration factors of 2 and 3. These simulations indicate that parallel imaging with acceleration factor of 2 would be possible without significant image reconstruction related noise amplifications. PMID:19025892

  6. Ultrasonic Phased Array Compressive Imaging in Time and Frequency Domain: Simulation, Experimental Verification and Real Application

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Zhiliang; Chen, Shili; Jia, Lecheng; Zeng, Zhoumo

    2018-01-01

    Embracing the fact that one can recover certain signals and images from far fewer measurements than traditional methods use, compressive sensing (CS) provides solutions to huge amounts of data collection in phased array-based material characterization. This article describes how a CS framework can be utilized to effectively compress ultrasonic phased array images in time and frequency domains. By projecting the image onto its Discrete Cosine transform domain, a novel scheme was implemented to verify the potentiality of CS for data reduction, as well as to explore its reconstruction accuracy. The results from CIVA simulations indicate that both time and frequency domain CS can accurately reconstruct array images using samples less than the minimum requirements of the Nyquist theorem. For experimental verification of three types of artificial flaws, although a considerable data reduction can be achieved with defects clearly preserved, it is currently impossible to break Nyquist limitation in the time domain. Fortunately, qualified recovery in the frequency domain makes it happen, meaning a real breakthrough for phased array image reconstruction. As a case study, the proposed CS procedure is applied to the inspection of an engine cylinder cavity containing different pit defects and the results show that orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP)-based CS guarantees the performance for real application. PMID:29738452

  7. Image-guided ultrasound phased arrays are a disruptive technology for non-invasive therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hynynen, Kullervo; Jones, Ryan M.

    2016-01-01

    Focused ultrasound offers a non-invasive way of depositing acoustic energy deep into the body, which can be harnessed for a broad spectrum of therapeutic purposes, including tissue ablation, the targeting of therapeutic agents, and stem cell delivery. Phased array transducers enable electronic control over the beam geometry and direction, and can be tailored to provide optimal energy deposition patterns for a given therapeutic application. Their use in combination with modern medical imaging for therapy guidance allows precise targeting, online monitoring, and post-treatment evaluation of the ultrasound-mediated bioeffects. In the past there have been some technical obstacles hindering the construction of large aperture, high-power, densely-populated phased arrays and, as a result, they have not been fully exploited for therapy delivery to date. However, recent research has made the construction of such arrays feasible, and it is expected that their continued development will both greatly improve the safety and efficacy of existing ultrasound therapies as well as enable treatments that are not currently possible with existing technology. This review will summarize the basic principles, current statures, and future potential of image-guided ultrasound phased arrays for therapy. PMID:27494561

  8. Artifact Suppression in Imaging of Myocardial Infarction Using B1-Weighted Phased-Array Combined Phase-Sensitive Inversion Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Kellman, Peter; Dyke, Christopher K.; Aletras, Anthony H.; McVeigh, Elliot R.; Arai, Andrew E.

    2007-01-01

    Regions of the body with long T1, such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), may create ghost artifacts on gadolinium-hyperenhanced images of myocardial infarction when inversion recovery (IR) sequences are used with a segmented acquisition. Oscillations in the transient approach to steady state for regions with long T1 may cause ghosts, with the number of ghosts being equal to the number of segments. B1-weighted phased-array combining provides an inherent degree of ghost artifact suppression because the ghost artifact is weighted less than the desired signal intensity by the coil sensitivity profiles. Example images are shown that illustrate the suppression of CSF ghost artifacts by the use of B1-weighted phased-array combining of multiple receiver coils. PMID:14755669

  9. Polymer electro-optic waveguide devices: Low-loss etchless fabrication techniques and passive-to-active integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geary, Kevin

    The development of high-frequency polymer electro-optic modulators has seen steady and significant progress in recent years, yet applications of these promising materials to more complicated integrated optic structures and arrays of devices have been limited primarily due to high optical waveguide loss characteristics. This is unfortunate since a major advantage of polymers as photonic materials is their compatibility with photolithographic processing of large components. In this Dissertation, etchless waveguide writing techniques are presented in order to improve the overall optical insertion loss of electro-optic polymer waveguide devices. These techniques include poling-induced writing, stress-induced waveguide writing, and photobleaching. Using these waveguide writing mechanisms, we have demonstrated straight waveguides, phase modulators, Mach-Zehnder intensity modulators, variable optical attenuators, and multimode interference (MMI) power splitters, all with improved loss characteristics over their etched rib waveguide counterparts. Ultimately, the insertion loss of an integrated optic device is limited by the actual material loss of the core waveguide material. In this Dissertation, passive-to-active polymer waveguide transitions are proposed to circumvent this problem. These transitions are compact, in-plane, self-aligned, and require no tapering of any physical dimensions of the waveguides. By utilizing both the time-dependent and intensity-dependent photobleaching characteristics of electro-optic polymer materials, adiabatic refractive index tapers can be seamlessly coupled to in-plane butt couple transitions, resulting in losses as low as 0.1 dB per interface. By integrating passive polymer planar lightwave circuits with the high-speed phase shifting capability of electro-optic polymers, active wideband photonic devices of increased size and complexity can be realized. Optical fiber-to-device coupling can also result in significant contributions to the

  10. Broadband photonic transport between waveguides by adiabatic elimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oukraou, Hassan; Coda, Virginie; Rangelov, Andon A.; Montemezzani, Germano

    2018-02-01

    We propose an adiabatic method for the robust transfer of light between the two outer waveguides in a three-waveguide directional coupler. Unlike the established technique inherited from stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP), the method proposed here is symmetric with respect to an exchange of the left and right waveguides in the structure and permits the transfer in both directions. The technique uses the adiabatic elimination of the middle waveguide together with level crossing and adiabatic passage in an effective two-state system involving only the external waveguides. It requires a strong detuning between the outer and the middle waveguide and does not rely on the adiabatic transfer state (dark state) underlying the STIRAP process. The suggested technique is generalized to an array of N waveguides and verified by numerical beam propagation calculations.

  11. Phase and vortex correlations in superconducting Josephson-junction arrays at irrational magnetic frustration.

    PubMed

    Granato, Enzo

    2008-07-11

    Phase coherence and vortex order in a Josephson-junction array at irrational frustration are studied by extensive Monte Carlo simulations using the parallel-tempering method. A scaling analysis of the correlation length of phase variables in the full equilibrated system shows that the critical temperature vanishes with a power-law divergent correlation length and critical exponent nuph, in agreement with recent results from resistivity scaling analysis. A similar scaling analysis for vortex variables reveals a different critical exponent nuv, suggesting that there are two distinct correlation lengths associated with a decoupled zero-temperature phase transition.

  12. Simultaneously phase-matched second- and third-harmonic generation from 1.55 microm radiation in annealed proton-exchanged periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides.

    PubMed

    Marangoni, M; Lobino, M; Ramponi, R

    2006-09-15

    Third-harmonic generation (THG) in the cw regime from C-band radiation was achieved in annealed proton-exchanged periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguides. By suitable design of fabrication parameters and operating conditions, quasi-phase-matching (QPM) is obtained simultaneously for the second-harmonic generation process (omega-->2omega, first-order QPM) and for the sum-frequency-generation process (omega+2omega-->3omega, third-order QPM), which provides the third harmonic of the pump field. The high overlap between the field profiles of the interacting modes--TM00 at omega and TM10 at 2omega and 3omega--results in what is believed to be the highest ever reported normalized conversion efficiency for THG from telecommunication wavelengths, equal to 0.72%W(-2) cm(-4).

  13. Slotted Waveguide and Antenna Study for HPM and RF Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-07-25

    parallel metal plates separated by lmm, depending on the particular characteristics of the case (waveguide dimensions, SEY (secondary e lectron yield...waveguide antenna, shown in Figure 23, was studied . A new feed ing network based on a composite right-hand/left-hand (CRLH) waveguide structure was...approach is based on the assumption that the external coupling between the array elements is negligible, which is acceptable in the case of the

  14. Photonic Choke-Joints for Dual Polarization Waveguides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollack, Edward J. (Inventor); U-Yen, Kongpop (Inventor); Chuss, David T. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A waveguide structure for a dual polarization waveguide includes a first flange member, a second flange member, and a waveguide member disposed in each of the first flange member and second flange member. The first flange member and the second flange member are configured to be coupled together in a spaced-apart relationship separated by a gap. The first flange member has a substantially smooth surface, and the second flange member has an array of two-dimensional pillar structures formed therein.

  15. RSC-dependent constructive and destructive interference between opposing arrays of phased nucleosomes in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Ganguli, Dwaipayan; Chereji, Răzvan V.; Iben, James R.; Cole, Hope A.

    2014-01-01

    RSC and SWI/SNF are related ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling machines that move nucleosomes, regulating access to DNA. We addressed their roles in nucleosome phasing relative to transcription start sites in yeast. SWI/SNF has no effect on phasing at the global level. In contrast, RSC depletion results in global nucleosome repositioning: Both upstream and downstream nucleosomal arrays shift toward the nucleosome-depleted region (NDR), with no change in spacing, resulting in a narrower and partly filled NDR. The global picture of RSC-depleted chromatin represents the average of a range of chromatin structures, with most genes showing a shift of the +1 or the −1 nucleosome into the NDR. Using RSC ChIP data reported by others, we show that RSC occupancy is highest on the coding regions of heavily transcribed genes, though not at their NDRs. We propose that RSC has a role in restoring chromatin structure after transcription. Analysis of gene pairs in different orientations demonstrates that phasing patterns reflect competition between phasing signals emanating from neighboring NDRs. These signals may be in phase, resulting in constructive interference and a regular array, or out of phase, resulting in destructive interference and fuzzy positioning. We propose a modified barrier model, in which a stable complex located at the NDR acts as a bidirectional phasing barrier. In RSC-depleted cells, this barrier has a smaller footprint, resulting in narrower NDRs. Thus, RSC plays a critical role in organizing yeast chromatin. PMID:25015381

  16. RSC-dependent constructive and destructive interference between opposing arrays of phased nucleosomes in yeast.

    PubMed

    Ganguli, Dwaipayan; Chereji, Răzvan V; Iben, James R; Cole, Hope A; Clark, David J

    2014-10-01

    RSC and SWI/SNF are related ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling machines that move nucleosomes, regulating access to DNA. We addressed their roles in nucleosome phasing relative to transcription start sites in yeast. SWI/SNF has no effect on phasing at the global level. In contrast, RSC depletion results in global nucleosome repositioning: Both upstream and downstream nucleosomal arrays shift toward the nucleosome-depleted region (NDR), with no change in spacing, resulting in a narrower and partly filled NDR. The global picture of RSC-depleted chromatin represents the average of a range of chromatin structures, with most genes showing a shift of the +1 or the -1 nucleosome into the NDR. Using RSC ChIP data reported by others, we show that RSC occupancy is highest on the coding regions of heavily transcribed genes, though not at their NDRs. We propose that RSC has a role in restoring chromatin structure after transcription. Analysis of gene pairs in different orientations demonstrates that phasing patterns reflect competition between phasing signals emanating from neighboring NDRs. These signals may be in phase, resulting in constructive interference and a regular array, or out of phase, resulting in destructive interference and fuzzy positioning. We propose a modified barrier model, in which a stable complex located at the NDR acts as a bidirectional phasing barrier. In RSC-depleted cells, this barrier has a smaller footprint, resulting in narrower NDRs. Thus, RSC plays a critical role in organizing yeast chromatin. Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  17. Time delay and integration array (TDI) using charge transfer device technology. Phase 2, volume 1: Technical

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The 20x9 TDI array was developed to meet the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper Requirements. This array is based upon a self-aligned, transparent gate, buried channel process. The process features: (1) buried channel, four phase, overlapping gate CCD's for high transfer efficiency without fat zero; (2) self-aligned transistors to minimize clock feedthrough and parasitic capacitance; and (3) transparent tin oxide electrode for high quantum efficiency with front surface irradiation. The requirements placed on the array and the performance achieved are summarized. This data is the result of flat field measurements only, no imaging or dynamic target measurements were made during this program. Measurements were performed with two different test stands. The bench test equipment fabricated for this program operated at the 8 micro sec line time and employed simple sampling of the gated MOSFET output video signal. The second stand employed Correlated Doubled Sampling (CDS) and operated at 79.2 micro sec line time.

  18. The Detection of an Extremely Bright Fast Radio Burst in a Phased Array Feed Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannister, K. W.; Shannon, R. M.; Macquart, J.-P.; Flynn, C.; Edwards, P. G.; O'Neill, M.; Osłowski, S.; Bailes, M.; Zackay, B.; Clarke, N.; D'Addario, L. R.; Dodson, R.; Hall, P. J.; Jameson, A.; Jones, D.; Navarro, R.; Trinh, J. T.; Allison, J.; Anderson, C. S.; Bell, M.; Chippendale, A. P.; Collier, J. D.; Heald, G.; Heywood, I.; Hotan, A. W.; Lee-Waddell, K.; Madrid, J. P.; Marvil, J.; McConnell, D.; Popping, A.; Voronkov, M. A.; Whiting, M. T.; Allen, G. R.; Bock, D. C.-J.; Brodrick, D. P.; Cooray, F.; DeBoer, D. R.; Diamond, P. J.; Ekers, R.; Gough, R. G.; Hampson, G. A.; Harvey-Smith, L.; Hay, S. G.; Hayman, D. B.; Jackson, C. A.; Johnston, S.; Koribalski, B. S.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Mirtschin, P.; Ng, A.; Norris, R. P.; Pearce, S. E.; Phillips, C. J.; Roxby, D. N.; Troup, E. R.; Westmeier, T.

    2017-05-01

    We report the detection of an ultra-bright fast radio burst (FRB) from a modest, 3.4-day pilot survey with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder. The survey was conducted in a wide-field fly’s-eye configuration using the phased-array-feed technology deployed on the array to instantaneously observe an effective area of 160 deg2, and achieve an exposure totaling 13200 deg2 hr . We constrain the position of FRB 170107 to a region 8\\prime × 8\\prime in size (90% containment) and its fluence to be 58 ± 6 Jy ms. The spectrum of the burst shows a sharp cutoff above 1400 MHz, which could be due to either scintillation or an intrinsic feature of the burst. This confirms the existence of an ultra-bright (> 20 Jy ms) population of FRBs.

  19. Phase sensitive distributed vibration sensing based on ultraweak fiber Bragg grating array using double-pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Xuping; Zhang, Lin; Yuan, Quan; Liu, Yu; Yan, Zhijun

    2017-08-01

    A distributed vibration sensing technique using double-optical-pulse based on phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry (ϕ-OTDR) and an ultraweak fiber Bragg grating (UWFBG) array is proposed for the first time. The single-mode sensing fiber is integrated with the UWFBG array that has uniform spatial interval and ultraweak reflectivity. The relatively high reflectivity of the UWFBG, compared with the Rayleigh scattering, gains a high signal-to-noise ratio for the signal, which can make the system achieve the maximum detectable frequency limited by the round-trip time of the probe pulse in fiber. A corresponding experimental ϕ-OTDR system with a 4.5 km sensing fiber integrated with the UWFBG array was setup for the evaluation of the system performance. Distributed vibration sensing is successfully realized with spatial resolution of 50 m. The sensing range of the vibration frequency can cover from 3 Hz to 9 kHz.

  20. System-Level Integrated Circuit (SLIC) Technology Development for Phased Array Antenna Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windyka, John A.; Zablocki, Ed G.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the efforts and progress in developing a 'system-level' integrated circuit, or SLIC, for application in advanced phased array antenna systems. The SLIC combines radio-frequency (RF) microelectronics, digital and analog support circuitry, and photonic interfaces into a single micro-hybrid assembly. Together, these technologies provide not only the amplitude and phase control necessary for electronic beam steering in the phased array, but also add thermally-compensated automatic gain control, health and status feedback, bias regulation, and reduced interconnect complexity. All circuitry is integrated into a compact, multilayer structure configured for use as a two-by-four element phased array module, operating at 20 Gigahertz, using a Microwave High-Density Interconnect (MHDI) process. The resultant hardware is constructed without conventional wirebonds, maintains tight inter-element spacing, and leads toward low-cost mass production. The measured performances and development issues associated with both the two-by-four element module and the constituent elements are presented. Additionally, a section of the report describes alternative architectures and applications supported by the SLIC electronics. Test results show excellent yield and performance of RF circuitry and full automatic gain control for multiple, independent channels. Digital control function, while suffering from lower manufacturing yield, also proved successful.

  1. Slow-light enhanced subwavelength plasmonic waveguide refractive index sensors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yin; Min, Changjun; Dastmalchi, Pouya; Veronis, Georgios

    2015-06-01

    We introduce slow-light enhanced subwavelength scale refractive index sensors which consist of a plasmonic metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) waveguide based slow-light system sandwiched between two conventional MDM waveguides. We first consider a MDM waveguide with small width structrue for comparison, and then consider two MDM waveguide based slow light systems: a MDM waveguide side-coupled to arrays of stub resonators system and a MDM waveguide side-coupled to arrays of double-stub resonators system. We find that, as the group velocity decreases, the sensitivity of the effective index of the waveguide mode to variations of the refractive index of the fluid filling the sensors as well as the sensitivities of the reflection and transmission coefficients of the waveguide mode increase. The sensing characteristics of the slow-light waveguide based sensor structures are systematically analyzed. We show that the slow-light enhanced sensors lead to not only 3.9 and 3.5 times enhancements in the refractive index sensitivity, and therefore in the minimum detectable refractive index change, but also to 2 and 3 times reductions in the required sensing length, respectively, compared to a sensor using a MDM waveguide with small width structure.

  2. The effects of correlated noise in phased-array observations of radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewey, Rachel J.

    1994-01-01

    Arrays of radio telescopes are now routinely used to provide increased signal-to-noise when observing faint point sources. However, calculation of the achievable sensitivity is complicated if there are sources in the field of view other than the target source. These additional sources not only increase the system temperatures of the individual antennas, but may also contribute significant 'correlated noise' to the effective system temperature of the array. This problem has been of particular interest in the context of tracking spacecraft in the vicinity of radio-bright planets (e.g., Galileo at Jupiter), but it has broader astronomical relevance as well. This paper presents a general formulation of the problem, for the case of a point-like target source in the presence of an additional radio source of arbitrary brightness distribution. We re-derive the well known result that, in the absence of any background sources, a phased array of N indentical antennas is a factor of N more sensitive than a single antenna. We also show that an unphased array of N identical antennas is, on average, no more sensitive than a single antenna if the signals from the individual antennas are combined prior to detection. In the case where a background source is present we show that the effects of correlated noise are highly geometry dependent, and for some astronomical observations may cause significant fluctuations in the array's effective system temperature.

  3. FIBRE AND INTEGRATED OPTICS. OPTICAL PROCESSING OF INFORMATION: Feasibility of using waveguide holograms in systems for the transfer of amplitude—phase information along fibre communication lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dianov, Evgenii M.; Zubov, Vladimir A.; Putilin, A. N.

    1995-02-01

    An analysis is made of a variant of a system for spatial—temporal transformation of spatially one-dimensional information for its transfer along a single-mode fibre waveguide. Information is coupled into a fibre by a waveguide hologram. This hologram forms a light-beam structure which matches the fibre-guided mode. A report is given of the use of ion-exchange planar glass waveguides as waveguide holograms. An amorphous chalcogenide semiconductor film or a photoresist was deposited by evaporation on such a planar waveguide. Reconstruction of the waveguide hologram made it possible to achieve a high read rate, up to 1011 pixels per second, when a short radiation pulse was used. Multisectioned injection semiconductor lasers, operating under Q-switching conditions, were used as the radiation sources.

  4. Modulating complex beams in amplitude and phase using fast tilt-micromirror arrays and phase masks.

    PubMed

    Roth, Matthias; Heber, Jörg; Janschek, Klaus

    2018-06-15

    The Letter proposes a system for the spatial modulation of light in amplitude and phase at kilohertz frame rates and high spatial resolution. The focus is fast spatial light modulators (SLMs) consisting of continuously tiltable micromirrors. We investigate the utilization of such SLMs in combination with a static phase mask in a 4f setup. The phase mask enables the complex beam modulation in a linear optical arrangement. Furthermore, adding so-called phase steps to the phase mask increases both the number of image pixels at constant SLM resolution and the optical efficiency. We illustrate our concept based on numerical simulations.

  5. A Cryogenic SiGe Low-noise Amplifier Optimized for Phased-array Feeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groves, Wavley M., III; Morgan, Matthew A.

    2017-08-01

    The growing number of phased-array feeds (PAF) being built for radio astronomy demonstrates an increasing need for low-noise amplifiers (LNA), which are designed for repeatability, low noise, and ease of manufacture. Specific design features that help to achieve these goals include the use of unpackaged transistors (for cryogenic operation); single-polarity biasing; straight plug-in radio frequency (RF) interfaces to facilitate installation and re-work; and the use of off-the-shelf components. The focal L-band array for the Green Bank Telescope (FLAG) is a cooperative effort by Brigham Young University and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory using warm dipole antennae and cryogenic Silicon Germanium Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor (SiGe HBT) LNAs. These LNAs have an in band gain average of 38 dB and 4.85 Kelvin average noise temperature. Although the FLAG instrument was the driving instrument behind this development, most of the key features of the design and the advantages they offer apply broadly to other array feeds, including independent-beam and phased, and for many antenna types such as horn, dipole, Vivaldi, connected-bowtie, etc. This paper focuses on the unique requirements array feeds have for low-noise amplifiers and how amplifier manufacturing can accommodate these needs.

  6. A coherent through-wall MIMO phased array imaging radar based on time-duplexed switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qingchao; Chetty, Kevin; Brennan, Paul; Lok, Lai Bun; Ritchie, Matthiew; Woodbridge, Karl

    2017-05-01

    Through-the-Wall (TW) radar sensors are gaining increasing interest for security, surveillance and search and rescue applications. Additionally, the integration of Multiple-Input, Multiple-Output (MIMO) techniques with phased array radar is allowing higher performance at lower cost. In this paper we present a 4-by-4 TW MIMO phased array imaging radar operating at 2.4 GHz with 200 MHz bandwidth. To achieve high imaging resolution in a cost-effective manner, the 4 Tx and 4 Rx elements are used to synthesize a uniform linear array (ULA) of 16 virtual elements. Furthermore, the transmitter is based on a single-channel 4-element time-multiplexed switched array. In transmission, the radar utilizes frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) waveforms that undergo de-ramping on receive to allow digitization at relatively low sampling rates, which then simplifies the imaging process. This architecture has been designed for the short-range TW scenarios envisaged, and permits sufficient time to switch between antenna elements. The paper first outlines the system characteristics before describing the key signal processing and imaging algorithms which are based on traditional Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) processing. These techniques are implemented in LabVIEW software. Finally, we report results from an experimental campaign that investigated the imaging capabilities of the system and demonstrated the detection of personnel targets. Moreover, we show that multiple targets within a room with greater than approximately 1 meter separation can be distinguished from one another.

  7. Three-Dimensionally Functionalized Reverse Phase Glycoprotein Array for Cancer Biomarker Discovery and Validation.

    PubMed

    Pan, Li; Aguilar, Hillary Andaluz; Wang, Linna; Iliuk, Anton; Tao, W Andy

    2016-11-30

    Glycoproteins have vast structural diversity that plays an important role in many biological processes and have great potential as disease biomarkers. Here, we report a novel functionalized reverse phase protein array (RPPA), termed polymer-based reverse phase glycoprotein array (polyGPA), to capture and profile glycoproteomes specifically, and validate glycoproteins. Nitrocellulose membrane functionalized with globular hydroxyaminodendrimers was used to covalently capture preoxidized glycans on glycoproteins from complex protein samples such as biofluids. The captured glycoproteins were subsequently detected using the same validated antibodies as in RPPA. We demonstrated the outstanding specificity, sensitivity, and quantitative capabilities of polyGPA by capturing and detecting purified as well as endogenous α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) in human plasma. We further applied quantitative N-glycoproteomics and the strategy to validate a panel of glycoproteins identified as potential biomarkers for bladder cancer by analyzing urine glycoproteins from bladder cancer patients or matched healthy individuals.

  8. A novel ultrasonic phased array inspection system to NDT for offshore platform structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hua; Shan, Baohua; Wang, Xin; Ou, Jinping

    2007-01-01

    A novel ultrasonic phased array detection system is developed for nondestructive testing (NDT). The purpose of the system is to make acquisition of data in real-time from 64-element ultrasonic phased array transducer, and to enable real- time processing of the acquired data. The system is composed of five main parts: master unit, main board, eight transmit/receive units, a 64-element transducer and an external PC. The system can be used with 64 element transducers, excite 32 elements, receive and sample echo signals form 32 elements simultaneously at 62.5MHz with 8 bit precision. The external PC is used as the user interface showing the real time images and controls overall operation of the system through USB serial link. The use of Universal Serial Bus (USB) improves the transform speed and reduces hardware interface complexity. The program of the system is written in Visual C++.NET and is platform independent.

  9. Femtosecond laser modification of an array of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes intercalated with Fe phase nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Labunov, Vladimir; Prudnikava, Alena; Bushuk, Serguei; Filatov, Serguei; Shulitski, Boris; Tay, Beng Kang; Shaman, Yury; Basaev, Alexander

    2013-09-03

    Femtosecond lasers (FSL) are playing an increasingly important role in materials research, characterization, and modification. Due to an extremely short pulse width, interactions of FSL irradiation with solid surfaces attract special interest, and a number of unusual phenomena resulted in the formation of new materials are expected. Here, we report on a new nanostructure observed after the interaction of FSL irradiation with arrays of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) intercalated with iron phase catalyst nanoparticles. It was revealed that the FSL laser ablation transforms the topmost layer of CNT array into iron phase nanospheres (40 to 680 nm in diameter) located at the tip of the CNT bundles of conical shape. Besides, the smaller nanospheres (10 to 30 nm in diameter) are found to be beaded at the sides of these bundles. Some of the larger nanospheres are encapsulated into carbon shells, which sometime are found to contain CNTs. The mechanism of creation of such nanostructures is proposed.

  10. Femtosecond laser modification of an array of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes intercalated with Fe phase nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Femtosecond lasers (FSL) are playing an increasingly important role in materials research, characterization, and modification. Due to an extremely short pulse width, interactions of FSL irradiation with solid surfaces attract special interest, and a number of unusual phenomena resulted in the formation of new materials are expected. Here, we report on a new nanostructure observed after the interaction of FSL irradiation with arrays of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) intercalated with iron phase catalyst nanoparticles. It was revealed that the FSL laser ablation transforms the topmost layer of CNT array into iron phase nanospheres (40 to 680 nm in diameter) located at the tip of the CNT bundles of conical shape. Besides, the smaller nanospheres (10 to 30 nm in diameter) are found to be beaded at the sides of these bundles. Some of the larger nanospheres are encapsulated into carbon shells, which sometime are found to contain CNTs. The mechanism of creation of such nanostructures is proposed. PMID:24004518

  11. Application of Ultrasonic Phased Array Technology to the Detection of Defect in Composite Stiffened-structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yuan-Qi; Zhan, Li-Hua

    2016-05-01

    Composite stiffened-structure consists of the skin and stringer has been widely used in aircraft fuselage and wings. The main purpose of the article is to detect the composite material reinforced structure accurately and explore the relationship between defect formation and structural elements or curing process. Based on ultrasonic phased array inspection technology, the regularity of defects in the manufacture of composite materials are obtained, the correlation model between actual defects and nondestructive testing are established. The article find that the forming quality of deltoid area in T-stiffened structure is obviously improved by pre-curing, the defects of hat-stiffened structure are affected by the mandrel. The results show that the ultrasonic phased array inspection technology can be an effectively way for the detection of composite stiffened-structures, which become an important means to control the defects of composite and improve the quality of the product.

  12. Frequency domain phase-shifted confocal microscopy (FDPCM) with array detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Baoliang; Huang, Yujia; Fang, Yue; Kuang, Cuifang; Xiu, Peng; Liu, Xu

    2017-09-01

    We proposed a novel method to reconstruct images taken by array detected confocal microscopy without prior knowledge about its detector distribution. The proposed frequency domain phase-shifted confocal microscopy (FDPCM) shifts the image from each detection channel to its corresponding place by substituting the phase information in Fourier domain. Theoretical analysis shows that our method could approach the resolution nearly twofold of wide-field microscopy. Simulation and experiment results are also shown to verify the applicability and effectiveness of our method. Compared to Airyscan, our method holds the advantage of simplicity and convenience to be applied to array detectors with different structure, which makes FDPCM have great potential in the application of biomedical observation in the future.

  13. The Implications of Encoder/Modulator/ Phased Array Designs for Future Broadband LEO Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderaar, Mark; Jensen, Chris A.; Terry, John D.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we summarize the effects of modulation and channel coding on the design of wide angle scan, broadband, phased army antennas. In the paper we perform several trade studies. First, we investigate the amplifier back-off requirement as a function of variability of modulation envelope. Specifically, we contrast constant and non-constant envelope modulations, as well as single and multiple carrier schemes. Additionally, we address the issues an(f concerns of using pulse shaping filters with the above modulation types. Second, we quantify the effects of beam steering on the quality of data, recovery using selected modulation techniques. In particular, we show that the frequency response of the array introduces intersymbol interference for broadband signals and that the mode of operation for the beam steering controller may introduce additional burst or random errors. Finally, we show that the encoder/modulator design must be performed in conjunction with the phased array antenna design.

  14. Deconvolution methods and systems for the mapping of acoustic sources from phased microphone arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas F. (Inventor); Humphreys, Jr., William M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method and system for mapping acoustic sources determined from a phased microphone array. A plurality of microphones are arranged in an optimized grid pattern including a plurality of grid locations thereof. A linear configuration of N equations and N unknowns can be formed by accounting for a reciprocal influence of one or more beamforming characteristics thereof at varying grid locations among the plurality of grid locations. A full-rank equation derived from the linear configuration of N equations and N unknowns can then be iteratively determined. A full-rank can be attained by the solution requirement of the positivity constraint equivalent to the physical assumption of statically independent noise sources at each N location. An optimized noise source distribution is then generated over an identified aeroacoustic source region associated with the phased microphone array in order to compile an output presentation thereof, thereby removing the beamforming characteristics from the resulting output presentation.

  15. Expected Science Performance of the Square Kilometre Array Phase 1 (SKA1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourke, Tyler; Braun, Robert; Bonaldi, Anna; Garcia-Miro, Cristina; Keane, Evan; Wagg, Jeff; SKAO Science Team

    2018-01-01

    The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) will be the world’s largest radio telescope when Phase 1 (SKA1) is completed in the next decade. The past few years have seen great progress toward this goal, through extensive design activities, with construction to start before the end of this decade, and early operations anticipated to begin around 2026. This poster describes the SKA and presents the expected performance and capabilities of SKA1 based on the modelling and proto-typing to date.

  16. Microwave monolithic integrated circuit development for future spaceborne phased array antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anzic, G.; Kascak, T. J.; Downey, A. N.; Liu, D. C.; Connolly, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    The development of fully monolithic gallium arsenide (GaAs) receive and transmit modules suitable for phased array antenna applications in the 30/20 gigahertz bands is presented. Specifications and various design approaches to achieve the design goals are described. Initial design and performance of submodules and associated active and passive components are presented. A tradeoff study summary is presented highlighting the advantages of distributed amplifier approach compared to the conventional single power source designs.

  17. Microphone Array Phased Processing System (MAPPS): Version 4.0 Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, Michael E.; Mosher, Marianne; Barnes, Michael; Bardina, Jorge

    1999-01-01

    A processing system has been developed to meet increasing demands for detailed noise measurement of individual model components. The Microphone Array Phased Processing System (MAPPS) uses graphical user interfaces to control all aspects of data processing and visualization. The system uses networked parallel computers to provide noise maps at selected frequencies in a near real-time testing environment. The system has been successfully used in the NASA Ames 7- by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel.

  18. Large membrane “Furoshiki Satellite” applied to phased array antenna and its sounding rocket experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakasuka, Shinichi; Funase, Ryu; Nakada, Kenji; Kaya, Nobuyuki; Mankins, John C.

    2006-04-01

    University of Tokyo and Kobe University are planning a sounding rocket experiment of large membrane "Furoshiki Satellite" extension and large phased array RF transmission. The paper will describe the concept of "Furoshiki Satellite," its application to phased array antenna, and the scenario of micro gravity experiment using a small sounding rocket. University of Tokyo has been proposing the idea of "Furoshiki Satellite," a large membrane or a net structure, say 1km×1km in size, extended by satellites which hold its corners. The attitude and the shape of the membrane or net structure is controlled by these corner satellites. As one application of Furoshiki Satellite, a large phased array antenna can be configured by several RF transmitters placed on several parts of the large net structure. It is difficult to control the position and attitude of the RF transmitters precisely, but using the "retro-directive" method, the tolerance of such position and attitude disturbance will be relaxed by large. This is one of promising systems' concept of the future large solar power satellite or large antenna, because quite a large area can be obtained without any hard structure, and the weight will not depend very much on the size [S. Motohashi, T. Nagamura, Large scaled membrane structure Furoshiki Satellite—its concept and orbital/attitude dynamics, in: Proceedings of 20th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (ISTS), 1996, p. 96-n-14]. To demonstrate the feasibility of the extension of large net structure and phased array performance, micro-gravity experiment is planned using a sounding rocket of ISAS/JAXA, Japan.

  19. The IMPACT Common Module - A Low Cost, Reconfigurable Building Block for Next Generation Phased Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-31

    The SiGe receiver has two stages of programmable RF filtering and one stage of IF filtering. Each filter can be tuned in center frequency and...distribution unlimited. transmit, with an IF to RF upconversion chain that is split to programmable phase shifters and VGAs at each output port. Figure 2...These are optimized to run on medium grade Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), such as the Altera Arria 10, and represent a few of the many

  20. Phased-Array Monolithic PEM for FT Spectrometry With Applications in Explosive Detection and CB Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    manufacturing variability and thermal effects can be easi- ly compensated for electronically during operation by adjusting PZT amplitudes and phases... thermal and optical processes in the PEM bar and PZT array. An interface between COMSOL and the Trilinos solvers running in parallel on the cluster was...contaminants of low vapor pressure and/or low intrinsic fluorescence. Thermal luminescence (TL) is a technology aimed at solving the standoff