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Sample records for phenol red mucosal

  1. Phenol red-silk tyrosine cross-linked hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Sundarakrishnan, Aswin; Herrero Acero, Enrique; Coburn, Jeannine; Chwalek, Karolina; Partlow, Benjamin; Kaplan, David L

    2016-09-15

    Phenol red is a cytocompatible pH sensing dye that is commonly added to cell culture media, but removed from some media formulations due to its structural mimicry of estrogen. Phenol red free media is also used during live cell imaging, to avoid absorbance and fluorescence quenching of fluorophores. To overcome these complications, we developed cytocompatible and degradable phenol red-silk tyrosine cross-linked hydrogels using horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Phenol red added to silk during tyrosine crosslinking accelerated di-tyrosine formation in a concentration-dependent reaction. Phenol red diffusion studies and UV-Vis spectra of phenol red-silk tyrosine hydrogels at different pHs showed altered absorption bands, confirming entrapment of dye within the hydrogel network. LC-MS of HRP-reacted phenol red and N-acetyl-l-tyrosine reaction products confirmed covalent bonds between the phenolic hydroxyl group of phenol red and tyrosine on the silk. At lower phenol red concentrations, leak-proof hydrogels which did not release phenol red were fabricated and found to be cytocompatible based on live-dead staining and alamar blue assessments of encapsulated fibroblasts. Due to the spectral overlap between phenol red absorbance at 415nm and di-tyrosine fluorescence at 417nm, phenol red-silk hydrogels provide both absorbance and fluorescence-based pH sensing. With an average pKa of 6.8 and good cytocompatibiltiy, phenol red-silk hydrogels are useful for pH sensing in phenol red free systems, cellular microenvironments and bioreactors. Phenol red entrapped within hydrogels facilitates pH sensing in phenol red free environments. Leak-proof phenol red based pH sensors require covalent binding techniques, but are complicated due to the lack of amino or carboxyl groups on phenol red. Currently, there is no simple, reliable technique to covalently link phenol red to hydrogel matrices, for real-time pH sensing in cell culture environments. Herein

  2. Human neutrophil leukocyte elastase activity is inhibited by Phenol Red

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Neutrophil elastase (NE) activity in urine, sputum and nasal mucous is used as an indicator of inflammation due to viral or bacterial infection. However, bovine nasal mucous neutrophils collected, lysed and stored in Dulbecco's minimal medium containing Phenol Red, showed no NE activity with methox...

  3. Phenolic and Chromatic Properties of Beibinghong Red Ice Wine during and after Vinification.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-Chen; Li, Si-Yu; He, Fei; Yuan, Zheng-Yi; Liu, Tao; Reeves, Malcolm J; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2016-04-20

    The phenolic and chromatic characteristics of a special red ice wine made from a Vitis amurensis × V. vinifera hybrid cultivar Beibinghong were studied. Results from two different vintages (2013 and 2014) showed that during vinification, the phenolic acid content increased, while the level of flavonoids (flavonols, flavan-3-ols, and anthocyanins) reduced by a variable extent. The color intensity and red % decreased together with a decrease in anthocyanin content. This was accompanied by an increase in hue as well as yellow %. The final phenolic content was found to be between 119.54 and 180.93 mg/L, with anthocyanins as the predominant phenolic group (92.06%-93.03%), of which 3,5-O-diglucosidic anthocyanins made up 53.55%-79.04%. Phenolic acids were the primary non-anthocyanin phenolics at about 6.64%-7.5%. The phenolic contents and color parameters of Beibinghong dry red wine and several V. vinifera dry red wines of superior color quality were also used in an attempt to clarify the relationship between phenolics and color in the Beibinghong red ice wine. By using Pearson correlation analysis and principal component analysis (PCA), it was found that 3,5-O-diglucosidic anthocyanins and protocatechuic acid were the only characteristic phenolics that differentiated Beibinghong wines from the other selected red wines from more traditional varieties. They were also the main phenolics to be positively correlated with the hue and yellow % of the wine at the early stages leading into maturation. Their presence might, therefore, explain the relatively high hue and yellow % of Beibinghong ice wine.

  4. Lignin-derived oak phenolics: a theoretical examination of additional potential health benefits of red wine.

    PubMed

    Setzer, William N

    2011-08-01

    Lignin-derived phenolic compounds can be extracted from oak barrels during the aging of red wine, and it is hypothesized that these compounds may contribute to the health benefits of red wine by their antioxidant, radical-scavenging, or chemopreventive activities. Density functional calculations (B3LYP/6-311++G) support the radical-scavenging abilities of the oak phenolics. Sinapaldehyde, syringaldehyde, syringol, and syringylacetone all have bond dissociation energies that are lower than resveratrol and comparable to the flavonoid catechin. Molecular docking studies of the oak phenolics with known resveratrol protein targets also show that these compounds dock favorably to the protein targets. Thus, lignin-derived oak phenolics, although found in small concentrations, may contribute to the beneficial antioxidant, chemopreventive, and cardioprotective effects of red wine.

  5. Prediction of wine color attributes from the phenolic profiles of red grapes (Vitis vinifera).

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jacob S; Demiray, Simge; Egebo, Max; Meyer, Anne S

    2008-02-13

    Knowledge about the relation between grape and wine phenolics is of key interest for the wine industry with respect to being able to predict wine quality from analyses of grapes. Prediction of the phenolic composition and color of experimentally produced red wines from the detailed phenolic composition of the corresponding grapes was investigated using a multivariate approach. Grape extracts and wines were produced from 55 different grape samples, covering 8 different Vitis vinifera cultivars: Alicante, Merlot, Syrah, Cinsault, Grenache, Carignan, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Mourvedre. The phenolic composition of the grapes and wines showed that the average ratios between wine and grape phenolics ranged from 0.25 to 7.9 for the different phenolic compounds. Most interestingly, the average ratios were low for anthocyanins (0.31) and tannins (0.32), intermediate for (+)-catechin (0.75) and polymeric pigments (0.98), and high for gallic acid (7.9). Individual wine phenolics in general correlated well with several grape phenolics, indicating that a multivariate approach might be advantageous for prediction of wine phenolics from grape phenolics analysis. However the use of multivariate prediction of individual wine phenolics from the complete grape phenolic composition only improved the prediction of wine polymeric pigments, whereas wine anthocyanins were predicted with the same precision as from the direct relation with grape anthocyanins. Prediction of color attributes of pH normalized experimental wines from the phenolic profiles of grapes was accomplished using a multivariate approach. The correlation between predicted and measured total wine color was high ( r = 0.958) but was very similar to the correlation coefficient obtained for the direct relation between grape anthocyanins and total wine color ( r = 0.961). Color due to copigmentation, color due to anthocyanins, and color intensity were also predicted well.

  6. Vidalenolone, a novel phenolic metabolite from the tropical red alga Vidalia sp.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hye-Dong; Ketchum, Sharon O; France, Dennis; Bair, Ken; Gerwick, William H

    2002-01-01

    The Indonesian red alga Vidalia sp. was identified as a candidate for fractionation because its crude lipid extract showed activity in a mechanism-based anticancer assay (Fyn SH2-inhibitory activity). A chemically novel phenolic metabolite, vidalenolone, as well as two previously described and structurally simple phenols, were isolated as SH2-inactive substances. Their structures were determined by an interplay of spectroscopic methods, principally 2D NMR, and reference to literature data.

  7. Volatile phenols depletion in red wine using molecular imprinted polymers.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Rafaela; Dopico-García, Sonia; Andrade, Paula B; Valentão, Patrícia; López-Vilariño, José M; González-Rodríguez, Victoria; Cela-Pérez, Concepción; Silva, Luís R

    2015-12-01

    Wines can be modified by microorganisms during the ageing process, by producing off-flavours like volatile phenols (VP), leading to their deterioration, with great economic losses. The development of methods to recover wines affected by unwanted VP became an important target. Molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) are synthetic materials with artificially-generated recognition sites for selective extraction of organic compounds from different matrices. In this work, two MIPs to remove unwanted VP from wines were developed and their effects were evaluated. Volatile compounds were determined by GC-FID and GC-IT/MS and phenolic compounds (non-coloured and anthocyanins) by HPLC-DAD. The treatment with MIP-4EG and MIP-4EP significantly reduced the content of 4-ethylguaiacol and 4-ethylphenol, respectively. Nevertheless, the changes observed in wine non-coloured and coloured phenolics and sensorial analysis indicate that their specificity and selectivity regarding off-flavours still needs to be improved.

  8. Effect of Red Clover Isoflavones over Skin, Appendages, and Mucosal Status in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Lipovac, Markus; Chedraui, Peter; Gruenhut, Christine; Gocan, Anca; Kurz, Christine; Neuber, Benedikt; Imhof, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Evaluate in postmenopausal women the effect of red clover extract (RCE) isoflavones over subjective status of skin, appendages, and several mucosal sites. Method. Postmenopausal women (n = 109) were randomly assigned to receive either two daily capsules of the active compound (80 mg RCE, Group A) or placebo of equal appearance (Group B) for a 90-day period. After a washout period of 7 days, medication was crossed over and taken for 90 days more. Subjective improvement of skin, appendages, and several mucosal site status was assessed for each studied group at 90 and 187 days using a visual analogue scale (VAS). In addition, libido, tiredness, and urinary, sleep, and mood complaints were also evaluated. Results. Women after RCE intervention (both groups) reported better subjective improvement of scalp hair and skin status, libido, mood, sleep, and tiredness. Improvement of urinary complaints, nail, body hair, and mucosa (oral, nasal, and ocular) status did not differ between treatment phases (intra- and intergroup). Overall satisfaction with treatment was reported higher after RCE intervention (both groups) as compared to placebo. Conclusion. RCE supplementation exerted a subject improvement of scalp hair and skin status as well as libido, mood, sleep, and tiredness in postmenopausal women. PMID:22135679

  9. Effect of Red Clover Isoflavones over Skin, Appendages, and Mucosal Status in Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Lipovac, Markus; Chedraui, Peter; Gruenhut, Christine; Gocan, Anca; Kurz, Christine; Neuber, Benedikt; Imhof, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Evaluate in postmenopausal women the effect of red clover extract (RCE) isoflavones over subjective status of skin, appendages, and several mucosal sites. Method. Postmenopausal women (n = 109) were randomly assigned to receive either two daily capsules of the active compound (80 mg RCE, Group A) or placebo of equal appearance (Group B) for a 90-day period. After a washout period of 7 days, medication was crossed over and taken for 90 days more. Subjective improvement of skin, appendages, and several mucosal site status was assessed for each studied group at 90 and 187 days using a visual analogue scale (VAS). In addition, libido, tiredness, and urinary, sleep, and mood complaints were also evaluated. Results. Women after RCE intervention (both groups) reported better subjective improvement of scalp hair and skin status, libido, mood, sleep, and tiredness. Improvement of urinary complaints, nail, body hair, and mucosa (oral, nasal, and ocular) status did not differ between treatment phases (intra- and intergroup). Overall satisfaction with treatment was reported higher after RCE intervention (both groups) as compared to placebo. Conclusion. RCE supplementation exerted a subject improvement of scalp hair and skin status as well as libido, mood, sleep, and tiredness in postmenopausal women.

  10. Effects of Vinification Techniques Combined with UV-C Irradiation on Phenolic Contents of Red Wines.

    PubMed

    Tahmaz, Hande; Söylemezoğlu, Gökhan

    2017-06-01

    Red wines are typically high in phenolic and antioxidant capacity and both of which can be increased by vinification techniques. This study employed 3 vinification techniques to assess the increase in phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. Wines were obtained from Boğazkere grape cultivar by techniques of classical maceration, cold maceration combined with ultraviolet light (UV) irradiation, and thermovinification combined with UV irradiation and changes in phenolic contents were examined. Total phenolic and anthocyanin contents and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of wines were measured spectrophotometrically and phenolic contents (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, rutin, quercetin, trans-resveratrol, and cis-resveratrol were measured by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection (HPLC-DAD). As a result of the study, the highest phenolic content except for quercetin was measured in the wines obtained by thermovinification combined with UV irradiation. We demonstrated that the highest phenolic compounds with health effect, total phenolic compounds, total anthocyanin, and antioxidant activity were obtained from thermovinification with UV-C treatment than classical wine making. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. Extraction, evolution, and sensory impact of phenolic compounds during red wine maceration.

    PubMed

    Casassa, L Federico; Harbertson, James F

    2014-01-01

    We review the extraction into wine and evolution of major phenolic classes of sensory relevance. We present a historical background to highlight that previously established aspects of phenolic extraction and retention into red wine are still subjects of much research. We argue that management of the maceration length is one of the most determining factors in defining the proportion and chemical fate of phenolic compounds in wine. The extraction of anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, and oligomeric and polymeric proanthocyanidins (PAs) is discussed in the context of their individual extraction patterns but also with regard to their interaction with other wine components. The same approach is followed to present the sensory implications of phenolic and phenolic-derived compounds in wine. Overall, we conclude that the chemical diversity of phenolic compounds in grapes is further enhanced as soon as vacuolar and pulp components are released upon crushing, adding a variety of new sensory dimensions to the already present chemical diversity. Polymeric pigments formed by the covalent reaction of anthocyanin and PAs are good candidates to explain some of the observed sensory changes in the color, taste, and mouthfeel attributes of red wines during maceration and aging.

  12. Relationship among antioxidant activity, vasodilation capacity, and phenolic content of red wines.

    PubMed

    Burns, J; Gardner, P T; O'Neil, J; Crawford, S; Morecroft, I; McPhail, D B; Lister, C; Matthews, D; MacLean, M R; Lean, M E; Duthie, G G; Crozier, A

    2000-02-01

    The relationship among antioxidant activity, based on the electron-spin resonance determination of the reduction of Fremy's radical, vasodilation activity, and phenolic content was investigated in 16 red wines. The wines were selected to provide a range of origins, grape varieties, and vinification methods. Sensitive and selective HPLC methods were used for the analysis of the major phenolics in red wine: free and conjugated myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin; (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, caftaric acid, trans-resveratrol, cis-resveratrol, and trans-resveratrol glucoside. Total anthocyanins were measured using a colorimetric assay. The total phenolic content of the wines was determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric assay and also by the cumulative measurements obtained by HPLC. The 16 wines exhibited a wide range in the values of all parameters investigated. However, the total phenol contents, measured both by HPLC and colorimetrically, correlated very strongly with the antioxidant activity and vasodilation activity. In addition, the antioxidant activity was associated with gallic acid, total resveratrol, and total catechin. In contrast, only the total anthocyanins were correlated with vasodilation activity. The results demonstrate that the different phenolic profiles of wines can produce varying antioxidant and vasodilatant activities, which opens up the possibility that some red wines may provide enhanced health benefits for the consumer.

  13. Phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of major Australian red wines throughout the winemaking process.

    PubMed

    Ginjom, Irine R; D'Arcy, Bruce R; Caffin, Nola A; Gidley, Michael J

    2010-09-22

    Three Australian red wine types (Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Merlot) were analyzed for antioxidant activity and a range of phenolic component contents using various spectral methods. More than half of the total phenolic compounds were tannins, whereas monomeric anthocyanins and flavonols were present in much lesser amounts (<10%). The evolution of phenolic contents and the respective antioxidant activities in wine samples from all stages of winemaking showed progressive changes toward those of commercial wines. The antioxidant activity of the wines in DPPH and ABTS assays was positively correlated with total phenolic contents and tannins. Comparisons of the three wine varieties based on their individual phenolic component groups and antioxidant activities showed limited differences between the different varieties. However, when all of the variables were combined in a principal component analysis, variety differentiation was observed. The three varieties of red wines all contained similar and high concentrations of antioxidants despite differences in grape variety/maturity and winemaking process, suggesting that related health benefits would accrue from all of the red wines studied.

  14. Determination of some phenolic compounds in red wine by RP-HPLC: method development and validation.

    PubMed

    Burin, Vívian Maria; Arcari, Stefany Grützmann; Costa, Léa Luzia Freitas; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T

    2011-09-01

    A methodology employing reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of five phenolic compounds in red wine. The chromatographic separation was carried out in a C(18) column with water acidify with acetic acid (pH 2.6) (solvent A) and 20% solvent A and 80% acetonitrile (solvent B) as the mobile phase. The validation parameters included: selectivity, linearity, range, limits of detection and quantitation, precision and accuracy, using an internal standard. All calibration curves were linear (R(2) > 0.999) within the range, and good precision (RSD < 2.6%) and recovery (80-120%) was obtained for all compounds. This method was applied to quantify phenolics in red wine samples from Santa Catarina State, Brazil, and good separation peaks for phenolic compounds in these wines were observed.

  15. Estrogen and phenol red free medium for osteoblast culture: study of the mineralization ability.

    PubMed

    de Faria, A N; Zancanela, D C; Ramos, A P; Torqueti, M R; Ciancaglini, P

    2016-08-01

    To design an estrogen and phenol red free medium for cell culture and check its effectiveness and safety on osteoblast growth it is necessary to maintain the estrogen receptors free for tests. For this purpose, we tested some modifications of the traditional culture media: estrogen depleted fetal bovine serum; estrogen charcoal stripped fetal bovine serum and phenol red free α-MEM. The aim of this work is to examine the effects of its depletion in the proliferation, differentiation, and toxicity of mesenchymal stromal cells differentiated into osteoblasts to obtain an effective interference free culture medium for in vitro studies, focused on non-previously studied estrogen receptors. We performed viability tests using the following techniques: MTT, alkaline phosphatase specific activity, formation of mineralized matrix by Alizarin technique and analysis of SEM/EDX of mineralized nodules. The results showed that the culture media with estrogen free α-MEM + phenol red free α-MEM did not impact viability, alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization of the osteoblasts culture compared to control. In addition, its nodules possess Ca/P ratio similar to hydroxyapatite nodules on the 14th and 21st day. In conclusion, the modified culture medium with phenol red free α-MEM with estrogen depleted fetal bovine serum can be safely used in experiments where the estrogen receptors need to be free.

  16. Soluble phenolic compounds in different cultivars of red clover and alfalfa, and their implication for protection against proteolysis and ammonia production in ruminants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Red clover contains phenolic compounds with roles in inhibiting proteolysis and loss of amino acids as ammonia. Alfalfa has been found to have lower concentrations of phenolic compounds, but few alfalfa and red clover cultivars have been compared for phenolic content. Total soluble phenolic compou...

  17. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of red wine made from grapes treated with different fungicides.

    PubMed

    Mulero, J; Martínez, G; Oliva, J; Cermeño, S; Cayuela, J M; Zafrilla, P; Martínez-Cachá, A; Barba, A

    2015-08-01

    The effect of treating grapes with six fungicides, applied under critical agricultural practices (CAP) on levels of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of red wines of Monastrell variety was studied. Vinifications were performed through addition of active dry yeast (ADY). Measurement of phenolic compounds was made with HPLC-DAD. Determination of antioxidant activity was through reaction of the wine sample with the DPPH radical. The wine prepared from grapes treated with quinoxyfen shows a greater increase of phenolic compounds than the control wine. In contrast, the wine obtained from grapes treated with trifloxystrobin showed lower total concentration of phenolic compounds, including stilbenes, whilst treatments with kresoxim-methyl, fluquinconazole, and famoxadone slightly reduced their content. Hence, the use of these last four fungicides could cause a decrease in possible health benefits to consumers. Antioxidant activity hardly varied in the assays with quinoxyfen, fluquinconazole and famoxadone, and decreased in the other wines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Suppression of human monocyte tissue factor induction by red wine phenolics and synthetic derivatives of resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurjeet; Roberti, Marinella; Raul, Francis; Pendurthi, Usha R

    2007-01-01

    Prevention of cardiovascular disease through nutritional supplements is growing in popularity throughout the world. Multiple epidemiologic studies found that moderate consumption of alcohol, particularly red wine, lowers mortality rates from coronary heart diseases (CHD). Chronic inflammation and atherosclerosis associated with CHD culminate in aberrant intravascular expression of tissue factor (TF), which triggers blood coagulation leading to thrombosis, a major cause for heart attack. We showed earlier that two red wine phenolics, resveratrol and quercetin, suppressed TF induction in endothelial cells. In the present study, we investigated efficacy of seven resveratrol derivatives, which were shown to be effective in regulating cancer cell growth in vitro at much lower concentrations than the parent compound resveratrol, in inhibiting TF induction in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We also tested possible synergistic effects of resveratrol and quercetin with the other major red wine phenolics in suppression of lipopolysaccharide-induced TF expression in human PBMCs. We found that several resveratrol derivatives were 2- to 10-fold more efficient than resveratrol in inhibiting TF induction. Our study found no evidence for synergism among red wine polyphenolics. These data suggest that structural alterations of resveratrol can be effective in producing potent antithrombotic agents that will have therapeutic potential in the improvement of cardiovascular health and prevention of CHD. Among major red wine phenolics, quercetin appears to be the predominant suppressor of TF induction.

  19. Suppression of human monocyte tissue factor induction by red wine phenolics and synthetic derivatives of resveratrol

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Gurjeet; Roberti, Marinella; Raul, Francis; Pendurthi, Usha R.

    2010-01-01

    Prevention of cardiovascular disease through nutritional supplements is growing in popularity throughout the world. Multiple epidemiologic studies found that moderate consumption of alcohol, particularly red wine, lowers mortality rates from coronary heart diseases (CHD). Chronic inflammation and atherosclerosis associated with CHD culminate in aberrant intravascular expression of tissue factor (TF), which triggers blood coagulation leading to thrombosis, a major cause for heart attack. We showed earlier that two red wine phenolics, resveratrol and quercetin, suppressed TF induction in endothelial cells. In the present study, we investigated efficacy of seven resveratrol derivatives, which were shown to be effective in regulating cancer cell growth in vitro at much lower concentrations than the parent compound resveratrol, in inhibiting TF induction in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We also tested possible synergistic effects of resveratrol and quercetin with the other major red wine phenolics in suppression of lipopolysaccharide-induced TF expression in human PBMCs. We found that several resveratrol derivatives were 2- to 10-fold more efficient than resveratrol in inhibiting TF induction. Our study found no evidence for synergism among red wine polyphenolics. These data suggest that structural alterations of resveratrol can be effective in producing potent antithrombotic agents that will have therapeutic potential in the improvement of cardiovascular health and prevention of CHD. Among major red wine phenolics, quercetin appears to be the predominant suppressor of TF induction. PMID:16507316

  20. Identification of the phenolic compounds contributing to antibacterial activity in ethanol extracts of Brazilian red propolis.

    PubMed

    Inui, Saori; Hatano, Ai; Yoshino, Megumi; Hosoya, Takahiro; Shimamura, Yuko; Masuda, Shuichi; Ahn, Mok-Ryeon; Tazawa, Shigemi; Araki, Yoko; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the quantity and antibacterial activity of the individual phenolic compounds in Brazilian red propolis. Quantitative analysis of the 12 phenolic compounds in Brazilian red propolis was carried out using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The main phenolic compounds in Brazilian red propolis were found to be (3S)-vestitol (1), (3S)-neovestitol (2) and (6aS,11aS)-medicarpin (4) with quantities of 72.9, 66.9 and 30.8 mg g of ethanol extracts(- 1), respectively. Moreover, the antibacterial activities of each compound against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were evaluated by measuring the minimum inhibitory concentrations. In particular, compound 4 exhibited the most potent antibacterial activity among all the assayed compounds against selected bacteria, indicating that 4 is the most active compound in Brazilian red propolis extracts. Thus, Brazilian red propolis may be used as food additives and pharmaceuticals to protect against bacteria.

  1. Red Maple (Acer rubrum) Aerial Parts as a Source of Bioactive Phenolics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Ma, Hang; Yuan, Tao; Seeram, Navindra P

    2015-08-01

    The bark and stems of red maple (Acer rubrum) are reported to contain bioactive phenolics but its aerial parts, namely, flowers and leaves, remain largely unexplored. This is unfortunate considering that various parts of the red maple were used for traditional medicinal purposes by the indigenous peoples of eastern North America, where this species is found. Herein, we report the identification of twenty-five (1-25) phenolics, including two new galloyl derivatives (1 and 2), from red maple flowers and leaves. Of these, ten compounds (1-10), including the new compounds, were isolated and identified by NMR and HRESIMS data while the remaining fifteen compounds (11-25) were identified by HPLC-DAD analyses (by comparison with chemical standards). The isolates (1-10), along with the clinical drug, acarbose, were evaluated for their alpha-glucosidase enzyme inhibitory activities.

  2. Comparative study of microbial-derived phenolic metabolites in human feces after intake of gin, red wine, and dealcoholized red wine.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Girón, Ana; Queipo-Ortuño, María Isabel; Boto-Ordóñez, Maria; Muñoz-González, Irene; Sánchez-Patán, Fernando; Monagas, Maria; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J; Murri, Mora; Tinahones, Francisco J; Andrés-Lacueva, Cristina; Bartolomé, Begoña; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria

    2013-04-24

    The analysis of microbial phenolic metabolites in fecal samples from in vivo studies is crucial to understanding the potential modulatory effects derived from polyphenol consumption and its overall health effects, particularly at the gut level. In this study, the composition of microbial phenolic metabolites in human feces collected after regular consumption of either red wine, dealcoholized red wine, or gin was analyzed by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Red wine interventions produce a change in the content of eight phenolic acids, which are probably derived from the catabolism of flavan-3-ols and anthocyanins, the main flavonoids in red wine. Moreover, alcohol seemed not to influence the formation of phenolic metabolites by the gut microbiota. A principal component analysis revealed large interindividual differences in the formation of microbial metabolites after each red wine polyphenol intervention, but not after the gin intervention, indicating differences in the gut microbial composition among subjects.

  3. A Comparative Study of the Phenolic and Technological Maturities of Red Grapes Grown in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Rajha, Hiba N.; El Darra, Nada; El Kantar, Sally; Hobaika, Zeina; Louka, Nicolas; Maroun, Richard G.

    2017-01-01

    Grape harvest date is determined according to the technological and phenolic maturities. These parameters were calculated for different red grape (Vitis vinifera L.) varieties (Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Syrah, Cabernet Franc) over four years (2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011) (642 samples). Titratable acidity and sugar content of the grapes were used to determine the technological maturity, whereas Glories (1 and 2) and ITV (Institut Technique de la Vigne et du Vin) methods were used to monitor their phenolic maturity. The ITV method allows the monitoring of phenolic maturity by the quantification of total polyphenol index and anthocyanins, while the Glories method enables the quantitative evolution of extractable anthocyanins and tannins of the grapes. A correlation was shown between the harvest dates obtained by both ITV and Glories (R2 = 0.7 – 0.93). Phenolic maturity of grapes can, therefore, be optimized by the application of both ITV and Glories. Similarly, a correlation was observed between technological and phenolic harvest dates. The effect of climate on the phenolic content of grapes was also studied. The highest temperatures (up to 25 °C) accompanied by the lowest rainfall (null value), induced the maximal concentration of polyphenols in grapes. Thermal and water stresses were also shown to enhance the grapes’ polyphenolic production. PMID:28134785

  4. [Effects of pulsed electric fields on phenols and colour in young red wine].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Zhang, Ruo-bing; Wang, Xiu-qin; Luo, Wei; Mo, Meng-bin; Wang, Li-ming; Guan, Zhi-cheng

    2010-01-01

    The effects of pulsed electric fields (PEFs) applied on the 2 phenolic acids and 3 flavan-3-ols in young red wine, as well as the changes in colour intensity and colour hue, were investigated using a parallel treatment chamber. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with UV-visible detector was used to analyze the contents of these two phenols. The high voltage pulse generator in this experiment designed and produced by Tsinghua University can generate exponential decay pulses. The chambers of this experiment were parallel plate treatment chambers with interelectrode distances of 0.5 cm. The experimental results show that after PEF treatment (energy density: 24.5, 40.5, 60.5 J x mL(-1)) the concentration of most phenolic compounds changed significantly. Moreover, the energy density of 60. 5 J x mL(-1) was chosen as the optimal parameter.

  5. Accumulation of Phenolic Compounds and Expression Profiles of Phenolic Acid Biosynthesis-Related Genes in Developing Grains of White, Purple, and Red Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Dongyun; Li, Yaoguang; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Chenyang; Qin, Haixia; Ding, Huina; Xie, Yingxin; Guo, Tiancai

    2016-01-01

    Polyphenols in whole grain wheat have potential health benefits, but little is known about the expression patterns of phenolic acid biosynthesis genes and the accumulation of phenolic acid compounds in different-colored wheat grains. We found that purple wheat varieties had the highest total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity. Among phenolic acid compounds, bound ferulic acid, vanillic, and caffeic acid levels were significantly higher in purple wheat than in white and red wheat, while total soluble phenolic acid, soluble ferulic acid, and vanillic acid levels were significantly higher in purple and red wheat than in white wheat. Ferulic acid and syringic acid levels peaked at 14 days after anthesis (DAA), whereas p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid levels peaked at 7 DAA, and vanillic acid levels gradually increased during grain filling and peaked near ripeness (35 DAA). Nine phenolic acid biosynthesis pathway genes (TaPAL1, TaPAL2, TaC3H1, TaC3H2, TaC4H, Ta4CL1, Ta4CL2, TaCOMT1, and TaCOMT2) exhibited three distinct expression patterns during grain filling, which may be related to the different phenolic acids levels. White wheat had higher phenolic acid contents and relatively high gene expression at the early stage, while purple wheat had the highest phenolic acid contents and gene expression levels at later stages. These results suggest that the expression of phenolic acid biosynthesis genes may be closely related to phenolic acids accumulation. PMID:27148345

  6. Accumulation of Phenolic Compounds and Expression Profiles of Phenolic Acid Biosynthesis-Related Genes in Developing Grains of White, Purple, and Red Wheat.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dongyun; Li, Yaoguang; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Chenyang; Qin, Haixia; Ding, Huina; Xie, Yingxin; Guo, Tiancai

    2016-01-01

    Polyphenols in whole grain wheat have potential health benefits, but little is known about the expression patterns of phenolic acid biosynthesis genes and the accumulation of phenolic acid compounds in different-colored wheat grains. We found that purple wheat varieties had the highest total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity. Among phenolic acid compounds, bound ferulic acid, vanillic, and caffeic acid levels were significantly higher in purple wheat than in white and red wheat, while total soluble phenolic acid, soluble ferulic acid, and vanillic acid levels were significantly higher in purple and red wheat than in white wheat. Ferulic acid and syringic acid levels peaked at 14 days after anthesis (DAA), whereas p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid levels peaked at 7 DAA, and vanillic acid levels gradually increased during grain filling and peaked near ripeness (35 DAA). Nine phenolic acid biosynthesis pathway genes (TaPAL1, TaPAL2, TaC3H1, TaC3H2, TaC4H, Ta4CL1, Ta4CL2, TaCOMT1, and TaCOMT2) exhibited three distinct expression patterns during grain filling, which may be related to the different phenolic acids levels. White wheat had higher phenolic acid contents and relatively high gene expression at the early stage, while purple wheat had the highest phenolic acid contents and gene expression levels at later stages. These results suggest that the expression of phenolic acid biosynthesis genes may be closely related to phenolic acids accumulation.

  7. Betalain, Acid Ascorbic, Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Properties of Purple, Red, Yellow and White Cactus Pears

    PubMed Central

    Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Paredes, Juan Diego; Cariño-Cortés, Raquel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Martinez-Cardenas, Leonardo; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a β-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II) chelation), the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH•), in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p < 0.05) and were lower than the average antiradical activities in red and purple cultivars. The red cactus pear from the state of Zacatecas showed the highest antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity for red cactus pears was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to the concentration of total phenolic compounds (R2 = 0.90) and ascorbic acid (R2 = 0.86). All 18 cultivars of cactus pears studied showed significant chelating activity of ferrous ions. The red and purple cactus pears showed a great stability when exposed to OH•. PMID:22072899

  8. Betalain, Acid ascorbic, phenolic contents and antioxidant properties of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pears.

    PubMed

    Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Paredes, Juan Diego; Cariño-Cortés, Raquel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Martinez-Cardenas, Leonardo; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a β-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II) chelation), the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH•), in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p < 0.05) and were lower than the average antiradical activities in red and purple cultivars. The red cactus pear from the state of Zacatecas showed the highest antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity for red cactus pears was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to the concentration of total phenolic compounds (R(2) = 0.90) and ascorbic acid (R(2) = 0.86). All 18 cultivars of cactus pears studied showed significant chelating activity of ferrous ions. The red and purple cactus pears showed a great stability when exposed to OH•.

  9. Alkylperoxyl radical scavenging activity of red leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) phenolics.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Charles R

    2003-07-30

    Although lettuce may provide relatively low levels of antioxidative phytochemicals which may contribute to human health, lettuce leaf extracts in fact contained compounds with high specific peroxyl radical scavenging activities. After determining the extraction conditions that minimized phenolic oxidation and produced the highest oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values, the phenolic compounds from red leaf lettuce were separated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The primary phenolic compounds in the leaf tissue extracts were mono- and dicaffeoyltartaric acid (CTA and DCTA), mono- and dicaffeoylquinic acid (CQA and DCQA), quercetin 3-malonylglucoside (QMG), quercetin 3-glucoside (QG), cyanidin 3-malonylglucoside (CMG), and an unknown phenolic ester (UPE). Significant levels of DCQA were only found after wounding. Using the new fluorescein-based ORAC assay procedures, fractions from the HPLC analyses were assayed for peroxyl radical absorbance capacity. Using absorbance to estimate concentration, the decreasing order of contribution to the total ORAC value of an extract from wounded tissue was QMG > DCQA > CMG > DCTA > UPE > QG > CTA. The decreasing order of the specific peroxyl radical scavenging activities was CMG > QG > DCTA > DCQA > QMG > UPE > CQA > CTA. Since the concentrations of plant flavonoid and phenolic acid esters are sensitive to environmental factors, this information may be used to develop pre- and postharvest conditions which increase the dietary benefits of leaf lettuce.

  10. Phenolic profiles and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) gene expression of red clover (Trifolium pratense) selected for decreased postharvest browning

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a legume forage abundant in phenolic compounds. It tends to brown when cut for hay, due to oxidation of phenolic compounds catalyzed by polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and subsequent binding to proteins. Selecting for a greener hay may provide information about the re...

  11. Phenols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Manfred; Weber, Markus

    Up to the end of the nineteenth century, phenol was recovered primarily from coal tar. With the commercialization of the phenolic resins, the demand for phenol grew significantly. Currently, the cumene-to-phenol process is the predominant synthetic route for the production of phenol. It is accompanied by acetone as a co-product. Cumene is oxidized with oxygen to form cumene hydroperoxide. The peroxide is subsequently decomposed to phenol and acetone, using a strong mineral acid as catalyst. The products are purified in a series of distillation columns. The cumene-to-phenol process is described in more detail in this chapter. An overview is given about synthetic routes via direct oxidation of benzene. None of these alternative routes has been commercialized. The chapter also gives an overview of global supply and use of phenol in 2008. Finally, the main natural sources and synthetic routes for cresols, xylenols, resorcinol, and bisphenol-A are described. These components are used as comonomers for special phenolic resins.

  12. Red Raspberry Phenols Inhibit Angiogenesis: A Morphological and Subcellular Analysis Upon Human Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Sousa, M; Machado, V; Costa, R; Figueira, M E; Sepodes, B; Barata, P; Ribeiro, L; Soares, R

    2016-07-01

    Polyphenols are a class of natural compounds whose potential as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-angiogenesis has been reported in many pathological conditions. Red raspberry extract, rich in polyphenols, has been reported to exert anti-inflammatory effects and prevent cell proliferation in distinct animal models. However, the signaling pathways involved remain unknown. Herein, we used human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs) to determine the influence of red raspberry phenolic compound extract concentrations, ranging from 10 to 250 µg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/mL, on endothelium viability (MTS assay), proliferation (BrdU incorporation), migration (injury assay), and capillary-like structures formation (Matrigel assay). Protein expression in cell lysates was determined by Western blot analysis. We showed that red raspberry extracts reduced cell viability (GI50  = 87,64 ± 6,59 μg GAE/mL) and proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. A significant abrogation of cells ability to migrate to injured areas, even at low concentrations, was observed by injury assay. Cell assembly into capillary-like structures on Matrigel also decreased in a dose dependent-manner for higher extract concentrations, as well as the number of branching points per unit of area. Protein expression analysis showed a dose-dependent decrease in Phospho-VEGFR2 expression, implying abrogation of VEGF signaling activity. We also showed for the first time that red raspberry phenolic compounds induce the rearrangement of filamentous actin cytoskeleton, with an isotropy increase found for higher testing concentrations. Taken together, our findings corroborate the anti-angiogenic potential of red raspberry phenolic compounds and provide new insights into their mode of action upon endothelium. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1604-1612, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Phenolic compounds from red wine and coffee are associated with specific intestinal microorganisms in allergic subjects.

    PubMed

    Cuervo, Adriana; Hevia, Arancha; López, Patricia; Suárez, Ana; Diaz, Carmen; Sánchez, Borja; Margolles, Abelardo; González, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    The dietary modulation of gut microbiota, suggested to be involved in allergy processes, has recently attracted much interest. While several studies have addressed the use of fibres to modify intestinal microbial populations, information about other components, such as phenolic compounds, is scarce. The aim of this work was to identify the dietary components able to influence the microbiota in 23 subjects suffering from rhinitis and allergic asthma, and 22 age- and sex-matched controls. The food intake was recorded by means of an annual food frequency questionnaire. Dietary fibre tables were obtained from Marlett et al., and the Phenol-Explorer database was used to assess the phenolic compound intake. The quantification of microbial groups was performed using an Ion Torrent 16S rRNA gene-based analysis. The results showed a direct association between the intake of red wine, a source of stilbenes, and the relative abundance of Bacteroides, and between the intake of coffee, rich in phenolic acids, and the abundance of Clostridium, Lactococcus and Lactobacillus genera. Despite epidemiological analyses not establishing causality, these results support the association between polyphenol-rich beverages and faecal microbiota in allergic patients.

  14. Identification of a Catalase-Phenol Oxidase in Betalain Biosynthesis in Red Amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus)

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Xiao-Lu; Chen, Ning; Xiao, Xing-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Betalains are a group of nitrogen-containing pigments that color plants in most families of Caryophyllales. Their biosynthesis has long been proposed to begin with hydroxylation of L-tyrosine to L-DOPA through monophenolase activity of tyrosinase, but biochemical evidence in vivo remains lacking. Here we report that a Group 4 catalase, catalase-phenol oxidase (named as AcCATPO), was identified, purified and characterized from leaves of Amaranthus cruentus, a betalain plant. The purified enzyme appeared to be a homotrimeric protein composed of subunits of about 58 kDa, and demonstrated not only the catalase activity toward H2O2, but also the monophenolase activity toward L-tyrosine and diphenolase activity toward L-DOPA. Its catalase and phenol oxidase activities were inhibited by common classic catalase and tyrosinase inhibitors, respectively. All its peptide fragments identified by nano-LC-MS/MS were targeted to catalases, and matched with a cDNA-encoded polypeptide which contains both classic catalase and phenol oxidase active sites. These sites were also present in catalases of non-betalain plants analyzed. AcCATPO transcript abundance was positively correlated with the ratio of betaxanthin to betacyanin in both green and red leaf sectors of A. tricolor. These data shows that the fourth group catalase, catalase-phenol oxidase, is present in plant, and might be involved in betaxanthin biosynthesis. PMID:26779247

  15. Identification of a Catalase-Phenol Oxidase in Betalain Biosynthesis in Red Amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus).

    PubMed

    Teng, Xiao-Lu; Chen, Ning; Xiao, Xing-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Betalains are a group of nitrogen-containing pigments that color plants in most families of Caryophyllales. Their biosynthesis has long been proposed to begin with hydroxylation of L-tyrosine to L-DOPA through monophenolase activity of tyrosinase, but biochemical evidence in vivo remains lacking. Here we report that a Group 4 catalase, catalase-phenol oxidase (named as AcCATPO), was identified, purified and characterized from leaves of Amaranthus cruentus, a betalain plant. The purified enzyme appeared to be a homotrimeric protein composed of subunits of about 58 kDa, and demonstrated not only the catalase activity toward H2O2, but also the monophenolase activity toward L-tyrosine and diphenolase activity toward L-DOPA. Its catalase and phenol oxidase activities were inhibited by common classic catalase and tyrosinase inhibitors, respectively. All its peptide fragments identified by nano-LC-MS/MS were targeted to catalases, and matched with a cDNA-encoded polypeptide which contains both classic catalase and phenol oxidase active sites. These sites were also present in catalases of non-betalain plants analyzed. AcCATPO transcript abundance was positively correlated with the ratio of betaxanthin to betacyanin in both green and red leaf sectors of A. tricolor. These data shows that the fourth group catalase, catalase-phenol oxidase, is present in plant, and might be involved in betaxanthin biosynthesis.

  16. Polyphenols content, phenolics profile and antioxidant activity of organic red wines produced without sulfur dioxide/sulfites addition in comparison to conventional red wines.

    PubMed

    Garaguso, Ivana; Nardini, Mirella

    2015-07-15

    Wine exerts beneficial effects on human health when it is drunk with moderation. Nevertheless, wine may also contain components negatively affecting human health. Among these, sulfites may induce adverse effects after ingestion. We examined total polyphenols and flavonoids content, phenolics profile and antioxidant activity of eight organic red wines produced without sulfur dioxide/sulfites addition in comparison to those of eight conventional red wines. Polyphenols and flavonoids content were slightly higher in organic wines in respect to conventional wines, however differences did not reach statistical significance. The phenolic acids profile was quite similar in both groups of wines. Antioxidant activity was higher in organic wines compared to conventional wines, although differences were not statistically significant. Our results indicate that organic red wines produced without sulfur dioxide/sulfites addition are comparable to conventional red wines with regard to the total polyphenols and flavonoids content, the phenolics profile and the antioxidant activity.

  17. Betalains and phenolics in red beetroot (Beta vulgaris) peel extracts: extraction and characterisation.

    PubMed

    Kujala, T; Loponen, J; Pihlaja, K

    2001-01-01

    The extraction of red beetroot (Beta vulgaris) peel betalains and phenolics was compared with two extraction methods and solvents. The content of total phenolics in the extracts was determined according to a modification of the Folin-Ciocalteu method and expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). The profiles of extracts were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The compounds of beetroot peel extracted with 80% aqueous methanol were characterised from separated fractions using HPLC- diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and HPLC-electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) techniques. The extraction methods and the choice of solvent affected noticeably the content of individual compounds in the extract. The betalains found in beetroot peel extract were vulgaxanthin I, vulgaxanthin II, indicaxanthin, betanin, prebetanin, isobetanin and neobetanin. Also cyclodopa glucoside, N-formylcyclodopa glucoside, glucoside of dihydroxyindol-carboxylic acid, betalamic acid, L-tryptophan, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and traces of unidentified flavonoids were detected.

  18. Spectrophotometric determination of freshwater pH using bromocresol purple and phenol red.

    PubMed

    Yao, W; Byrne, R H

    2001-03-15

    The dissociation constants (KI = [H+][I2-]/[HI-]) of two sulfonephthalein indicators (bromocresol purple and phenol red) were determined as function of temperature (10-30 degrees C) at zero ionic strength. Freshwater pH, on the free hydrogen ion concentration scale (molal units), can be precisely calculated from measurements of indicator absorbance ratios (lambda2A/lambda1A) using the following equations: pH = pKI + log((R - e1)/(e2 - Re3)) and pKI = pKI(degrees) - AdeltaZ2(mu1/2 /(1 + mu1/2) - 0.3 mu), where R = lambda2A/lambda1A, pKI = -log KI, mu is the ionic strength, deltaZ2 = 4, and values of A for 283 < or = T < or = 303 can be estimated from the equation: A = 0.5092 + (T-298.15) x 8.5 x 10(-4). For bromocresol purple (lambda1 = 432 nm, lambda2 = 589 nm), pKI(degrees) = 5.226 + 378.1/T, e1 = 0.00387, e2 = 2.858, and e3 = 0.0181. For phenol red (lambda1 = 433 nm, lambda2 = 558 nm), pKI(degrees) = 5.798 + 666.7/T, e1 = 0.00244, e2= 2.734, and e3 = 0.1075. These two indicators can be used to make accurate pH measurements of freshwaters (river water, lake water, groundwater, rainwater, etc) within the range 4.5 < or =pH < or =8.5. The precision of pH measurements using phenol red in well-buffered freshwaters is on the order of +/-0.001 or better.

  19. Chromoendoscopy with red phenol in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Garcés, Héctor Rubén; Castellanos-González, Víctor V; González-Fabián, Licet; Infante-Velázquez, Mirtha; Peña, Kevin; Andrain-Sierra, Yudit

    2012-02-01

    An analytic study to validate a diagnostic test was carried out at the Institute of Gastroenterology in Havana, Cuba in adult patients of both sexes in whom chromoendoscopy was carried out with red phenol at 0.1% over the gastric mucosa for the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection between November 2008 and December 2010. The staining with red phenol at 0.1% is included in the invasive tests for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection and of the reactive techniques. The sensibility of red phenol dye in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in the patients studied was of 72.6% with a confidence interval (C.I.) of 95% (64.9 to 79.2%) and a specificity of 75.5% C.I. 95% (61.9 to 85.4%). The positive predictive value was of 89.8% C.I. 95% (83.1 to 94.1%) and the negative predictive value of 48.1% C.I. 95% (37.3 to 59.0%). The proportion of false positives was of 24.5% C.I. 95% (14.6 to 38.1%)and the proportion of false negatives was of 27.4% C.I. 95% (20.8 to 35.1%). The diagnostic accuracy of the dye on the patients studied was 73.3% C.I. 95% (66.7 to 79.0%). The diagnostic odds ratio was 8.17 C.I. 95% (3.88 to 17.23), the J Youden ratio of 0.5 and the Kappa coefficient of 0.40 C.I. 95% (0.27 to 0.54). The staining dye with red phenol at 0.1% resulted in a useful method in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in the gastric mucosa, it can be applied in our environment and has multiple advantages (topographic localization, avoids contamination and fast and immediate reading).

  20. Changes in element accumulation, phenolic metabolism, and antioxidative enzyme activities in the red-skin roots of Panax ginseng.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Yang, Zhenming; Gao, Lingling; Liu, Wen; Liu, Rongkun; Zhao, Junting; You, Jiangfeng

    2017-07-01

    Red-skin root disease has seriously decreased the quality and production of Panax ginseng (ginseng). To explore the disease's origin, comparative analysis was performed in different parts of the plant, particularly the epidermis, cortex, and/or fibrous roots of 5-yr-old healthy and diseased red-skin ginseng. The inorganic element composition, phenolic compound concentration, reactive oxidation system, antioxidant concentrations such as ascorbate and glutathione, activities of enzymes related to phenolic metabolism and oxidation, and antioxidative system particularly the ascorbate-glutathione cycle were examined using conventional methods. Aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), magnesium, and phosphorus were increased, whereas manganese was unchanged and calcium was decreased in the epidermis and fibrous root of red-skin ginseng, which also contained higher levels of phenolic compounds, higher activities of the phenolic compound-synthesizing enzyme phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and the phenolic compound oxidation-related enzymes guaiacol peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase. As the substrate of guaiacol peroxidase, higher levels of H2O2 and correspondingly higher activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were found in red-skin ginseng. Increased levels of ascorbate and glutathione; increased activities of l-galactose 1-dehydrogenase, ascorbate peroxidase, ascorbic acid oxidase, and glutathione reductase; and lower activities of dehydroascorbate reductase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, and glutathione peroxidase were found in red-skin ginseng. Glutathione-S-transferase activity remained constant. Hence, higher element accumulation, particularly Al and Fe, activated multiple enzymes related to accumulation of phenolic compounds and their oxidation. This might contribute to red-skin symptoms in ginseng. It is proposed that antioxidant and antioxidative enzymes, especially those involved in ascorbate-glutathione cycles, are activated to protect against phenolic compound oxidation.

  1. Relations between high-affinity binding sites for L-tryptophan, diazepam, salicylate and Phenol Red on human serum albumin.

    PubMed Central

    Kragh-Hansen, U

    1983-01-01

    Binding of L-tryptophan, diazepam, salicylate and Phenol Red to defatted human serum albumin was studied by ultrafiltration at pH 7.0. All ligands bind to one high-affinity binding site with association constants of the order of 10(4)-10(5)M-1. The number of secondary binding sites was found to vary from zero to five, with association constants about 10(3)M-1. Competitive binding studies with different pairs of the ligands were performed. Binding of both ligands was determined simultaneously. L-Tryptophan and diazepam were found to compete for a common high-affinity binding site on albumin. The following combinations of ligands do not bind competitively to albumin: L-tryptophan-Phenol Red, L-tryptophan-salicylate and Phenol Red-salicylate. On the other hand, high-affinity bindings of the three ligands do not take place independently but in such a way that binding of one of the ligands results in a decrease in binding of the other ligands. The decreases in binding are reciprocal and can be accounted for by introducing a coupling constant. The magnitude of the constant is dependent on the ligands being bound. In the present study, the mutual decrease in binding was more pronounced with L-tryptophan-salicylate and Phenol Red-salicylate than with L-tryptophan-Phenol Red. PMID:6847607

  2. U-Shape Suppressive Effect of Phenol Red on the Epileptiform Burst Activity via Activation of Estrogen Receptors in Primary Hippocampal Culture

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xu; Chen, Ben; Chen, Lulan; Ren, Wan-Ting; Liu, Juan; Wang, Guoxiang; Fan, Wei; Wang, Xin; Wang, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Phenol red is widely used in cell culture as a pH indicator. Recently, it also has been reported to have estrogen-like bioactivity and be capable of promoting cell proliferation in different cell lines. However, the effect of phenol red on primary neuronal culture has never been investigated. By using patch clamp technique, we demonstrated that hippocampal pyramidal neurons cultured in neurobasal medium containing no phenol red had large depolarization-associated epileptiform bursting activities, which were rarely seen in neurons cultured in phenol red-containing medium. Further experiment data indicate that the suppressive effect of the phenol red on the abnormal epileptiform burst neuronal activities was U-shape dose related, with the most effective concentration at 28 µM. In addition, this concentration related inhibitory effect of phenol red on the epileptiform neuronal discharges was mimicked by 17-β-estradiol, an estrogen receptor agonist, and inhibited by ICI-182,780, an estrogen receptor antagonist. Our results suggest that estrogen receptor activation by phenol red in the culture medium prevents formation of abnormal, epileptiform burst activity. These studies highlight the importance of phenol red as estrogen receptor stimulator and cautions of careful use of phenol red in cell culture media. PMID:23560076

  3. Molecular identification of Brettanomyces bruxellensis strains isolated from red wines and volatile phenol production.

    PubMed

    Oelofse, A; Lonvaud-Funel, A; du Toit, M

    2009-06-01

    The spoilage yeast Brettanomyces/Dekkera can persist throughout the winemaking process and has the potential to produce off-flavours that affect the sensory quality of wine. The main objective of this study was to select different strains of Brettanomyces bruxellensis isolated from red wines and to compare their volatile phenol production. From a collection of 63 strains, eight strains of B. bruxellensis were selected for volatile phenol production after the application of molecular techniques such as ISS-PCR, PCR-DGGE and REA-PFGE. All strains showed three large chromosomes of similar size with PFGE. However, unique restriction profiles of the chromosomes were visible after NotI digestion that clearly distinguished the strains. All strains were capable of producing large quantities of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol from p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid, respectively in synthetic media. However, the diversity among strains for volatile phenol production differed between synthetic media and wine with regard to the maximum production levels of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol. This study illustrated the diversity of B. bruxellensis strains that occur during winemaking.

  4. Profiling of microbial-derived phenolic metabolites in human feces after moderate red wine intake.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-González, Irene; Jiménez-Girón, Ana; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J; Bartolomé, Begoña; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria

    2013-10-02

    A controlled and randomized trial study involving 41 healthy volunteers (33 intervention and 8 control subjects) was performed in order to establish changes in the microbial-derived phenolic metabolite profile of feces after moderate consumption of red wine (250 mL/day, 4 weeks). Out of the 35 phenolic metabolites identified, 10 compounds (mainly benzoic and 4-hydroxyvaleric acids) showed statistically significant increases (P < 0.05) after the wine intake. Also, the total phenolic metabolites content was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the samples after the wine intake (625 ± 380 μg/g feces) in comparison to the samples before (358 ± 270 μg/g feces), and a tentative distribution of the volunteers into three groups could be established: <500, 500-1000, and >1000 μg/g feces. These results suggest that a different gut microbial capacity to metabolize wine polyphenols exists among the human population, as observed for polyphenols from other sources.

  5. Antioxidant capacity, phenolic constituents and toxicity of hot water extract from red maple buds.

    PubMed

    Meda, Naamwin R; Poubelle, Patrice E; Stevanovic, Tatjana

    2017-03-11

    The present study reports, for the first time, the results of the antioxidant capacity and the phenolic composition of a hot water extract from red maple buds (RMB), as well as its safety. In this regard and comparatively to antioxidant standards, this extract exhibits a significant antiradical capacity when tested by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) and anion superoxide trapping assays. High-resolution mass spectrometric (HRMS) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analyses permitted to determine for the first time, in red maple species, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, quercetin-3-O-arabinoside and quercetin. Also, the quantification of individual phenolics by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method revealed that ginnalin A at 117.0 mg/g is the major compound of RMB hot water extract. Finally, using flow cytometry evaluation, the extract of RMB was determined to have no toxicity neither to cause significant modification of apoptosis process, up to concentration of 100 μg / mL, on human peripheral blood neutrophils. These results allow anticipating various fields of application of RMB water extract. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of bottle storage time on colour, phenolic composition and sensory properties of sweet red wines.

    PubMed

    Marquez, Ana; Serratosa, Maria P; Merida, Julieta

    2014-03-01

    Changes in colour and phenolic composition in sweet red wines made from Merlot, Syrah and Tempranillo grapes were studied in order to assess the influence of bottle storage over a period of 12months. For this purpose, wine colour parameters, sensory analysis and concentrations of monomeric anthocyanins, pyranoanthocyanins, methylmethine-mediated condensation adducts, flavan3-ol derivatives and flavonols were measured. Hue increased and red colours decreased with the storage time, particularly over the first 3months. The concentrations of low molecular weight flavan-3-ol derivatives decreased with time due to the effect of their conversion into tannins of high molecular weight. In addition, the glycosylated flavonols decreased through hydrolysis to give the corresponding aglycones. Overall, the concentration of phenolic compounds decreased markedly with storage time, whereas the antioxidant activity in the wines remained constant throughout. A panel of expert tasters judged the colour, aroma and flavour of all initial and final wines to be acceptable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Phenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Phenol ; CASRN 108 - 95 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects )

  8. Identification of flavonoid and phenolic antioxidants in black currants, blueberries, raspberries, red currants, and cranberries.

    PubMed

    Borges, Gina; Degeneve, Alexandra; Mullen, William; Crozier, Alan

    2010-04-14

    The antioxidant capacity (AOC) of black currant, blueberry, raspberry, red currant, and cranberry extracts was determined using the FRAP assay. In addition, the vitamin C content of the berries was determined and phenolic and polyphenolic compounds in the extracts were analyze by reversed-phase HPLC-PDA-MS(3) and by reversed-phase HPLC-PDA with an online antioxidant detection system. A complex spectrum of anthocyanins was the major contributor to the AOC of black currants and blueberries, whereas the lower AOC of red currants and cranberries was due mainly to a reduced anthocyanin content. Raspberries also had a lower anthocyanin content than black currants and blueberries, but there was only a slight decline in the AOC because of the presence of the ellagitannins sanguin H-6 and lambertianin C, which were responsible for 58% of the HPLC-AOC of the berries. Vitamin C was responsible for 18-23% of the HPLC-AOC of black currants, red currants, and cranberries and for 11% of that of raspberries but did not contribute to the AOC of the blueberry extract that was examined. Seven percent of the HPLC-AOC of the cranberry extract was attributable to procyanidin dimers. However, the contribution of polymeric proanthocyanidins to the AOC of the five berries was not determined as when analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC these high molecular weight flavan-3-ols are either retained by the column or eluted as a broad unresolved band.

  9. Temporary reduction of radiation does not permanently reduce flavonoid glycosides and phenolic acids in red lettuce.

    PubMed

    Becker, Christine; Kläring, Hans-Peter; Kroh, Lothar W; Krumbein, Angelika

    2013-11-01

    Applying transparent daytime screens in greenhouses in cool seasons reduces the amount of energy needed for heating, but also the solar radiation available for crops. This can reduce yield and product quality of leafy vegetables because of constrained photosynthesis and altered biosynthesis. To study this, we cultivated five-week old red leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) for four weeks in growth chambers under a photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of 225 and 410 μmol m(-2) s(-1), respectively. Some plants were exchanged between radiation intensities after two weeks. We investigated the concentration of five flavonoid glycosides, three caffeic acid derivatives, reducing sugars as well as plant growth. Remarkably, no significant influence of radiation intensity on the concentration of phenolic acids or anthocyanin glycosides was observed. In contrast, quercetin and luteolin glycoside concentration was between 14 and 34% lower in plants growing under lower compared to higher PPFD. Already after two weeks of cultivation, plants grown under lower PPFD contained less quercetin and luteolin glycosides but they completely compensated if subsequently transferred to higher PPFD until harvest. Hence, marketable lettuce heads which experienced temporary shading followed by an unshaded phase did not contain lower concentrations of flavonoid glycosides or phenolic acids. Also, there was no reduction of head mass in this variant. Our results suggest that saving energy in early growth stages is feasible without losses in yield or health promoting phenolic substances. In addition, there was a close correlation between the concentration of reducing sugars and some flavonoid glycosides, indicating a close metabolic connection between their biosynthesis and the availability of carbohydrates.

  10. The phenolic chemistry and spectrochemistry of red sweet wine-making and oak-aging.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo-González, M; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J; Teixeira, N; Mateus, N; De Freitas, V

    2014-01-01

    A natural sweet wine (NSW) was made with dried grapes from Vitis vinifera L. cv Garnacha Tintorera. A fortified sweet wine (FSW) was also obtained: the maceration-alcoholic fermentation of Garnacha Tintorera must was stopped by addition of ethanol 96% (v/v). UV/Vis spectrophotometry and HPLC/DAD-ESI/MS were applied to determine, respectively, the evolution of colour and phenolic compounds in Garnacha Tintorera based-sweet wines during aging. In sweet wines, aging decreased a(∗) (red/green), colour saturation and lightness and increased b(∗) (yellow/blue), and hue angle. Most of the phenolic compounds determined, such as anthocyanins, esters of hydroxycinnamic acids, flavan-3-ols monomers, oligomers and polymers decreased in both sweet wines during aging. On the contrary, hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids and vitisins increased after one year of aging. Despite that both terminal and extension subunit compositions show very small changes, mean degree of polymerisation of proanthocyanidins decline slightly as aging progressed in both sweet wines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of in vitro digestion and storage on the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of a red grape pomace.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shenli; Amigo-Benavent, Miryam; Mateos, Raquel; Bravo, Laura; Sarriá, Beatriz

    2017-03-01

    Red grape pomace (RGP) is a major winery by-product with interesting applications due to its high phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. Effects of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and storage on the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of RGP were studied. RGP polyphenols were stable under stomach-mimicking conditions and more sensitive to small intestine conditions, reducing anthocyanins and flavonols. After 3- and 6-month storage, at either 4 or 25 °C, there were no changes in the total phenolic and condensed tannin content, or antioxidant capacity (evaluated by ABTS, FRAP, ORAC assays); however, after 9 months these parameters decreased. Contrarily, chromatic b* values were higher, thus the samples had more intense red color, which may be related to the increased condensed tannin content. Storage time or temperature induced no changes in microbiological load. RGP preserves high antioxidant capacity after storage and in vitro digestion and thus presents potential as a functional ingredient or nutraceutical.

  12. Effect of pulsed electric field processing of red grapes on wine chromatic and phenolic characteristics during aging in oak barrels.

    PubMed

    Puértolas, E; Saldaña, G; Alvarez, I; Raso, J

    2010-02-24

    The influence of a pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment of grape berries at pilot-plant scale on the evolution of the chromatic and phenolic characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon red wines during aging in American oak barrels and subsequent storage in bottle has been studied. Results obtained in this investigation confirm that the better chromatic characteristics and higher phenolic content obtained due to the PEF treatment after the fermentation process remain or even increase during aging in oxidative conditions in American oak barrels and their subsequent storage in bottle. No sensory differences in color and bouquet were detected after 8 months of aging in bottle by triangle tests. According to the results, PEF is a promising enological technology to obtain wines with the high phenolic content necessary for the production of high quality oak aged red wines.

  13. Effect of addition of commercial grape seed tannins on phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics, and antioxidant activity of red wine.

    PubMed

    Neves, Ana C; Spranger, Maria I; Zhao, Yuqing; Leandro, Maria C; Sun, Baoshan

    2010-11-24

    The effect of addition of grape seed tannins on the phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics, and antioxidant activity of red wine was studied. Two highly pure commercial grape seed tannins (GSE100 and GSE300) were selected, and their phenolic compositions were determined. Two types of red wines were made with Castelão/Tinta Miúda (3/2, w/w) grapevine varieties by fermentation on skin using two different maceration times, which correspond to the wines rich and poor in polyphenols, respectively. Each of these wines was used for experimentation with the addition of GSE100 and GSE300 before and immediately after alcoholic fermentation. Phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics, and antioxidant activity of the finished red wines were analyzed by HPLC-DAD, CIElab 76 convention, and DPPH radical test, respectively. The results showed that the addition of grape seed tannins had obvious effects of increasing color intensity and antioxidant activity only in the wines poor in polyphenols. Although GSE300 contained much higher amounts of di- and trimer procyanidins and a lower amount of polymeric proanthocyanidins, it provided effects of increasing the color intensity and antioxidant activity of the wines poor in polyphenols similar to those of GSE100. Furthermore, GSE100 released more gallic acid to wines than GSE300, although no gallic acid was detected in GSE100. Tannins added after alcoholic fermentation had a better effect on phenolic composition of red wine than tannins added before alcoholic fermentation.

  14. Effect of steam-cooking and parboiling on phenolics and antioxidant capacities of red and purple rice cultivars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Red and purple rice cultivars contain high concentrations of phenolics, such as proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins, respectively. We investigated the effect of cooking processes on these antioxidants and antioxidant capacities of pigmented and common light-brown bran rice. The cooking processes incl...

  15. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production via Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Phenolic Oils Fractionated from Fast Pyrolysis of Red Oak and Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Wang, Huamin; Rover, Majorie; Whitmer, Lysle; Smith, Ryan; Brown, Robert C.

    2015-04-13

    Phenolic oils were produced from fast pyrolysis of two different biomass feedstocks, red oak and corn stover and evaluated in hydroprocessing tests for production of liquid hydrocarbon products. The phenolic oils were produced with a bio-oil fractionating process in combination with a simple water wash of the heavy ends from the fractionating process. Phenolic oils derived from the pyrolysis of red oak and corn stover were recovered with yields (wet biomass basis) of 28.7 wt% and 14.9 wt%, respectively, and 54.3% and 58.6% on a carbon basis. Both precious metal catalysts and sulfided base metal catalyst were evaluated for hydrotreating the phenolic oils, as an extrapolation from whole bio-oil hydrotreatment. They were effective in removing heteroatoms with carbon yields as high as 81% (unadjusted for the 90% carbon balance). There was nearly complete heteroatom removal with residual O of only 0.4% to 5%, while N and S were reduced to less than 0.05%. Use of the precious metal catalysts resulted in more saturated products less completely hydrotreated compared to the sulfided base metal catalyst, which was operated at higher temperature. The liquid product was 42-52% gasoline range molecules and about 43% diesel range molecules. Particulate matter in the phenolic oils complicated operation of the reactors, causing plugging in the fixed-beds especially for the corn stover phenolic oil. This difficulty contrasts with the catalyst bed fouling and plugging, which is typically seen with hydrotreatment of whole bio-oil. This problem was substantially alleviated by filtering the phenolic oils before hydrotreating. More thorough washing of the phenolic oils during their preparation from the heavy ends of bio-oil or on-line filtration of pyrolysis vapors to remove particulate matter before condensation of the bio-oil fractions is recommended.

  16. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production via Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Phenolic Oils Fractionated from Fast Pyrolysis of Red Oak and Corn Stover

    DOE PAGES

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Wang, Huamin; Rover, Majorie; ...

    2015-04-13

    Phenolic oils were produced from fast pyrolysis of two different biomass feedstocks, red oak and corn stover and evaluated in hydroprocessing tests for production of liquid hydrocarbon products. The phenolic oils were produced with a bio-oil fractionating process in combination with a simple water wash of the heavy ends from the fractionating process. Phenolic oils derived from the pyrolysis of red oak and corn stover were recovered with yields (wet biomass basis) of 28.7 wt% and 14.9 wt%, respectively, and 54.3% and 58.6% on a carbon basis. Both precious metal catalysts and sulfided base metal catalyst were evaluated for hydrotreatingmore » the phenolic oils, as an extrapolation from whole bio-oil hydrotreatment. They were effective in removing heteroatoms with carbon yields as high as 81% (unadjusted for the 90% carbon balance). There was nearly complete heteroatom removal with residual O of only 0.4% to 5%, while N and S were reduced to less than 0.05%. Use of the precious metal catalysts resulted in more saturated products less completely hydrotreated compared to the sulfided base metal catalyst, which was operated at higher temperature. The liquid product was 42-52% gasoline range molecules and about 43% diesel range molecules. Particulate matter in the phenolic oils complicated operation of the reactors, causing plugging in the fixed-beds especially for the corn stover phenolic oil. This difficulty contrasts with the catalyst bed fouling and plugging, which is typically seen with hydrotreatment of whole bio-oil. This problem was substantially alleviated by filtering the phenolic oils before hydrotreating. More thorough washing of the phenolic oils during their preparation from the heavy ends of bio-oil or on-line filtration of pyrolysis vapors to remove particulate matter before condensation of the bio-oil fractions is recommended.« less

  17. Red Fruits: Extraction of Antioxidants, Phenolic Content, and Radical Scavenging Determination: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, Gádor-Indra; Almajano, María Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Red fruits, as rich antioxidant foods, have gained over recent years capital importance for consumers and manufacturers. The industrial extraction of the phenolic molecules from this source has been taking place with the conventional solvent extraction method. New non-conventional extraction methods have been devised as environmentally friendly alternatives to the former method, such as ultrasound, microwave, and pressure assisted extractions. The aim of this review is to compile the results of recent studies using different extraction methodologies, identify the red fruits with higher antioxidant activity, and give a global overview of the research trends regarding this topic. As the amount of data available is overwhelming, only results referring to berries are included, leaving aside other plant parts such as roots, stems, or even buds and flowers. Several researchers have drawn attention to the efficacy of non-conventional extraction methods, accomplishing similar or even better results using these new techniques. Some pilot-scale trials have been performed, corroborating the applicability of green alternative methods to the industrial scale. Blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) emerge as the berries with the highest antioxidant content and capacity. However, several new up and coming berries are gaining attention due to global availability and elevated anthocyanin content. PMID:28106822

  18. Phenolic compounds in red oak and sugar maple leaves have prooxidant activities in the midgut fluids of Malacosoma disstria and Orgyia leucostigma caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Barbehenn, Raymond; Cheek, Susannah; Gasperut, Adrian; Lister, Emma; Maben, Rosalyn

    2005-05-01

    Phenolic compounds are generally believed to be key components of the oxidative defenses of plants against pathogens and herbivores. However, phenolic oxidation in the gut fluids of insect herbivores has rarely been demonstrated, and some phenolics could act as antioxidants rather than prooxidants. We compared the overall activities of the phenolic compounds in red oak (Quercus rubra) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum) leaves in the midgut fluids of two caterpillar species, Malacosoma disstria (phenolic-sensitive) and Orgyia leucostigma (phenolic-tolerant). Three hypotheses were examined: (1) ingested sugar maple leaves produce higher levels of semiquinone radicals (from phenolic oxidation) in caterpillar midgut fluids than do red oak leaves; (2) O. leucostigma maintains lower levels of phenolic oxidation in its midgut fluids than does M. disstria; and (3) phenolic compounds in tree leaves have overall prooxidant activities in the midgut fluids of caterpillars. Sugar maple leaves had significantly lower ascorbate: phenolic ratios than did red oak leaves, suggesting that phenolics in maple would oxidize more readily than those in oak. As expected, semiquinone radicals were at higher steady-state levels in the midgut fluids of both caterpillar species when they fed on sugar maple than on red oak, consistent with the first hypothesis. Higher semiquinone radical levels were also found in M. disstria than in O. leucostigma, consistent with the second hypothesis. Finally, semiquinone radical formation was positively associated with two markers of oxidation (protein carbonyls and total peroxides). These results suggest that the complex mixtures of phenolics in red oak and sugar maple leaves have overall prooxidant activities in the midgut fluids of M. disstria and O. leucostigma caterpillars. We conclude that the oxidative defenses of trees vary substantially between species, with those in sugar maple leaves being especially active, even in phenolic-tolerant herbivore

  19. Effect of ultrasound frequency on antioxidant activity, total phenolic and anthocyanin content of red raspberry puree.

    PubMed

    Golmohamadi, Amir; Möller, Gregory; Powers, Joseph; Nindo, Caleb

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasound in the 20-1000 kHz range show unique propagation characteristics in fluid media and possess energy that can break down fruit matrices to facilitate the extraction of valuable bioactive compounds. Red raspberries carry significant amounts of specific antioxidants, including ellagitannins and anthocyanins that are important for human health. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of ultrasound frequencies associated with cavitation (20 kHz) and microstreaming (490 and 986 kHz) on total antioxidant activity (AOA), total phenolics content (TPC), and total monomeric anthocyanin content (ACY) of red raspberry puree prepared from crushed berries. The pureed fruit was subjected to high-intensity (20 kHz) and higher frequency-low intensity (490 and 986 kHz) ultrasound for 30 min. The temperature of treated purees increased to a maximum of 56 °C with 986 kHz. Sonication at 20 and 490 kHz significantly (p<0.05) affected the AOA, ACY, and TPC of red raspberry puree, while 986 kHz had no significant effect on ACY and AOA (p<0.05). In all cases, ultrasound treatment had significant and positive effect on at least one of the measured parameters up to 30 min. Sonication beyond 10 min (and up to 30 min) using 20 kHz either produced no change or caused a drop in AOA and ACY. However, for 986 and 20 kHz, TPC, increased by 10% and 9.5%, respectively after 30 min (p<0.05) compared to the control. At 20 kHz, AOA and ACY increased by 17.3% and 12.6% after 10 min. It was demonstrated that 20 kHz ultrasound treatment, when limited to 10 min, was the most effective for extraction of bioactive compounds in red raspberry compared to 490 and 986 kHz although the effect could be similar at the higher frequencies if different amplitudes are used. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Modulation of the phenolic composition and colour of red wines subjected to accelerated ageing by controlling process variables.

    PubMed

    González-Sáiz, J M; Esteban-Díez, I; Rodríguez-Tecedor, S; Pérez-Del-Notario, N; Arenzana-Rámila, I; Pizarro, C

    2014-12-15

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the main factors conditioning accelerated ageing processes (oxygen dose, chip dose, wood origin, toasting degree and maceration time) on the phenolic and chromatic profiles of red wines by using a multivariate strategy based on experimental design methodology. The results obtained revealed that the concentrations of monomeric anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols could be modified through the application of particular experimental conditions. This fact was particularly remarkable since changes in phenolic profile were closely linked to changes observed in chromatic parameters. The main strength of this study lies in the possibility of using its conclusions as a basis to make wines with specific colour properties based on quality criteria. To our knowledge, the influence of such a large number of alternative ageing parameters on wine phenolic composition and chromatic attributes has not been studied previously using a comprehensive experimental design methodology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Application of phenol red as a marker ligand for bilirubin binding site at subdomain IIA on human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Sochacka, Jolanta

    2015-10-01

    The drug-bilirubin interaction for all drugs administered especially to infants with hyperbilirubinemia should be evaluated for their ability to displace bilirubin and vice versa. In order to examine whether phenol red (PhRed) can be used as a marker for bilirubin binding site located in subdomain IIA the interaction between PhRed and human serum albumin (HSA) in buffer solution or in normal and pathological sera solutions with different HSA:bilirubin molar ratio was investigated using absorption/absorption difference spectroscopy and molecular docking method. Six sulfonamides representing the binding site in the subdomain IIA and known to influence the binding of bilirubin were used for the PhRed displacement studies. The absorption spectra for PhRed completely bound to HSA showed significant differences in the spectral characteristic relative to the spectral profile of free PhRed. The intensity of the peak originating from the bivalent anionic form of dye was strongly reduced and the maximum peak position was red-shifted by 12 nm. The binding constant (K) of the bivalent anionic form of PhRed, calculated from absorbance data, was 1.61 · 10(4) L mol(-1). The variations of the absorption and absorption difference spectra of PhRed in the presence of HSA-bilirubin complex were indicative of the inhibition of PhRed binding process by bilirubin. Binding of PhRed carried out in the presence of sulfonamides showed that drugs and PhRed have a common site which also involves bilirubin. In agreement with the results of the spectroscopic analysis and molecular docking it was concluded that PhRed may be applied as a marker in the study of the binding of drugs to high-affinity bilirubin binding site.

  2. Identification of phenolic compounds in red wine extract samples and zebrafish embryos by HPLC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS.

    PubMed

    Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Boix, Nuria; Piqué, Ester; Gómez-Catalan, Jesús; Medina-Remon, Alexander; Sasot, Gemma; Mercader-Martí, Mercè; Llobet, Juan M; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M

    2015-08-15

    The zebrafish embryo is a highly interesting biological model with applications in different scientific fields, such as biomedicine, pharmacology and toxicology. In this study, we used liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation-linear ion trap quadrupole-Orbitrap-mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS) to identify the polyphenol compounds in a red wine extract and zebrafish embryos. Phenolic compounds and anthocyanin metabolites were determined in zebrafish embryos previously exposed to the red wine extract. Compounds were identified by injection in a high-resolution system (LTQ-Orbitrap) using accurate mass measurements in MS, MS(2) and MS(3) modes. To our knowledge, this research constitutes the first comprehensive identification of phenolic compounds in zebrafish by HPLC coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry.

  3. Attenuation of oxidative hemolysis of human red blood cells by the natural phenolic compound, allylpyrocatechol.

    PubMed

    Iyer, M K; Nayak, R; Colah, R; Chattopadhyay, S

    2013-09-01

    The protecting ability of the Piper betle leaves-derived phenol, allylpyrocatechol (APC) against AAPH-induced membrane damage of human red blood cells (RBCs) was investigated. Compared to control, AAPH (50 mM) treatment resulted in significant hemolysis (55%, p < 0.01), associated with increased malondialdehyde (MDA) (2.9-fold, p < 0.001) and methemoglobin (6.1-fold, p < 0.001) levels. The structural deformation due to membrane damage was confirmed from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and Heinz bodies formation, while the cell permeability was evident from the K(+) efflux (28.7%, p < 0.05) and increased intracellular Na(+) concentration (8%, p < 0.05). The membrane damage, due to the reduction of the cholesterol/phospholipids ratio and depletion (p < 0.001) of ATP, 2,3-DPG by ˜44-54% and Na(+)-K(+) ATPase activity (43.7%), indicated loss of RBC functionality. The adverse effects of AAPH on all these biochemical parameters and the resultant oxidative hemolysis of RBCs were significantly reduced by pretreating the cells with APC (7 μM) or α-tocopherol (50 μM) for 1 h, prior to incubation with AAPH.

  4. Total Phenolics, Total Anthocyanins, Antioxidant and Pro-oxidant Activity of Some Red Fruits Teas.

    PubMed

    Moldovan, Bianca; Hosu, Anamaria; David, Luminita; Cimpoiu, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Fruits represent one of the main dietary sources of bioactive compounds. Due to their remarkable health benefits, many functional foods of fruit origin, including fruit teas, are present on the market and there is an increased interest regarding the investigation of their nutritional parameters and quality. The aims of our study were: 1) to determine the total phenolic content (TPC), total anthocyanins content (TAC), antioxidant activity (AA), the scavenging capacity (IC50), the pro-oxidant activity (Pro-ox) and Pro-Antidex of 12 commercially available red fruit teas, 2) to classify the analysed teas and 3) to evaluate the similarities between samples. The TPC was between 12.5 and 29.3 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g tea, the TAC varied between 2.6 and 5.6 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy-3-glu)/g tea and AA was in the range of 10.9-19.1 mg ascorbic acid equivalents (AAE)/g tea. The Pro-ox activity varied between 3.9 and 10.0 mg/mL tea extract and Pro-Antidex was between 3.3 and 7.3.

  5. Interferences in automated phenol red method for determination of bromide in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Basel, C.L.; Defreese, J.D.; Whittemore, D.O.

    1982-01-01

    The phenol red method for the determination of bromide in water has been automated by segmented flow analysis. Samples can be analyzed at a rate of 20 samples/h with a method detection limit, defined, as the concentration giving a signal about three times the standard deviation of replicate anaiyte determinations in reagent water, of 10 ??g/L. Samples studied include oil-field brines, halite solution brines, ground-waters contaminated with these brines, and fresh groundwaters. Chloride and bicarbonate cause significant positive interferences at levels as low as 100 mg/L and 50 mg/L, respectively. Ammonia gives a negative interference that is important at levels as low as 0.05 mg/L. An ionic strength buffer is used to suppress a positive ionic strength interference, correction curves are used to compensate for the chloride interference, the bicarbonate interference is minimized by acidification, and the ammonia interference is eliminated by its removal by ion exchange. Reaction product studies are used to suggest a plausible mode of chloride interference. ?? 1982 American Chemical Society.

  6. Results of phenol red thread test in clinically normal Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    PubMed

    Rajaei, Seyed Mehdi; Sadjadi, Reza; Sabzevari, Amin; Ghaffari, M Selk

    2013-11-01

    To determine the normal reference range for phenol red thread test (PRTT) values in clinically normal Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Sixteen healthy adult Syrian hamsters (eight males and eight females) were used in this study. Ophthalmic examinations were performed without chemical restraint. PRTT values were evaluated in both eyes of all Syrian hamsters using a commercial PRTT strip of a single lot number. No statistically significant differences between right and left eyes were found for any of the results. The mean ± SD PRTT values for the study population were 6.8 ± 2.5 mm/15 s with a range from 3 to 11.5 mm/15 s. Mean PRTTs in male animals were 5.1 ± 1.2 mm/15 s, whereas mean PRTTs in female hamsters were 8.5 ± 2.3 mm/15 s. Comparison between mean PRTT values in males and females showed a significant difference (P = 0.004). Mean weights for males and females were 80.9 ± 4.8 and 90.6 ± 8.5 g, respectively. No linear relationship between mean PRTT and body weight was found in female (P = 0.46) and male (P = 0.92) hamsters. This study provides novel data for normal reference ranges of PRTT values in healthy Syrian hamsters. Results of this study may assist veterinarians in the diagnosis of ocular surface disease and syndromes affecting the tear film in these species. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  7. Phenolic contents and compositions in skins of red wine grape cultivars among various genetic backgrounds and originations.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Yali; Lu, Jiang

    2012-01-01

    In order to analyze and compare the phenolic characteristics of red wine grapes with diverse genetic backgrounds, skin phenolics among 21 different cultivars belonging to Vitis vinifera L., East Asian and North American Vitis species and hybrids, as well as 2 varieties of muscadine grapes were estimated by HPLC-MS/MS. There were 45 anthocyanins, 28 flavonols, 8 flavan-3-ols, 9 cinnamic acids, 5 benzoic acids, 5 ellagic acids and 2 stilbenes detected in all the samples. Total contents of each phenolic type varied significantly among the different grape cultivars investigated. There was also a large variability in the phenolic compositions of different grape groups. The differences in anthocyanin composition were obvious between V. vinifera and non-V. vinifera grapes and also between the grapes originating from Eurasia and North America. Quercetin-3-glucuronide and quercetin-3-glucoside were marker flavonol compounds for Euvitis grape skins. Flavan-3-ol monomers were dominant in the skins of muscadine and non-V. amurensis East Asian grapes, whereas polymers were more common in V. vinifera and North American grapes. The muscadine grapes were very rich in flavonols, flavan-3-ols and ellagic acids. Via principal component analysis, these grape cultivars were clustered into three groups according to their characteristic phenolic content and composition.

  8. Phenolic Contents and Compositions in Skins of Red Wine Grape Cultivars among Various Genetic Backgrounds and Originations

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Yali; Lu, Jiang

    2012-01-01

    In order to analyze and compare the phenolic characteristics of red wine grapes with diverse genetic backgrounds, skin phenolics among 21 different cultivars belonging to Vitis vinifera L., East Asian and North American Vitis species and hybrids, as well as 2 varieties of muscadine grapes were estimated by HPLC-MS/MS. There were 45 anthocyanins, 28 flavonols, 8 flavan-3-ols, 9 cinnamic acids, 5 benzoic acids, 5 ellagic acids and 2 stilbenes detected in all the samples. Total contents of each phenolic type varied significantly among the different grape cultivars investigated. There was also a large variability in the phenolic compositions of different grape groups. The differences in anthocyanin composition were obvious between V. vinifera and non-V. vinifera grapes and also between the grapes originating from Eurasia and North America. Quercetin-3-glucuronide and quercetin-3-glucoside were marker flavonol compounds for Euvitis grape skins. Flavan-3-ol monomers were dominant in the skins of muscadine and non-V. amurensis East Asian grapes, whereas polymers were more common in V. vinifera and North American grapes. The muscadine grapes were very rich in flavonols, flavan-3-ols and ellagic acids. Via principal component analysis, these grape cultivars were clustered into three groups according to their characteristic phenolic content and composition. PMID:22489164

  9. Data on changes in red wine phenolic compounds, headspace aroma compounds and sensory profile after treatment of red wines with activated carbons with different physicochemical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Filipe-Ribeiro, Luís; Milheiro, Juliana; Matos, Carlos C; Cosme, Fernanda; Nunes, Fernando M

    2017-06-01

    Data in this article presents the changes on phenolic compounds, headspace aroma composition and sensory profile of a red wine spiked with 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol and treated with seven activated carbons with different physicochemical characteristics, namely surface area, micropore volume and mesopore volume ("Reduction of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol in red wine by activated carbons with different physicochemical characteristics: impact on wine quality" Filipe-Ribeiro et al. (2017) [1]). Data on the physicochemical characteristics of the activated carbons are shown. Statistical data on the sensory expert panel consistency by General Procrustes Analysis is shown. Statistical data is also shown, which correlates the changes in chemical composition of red wines with the physicochemical characteristics of activated carbons used.

  10. Effect of two anti-fungal treatments (metrafenone and boscalid plus kresoxim-methyl) applied to vines on the color and phenol profile of different red wines.

    PubMed

    Briz-Cid, Noelia; Figueiredo-González, María; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2014-06-16

    The effect of two anti-fungal treatments (metrafenone and boscalid + kresoxim-methyl) on the color and phenolic profile of Tempranillo and Graciano red wines has been studied. To evaluate possible modifications in color and phenolic composition of wines, control and wines elaborated with treated grapes under good agricultural practices were analyzed. Color was assessed by Glories and CIELab parameters. Color changes were observed for treated wines with boscalid + kresoxim-methyl, leading to the production of wines with less color vividness. Phenolic profile was characterized by HPLC analysis. Boscalid + kresoxim-methyl treatment promoted the greatest decrease on the phenolic content in wines.

  11. Impact of adding white pomace to red grapes on the phenolic composition and color stability of Syrah wines from a warm climate.

    PubMed

    Gordillo, Belén; Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Rodríguez-Pulido, Francisco J; Jara-Palacios, M José; Ramírez-Pérez, Pilar; González-Miret, M Lourdes; Heredia, Francisco J

    2014-03-26

    The influence of the fermentative addition of Pedro Ximenez grape pomace (PXGP, white variety) on the phenolic composition and color of Syrah red wines from a warm climate was studied. Changes on phenolic composition (HPLC), copigmentation/polymerization (spectrophotometry), and color (tristimulus colorimetry) allowed differences among the maceration treatments to be established. PXGP additions at the rates studied increased the extraction of total phenolics, phenolic acids, and monomeric flavanols. However, the effect on the anthocyanins, copigmentation, and polymerization depended on the doses applied, with important consequences on the color. PXGP addition at 10% led to wines with higher polymerization, more stable colors, and bluish hues. in contrast, perceptibly lighter and less intense wines were obtained with PXGP addition at 20%. Thus, the use of white grape byproducts as wine additives at appropriate levels (10% w/w) could improve the phenolic potential of red young wines from a warm climate, contributing to preserve their color characteristic.

  12. Pre-bottling use of dehydrated waste grape skins to improve colour, phenolic and aroma composition of red wines.

    PubMed

    Pedroza, Miguel Angel; Carmona, Manuel; Alonso, Gonzalo Luis; Salinas, Maria Rosario; Zalacain, Amaya

    2013-01-01

    Different dehydrated waste grape skins from the juice industry were added into aged and young red wines as an innovative way of compensating for colour loss before bottling. After addition of grape skins, colour intensity of wines increased a mean 11% and a maximum of 31% with predominance of the red component. Total polyphenols mean increase was 10% with a maximum value of 20%. Analysis of low molecular weight phenolic compounds by HPLC-DAD showed a significant (p<0.05) content increase of the bioactive compounds gallic acid, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and (E)-resveratrol. Anthocyanins content also increased at an average of 50mg/l. The volatile profile of wines analysed by SBSE-GC-MS was only moderately influenced by the treatments. Mixtures of dehydrated waste grape skins were useful to improve the colour and polyphenol profile of red wines, considering them a useful tool for correcting colour loss before bottling.

  13. Study of low molecular weight phenolic compounds during the aging of sparkling wines manufactured with red and white grape varieties.

    PubMed

    Pozo-Bayón, M Angeles; Hernández, M Teresa; Martín-Alvarez, Pedro J; Polo, M Carmen

    2003-03-26

    Thirty-two phenolic compounds of low molecular weight were identified in 36 white, blanc de noir, and rosé sparkling wines by using HPLC with photodiode array and mass spectrometry detection. Some of the identified compounds, such as cis- and trans-ethylcaftaric, cis- and trans-ethylcaffeic, and cis- or trans-ethyl-p-coumaric acids, 2R,3R-dihydroquercetin, 2R,3R-dihydrokaempferol 3-O-beta-d-glucoside, and a lignan derivative are described for the first time in sparkling wines manufactured with grapes of red varieties. This is also the first time that cis- or trans-diethylfertaric acids have been identified in wines. When cluster analysis was applied to the data of 19 of the 32 identified compounds, the greatest differences found in the low molecular weight phenolic compounds in sparkling wines were due to the grape variety from which they were manufactured, whereas aging time did not significantly influence phenolic composition. Nine phenolic compounds, that is, trans-p-coumaric and trans-caftaric acids, trans-resveratrol glucoside, cis-coutaric, trans-coutaric, cis-p-coumaric, and cis-caftaric acids, tryptophol, and syringic acid, permit the wines to be classified correctly in accordance with the grape variety from which they were manufactured.

  14. Fabrication of a Multi-Walled Nanotube (MWNT) Ionic Liquid Electrode and Its Application for Sensing Phenolics in Red Wines

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyo-Il; Kang, Hee-Young; Lee, Jae-Chan; Choi, Seong-Ho

    2009-01-01

    A multi-walled nanotube (MWNT) ionic liquid was prepared by the immobilization of 1-butylimidazole bromide onto an epoxy group on a poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-grafted MWNT, which was synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate onto MWNT in an aqueous solution. Subsequently, a MWNT ionic liquid electrode was fabricated by hand-casting MWNT ionic liquid, tyrosinase, and chitosan solution as a binder on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass. The sensing ranges of the MWNT ionic liquid electrode with immobilized tyrosinase was in the range of 0.01-0.08 mM in a phosphate buffer solution. The optimal conditions such as pH, temperature, and effects of different phenolic compounds were determined. The total phenolic compounds of three commercial red wines were also determined on the tyrosinase-immobilized biosensor. PMID:22399973

  15. Color Change of Phenol Red by Integrated Smart Phone Camera as a Tool for the Determination of Neurotoxic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Kostelnik, Adam; Cegan, Alexander; Pohanka, Miroslav

    2016-09-07

    The use of a cell phone as a detection system is easy, simple and does not require trained personnel, which is in contrast to standard laboratory instruments. This paper deals with immobilization of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in a gelatin matrix, and phenol red, as an indicator of AChE activity, is used in order to establish a method that is easily compatible with a camera device. AChE splits acetylcholine into choline and acetic acid, which changes the pH of a medium, resulting in a phenol red color change. The coloration changed in presence of an AChE inhibitor. Measurements were performed on 3D-printed, tube-shaped holder, and digital photography, with subsequent analysis of red-green-blue (RGB), served for assay purposes. Calibration of AChE inhibitors, tacrine and galantamine, was performed, with limit of detection equal to 1.1 nM and 1.28 µM, respectively. Interferences were also measured, resulting in a proof-of-method stability. The method was further successfully validated for the standard Ellman's assay, and verified on murine plasma samples spiked with inhibitors.

  16. Color Change of Phenol Red by Integrated Smart Phone Camera as a Tool for the Determination of Neurotoxic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Kostelnik, Adam; Cegan, Alexander; Pohanka, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    The use of a cell phone as a detection system is easy, simple and does not require trained personnel, which is in contrast to standard laboratory instruments. This paper deals with immobilization of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in a gelatin matrix, and phenol red, as an indicator of AChE activity, is used in order to establish a method that is easily compatible with a camera device. AChE splits acetylcholine into choline and acetic acid, which changes the pH of a medium, resulting in a phenol red color change. The coloration changed in presence of an AChE inhibitor. Measurements were performed on 3D-printed, tube-shaped holder, and digital photography, with subsequent analysis of red-green-blue (RGB), served for assay purposes. Calibration of AChE inhibitors, tacrine and galantamine, was performed, with limit of detection equal to 1.1 nM and 1.28 µM, respectively. Interferences were also measured, resulting in a proof-of-method stability. The method was further successfully validated for the standard Ellman’s assay, and verified on murine plasma samples spiked with inhibitors. PMID:27618041

  17. Evolution of phenolic compounds and astringency during aging of red wine: effect of oxygen exposure before and after bottling.

    PubMed

    Gambuti, Angelita; Rinaldi, Alessandra; Ugliano, Maurizio; Moio, Luigi

    2013-02-27

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oxygen exposure of red wine, before (micro-oxygenation) and after (nano-oxygenation) bottling, on the phenolic composition and astringency of wine. The astringency was evaluated by sensory analysis and by a method based on the SDS-PAGE of salivary proteins after reaction of saliva with wine (SPI, saliva precipitation index). Micro-oxygenation caused a stabilization of color, but this effect disappeared after long aging. For the wine with the lower pH a decrease of wine astringency and SPI was observed 42 months after micro-oxygenation. Oxygen ingress through the closure postbottling was positively correlated with the decrease of SPI. Therefore, the astringency and reactivity of wines toward salivary proteins of a bottled red wine can be modulated by controlled oxygen exposure during aging. For both experiments the effect of oxygen exposure depended on wine composition.

  18. Effects of solvent and temperature on pressurized liquid extraction of anthocyanins and total phenolics from dried red grape skin.

    PubMed

    Ju, Zhi Yong; Howard, Luke R

    2003-08-27

    Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was used to extract anthocyanins from the freeze-dried skin of a highly pigmented red wine grape with six solvents at 50 degrees C, 10.1 MPa, and 3 x 5 min extraction cycles. Temperature (from 20 to 140 degrees C in 20 degrees C increments) effects on anthocyanin recovery by acidified water and acidified 60% methanol were also studied. Acidified methanol extracted the highest levels of total monoglucosides and total anthocyanins, whereas the solvent mixture (40:40:20:0.1 methanol/acetone/water HCl) extracted the highest levels of total phenolics and total acylated anthocyanins. Acidified water extracts obtained by PLE at 80-100 degrees C had the highest levels of total monoglucosides, total acylated anthocyanins, total anthocyanins, total phenolics, and ORAC values. Acidified methanol extracts obtained by PLE at 60 degrees C had the highest levels of total monoglucosides and total anthocyanins, whereas extracts obtained at 120 degrees C had the highest levels of total phenolics. High-temperature PLE (80-100 degrees C) using acidified water, an environmentally friendly solvent, was as effective as acidified 60% methanol in extracting anthocyanins from grape skins.

  19. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of phenolic rich extracts from white and red common beans.

    PubMed

    García-Lafuente, Ana; Moro, Carlos; Manchón, Noelia; Gonzalo-Ruiz, Alicia; Villares, Ana; Guillamón, Eva; Rostagno, Mauricio; Mateo-Vivaracho, Laura

    2014-10-15

    According to epidemiological evidence, diets rich in fruits and vegetables can reduce the incidence of several chronic diseases that share an inflammatory component. These protective effects are attributed, in part, to the occurrence of different antioxidant components, mainly phenolic compounds. Our aim was to characterise phenolic composition, and to determine antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of phenolic rich extracts obtained from two kinds of common beans, white kidney beans (WKB) and round purple beans (RPB). Phenolic acids were the predominant component in WKB extracts, whereas RPB extracts presented higher concentrations of phenolic compounds, mainly catechin derivatives, proanthocyanidins and catechin glucoside. In addition, RPB extracts showed higher antioxidant capacity and higher anti-inflammatory activity by the reduction of NO production and cytokine mRNA expression of LPS stimulated macrophages. These results suggest that common bean extracts may be used as a source of anti-inflammatory agents as well as a dietary complement for health promotion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Validation of phenol red versus gravimetric method for water reabsorption correction and study of gender differences in Doluisio's absorption technique.

    PubMed

    Tuğcu-Demiröz, Fatmanur; Gonzalez-Alvarez, Isabel; Gonzalez-Alvarez, Marta; Bermejo, Marival

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a method for water flux reabsorption measurement in Doluisio's Perfusion Technique based on the use of phenol red as a non-absorbable marker and to validate it by comparison with gravimetric procedure. The compounds selected for the study were metoprolol, atenolol, cimetidine and cefadroxil in order to include low, intermediate and high permeability drugs absorbed by passive diffusion and by carrier mediated mechanism. The intestinal permeabilities (Peff) of the drugs were obtained in male and female Wistar rats and calculated using both methods of water flux correction. The absorption rate coefficients of all the assayed compounds did not show statistically significant differences between male and female rats consequently all the individual values were combined to compare between reabsorption methods. The absorption rate coefficients and permeability values did not show statistically significant differences between the two strategies of concentration correction. The apparent zero order water absorption coefficients were also similar in both correction procedures. In conclusion gravimetric and phenol red method for water reabsorption correction are accurate and interchangeable for permeability estimation in closed loop perfusion method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of Aquitaine and Rioja Red Wines: Characterization of Their Phenolic Composition and Evolution from 2000 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Quaglieri, Cindy; Prieto-Perea, Noelia; Berrueta, Luis Angel; Gallo, Blanca; Rasines-Perea, Zurine; Jourdes, Michael; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2017-01-24

    Wine chemical analysis was carried out on 194 commercial blended red wines produced by two major wine-growing areas-the Aquitaine (France) and Rioja (Spain) regions-in order to compare the wines of both regions. Anthocyanins and derived pigments, tannins and derivatives were identified and quantified by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS (high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector and mass spectrometry using the electrospray ionization interface). Mean degree of polymerization (mDP) was determined. The influence of the wine-growing region and the predominance of the properties of some grape varieties used are confirmed by the significant differences observed between both regions. Rioja and Bordeaux "generic" (Bordeaux and Bordeaux-Supérieur appellations) red wines showed the highest anthocyanic content and the highest mDP, as these wines are in a majority made from Merlot (Bordeaux "generic") and Tempranillo (Rioja). On the contrary, Bordeaux "specific" regions (Blayais, Médoc, Graves, and Libournais) showed the red wines with the highest total phenolic content and tannin concentration, as the predominant grape variety used is Cabernet Sauvignon. A principal component analysis (PCA) and a hierarchical ascendant classification (HAC) suggesting patterns between the chemical parameters and the distribution of the red wines in three groups were proposed. The comparison of the two wine-growing areas also reveals some similarities between the various grape varieties used. A general effect of a progressive decrease in anthocyanins, anthocyanin-derived pigment and tannins is observed for older wines.

  2. Gluten-free bread with an addition of freeze-dried red and purple potatoes as a source of phenolic compounds in gluten-free diet.

    PubMed

    Gumul, Dorota; Ziobro, Rafał; Ivanišová, Eva; Korus, Anna; Árvay, Július; Tóth, Tomáš

    2017-02-01

    The basis for gluten-free diet is often gluten-free bread, which is usually characterized by a low-nutritional value, and lacks any pro-health properties. Only after an introduction of gluten-free raw materials, containing high level of bioactive compounds it would be possible to obtain the product with a pro-health potential. The aim of the study was to analyze the content of bioactive compounds (total phenolic content, phenolic acids, flavonoids, flavonols, anthocyanins and carotenoids) in gluten-free bread prepared with 5% addition of freeze-dried red and purple potatoes as well as to assess their antioxidant potential. Summarizing, among the analyzed gluten-free breads with an addition of freeze-dried red and purple potatoes, the best results could be obtained by using variety Magenta Love (red potato), which provided the highest levels of phenolic compounds and carotenoids and also antioxidant and antiradical activity.

  3. Comparison of three extraction methods used to evaluate phenolic ripening in red grapes.

    PubMed

    Fragoso, Sandra; Mestres, Montserrat; Busto, Olga; Guasch, Josep

    2010-04-14

    Because there is not a single method for carrying out phenolic ripening analysis, it is very difficult to compare the results obtained by different researchers. In this study, the three most widely used extraction methods of polyphenols (Glories, AWRI, and ITV) have been analytically compared by evaluating two of the most important parameters for the wine industry: total polyphenols and total anthocyanins. Samples from different grape varieties (Tempranillo, Garnacha, Carinena, Syrah, Merlot, and Cabernet Sauvignon), from three different vintages (2006, 2007, and 2008), and at different ripening states (from the beginning of ripeness until harvest) were analyzed to obtain a wide range of representative phenolic contents. To avoid external interferences on the comparisons, the same grape puree was used to make the maceration assays using the different solvents according to each extraction method. Although every extraction method exhibits a different extraction efficiency, the correlation between the results obtained with each one was very good both for total anthocyanins and for total polyphenols. Thus, after having determined a parameter value of the phenolic ripeness using a specific method, the relationship found can be used to predict the parameter value of the phenolic ripeness provided by the other two methods.

  4. Phenolic compositions of 50 and 30 year sequences of Australian red wines: the impact of wine age.

    PubMed

    McRae, Jacqui M; Dambergs, Robert G; Kassara, Stella; Parker, Mango; Jeffery, David W; Herderich, Markus J; Smith, Paul A

    2012-10-10

    The phenolic composition of red wine impacts upon the color and mouthfeel and thus quality of the wine. Both of these characteristics differ depending on the age of a wine, with the purple of young wines changing to brick red and the puckering or aggressive astringency softening in older wines. This study investigated the color parameters, tannin concentrations and tannin composition of a 50 year series of Cabernet Sauvignon wines from a commercial label as well as 30 year series of Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz wines from a separate commercial label to assess the impact of wine age on phenolic composition and concentration. The wine color density in wines of 40 to 50 years old was around 5 AU compared with 16 AU of wine less than 12 months old, which correlated well with the concentration of non-bleachable pigments and pigmented polymers. Conversely, the anthocyanin concentrations in 10 year old wines were substantially lower than that of recently bottled wines (around 100 mg/L compared with 627 mg/L, respectively), adding further evidence that non-bleachable pigments including pigmented polymers play a much larger role in long-term wine color than anthocyanins. No age-related trend was observed for tannin concentration, indicating that the widely noted softer astringency of older red wines cannot necessarily be directly related to lower concentrations of soluble wine tannin and is potentially a consequence of changes in tannin structure. Wine tannins from older wines were generally larger than tannins from younger wines and showed structural changes consistent with oxidation.

  5. Solid cation exchange phase to remove interfering anthocyanins in the analysis of other bioactive phenols in red wine.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Letícia Flores; Guerra, Celito Crivellaro; Klein, Diandra; Bergold, Ana Maria

    2017-07-15

    Bioactive phenols (BPs) are often targets in red wine analysis. However, other compounds interfere in the liquid chromatography methods used for this analysis. Here, purification procedures were tested to eliminate anthocyanin interference during the determination of 19 red-wine BPs. Liquid chromatography, coupled to a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and a mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS), was used to compare the direct injection of the samples with solid-phase extractions: reversed-phase (C18) and strong cation-exchange (SCX). The HPLC-DAD method revealed that, out of 13BPs, only six are selectively analyzed with or without C18 treatment, whereas SCX enabled the detection of all BPs. The recovery with SCX was above 86.6% for eight BPs. Moreover, UPLC-MS demonstrated the potential of SCX sample preparation for the determination of 19BPs. The developed procedure may be extended to the analysis of other red wine molecules or to other analytical methods where anthocyanins may interfere.

  6. Dynamic superheated liquid extraction of anthocyanins and other phenolics from red grape skins of winemaking residues.

    PubMed

    Luque-Rodríguez, J M; Luque de Castro, M D; Pérez-Juan, P

    2007-10-01

    Grape skins from a grape pomace were subject to extraction with superheated ethanol-water mixtures for quantitative extraction of anthocyans and other phenolic compounds. The variables affecting dynamic extraction of these compounds were studied and identification and quantification of the extracted compounds were performed by both direct spectrophotometry or after HPLC separation using UV or MS detectors. The optimal working conditions for total extraction of anthocyans were: 1:1 (v/v) ethanol-water acidified with 0.8% (v/v) HCl, 120 degrees C, 30 min, 1.2 ml/min and 80 bar. The yields of anthocyanins, total phenolics and flavanols thus obtained were much higher (3 times for anthocyanins, 7 times for total phenolics and 11 times for flavanols) than those provided by dynamic conventional solid-liquid extraction. Several sample preparation procedures for skins as alternatives to free-drying were also investigated and drying at 40 degrees C for 24h provided the best results. Extraction with acidified water provides similar composition and poorer efficiency than 1:1 ethanol-water; also similar to two commercial grape skin extracts used as natural colorants.

  7. Effect of maceration duration on physicochemical characteristics, organic acid, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of red wine from Vitis vinifera L. Karaoglan.

    PubMed

    Kocabey, N; Yilmaztekin, M; Hayaloglu, A A

    2016-09-01

    Effects of different maceration times (5, 10 and 15 days) on composition, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of red wines made from the Vitis vinifera L. Karaoglan grown in Malatya were investigated. Maceration duration changed some chemical constituents and color of Karaoglan red wines. A linear relationship was observed between antioxidant activity of wine and maceration duration. Major organic acid was tartaric acid which was at the highest concentration in wine macerated for 10 days. A total of 25 phenolic compounds was determined in wine samples. Within these phenolics; procyanidin B2, trans-caftaric acid, gallic acid, trans-caffeic acid, (+) catechin, (-) epicatechin and quercetin-3-O-glucoside were the most abundant phenolics regardless of maceration duration. In general, extended maceration duration resulted in increase in the concentration of phenolic compounds, reflecting the antioxidant activities of wine. In conclusion, the highest concentrations of total and individual phenolic compounds as well as antioxidant activities were found in wines macerated for 15 days.

  8. Evolution of phenolic composition of red wine during vinification and storage and its contribution to wine sensory properties and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Baoshan; Neves, Ana C; Fernandes, Tiago A; Fernandes, Ana L; Mateus, Nuno; De Freitas, Vítor; Leandro, Conceição; Spranger, Maria I

    2011-06-22

    The objective of this work was to study the evolution of the phenolic composition of red wine during vinification and storage and its relationship with some sensory properties (astringency and bitterness) and antioxidant activities. Thus, red wine was made by a classic vinification method with Castelão and Tinta Miúda grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) harvested at maturity (3:2; w/w). Samples were taken at 2 and 7 days of maceration, at second racking, at the time of bottling and at 6 and 14 months after bottling. The total polyphenols extract (TPx) in each sample was isolated by column chromatography. The phenolic composition (anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins), in vitro antioxidant activity, and sensory property (astringency, bitterness) of the isolated TPx from different winemaking stages were evaluated through high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhidrazyl radical test, ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, total phenolic index, MWI (polyphenol molecular weight index), TSA (tannin specific activity), and sensory panel tasting. The results showed that the phenolic composition of red wine varied significantly during winemaking. The intensity of astringency (IA) and the intensity bitterness (IB) of the isolated TPx from different winemaking stages increased from 2 days of maceration until second racking and then decreased. Furthermore, MWI and TSA are positively correlated with IA and IB. The in vitro antioxidant activity of the isolated TPx from different winemaking stages maintained unchanged after alcoholic fermentation, which was independent of the variation of phenolic composition and sensory properties.

  9. Flavonoid dimers from the total phenolic extract of Chinese dragon's blood, the red resin of Dracaena cochinchinensis.

    PubMed

    Pang, Dao-Ran; Su, Xiao-Qin; Zhu, Zhi-Xiang; Sun, Jing; Li, Yue-Ting; Song, Yue-Lin; Zhao, Yun-Fang; Tu, Peng-Fei; Zheng, Jiao; Li, Jun

    2016-12-01

    Eight new flavonoid dimers, named cochinchinenins I-M (1-5), including three pairs of enantiomers (1a/1b-3a/3b) and two optically pure flavonoid dimers (4-5), along with a known analogue (6), were isolated from total phenolic extract of the red resin of Dracaena cochinchinensis (Chinese dragon's blood). The planar structures of 1-5 were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis including HRESIMS and 1D/2D NMR. Their absolute configurations were determined on the basis of experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data. Compounds 4 and 5 exhibited significant inhibition of nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells with IC50 value of 4.9±0.4 and 5.4±0.6μM, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Immobilized humic substances as redox mediator for the simultaneous removal of phenol and Reactive Red 2 in a UASB reactor.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Claudia M; Celis, Lourdes B; Cervantes, Francisco J

    2013-11-01

    The present study reports a novel treatment concept combining the redox-mediating capacity of immobilized humic substances with the biodegrading activity of anaerobic sludge for the simultaneous removal of two representative pollutants of textile wastewaters (e.g., phenol and Reactive Red 2 (RR2)) in a high-rate anaerobic reactor. The use of immobilized humic substances (1 g total organic carbon (TOC) L(-1), supported on an anion exchange resin) in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor increased the decolorization efficiency of RR2 (~90 %), extent of phenol oxidation (~75 %), and stability as compared to a control UASB reactor operated without immobilized humic substances, which collapsed after 120 days of dye introduction (50-100 mg L(-1)). Increase in the concentration of immobilized humic substances (2 g TOC L(-1)) further enhanced the stability and efficiency of the UASB reactor. Detection of aniline in the effluent as RR2 reduction product confirmed that reduction of RR2 was the major mechanism of dye removal. This is the first demonstration of immobilized humic substances serving as effective redox mediators for the removal of recalcitrant pollutants from wastewater in a high-rate anaerobic bioreactor. The novel treatment concept could also be applicable to remove a wide variety of contaminants susceptible to redox conversion, which are commonly found in different industrial sectors.

  11. Pre-fermentative cold maceration, saignée, and various thermal treatments as options for modulating volatile aroma and phenol profiles of red wine.

    PubMed

    Lukić, Igor; Budić-Leto, Irena; Bubola, Marijan; Damijanić, Kristijan; Staver, Mario

    2017-06-01

    The effects of six maceration treatments on volatile aroma and phenol composition of Teran red wine were studied: standard maceration (control C), cold pre-fermentation maceration (CPM), saignée (S), pre-fermentation heating with extended maceration (PHT) or juice fermentation (PHP), and post-fermentation heating (POH). PHP wine contained the highest amounts of esters, fatty acids and anthocyanins, and the lowest content of other phenols. Alternative treatments decreased higher alcohols in relation to control C. CPM treatment lowered the extraction of seed tannins, exhibited the highest acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate and C6-compounds levels, and had increased ester levels in relation to control C. POH wine contained the highest concentration of total phenols, flavonoids, monomeric, oligomeric and polymeric flavanols, and color intensity and hue. S and PHT wines contained lower amount of total phenols, but higher than in C and CPM wines. The calculated Odor Activity Values were used to establish significant differences between the treatments.

  12. Influence of maceration temperature in red wine vinification on extraction of phenolics from berry skins and seeds of grape (Vitis vinifera).

    PubMed

    Koyama, Kazuya; Goto-Yamamoto, Nami; Hashizume, Katsumi

    2007-04-01

    The extraction of phenolics from berry skins and seeds of the grape, Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, during red wine maceration and the influence of different temperature conditions (cold soak and/or heating at the end of maceration) were examined. Phenolics contained mainly in berry skins, viz., anthocyanin, flavonol, and epigallocatechin units within proanthocyanidins, were extracted during the early stage of maceration, whereas those in seeds, viz., gallic acid, flavan-3-ol monomers, and epicatechin-gallate units within proanthocyanidins, were gradually extracted. In addition to their localization, the molecular size and composition of the proanthocyanidins possibly influenced the kinetics of their extraction. Cold soak reduced the extraction of phenolics from the seeds. Heating at the end of maceration decreased the concentration of proanthocyanidins. Thus, modification of the temperature condition during maceration affected the progress of the concentration of phenolics, resulting in an alteration of their make-up in the finished wine.

  13. Phenolic composition and mouthfeel characteristics resulting from blending Chilean red wines.

    PubMed

    Cáceres-Mella, Alejandro; Peña-Neira, Alvaro; Avilés-Gálvez, Pamela; Medel-Marabolí, Marcela; Del Barrio-Galán, Rubén; López-Solís, Remigio; Canals, Joan Miquel

    2014-03-15

    The blending of wine is a common practice in winemaking to improve certain characteristics that are appreciated by consumers. The use of some cultivars may contribute phenolic compounds that modify certain characteristics in blended wines, particularly those related to mouthfeel. The aim of this work was to study the effect of Carménère, Merlot and Cabernet Franc on the phenolic composition, proanthocyanidin profile and mouthfeel characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon blends. Significant differences in chemical composition were observed among the monovarietal wines. Separation using Sep-Pak C₁₈ cartridges revealed differences in the concentration but not in the proportion of various proanthocyanidins. Blending reduced polyphenol concentration differences among the various monovarietal wines. Although no major overall differences were observed after blending the monovarietal wines, this oenological practice produced clear differences in mouthfeel characteristics in such a way that the quality of the perceived astringency was different. This study showed that the use of a particular wine variety (Cabernet Sauvignon) in a higher proportion in wine blending produced blends that were less differentiable from the monovarietal wine, owing to a suppression effect, producing an apparent standardization of the wines regarding chemical composition. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. The phenolic extractives in southern red oak (Quercus falcata Michx. var. falcata)

    Treesearch

    Seiji Ohara; Richard W. Hemingway

    1989-01-01

    The bark of southern red oak (Quercus falcala Michx. var. falcala) is a rich source of quercitrin (quercetin-3-rhamnoside). It contains only low concentrations of (+)-catechin and no significant amounts of epicatechin or gallocatechin. The three major dimeric proanthocyanidins present are epicatechin-(4β→8)-...

  15. Improvement of Cencibel red wines by oxygen addition after malolactic fermentation: study on color-related phenolics, volatile composition, and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Cejudo-Bastante, Maria Jesús; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Pérez-Coello, Maria Soledad

    2012-06-13

    The objective of this paper was to check whether a micro-oxygenation technique applied after malolactic fermentation could improve the quality of Cencibel red wines. For that purpose, the color-related phenolics, volatile composition, and sensory characteristics during the micro-oxygenation treatment have been considered. The phenolic compounds more affected by the oxygen addition were hydroxycinnamic acids and their derivatives [(+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin], flavonols (glycosilated forms), and anthocyanins-related pigments. The fact that the concentration of pyranoanthocyanins and hydroxyphenyl-pyranoanthocyanins was higher in treated red wines is closely related to their color stabilization. As a consequence, higher values of the yellow and red component of the color (b* and a*, respectively) were also observed in micro-oxygenated red wines. Red wine aroma quality was also improved in treated wines. A significant decrease in herbaceous notes, bitterness, acidity, and astringency was found, as well as higher scores of red fruits, plum, liquorice, and spicy attributes in oxygen-added red wines.

  16. Chemical characterization of red wine grape (Vitis vinifera and Vitis interspecific hybrids) and pomace phenolic extracts and their biological activity against Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Thimothe, Joanne; Bonsi, Illeme A; Padilla-Zakour, Olga I; Koo, Hyun

    2007-12-12

    Grapes are rich sources of potentially bioactive polyphenols. However, the phenolic content is variable depending on grape variety, and may be modified during vinification. In this study, we examined the chemical composition and biological activity of phenolic extracts prepared from several red wine grape varieties and their fermented byproduct of winemaking (pomace) on some of the virulence properties of Streptococcus mutans a well-known dental pathogen. Grape phenolic extracts were obtained from Vitis vinifera varieties Cabernet Franc and Pinot Noir and Vitis interspecific hybrid varieties Baco Noir and Noiret. The anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols content were highly variable depending on grape variety and type of extract (whole fruit vs fermented pomace). Nevertheless, all grape phenolic extracts remarkably inhibited glucosyltransferases B and C (70-85% inhibition) at concentrations as low as 62.5 microg/mL (P < 0.01). Furthermore, the glycolytic pH-drop by S. mutans cells was inhibited by the grape extracts without affecting the bacterial viability; an effect that can be attributed to partial inhibition of F-ATPase activity (30-65% inhibition at 125 microg/mL; P < 0.01). The biological activity of fermented pomace was either as effective as or significantly better than whole fruit grape extracts. The results showed that grape phenolic extracts, especially from pomace, are highly effective against specific virulence traits of S. mutans despite major differences in their phenolic content.

  17. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of betalain extracts from intact plants and hairy root cultures of the red beetroot Beta vulgaris cv. Detroit dark red.

    PubMed

    Georgiev, Vasil Georgiev; Weber, Jost; Kneschke, Eva-Maria; Denev, Petko Nedyalkov; Bley, Thomas; Pavlov, Atanas Ivanov

    2010-06-01

    Betalains are water-soluble plant pigments that are widely used as food colorants, and have a wide range of desirable biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anti-cancer properties. They can be produced from various plants, notably beetroot, but betalain products obtained in this way also have some undesirable properties and are difficult to standardize. A potentially attractive alternative is to use hairy root cultures. In the study reported here, we found that betalain extracts obtained from hairy root cultures of the red beetroot B. vulgaris cv. Detroit Dark Red also had higher antioxidant activity than extracts obtained from mature beetroots: six-fold higher 2,2-dyphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging ability (90.7% inhibition, EC(50) = 0.11 mg, vs 14.2% inhibition, EC(50) = 0.70 mg) and 3.28-fold higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity (4,100 microM TE/g dry extract, vs 1,250 microM TE/g dry extract). The high antioxidant activity of the hairy root extracts was associated with increased concentrations (more than 20-fold) of total phenolic concomitant compounds, which may have synergistic effects with betalains. The presence of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, caffeic acid, catechin hydrate, and epicatechin were detected in both types of extract, but at different concentrations. Rutin was only present at high concentration (1.096 mg.g(-1) dry extract) in betalain extracts from the hairy root cultures, whereas chlorogenic acid was only detected at measurable concentrations in extracts from intact plants.

  18. Antioxidant activities and phenolic contents of three red seaweeds (Division: Rhodophyta) harvested from the Gulf of Mannar of Peninsular India.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Kajal; Joseph, Deepu; Praveen, Nammunayathuputhenkotta Krishnankartha

    2015-04-01

    The antioxidant activities of methanol extract and its solvent fractions (n-hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate) of three red seaweeds (Hypnea musciformis, H. valentiae, and Jania rubens) collected from the Gulf of Mannar of South eastern coast of India were evaluated, using different in vitro systems, viz., DPPH, ABTS, HO radical scavenging activities, H2O2 scavenging ability, Fe(2+) ion chelating ability and reducing potential. Folin-Ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenolic content of the extracts/fractions, and the results were expressed as mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g of the seaweed extracts/fractions. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) inhibition assay was employed to assess the ability of the seaweed extracts/fractions to inhibit lipid oxidation. Ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fractions of H. musciformis exhibited significantly higher total phenolic content (205.5 mg GAE/g), DPPH· scavenging activity (IC50 0.6 mg/mL), ABTS(.+) scavenging activity (IC50 0.51 μg/mL), Fe(2+) chelating ability (IC50 0.70 mg/mL), H2O2 scavenging activity (IC50 0.39 mg/mL), reducing ability (Abs700 nm 1.46) and lipid peroxidation inhibitory ability (2.71 MDAEC/kg) (P < 0.05) compared to its n-hexane, DCM fractions, crude MeOH extract and MeOH extracts/fractions of H. valentiae and J. rubens. DCM fraction of J. rubens showed significantly higher hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (IC50 0.55 mg/mL) compared with H. musciformis and H. valentiae (P < 0.05). This study indicated the potential use of red seaweeds, in particular, H. musciformis as candidate species to be used as food supplement for increasing the shelf-life of food industry, and candidates in combating carcinogenesis and inflammatory diseases.

  19. Hypotheses on the effects of enological tannins and total red wine phenolic compounds on Oenococcus oeni.

    PubMed

    Chasseriaud, Laura; Krieger-Weber, Sibylle; Déléris-Bou, Magali; Sieczkowski, Nathalie; Jourdes, Michael; Teissedre, Pierre Louis; Claisse, Olivier; Lonvaud-Funel, Aline

    2015-12-01

    Lot of articles report on the impact of polyphenols on wine lactic acid bacteria, but it is clear that the results still remain confusing, because the system is complicated both in term of chemical composition and of diversity of strains. In addition, red wines polyphenols are multiple, complex and reactive molecules. Moreover, the final composition of wine varies according to grape variety and to extraction during winemaking. Therefore it is nearly impossible to deduce their effects on bacteria from experiments in oversimplified conditions. In the present work, effect of tannins preparations, currently considered as possible technological adjuvants, was assessed on growth and malolactic fermentation for two malolactic starters. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory medium and in a white wine. Likewise, impact of total polyphenolic extracts obtained from different grape variety red wines was evaluated in the white wine as culture medium. As expected growth and activity of both strains were affected whatever the additions. Results suggest some interpretations to the observed impacts on bacterial populations. Influence of tannins should be, at least partly, due to redox potential change. Results on wine extracts show the need for investigating the bacterial metabolism of some galloylated molecules. Indeed, they should play on bacterial physiology and probably affect the sensory qualities of wines.

  20. Mucosal vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Nizard, Mevyn; Diniz, Mariana O; Roussel, Helene; Tran, Thi; Ferreira, Luis CS; Badoual, Cecile; Tartour, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The mucosal immune system displays several adaptations reflecting the exposure to the external environment. The efficient induction of mucosal immune responses also requires specific approaches, such as the use of appropriate administration routes and specific adjuvants and/or delivery systems. In contrast to vaccines delivered via parenteral routes, experimental, and clinical evidences demonstrated that mucosal vaccines can efficiently induce local immune responses to pathogens or tumors located at mucosal sites as well as systemic response. At least in part, such features can be explained by the compartmentalization of mucosal B and T cell populations that play important roles in the modulation of local immune responses. In the present review, we discuss molecular and cellular features of the mucosal immune system as well as novel immunization approaches that may lead to the development of innovative and efficient vaccines targeting pathogens and tumors at different mucosal sites. PMID:25424921

  1. Structure elucidation of phenolic compounds from red/white wine with antiatherogenic properties.

    PubMed

    Fragopoulou, Elizabeth; Antonopoulou, Smaragdi; Nomikos, Tzortzis; Demopoulos, Constantinos A

    2003-06-10

    The oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) is supposed to play a critical role in atherogenesis. During this oxidation a potent inflammatory phospholipid mediator named platelet activating factor (PAF) is produced, and it is believed to be the key for the initiation of the inflammation and therefore for the process of atherogenesis. From many studies, it is established that wine has beneficial effects on health, including protection against cardiovascular diseases. According to our point of view, the cardioprotective effect of wine may be attributed partly to the existence of PAF antagonists in red or white wine and partly to the existence of antioxidants that reduce the oxidation of LDL and therefore the production of PAF. In this study, wine compounds that antagonize PAF were isolated and purified via chromatographic procedures, and determined structurally using chemical, enzymatic and spectroscopic methods.

  2. Characterization of phenolic compounds in green and red oak-leaf lettuce cultivars by UHPLC-DAD-ESI-QToF/MS using MS(E) scan mode.

    PubMed

    Viacava, Gabriela E; Roura, Sara I; Berrueta, Luis A; Iriondo, Carmen; Gallo, Blanca; Alonso-Salces, Rosa M

    2017-08-22

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is one of the most popular leafy vegetables in the world and constitutes a major dietary source of phenolic compounds with health promoting properties. In particular, the demand for green and red oak-leaf lettuces have considerably increased in the last years but few data on their polyphenol composition is available. Moreover, the utilization of analytical edge technology can provide new structural information and allow the identification of unknown polyphenols. In the present study the phenolic profiles of green and red oak-leaf lettuce cultivars were exhaustively characterized by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled online to diode array detection (DAD), electrospray ionization (ESI) and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QToF/MS), using the MS(E) instrument acquisition mode for recording simultaneously exact masses of precursor and fragment ions. One hundred fifteen phenolic compounds were identified in the acidified hydromethanolic extract of freeze-dried lettuce leaves. Forty eight of these compounds were tentatively identified for the first time in lettuce, and only twenty of them have been previously reported in oak leaf lettuce cultivars in literature. Both oak leaf lettuce cultivars presented similar phenolic composition, except for apigenin-glucuronide and dihydroxybenzoic acid, only detected in the green cultivar; and for luteolin-hydroxymalonylhexoside, an apigenin conjugate with molecular formula C40 H54 O19 (monoisotopic MW = 838.3259 u), cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3-O-(3"-O-malonyl)glucoside, cyanidin-3-O-(6"-O-malonyl)glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-(6"-O-acetyl)glucoside, only found in the red cultivar. The UHPLC-DAD-ESI-QToF/MS(E) approach demonstrated to be a useful tool for the characterization of phenolic compounds in complex plant matrices. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. An organic dye-polymer (phenol red-poly (vinyl alcohol)) composite architecture towards tunable -optical and -saturable absorption characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Sreedhar, Sreeja Muneera, C. I.; Illyaskutty, Navas; Sreedhanya, S.; Philip, Reji

    2016-05-21

    Herein, we demonstrate that blending an organic dye (guest/filler), with a vinyl polymer (host template), is an inexpensive and simple approach for the fabrication of multifunctional photonic materials which could display an enhancement in the desirable properties of the constituent materials and, at the same time provide novel synergistic properties for the guest-host system. A new guest-host nanocomposite system comprising Phenol Red dye and poly (vinyl alcohol) as guest and host template, respectively, which exhibits tunable optical characteristics and saturable absorption behavior, is introduced. The dependence of local electronic environment provided by the polymer template and the interactions of the polymer molecules with the encapsulated guest molecules on the observed optical/nonlinear absorption behavior is discussed. An understanding of the tunability of the optical/ photophysical processes, with respect to the filler content, as discussed herein could help in the design of improved optical materials for several photonic device applications like organic light emitting diodes and saturable absorbers.

  4. Measurement of tear production using phenol red thread and standardized endodontic absorbent paper points in European pond turtles (Emys orbicularis).

    PubMed

    Rajaei, Seyed Mehdi; Mood, Maneli Ansari; Ghaffari, Masoud Selk; Williams, David L

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the aqueous fraction of the tear film using the phenol red thread test (PRTT) and paper point tear test (PPTT) in healthy adult European pond turtles (Emys orbicularis). Twenty-four healthy adult European pond turtles were studied. Measurement of tear secretion was performed using the PRTT and standardized endodontic absorbent PPTT. Horizontal palpebral fissure length (HPFL) was measured using digital calipers and was correlated with the weight of the animal. The mean ± SD PRTT, PPTT, and HPFL values for the left and right eyes were 5.12 ± 1.54 mm/15 sec and 4.62 ± 1.76 mm/15 sec; 4.50 ± 1.25 mm/1 min and 4.20 ± 1.53 mm/1 min; and 8.4 ± 0.6 mm and 8.3 ± 0.6 mm, respectively. No significant differences were detected between right and left eyes of individual turtles or between males and females in all tests. This study represents reference values of tear production in European pond turtles obtained from PRTT and PPTT methods and forms an important baseline study in defining the healthy chelonian ocular surface.

  5. Effect of synthesis conditions on the photocatalytic property of multiferroic BiFeO{sub 3} towards the degradation of phenol red

    SciTech Connect

    Dhanalakshmi, Radhalayam; Muneeswaran, M.; Giridharan, N. V.

    2016-05-23

    Multiferroic BiFeO{sub 3} has been synthesized through hydrothermal route under different reaction conditions. From the basic characterization such as of X-Ray diffraction analysis (XRD), the synthesized Nps were found to having rhombohedral structure with R3c space group. Photodegradation studies of toxic dye phenol red have been investigated under visible light irradiation. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) analysis has been carried out to identify the magnetic properties and recycle ability photocatalysts.

  6. Effect of synthesis conditions on the photocatalytic property of multiferroic BiFeO3 towards the degradation of phenol red

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanalakshmi, Radhalayam; Muneeswaran, M.; Giridharan, N. V.

    2016-05-01

    Multiferroic BiFeO3 has been synthesized through hydrothermal route under different reaction conditions. From the basic characterization such as of X-Ray diffraction analysis (XRD), the synthesized Nps were found to having rhombohedral structure with R3c space group. Photodegradation studies of toxic dye phenol red have been investigated under visible light irradiation. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) analysis has been carried out to identify the magnetic properties and recycle ability photocatalysts.

  7. Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Content of Various Solvent Extracts from In Vivo and In Vitro Grown Trifolium pratense L. (Red Clover)

    PubMed Central

    Mat Taha, Rosna; Banisalam, Behrooz

    2015-01-01

    In the present study the extracts of in vivo and in vitro grown plants as well as callus tissue of red clover were tested for their antioxidant activities, using different extraction solvent and different antioxidant assays. The total flavonoid and phenolic contents as well as extraction yield of the extracts were also investigated to determine their correlation with the antioxidant activity of the extracts. Among all the tested extracts the highest amounts of total phenolic and total flavonoids content were found in methanol extract of in vivo grown plants. The antioxidant activity of tested samples followed the order in vivo plant extract > callus extract > in vitro extract. The highest reducing power, 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging, and chelating power were found in methanol extracts of in vivo grown red clover, while the chloroform fraction of in vivo grown plants showed the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging and hydrogen peroxide scavenging compared to the other tested extracts. A significant correlation was found between the antioxidant activity of extracts and their total phenolic and total flavonoid content. According to the findings, the extract of in vitro culture of red clover especially the callus tissue possesses a comparable antioxidant activity to the in vivo cultured plants' extract. PMID:26064936

  8. Phenolics from Winemaking By-Products Better Decrease VLDL-Cholesterol and Triacylglycerol Levels than Those of Red Wine in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Walkia Polliana; Biasoto, Aline Camarão Telles; Marques, Valquíria Fernanda; Dos Santos, Ieda Maria; Magalhães, Kedma; Correa, Luiz Claudio; Negro-Dellacqua, Melissa; Miranda, Maria Spínola; de Camargo, Adriano Costa; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2017-10-01

    Winemaking by-products account for more than 30% of the grape production, but this inexpensive feedstock has not yet been fully exploited. Accordingly, we evaluated the potential biological activity of winemaking by-products produced with Syrah grapes in comparison with those of the wine produced using the same grape cultivar. Winemaking by-products showed higher contents of total anthocyanins, flavonols, stilbenes, and flavanols than red wine as evaluated by HPLC-DAD-FD (on a dry weight basis). In contrast, red wine was a better source of phenolic acids. However, the contribution of phenolic acids was minor for both samples. Furthermore, equivalent concentration of winemaking by-products (100 mg/kg/d) showed greater biological activity by than that of red wine by decreasing the levels of VLDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerols in Wistar rats. Therefore, this study supports the use of winemaking by-products as an economical source of bioactive phenolics with potential use in the food and nutraceutical industries. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  9. Contribution of low molecular weight phenols to bitter taste and mouthfeel properties in red wines.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo-Diago, Ana; Dizy, Marta; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between low molecular weight compounds present in wines and their sensory contribution. Six young red wines were fractionated by gel permeation chromatography and subsequently each fraction obtained was separated from sugars and acids by solid phase extraction. Wines and both fractions were in-mouth evaluated by a trained sensory panel and UPLC-MS analyses were performed. The lack of ethanol and proanthocyanidins greatly increased the acidity perceived. The elimination of organic acids enabled the description of the samples, which were evaluated as bitter, persistent and slightly astringent. Coutaric acid and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside appear to be relevant astringent compounds in the absence of proanthocyanidins. Bitter taste was highly correlated with the in-mouth persistence. A significant predictive model for bitter taste was built by means of PLSR. Further research must be carried out to validate the sensory contribution of the compounds involved in bitterness and astringency and to verify the sensory interactions observed.

  10. Changes in the flavonoid and phenolic acid contents and antioxidant activity of red leaf lettuce (Lollo Rosso) due to cultivation under plastic films varying in ultraviolet transparency.

    PubMed

    García-Macías, Paulina; Ordidge, Matthew; Vysini, Eleni; Waroonphan, Saran; Battey, Nicholas H; Gordon, Michael H; Hadley, Paul; John, Philip; Lovegrove, Julie A; Wagstaffe, Alexandra

    2007-12-12

    Red leaf lettuce (Lollo Rosso) was grown under three types of plastic films that varied in transparency to UV radiation (designated as UV block, UV low, and UV window). Flavonoid composition was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), total phenolics by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay, and antioxidant capacity by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. Exposure to increased levels of UV radiation during cultivation caused the leaves to redden and increased concentrations of total phenols and the main flavonoids, quercetin and cyanidin glycosides, as well as luteolin conjugates and phenolic acids. The total phenol content increased from 1.6 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g of fresh weight (FW) for lettuce grown under UV block film to 2.9 and 3.5 mg of GAE/g of FW for lettuce grown under the UV low and UV window films. The antioxidant activity was also higher in lettuce exposed to higher levels of UV radiation with ORAC values of 25.4 and 55.1 micromol of Trolox equivalents/g of FW for lettuce grown under the UV block and UV window films, respectively. The content of phenolic acids, quantified as caffeic acid, was also different, ranging from 6.2 to 11.1 micromol/g of FW for lettuce cultivated under the lowest and highest UV exposure plastic films, respectively. Higher concentrations of the flavonoid glycosides were observed with increased exposure to UV radiation, as demonstrated by the concentrations of aglycones after hydrolysis, which were cyanidin (ranging from 165 to 793 microg/g), quercetin (ranging from 196 to 880 microg/g), and luteolin (ranging from 19 to 152 microg/g). The results demonstrate the potential of the use of UV-transparent plastic as a means of increasing beneficial flavonoid content of red leaf lettuce when the crop is grown in polytunnels.

  11. Influence of Conventional and Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction on Phenolic Contents, Betacyanin Contents, and Antioxidant Capacity of Red Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus)

    PubMed Central

    Ramli, Nurul Shazini; Ismail, Patimah; Rahmat, Asmah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of extraction methods on antioxidant capacities of red dragon fruit peel and flesh. Antioxidant capacities were measured using ethylenebenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent while quantitative determination of total flavonoid content (TFC) was conducted using aluminium trichloride colorimetric method. Betacyanin content (BC) was measured by spectrophotometer. Red dragon fruit was extracted using conventional (CV) and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UE) technique to determine the most efficient way of extracting its antioxidant components. Results indicated that UE increased TFC, reduced the extraction yield, BC, and TPC, but exhibited the strongest scavenging activity for the peel of red dragon fruit. In contrast, UE reduced BC, TFC, and scavenging activity but increased the yield for the flesh. Nonetheless, UE slightly increases TPC in flesh. Scavenging activity and reducing power were highly correlated with phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Conversely, the scavenging activity and reducing power were weakly correlated with betacyanin content. This work gives scientific evidences for the consideration of the type of extraction techniques for the peel and flesh of red dragon fruit in applied research and food industry. PMID:25379555

  12. Influence of conventional and ultrasonic-assisted extraction on phenolic contents, betacyanin contents, and antioxidant capacity of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus).

    PubMed

    Ramli, Nurul Shazini; Ismail, Patimah; Rahmat, Asmah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of extraction methods on antioxidant capacities of red dragon fruit peel and flesh. Antioxidant capacities were measured using ethylenebenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent while quantitative determination of total flavonoid content (TFC) was conducted using aluminium trichloride colorimetric method. Betacyanin content (BC) was measured by spectrophotometer. Red dragon fruit was extracted using conventional (CV) and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UE) technique to determine the most efficient way of extracting its antioxidant components. Results indicated that UE increased TFC, reduced the extraction yield, BC, and TPC, but exhibited the strongest scavenging activity for the peel of red dragon fruit. In contrast, UE reduced BC, TFC, and scavenging activity but increased the yield for the flesh. Nonetheless, UE slightly increases TPC in flesh. Scavenging activity and reducing power were highly correlated with phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Conversely, the scavenging activity and reducing power were weakly correlated with betacyanin content. This work gives scientific evidences for the consideration of the type of extraction techniques for the peel and flesh of red dragon fruit in applied research and food industry.

  13. Co-pigmentation of pelargonidin derivatives in strawberry and red radish model solutions by the addition of phenolic fractions from mango peels.

    PubMed

    Müller-Maatsch, Judith; Bechtold, Lena; Schweiggert, Ralf M; Carle, Reinhold

    2016-12-15

    Pelargonidin-based colors suffer from notorious instability. A phenolic mango peel extract and defined phenolic fractions thereof were shown to effectively modulate the visible absorption of anthocyanins from strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) and red radish (Raphanus sativus L.) by intermolecular co-pigmentation. Consistently, non-acylated pelargonidin derivatives from strawberry exerted significantly greater hyper- and bathochromic spectral shifts than their acylated counterparts from red radish. The addition of low molecular-weight co-pigments such as gallic acid and monogalloyl glucoses to strawberry anthocyanins led to strong hyperchromic shifts from 30% to 48%, while gallotannins (>six galloyl units) exerted smaller co-pigmentation effects (36±2%; Δλmax 13nm), possibly due to steric hindrances. In contrast, penta- and hexa-O-galloyl-glucose induced greatest and most stable co-pigmentation effects (53±2%; Δλmax 13nm). Irrespective of the underlying mechanisms and the responsible compounds, phenolic mango peel extracts might represent suitable color enhancers for coloring foodstuff, particularly for those containing non-acylated pelargonidin derivatives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of technological maturity of grapes and total phenolic compounds of grape skins in red and white cultivars during ripening by near infrared hyperspectral image: a preliminary approach.

    PubMed

    Nogales-Bueno, Julio; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel; Rodríguez-Pulido, Francisco José; Heredia, Francisco José

    2014-01-01

    Hyperspectral images of intact grapes during ripening were recorded using a near infrared hyperspectral imaging system (900-1700 nm). Spectral data have been correlated with grape skin total phenolic concentration, sugar concentration, titratable acidity and pH by modified partial least squares regression (MPLS) using a number of spectral pre-treatments and different sets of calibration. The obtained results (RSQ and SEP, respectively) for the global model of red and white grape samples were: 0.89 and 1.23 mg g(-1) of grape skin for total phenolic concentration, 0.99 and 1.37 °Brix for sugar concentration, 0.98 and 3.88 g L(-1) for titratable acidity and for pH 0.94 and 0.12. Moreover, separate calibration models for red and white grape samples were also developed. The obtained results present a good potential for a fast and reasonably inexpensive screening of these parameters in intact grapes and therefore, for a fast control of technological and phenolic maturity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fabrication of a Microbial Biosensor Based on QD-MWNT Supports by a One-Step Radiation Reaction and Detection of Phenolic Compounds in Red Wines

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seul-Ki; Kwen, Hai-Doo; Choi, Seong-Ho

    2011-01-01

    An Acaligense sp.-immobilized biosensor was fabricated based on QD-MWNT composites as an electron transfer mediator and a microbe immobilization support by a one-step radiation reaction and used for sensing phenolic compounds in commercial red wines. First, a quantum dot-modified multi-wall carbon nanotube (QD-MWNT) composite was prepared in the presence of MWNT by a one-step radiation reaction in an aqueous solution at room temperature. The successful preparation of the QD-MWNT composite was confirmed by XPS, TEM, and elemental analysis. Second, the microbial biosensor was fabricated by immobilization of Acaligense sp. on the surface of the composite thin film of a glassy carbon (GC) electrode, which was prepared by a hand casting method with a mixture of the previously obtained composite and Nafion solution. The sensing ranges of the microbial biosensor based on CdS-MWNT and Cu2S-MWNT supports were 0.5–5.0 mM and 0.7–10 mM for phenol in a phosphate buffer solution, respectively. Total concentration of phenolic compounds contained in commercial red wines was also determined using the prepared microbial immobilized biosensor. PMID:22319395

  16. The content of phenolic compounds in leaf tissues of white (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) and red horse chestnut (Aesculus carea H.) colonized by the horse chestnut leaf miner (Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimić).

    PubMed

    Oszmiański, Jan; Kalisz, Stanisław; Aneta, Wojdyło

    2014-09-15

    Normally, plant phenolics are secondary metabolites involved in the defense mechanisms of plants against fungal pathogens. Therefore, in this study we attempted to quantify and characterize phenolic compounds in leaves of white and red horse chestnut with leaf miner larvae before and after Cameraria ohridella attack. A total of 17 phenolic compounds belonging to the hydroxycinnamic acid, flavan-3-ols and flavonol groups were identified and quantified in white and red horse chestnut leaf extracts. Significantly decreased concentrations of some phenolic compounds, especially of flavan-3-ols, were observed in infected leaves compared to the non-infected ones. Additionally, a higher content of polyphenolic compounds especially (-)-epicatechin and procyanidins in leaves of red-flowering than in white-flowering horse chestnut may explain their greater resistance to C. ohridella insects.

  17. A simple, cheap and reliable method for control of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol in red wines. Screening of fining agents for reducing volatile phenols levels in red wines.

    PubMed

    Milheiro, Juliana; Filipe-Ribeiro, Luís; Cosme, Fernanda; Nunes, Fernando M

    2017-01-15

    Brettanomyces/Dekkera produces 4-ethylphenol (4-EP) and 4-ethylguaiacol (4-EG) from hydroxycinnamic acids that affect the wine aroma and overall quality. A simple, cheap, fast and reliable quantitation method is needed for routine quality control of wines. In this work a simple method based on one simple liquid-liquid extraction with pentane/diethyl ether (2:1) and analysis by GC-MS allow to obtain very good recoveries (98-102%) and low quantification limits (24 and 11μg/L for 4-EP and 4-EG, respectively), well below the sensory threshold for these volatile phenols and with an adequate measurement uncertainty: 70, 1.75 and 78, 1.95 and 1.35μg/L for levels of 1000, 25μg/L for 4-EP and 1000, 25 and 10μg/L for 4-EG, respectively. In addition a screening of eight fining agents (mineral, protein and polysaccharide based) for reducing the levels of these volatile phenols in red wines was performed, and the impact on the physicochemical characteristics of red wines was evaluated. At the levels used, activated carbon was the most efficient fining agent in removing 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol from red wines (57%) resulting in a 75% decrease of headspace concentration of these volatile phenols. Lower reductions were observed when using egg albumin (19%) resulting in a 30% decrease in the headspace concentration. Other fining agents although not reducing the total amount of the volatile phenols present in wine decreased their concentrations in the headspace like isinglass (27%), carboxymethylcellulose (15%) and chitosan (27%). All of these fining agents could be a possibility for treating wine contaminated with 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of some Australian red wines for price, phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and vintage in relation to functional food prospects.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Yung J; Prenzler, Paul D; Saliba, Anthony J; Ryan, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-three Cabernet Sauvignon wines from the Mudgee region and thirty-two Shiraz wines from the Hunter Valley region were analyzed for phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Concentrations of (+)-catechin, quercetin, and transresveratrol, total phenolic content, and DPPH antioxidant activity varied considerably, both within and between varieties. Individual phenols, total phenols, and antioxidant activity were correlated with price and vintage. Shiraz wines showed positive and significant correlations for catechin and quercetin concentrations with total phenols, antioxidant activity, and vintage; and for total phenols and antioxidant activity with vintage. Cabernet Sauvignon wines showed positive and significant correlations for quercetin concentration with total phenols and antioxidant activity. There was a negative and significant correlation found between price and antioxidant activity for Cabernet Sauvignon wines. Results are discussed in terms of the potential for wine to be considered a functional food. We report on potential health benefits (antioxidant activity) of 55 wines typical of 2 geographically close, but distinct, wine regions of Australia. Our results highlight the variability in functional components as an issue that needs further research and consideration in relation to wine as a functional food. The price of studied wines is not reflective of their health functionality, based on antioxidant activities. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Comparative analysis of Tunisian wild Crataegus azarolus (yellow azarole) and Crataegus monogyna (red azarole) leaf, fruit, and traditionally derived syrup: phenolic profiles and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the aqueous-acetone extracts.

    PubMed

    Belkhir, Manel; Rebai, Olfa; Dhaouadi, Karima; Congiu, Francesca; Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni; Amri, Mohamed; Fattouch, Sami

    2013-10-09

    Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the yellow and red azarole phenolic extracts prepared from leaf, fruit peel/pulp, and syrup were comparatively investigated. The yellow azarole was found significantly richer in polyphenols than the red-fruit species. Hyperoside was the main phenolic in both yellow and red azarole leaves and only in yellow fruits, whereas procyanidin B2 was the major compound in red fruits. Yellow azarole leaf and fruit peel extracts exhibited the strongest antioxidant activities using DPPH (≈168 and 79 μmol TEAC/g fw, respectively) and FRAP (≈378 and 161 μmol Fe(2+)/g fw, respectively) assays. The highest antibacterial activities were recorded for the yellow azarole leaf and fruit peel extracts, especially against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis . The low phenolic content of the syrups contrasted with their significant antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials, which were correlated to their hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) (furan derivative amounts) content.

  20. Schirmer tear test, phenol red thread tear test, eye blink frequency and corneal sensitivity in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Trost, Katrin; Skalicky, M; Nell, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    To establish reference values for Schirmer tear tests (STT) I and II, phenol red thread (PRT) tear test and eye blink frequency, and to determine corneal sensitivity for normal guinea pigs. One hundred and eight eyes of 54 adult Duncan-Hartley guinea pigs. Schirmer tear test (STT) I and then STT II were performed in 36 guinea pigs. PRT and STT I were compared in 18 adult Duncan-Hartley guinea pigs. Corneal sensitivity was determined in 23 guinea pigs by evaluating the corneal touch threshold (CTT) of five different regions using a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer. Eye blink frequency was measured in 10 guinea pigs over a period of 20 min and in 17 guinea pigs over a period of 10 min. Mean STT I was 0.36 mm +/- 1.09 mm (wetting/min) and mean STT II was 0.43 mm +/- 1.29 mm (wetting/min). There was no significant difference between mean STT I and mean STT II (P = 0.79). The mean PRT-value was 16 +/- 4.7 mm (wetting/15 s), and the mean STT I-value in the same guinea pigs was 0.6 +/- 1.83 mm (wetting/min). Corneal sensitivity was significantly higher in the center than in the four limbal regions. The mean CTT for central, ventral, nasal, temporal and dorsal regions was 2, 1.7, 1.7, 1.7 and 1.6 cm or 3.7, 5.2, 5.6, 5.7 and 6.4 g/mm(2), respectively. Eye blink frequency was between two to five (mean 3.4 +/- 1.04) blinks per eye over 20 min in guinea pigs in their home environment, while in handheld and restrained guinea pigs eye blink frequency showed a variation between 0 and 17 blinks per eye (mean 3.24 +/- 3.64 blinks per eye) over 10 min. As there were no significant differences between STT I and STT II results, reflex tear secretion in the guinea pig may not exist. The most likely explanation is a lower corneal sensitivity in the guinea pig than in other species, such as cats, dogs and horses. Because of the small amount of tears, PRT is the preferred test for tear measurement in the guinea pig.

  1. Determination of low-molecular mass phenols in red wines: the influence of chips, staves and micro-oxygenation aging tank.

    PubMed

    Gallego, L; Nevares, I; Fernández, J A; Del Álamo, M

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the use of polymeric cartridges with diode array detection to extract the main low-molecular mass phenolic compounds from red wine samples. This method expanded and improved permitted to quantify 20 compounds in red wines made and aged under different conditions. These conditions included aging in barrels and in tanks with chips or staves as well as micro-oxygenation. The study of wine development during its wood storage period and the compounds transferred from the wood to the wine during this period provide useful important information concerning the impact of wine aging methods on the chemical makeup of the resulting wines. The main compounds that differentiated wine aging systems were identified to be 5-hydroxymethyl-2 furaldehyde, gallic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic aldehyde, syringic acid and sinapic acid.

  2. Effects of elevated CO2 on grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): volatile composition, phenolic content, and in vitro antioxidant activity of red wine.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Berta; Falco, Virgílio; Moutinho-Pereira, José; Bacelar, Eunice; Peixoto, Francisco; Correia, Carlos

    2009-01-14

    The impact of elevated carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) on the quality of berries, must, and red wine (with special reference to volatile composition, phenolic content, and antioxidant activity) made from Touriga Franca, a native grape variety of Vitis vinifera L. for Port and Douro wine manufacturing grown in the Demarcated Region of Douro, was investigated during 2005 and 2006. Grapevines were grown either in open-top chambers (OTC) with ambient (365 +/- 10 ppm) or elevated (500 +/-16 ppm) [CO2] or in an outside plot. In general, the increase of [CO2] did not affect berry characteristics, especially the total anthocyan and tannin concentrations. However, the total anthocyan and polyphenol concentrations of the red wine were inhibited under elevated [CO2]. The antioxidant capacity of the wines was determined by DPPH, ABTS, and TBARS assays and, despite the low concentrations of phenolics, the elevated [CO2] did not significantly change the total antioxidant capacity of the red wines. Thirty-five volatile compounds belonging to seven chemical groups were identified: C6 alcohols, higher alcohols, esters, terpenols, carbonyl compounds, acids, volatile phenols, and C13 norisoprenoids. Generally, the same volatile compounds were present in all of the wines, but the relative levels varied among the treatments. The effect of elevated [CO2] was significant because it was detected as an increase in ethyl 2-methylbutyrate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, butyric acid, and isovaleric acid concentrations and a decrease in ethyl acetate concentration when compared to wines produced in ambient [CO2] in 2005. In elevated [CO2], wines from 2006 had lower methionol, 1-octanol, and 4-ethylguaiacol and higher ethyl lactate and linalool concentrations. The increase in [CO2] did not significantly affect C6 alcohols, citronellol, carbonyl compounds, and beta-damascenone concentrations. This study showed that the predicted rise in [CO2] did not produce negative

  3. Characterization of phenolics, in vitro reducing capacity and anti-glycation activity of red grape skins recovered from winemaking by-products.

    PubMed

    Sri Harsha, P S C; Gardana, Claudio; Simonetti, Paolo; Spigno, Giorgia; Lavelli, Vera

    2013-07-01

    Red grape skins recovered from ten winemaking processes were analyzed for total phenolic content (Folin Ciocalteu assay), proanthocyanidins (n-butanol/HCl assay), individual phenolics (UPLC-DAD-MS), in vitro ferric ion reducing capacity and anti-glycation activity by bovine serum albumin/fructose and bovine serum albumin/methylglyoxal model systems. The aim was to assess if these by-products have potential as dietary anti-glycation agents, to prevent the glyco-oxidative stress associated with type-2 diabetes. Variability was observed in total phenolics (12.1-53.6g gallic acid Eq/kg), proanthocyanidins (7.2-51.1g/kg), anthocyanins (2.5-13.8 g malvidin 3-O glucoside Eq/kg), flavonols (0.3-2.6g quercetin 3-O glucoside Eq/kg) and reducing capacity (103-511 mmol Fe(II) Eq/kg). For all samples, the anti-glycation effectiveness was higher than that of commercial nutraceutical preparations. Hence, in spite of differences in cultivar, location of the vineyard and winemaking procedures, these by-products could be used as a source of cost-effective anti-glycation agent either as a food ingredient or as a nutraceutical preparation.

  4. Identification of Phenolic Compounds in Red and Green Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) Hulls (Exo- and Mesocarp) by HPLC-DAD-ESI-(HR)-MS(n).

    PubMed

    Erşan, Sevcan; Güçlü Üstündağ, Özlem; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2016-07-06

    Phenolic constituents of the nonlignified red and green pistachio hulls (exo- and mesocarp) were assessed by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) as well as by HR-MS. A total of 66 compounds was identified in the respective aqueous methanolic extracts. Among them, gallic acid, monogalloyl glucoside, monogalloyl quinic acid, penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose, hexagalloyl hexose, quercetin 3-O-galactoside, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-glucuronide, and (17:1)-, (13:0)-, and (13:1)-anacardic acids were detected at highest signal intensity. The main difference between red and green hulls was the presence of anthocyanins in the former ones. Differently galloylated hydrolyzable tannins, anthocyanins, and minor anacardic acids were identified for the first time. Pistachio hulls were thus shown to be a source of structurally diverse and potentially bioactive phenolic compounds. They therefore represent a valuable byproduct of pistachio processing having potential for further utilization as raw material for the recovery of pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and chemical products.

  5. Effect of the aging on lees and other alternative techniques on the low molecular weight phenols of Tempranillo red wine aged in oak barrels.

    PubMed

    Del Barrio-Galán, Rubén; Pérez-Magariño, Silvia; Ortega-Heras, Miriam

    2012-06-30

    The effect of different alternative techniques to the traditional aging on lees on the low molecular weight phenolic compounds of red wines was study as well as their evolution during the aging in oak wood barrels for six months. The study was carried out with Tempranillo red grapes from two consecutive vintages. The techniques assayed were the traditional aging on lees with or without the addition of exogenous β-glucanase enzymes, the use of yeast derivative preparations also with or without the addition of exogenous β-glucanase enzymes, the micro-oxygenation applied together with the aging on lees, and the use of non-toasted oak wood chips. Hydroxycinnamic acids were the compounds most affected by these treatments, mainly in the wines treated with chips and commercial yeast derivative products, which showed higher concentrations of the free acids, compounds that play an important role in wine stabilization color since they can act as anthocyanin copigments. The differences found between the assayed treatments were more important in the 2007 vintage than in the 2008. However, a more significant effect of micro-oxygenation in the 2008 vintage was observed, which could be related to the fact that in this vintage the treatment was longer. In the 2008 vintage, the differences between treatments decreased along the aging in barrel. This vintage effect could be associated to the differences in the phenolic concentration of the initial wines. In this sense more research should be done to corroborate this fact.

  6. Phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of yellow and purple-red Ecuadorian cultivars of tree tomato (Solanum betaceum Cav.).

    PubMed

    Espin, Susana; Gonzalez-Manzano, Susana; Taco, Verónica; Poveda, Cristina; Ayuda-Durán, Begoña; Gonzalez-Paramas, Ana M; Santos-Buelga, Celestino

    2016-03-01

    Tree tomato fruits from the yellow giant, giant purple and New Zealand purple cultivars, cultivated in Ecuador were analysed for their phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity. Twelve hydroxycinnamoyl derivatives and four anthocyanins (in the purple cultivars) were detected and identified. The hydroxycinnamoyl derivatives mostly derived from caffeic acid, being 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid and rosmarinic acid the majority compounds. Furthermore, various rosmarinic acid glucosides, caffeoyl glucoside, feruloyl glucoside and two ferulic acid dehydrodimers were tentatively identified. The presence of rosmarinic acid is particularly relevant as it constituted a majority phenolic compound in the four studied tree tomato cultivars and it had not been reported previously in this fruit. In the purple cultivars main anthocyanins were pelargonidin 3-O-rutinoside and delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside. The New Zealand purple cultivar was by far the richest sample in both hydroxycinnamates (421.6mg/100g dry pulp) and anthocyanins (168.9mg/100g dry pulp). Antioxidant capacity, as determined by FRAP, ABTS and ORAC assays, followed the same pattern as phenolic contents, with the New Zealand purple cultivar being the one with the highest and the yellow giant cultivar with the lowest values. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of total phenolic, flavonoids, anthocyanins and tannins content in Romanian red wines: prediction of antioxidant activities and classification of wines using artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Hosu, Anamaria; Cristea, Vasile-Mircea; Cimpoiu, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    Wine is one of the most consumed beverages over the world containing large quantities of polyphenolic compounds. These compounds are responsible for quality of red wines, influencing the antioxidant activity, astringency, bitterness and colour, their composition in wine being influenced by the varieties, the vintage and the wineries. The aim of the present work is to build software instruments intended to work as data-mining tools for predicting valuable properties of wine and for revealing different wine classes. The developed ANNs are able to reveal the relationships between the concentration of total phenolic, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and tannins content, associated to the antioxidant activity, and the wine distinctive classes determined by the wine variety, harvesting year or winery. The presented ANNs proved to be reliable software tools for assessment or validation of the wine essential characteristics and authenticity and may be further used to establish a database of analytical characteristics of wines.

  8. Rapid and solvent-free solid-state synthesis and characterization of Zn3V2O8 nanostructures and their phenol red aqueous solution photodegradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazloom, Fatemeh; Masjedi-Arani, Maryam; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud

    2017-08-01

    Zinc vanadate (Zn3V2O8) nanostructures have been successfully synthesized via simple, rapid and solvent-free solid-state method by using different complex precursors of Zn and NH4VO3 as novel starting materials. Effects of various zinc (II) Schiff base complex precursors and calcination temperatures were investigated to reach optimum condition. It was found that particle size and optical property of the as-prepared products could be greatly influenced via these parameters. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Photoluminescence and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of zinc vanadate nano and bulk structures were compared by degradation of phenol red aqueous solution.

  9. Identification of phenolic constituents in red chicory salads (Cichorium intybus) by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Carazzone, Chiara; Mascherpa, Dora; Gazzani, Gabriella; Papetti, Adele

    2013-06-01

    Phenolic acids and flavonoids extracted from several types of Cichorium intybus var. silvestre salads ("Chioggia", "Treviso", "Treviso tardivo", and "Verona") were characterised by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation/mass spectrometry. Among the 64 compounds detected, several hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives including 8 mono- and dicaffeoylquinic acids, 3 tartaric acid derivatives, 31 flavonol and 2 flavone glycosides, as well as 10 anthocyanins were characterised based on UV spectra and MS(n) fragmentation patterns. Furthermore, several isomers of caffeic acid derivatives were distinguished for the first time by their specific mass spectral data. This is the first study reporting the glycosylation type and position of mono- and diglycosylated flavonoids in red salads.

  10. Major phenolic and volatile compounds and their influence on sensorial aspects in stem-contact fermentation winemaking of Primitivo red wines.

    PubMed

    Suriano, S; Alba, V; Di Gennaro, D; Basile, T; Tamborra, M; Tarricone, L

    2016-08-01

    In red winemaking de-stemming is crucial since the stems contain polymeric phenolic compounds responsible for the astringency of wine. Wine such as Primitivo has low phenolic constituents and tannins and stems affect aroma, taste body and olfactory characteristics. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of presence of stems during fermentation on polyphenolic, volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of wine. Primitivo grapes vinified in presence of different percentage of stems: 100 % de-stemmed (D100), 75 % de-stemmed (D75) and 50 % de-stemmed (D50). Results confirmed that the wines vinified in presence of stems were higher in tannins, flavans, to vanillin and proanthocyanidins, colour intensity with lower anthocyanins. The presence of stems during fermentation conferred more structure and flavour to wines. They facilitated must aeration thus promoting synthesis of higher alcohols and ethyl esters by yeast. In particular, a higher content of hexan-1-ol, hex-3-en-1-ol and 2-phenyl ethanol in D50 and D75 gave the wines that suggest green grass, herb and floral. Wine from D75 seemed to be better than D50 in terms of volatile compounds as well as fruity, floral and balsamic components preserved, without any unpleasant taste of long chain fatty acids found in D50.

  11. Hypocholesterolemic metabolism of dietary red pericarp glutinous rice rich in phenolic compounds in mice fed a high cholesterol diet

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun-Mi; Kim, Eun-Hye; Chung, Ill-Min

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of red pericarp glutinous rice rich in polyphenols (Jakwangchalbyeo, red rice) on serum and hepatic levels of cholesterol and hepatic protein expression linked to synthesis and degradation of cholesterol in a hypercholesterolemic mice diet as compared with brown rice. MATERIALS/METHODS C57BL/6 male mice were randomly divided into four groups (n = 5 each), which were fed different diets for a period of 12 weeks: American Institute of Nutrition (AIN)-93G diet, AIN-93G diet with 2% cholesterol, brown rice with 2% cholesterol, or red rice with 2% cholesterol. RESULT Consumption of red rice resulted in a significant decrease in serum level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and hepatic levels of triglyceride and total-cholesterol. Expression of acyl-coenzyme A cholesterol acyltransferase-2 (ACAT-2), sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2), and 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase was decreased, while expression of phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (p-AMPK)/AMPK ratio, cholesterol 7-α-hydroxylase (CYP7a1), and sterol 12-α-hydroxylase (CYP8b1) was increased in mice fed red rice. Brown rice had similar effects on cholesterol metabolism, but the effect of red rice was significantly greater than that of brown rice. CONCLUSIONS The current study suggested that red rice had a hypocholesterolemic effect by lowering hepatic cholesterol synthesis through ACAT-2, HMG-CoA reductase, and SREBP-2, and by enhancing hepatic cholesterol degradation through CYP7a1 and CYP8b1 in mice fed a hypercholesterolemic diet. PMID:25489402

  12. Concentrations of oligomers and polymers of proanthocyanidins in red and purple rice bran and their relationships to total phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant capacity and whole grain color.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Hsuan; McClung, Anna M; Bergman, Christine J

    2016-10-01

    Proanthocyanidins, a flavonoids subgroup, are proposed to have chronic disease modulation properties. With the eventual goal of enhancing rice phytonutrient concentrations, we investigated the genotypic variation of the concentrations of individual oligomers and polymers of proanthocyanidins in red and purple rice brans. A 4.3-fold variation in total proanthocyanidins (sum of oligomers and polymers) in the extractable fraction was found and the concentration was highly correlated with total phenolics, total flavonoids and antiradical capacity. Variation in the proportion of oligomers and polymers existed, with monomers to trimers, 4-6mers, 7-10mers and polymers accounting for 7, 18, 26.5 and 48.7%, respectively, of the total. The redness value a(∗) of whole grain rice measured in CIE L(∗)a(∗)b(∗) color space was negatively and positively correlated with extractable and non-extractable proanthocyanidins, respectively. The variation found indicates it is possible to select rice with bran containing high levels of total proanthocyanidins and specific degree of polymerization profiles.

  13. Comparisons of protein, lipid, phenolics, γ-oryzanol, vitamin E, and mineral contents in bran layer of sodium azide-induced red rice mutants.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Toong Long; Ho, Pei Tzu; Shih, Yi Ju; Lai, Chia Chi; Wu, Min Tze; Sung, Jih Min

    2011-06-01

    The bran part of red rice grain is concentrated with many phytochemicals, including proanthocyanidins, oryzanol and vitamin E, that exert beneficial effects on human health, but it contains low levels of essential minerals such as Fe and Zn. In the present study, the protein, lipid, phytochemicals and mineral contents in bran samples were compared among red rice SA-586 and its NaN₃-induced mutants. The plant heights of NaN₃-induced mutants were decreased. The contents of protein, lipid, total phenolics, total flavonoids, total anthocyanins, total proanthocyanidins, total γ-oryzanol, total tocopherols and total tocotrienols also varied among the tested mutants. The brans of mutants M-18, M-56 and M-50 contained more proanthocyanidins, γ-oryzanol, vitamin E than that of SA-586, respectively. M-54 accumulated more Fe content (588.7 mg kg⁻¹ bran dry weight) than SA-586 (100.1 mg kg⁻¹ bran dry weight). The brans of M-18, M-50 and M-56 are good sources of proanthocyanidins, vitamin E and γ-oryzanol, respectively, while the bran of M-54 is rich in Fe. Thus these mutants could be used to produce high-value phytochemicals or Fe byproducts from bran during rice grain milling or as genetic resources for rice improvement programs. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Antioxidant activity of phenolic acids and esters present in red wine on human Low-Density Lipoproteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urizzi, P.; Monje, M.-C.; Souchard, J.-P.; Abella, A.; Chalas, J.; Lindenbaum, A.; Vergnes, L.; Labidalle, S.; Nepveu, F.

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the antioxidant activity of different phenolic acids and their esters, three types of experiments have been used. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) quantitative analysis was carried out using the acetaldehyde/xanthine oxidase system and Fenton's reaction to generate superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, respectively. In a second test, hydroperoxides generated by Cu2+-catalysed oxidation of low density lipoproteins (LDL) were quantified by a modified iodometric method. In a third assay, LDL were oxidized with Esterbauer's method and modified LDL species were quantified by HPLC. The results show that the esterified phenolic derivatives present a better antioxidant activity, on the lipoperoxidation of LDL, than the corresponding phenolic acids. Trois expériences ont été menées afin d'évaluer l'activité antioxydante de différents acides et de leurs esters. Une analyse quantitative par résonance paramagnétique électronique (RPE) a été réalisée en utilisant le système acétaldéhyde/xanthine oxydase et la réaction de Fenton générant, respectivement, les radicaux superoxyde et hydroxyle. Dans un second test, les hydroperoxydes générés par une réaction d'oxydation des lipoprotéines de basse densité (LDL) catalysée par Cu2+ ont été quantifiés par une méthode iodométrique modifiée. Dans une troisième étude, les LDL ont été oxydées par la méthode d'Esterbauer et les espèces oxydées ont été quantifiées par HPLC. Les résultats montrent que les dérivés estérifiés présentent une activité antioxydante contre la lipoperoxydation des LDL bien plus importante que celle des acides phénoliques correspondants.

  15. Comparison Between Malolactic Fermentation Container and Barrel Toasting Effects on Phenolic, Volatile and Sensory Profile of Red Wines.

    PubMed

    González-Centeno, María Reyes; Chira, Kleopatra; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2017-04-01

    Ellagitannin and anthocyanin profiles, woody volatile composition and sensory properties of wines in which malolactic fermentation (MLF) took place in barrels or stainless steel tanks, have been compared after 12 months of barrel ageing. Three different barrel toastings were evaluated. Barrel-fermented wines generally presented 1.2-fold higher total phenolics, whereas tank-fermented wines exhibited 1.1 and 1.2-fold greater total proanthocyanidin and anthocyanin contents, respectively. Concerning ellagitannin composition, barrel toasting effect seemed to be more important than differences due to MLF-container. Certain woody and fruity volatiles varied significantly (p < 0.05) depending on whether MLF occurred in barrels or tanks. Barrel-fermented wines were preferred in mouth, while olfactory preference depended on barrel toasting. This is the first study that evaluates the impact of oak wood during MLF on ellagitannin composition of wine, as well as the barrel toasting effect on wine attributes during ageing when MLF occurred whether in barrels or tanks.

  16. Specific phenolic compounds and sensory properties of a new dealcoholized red wine with pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) extract.

    PubMed

    Tárrega, Maria Amparo; Varela, Paula; Fromentin, Emilie; Feuillère, Nicolas; Issaly, Nicolas; Roller, Marc; Sanz-Buenhombre, Marisa; Villanueva, Sonia; Moro, Carlos; Guadarrama, Alberto; Fiszman, Susana

    2014-09-01

    The pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit has a long history of human consumption and possesses notable antioxidant and cardiovascular properties. This work evaluated the feasibility to provide a new functional beverage based on a dealcoholized red wine matrix supplemented by a pomegranate extract. The potential bioactive compounds in the pomegranate extract, punicalagin A and B and ellagic acid, were analyzed during the downstream process in order to evaluate the functional dose in the final beverage. The addition of pomegranate extract to the dealcoholized red wine resulted in a product with more intense yeast odor, acidity, yeast flavor, and astringency and with a less intense berry flavor. Consumer acceptance of the product was also investigated and the results revealed the existence of a niche of consumers willing to consume dealcoholized wine enriched with pomegranate extract. After tasting, 50% and 40% of those consumers initially interested by this product concept declared to be interested to purchase the control sample and the functional beverage, respectively. The daily consumption of two servings of 250 mL of this new pomegranate-enriched dealcoholized wine provides 82 mg of total ellagitannins, corresponding to the sum of punicalagin A and B and ellagic acid. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. Tear Production Rate in a Mouse Model of Dry Eye According to the Phenol Red Thread and Endodontic Absorbent Paper Point Tear Tests.

    PubMed

    Kilic, Servet; Kulualp, Kadri

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the endodontic absorbent paper point test (EAPTT) and the phenol red thread test (PRTT) for the assessment of tear production rate in a mouse model of dry eye. Fourteen BALB/c breed female mice were allocated into experimental and control groups of equal number. For 6 wk, the experimental group was kept in dry-eye cabinets, whereas the control group was kept in normal cages under ambient conditions. In both groups, the tear production rate was measured by using EAPTT and PRTT before the study, at study baseline, and at weeks 2, 4, and 6. Tear production at weeks 2, 4, and 6 differed significantly between groups and tests. Evaluating the groups independently in terms of the test technique revealed significant differences in tear production rate between the 2 groups at the same measurement times. Due to their persistent exposure to evaporative stress factors, the tear production rate of the mice in the dry-eye cabinet was consistently lower than that of controls. Unlike PRTT, EAPTT can be readily applied to the small globes of laboratory animals without the need for forceps, thus saving time and effort. In addition, EAPTT was practical and imposed no undue stress on the mice, due to the test material's firmer structure. Therefore, compared with PRTT, EAPTT is safer and more reliable for the diagnosis of dry-eye syndrome in mice.

  18. Tear Production Rate in a Mouse Model of Dry Eye According to the Phenol Red Thread and Endodontic Absorbent Paper Point Tear Tests

    PubMed Central

    Kilic, Servet

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the endodontic absorbent paper point test (EAPTT) and the phenol red thread test (PRTT) for the assessment of tear production rate in a mouse model of dry eye. Fourteen BALB/c breed female mice were allocated into experimental and control groups of equal number. For 6 wk, the experimental group was kept in dry-eye cabinets, whereas the control group was kept in normal cages under ambient conditions. In both groups, the tear production rate was measured by using EAPTT and PRTT before the study, at study baseline, and at weeks 2, 4, and 6. Tear production at weeks 2, 4, and 6 differed significantly between groups and tests. Evaluating the groups independently in terms of the test technique revealed significant differences in tear production rate between the 2 groups at the same measurement times. Due to their persistent exposure to evaporative stress factors, the tear production rate of the mice in the dry-eye cabinet was consistently lower than that of controls. Unlike PRTT, EAPTT can be readily applied to the small globes of laboratory animals without the need for forceps, thus saving time and effort. In addition, EAPTT was practical and imposed no undue stress on the mice, due to the test material's firmer structure. Therefore, compared with PRTT, EAPTT is safer and more reliable for the diagnosis of dry-eye syndrome in mice. PMID:27780003

  19. Effects of pH, sample size, and solvent partitioning on recovery of soluble phenolic acids and isoflavonoids in leaves and stems of red clover (Trifolium pratense cv. Kenland).

    PubMed

    Kagan, Isabelle A

    2011-11-01

    Several extraction parameters were tested to determine optimal conditions for extracting phenolics from leaves and stems of red clover (Trifolium pratense L. cv. Kenland), with the goal of using extracts in bioassays and in assessment of phenolic profiles. HPLC-UV profiles were compared before and after partitioning a methanolic extract of soluble phenolics with ethyl acetate-ethyl ether (1:1, v/v). The effect of extract pH on the partitioning of phenolics into the ethyl acetate-ethyl ether (EtOAc-Et2O) phase was evaluated, and several tissue weights were extracted to determine a minimum amount that could be extracted without loss of information. HPLC profiles of soluble phenolics were similar in the methanolic extracts and the partitioned EtOAc-Et2O extracts. However, recoveries in unpartitioned extracts were 2- to 4-fold greater than in the acidified, partitioned extracts. Also, recovery was considerably affected by the pH to which extracts were adjusted prior to partitioning. In extracts acidified to pH 2, recoveries were 2- to 7-fold higher than in extracts partitioned at pH 6. In extracts prepared from 250, 120, or 60 mg of tissue, peak areas of methanolic extracts were directly proportional to the amount of tissue extracted.

  20. [Mucosal immune system and mucosal vaccine].

    PubMed

    Yanagita, M; Hiroi, T; Kiyono, H

    1997-02-01

    In the recent years, mucosal immune system is recognized as the new world in the area of immunology. The host is continuously exposed to the numerous numbers of environmental antigens via the mucosa and the skin. A total surface area of the mucosa is approximately 200 times larger than that of the skin, and the former surface area contains a large numbers of lymphoid cells (> 10(11)). In order to provide an effective defence for the host by vaccine, it is logical to consider the mucosal immune system. According to the new informations obtained by the modern cellular and molecular immunobiological knowledges and approaches, the concept of the mucosal immune system has been rapidly proceeded to apply for the development of mucosal vaccine. In this report, we have reviewed and discussed the recent progress in the characterization of mucosal immune system and the development of mucosal vaccine.

  1. Use of phenol red thread tests to evaluate tear production in clinically normal Amazon parrots and comparison with Schirmer tear test findings.

    PubMed

    Storey, Eric S; Carboni, Deborah A; Kearney, Michael T; Tully, Thomas N

    2009-11-15

    To determine phenol red thread test (PRTT) values in eyes of clinically normal Hispaniolan Amazon parrots before and after topical application of an ophthalmic anesthetic agent and compare findings with Schirmer tear test (STT) values. Evaluation study. 24 Amazona ventralis parrots from a research colony. On 4 occasions (1-week intervals), all birds underwent a thorough ophthalmic examination of both eyes, which included (in sequence) performance of a PRTT and an STT; topical ocular application of proparacaine hydrochloride; and performance of another PRTT and another STT. Correlations between PRTT and STT values recorded with and without topical anesthesia were assessed. Without topical anesthesia, mean +/- SD PRTT value was 12.5 +/- 5.0 mm/15 s (range, 1 to 25 mm/15 s). With topical anesthesia, the PRTT value was 12.6 +/- 5.4 mm/15 s (range, 2 to 24 mm/15 s). Without topical anesthesia, mean STT value was 7.9 +/- 2.6 mm/min (range, 0 to 13 mm/min). With topical anesthesia, the STT value was 5.1 +/- 3.3 mm/min (range, 0 to 18 mm/min). The correlation of PRTT and STT values recorded with or without topical anesthesia was weak (r = 0.51 and r = 0.32, respectively). Results indicated that the PRTT and STT were both viable methods for measurement of tear production in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Topical application of an ophthalmic anesthetic agent did not have a significant effect on the PRTT values but significantly decreased the STT values.

  2. Impact of post-harvest ozone treatments on the skin phenolic extractability of red winegrapes cv Barbera and Nebbiolo (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Paissoni, Maria Alessandra; Río Segade, Susana; Giacosa, Simone; Torchio, Fabrizio; Cravero, Francesco; Englezos, Vasileios; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Carboni, Cristian; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Rolle, Luca

    2017-08-01

    Recently the use of ozone as sanitizing agent has been proposed on winegrapes in order to control mycobiota after harvest. The aim of this work was to investigate possible indirect physico-chemical effects of ozone treatment on berry skin phenolic composition and extractability. Vitis vinifera L. cv Nebbiolo and Barbera, chosen for their different anthocyanin profiles, were post-harvest treated for 24 and 72h with gaseous ozone (30μL/L). Skin anthocyanin and flavanol extractability was assessed during maceration (6, 24, 48, 96, 168 and 240h) using a wine-like solution. In our experimental conditions, ozone did not affect significantly the final extraction yield of anthocyanins (TA), proanthocyanidins (PRO), and flavanols reactive to vanillin (FRV) in Barbera, although TA and FRV extractabilities were higher in control samples than in ozone-treated samples during the first stages of maceration. In Nebbiolo, the final TA extraction yield was positively influenced by the ozone treatment (68.6, 64.2, and 59.9% for 24h ozone-treated berries, 72h ozone-treated berries and control samples, respectively). Final PRO and FRV extractability also increased in both ozone-treated samples compared to the control (+8.6-9.1% for PRO and +7.3-11.7% for FRV). No significant differences were found among treatments for individual anthocyanins in both cultivars at the end of maceration. Therefore, the use of ozone as sanitizing agent in red varieties prior to winemaking process can be considered because it did not negatively affect the extractability of skin anthocyanins and flavanols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An analysis on flavonoids, phenolics and organic acids contents in brewed red wines of both non-skin contact and skin contact fermentation techniques of Mao Luang ripe fruits (Antidesma bunius) harvested from Phupan Valley in Northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Samappito, S; Butkhup, L

    2008-07-01

    The experiment was carried out at the Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Technology, Mahasarakham University, Northeast Thailand during the 2006. The study aimed to determine amounts of flavonoids, phenolics and organic acids in ripe fruits and brewed red wines of both non-skin contact and skin contact winemaking techniques where Mao Luang ripe fruits of both Fapratan and Sangkrow2 cultivars were used. The experiment was laid in a Completely Randomised Design (CRD) with four replications. The results showed that mean values of primary data of fresh Mao Luang ripe fruits on weight of 100 berries (g) and mean values of juice:solids, pH, total soluble solid (TSS, 0brix), total organic acids (TOA, mg L(-1)), TSS:TOA (%), total flavonoids contents (TFC, mg L(-l)), total phenolic acids (TPA, mg L(-1)), total procyanidins contents (TPC, mg L(-1)) and reducing sugar (g L(-1)) were 65.62, 3.28, 3.51, 16.50, 49.36, 28.10, 397.90, 76.04, 156.21 and 184.32, respectively. Skin contact Mao Luang red wine gave higher amounts of flavonoids, phenolic acids, anthocyanins of procyanidin B1 and procyanidin B2, organic acids than non-skin contact red wine. The differences were highly significant. Furthermore, ethanol (%) and total acidity (g L(-1) citric acid) were much higher for skin contact wine than non-skin contact wine but a reverse was found with total soluble solids (0brix), pH where non-skin contact wine gave higher mean values than skin contact wine.

  4. Optical Microangiography: High-Definition Magnification Colonoscopy with Narrow Band Imaging (NBI) for Visualizing Mucosal Capillaries and Red Blood Cells in the Large Intestine.

    PubMed

    Yao, Kenshi; Anagnostopoulos, George K; Jawhari, Aida U; Kaye, Philip V; Hawkey, Chris J; Ragunath, Krish

    2008-06-01

    Recent advances in zoom endoscopy have enabled the subepithelial capillary network (SECN) in different organs of the gastrointestinal tract to be visualized. Ex vivo studies have suggested that the SECN demonstrates a honeycomb-like structure in the large intestine, but this has not yet been visualized in vivo. The high clarity and resolution of narrow-band imaging (NBI) may allow visualization at the single red-blood-cell (RBC) level and more accurate visualization of the SECN. We investigated whether high-definition magnification colonoscopy with NBI is useful for visualizing capillaries and RBCs in the large intestine. Sixteen patients with bowel symptoms undergoing routine colonoscopy with normal findings in a tertiary referral academic gastroenterology and endoscopy unit were included in the study. Total colonoscopies were performed using a high-definition magnification colonoscope (CF-H260AZI, Olympus, Tokyo) and a prototype high-definition electronic endoscopy system capable of NBI. Each part of the large intestine (cecum, ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid colon, and rectum) was observed at the maximum magnification with white-light imaging (WLI) and NBI. The normal honeycomb-like SECN and RBC movement by high-definition magnification colonoscopy with either WLI or NBI was prospectively successfully visualized for each part of the large intestine. In all subjects, high-definition magnification colonoscopy with NBI allowed the visualization of a honeycomb-like SECN together with RBC movement in each segment of the large intestine except for the rectum. In contrast, with WLI alone, neither this SECN structure nor RBC movement could be detected. High-definition magnification colonoscopy with NBI could be a new optical method for facilitating noninvasive investigations of both the microvascular architecture and microcirculation without the need for contrast materials.

  5. Bran data of total flavonoid and total phenolic contents, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, and profiles of proanthocyanidins and whole grain physical traits of 32 red and purple rice varieties.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Hsuan; McClung, Anna M; Bergman, Christine J

    2016-09-01

    Phytochemicals in red and purple bran rice have potential health benefit to humans. We determined the phytochemicals in brans of 32 red and purple global rice varieties. The description of the origin and physical traits of the whole grain (color, length, width, thickness and 100-kernel weight) of this germplasm collection are provided along with data of total flavonoid and total phenolic contents, oxygen radical absorbance capacity and total proanthocyanidin contents. The contents and proportions of individual oligomers, from degree of polymerization of monomers to 14-mers, and polymers in bran of these 32 rice varieties are presented (DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.04.004) [1].

  6. Influence of industrial and alternative farming systems on contents of sugars, organic acids, total phenolic content, and the antioxidant activity of red beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris Rote Kugel).

    PubMed

    Bavec, Martina; Turinek, Matjaz; Grobelnik-Mlakar, Silva; Slatnar, Ana; Bavec, Franc

    2010-11-24

    The contents of sugars, organic acids, total phenolic content, and the antioxidant activity were quantified in the flesh of red beet from conventional (CON), integrated (INT), organic (ORG), biodynamic (BD), and control farming systems using established methods. Significant differences were measured for malic acid, total phenolic content (TPC), and total antioxidant activity, where malic acid content ranged from 2.39 g kg(-1) FW (control) to 1.63 g kg(-1) FW (CON, ORG, and INT). The highest TPC was measured in BD and control samples (0.677 and 0.672 mg GAE g(-1), respectively), and the lowest in CON samples (0.511 mg GAE g(-1)). Antioxidant activity was positively correlated with TPC (r2=0.6187) and ranged from 0.823 μM TE g(-1) FW to 1.270 μM TE g(-1) FW in CON and BD samples, respectively, whereas total sugar content ranged from 21.03 g kg(-1) FW (CON) to 31.58 g kg(-1) FW (BD). The importance of sugars, organic acids, phenols, and antioxidants for human health, as well as for plant resilience and health, gained from this explorative study, is discussed and put into perspective.

  7. The influence of g-C3N4 loading on the photocatalytic activity of Bi12O17Br2/Bi2O3 composite in the phenol red degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, X.; Jiang, S. S.; Lin, Z.; Wang, M.; Yan, Y. S.

    2016-07-01

    In this work, the influence of graphite-like C3N4 (g-C3N4) loading on the photocatalytic performance of Bi12O17Br2/Bi2O3 composite was studied. The results indicated that g-C3N4-Bi12O17Br2/Bi2O3 photocatalysts displayed much higher photocatalytic efficiency for the phenol red degradation than the bare Bi2O3 and Bi2O3/Bi12O17Br2 composite under visible light illumination. The best photocatalytic performance of the composite sample with almost 100% phenol red degradation located at g-C3N4-Bi12O17Br2/Bi2O3-50 under visible light illumination for 80 mins. This excellent photocatalytic performance was displayed according to the efficient separation and transportation of the photogenerated charges, which was resulted from the coupling of C3N4 and Bi12O17Br2/Bi2O3.

  8. Influence of phenolic compounds on the sensorial perception and volatility of red wine esters in model solution: an insight at the molecular level.

    PubMed

    Lorrain, Bénédicte; Tempere, Sophie; Iturmendi, Nerea; Moine, Virginie; de Revel, Gilles; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2013-09-01

    Impact of (+)-catechin and gallic acid on sensory perception and volatility of isoamyl acetate, ethyl isobutyrate, ethyl butyrate and ethyl octanoate was investigated in model solutions, by means of triangle tests, detection threshold determination and HS-GC-MS analyses. Catechin significantly altered the sensory perception of most esters (ethyl isobutyrate, ethyl butyrate and ethyl octanoate) while gallic acid displayed no impact. Ethyl butyrate and ethyl octanoate odour thresholds doubled or tripled in the presence of catechin, underlining a retention impact of phenolic compounds in liquid matrix. The headspace analyses displayed a decrease only in ethyl octanoate volatility in presence of catechin, whereas no significant difference in other esters concentrations was observed. This study indicated that phenolic compounds have a variable impact on aroma compounds' volatility and their sensory perception. The polarity of phenolic and volatile compounds as well as their spatial conformation also appeared to influence the interaction strength. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of the chemical changes during storage of phenol-formaldehyde resins pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry, inverse gas chromatography and Fourier transform infra red methods.

    PubMed

    Strzemiecka, B; Voelkel, A; Zięba-Palus, J; Lachowicz, T

    2014-09-12

    The chemical changes occurring in the phenol-formaldehyde resins (resol and novolac type) during their storage were investigated. In this paper the FT-IR, py-GCMS and inverse gas chromatography methods were applied for assessment of the changes occurring during storage of the phenolic resins. We have found that during storage some examined resins occurred partial curing. The results from all techniques applied are consistent. Py-GCMS is useful technique for screening the storage processes but IGC seems to be most sensitive one.

  10. Phenolic compounds present in Sardinian wine extracts protect against the production of inflammatory cytokines induced by oxysterols in CaCo-2 human enterocyte-like cells.

    PubMed

    Biasi, Fiorella; Guina, Tina; Maina, Marco; Cabboi, Barbara; Deiana, Monica; Tuberoso, Carlo I; Calfapietra, Simone; Chiarpotto, Elena; Sottero, Barbara; Gamba, Paola; Gargiulo, Simona; Brunetto, Vanessa; Testa, Gabriella; Dessì, Maria A; Poli, Giuseppe; Leonarduzzi, Gabriella

    2013-07-01

    Cholesterol auto-oxidation products, namely oxysterols, are widely present in cholesterol-rich foods. They are thought to potentially interfere with homeostasis of the human digestive tract, playing a role in intestinal mucosal damage. This report concerns the marked up-regulation in differentiated CaCo-2 colonic epithelial cells of two key inflammatory interleukins, IL-6 and IL-8, caused by a mixture of oxysterols representative of a high cholesterol diet. This strong pro-inflammatory effect appeared to be dependent on the net imbalance of red-ox equilibrium with the production of excessive levels of reactive oxygen species through the colonic NADPH-oxidase NOX1 activation. Induction of NOX1 was markedly while not fully inhibited by CaCo-2 cell pre-incubation with phenolic extracts obtained from well-selected wines from typical grape varieties grown in Sardinia. Oxysterol-dependent NOX1 activation, as well as interleukin synthesis, were completely prevented by Cannonau red wine extract that contains an abundant phenolic fraction, in particular phenolic acids and flavonoids. Conversely, cell pre-treatment with Vermentino white wine extract with smaller phenolic fraction showed only a partial NOX1 down-regulation and was ineffective in interleukin synthesis induced by dietary oxysterols. It is thus likely that the effects of Sardinian wine extracts against intestinal inflammation induced by dietary oxysterols are mainly due to their high phenolic content: low doses of phenolics would be responsible only for direct scavenging oxysterol-dependent ROS production. Besides this direct activity, an excess of phenolic compounds detectable in red wine, may exert an additional indirect action by blocking oxysterol-related NOX1 induction, thus totally preventing the pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory events triggered by dietary oxysterols. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Glycoalkaloid, phenolic, and flavonoid content and antioxidative activities of conventional (nonorganic) and organic potato peel powders from commercial Gold, Red, and Russet Potatoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The content of glycoalkaloids a-chaconine and a-solanine, individual and total phenolics compounds, and total flavonoids for three peels prepared from conventional and three from organic commercial potatoes as well antioxidant activities using three different methods were evaluated. Glycoalkaloids ...

  12. Molecular mechanisms involved in the inhibition of MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells by phenolic acids from the red-flesh peach BY00P6653

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A wide variety of fruits and vegetables extracts have been shown to protect against cancer cell growth in vitro. Increasing evidence suggests that phenolics compounds found in fruits and vegetables may have anticancer properties. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the anti-proliferative...

  13. Why mucosal health?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aquaculture species depend more heavily on mucosal barriers than their terrestrial agricultural counterparts as they are continuously interacting with the aquatic microbiota. Unlike classical immune centers, such as the spleen and kidney, the accessibility of mucosal surfaces through immersion/dip t...

  14. Cosmetic applications of glucitol-core containing gallotannins from a proprietary phenolic-enriched red maple (Acer rubrum) leaves extract: inhibition of melanogenesis via down-regulation of tyrosinase and melanogenic gene expression in B16F10 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hang; Xu, Jialin; DaSilva, Nicholas A; Wang, Ling; Wei, Zhengxi; Guo, Liangran; Johnson, Shelby L; Lu, Wei; Xu, Jun; Gu, Qiong; Seeram, Navindra P

    2017-03-10

    The red maple (Acer rubrum) is a rich source of phenolic compounds which possess galloyl groups attached to different positions of a 1,5-anhydro-D-glucitol core. While these glucitol-core containing gallotannins (GCGs) have reported anti-oxidant and anti-glycative effects, they have not yet been evaluated for their cosmetic applications. Herein, the anti-tyrosinase and anti-melanogenic effects of a proprietary phenolic-enriched red maple leaves extract [Maplifa(™); contains ca. 45% ginnalin A (GA) along with other GCGs] were investigated using enzyme and cellular assays. The GCGs showed anti-tyrosinase activity with IC50 values ranging from 101.4 to 1047.3 μM and their mechanism of tyrosinase inhibition (using GA as a representative GCG) was evaluated by chelating and computational/modeling studies. GA reduced melanin content in murine melanoma B16F10 cells by 79.1 and 56.7% (at non-toxic concentrations of 25 and 50 μM, respectively), and its mechanisms of anti-melanogenic effects were evaluated by using methods including fluorescent probe (DCF-DA), real-time PCR, and western blot experiments. These data indicated that GA was able to: (1) reduce the levels of reactive oxygen species, (2) down-regulate the expression of MITF, TYR, TRP-1, and TRP-2 gene levels in a time-dependent manner, and (3) significantly reduce protein expression of the TRP-2 gene. Therefore, the anti-melanogenic effects of red maple GCGs warrant further investigation of this proprietary natural product extract for potential cosmetic applications.

  15. Herbs in Oral Mucositis

    PubMed Central

    Baharvand, Maryam; Jafari, Soudeh

    2017-01-01

    Oral mucositis is an inflammatory mucosal destruction as a result of chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, which in severe cases can impair patients’ quality of life. Moreover, mucosal infection and/or systemic involvement due to compromised immunity leads to delay or discontinuation of the treatment. Many strategies and agents have been suggested for the management of this condition. Because of their lower side effects compared to chemical drugs, general interest in evaluating therapeutic effects of herbs has been increased intensively. Herbal plants apply their effect through different mechanisms of action: antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antiseptic, and anticarcinogenic activity. Recently, various natural agents in plants have been noticed in mucositis, which may improve the symptoms through different interventions. The purpose of this review is to focus on the preventive or therapeutic use of herbal medicine to alleviate oral mucositis. PMID:28511530

  16. Radiation Induced Oral Mucositis

    PubMed Central

    PS, Satheesh Kumar; Balan, Anita; Sankar, Arun; Bose, Tinky

    2009-01-01

    Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i) With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii) who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii) who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv) who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene PMID:20668585

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation on phenol content, antioxidant activity and biological activity of black maca and red maca extracts (Lepidium meyenii walp).

    PubMed

    Zevallos-Concha, A; Nuñez, D; Gasco, M; Vasquez, C; Quispe, M; Gonzales, G F

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on UV spectrum on maca, total content of polyphenols, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activities and in vivo biological activities of red and black maca extracts (Lepidium meyenii). Adult mice of the strain Swiss aged 3 months and weighing 30-35 g in average were used to determine biological activities. Daily sperm production, effect on testosterone-induced prostate hyperplasia and forced swimming test were used to determine the effect of irradiation on biological activities of maca extracts. Irradiation did not show differences in UV spectrum but improves the amount of total polyphenols in red maca as well as in black maca extracts. In both cases, black maca extract has more content of polyphenols than red maca extract (p < 0.01). Gamma irradiation significantly increased the antioxidant capacity (p < 0.05). No difference was observed in daily sperm production when irradiated and nonirradiated maca extract were administered to mice (p > 0.05). Black maca extract but not red maca extract has more swimming endurance capacity in the forced swimming test. Irradiation of black maca extract increased the swimming time to exhaustion (p < 0.05). This is not observed with red maca extract (p > 0.05). Testosterone enanthate (TE) increased significantly the ventral prostate weight. Administration of red maca extract in animals treated with TE prevented the increase in prostate weight. Irradiation did not modify effect of red maca extract on prostate weight (p > 0.05). In conclusion, irradiation does not alter the biological activities of both black maca and red maca extracts. It prevents the presence of microorganisms in the extracts of black or red maca, but the biological activities were maintained.

  18. Mucosal Health in Aquaculture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Abstract The mucosal surfaces (skin, gill, and intestine) constitute the first line of defense against pathogen invasion while simultaneously carrying out a diverse array of other critical physiological processes, including nutrient absorption, osmoregulation, and waste excretion. Aquaculture specie...

  19. Effects of Ultrasonic Irradiation on Phenolic Compounds in Wine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuzawa, Nobuyoshi; Ohdaira, Etsuzo; Ide, Masao

    2000-05-01

    Red wine has been of interest recently because many poly-phenols, that are considered to be good for health, are contained therein. Since ultrasonic irradiation accelerates maturation, its effects on phenolic compounds in wine were investigated in this study. Effects were evaluated using the indices developed by Glories. It was found that weak ultrasonic irradiation promotes an increase in the amount of phenolic compounds in red wine.

  20. Pervaporation of phenols

    DOEpatents

    Boddeker, K.W.

    1989-02-21

    Aqueous phenolic solutions are separated by pervaporation to yield a phenol-depleted retentate and a phenol-enriched permeate. The separation effect is enhanced by phase segregation into two immiscible phases, phenol in water'' (approximately 10% phenol), and water in phenol'' (approximately 70% phenol). Membranes capable of enriching phenols by pervaporation include elastomeric polymers and anion exchange membranes, membrane selection and process design being guided by pervaporation performance and chemical stability towards phenolic solutions. Single- and multiple-stage processes are disclosed, both for the enrichment of phenols and for purification of water from phenolic contamination. 8 figs.

  1. Pervaporation of phenols

    DOEpatents

    Boddeker, Karl W.

    1989-01-01

    Aqueous phenolic solutions are separated by pervaporation to yield a phenol-depleted retentate and a phenol-enriched permeate. The separation effect is enhanced by phase segregation into two immiscible phases, "phenol in water" (approximately 10% phenol), and "water in phenol" (approximately 70% phenol). Membranes capable of enriching phenols by pervaporation include elastomeric polymers and anion exchange membranes, membrane selection and process design being guided by pervaporation performance and chemical stability towards phenolic solutions. Single- and multiple-stage procresses are disclosed, both for the enrichment of phenols and for purification of water from phenolic contamination.

  2. The effect of supplementation with three commercial inactive dry yeasts on the colour, phenolic compounds, polysaccharides and astringency of a model wine solution and red wine.

    PubMed

    González-Royo, Elena; Esteruelas, Mireia; Kontoudakis, Nikolaos; Fort, Francesca; Canals, Joan Miquel; Zamora, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays supplementing red wines with commercial inactive dry yeasts is a widespread practice in winemaking because it leads to better balanced wines through increased mouthfeel and smooth astringency. The aim of this article is to study, in a red wine and in a model wine solution, how supplementation with three commercial inactive dry yeasts affects chemical composition and astringency. This will give us a better understanding of the action mechanism involved. The results suggest that this action mechanism is related to two different phenomena. The first is that inactive yeasts release polysaccharides and oligosaccharides which can increase mouthfeel and inhibit interactions between salivary protein and tannins. The second is that they have a direct effect on the precipitation or absorption of proanthocyanidins, especially the larger polymers, which have been described as the most astringent. It can be concluded that supplementation with inactive yeasts is indeed a useful tool for smoothing the astringency of red wines. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Cytokines and mucosal immunity.

    PubMed

    Bamias, Giorgos; Arseneau, Kristen O; Cominelli, Fabio

    2014-11-01

    Cytokines are integral mediators for maintaining intestinal mucosal homeostasis, as well as prominent effector molecules during chronic gut inflammatory diseases. This review focuses on recent studies of the role of specific cytokines in mucosal immunity. Dichotomous, or even opposing, functions have been described for several cytokines involved in intestinal innate immunity (most notably for members of the interleukin-1 family), which depend on the specific inflammatory conditions within the intestinal mucosa. For example, both interleukin-1α and interleukin-33 exhibit 'alarmin'-type properties that can signal tissue or cell damage, which further add to their well described proinflammatory roles. Costimulatory molecules of the tumor necrosis factor/tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, such as TNF-like cytokine 1A and LIGHT, are actively involved in mucosal proinflammatory pathways, but also may exert protection against infectious agents to facilitate recovery from acute inflammation. Finally, innate lymphoid cells are increasingly recognized as important cellular sources of pivotal mucosal cytokines, including the interleukin-23/T helper 17 cytokine, interleukin-22. Elucidating the complexity of cytokine signaling within the normal mucosa and during acute and chronic inflammation will be a pivotal step toward understanding the pathogenesis of immune-mediated gut diseases and developing effective therapies to treat them.

  4. Simplified method for the screening of technological maturity of red grape and total phenolic compounds of red grape skin: application of the characteristic vector method to near-infrared spectra.

    PubMed

    Nogales-Bueno, Julio; Ayala, Fernando; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel; Rodríguez-Pulido, Francisco José; Echávarri, José Federico; Heredia, Francisco José

    2015-05-06

    Characteristic vector analysis has been applied to near-infrared spectra to extract the main spectral information from hyperspectral images. For this purpose, 3, 6, 9, and 12 characteristic vectors have been used to reconstruct the spectra, and root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) have been calculated to measure the differences between characteristic vector reconstructed spectra (CVRS) and hyperspectral imaging spectra (HIS). RMSE values obtained were 0.0049, 0.0018, 0.0012, and 0.0012 [log(1/R) units] for spectra allocated into the validation set, for 3, 6, 9, and 12 characteristic vectors, respectively. After that, calibration models have been developed and validated using the different groups of CVRS to predict skin total phenolic concentration, sugar concentration, titratable acidity, and pH by modified partial least-squares (MPLS) regression. The obtained results have been compared to those previously obtained from HIS. The models developed from the CVRS reconstructed from 12 characteristic vectors present similar values of coefficients of determination (RSQ) and standard errors of prediction (SEP) than the models developed from HIS. RSQ and SEP were 0.84 and 1.13 mg g(-1) of skin grape (expressed as gallic acid equivalents), 0.93 and 2.26 °Brix, 0.97 and 3.87 g L(-1) (expressed as tartaric acid equivalents), and 0.91 and 0.14 for skin total phenolic concentration, sugar concentration, titratable acidity, and pH, respectively, for the models developed from the CVRS reconstructed from 12 characteristic vectors.

  5. Prevention of hydrogen peroxide-induced red blood cells lysis by Ilex paraguariensis aqueous extract: participation of phenolic and xanthine compounds.

    PubMed

    Peralta, Ignacio N; Cogoi, Laura; Filip, Rosana; Anesini, Claudia

    2013-02-01

    The fresh leaves and stems of Ilex paraguariensis (Aquifoliaceae) are employed to prepare the commercial product used in North-eastern Argentina, Southern Brazil and Eastern Paraguay named yerba maté. The presence of polyphenols and xanthines, which present antioxidant activity, has been described in I. paraguariensis. In living organism, reactive oxygen species can cause tissue damage affecting erythrocyte membranes leading to hemolysis. The aim of this work was to evaluate the protective effect of an aqueous extract of I. paraguariensis (green leaves) on the hemolysis of red blood cells induced by hydrogen peroxide and to correlate this activity with the enzymatic activity related to hydrogen peroxide metabolism. The antioxidant activity of chlorogenic acid and caffeine was also analysed to evaluate their contribution to the activity of the crude extract. The extract as well as the isolated compounds protected red blood cells from hemolysis. This effect was related to a catalase-like activity. This study could contribute to the knowledge of the antioxidant activity of I. paraguariensis in view of the great quantities of yerba maté consumed by the population. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Seed oil extraction from red prickly pear using hexane and supercritical CO2 : assessment of phenolic compound composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Koubaa, Mohamed; Mhemdi, Houcine; Barba, Francisco J; Angelotti, Armel; Bouaziz, Fatma; Chaabouni, Semia Ellouz; Vorobiev, Eugène

    2017-01-01

    Investigating Opuntia species for their seed oil content is of much importance owing to their potential use for food and in cosmetic applications. These oils have an important content in unsaturated fatty acids as well as antioxidant compounds (e.g. polyphenols, vitamin E), which have been associated with the prevention of some chronic diseases. Moreover, Opuntia stricta oils possess important antimicrobial activities. For instance, the main focus of this study was to compare the effectiveness of conventional (hexane extraction) and novel (supercritical (SC)-CO2 ) extraction methods for the recovery of oil and phenolic compounds from O. stricta seeds. The oil yield of both extracts was then compared and the polyphenol content and composition of both extracts were determined by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. Additionally, antioxidant (DPPH assay) and antimicrobial activities (disc diffusion method) of O. stricta seed oils were determined. The oil yield (based on Soxhlet's method) of O. stricta seeds was determined using SC-CO2 (49.9 ± 2.2%), and hexane (49.0 ± 1.5%). Although obtaining similar oil extraction yields using the two methods, the extracted oil using SC-CO2 was more enriched in polyphenols (172.2 ± 11.9 µg gallic acid equivalents (GAE) g(-1) oil) than that extracted using hexane (76.0 ± 6.9 µg GAE g(-1) of oil). Polyphenol profiles showed that the SC-CO2 process led to the yield of more compounds (45) than that using hexane extraction (11). Moreover, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of SC-CO2 extract showed a high percentage of inhibition. SC-CO2 extraction of O. stricta seed oil led to extraction of oil with a similar yield to that with hexane extraction, but with higher polyphenol content. The extract containing polyphenols exhibited high antioxidant and antibacterial properties, demonstrating their great potential as feedstock for high-oil quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of

  7. Mucosal melanoma: an update.

    PubMed

    Ballester Sánchez, R; de Unamuno Bustos, B; Navarro Mira, M; Botella Estrada, R

    2015-03-01

    Mucosal melanoma is a rare melanoma subtype that differs from the cutaneous form of the tumor in its biology, clinical manifestations, and management. Diagnosis is usually late due to a lack of early or specific signs and the location of lesions in areas that are difficult to access on physical examination. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for localized disease. The value of sentinel lymph node biopsy and lymphadenectomy is still unclear. Radiotherapy can be used as adjuvant therapy for the control of local disease. c-KIT mutations are more common than in other types of melanoma and this has led to significant advances in the use of imatinib for the treatment of metastatic mucosal melanoma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  8. Differences in Vvufgt and VvmybA1 Gene Expression Levels and Phenolic Composition in Table Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) 'Red Globe' and Its Somaclonal Variant 'Pink Globe'.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Luis; Sáez, Vania; Hinrichsen, Patricio; Castro, María H; Vergara, Carola; von Baer, Dietrich; Mardones, Claudia

    2017-04-05

    A novel 'Red Globe' (RG)-derived grape variety, 'Pink Globe' (PG), was described and registered as a new genotype, with earlier ripening and sweeter taste than those of RG. Microsatellite analysis revealed that PG and RG are undifferentiable; however, the PG VvmybA1c contains six single-nucleotide polymorphisms within the coding and noncoding region, possibly related to the reduced VvmybA1 expression levels. Conversely, HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS analysis showed significantly lower anthocyanin content in PG skin than in RG skin, and PG had no detectable trihydroxylated anthocyanins. Total flavonols did not differ between the variants, although some quercetin derivate concentrations were lower in PG. HPLC-FLD analysis revealed slightly higher concentrations of epicatechin and a procyanidin dimer in PG seeds, although the antioxidant capacity of crude extracts from either variety did not differ significantly. These differences, particularly in monomeric anthocyanin content, can be attributed to altered activity of a MYB-type transcription factor, reducing Vvufgt expression.

  9. Sodium alginate inhibits methotrexate-induced gastrointestinal mucositis in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Atsuki; Itoh, Tomokazu; Nasu, Reishi; Kajiwara, Eiji; Nishida, Ryuichi

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal mucositis is one of the most prevalent side effects of chemotherapy. Methotrexate is a pro-oxidant compound that depletes dihydrofolate pools and is widely used in the treatment of leukemia and other malignancies. Through its effects on normal tissues with high rates of proliferation, methotrexate treatment leads to gastrointestinal mucositis. In rats, methotrexate-induced gastrointestinal mucositis is histologically characterized by crypt loss, callus fusion and atrophy, capillary dilatation, and infiltration of mixed inflammatory cells. The water-soluble dietary fiber sodium alginate (AL-Na) is derived from seaweed and has demonstrated muco-protective and hemostatic effects on upper gastrointestinal ulcers. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of AL-Na on methotrexate-induced small intestinal mucositis in rats. Animals were subcutaneously administered methotrexate at a dosage of 2.5 mg/kg once daily for 3 d. Rats were treated with single oral doses of AL-Na 30 min before and 6 h after methotrexate administration. On the 4th day, small intestines were removed and weighed. Subsequently, tissues were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and bromodeoxyuridine. AL-Na significantly prevented methotrexate-induced small intestinal mucositis. Moreover, AL-Na prevented decreases in red blood cell numbers, hemoglobin levels, and hematocrit levels. These results suggest the potential of AL-Na as a therapy for methotrexate-induced small intestinal mucositis.

  10. Solid foodstuff supplemented with phenolics from grape: antioxidant properties and correlation with phenolic profiles.

    PubMed

    Rózek, Aleksandra; Achaerandio, Isabel; Almajano, María Pilar; Güell, Carme; López, Francisco; Ferrando, Montserrat

    2007-06-27

    Osmotic dehydration was assessed as an operation for supplementing a solid foodstuff (a gel was used as the model food) with grape phenolics from a concentrated red grape must to increase its antioxidant properties. The model food was processed for up to 24 h, and the osmotic pressure was adjusted by diluting the concentrated red grape must. In all conditions tested, low molecular weight phenolics (red grape must and also in the osmo-dehydrated food. Other flavonoids such as (+)-catechin and (-)epicatechin (flavan-3-ols) were detected only in the red grape must. Trolox equivalent antioxidant activity (TEAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were determined in the osmo-dehydrated food. Under the conditions that maximized phenolic infusion, the total phenolic content of the gel was close to the values reported in some rich-in-phenolic fruits and vegetables, whereas TEAC was 3 times that of fresh fruit with the highest antioxidant capacity. Regression analysis showed that the individual phenolics analyzed significantly explain the antioxidant capacity of the osmo-dehydrated food.

  11. Organizing a mucosal defense.

    PubMed

    Newberry, Rodney D; Lorenz, Robin G

    2005-08-01

    Gastrointestinal associated lymphoid tissue can be divided into loosely organized effector sites, which include the lamina propria and intraepithelial lymphocytes, and more organized structures, such as mesenteric lymph nodes (LNs), Peyer's patches (PPs), isolated lymphoid follicles, and cryptopatches (CPs). These organized structures in the gastrointestinal tract have been hypothesized to play the role of primary lymphoid organ, supporting the extrathymic development of T lymphocytes (CPs), secondary lymphoid organs involved in the induction of the mucosal immune response (PPs), and tertiary lymphoid structures whose function is still under debate (isolated lymphoid follicles). The most widely studied lymphoid structure found in the small intestine is the PP. PPs are secondary lymphoid structures, and their development and function have been extensively investigated. However, single lymphoid aggregates resembling PPs have been also described in humans and in the murine small intestines. These isolated lymphoid follicles have both germinal centers and an overlying follicle-associated epithelium, suggesting that they also can function as inductive sites for the mucosal immune response. This review compares and contrasts the development and function of the four main organized gastrointestinal lymphoid tissues: CPs, isolated lymphoid follicles, PPs, and mesenteric LNs.

  12. Mucosal biofilms of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Shantanu; Mitchell, Aaron P

    2011-08-01

    Biofilms are microbial communities that form on surfaces and are embedded in an extracellular matrix. C. albicans forms pathogenic mucosal biofilms that are evoked by changes in host immunity or mucosal ecology. Mucosal surfaces are inhabited by many microbial species; hence these biofilms are polymicrobial. Several recent studies have applied paradigms of biofilm analysis to study mucosal C. albicans infections. These studies reveal that the Bcr1 transcription factor is a master regulator of C. albicans biofilm formation under diverse conditions, though the most relevant Bcr1 target genes can vary with the biofilm niche. An important determinant of mucosal biofilm formation is the interaction with host defenses. Finally, studies of interactions between bacterial species and C. albicans provide insight into the communication mechanisms that endow polymicrobial biofilms with unique properties.

  13. The study of phenolic compounds as natural antioxidants in wine.

    PubMed

    López-Vélez, M; Martínez-Martínez, F; Del Valle-Ribes, C

    2003-01-01

    Plant phenolics present in fruit and vegetables, and that are particularly rich in red wine, have received considerable attention because of their potential antioxidant activity. Human consumption of antioxidants has many alleged health benefits, including protection against cardiovascular diseases, and, most recently, cancer. Red wines contain a variety of polyphenolic antioxidants. Five samples of commercial red wines from Spain and four phenolic compounds of red wine: gallic acid, trans-resveratrol, quercetin and rutin, have been studied. The total phenolics content and the total antioxidant activity (TAA) of wines was determined. The total phenolic content, determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method, varied from 1800 to 2300 mg/L, expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). The antioxidative effects of wine phenolics were determined using a system based on the inhibition by antioxidants of the absorbance of the radical cation. The relationship between antioxidant activity of phenolic comounds, as hydrogen donating free radical scavengers, and their chemical structures was studied. Furthermore, the total antioxidant activity of the wines investigated was well correlated with phenol content. Thus, the results confirm that red wine polyphenols are, in vitro, significant antioxidants.

  14. Application of artificial neural network (ANN) and partial least-squares regression (PLSR) to predict the changes of anthocyanins, ascorbic acid, Total phenols, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity during storage of red bayberry juice based on fractal analysis and red, green, and blue (RGB) intensity values.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hong; Jiang, Lingling; Lou, Heqiang; Hu, Ya; Kong, Xuecheng; Lu, Hongfei

    2011-01-26

    Artificial neural network (ANN) and partial least-squares regression (PLSR) models were developed to predict the changes of anthocyanin (AC), ascorbic acid (AA), total phenols (TP), total flavonoid (TF), and DPPH radical scavenging activity (SA) in bayberry juice during storage based on fractal analysis (FA) and red, green, and blue (RGB) intensity values. The results show the root mean squared error (RMSE) of ANN-FA decreased 2.44 and 12.45% for AC (RMSE = 18.673 mg/100 mL, R(2) = 0.939) and AA (RMSE = 8.694 mg/100 mL, R(2) = 0.935) compared with PLSR-RGB, respectively. In addition, PLSR-FA (RMSE = 5.966%, R(2) = 0.958) showed a 12.01% decrease in the RMSE compared with PLSR-RGB for predicting SA. For the prediction of TP and TF, however, both models showed poor performances based on FA and RGB. Therefore, ANN and PLSR combined with FA may be a potential method for quality evaluation of bayberry juice during processing, storage, and distribution, but the selection of the most adequate model is of great importance to predict different nutritional components.

  15. Mucosal vaccines: the promise and the challenge.

    PubMed

    Neutra, Marian R; Kozlowski, Pamela A

    2006-02-01

    Most infectious agents enter the body at mucosal surfaces and therefore mucosal immune responses function as a first line of defence. Protective mucosal immune responses are most effectively induced by mucosal immunization through oral, nasal, rectal or vaginal routes, but the vast majority of vaccines in use today are administered by injection. As discussed in this Review, current research is providing new insights into the function of mucosal tissues and the interplay of innate and adaptive immune responses that results in immune protection at mucosal surfaces. These advances promise to accelerate the development and testing of new mucosal vaccines against many human diseases including HIV/AIDS.

  16. Gastroduodenal Mucosal Defense Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Said, Hyder; Kaji, Izumi; Kaunitz, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review To highlight recent developments in the field of gastroduodenal mucosal defense with emphasis on lumen-gut interactions. Recent Findings There has been a growing interest in the physiological functions of luminal chemosensors present from tongue to colon that detect organic molecules in the luminal content associated with nutrient ingestion, usually associated with specialized cells, in particular the enteroendocrine cells. These receptors transduce the release of peptide hormones, in particular proglucagon-derived products such as the glucagon-like-peptides (GLPs), which have profound effects on gut function and on metabolism. Luminal chemosensors transduce GLP release in response to changes in the cellular environment, as part of the mechanism of nutrient chemosensing. GLP-2 has important trophic effects on the intestinal mucosa, including increasing the proliferation rate of stem cells and reducing transmucosal permeability to ions and small molecules, in addition to increasing the rate of duodenal bicarbonate secretion. GLP-1, although traditionally considered an incretin that enhances the effect of insulin on peripheral tissues, also has trophic effects on the intestinal epithelium. Summary A better understanding of the mechanisms that mediate GLP release can further illuminate the importance of nutrient chemosensing as an important component of the mechanism that mediates the trophic effects of luminal nutrients. GLP-1 and -2 are already in clinical use for the treatment of diabetes and intestinal failure. Improved understanding of the control of their release and their end-organ effects will identify new clinical indications and interventions that enhance their release. PMID:26376476

  17. Phenol removal pretreatment process

    DOEpatents

    Hames, Bonnie R.

    2004-04-13

    A process for removing phenols from an aqueous solution is provided, which comprises the steps of contacting a mixture comprising the solution and a metal oxide, forming a phenol metal oxide complex, and removing the complex from the mixture.

  18. Biology of HIV Mucosal Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of review HIV-1 mucosal transmission plays a critical role in HIV-1 infection and AIDS pathogenesis. This review summarizes the latest advances in biological studies of HIV-1 mucosal transmission, highlighting the implications of these studies in the development of microbicides to prevent HIV-1 transmission. Recent findings New studies of initial HIV-1 infection using improved culture models updated the current view of mucosal transmission. Mechanistic studies enhanced our understanding of cell-cell transmission of HIV-1 mediated by the major target cells, including dendritic cells, CD4+ T cells, and macrophages. Increasing evidence indicated the significance of host factors and immune responses in HIV-1 mucosal infection and transmission. Summary Recent progress in HIV-1 mucosal infection and transmission enriches our knowledge of virus-host interactions and viral pathogenesis. Functional studies of HIV-1 interactions with host cells can provide new insights into the design of more effective approaches to combat HIV-1 infection and AIDS. PMID:18802490

  19. Omics in fish mucosal immunity.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Irene; Magadán, Susana

    2017-10-01

    The mucosal immune system of fish is a complex network of immune cells and molecules that are constantly surveilling the environment and protecting the host from infection. A number of "omics" tools are now available and utilized to understand the complexity of mucosal immune systems in non-traditional animal models. This review summarizes recent advances in the implementation of "omics" tools pertaining to the four mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues in teleosts. Genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and "omics" in microbiome research require interdisciplinary collaboration and careful experimental design. The data-rich datasets generated are proving really useful at discovering new innate immune players in fish mucosal secretions, identifying novel markers of specific mucosal immune responses, unraveling the diversity of the B and T cell repertoires and characterizing the diversity of the microbial communities present in teleost mucosal surfaces. Bioinformatics, data analysis and storage platforms should be developed to facilitate rapid processing of large datasets, especially when mammalian tools such as bioinformatics analysis software are not available in fishes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Helminths and mucosal immune modulation.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Joel V

    2006-08-01

    Geographic and ethnic variations in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease frequency suggest that environmental factors affect disease risk. Prevention of parasitic worms (helminths) through improved hygiene may be one factor leading to the increased disease prevalence. Helminths alter host mucosal and systemic immunity. Animals exposed to helminths are protected from experimental colitis and other immunological diseases, and helminthic colonization can be used to treat ongoing murine and human disease. Helminths induce mucosal T cells to make Th2 and regulatory cytokines. Helminth-induced mucosal IL4, TGFbeta, and IL10 likely are part of the protective process. Helminths affect pathways of innate immunity like TLR4 expression and function. Worms also induce various regulatory-type T-cell subsets in the gut that limit effector T-cell growth and function. These effects of once ever-present helminths may have protected people from immune-mediated illnesses like inflammatory bowel disease.

  1. Bran data of total flavonoid and total phenolic contents, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, and profiles of proanthocyanidins and whole grain physical traits of 32 red and purple rice varieties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phytochemicals in red and purple bran rice have potential health benefit to humans. We determined the phytochemicals in brans of 32 red and purple global rice varieties. The description of the origin and physical traits of the whole grain (color, length, width, thickness and 100-kernel weight) of th...

  2. Immunoglobulin Responses at the Mucosal Interface

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kang; Chorny, Alejo

    2011-01-01

    Mucosal surfaces are colonized by large communities of commensal bacteria and represent the primary site of entry for pathogenic agents. To prevent microbial intrusion, mucosal B cells release large amounts of immunoglobulin (Ig) molecules through multiple follicular and extrafollicular pathways. IgA is the most abundant antibody isotype in mucosal secretions and owes its success in frontline immunity to its ability to undergo transcytosis across epithelial cells. In addition to translocating IgA onto the mucosal surface, epithelial cells educate the mucosal immune system as to the composition of the local microbiota and instruct B cells to initiate IgA responses that generate immune protection while preserving immune homeostasis. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of the cellular interactions and signaling pathways governing IgA production at mucosal surfaces and discuss new findings on the regulation and function of mucosal IgD, the most enigmatic isotype of our mucosal antibody repertoire. PMID:21219173

  3. Phenolic Wastewater Treatment Alternatives.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    pH 7 retention times become excessive. The manganese dioxide (Mn02 ) precipitates as a hydrous sludge which must be removed. This sludge becomes a...the sorptive properties of the hydrous MnO 2 often render it bene- ficial to clarification (Reference 22). On the other hand, it would increase the...SYSTEMS Phenol recovery systems are widely used for petroleum refi- nery wastes, coke-oven liquors , and phenol resin plant effluents, where waste phenol

  4. Recognizing potential toxicity of phenol

    SciTech Connect

    Brancato, D.J.

    1982-02-01

    Data is presented which correlates phenol levels in human urine with inhalatory and skin exposures (phenol is rapidly collected and excreted in urine). ''Normal'' phenol levels in human urine are compared with urine levels resulting from exposure to phenol. A correlation is made between urine phenol levels and potential human toxicity.

  5. Immunology of Gut Mucosal Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Pasetti, Marcela F.; Simon, Jakub K.; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Levine, Myron M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Understanding the mechanisms underlying the induction of immunity in the gastrointestinal mucosa following oral immunization and the cross-talk between mucosal and systemic immunity should expedite the development of vaccines to diminish the global burden caused by enteric pathogens. Identifying an immunological correlate of protection in the course of field trials of efficacy, animal models (when available), or human challenge studies is also invaluable. In industrialized country populations, live attenuated vaccines (e.g. polio, typhoid, and rotavirus) mimic natural infection and generate robust protective immune responses. In contrast, a major challenge is to understand and overcome the barriers responsible for the diminished immunogenicity and efficacy of the same enteric vaccines in underprivileged populations in developing countries. Success in developing vaccines against some enteric pathogens has heretofore been elusive (e.g. Shigella). Different types of oral vaccines can selectively or inclusively elicit mucosal secretory immunoglobulin A and serum immunoglobulin G antibodies and a variety of cell-mediated immune responses. Areas of research that require acceleration include interaction between the gut innate immune system and the stimulation of adaptive immunity, development of safe yet effective mucosal adjuvants, better understanding of homing to the mucosa of immunologically relevant cells, and elicitation of mucosal immunologic memory. This review dissects the immune responses elicited in humans by enteric vaccines. PMID:21198669

  6. The Molecular Immunology of Mucositis: Implications for Evidence-Based Research in Alternative and Complementary Palliative Treatments

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The terms ‘mucositis’ and ‘stomatitis’ are often used interchangeably. Mucositis, however, pertains to pharyngeal-esophago-gastrointestinal inflammation that manifests as red, burn-like sores or ulcerations throughout the mouth. Stomatitis is an inflammation of the oral tissues proper, which can present with or without sores, and is made worse by poor dental hygiene. Mucositis is observed in a variety of immunosuppressed patients, but is most often consequential to cancer therapy. It appears as early as the third day of intervention, and is usually established by Day 7 of treatment. Mucositis increases mortality and morbidity and contributes to rising health care costs. The precise immune components involved in the etiology of mucositis are unclear, but evidence-based research (EBR) data has shown that applications of granulocyte–macrophage-colony stimulating factor prevent the onset or the exacerbation of oropharyngeal mucositis. The molecular implications of this observation are discussed from the perspective of future developments of complementary and alternative treatments for this condition. It must be emphasized that this article is meant to be neither a review on mucositis and the various treatments for it, nor a discussion paper on its underlying molecular immunology. It is a statement of the implications of EBR for CAM-based interventions for mucositis. It explores and discusses the specific domain of molecular immunology in the context of mucositis and its direct implications for EBR research in CAM-based treatments for mucositis. PMID:16322806

  7. Primary mucosal melanomas: a comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Mihajlovic, Marija; Vlajkovic, Slobodan; Jovanovic, Predrag; Stefanovic, Vladisav

    2012-01-01

    Primary mucosal melanomas arise from melanocytes located in mucosal membranes lining respiratory, gastrointestinal and urogenital tract. Although a majority of mucosal melanomas originate from the mucosa of the nasal cavity and accessory sinuses, oral cavity, anorectum, vulva and vagina, they can arise in almost any part of mucosal membranes. Most of mucosal melanomas occur in occult sites, which together with the lack of early and specific signs contribute to late diagnosis, and poor prognosis. Because of their rareness the knowledge about their pathogenesis and risk factors is insufficient, and also there are not well established protocols for staging and treatment of mucosal melanomas. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment, with trends toward more conservative treatment since radical surgery did not show an advantage for survival. Radiotherapy can provide better local control in some locations, but did not show improvement in survival. There is no effective systemic therapy for these aggressive tumors. Compared with cutaneous and ocular melanoma, mucosal melanomas have lowest percent of five-year survival. Recently revealed molecular changes underlying mucosal melanomas offer new hope for development of more effective systemic therapy for mucosal melanomas. Herein we presented a comprehensive review of various locations of primary melanoma along mucosal membranes, their epidemiological and clinical features, and treatment options. We also gave a short comparison of some characteristics of cutaneous and mucosal melanomas. PMID:23071856

  8. The Mucosal Immune System of Teleost Fish

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Irene

    2015-01-01

    Teleost fish possess an adaptive immune system associated with each of their mucosal body surfaces. Evidence obtained from mucosal vaccination and mucosal infection studies reveal that adaptive immune responses take place at the different mucosal surfaces of teleost. The main mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALT) of teleosts are the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), skin-associated lymphoid tissue (SALT), the gill-associated lymphoid tissue (GIALT) and the recently discovered nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT). Teleost MALT includes diffuse B cells and T cells with specific phenotypes different from their systemic counterparts that have co-evolved to defend the microbe-rich mucosal environment. Both B and T cells respond to mucosal infection or vaccination. Specific antibody responses can be measured in the gills, gut and skin mucosal secretions of teleost fish following mucosal infection or vaccination. Rainbow trout studies have shown that IgT antibodies and IgT+ B cells are the predominant B cell subset in all MALT and respond in a compartmentalized manner to mucosal infection. Our current knowledge on adaptive immunity in teleosts is limited compared to the mammalian literature. New research tools and in vivo models are currently being developed in order to help reveal the great intricacy of teleost mucosal adaptive immunity and help improve mucosal vaccination protocols for use in aquaculture. PMID:26274978

  9. Lipid encapsulated phenolics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phenolic compounds have numerous health benefits when included in the human diet and have emerged as a functional food and feed additive. Current sources of phenolics include commodity grains such as corn, oat, and wheat but may also be obtained as a co-product from agricultural residues and other l...

  10. Bromination of Phenol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This "Science note" examines the bromination of phenol, a reaction that is commonly taught at A-level and IB (International Baccalaureate) as an example of electrophilic substitution. Phenol undergoes bromination with bromine or bromine water at room temperature. A white precipitate of 2,4,6-tribromophenol is rapidly formed. This…

  11. Bromination of Phenol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This "Science note" examines the bromination of phenol, a reaction that is commonly taught at A-level and IB (International Baccalaureate) as an example of electrophilic substitution. Phenol undergoes bromination with bromine or bromine water at room temperature. A white precipitate of 2,4,6-tribromophenol is rapidly formed. This…

  12. Phenolic Molding Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koizumi, Koji; Charles, Ted; de Keyser, Hendrik

    Phenolic Molding Compounds continue to exhibit well balanced properties such as heat resistance, chemical resistance, dimensional stability, and creep resistance. They are widely applied in electrical, appliance, small engine, commutator, and automotive applications. As the focus of the automotive industry is weight reduction for greater fuel efficiency, phenolic molding compounds become appealing alternatives to metals. Current market volumes and trends, formulation components and its impact on properties, and a review of common manufacturing methods are presented. Molding processes as well as unique advanced techniques such as high temperature molding, live sprue, and injection/compression technique provide additional benefits in improving the performance characterisitics of phenolic molding compounds. Of special interest are descriptions of some of the latest innovations in automotive components, such as the phenolic intake manifold and valve block for dual clutch transmissions. The chapter also characterizes the most recent developments in new materials, including long glass phenolic molding compounds and carbon fiber reinforced phenolic molding compounds exhibiting a 10-20-fold increase in Charpy impact strength when compared to short fiber filled materials. The role of fatigue testing and fatigue fracture behavior presents some insight into long-term reliability and durability of glass-filled phenolic molding compounds. A section on new technology outlines the important factors to consider in modeling phenolic parts by finite element analysis and flow simulation.

  13. Oral mucosal precancer and cancer: A helpful discriminating clinical tool.

    PubMed

    Scully, Crispian; Sciubba, James J; Bagan, Jose V

    2015-09-01

    The authors have collaborated with many colleagues in several countries in formulating a useful and practical clinical tool for evaluating oral mucosal findings on routine examination. Consideration of several factors including history, evolution of positive findings and clinical information allows placement of examination results into one of three categories which are graded by a color scheme along a spectrum of concerns (green to red, or no concern to serious concern). Afforded to the clinician is a straightforward grading system as a starting point for office end clinic use for all patients.

  14. Oral mucosal precancer and cancer: A helpful discriminating clinical tool

    PubMed Central

    Scully, Crispian; Bagan, Jose V.

    2015-01-01

    The authors have collaborated with many colleagues in several countries in formulating a useful and practical clinical tool for evaluating oral mucosal findings on routine examination. Consideration of several factors including history, evolution of positive findings and clinical information allows placement of examination results into one of three categories which are graded by a color scheme along a spectrum of concerns (green to red, or no concern to serious concern). Afforded to the clinician is a straightforward grading system as a starting point for office end clinic use for all patients. Key words:Oral, precancer, cancer, clinical tool. PMID:26241449

  15. Cryopreservation of Human Mucosal Leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Zhiquan; Levy, Claire N.; Ferre, April L.; Hartig, Heather; Fang, Cifeng; Lentz, Gretchen; Fialkow, Michael; Kirby, Anna C.; Adams Waldorf, Kristina M.; Veazey, Ronald S.; Germann, Anja; von Briesen, Hagen; McElrath, M. Juliana; Dezzutti, Charlene S.; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Baker, Chris A. R.; Shacklett, Barbara L.; Gao, Dayong; Hladik, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding how leukocytes in the cervicovaginal and colorectal mucosae respond to pathogens, and how medical interventions affect these responses, is important for developing better tools to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. An effective cryopreservation protocol for these cells following their isolation will make studying them more feasible. Methods and Findings To find an optimal cryopreservation protocol for mucosal mononuclear leukocytes, we compared cryopreservation media and procedures using human vaginal leukocytes and confirmed our results with endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Specifically, we measured the recovery of viable vaginal T cells and macrophages after cryopreservation with different cryopreservation media and handling procedures. We found several cryopreservation media that led to recoveries above 75%. Limiting the number and volume of washes increased the fraction of cells recovered by 10–15%, possibly due to the small cell numbers in mucosal samples. We confirmed that our cryopreservation protocol also works well for both endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Cryopreserved leukocytes had slightly increased cytokine responses to antigenic stimulation relative to the same cells tested fresh. Additionally, we tested whether it is better to cryopreserve endocervical cells on the cytobrush or in suspension. Conclusions Leukocytes from cervicovaginal and colorectal tissues can be cryopreserved with good recovery of functional, viable cells using several different cryopreservation media. The number and volume of washes has an experimentally meaningful effect on the percentage of cells recovered. We provide a detailed, step-by-step protocol with best practices for cryopreservation of mucosal leukocytes. PMID:27232996

  16. Mucosal immunology of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Berin, M Cecilia; Sampson, Hugh A

    2013-05-06

    Food allergies are increasing in prevalence at a higher rate than can be explained by genetic factors, suggesting a role for as yet unidentified environmental factors. In this review, we summarize the state of knowledge about the healthy immune response to antigens in the diet and the basis of immune deviation that results in immunoglobulin E (IgE) sensitization and allergic reactivity to foods. The intestinal epithelium forms the interface between the external environment and the mucosal immune system, and emerging data suggest that the interaction between intestinal epithelial cells and mucosal dendritic cells is of particular importance in determining the outcome of immune responses to dietary antigens. Exposure to food allergens through non-oral routes, in particular through the skin, is increasingly recognized as a potentially important factor in the increasing rate of food allergy. There are many open questions on the role of environmental factors, such as dietary factors and microbiota, in the development of food allergy, but data suggest that both have an important modulatory effect on the mucosal immune system. Finally, we discuss recent developments in our understanding of immune mechanisms of clinical manifestations of food allergy. New experimental tools, particularly in the field of genomics and the microbiome, are likely to shed light on factors responsible for the growing clinical problem of food allergy.

  17. Mucosal vaccination: lung versus nose.

    PubMed

    Vujanic, Ana; Sutton, Philip; Snibson, Kenneth J; Yen, Hung-Hsun; Scheerlinck, Jean-Pierre Y

    2012-07-15

    The induction of potent mucosal immune responses able to prevent the establishment of infection at the onset of mucosal pathogen colonisation represents a desirable but challenging goal for vaccine development. Here we compare nasal vaccine delivery with intra-pulmonary vaccination using a sheep lymphatic cannulation model. Our results demonstrate that nasal delivery of a non-infective ISCOMATRIX(®) influenza vaccine does not induce primary immune responses in the lymph draining the nasal lymph nodes, suggesting that local immune responses in the lymph nodes draining the nasal cavity are relatively weak. However, this mode of delivery can boost existing immunity in the nasal lymph. Using the same adjuvant we were able to induce very potent immune responses in both blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), following intra-pulmonary delivery of ISCOMATRIX(®) influenza vaccine, even when very small doses of antigen were employed. Lung delivery could also induce comparable immune responses against other recombinant antigens mixed with ISCOMATRIX(®) adjuvant and could therefore become a method of choice for the induction of immunity to mucosal pathogens infecting the lower respiratory tract. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cryopreservation of Human Mucosal Leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Sean M; Shu, Zhiquan; Levy, Claire N; Ferre, April L; Hartig, Heather; Fang, Cifeng; Lentz, Gretchen; Fialkow, Michael; Kirby, Anna C; Adams Waldorf, Kristina M; Veazey, Ronald S; Germann, Anja; von Briesen, Hagen; McElrath, M Juliana; Dezzutti, Charlene S; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Baker, Chris A R; Shacklett, Barbara L; Gao, Dayong; Hladik, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how leukocytes in the cervicovaginal and colorectal mucosae respond to pathogens, and how medical interventions affect these responses, is important for developing better tools to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. An effective cryopreservation protocol for these cells following their isolation will make studying them more feasible. To find an optimal cryopreservation protocol for mucosal mononuclear leukocytes, we compared cryopreservation media and procedures using human vaginal leukocytes and confirmed our results with endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Specifically, we measured the recovery of viable vaginal T cells and macrophages after cryopreservation with different cryopreservation media and handling procedures. We found several cryopreservation media that led to recoveries above 75%. Limiting the number and volume of washes increased the fraction of cells recovered by 10-15%, possibly due to the small cell numbers in mucosal samples. We confirmed that our cryopreservation protocol also works well for both endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Cryopreserved leukocytes had slightly increased cytokine responses to antigenic stimulation relative to the same cells tested fresh. Additionally, we tested whether it is better to cryopreserve endocervical cells on the cytobrush or in suspension. Leukocytes from cervicovaginal and colorectal tissues can be cryopreserved with good recovery of functional, viable cells using several different cryopreservation media. The number and volume of washes has an experimentally meaningful effect on the percentage of cells recovered. We provide a detailed, step-by-step protocol with best practices for cryopreservation of mucosal leukocytes.

  19. Mucosal Immunology of Food Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Berin, M. Cecilia; Sampson, Hugh A.

    2013-01-01

    Food allergies are increasing in prevalence at a higher rate than can be explained by genetic factors, suggesting a role for as yet unidentified environmental factors. In this review, we summarize the state of knowledge about the healthy immune response to antigens in the diet and the basis of immune deviation that results in IgE sensitization and allergic reactivity to foods. The intestinal epithelium forms the interface between the external environment and the mucosal immune system, and emerging data suggest that the interaction between intestinal epithelial cells and mucosal dendritic cells is of particular importance in determining the outcome of immune responses to dietary antigens. Exposure to food allergens through non-oral routes, in particular through the skin, is increasingly recognized as a potentially important factor in the increasing rate of food allergy. There are many open questions on the role of environmental factors such as dietary factors and microbiota in the development of food allergy, but data suggest that both have an important modulatory effect on the mucosal immune system. Finally, we discuss recent developments in our understanding of immune mechanisms of clinical manifestations of food allergy. New experimental tools, particularly in the field of genomics and microbiome, are likely to shed light on factors responsible for the growing clinical problem of food allergy. PMID:23660362

  20. Vestibuloplasty: allograft versus mucosal graft.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, H M; Parhiz, A; Ghafari, S

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the application of alloderm and mucosal graft for vestibuloplasty. This randomized controlled trial with split mouth design was carried out on 20 edentulous patients. Patients underwent vestibuloplasty surgery with the Clark technique. Half of the prepared bed in each patient was covered with alloderm and the other half with mucosal graft. Vestibule depth (width of fixed tissue) and relapse in the two sides immediately after surgery, and 1, 3 and 6 months after surgery were measured and compared. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Student's paired t and Friedman tests. The width of the fixed tissue in the alloderm graft at 1, 3 and 6 month intervals was significantly lower than that in the autograft (P<0.05). The difference in relapse between the two grafts was not statistically significant at any time. The results of the study suggest that alloderm is as effective as mucosal grafts in vestibuloplasty. Copyright © 2011 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. All rights reserved.

  1. Phenolics and antioxidant capacity of table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars grown in Chile.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Mariane; Jorquera, Katterin; Cancino, Beatriz; Ruby, Rene; Henriquez, Carolina

    2011-09-01

    Grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) possess health-promoting effects attributed to their supply of a wide variety of bioactive phenolics. Juice and skin fractions of 4 varieties of table grapes: Red Globe, Crimson Seedless, Autumn Royal, and Ribier were prepared to determine and compare their total phenolics content, antioxidant capacity (DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC), anthocyanins, and specific phenolics (caffeic acid, gallic acid, resveratrol, and catechin) content, since a series of positive health benefits are expected from the intake of any of these fractions. Higher amounts of total phenolics and antioxidant capacity were observed in the skin fractions (P < 0.05). Blue grapes (Autumn Royal and Ribier) exhibited higher phenolics content and antioxidant capacity (P < 0.05) than red grapes. The most abundant phenolic compound observed was catechin (P < 0.05). Significant correlations between the antioxidant capacity and total phenolics were observed in grape juice and skin fractions. Autumn Royal juice provides a very high amount of phenolics, anthocyanins, and exhibits the highest antioxidant capacity, offering the best health promoting properties compared with the other grape varieties studied. Grapes possess health-promoting effects attributed to their supply of a wide variety of bioactive phenolics. Grape juice made with blue grapes (Autumn Royal, Ribier) exhibit higher phenolics content and antioxidant capacity than juice elaborated with red grapes (Red Globe, Crimson Seedless). The skin is a good source of phenolics and has a high antioxidant capacity. Specific health-promoting phenolics are more abundant in blue grapes, mainly in their skin fraction, which should not be discarded. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Idiopathic mucosal penile squamous papillomas in dogs.

    PubMed

    Cornegliani, Luisa; Vercelli, Antonella; Abramo, Francesca

    2007-12-01

    A new papillomatous clinical entity is described affecting the penile mucosa of dogs. The animals, 11 male dogs of different breeds, ageing from 6 to 13 years, were presented for genital mass and occasional haematuria. Surgical incision of the prepuce skin of the anaesthetized dogs showed the presence of single pedunculated, soft, pink-red, cauliflower-like masses arising from the penile mucosa, with diameter ranging from 2 to 8 cm. In all cases, histopathological examination of the excised masses showed normal epithelial differentiation with digitiform expansion of all the layers and elongated rete ridges slanted towards the periphery of the lesion. Evidence of ballooning degeneration or basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies was not found. Both immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction techniques failed to reveal papillomavirus. According to the histological World Health Organization classification of papillomatous lesions and due to the lack of evidence of a viral origin the masses were identified as idiopathic mucosal penile squamous papillomas. Urinary problems resolved after surgical excision, haematuria was therefore considered secondary to ulceration of the papillated masses.

  3. Image-enhanced bronchoscopic evaluation of bronchial mucosal microvasculature in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Fathy, Eman Mahmoud; Shafiek, Hanaa; Morsi, Tamer S; El Sabaa, Bassma; Elnekidy, Abdelaziz; Elhoffy, Mohamed; Atta, Mohamed Samy

    2016-01-01

    Background Bronchial vascular remodeling is an underresearched component of airway remodeling in COPD. Image-enhanced bronchoscopy may offer a less invasive method for studying bronchial microvasculature in COPD. Objectives To evaluate endobronchial mucosal vasculature and changes in COPD by image-enhanced i-scan3 bronchoscopy and correlate them pathologically by analyzing bronchial mucosal biopsies. Methods This case–control study analyzed 29 COPD patients (41.4% Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease B [GOLD B] and 58.6% GOLD D) and ten healthy controls admitted at Alexandria Main University Hospital, Egypt. Combined high-definition white light bronchoscopy (HD WLB) with i-scan3 was used to evaluate endobronchial mucosal microvasculature. The vascularity was graded according to the level of mucosal red discoloration (ie, endobronchial erythema) from decreased discoloration to normal, mild, moderate, and severe increased red discoloration (G−1, G0, G+1, G+2, and G+3, respectively) and scored by three bronchoscopists independently. Bronchial mucosal biopsies were taken for microvascular density counting using anti-CD34 antibody as angiogenesis marker. Results Different grades of endobronchial erythema were observed across/within COPD patients using combined HD WLB + i-scan3, with significant agreement among scorers (P=0.031; median score of G+1 [G−1–G+2]) being higher in GOLD D (P=0.001). Endobronchial erythema significantly correlated with COPD duration, exacerbation frequency, and body mass index (P<0.05). Angiogenesis was significantly decreased among COPD patients versus controls (10.6 [8–13.3] vs 14 [11–17.1]; P=0.02). Mucosal surface changes (including edema, atrophy, and nodules) were better visualized by the combined HD WLB + i-scan3 rather than HD WLB alone. Conclusion Combined HD WLB + i-scan3 seems to be valuable in evaluating mucosal microvasculature and surface changes in COPD, which may represent vasodilatation rather than

  4. Herpetiform genital lesions in a heifer with mucosal disease.

    PubMed

    Fabis, J J; Szkudlarek, L; Risatti, G R; Sura, R; Garmendia, A E; Van Kruiningen, H J

    2008-03-01

    A 14-month-old heifer with a 17-day history of unresponsive bloody diarrhea was necropsied. There were focal, pink-red erosions of the nares and hard palate; ulcers and fissures of the tongue; and multiple ulcerative lesions of the alimentary canal. Interdigital skin of both rear limbs was ulcerated and bleeding; and the margins of the vulva contained punctiform red ulcers. The gross lesions were consistent with mucosal disease. Histopathology and laboratory testing ruled out rinderpest, foot-and-mouth disease, and vesicular stomatitis, and identified bovine virus diarrhea virus to be the cause of this disease. Lesions of the vulva similar to those seen in some stages of infectious pustular vulvovaginitis were negative for bovine herpesvirus-1 and tested positive for bovine viral diarrhea virus antigen by immunohistochemistry.

  5. Phenolic Resin for Refractories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irie, Shunsuke; Rappolt, James

    Refractories are used in furnaces and boilers that process steel, cement, or glass as well as incinerators that operate at high temperatures. A variety of binders is used when refractories are manufactured. In this chapter, the use of phenolic resin as a binder for refractories is described. There are several factors that support the use of phenolic resins in comparison to other refractory binders. These include the following: 1. Both adhesion and green body strength are high.

  6. The Development of an AIDS Mucosal Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xian; Chen, Zhiwei

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that mucosal tissues contain the largest surface area of the human body and are the front line of natural host defense against various pathogens. In fact, more than 80% of infectious disease pathogens probably gain entry into the susceptible human hosts through open mucosal surfaces. Human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1), a mainly sexually transmitted virus, also primarily targets the vaginal and gastrointestinal mucosa as entry sites for viral transmission, seeding, replication and amplification. Since HIV-1 establishes its early replication in vaginal or rectal mucosal tissues, the induction of sufficient mucosal immunity at the initial site of HIV-1 transmission becomes essential for a protective vaccine. However, despite the fact that current conventional vaccine strategies have remained unsuccessful in preventing HIV-1 infection, sufficient financial support and resources have yet to be given to develop a vaccine able to elicit protective mucosal immunity against sexual transmissions. Interestingly, Chinese ancestors invented variolation through intranasal administration about one thousand years ago, which led to the discovery of a successful smallpox vaccine and the final eradication of the disease. It is the hope for all mankind that the development of a mucosal AIDS vaccine will ultimately help control the AIDS pandemic. In order to discover an effective mucosal AIDS vaccine, it is necessary to have a deep understanding of mucosal immunology and to test various mucosal vaccination strategies. PMID:21994611

  7. Phenolic compounds and chromatographic profiles of pear skins (Pyrus spp.).

    PubMed

    Lin, Long-Ze; Harnly, James M

    2008-10-08

    A standardized profiling method based on liquid chromatography with diode array and electrospray ionization/mass spectrometric detection (LC-DAD-ESI/MS) was used to analyze the phenolic compounds in the skins of 16 pears (Pyrus spp.). Thirty-four flavonoids and 19 hydroxycinnamates were identified. The main phenolic compounds (based on peak area) in all of the pear skins were arbutin and chlorogenic acid. The remaining phenolics varied widely in area and allowed the pears to be divided into four groups. Group 1, composed of four Asian pears (Asian, Asian brown, Korean, and Korean Shinko), contained only trace quantities of the remaining phenolics. Yali pear (group 2) contained significant amounts of dicaffeoylquinic acids. Fragrant pear (group 3) contained significant quantities of quercetin glycosides and lesser quantities of isorhamnetin glycosides and the glycosides of luteolin, apigenin, and chrysoeriol. The remaining 10 pears (group 4) (Bartlett, Beurre, Bosc, Comice, D'Anjou, Forelle, Peckham, Red, Red D'Anjou, and Seckel) contained significant quantities of isorhamnetin glycosides and their malonates and lesser quantities of quercetin glycosides. Red D'Anjou, D'Anjou, and Seckel pears also contained cyanidin 3-O-glucoside. Thirty-two phenolic compounds are reported in pear skins for the first time.

  8. Voice Disorders in Mucosal Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Ruas, Ana Cristina Nunes; Lucena, Márcia Mendonça; da Costa, Ananda Dutra; Vieira, Jéssica Rafael; de Araújo-Melo, Maria Helena; Terceiro, Benivaldo Ramos Ferreira; de Sousa Torraca, Tania Salgado; de Oliveira Schubach, Armando; Valete-Rosalino, Claudia Maria

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Leishmaniasis is considered as one of the six most important infectious diseases because of its high detection coefficient and ability to produce deformities. In most cases, mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) occurs as a consequence of cutaneous leishmaniasis. If left untreated, mucosal lesions can leave sequelae, interfering in the swallowing, breathing, voice and speech processes and requiring rehabilitation. Objective To describe the anatomical characteristics and voice quality of ML patients. Materials and Methods A descriptive transversal study was conducted in a cohort of ML patients treated at the Laboratory for Leishmaniasis Surveillance of the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases - Fiocruz, between 2010 and 2013. The patients were submitted to otorhinolaryngologic clinical examination by endoscopy of the upper airways and digestive tract and to speech-language assessment through directed anamnesis, auditory perception, phonation times and vocal acoustic analysis. The variables of interest were epidemiologic (sex and age) and clinic (lesion location, associated symptoms and voice quality. Results 26 patients under ML treatment and monitored by speech therapists were studied. 21 (81%) were male and five (19%) female, with ages ranging from 15 to 78 years (54.5+15.0 years). The lesions were distributed in the following structures 88.5% nasal, 38.5% oral, 34.6% pharyngeal and 19.2% laryngeal, with some patients presenting lesions in more than one anatomic site. The main complaint was nasal obstruction (73.1%), followed by dysphonia (38.5%), odynophagia (30.8%) and dysphagia (26.9%). 23 patients (84.6%) presented voice quality perturbations. Dysphonia was significantly associated to lesions in the larynx, pharynx and oral cavity. Conclusion We observed that vocal quality perturbations are frequent in patients with mucosal leishmaniasis, even without laryngeal lesions; they are probably associated to disorders of some resonance

  9. Mucosal immunity and probiotics in fish.

    PubMed

    Lazado, Carlo C; Caipang, Christopher Marlowe A

    2014-07-01

    Teleost mucosal immunity has become the subject of unprecedented research studies in recent years because of its diversity and defining characteristics. Its immune repertoire is governed by the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALT) which are divided into gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT), skin-associated lymphoid tissues (SALT), and gill-associated lymphoid tissues (GIALT). The direct contact with its immediate environment makes the mucosal surfaces of fish susceptible to a wide variety of pathogens. The inherent immunocompetent cells and factors in the mucosal surfaces together with the commensal microbiota have pivotal role against pathogens. Immunomodulation is a popular prophylactic strategy in teleost and probiotics possess this beneficial feature. Most of the studies on the immunomodulatory properties of probiotics in fish mainly discussed their impacts on systemic immunity. In contrast, few of these studies discussed the immunomodulatory features of probiotics in mucosal surfaces and are concentrated on the influences in the gut. Significant attention should be devoted in understanding the relationship of mucosal immunity and probiotics as the present knowledge is limited and are mostly based on extrapolations of studies in humans and terrestrial vertebrates. In the course of the advancement of mucosal immunity and probiotics, new perspectives in probiotics research, e.g., probiogenomics have emerged. This review affirms the relevance of probiotics in the mucosal immunity of fish by revisiting and bridging the current knowledge on teleost mucosal immunity, mucosal microbiota and immunomodulation of mucosal surfaces by probiotics. Expanding the knowledge of immunomodulatory properties of probiotics especially on mucosal immunity is essential in advancing the use of probiotics as a sustainable and viable strategy for successful fish husbandry.

  10. Modulation of gut mucosal biofilms.

    PubMed

    Kleessen, Brigitta; Blaut, Michael

    2005-04-01

    Non-digestible inulin-type fructans, such as oligofructose and high-molecular-weight inulin, have been shown to have the ability to alter the intestinal microbiota composition in such a way that members of the microbial community, generally considered as health-promoting, are stimulated. Bifidobacteria and lactobacilli are the most frequently targeted organisms. Less information exists on effects of inulin-type fructans on the composition, metabolism and health-related significance of bacteria at or near the mucosa surface or in the mucus layer forming mucosa-associated biofilms. Using rats inoculated with a human faecal flora as an experimental model we have found that inulin-type fructans in the diet modulated the gut microbiota by stimulation of mucosa-associated bifidobacteria as well as by partial reduction of pathogenic Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium and thereby benefit health. In addition to changes in mucosal biofilms, inulin-type fructans also induced changes in the colonic mucosa stimulating proliferation in the crypts, increasing the release of mucins, and altering the profile of mucin components in the goblet cells and epithelial mucus layer. These results indicate that inulin-type fructans may stabilise the gut mucosal barrier. Dietary supplementation with these prebiotics could offer a new approach to supporting the barrier function of the mucosa.

  11. Eosinophils in mucosal immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Travers, J; Rothenberg, M E

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils, multifunctional cells that contribute to both innate and adaptive immunity, are involved in the initiation, propagation and resolution of immune responses, including tissue repair. They achieve this multifunctionality by expression of a diverse set of activation receptors, including those that directly recognize pathogens and opsonized targets, and by their ability to store and release preformed cytotoxic mediators that participate in host defense, to produce a variety of de novo pleotropic mediators and cytokines and to interact directly and indirectly with diverse cell types, including adaptive and innate immunocytes and structural cells. Herein, we review the basic biology of eosinophils and then focus on new emerging concepts about their role in mucosal immune homeostasis, particularly maintenance of intestinal IgA. We review emerging data about their development and regulation and describe new concepts concerning mucosal eosinophilic diseases. We describe recently developed therapeutic strategies to modify eosinophil levels and function and provide collective insight about the beneficial and detrimental functions of these enigmatic cells. PMID:25807184

  12. Phenolic compound in beans as protection against mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Telles, Annie Campello; Kupski, Larine; Furlong, Eliana Badiale

    2017-01-01

    Phenolic compounds, their inhibitory activity against fungal amylase and the occurrence of aflatoxins were determined in edible beans. The free, conjugated and bounded phenolic compounds and their phenolic acid profiles were determined in ten bean varieties. A method for aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 determination and confirmation by LC-MS/MS was validated. The red and carioca beans presented the highest total phenolic content (1.8 and 1.2mg.g(-1), respectively); the fradinho and white beans the lowest (0.18 and 0.19mg.g(-1), respectively). In the free and conjugated forms, chlorogenic acid was present in 60% of the samples, while in the bounded phenolic, ferulic acid was in 90% of the samples. The phenolic extracts were able to inhibit fungal amylase, and the PCA analysis confirmed that the relation between the chlorogenic and gallic acids is important to this effect. The absence of aflatoxins in samples confirm the protector effects of these phenolic compounds.

  13. Antimicrobials, mucosal coating agents, anesthetics, analgesics, and nutritional supplements for alimentary tract mucositis.

    PubMed

    Barasch, Andrei; Elad, Sharon; Altman, Arnold; Damato, Kathryn; Epstein, Joel

    2006-06-01

    This review focuses on the value of several groups of agents for the prevention and treatment of mucositis. The review refers to alimentary mucositis as a generalized term that includes oral mucositis and gastrointestinal mucositis. This paper is part of the systematic review made by the mucositis study group which operates in the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC)/International Society of Oral Oncology (ISOO). Several new guidelines are suggested in this review as an update to the primary systematic review that was published by the same group in 2004.

  14. Total phenolic compounds and free phenol in softwood structural plywood

    SciTech Connect

    Tiedeman, G.T.; Isaacson, R.L. ); Sellers, T. Jr. )

    1994-03-01

    Construction-grade plywood panels manufactured at five plywood mills were analyzed for total phenolic compounds and free phenol detection. Small samples of plywood were ground <1-mm-size powders. The samples were subjected to an ambient temperature, methylene chloride extraction, and tested for free phenol content by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. The plywood samples were also analyzed for total phenolic compounds by a distillation-colorimetric method. The range of total phenolic compounds was 6.8 to 25.3 mg/kg and the range of free phenol was 0.090 to 0.73 mg/kg. The sources of phenolic compounds in plywood are wood components, the phenol-formaldehyde resin adhesive, and the ligno-cellulosic adhesive fillers. The source of free phenol in structural plywood is presumably the phenol-formaldehyde resin adhesive. The extraction procedures used in this study were extreme and are not typical for plywood in service. Yet the levels of phenolic compounds and free phenol detected were so low that they most often were beyond the quantitative accuracy of the test methods and instruments, requiring extrapolative techniques. The low levels are supportive of the fact that structural wood composites bonded with phenol-formaldehyde resins have been found to be very safe environmentally for multiple uses.

  15. Mucosal Wave Measurement and Visualization Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Krausert, Christopher R.; Olszewski, Aleksandra E.; Taylor, Lindsay N.; McMurray, James S.; Dailey, Seth H.; Jiang, Jack J.

    2010-01-01

    Organized vibration of the vocal folds is critical to high quality voice production. When the vocal folds oscillate, the superficial tissue of the vocal fold is displaced in a wave-like fashion, creating the so called “mucosal wave”. Because the mucosal wave is dependent on vocal fold structure, physical alterations of that structure cause mucosal wave abnormalities. Visualization and quantification of mucosal wave properties have become useful parameters in diagnosing and managing vocal fold pathology. Mucosal wave measurement provides information about vocal fold characteristics that cannot be determined with other assessment techniques. Here, we discuss the benefits, disadvantages, and clinical applicability of the different mucosal wave measurement techniques, such as electroglottography (EGG), photoglottography (PGG), and ultrasound and visualization techniques that include videokymography (VKG), stroboscopy, and high-speed digital imaging (HSDI). The various techniques and their specific uses are reviewed with the intention of helping researchers and clinicians choose a method for a given situation and understand its limitations as well as its potential applications. Recent applications of these techniques for quantitative assessment demonstrate that additional research must be conducted to realize the full potential of these tools. Evaluations of existing research and recommendations for future research are given to promote both the quantitative study of the mucosal wave through accurate and standardized measurement of mucosal wave parameters and the development of reliable methods with which physicians can diagnose vocal disorders. PMID:20471798

  16. Mucosal Immunosenescence In The Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Shintaro; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Fujihashi, Kohtaro

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that pathogen-specific secretory IgA (SIgA) antibody (Ab) is the major player at mucosal surfaces for host defense. However, alterations in the mucosal immune system occur in advanced aging which results in a failure of induction of SIgA Abs for protection from infectious diseases. Signs of mucosal senescence first appear in the gut immune system. Further, changes in the intestinal microbiota most likely influence mucosal immunity. To overcome the immunological aging decline in mucosal immunity, several adjuvant systems including mucosal dendritic cell (DC) targeting have been shown to be attractive and effective immunological strategies. Similarly, antigen (Ag) uptake-M cells are ideal targets for facilitating Ag-specific mucosal immune responses. However, the numbers of M cells are reduced in aged mice. In this regard, Spi-B, an essential transcription factor for the functional and structural differentiation of M cells could be a potent strategy for the induction of effective mucosal immunity in aging. PMID:25531743

  17. Localized Pemphigus Vegetans without Mucosal Involvement.

    PubMed

    Jain, Vk; Jindal, N; Imchen, S

    2014-03-01

    Pemphigus vegetans is a rare variant of pemphigus vulgaris. A 62-year-old woman presented with erythematous moist vegetative plaque on the left breast and left groin. There was no mucosal involvement. Histopathological and direct immunofluorescence findings were suggestive of pemphigus vegetans. She showed excellent response to oral steroids. Literature is scarcely available on the limited involvement with pemphigus vegetans without mucosal involvement.

  18. Biology and Mucosal Immunity to Myxozoans

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Daniela; Bartholomew, Jerri; Sunyer, J. Oriol

    2014-01-01

    Myxozoans are among the most abundant parasites in nature. Their life cycles involve two hosts: an invertebrate, usually an annelid, and a vertebrate, usually a fish. They affect fish species in their natural habitats but also constitute a menace for fish aquaculture. Using different strategies they are able to parasitize and cause damage in multiple organs, including mucosal tissues, which they use also as portals of entry. In fish, the main mucosal sites include the intestine, skin and gills. Recently the finding of a specific mucosal immunoglobulin in teleost (IgT), analogous to mammalian IgA, and the capacity of fish to develop a specific mucosal immune response against different pathogens, has highlighted the importance of studying immune responses at mucosal sites. In this review, we describe the major biological characteristics of myxozoan parasites and present the data available regarding immune responses for species that infect mucosal sites. As models for mucosal immunity we review the responses to Enteromyxum spp. and Ceratomyxa shasta, both of which parasitize the intestine. The immune response at the skin and gills is also described, as these mucosal tissues are used by myxozoans as attaching surfaces and portal of entry, and some species also parasitize these sites. Finally, the development of immunoprophylactic strategies is discussed. PMID:23994774

  19. Vaccination strategies for mucosal immune responses.

    PubMed

    Ogra, P L; Faden, H; Welliver, R C

    2001-04-01

    Mucosal administration of vaccines is an important approach to the induction of appropriate immune responses to microbial and other environmental antigens in systemic sites and peripheral blood as well as in most external mucosal surfaces. The development of specific antibody- or T-cell-mediated immunologic responses and the induction of mucosally induced systemic immunologic hyporesponsiveness (oral or mucosal tolerance) depend on complex sets of immunologic events, including the nature of the antigenic stimulation of specialized lymphoid structures in the host, antigen-induced activation of different populations of regulatory T cells (Th1 versus Th2), and the expression of proinflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines. Availability of mucosal vaccines will provide a painless approach to deliver large numbers of vaccine antigens for human immunization. Currently, an average infant will receive 20 to 25 percutaneous injections for vaccination against different childhood infections by 18 months of age. It should be possible to develop for human use effective, nonliving, recombinant, replicating, transgenic, and microbial vector- or plant-based mucosal vaccines to prevent infections. Based on the experience with many dietary antigens, it is also possible to manipulate the mucosal immune system to induce systemic tolerance against environmental, dietary, and possibly other autoantigens associated with allergic and autoimmune disorders. Mucosal immunity offers new strategies to induce protective immune responses against a variety of infectious agents. Such immunization may also provide new prophylactic or therapeutic avenues in the control of autoimmune diseases in humans.

  20. Vaccination Strategies for Mucosal Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Ogra, Pearay L.; Faden, Howard; Welliver, Robert C.

    2001-01-01

    Mucosal administration of vaccines is an important approach to the induction of appropriate immune responses to microbial and other environmental antigens in systemic sites and peripheral blood as well as in most external mucosal surfaces. The development of specific antibody- or T-cell-mediated immunologic responses and the induction of mucosally induced systemic immunologic hyporesponsiveness (oral or mucosal tolerance) depend on complex sets of immunologic events, including the nature of the antigenic stimulation of specialized lymphoid structures in the host, antigen-induced activation of different populations of regulatory T cells (Th1 versus Th2), and the expression of proinflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines. Availability of mucosal vaccines will provide a painless approach to deliver large numbers of vaccine antigens for human immunization. Currently, an average infant will receive 20 to 25 percutaneous injections for vaccination against different childhood infections by 18 months of age. It should be possible to develop for human use effective, nonliving, recombinant, replicating, transgenic, and microbial vector- or plant-based mucosal vaccines to prevent infections. Based on the experience with many dietary antigens, it is also possible to manipulate the mucosal immune system to induce systemic tolerance against environmental, dietary, and possibly other autoantigens associated with allergic and autoimmune disorders. Mucosal immunity offers new strategies to induce protective immune responses against a variety of infectious agents. Such immunization may also provide new prophylactic or therapeutic avenues in the control of autoimmune diseases in humans. PMID:11292646

  1. Mucosal vaccines: a paradigm shift in the development of mucosal adjuvants and delivery vehicles.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Atul; Gowda, Devegowda Vishakante; Madhunapantula, SubbaRao V; Shinde, Chetan G; Iyer, Meenakshi

    2015-04-01

    Mucosal immune responses are the first-line defensive mechanisms against a variety of infections. Therefore, immunizations of mucosal surfaces from which majority of infectious agents make their entry, helps to protect the body against infections. Hence, vaccinization of mucosal surfaces by using mucosal vaccines provides the basis for generating protective immunity both in the mucosal and systemic immune compartments. Mucosal vaccines offer several advantages over parenteral immunization. For example, (i) ease of administration; (ii) non-invasiveness; (iii) high-patient compliance; and (iv) suitability for mass vaccination. Despite these benefits, to date, only very few mucosal vaccines have been developed using whole microorganisms and approved for use in humans. This is due to various challenges associated with the development of an effective mucosal vaccine that can work against a variety of infections, and various problems concerned with the safe delivery of developed vaccine. For instance, protein antigen alone is not just sufficient enough for the optimal delivery of antigen(s) mucosally. Hence, efforts have been made to develop better prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines for improved mucosal Th1 and Th2 immune responses using an efficient and safe immunostimulatory molecule and novel delivery carriers. Therefore, in this review, we have made an attempt to cover the recent advancements in the development of adjuvants and delivery carriers for safe and effective mucosal vaccine production.

  2. Phenolics and plant allelopathy.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhao-Hui; Wang, Qiang; Ruan, Xiao; Pan, Cun-De; Jiang, De-An

    2010-12-07

    Phenolic compounds arise from the shikimic and acetic acid (polyketide) metabolic pathways in plants. They are but one category of the many secondary metabolites implicated in plant allelopathy. Phenolic allelochemicals have been observed in both natural and managed ecosystems, where they cause a number of ecological and economic problems, such as declines in crop yield due to soil sickness, regeneration failure of natural forests, and replanting problems in orchards. Phenolic allelochemical structures and modes of action are diverse and may offer potential lead compounds for the development of future herbicides or pesticides. This article reviews allelopathic effects, analysis methods, and allelopathic mechanisms underlying the activity of plant phenolic compounds. Additionally, the currently debated topic in plant allelopathy of whether catechin and 8-hydroxyquinoline play an important role in Centaurea maculata and Centaurea diffusa invasion success is discussed. Overall, the main purpose of this review is to highlight the allelopacthic potential of phenolic compounds to provide us with methods to solve various ecology problems, especially in regard to the sustainable development of agriculture, forestry, nature resources and environment conservation.

  3. Mucosal vaccines: novel strategies and applications for the control of pathogens and tumors at mucosal sites.

    PubMed

    Nizard, Mevyn; Diniz, Mariana O; Roussel, Helene; Tran, Thi; Ferreira, Luis Cs; Badoual, Cecile; Tartour, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The mucosal immune system displays several adaptations reflecting the exposure to the external environment. The efficient induction of mucosal immune responses also requires specific approaches, such as the use of appropriate administration routes and specific adjuvants and/or delivery systems. In contrast to vaccines delivered via parenteral routes, experimental, and clinical evidences demonstrated that mucosal vaccines can efficiently induce local immune responses to pathogens or tumors located at mucosal sites as well as systemic response. At least in part, such features can be explained by the compartmentalization of mucosal B and T cell populations that play important roles in the modulation of local immune responses. In the present review, we discuss molecular and cellular features of the mucosal immune system as well as novel immunization approaches that may lead to the development of innovative and efficient vaccines targeting pathogens and tumors at different mucosal sites.

  4. Mucositis management in patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Dorothy M K

    2006-04-01

    Mucositis is an important toxicity to be aware of in anticancer therapy. It contributes to a reduction in cure rates from cancer. Until recently, it has been poorly understood and therefore has not been well managed. It causes patient distress, delays in treatment administration, and reductions in dose intensity, and it costs the health-care system a large amount of money. Mucositis has traditionally been associated more with hematologic malignancies than with solid tumors, because the incidence of severe mucositis has been much higher with the high-dose chemotherapy regimens used in hematologic malignancies. However, the chemotherapy used in solid tumors also causes mucositis and deserves further study. The separation between oral and gastrointestinal mucositis is potentially false and is being removed, with much research now investigating the entire alimentary canal. There are similarities and differences between radiation therapy- and chemotherapy-induced mucositis, and these have implications for treatment and prevention scheduling and type. Risk prediction is another area that requires more work, but there is real hope that, in the future, we might be able to predict who will suffer from mucositis and in which parts of the alimentary canal, thus enabling us to appropriately target the newer antimucotoxic therapies. The Mucositis Study Goup of the Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer has recently published management guidelines for oral and gastrointestinal mucositis and is in the process of updating them. The guidelines serve as an excellent starting place for future mucositis research because they not only review the available treatments but also discuss mechanisms and epidemiology.

  5. Characterisation of phenolics, betanins and antioxidant activities in seeds of three Chenopodium quinoa Willd. genotypes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yao; Li, Xihong; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Peter X; Liu, Ronghua; Tsao, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is known for its exceptional nutritional value and potential health benefits. The present study identified the composition of different forms of extractable phenolics and betacyanins of quinoa cultivars in white, red and black, and how they contribute to antioxidant activities. Results showed that at least 23 phenolic compounds were found in either free or conjugated forms (liberated by alkaline and/or acid hydrolysis); the majority of which were phenolic acids, mainly vanillic acid, ferulic acid and their derivatives as well as main flavonoids quercetin, kaempferol and their glycosides. Betacyanins, mainly betanin and isobetanin, were confirmed for the first time to be the pigments of the red and black quinoa seeds, instead of anthocyanins. Darker quinoa seeds had higher phenolic concentration and antioxidant activity. Findings of these phenolics, along with betacyanins in this study add new knowledge to the functional components of quinoa seeds of different cultivar background.

  6. Intestinal mucosal atrophy and adaptation.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Darcy; Gohil, Kartik; Basson, Marc D

    2012-11-28

    Mucosal adaptation is an essential process in gut homeostasis. The intestinal mucosa adapts to a range of pathological conditions including starvation, short-gut syndrome, obesity, and bariatric surgery. Broadly, these adaptive functions can be grouped into proliferation and differentiation. These are influenced by diverse interactions with hormonal, immune, dietary, nervous, and mechanical stimuli. It seems likely that clinical outcomes can be improved by manipulating the physiology of adaptation. This review will summarize current understanding of the basic science surrounding adaptation, delineate the wide range of potential targets for therapeutic intervention, and discuss how these might be incorporated into an overall treatment plan. Deeper insight into the physiologic basis of adaptation will identify further targets for intervention to improve clinical outcomes.

  7. Radiation-Induced Oral Mucositis

    PubMed Central

    Maria, Osama Muhammad; Eliopoulos, Nicoletta; Muanza, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    Radiation-induced oral mucositis (RIOM) is a major dose-limiting toxicity in head and neck cancer patients. It is a normal tissue injury caused by radiation/radiotherapy (RT), which has marked adverse effects on patient quality of life and cancer therapy continuity. It is a challenge for radiation oncologists since it leads to cancer therapy interruption, poor local tumor control, and changes in dose fractionation. RIOM occurs in 100% of altered fractionation radiotherapy head and neck cancer patients. In the United Sates, its economic cost was estimated to reach 17,000.00 USD per patient with head and neck cancers. This review will discuss RIOM definition, epidemiology, impact and side effects, pathogenesis, scoring scales, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. PMID:28589080

  8. Radiation-Induced Oral Mucositis.

    PubMed

    Maria, Osama Muhammad; Eliopoulos, Nicoletta; Muanza, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    Radiation-induced oral mucositis (RIOM) is a major dose-limiting toxicity in head and neck cancer patients. It is a normal tissue injury caused by radiation/radiotherapy (RT), which has marked adverse effects on patient quality of life and cancer therapy continuity. It is a challenge for radiation oncologists since it leads to cancer therapy interruption, poor local tumor control, and changes in dose fractionation. RIOM occurs in 100% of altered fractionation radiotherapy head and neck cancer patients. In the United Sates, its economic cost was estimated to reach 17,000.00 USD per patient with head and neck cancers. This review will discuss RIOM definition, epidemiology, impact and side effects, pathogenesis, scoring scales, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, prevention, and treatment.

  9. Intestinal mucosal atrophy and adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Darcy; Gohil, Kartik; Basson, Marc D

    2012-01-01

    Mucosal adaptation is an essential process in gut homeostasis. The intestinal mucosa adapts to a range of pathological conditions including starvation, short-gut syndrome, obesity, and bariatric surgery. Broadly, these adaptive functions can be grouped into proliferation and differentiation. These are influenced by diverse interactions with hormonal, immune, dietary, nervous, and mechanical stimuli. It seems likely that clinical outcomes can be improved by manipulating the physiology of adaptation. This review will summarize current understanding of the basic science surrounding adaptation, delineate the wide range of potential targets for therapeutic intervention, and discuss how these might be incorporated into an overall treatment plan. Deeper insight into the physiologic basis of adaptation will identify further targets for intervention to improve clinical outcomes. PMID:23197881

  10. Quantitative determination of phenol in phenolated calamine lotion USP.

    PubMed

    Das Gupta, V; Bomer, K A

    1975-07-01

    A method for the quantitative analysis of phenol in phenolated calamine lotion USP is described. The method is based on spectrophotometrically measuring the color produced by reacting phenol with either ferric chloride or ferric nitrate. Beer's law is followed. The effect of ferric-ion concentration on the sensitivity of the assay method is reported.

  11. Effects of phenol on barrier function of a human intestinal epithelial cell line correlate with altered tight junction protein localization.

    PubMed

    McCall, Ingrid C; Betanzos, Abigail; Weber, Dominique A; Nava, Porfirio; Miller, Gary W; Parkos, Charles A

    2009-11-15

    Phenol contamination of soil and water has raised concerns among people living near phenol-producing factories and hazardous waste sites containing the chemical. Phenol, particularly in high concentrations, is an irritating and corrosive substance, making mucosal membranes targets of toxicity in humans. However, few data on the effects of phenol after oral exposure exist. We used an in vitro model employing human intestinal epithelial cells (SK-CO15) cultured on permeable supports to examine effects of phenol on epithelial barrier function. We hypothesized that phenol disrupts epithelial barrier by altering tight junction (TJ) protein expression. The dose-response effect of phenol on epithelial barrier function was determined using transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and FITC-dextran permeability measurements. We studied phenol-induced changes in cell morphology and expression of several tight junction proteins by immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis. Effects on cell viability were assessed by MTT, Trypan blue, propidium iodide and TUNEL staining. Exposure to phenol resulted in decreased TER and increased paracellular flux of FITC-dextran in a dose-dependent manner. Delocalization of claudin-1 and ZO-1 from TJs to cytosol correlated with the observed increase in permeability after phenol treatment. Additionally, the decrease in TER correlated with changes in the distribution of a membrane raft marker, suggesting phenol-mediated effects on membrane fluidity. Such observations were independent of effects of phenol on cell viability as enhanced permeability occurred at doses of phenol that did not cause cell death. Overall, these findings suggest that phenol may affect transiently the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane, thus destabilizing TJ-containing microdomains.

  12. Effects of phenol on barrier function of a human intestinal epithelial cell line correlate with altered tight junction protein localization

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Ingrid C.; Betanzos, Abigail; Weber, Dominique A.; Nava, Porfirio; Miller, Gary W.; Parkos, Charles A.

    2010-01-01

    Phenol contamination of soil and water has raised concerns among people living near phenol-producing factories and hazardous waste sites containing the chemical. Phenol, particularly in high concentrations, is an irritating and corrosive substance, making mucosal membranes targets of toxicity in humans. However, few data on the effects of phenol after oral exposure exist. We used an in vitro model employing human intestinal epithelial cells (SK-CO15) cultured on permeable supports to examine effects of phenol on epithelial barrier function. We hypothesized that phenol disrupts epithelial barrier by altering tight junction (TJ) protein expression. The dose-response effect of phenol on epithelial barrier function was determined using transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and FITC-dextran permeability measurements. We studied phenol-induced changes in cell morphology and expression of several tight junction proteins by immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis. Effects on cell viability were assessed by MTT, Trypan blue, propidium iodide and TUNEL staining. Exposure to phenol resulted in decreased TER and increased paracellular flux of FITC-dextran in a dose-dependent manner. Delocalization of claudin-1 and ZO-1 from TJs to cytosol correlated with the observed increase in permeability after phenol treatment. Additionally, the decrease in TER correlated with changes in the distribution of a membrane raft marker, suggesting phenol-mediated effects on membrane fluidity. Such observations were independent of effects of phenol on cell viability as enhanced permeability occurred at doses of phenol that did not cause cell death. Overall, these findings suggest that phenol may affect transiently the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane, thus destabilizing TJ-containing microdomains. PMID:19679145

  13. Effects of phenol on barrier function of a human intestinal epithelial cell line correlate with altered tight junction protein localization

    SciTech Connect

    McCall, Ingrid C.; Betanzos, Abigail; Weber, Dominique A.; Nava, Porfirio; Miller, Gary W.; Parkos, Charles A.

    2009-11-15

    Phenol contamination of soil and water has raised concerns among people living near phenol-producing factories and hazardous waste sites containing the chemical. Phenol, particularly in high concentrations, is an irritating and corrosive substance, making mucosal membranes targets of toxicity in humans. However, few data on the effects of phenol after oral exposure exist. We used an in vitro model employing human intestinal epithelial cells (SK-CO15) cultured on permeable supports to examine effects of phenol on epithelial barrier function. We hypothesized that phenol disrupts epithelial barrier by altering tight junction (TJ) protein expression. The dose-response effect of phenol on epithelial barrier function was determined using transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and FITC-dextran permeability measurements. We studied phenol-induced changes in cell morphology and expression of several tight junction proteins by immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis. Effects on cell viability were assessed by MTT, Trypan blue, propidium iodide and TUNEL staining. Exposure to phenol resulted in decreased TER and increased paracellular flux of FITC-dextran in a dose-dependent manner. Delocalization of claudin-1 and ZO-1 from TJs to cytosol correlated with the observed increase in permeability after phenol treatment. Additionally, the decrease in TER correlated with changes in the distribution of a membrane raft marker, suggesting phenol-mediated effects on membrane fluidity. Such observations were independent of effects of phenol on cell viability as enhanced permeability occurred at doses of phenol that did not cause cell death. Overall, these findings suggest that phenol may affect transiently the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane, thus destabilizing TJ-containing microdomains.

  14. Utility of abdominal skin plus subcutaneous fat and rectal mucosal biopsy in the diagnosis of AL amyloidosis with renal involvement.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Huang, Xianghua; Cheng, Shuiqin; Zhao, Liang; Ren, Guisheng; Chen, Wencui; Wang, Qingwen; Zeng, Caihong; Liu, Zhihong

    2017-01-01

    Skin fat biopsy of the abdominal wall is a simple and safe method for detecting amyloidosis, and rectal mucosal biopsy is also frequently used for screening for the disease; however, the sensitivity of these approaches has not been fully studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of skin fat biopsy combined with rectal mucosal biopsy as a screening procedure for the diagnosis of systemic immunoglobulin light-chain (AL) amyloidosis. We retrospectively analyzed 224 AL amyloidosis patients confirmed by renal biopsy, including a test group of 165 patients and validation group of 59 patients. Surgical skin fat biopsy from the abdominal wall and rectal mucosal biopsy under endoscopy was performed to obtain specimens. Congo red staining and immunofluorescence staining with antibodies against light chains were performed to type the disease. Pathology reports were reviewed to assess the diagnostic sensitivity of skin fat biopsy and rectal mucosal biopsy. Diagnostic specificity was not examined in the present study, because no healthy volunteers and only few patients with other diseases had performed immunofluorescence staining on skin fat and rectal specimens. Of the 165 patients in the test group, Congo red staining of skin fat and rectal mucosal specimens was associated with a sensitivity of 89.3% and 94.8%, respectively. The sensitivity increased to 98.9% by combining both biopsy methods. Immunofluorescence stains were positive in 81.1% of patients undergoing skin fat biopsy and 84.7% of patients undergoing rectal mucosal biopsy. Immunofluorescence stains yielded positive results in 86.7% of cases combining skin fat biopsy with rectal mucosal biopsy. The diagnostic results also performed well in the validation group. Surgical skin biopsy including the subcutaneous fat pad can be performed safely at the bedside and is useful for diagnosing AL amyloidosis. Combining skin fat biopsy with rectal mucosal biopsy may identify amyloid deposits in almost all

  15. Mucosal acid causes gastric mucosal microcirculatory disturbance in nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Funatsu, Toshiyuki; Chono, Koji; Hirata, Takuya; Keto, Yoshihiro; Kimoto, Aishi; Sasamata, Masao

    2007-01-05

    The mechanism by which nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) suppress gastric mucosal blood flow is not fully understood, although the depletion of mucosal prostaglandin E2 has been proposed as one possible explanation. We investigated the role of gastric acid on gastric mucosal blood flow in NSAID-treated rats. A rat stomach was mounted in an ex vivo chamber, and gastric mucosal blood flow was measured sequentially in a 5-mm2 area of the gastric corpus using a scanning laser Doppler perfusion image system. Results showed that diclofenac (5 mg/kg s.c.) and indomethacin (10 mg/kg s.c.) did not affect gastric mucosal blood flow, although both strongly decreased mucosal prostaglandin E2 when saline was instilled into the gastric chamber. On replacement of the saline in the chamber with 100 mM hydrochloric acid, these drugs caused a decrease in gastric mucosal blood flow levels within 30 min. The specific cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors celecoxib (50 mg/kg s.c.) and rofecoxib (25 mg/kg s.c.) did not affect mucosal prostaglandin E2 level, nor did they decrease gastric mucosal blood flow, even when hydrochloric acid was added to the chamber. Furthermore, measurement of vasoconstrictive factors present in the mucosa showed that endothelin-1 levels increased after administration of diclofenac s.c. in the presence of intragastric hydrochloric acid. This indicates that the presence of mucosal hydrochloric acid plays an important role in the NSAID-induced decrease in gastric mucosal blood flow, while the COX-1-derived basal prostaglandin E2, which is unlikely to control gastric mucosal blood flow itself, protects microcirculatory systems from mucosal hydrochloric acid.

  16. Mucosal Vaccine Development Based on Liposome Technology

    PubMed Central

    Norling, Karin; Bally, Marta; Höök, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Immune protection against infectious diseases is most effective if located at the portal of entry of the pathogen. Hence, there is an increasing demand for vaccine formulations that can induce strong protective immunity following oral, respiratory, or genital tract administration. At present, only few mucosal vaccines are found on the market, but recent technological advancements and a better understanding of the principles that govern priming of mucosal immune responses have contributed to a more optimistic view on the future of mucosal vaccines. Compared to live attenuated vaccines, subcomponent vaccines, most often protein-based, are considered safer, more stable, and less complicated to manufacture, but they require the addition of nontoxic and clinically safe adjuvants to be effective. In addition, another limiting factor is the large antigen dose that usually is required for mucosal vaccines. Therefore, the combination of mucosal adjuvants with the recent progress in nanoparticle technology provides an attractive solution to these problems. In particular, the liposome technology is ideal for combining protein antigen and adjuvant into an effective mucosal vaccine. Here, we describe and discuss recent progress in nanoparticle formulations using various types of liposomes that convey strong promise for the successful development of the next generation of mucosal vaccines. PMID:28127567

  17. Treatment of oral mucositis due to chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bagán-Sebastián, José V

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The management of oral mucositis is a challenge, due to its complex biological nature. Over the last 10 years, different strategies have been developed for the management of oral mucositis caused by chemotherapy in cancer patients. Material and Methods An exhaustive search was made of the PubMed-Medline, Cochrane Library and Scopus databases, crossing the key words “oral mucositis”, “prevention” and “treatment” with the terms “chemotherapy” and “radiotherapy” by means of the boolean operators “AND” and “NOT”. A total of 268 articles were obtained, of which 96 met the inclusion criteria. Results Several interventions for the prevention of oral mucositis, such as oral hygiene protocols, amifostine, benzidamine, calcium phosphate, cryotherapy and iseganan, among others, were found to yield only limited benefits. Other studies have reported a decrease in the appearance and severity of mucositis with the use of cytoprotectors (sucralfate, oral glutamine, hyaluronic acid), growth factors, topical polyvinylpyrrolidone, and low power laser irradiation. Conclusions Very few interventions of confirmed efficacy are available for the management of oral mucositis due to chemotherapy. However, according to the reviewed literature, the use of palifermin, cryotherapy and low power laser offers benefits, reducing the incidence and severity of oral mucositis – though further studies are needed to confirm the results obtained. Key words:Chemotherapy-Induced Oral Mucositis Treatment. PMID:27034762

  18. The mucosal immune system for vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Lamichhane, Aayam; Azegamia, Tatsuhiko; Kiyonoa, Hiroshi

    2014-11-20

    Mucosal surfaces are continuously exposed to the external environment and therefore represent the largest lymphoid organ of the body. In the mucosal immune system, gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALTs), including Peyer's patches and isolated lymphoid follicles, play an important role in the induction of antigen-specific immune responses in the gut. GALTs have unique organogenesis characteristics and interact with the network of dendritic cells and T cells for the simultaneous induction and regulation of IgA responses and oral tolerance. In these lymphoid tissues, antigens are up taken by M cells in the epithelial layer, and antigen-specific immune responses are subsequently initiated by GALT cells. Nasopharynx- and tear-duct-associated lymphoid tissues (NALTs and TALTs) are key organized lymphoid structures in the respiratory tract and ocular cavities, respectively, and have been shown to interact with each other. Mucosal surfaces are also characterized by host-microbe interactions that affect the genesis and maturation of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues and the induction and regulation of innate and acquired mucosal immune responses. Because most harmful pathogens enter the body through mucosal surfaces by ingestion, inhalation, or sexual contact, the mucosa is a candidate site for vaccination. Mucosal vaccination has some physiological and practical advantages, such as decreased costs and reduced risk of needle-stick injuries and transmission of bloodborne diseases, and it is painless. Recently, the application of modern bioengineering and biochemical engineering technologies, including gene transformation and manipulation systems, resulted in the development of systems to express vaccine antigens in transgenic plants and nanogels, which will usher in a new era of delivery systems for mucosal vaccine antigens. In this review, based on some of our research group's thirty seven years of progress and effort, we highlight the unique features of mucosal immune

  19. Animal models of mucositis: implications for therapy.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Joanne M; Gibson, Rachel J; Keefe, Dorothy M K

    2011-01-01

    Alimentary mucositis is a major acute complication in the clinical setting, occurring in a large percentage of patients undergoing cytotoxic therapy. One of the major problems with alimentary mucositis is that the underlying mechanisms behind its development are not entirely understood, which makes it extremely difficult to develop effective interventions. Animal models provide a critical source of knowledge when sampling from patients is unavailable or interventions are yet to be fully tested. This review focuses on the animal models used to increase our understanding of the mechanisms of mucositis and translate new antimucotoxic agents into clinical trials.

  20. Oral mucositis. A complication of radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Rider, C.A. )

    1990-11-01

    Oral mucositis is a complication of head and neck radiotherapy. It is understood what causes the inflammation and what biological tissue changes occur, however, a definite cure for oral mucositis has not yet been found. Supportive treatments, analgesics, antimicrobials and anti-inflammatory agents have been prescribed, none of which has been a thorough measure of treatment. An effective cure for oral mucositis is still in the midst of scientific research. In the interim local palliative treatments will help to alleviate the patients', debilitating symptoms.

  1. Palliation of radiation-related mucositis

    SciTech Connect

    Rothwell, B.R.; Spektor, W.S.

    1990-01-01

    Oral mucositis associated with head and neck radiotherapy can substantially hinder completion of cancer therapy. Alleviation of this often severe stomatitis can provide enhanced patient comfort and facilitate appropriate care. A double-blind format was used in a pilot project to measure, against a control rinse, the effectiveness of an oral rinse consisting of hydrocortisone, nystatin, tetracycline, and diphenhydramine in controlling radiation-related mucositis. A combination of clinical evaluation and patient responses to a questionnaire was used to judge the results of the topical medications. Patients using the experimental medication developed less mucositis than did patients in the control group.

  2. Role of oxygen radicals and neutrophils in hemorrhagic shock-induced gastric mucosal injury

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    The role of oxygen radicals and neutrophils was examined in ischemia-reperfusion injury to the gastric mucosa in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Gastric mucosal clearance of /sup 51/Cr-labelled red blood cells was measured during a 30 minute control period, 30 minute ischemic period, and a 60 minute reperfusion period. In untreated rats, a dramatic rise in the leakage of /sup 51/Cr-labeled red blood cells into the gastric lumen was observed only during the reperfusion period. Ischemia-reperfusion was also associated with the formation of both grossly visible and histologically demonstrable mucosal lesions. Pretreatment with dimethylsulfoxide or deferoxamine largely prevented gastric bleeding and gross lesion formation, indicating that the hydroxyl radical, generated by the iron-catalyzed Haber-Weiss reaction, is the primary cytotoxic oxygen species involved in ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  3. A regenerative approach towards mucosal fenestration closure.

    PubMed

    Gandi, Padma; Anumala, Naveen; Reddy, Amarender; Chandra, Rampalli Viswa

    2013-06-06

    Mucosal fenestration is an opening or an interstice through the oral mucosa. A lesion which occurs with greater frequency than generally realised, its occurrence is attributed to a myriad of causes. Mucogingival procedures including connective tissue grafts, free gingival grafts and lateral pedicle grafts are generally considered to be the treatment of choice in the closure of a mucosal fenestration. More often, these procedures are performed in conjunction with other procedures such as periradicular surgery and with bone grafts. However, the concomitant use of gingival grafts and bone grafts in mucosal fenestrations secondary to infections in sites exhibiting severe bone loss is highly debatable. In this article, we report two cases of mucosal fenestrations secondary to trauma and their management by regenerative periodontal surgery with the placement of guided tissue regeneration membrane and bone graft. The final outcome was a complete closure of the fenestration in both the cases.

  4. A regenerative approach towards mucosal fenestration closure

    PubMed Central

    Gandi, Padma; Anumala, Naveen; Reddy, Amarender; Viswa Chandra, Rampalli

    2013-01-01

    Mucosal fenestration is an opening or an interstice through the oral mucosa. A lesion which occurs with greater frequency than generally realised, its occurrence is attributed to a myriad of causes. Mucogingival procedures including connective tissue grafts, free gingival grafts and lateral pedicle grafts are generally considered to be the treatment of choice in the closure of a mucosal fenestration. More often, these procedures are performed in conjunction with other procedures such as periradicular surgery and with bone grafts. However, the concomitant use of gingival grafts and bone grafts in mucosal fenestrations secondary to infections in sites exhibiting severe bone loss is highly debatable. In this article, we report two cases of mucosal fenestrations secondary to trauma and their management by regenerative periodontal surgery with the placement of guided tissue regeneration membrane and bone graft. The final outcome was a complete closure of the fenestration in both the cases. PMID:23749826

  5. Microbiota and mucosal immunity in amphibians.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Bruno M; Scalvenzi, Thibault; Benlamara, Sarah; Pollet, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    We know that animals live in a world dominated by bacteria. In the last 20 years, we have learned that microbes are essential regulators of mucosal immunity. Bacteria, archeas, and viruses influence different aspects of mucosal development and function. Yet, the literature mainly covers findings obtained in mammals. In this review, we focus on two major themes that emerge from the comparative analysis of mammals and amphibians. These themes concern: (i) the structure and functions of lymphoid organs and immune cells in amphibians, with a focus on the gut mucosal immune system; and (ii) the characteristics of the amphibian microbiota and its influence on mucosal immunity. Lastly, we propose to use Xenopus tadpoles as an alternative small-animal model to improve the fundamental knowledge on immunological functions of gut microbiota.

  6. Topical therapy for mucosal yeast infections.

    PubMed

    Summers, Paul R

    2011-01-01

    Mucosal yeast infection is best understood as a consequence of compromised mucosal cell-mediated and innate immunity. Defense against oral candidiasis is dominantly cell mediated. The innate immune system may play the main role in regulating vulvovaginal yeast infection. Conditions that compromise cell-mediated immunity such as leukemia, severe illness and HIV infection must be considered as predisposing factors for recurrent oral candidiasis. Compromise of vaginal innate immunity due to mucosal allergy or due to a genetic defect such as mannose-binding lectin deficiency contributes to chronic vulvovaginal yeast infection. Treatment of cofactors must be considered in order to achieve control in recurrent mucosal yeast infection. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Targeting Mucosal Healing in Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kakkar, Aarti; Wasan, Sharmeel K.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of medical treatment for Crohn's disease includes improving patients' quality of life while reducing the need for hospitalization and surgery. The current medical armamentarium includes 5-aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, immunomodulators, and biologic agents. In the past, response to treatment was measured by clinical improvement in symptoms; however, with the advent of disease-modifying medications, mucosal healing has emerged as an increasingly important goal of therapy. Mucosal healing, or endoscopic remission, is associated with increased rates of clinical remission, fewer hospitalizations, and fewer abdominal surgeries. Both the immunomodulator and biologic classes of medications are effective at inducing mucosal healing. Despite several limitations, mucosal healing has become a desirable and valid measure of disease activity. PMID:21869869

  8. Transgenic killer commensal bacteria as mucosal protectants.

    PubMed

    Polonelli, L

    2001-05-01

    As first line of defense against the majority of infections and primary site for their transmission, mucosal surfaces of the oral cavity and genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and respiratory tracts represent the most suitable sites to deliver protective agents for the prevention of infectious diseases. Mucosal protection is important not only for life threatening diseases but also for opportunistic infections which currently represent a serious burden in terms of morbidity, mortality, and cost of cures. Candida albicans is among the most prevalent causes of mucosal infections not only in immuno-compromised patients, such as HIV-infected subjects who are frequently affected by oral and esophageal candidiasis, but also in otherwise healthy individuals, as in the case of acute vaginitis. Unfortunately, current strategies for mucosal protection against candidiasis are severely limited by the lack of effective vaccines and the relative paucity and toxicity of commercially available antifungal drugs.

  9. Microbiota and Mucosal Immunity in Amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Bruno M.; Scalvenzi, Thibault; Benlamara, Sarah; Pollet, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    We know that animals live in a world dominated by bacteria. In the last 20 years, we have learned that microbes are essential regulators of mucosal immunity. Bacteria, archeas, and viruses influence different aspects of mucosal development and function. Yet, the literature mainly covers findings obtained in mammals. In this review, we focus on two major themes that emerge from the comparative analysis of mammals and amphibians. These themes concern: (i) the structure and functions of lymphoid organs and immune cells in amphibians, with a focus on the gut mucosal immune system; and (ii) the characteristics of the amphibian microbiota and its influence on mucosal immunity. Lastly, we propose to use Xenopus tadpoles as an alternative small-animal model to improve the fundamental knowledge on immunological functions of gut microbiota. PMID:25821449

  10. Mucosal Vaccination against Tuberculosis Using Inert Bioparticles

    PubMed Central

    Reljic, Rajko; Sibley, Laura; Huang, Jen-Min; Pepponi, Ilaria; Hoppe, Andreas; Hong, Huynh A.

    2013-01-01

    Needle-free, mucosal immunization is a highly desirable strategy for vaccination against many pathogens, especially those entering through the respiratory mucosa, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Unfortunately, mucosal vaccination against tuberculosis (TB) is impeded by a lack of suitable adjuvants and/or delivery platforms that could induce a protective immune response in humans. Here, we report on a novel biotechnological approach for mucosal vaccination against TB that overcomes some of the current limitations. This is achieved by coating protective TB antigens onto the surface of inert bacterial spores, which are then delivered to the respiratory tract. Our data showed that mice immunized nasally with coated spores developed humoral and cellular immune responses and multifunctional T cells and, most importantly, presented significantly reduced bacterial loads in their lungs and spleens following pathogenic challenge. We conclude that this new vaccine delivery platform merits further development as a mucosal vaccine for TB and possibly also other respiratory pathogens. PMID:23959722

  11. Phenolic compounds in Brassica vegetables.

    PubMed

    Cartea, María Elena; Francisco, Marta; Soengas, Pilar; Velasco, Pablo

    2010-12-30

    Phenolic compounds are a large group of phytochemicals widespread in the plant kingdom. Depending on their structure they can be classified into simple phenols, phenolic acids, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. Phenolic compounds have received considerable attention for being potentially protective factors against cancer and heart diseases, in part because of their potent antioxidative properties and their ubiquity in a wide range of commonly consumed foods of plant origin. The Brassicaceae family includes a wide range of horticultural crops, some of them with economic significance and extensively used in the diet throughout the world. The phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables has been recently investigated and, nowadays, the profile of different Brassica species is well established. Here, we review the significance of phenolic compounds as a source of beneficial compounds for human health and the influence of environmental conditions and processing mechanisms on the phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables.

  12. Red Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  The Red Sea     View Larger Image ... 2000. Located between the East African coast and the Saudi Arabian peninsula, the Red Sea got its name because the blooms of a type of ... 2000 - The Red Sea between the East Africa coast and Saudi Arabian peninsula. project:  MISR category:  ...

  13. Polyamines and Gut Mucosal Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Timmons, Jennifer; Chang, Elizabeth T.; Wang, Jian-Ying; Rao, Jaladanki N.

    2012-01-01

    The epithelium of gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa has the most rapid turnover rate of any tissue in the body and its integrity is preserved through the dynamic balance between cell migration, proliferation, growth arrest and apoptosis. To maintain tissue homeostasis of the GI mucosa, the rates of epithelial cell division and apoptosis must be highly regulated by various extracellular and intracellular factors including cellular polyamines. Natural polyamines spermidine, spermine and their precursor putrescine, are organic cations in eukaryotic cells and are implicated in the control of multiple signaling pathways and distinct cellular functions. Normal intestinal epithelial growth depends on the available supply of polyamines to the dividing cells in the crypts, and polyamines also regulate intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) apoptosis. Although the specific molecular processes controlled by polyamines remains to be fully defined, increasing evidence indicates that polyamines regulate intestinal epithelial integrity by modulating the expression of various growth-related genes. In this review, we will extrapolate the current state of scientific knowledge regarding the roles of polyamines in gut mucosal homeostasis and highlight progress in cellular and molecular mechanisms of polyamines and their potential clinical applications. PMID:25237589

  14. Cancer therapy-related oral mucositis.

    PubMed

    Redding, Spencer W

    2005-08-01

    Oral mucositis is a common side effect of cancer therapies, particularly radiation therapy for head and neck cancer and various forms of chemotherapy. It commonly results in severe oral pain that can compromise the duration and success of cancer management. Hospitalizations are common because patients lose the ability to take anything by mouth due to severe pain and must have alimentation supported during this period. Pain management usually requires potent narcotic analgesia. Cancer therapy-related oral mucositis is commonly described as the most significant and debilitating acute complication associated with radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Until recently, cancer therapy-induced oral mucositis was thought to be a process involving the epithelium only. Evidence is building that the process of oral mucositis involves far more than just the epithelium, but includes multiple cellular processes of the submucosa as well. Many strategies have been evaluated to prevent oral mucositis, but the data is confusing since it is often conflicting. Therapy with the growth factor, KGF1, appears promising, as it is the only medication currently approved by the FDA. A multifaceted approach that targets the entire mucositis process will probably be needed to optimize overall prevention.

  15. Antioxidant activities and phenolic compounds of pigmented rice bran extracts.

    PubMed

    Jun, Hyun-Il; Song, Geun-Seoup; Yang, Eun-In; Youn, Young; Kim, Young-Soo

    2012-07-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant activities and phenolic compounds of pigmented rice (black, red, and green rice) and brown rice brans. Antioxidant activity was determined by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical assay, 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylenebenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation assay, reducing power, and chelating ability. Phenolic compounds were measured by using HPLC. Pigmented rice brans were extracted by using aqueous mixtures of acetone, ethanol, and methanol to determine the most effective extraction solvent. Of all solvents examined, extract from 40:60 acetone-water mixtures (v/v) provided the highest DPPH radical assay as well as the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content. We finally selected 40% acetone as an extraction solvent for antioxidant study of pigmented rice bran. Antioxidant activities of 40% acetone extracts of pigmented rice bran, measured in the range of 0 to 1500 μg/mL. At 500 μg/mL concentration, red rice bran, which had the highest total phenolic (259.5 μg/mg) and total flavonoid (187.4 μg/mg) contents, showed the highest antioxidant activity: 83.6%, 71.5%, 1.2%, and 16.4% for DPPH radical assay, ABTS radical cation assay, reducing power, and chelating ability, respectively. Red rice bran showed a lower EC(50) value (112.6 μg/mL) than that of butylated hydroxytoluene (144.5 μg/mL) from the DPPH radical assay. The major phenolic acids of red rice bran were ferulic, vanillic and p-coumaric acids. The results indicated pigmented rice bran might be used as a natural antioxidant. The present study revealed black and red rice bran shows high antioxidant activities and they contain high amount of phenolic compounds. Indeed, black and red rice bran could be better raw materials for manufacturing the food with high antioxidant activity. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Melatonin inhibits alcohol-induced increases in duodenal mucosal permeability in rats in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sommansson, Anna; Saudi, Wan Salman Wan; Nylander, Olof; Sjöblom, Markus

    2013-07-01

    Increased intestinal permeability is often associated with epithelial inflammation, leaky gut, or other pathological conditions in the gastrointestinal tract. We recently found that melatonin decreases basal duodenal mucosal permeability, suggesting a mucosal protective mode of action of this agent. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effects of melatonin on ethanol-, wine-, and HCl-induced changes of duodenal mucosal paracellular permeability and motility. Rats were anesthetized with thiobarbiturate and a ~30-mm segment of the proximal duodenum was perfused in situ. Effects on duodenal mucosal paracellular permeability, assessed by measuring the blood-to-lumen clearance of ⁵¹Cr-EDTA, motility, and morphology, were investigated. Perfusing the duodenal segment with ethanol (10 or 15% alcohol by volume), red wine, or HCl (25-100 mM) induced concentration-dependent increases in paracellular permeability. Luminal ethanol and wine increased, whereas HCl transiently decreased duodenal motility. Administration of melatonin significantly reduced ethanol- and wine-induced increases in permeability by a mechanism abolished by the nicotinic receptor antagonists hexamethonium (iv) or mecamylamine (luminally). Signs of mucosal injury (edema and beginning of desquamation of the epithelium) in response to ethanol exposure were seen only in a few villi, an effect that was histologically not changed by melatonin. Melatonin did not affect HCl-induced increases in mucosal permeability or decreases in motility. Our results show that melatonin reduces ethanol- and wine-induced increases in duodenal paracellular permeability partly via an enteric inhibitory nicotinic-receptor dependent neural pathway. In addition, melatonin inhibits ethanol-induced increases in duodenal motor activity. These results suggest that melatonin may serve important gastrointestinal barrier functions.

  17. Grape seed extract protects IEC-6 cells from chemotherapy-induced cytotoxicity and improves parameters of small intestinal mucositis in rats with experimentally-induced mucositis.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Ker Y; Howarth, Gordon S; Yazbeck, Roger; Wright, Tessa H; Whitford, Eleanor J; Payne, Caroline; Butler, Ross N; Bastian, Susan E P

    2009-02-01

    Mucositis is a common side-effect of high-dose chemotherapy regimens. Grape seed extract (GSE) represents a rich source of proanthocyanidins with the potential to decrease oxidative damage and inflammation within the gastrointestinal tract. We evaluated GSE for its capacity to decrease the severity of chemotherapy-induced mucositis in vitro and in vivo. In vitro: GSE was administered to IEC-6 intestinal epithelial cells prior to damage induced by 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU). Cell viability was determined by neutral red assay. In vivo: Female Dark Agouti rats (130-180 g) were gavaged with 1 ml GSE (400 mg/kg) daily (day 3-11) and received 5-FU (150 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection on day nine to induce mucositis. Rats were sacrificed at day 12 and intestinal tissues collected for myeloperoxidase and sucrase activity assays and histological analyses. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA. GSE prevented the decrease in IEC-6 cell viability induced by 5-FU (p < 0.01). Compared with 5-FU controls, GSE significantly reduced myeloperoxidase activity by 86% and 27% in the proximal jejunum (p < 0.001) and distal ileum (p < 0.05) respectively; decreased qualitative histological scores of damage (p < 0.05) in the proximal jejunum; increased villus height in the proximal jejunum (17%; p < 0.05) and distal ileum (50%; p < 0.01), and attenuated the 5-FU-induced reduction of mucosal thickness by 16% in the jejunum (p < 0.05) and 45% in the ileum (p < 0.01). GSE partially protected IEC-6 cells from 5-FU-induced cytotoxicity and ameliorated intestinal damage induced by 5-FU in rats. GSE may represent a promising prophylactic adjunct to conventional chemotherapy for preventing intestinal mucositis.

  18. Visceral and mucosal involvement in neonatal haemangiomatosis.

    PubMed

    Maruani, A; Piram, M; Sirinelli, D; Herbreteau, D; Saliba, E; Machet, M C; Lorette, G

    2012-10-01

    Two types of neonatal haemangiomatosis (NH) are distinguished: diffuse which is associated with a high rate of mortality linked to mucosal/visceral involvement, and benign. First, this study aimed to examine the frequency of mucosal and visceral (especially hepatic) involvement in NH, according to skin extension, and second, it aimed to examine clinical, pathological (with glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1) immunostaining), and imaging features of NH, including follow-up data. This was a descriptive retrospective study carried out in the University Hospital Center of Tours, France. The study included 19 patients with cutaneous NH (number of skin haemangiomas ranging from 5 to >100). Mucosal involvement was observed in 32% of all cases (100% and 19% in diffuse and other cutaneous cases respectively) and hepatic involvement in 42% (67% and 38% respectively). The number of hepatic haemangiomas ranged from 1 to >10. Half of the hepatic haemangiomas cases exhibited increased hepatic arterial blood flow. Mucosal and hepatic involvement was frequent in cases with a high number of cutaneous haemangiomas (>100), but only frequency of mucosal involvement was statistically significant (P = 0.021). © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  19. Olive oil phenols and neuroprotection.

    PubMed

    Khalatbary, Ali Reza

    2013-11-01

    Olive oil is a rich source of phenolic components which have a wide variety of beneficial health effects in vitro, in vivo, and clinically. The beneficial effects of olive oil phenols attributed to a variety of biological activities including free radical scavenging/antioxidant actions, anti-inflammatory effects, anti-carcinogenic properties, and anti-microbial activities. On the other hand, olive oil phenols have been shown to be some of neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia, spinal cord injury, Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's diseases, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, aging, and peripheral neuropathy. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the mechanisms of neuroprotective effects of olive oil phenols.

  20. Peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis: clinical and histopathological characteristics and treatment.

    PubMed

    Khammissa, R A G; Feller, L; Meyerov, R; Lemmer, J

    2012-04-01

    Osseointegrated dental implants are used routinely in dentistry in the confidence of predictable success. However, if the implant surfaces become colonised by pathogenic bacteria, the plaque-induced inflammation around the implants may cause peri-implant tissue destruction. Peri-implant mucositis is a reversible, plaque-induced inflammatory lesion confined to the peri-implant soft tissue unit and clinically is characterised by redness, swelling and bleeding on gentle probing. Peri-implantitis is an extension of peri-implant mucositis to involve the bone supporting the implant: it is characterised by loss of osseointegration of the coronal part of the implant, by increased probing depth and by bleeding and/or suppuration on probing. Established peri-implantitis does not respond predictably to treatment. The best management of plaque-induced peri-implant inflammatory diseases is prevention. Regular personal and professional cleaning of the implant is mandatory to minimise bacterial load. Despite our best efforts, plaque-induced peri-implant inflammatory diseases will occur frequently, and as these diseases respond best to early treatment, early detection of peri-implant mucositis by regular assessment will permit timely treatment. Peri-implant mucositis is readily treated non-surgically. Peri-implantitis is more difficult to treat largely because of the problem of decontamination of the roughened, threaded surfaces of exposed implants. As a rule, surgical treatment will be necessary, and even then success is not assured.

  1. Spectral shifts and structures of phenol...Ar(n) clusters.

    PubMed

    Armentano, Antonio; Cerný, Jiří; Riese, Mikko; Taherkhani, Mehran; Ben Yezzar, Med; Müller-Dethlefs, Klaus

    2011-04-07

    A laser spectroscopic investigation of phenol...Ar(n) (n = 1-6) clusters in the first electronically excited state (S(1)) and the cationic ground state (D(0)) is reported. Resonance enhanced two-photon ionisation (R2PI) spectra have been recorded for the investigation of the S(1) state. The origins of S(1)← S(0) (S(1)0(0)) transition of phenol...Ar(n) (n = 1, 2,4-6) are all red shifted compared to the S(1)0(0) state of the monomer by 33 cm(-1), 67 cm(-1), 10 cm(-1), 20 cm(-1), 44 cm(-1), respectively. However, the origin of the phenolAr(3) cluster is blue shifted by 25 cm(-1). For the investigation of the ionic ground state photoionization efficiency (PIE) and mass-analyzed-threshold ionization (MATI) spectroscopy have been applied. The spectra of phenol...Ar(3) and phenol...Ar(4) yield values for the ionization energy (IE) of 68,077 ± 15 cm(-1) and 67,948 ± 15 cm(-1). With the combination of theoretical methods and R2PI, PIE and MATI spectroscopy, the major species present have been positively identified.

  2. Connexins in respiratory and gastrointestinal mucosal immunity.

    PubMed

    Bou Saab, Joanna; Losa, Davide; Chanson, Marc; Ruez, Richard

    2014-04-17

    The mucosal lining forms the physical and chemical barrier that protects against pathogens and hostile particles and harbors its own population of bacteria, fungi and archea, known as the microbiota. The immune system controls tolerance of this population of microorganisms that have proven to be beneficial for its host. Keeping its physical integrity and a correct balance with the microbiota, the mucosa preserves its homeostasis and its protective function and maintains host's health. However, in some conditions, pathogens may succeed in breaching mucosal homeostasis and successfully infecting the host. In this review we will discuss the role the mucosa plays in the defense against bacterial pathogens by considering the gap junction protein connexins. We will detail their implication in mucosal homeostasis and upon infection with bacteria in the respiratory and the gastrointestinal tracts. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mucosal Immunity and Candida albicans Infection

    PubMed Central

    Moyes, David L.; Naglik, Julian R.

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between mucosal surfaces and microbial microbiota are key to host defense, health, and disease. These surfaces are exposed to high numbers of microbes and must be capable of distinguishing between those that are beneficial or avirulent and those that will invade and cause disease. Our understanding of the mechanisms involved in these discriminatory processes has recently begun to expand as new studies bring to light the importance of epithelial cells and novel immune cell subsets such as Th17 T cells in these processes. Elucidating how these mechanisms function will improve our understanding of many diverse diseases and improve our ability to treat patients suffering from these conditions. In our voyage to discover these mechanisms, mucosal interactions with opportunistic commensal organisms such as the fungus Candida albicans provide insights that are invaluable. Here, we review current knowledge of the interactions between C. albicans and epithelial surfaces and how this may shape our understanding of microbial-mucosal interactions. PMID:21776285

  4. C. albicans Colonization of Human Mucosal Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Southern, Peter; Horbul, Julie; Maher, Diane; Davis, Dana A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Candida albicans is a low level commensal organism in normal human populations with the continuous potential to expand and cause a spectrum of clinical conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings Using ex vivo human organ cultures and populations of primary human cells, we have developed several related experimental systems to examine early-stage interactions between C. albicans and mucosal surfaces. Experiments have been conducted both with exogenously added C. albicans and with overtly normal human mucosal surfaces supporting pre-existing infections with natural isolates of Candida. Under different culture conditions, we have demonstrated the formation of C. albicans colonies on human target cells and filament formation, equivalent to tissue invasion. Conclusions/Significance These organ culture systems provide a valuable new resource to examine the molecular and cellular basis for Candida colonization of human mucosal surfaces. PMID:18446191

  5. HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS analysis of phenolic compounds during ripening in exocarp and mesocarp of tomato fruit.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-López, Armando; Yahia, Elhadi

    2013-12-01

    Identification of phenolic compounds was done by means of liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) using the electrospray ionization interface (ESI). Quantification of phenolic compounds was carried out by using HPLC with diode array detector (DAD) in exocarp and mesocarp of tomato fruit at 6 different ripeness stages (mature-green, breakers, turning, pink, light-red, and red). Several phenolic compounds were identified including chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and rutin and some combined phenolic acids were tentatively identified, mainly glycosides, such as caffeoyl hexose I, caffeoyl hexose II, caffeoylquinic acid isomer, dicaffeoylquinic acid, p-coumaroyl hexose I, p-coumaroyl hexose II, feruloyl hexose I, feruloyl hexose II, siringyl hexose, and caffeoyl deoxyhexose hexose. Fruit exocarp had higher quantities of total soluble phenolics (TSP) compared to mesocarp. During ripening, TSP increased in both exocarp and mesocarp, mainly in exocarp. While rutin increased, chlorogenic acid decreased in both tissues: exocarp and mesocarp.

  6. Phenolic concentrations and antioxidant properties of wines made from north american grapes grown in china.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Yali; Deng, Jiajin; Li, Huirong; Lu, Jiang

    2012-03-14

    The characteristics of wine phenolics found in several North American and (for comparison) European grape cultivars grown in China were analyzed. This was done to find non-Vitis vinifera wines with prominent features in order to diversify the kinds of wines. The phenolic richness and antioxidant activity decreased in the order: red > rose > white wines. In the red wines, the American grape 'Cynthiana' had the highest total concentrations of phenols, anthocyanins, flavonols and phenolic acids, as well as antioxidant capacity, followed by the French hybrid 'Chambourcin', the lowest were detected in two European grape varieties, 'Merlot' and 'Cabernet Sauvignon', while the total flavon-3-ols levels were reversed among these red grape cultivars. The highest concentration of stilbenes out of all the wines analyzed was found in the 'Merlot' variety. There were significant differences among wine phenolic compositions between North American and European grape cultivars. The antioxidant activities were significantly related to the concentrations of total phenols (r² = 0.996), anthocyanins (r² = 0.984), flavonols (r² = 0.850) and gallic acid (r² = 0.797). The prominent features of wine aroma and nutrition could make the American grape wines attractive to consumers. It is therefore necessary to perform further research on cultural practices and wine making involving these grapes.

  7. Oral mucosal diseases: evaluation and management.

    PubMed

    Stoopler, Eric T; Sollecito, Thomas P

    2014-11-01

    Oral mucosal diseases encompass several common conditions that affect the general population. Some of these disorders present with signs and symptoms that are pathognomonic for the condition, whereas others present with similar features that can make clinical diagnosis difficult to achieve. It is important for physicians to have a clear understanding of these disorders to provide appropriate care to patients. This article reviews clinical aspects of common oral mucosal disorders, including candidiasis, herpes simplex viral infections, aphthous stomatitis, lichen planus, pemphigus vulgaris, and mucous membrane pemphigoid.

  8. Review of chlorinated phenols

    SciTech Connect

    Exon, J.H.

    1984-12-01

    The chlorinated phenols are a group of 19 isomers composed of phenol with substituted chlorines. These chemicals are readily soluble in organic solvents but only slightly soluble in water, except for the chlorophenate salts. Chlorophenols with less than 3 chlorines are not used extensively except in the production of higher chlorophenols and chlorophenyloxyacetic acid herbicides. Pentachlorophenol and some tetrachlorophenols are used worldwide, primarily as wood preservatives or fungicides. Residues of chlorophenols have been found worldwide in soil, water and air samples, in food products, and in human and animal tissues and body fluids. Environmental contamination with these chemicals occurs from industrial effluents, agricultural runoff, breakdown of chlorophenyloxyacetic acid herbicides and hexachlorobenzene, and from spontaneous formation following chlorination of water for disinfection and deodorization. The acute toxicity of these chemicals is relatively low and little is known concerning their chronic effects. Chlorophenols have not been shown conclusively to be mutagens, teratogens or carcinogens. However, these compounds may act as promotors or cocarcinogens and the immune system is particularly sensitive to their toxic effects. Transplacental exposure to chlorophenols may result in embryotoxicity and abortion. The major mode of toxic action is as uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. The toxicity of chlorophenols decreases with decreasing chlorination. These chemicals are mild hepatotoxins and are stored mainly in hepatic and renal tissues.

  9. Peroxidase catalyzed polymerization of phenol

    SciTech Connect

    Vasudevan, P.T.; Li, L.O.

    1996-07-01

    The effect of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations on the removal efficiency of phenol, defined as the percentage of phenol removed from solution as a function of time, has been investigated. When phenol and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} react with an approximately one-to-one stoichiometry, the phenol is almost completely precipitated within 10 min. The reaction is inhibited at higher concentrations of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The removal efficiency increases with an increase in the concentration of HRP, but an increase in the time of treatment cannot be used to offset the reduction in removal efficiency at low concentrations of the enzyme, because of inactivation of the enzyme. One molecule of HRP is needed to remove approximately 1100 molecules of phenol when the reaction is conducted at pH 8.0 and at ambient temperature. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Plant phenolics: recent advances on their biosynthesis, genetics, and ecophysiology.

    PubMed

    Cheynier, Véronique; Comte, Gilles; Davies, Kevin M; Lattanzio, Vincenzo; Martens, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    evidence suggests that root specific chemicals (exudates) might initiate and manipulate biological and physical interactions between roots and soil organisms. These interactions include signal traffic between roots of competing plants, roots and soil microbes, and one-way signals that relate the nature of chemical and physical soil properties to the roots. Plant phenolics can also modulate essential physiological processes such as transcriptional regulation and signal transduction. Some interesting effects of plant phenolics are also the ones associated with the growth hormone auxin. An additional role for flavonoids in functional pollen development has been observed. Finally, anthocyanins represent a class of flavonoids that provide the orange, red and blue/purple colors to many plant tissues. According to the coevolution theory, red is a signal of the status of the tree to insects that migrate to (or move among) the trees in autumn. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Red Sky with Red Mesa

    SciTech Connect

    2011-04-14

    The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

  12. Red Sky with Red Mesa

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

  13. Total phenol content of guava fruit and development of an in vitro regeneration protocol amenable to genetic improvement

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Total soluble phenolics in two white (‘Allahabad Safeda’ and ‘Lucknow-49’), two pink (‘Beaumont’ and ‘Gushiken Sweet’), and three red fleshed (‘Ka Hua Kola’, ‘Ruby Supreme’ and ‘Red Fleshed’) guava (Psidium guajava. L.) fruits were assessed using the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure. ‘Allahabad Safeda’ and...

  14. Mucosal melanoma of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Ascierto, Paolo Antonio; Accorona, Remo; Botti, Gerardo; Farina, Davide; Fossati, Piero; Gatta, Gemma; Gogas, Helen; Lombardi, Davide; Maroldi, Roberto; Nicolai, Piero; Ravanelli, Marco; Vanella, Vito

    2017-04-01

    Mucosal melanoma of the head and neck is a very rare and aggressive malignancy with a very poor prognosis. The nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and oral cavity are the most common locations. One-, 3- and 5-year survival rates between 2000 and 2007 were 63%, 30% and 20%, respectively. Cigarette smoking seems to be a risk factor even though the evidence for this is very low. Clinical signs and symptoms are usually nonspecific. While surgery is considered the mainstay of treatment for most mucosal melanomas of the head and neck region, radiotherapy has a role in local control of the disease after surgery. Many new treatment options in the last years, in particular targeted therapies (i.e. inhibitors of c-KIT, NRAS/MEK or BRAF) and immunotherapies (anti CTLA-4 and anti PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies), have changed the history of cutaneous melanoma. Despite the different biology, mucosal melanoma is currently treated in the same way as cutaneous melanoma; however, patients with mucosal melanoma were excluded from the majority of recent clinical trials. Recent molecular findings offer new hope for the development of more effective systemic therapy.

  15. Characterization of Mucosal Candida albicans Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Dongari-Bagtzoglou, Anna; Kashleva, Helena; Dwivedi, Prabhat; Diaz, Patricia; Vasilakos, John

    2009-01-01

    C. albicans triggers recurrent infections of the alimentary tract mucosa that result from biofilm growth. Although the ability of C. albicans to form a biofilm on abiotic surfaces has been well documented in recent years, no information exists on biofilms that form directly on mucosal surfaces. The objectives of this study were to characterize the structure and composition of Candida biofilms forming on the oral mucosa. We found that oral Candida biofilms consist of yeast, hyphae, and commensal bacteria, with keratin dispersed in the intercellular spaces. Neutrophils migrate through the oral mucosa and form nests within the biofilm mass. The cell wall polysaccharide β-glucan is exposed during mucosal biofilm growth and is more uniformly present on the surface of biofilm organisms invading the oral mucosa. We conclude that C. albicans forms complex mucosal biofilms consisting of both commensal bacterial flora and host components. These discoveries are important since they can prompt a shift of focus for current research in investigating the role of Candida-bacterial interactions in the pathogenesis of mucosal infections as well as the role of β-glucan mediated signaling in the host response. PMID:19956771

  16. Concomitant early mucosal and cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Boaventura, Viviane S; Cafe, Virginia; Costa, Jackson; Oliveira, Fabiano; Bafica, Andre; Rosato, Andrea; de Freitas, Luiz A R; Brodskyn, Claudia; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Barral, Aldina

    2006-08-01

    Mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) is often clinically silent until reaching a highly advanced state. In this prospective study, 6 of 220 patients with early cutaneous leishmaniasis were diagnosed with mucosal involvement by otorhinolaryngological examination (a rate similar to the reported rate of late ML). Detection of early ML may represent an important strategy in preventing severe mucosal destruction in human leishmaniasis.

  17. Treatment with Saccharomyces boulardii reduces the inflammation and dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract in 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal mucositis in mice.

    PubMed

    Justino, Priscilla F C; Melo, Luis F M; Nogueira, Andre F; Costa, Jose V G; Silva, Luara M N; Santos, Cecila M; Mendes, Walber O; Costa, Marina R; Franco, Alvaro X; Lima, Aldo A; Ribeiro, Ronaldo A; Souza, Marcellus H L P; Soares, Pedro M G

    2014-05-01

    Intestinal mucositis is an important toxic side effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment. Saccharomyces boulardii is known to protect from intestinal injury via an effect on the gastrointestinal microbiota. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of S. boulardii on intestinal mucositis induced by 5-FU in a murine model. Mice were divided into saline, saline (control)+5-FU or 5-FU+S. boulardii (16 × 10⁹ colony-forming units/kg) treatment groups, and the jejunum and ileum were removed after killing of mice for the evaluation of histopathology, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and non-protein sulfhydryl group (mainly reduced glutathione; GSH), nitrite and cytokine concentrations. To determine gastric emptying, phenol red was administered orally, mice were killed 20 min after administration, and the absorbance of samples collected from the mice was measured by spectrophotometry. Intestinal permeability was measured by the urinary excretion rate of lactulose and mannitol following oral administration. S. boulardii significantly reversed the histopathological changes in intestinal mucositis induced by 5-FU and reduced the inflammatory parameters: neutrophil infiltration (control 1·73 (SEM 0·37) ultrastructural MPO (UMPO)/mg, 5-FU 7·37 (SEM 1·77) UMPO/mg and 5-FU+S. boulardii 4·15 (SEM 0·73) UMPO/mg); nitrite concentration (control 37·00 (SEM 2·39) μm, 5-FU 59·04 (SEM 11·41) μm and 5-FU+S. boulardii 37·90 (SEM 5·78) μm); GSH concentration (control 477·60 (SEM 25·25) μg/mg, 5-FU 270·90 (SEM 38·50) μg/mg and 5-FU+S. boulardii 514·00 (SEM 38·64) μg/mg). Treatment with S. Boulardii significantly reduced the concentrations of TNF-α and IL-1β by 48·92 and 32·21 % in the jejunum and 38·92 and 61·79 % in the ileum. In addition, S. boulardii decreased the concentrations of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 by 5-fold in the jejunum and 3-fold in the ileum. Interestingly, S. boulardii reduced the delay in gastric emptying

  18. Sensitive determination of phenolic compounds using high-performance liquid chromatography with cerium(IV)-rhodamine 6G-phenolic compound chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qunlin; Cui, Hua; Myint, Aung; Lian, Mei; Liu, Lijuan

    2005-11-18

    A simple, selective and sensitive determination method of 20 phenolic compounds has been developed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with chemiluminescence detection. The method is based on the chemiluminescent enhancement by phenolic compound of the cerium(IV)-rhodamine 6G system in sulfuric acid medium. Twenty phenolic compounds were separated on a XDB-C(8) column with a gradient elution using a mixture of methanol and 1.0% acetic acid as a mobile phase. Under the optimized conditions, a linear working range extends 2 orders of magnitude with the relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day precision below 4.0%, and the detection limits (S/N = 3) were in the range of 1.5-82.1 ng/ml. The chemiluminescence reaction was compatible with the mobile phase of high-performance liquid chromatography. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the assay of phenolic compounds in red wine without any pretreatment.

  19. Phenolic acid induced growth of gold nanoshells precursor composites and their application in antioxidant capacity assay.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoyuan; Qian, Weiping

    2010-11-15

    In the present work, the gold nanoshells (GNSs) precursor composites were preadsorbed onto the surface of ITO substrates. With the treatment of modified electrodes immersed in the gold nanoparticles (GNPs) growth solution containing different phenolic acids, the GNSs precursor composites were enlarged to varying degrees. Phenolic acids with one or more phenolic hydroxyl groups served as reductants for the growth of GNPs. The enlargement conditions varied with the different reducing capacity of phenolic acids, exhibiting specific morphologies differ from the complete GNSs. Consequently, the UV-vis-NIR spectra and cyclic voltammetry curves for the phenolic acid-treated ITO electrode were gradually changed. Results showed that the higher reducing capacity for phenolic acid to reduce AuCl(4)(-) to Au(0) resulted in the intensified localized surface plasmon resonance features and reduced cathodic currents. The spectral wavelength peaks red shifted hundreds of nanometers across the visible region. Moreover, the antioxidant capacity of phenolic acids correlates well with their reducing activity, both of which reflect their tendency to donate electrons. Thus, the optical and electrochemical results could be used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of phenolic acids by utilizing GNSs precursor composites as nanoprobes. The method is simple, rapid and could be used in visual analysis to a certain extent.

  20. Identification of Natural Antimicrobial Substances in Red Muscadine Juice against Enterobacter sakazakii

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Red muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) juices with natural organic, phenolic acids and polyphenol compounds were tested against Cronobacter sakazakii. The concentration of total phenolic compounds of commercial baby juices ranged from 176.7 to 347.7 mg/mL. Commercial baby juices showed poor antim...

  1. Red Hill

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the Red Hill Bulk Fuel Storage Facility in Hawaii Administrative Order on Consent (AOC), an enforceable agreement of the Hawaii Department of Health, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Navy -- Defense Logistics Agency.

  2. Chemopreventive effects of free and bound phenolics associated to steep waters (nejayote) obtained after nixtamalization of different maize types.

    PubMed

    Rojas-García, Carlos; García-Lara, Silverio; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio O; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2012-03-01

    Free and bound phenolics extracts from nejayote solids were obtained after optimally lime-cooking blue, normal white, red, normal yellow, high-carotenoid and quality protein maize types. The extraction yield ranged from 4.47 to 10.05%. Bound phenolics extracts had higher content of total phenolics, antioxidant activity and ferulic acid compared to the free phenolics extracts. In general, free phenolics extracts were less cytotoxic than the bound phenolics counterparts. Bound phenolics extracts had higher induction of quinone reductase (QR) and particularly the normal yellow nejayote exerted the highest chemopreventive index tested in Hepa1c1c7 cells. When tested for monofunctional phase 2 induction capacity in BPrc1 cells, the bound phenolics extracts of blue, normal white and quality protein nejayotes were better inducers than the normal yellow counterpart. Particularly, the free phenolics extract of the white maize nejayote induced BPrc1 cells QR and exerted a higher chemopreventive index compared to the bound phenolics extract. Therefore, the nejayote of the normal white maize was the best source of monofunctional phase 2 enzyme inducers.

  3. Phenol Analysis -- Some Analytical Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starkey, R. J., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Contamination of potable water supplies with halogenated phenols in concentrations of 2-10 parts per billion (ppb) produces objectionable tastes and odors capable of influencing consumer acceptability. Routine analysis by the distillation/ 4-aminoantipyrine method is limited by lack of sensitivity and subject to interference by aryl amines. This has been overcome by developing a continuous liquid-liquid extraction system to selectively isolate phenols and eliminate major interfering substances. Stable reagents have been formulated to reduce blank color and extend sensitivity. Equipment suitable for analysis of phenols at the 1 ppb level or less in 20 minutes is described.

  4. Association constants and enthalpies of formation of heteroassociates of anions of cresol red and thymol blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapovalov, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    The tendency of anions of sulfophthaleine dyes to heteroassociation was studied in aqueous solutions of phenol red, cresol red, thymol blue, and non-substituted phenol red. It was spectrophotometrically determined that single (HAn-) and doubly charged anions (An2-) of sulfophthaleines can form stable heteroassociates of the composition Ct+ · HAn- and (Ct+)2 · An2- with cations (Ct+) of polymethine dyes, pinacyanol, and quinaldine red. The values of enthalpy formation of ions of dyes and heteroassociates were calculated semi-empirically and compared with experimentally determined values of the equilibrium association constants.

  5. Management of Mucositis During Chemotherapy: From Pathophysiology to Pragmatic Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Van Sebille, Ysabella Z A; Stansborough, Romany; Wardill, Hannah R; Bateman, Emma; Gibson, Rachel J; Keefe, Dorothy M

    2015-11-01

    Chemotherapy-induced mucositis is a common condition caused by the breakdown of the mucosal barrier. Symptoms can include pain, vomiting and diarrhoea, which can often necessitate chemotherapy treatment breaks or dose reductions, thus compromising survival outcomes. Despite the significant impact of mucositis, there are currently limited clinically effective pharmacological therapies for the pathology. New emerging areas of research have been proposed to play key roles in the development of mucositis, providing rationale for potential new therapeutics for the prevention, treatment or management of chemotherapy-induced mucositis. This review aims to address these new areas of research and to comment on the therapeutics arising from them.

  6. Bioavailability of phenols from a phenol-enriched olive oil.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Manuel; Valls, Rosa M; Romero, Maria-Paz; Macià, Alba; Fernández, Sara; Giralt, Montse; Solà, Rosa; Motilva, Maria-José

    2011-12-01

    Phenolic compounds are one of the main reasons behind the healthy properties of virgin olive oil (VOO). However, their daily intake from VOO is low compared with that obtained from other phenolic sources. Therefore, the intake of VOO enriched with its own phenolic compounds could be of interest to increase the daily dose of these beneficial compounds. To evaluate the effectiveness of enrichment on their bioavailability, the concentration of phenolic compounds and their metabolites in human plasma (0, 60, 120, 240 and 300 min) from thirteen healthy volunteers (seven men and six women, aged 25 and 69 years) was determined after the ingestion of a single dose (30 ml) of either enriched virgin olive oil (EVOO) (961·17 mg/kg oil) or control VOO (288·89 mg/kg oil) in a cross-over study. Compared with VOO, EVOO increased plasma concentration of the phenol metabolites, particularly hydroxytyrosol sulphate and vanillin sulphate (P < 0·05). After the consumption of VOO, the maximum concentration of these peaks was reached at 60 min, while EVOO shifted this maximum to 120 min. Despite these differences, the wide variability of results indicates that the absorption and metabolism of olive oil phenols are highly dependent on the individual.

  7. New generation of oral mucosal vaccines targeting dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Owen, Jennifer L; Sahay, Bikash; Mohamadzadeh, Mansour

    2013-12-01

    As most infectious organisms gain entry at mucosal surfaces, there is a great deal of interest in developing vaccines that elicit effective mucosal immune responses against pathogen challenge. Targeted vaccination is one of the most effective methods available to prevent and control infectious diseases. Mucosal vaccines can offer lower costs, better accessibility, needle free delivery, and a higher capacity for mass immunizations during pandemics. Both local mucosal immunity and robust systemic responses can be achieved through mucosal vaccination. Recent progress in understanding the molecular and cellular components of the mucosal immune system have allowed for the development of a novel mucosal vaccine platform utilizing specific dendritic cell-targeting peptides and orally administered lactobacilli to elicit efficient antigen specific immune responses against infections, including Bacillus anthracis in experimental models of disease.

  8. New generation of oral mucosal vaccines targeting dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Jennifer L.; Sahay, Bikash; Mohamadzadeh, Mansour

    2013-01-01

    As most infectious organisms gain entry at mucosal surfaces, there is a great deal of interest in developing vaccines that elicit effective mucosal immune responses against pathogen challenge. Targeted vaccination is one of the most effective methods available to prevent and control infectious diseases. Mucosal vaccines can offer lower costs, better accessibility, needle free delivery, and a higher capacity for mass immunizations during pandemics. Both local mucosal immunity and robust systemic responses can be achieved through mucosal vaccination. Recent progress in understanding the molecular and cellular components of the mucosal immune system have allowed for the development of a novel mucosal vaccine platform utilizing specific dendritic cell-targeting peptides and orally administered lactobacilli to elicit efficient antigen specific immune responses against infections, including B. anthracis in experimental models of disease. PMID:23835515

  9. Determination of Radical Scavenging Activity and Total Phenols of Wine and Spices: A Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Lugemwa, Fulgentius Nelson; Snyder, Amanda L.; Shaikh, Koonj

    2013-01-01

    Thirty eight bottles of red wine (Carbanet Sauvignon) were randomly selected based on vintage, region, price, and age (number of months in a barrel). The total phenolic content of each wine was determined using Folin-Ciocalteau assay. The radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Apart from a few bottles that exhibited above average radical scavenging activity and phenolic content, there was no good correlation of those two quantities with region, price or vintage. The average phenolic amount was 2874 mg/L. The lowest phenolic content was found to be 1648 mg/L for an eight dollar wine. Wine with the highest amount of phenol of 4495 mg/L was a 2007, nine dollar bottle from South America. High amount of phenols did not translate into high radical scavenging activity. Barrel-aging did not increase the amount of phenols or the radical scavenging activity of wine. In order to discover new and potent sources of antioxidants from plants, the following spices were studied: ginger, cilantro, cumin, anise, linden, eucalyptus, marjoram, oregano, sage, thyme and rosemary. Whole spices were crushed and extracted for 96 h at room temperature using a combination of ethyl acetate, ethyl alcohol and water in the ratio of 4.5:4.5:1 (v/v/v). The radical scavenging activity of extracts was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The total phenolic content of each spice was also determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau assay. Eucalyptus was found to be the most potent antioxidant with an LC50 of 324.1 mg of phenol/L, followed by marjoram with an LC50 of 407.5 mg of phenol/L, and rosemary with an LC50 of 414.0 mg/L. The least potent antioxidants were ginger and cilantro with LC50 of 7604 mg/L of phenol and 7876 mg of phenol/L, respectively. PMID:26784340

  10. Effects of seasonal variation on sensory properties and total phenolic content of 5 lettuce cultivars.

    PubMed

    Bunning, Marisa L; Kendall, Patricia A; Stone, Martha B; Stonaker, Frank H; Stushnoff, Cecil

    2010-04-01

    Butterhead, crisphead, green leaf, red leaf, and romaine types of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) are all commonly available in U.S. markets. Sensory properties of lettuce may vary in response to environmental factors that often fluctuate widely throughout the growing season. Bitterness is generally thought to increase in lettuce grown at higher temperatures and may be related to phenolic content. This study evaluated sensory properties and total phenolic content of 5 lettuce cultivars harvested early, midway, and late in the growing season and investigated possible correlations with environmental temperature and light intensity indexes. Thirty panelists rated bitterness, appearance, flavor, texture, and overall acceptability of "Crisp and Green" (green leaf), "Crispino" (crisphead), "Green Forest" (romaine), "Lochness" (butterhead), and "Vulcan" (red leaf) lettuce. There was considerable variation in sensory ratings among the 5 cultivars (P < 0.005) but few differences within cultivars across the growing season. The crisphead cultivar, Crispino, received higher scores (P < 0.01) for flavor, texture, and overall acceptability and was rated less bitter (P < 0.05) than other cultivars. Total phenolic content varied significantly (P < 0.001) among cultivars with the red leaf cultivar, Vulcan, exhibiting the highest levels. There was no correlation between bitterness and total phenolic content or environmental factors. Differences among lettuce cultivars appear to have a larger impact on sensory and phenolic profiles than environmental variation during the growing season.

  11. Probiotics as Antifungals in Mucosal Candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Victor H; Bandara, H M H N; Mayer, Marcia P A; Samaranayake, Lakshman P

    2016-05-01

    Candidais an opportunistic pathogen that causes mucosal and deep systemic candidiasis. The emergence of drug resistance and the side effects of currently available antifungals have restricted their use as long-term prophylactic agents for candidal infections. Given this scenario, probiotics have been suggested as a useful alternative for the management of candidiasis. We analyzed the available data on the efficacy of probiotics in candidal colonization of host surfaces. A number of well-controlled studies indicate that probiotics, particularly lactobacilli, suppressCandidagrowth and biofilm development in vitro.A few clinical trials have also shown the beneficial effects of probiotics in reducing oral, vaginal, and enteric colonization byCandida; alleviation of clinical signs and symptoms; and, in some cases, reducing the incidence of invasive fungal infection in critically ill patients. Probiotics may serve in the future as a worthy ally in the battle against chronic mucosal candidal infections.

  12. The microbiome and regulation of mucosal immunity

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Andrew J; Huffnagle, Gary B

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is a mucosal surface constantly exposed to foreign antigens and microbes, and is protected by a vast array of immunologically active structures and cells. Epithelial cells directly participate in immunological surveillance and direction of host responses in the gut and can express numerous pattern recognition receptors, including Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), TLR1, TLR2, TLR3, TLR9, and nucleotide oligomerization domain 2, as well as produce chemotactic factors for both myeloid and lymphoid cells following inflammatory stimulation. Within the epithelium and in the underlying lamina propria resides a population of innate lymphoid cells that, following stimulation, can become activated and produce effector cytokines and exert both protective and pathogenic roles during inflammation. Lamina propria dendritic cells play a large role in determining whether the response to a particular antigen will be inflammatory or anti-inflammatory. It is becoming clear that the composition and metabolic activity of the intestinal microbiome, as a whole community, exerts a profound influence on mucosal immune regulation. The microbiome produces short-chain fatty acids, polysaccharide A, α-galactosylceramide and tryptophan metabolites, which can induce interleukin-22, Reg3γ, IgA and interleukin-17 responses. However, much of what is known about microbiome–host immune interactions has come from the study of single bacterial members of the gastrointestinal microbiome and their impact on intestinal mucosal immunity. Additionally, evidence continues to accumulate that alterations of the intestinal microbiome can impact not only gastrointestinal immunity but also immune regulation at distal mucosal sites. PMID:24329495

  13. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides as mucosal adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Iho, Sumiko; Maeyama, Jun-ichi; Suzuki, Fumiko

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial DNA comprising palindromic sequences and containing unmethylated CpG is recognized by toll-like receptor 9 of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and induces the production of interferon-α and chemokines, leading to the activation of a Th1 immune response. Therefore, synthetic equivalents of bacterial DNA (CpG oligodeoxynucleotides) have been developed for clinical applications. They are usually phosphorothioated for in vivo use; this approach also leads to adverse effects as reported in mouse models.Mucosal vaccines that induce both mucosal and systemic immunity received substantial attention in recent years. For their development, phosphodiester-linked oligodeoxynucleotides, including the sequence of a palindromic CpG DNA may be advantageous as adjuvants because their target pDCs are present right there, in the mucosa of the vaccination site. In addition, the probability of adverse effects is believed to be low. Here, we review the discovery of such CpG oligodeoxynucleotides and their possible use as mucosal adjuvants. PMID:25751765

  14. Age, gender, dentures and oral mucosal disorders.

    PubMed

    MacEntee, M I; Glick, N; Stolar, E

    1998-03-01

    The numbers of participants over 75 years of age in previous studies of oral health have not been sufficient to permit a full investigation of the influence of age on the mouth. In this study a disproportionate stratified random sample of 255 independent elders was selected from a list of urban voters to provide similar numbers of men and women in three age groups. The subjects were interviewed and examined, and nearly half of them had mucosal disorders. There was a significant (P < 0.05) association between mucosal lesions and the use of dentures and tobacco, whereas stomatitis, denture-related hyperplasia and angular cheilitis in particular were associated significantly with men and with the use of defective dentures. Logistic regression revealed that neither age alone nor the quality of dentures predispose to mucosal lesions, but that the odds of finding stomatitis, denture-related hyperplasia and angular cheilitis in particular increased about three-fold in denture-users, and almost doubled in men.

  15. Mucosal perforators from the facial artery.

    PubMed

    Coronel-Banda, Mauricio E; Serra-Renom, Jose M; Lorente, Marian; Larrea-Terán, Wendy P

    2014-07-01

    The cutaneous perforators of the facial artery have been well described, but to our knowledge the oral mucosal perforators have not. We studied 10 facial arteries from 10 hemifaces in 5 cadavers. The arteries were injected with latex, and we studied all perforators that extended from the facial artery and headed directly to the oral mucosa. The diameter and length of the facial artery and its mucosal perforators were measured and compared. We found 52 oral mucosal perforators in the 10 facial arteries injected with latex. Their mean (SD) diameter was 0.5 (0.2) mm and the mean (SD) number/facial artery was 5.2 (1.1). Their mean (SD) length was 16.4 (5.3) mm. Most of those to the cheek were localised between the branching-off points of the inferior and superior labial arteries. The facial artery has perforators to the oral mucosa of the cheek, most of them between the points at which the labial arteries emerge.

  16. Oral mucosal manifestations of autoimmune skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Mayson B; Porter, Stephen R; Smoller, Bruce R; Sitaru, Cassian

    2015-10-01

    A group of autoimmune diseases is characterised by autoantibodies against epithelial adhesion structures and/or tissue-tropic lymphocytes driving inflammatory processes resulting in specific pathology at the mucosal surfaces and the skin. The most frequent site of mucosal involvement in autoimmune diseases is the oral cavity. Broadly, these diseases include conditions affecting the cell-cell adhesion causing intra-epithelial blistering and those where autoantibodies or infiltration lymphocytes cause a loss of cell-matrix adhesion or interface inflammation. Clinically, patients present with blistering, erosions and ulcers that may affect the skin as well as further mucosal surfaces of the eyes, nose and genitalia. While the autoimmune disease may be suspected based on clinical manifestations, demonstration of tissue-bound and circulating autoantibodies, or lymphocytic infiltrates, by various methods including histological examination, direct and indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoblotting and quantitative immunoassay is a prerequisite for definitive diagnosis. Given the frequency of oral involvement and the fact that oral mucosa is the initially affected site in many cases, the informed practitioner should be well acquainted with diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of autoimmune dermatosis with oral involvement. This paper reviews the pathogenesis and clinical presentation of these conditions in the oral cavity with a specific emphasis on their differential diagnosis and current management approaches.

  17. Methylsulfonylmethane is effective against gastric mucosal injury.

    PubMed

    Amirshahrokhi, Keyvan; Khalili, Ali-Reza

    2017-09-15

    Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is a natural organosulfur compound has been widely used as a dietary supplement. MSM has protective effects against various disorders through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties however the effect of MSM on gastric mucosal injury remains unclear. The aim of the present study is to determine whether MSM has beneficial effects on ethanol/HCl-induced gastric ulcer in mice. Macroscopic and histopathological evaluation of gastric mucosa revealed that ethanol/HCl administration produced apparent mucosal injuries, while pretreatment with MSM (200 and 400mg/kg, orally) could effectively protect gastric mucosa against the injuries caused by acidified ethanol. MSM significantly increased the levels of glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and decreased the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), carbonyl protein, and nitric oxide (NO) in gastric tissues compared with those in the ethanol group. MSM suppressed gastric inflammation by reducing the levels of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9. Moreover, pretreatment of mice with MSM decreased the expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) as a key regulator of inflammation in gastric mucosa. Taken together, these data suggest that MSM is able to decrease the severity of ethanol/HCl-induced gastric mucosal injury through inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Dermoscopic appearance of an amelanotic mucosal melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Andreas; Beck-Zoul, Ulrike; Held, Laura; Haase, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypomelanotic or amelanotic melanomas are challenging to identify, especially at mucosal sites. The dermoscopic clues to the diagnosis of mucosal melanomas have been reported to be structureless zones with the presence of blue, gray, or white colors. Case A female in her seventies noted a new lesion on the inside of her right labia that first appeared two months prior. Her past medical history was significant for rheumatoid arthritis requiring ongoing treatment with methotrexate for 20 years and adalimumab for 10 years. After no response to two weeks of local treatment for suspected herpes simplex infection, her gynecologist performed a skin biopsy. Based on the histopathological diagnosis of an amelanotic melanoma (Breslow thickness of 1.3 mm) the patient was referred to dermatology for further assessment. Polarized dermoscopy revealed a distinct asymmetric, sharply demarcated homogenous white papule (4 × 5 mm) as well as polymorphous vessels. Conclusion Dermoscopy may aid in the diagnosis of amelanotic mucosal melanomas. Our case revealed a structureless white area and polymorphous vessels. Additional clues to the diagnosis were the advanced age of the patient and the clinical presentation of a new lesion. PMID:27867742

  19. Hitting the mucosal road in tolerance induction.

    PubMed

    Wiedermann, Ursula

    2009-01-01

    Within the last decades a dramatic increase in allergic diseases has been recognized in the Westernized societies, leading to the fact that meanwhile 25-30% of the population is afflicted by allergic disorders. Besides a hereditary disposition, other factors, including a reduced microbial contact early in life or changes in nutrition, might also have influenced this epidemiological development. So far the only causative treatment against type-I allergies is specific immunotherapy. In young and monosensitized patients this treatment is highly efficacious, while there are clear limitations in older or multisensitized patients. Allergy research therefore aims at establishing new and more efficacious treatment strategies in prophylactic as well as therapeutic settings. Our research programs focus on the development of novel allergy vaccines based on the induction of mucosal tolerance. In different mouse models of respiratory allergy mucosal treatment with genetically engineered allergen constructs proved to prevent the development of allergic mono- and multisensitivities. The additional use of mucosal adjuvants seems particularly important to improve therapeutic treatment approaches. Recent studies on the inverse relation of certain parasite infections and the development of allergy prompted us to search for selected parasitic molecules with immunosuppressive properties as potential adjuvant systems for novel allergy vaccines. An overview of our recent studies will be given.

  20. Chitosan-based mucosal adjuvants: Sunrise on the ocean.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yufei; Fan, Qingze; Hao, Dongxia; Wu, Jie; Ma, Guanghui; Su, Zhiguo

    2015-11-04

    Mucosal vaccination, which is shown to elicit systemic and mucosal immune responses, serves as a non-invasive and convenient alternative to parenteral administration, with stronger capability in combatting diseases at the site of entry. The exploration of potent mucosal adjuvants is emerging as a significant area, based on the continued necessity to amplify the immune responses to a wide array of antigens that are poorly immunogenic at the mucosal sites. As one of the inspirations from the ocean, chitosan-based mucosal adjuvants have been developed with unique advantages, such as, ability of mucosal adhesion, distinct trait of opening the junctions to allow the paracellular transport of antigen, good tolerability and biocompatibility, which guaranteed the great potential in capitalizing on their application in human clinical trials. In this review, the state of art of chitosan and its derivatives as mucosal adjuvants, including thermo-sensitive chitosan system as mucosal adjuvant that were newly developed by author's group, was described, as well as the clinical application perspective. After a brief introduction of mucosal adjuvants, chitosan and its derivatives as robust immune potentiator were discussed in detail and depth, in regard to the metabolism, safety profile, mode of actions and preclinical and clinical applications, which may shed light on the massive clinical application of chitosan as mucosal adjuvant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Gut permeability and mucosal inflammation: bad, good or context dependent.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, R; Sorrell, M F; Batra, S K; Dhawan, P; Singh, A B

    2017-03-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a multifactorial disease. A breach in the mucosal barrier, otherwise known as "leaky gut," is alleged to promote mucosal inflammation by intensifying immune activation. However, interaction between the luminal antigen and mucosal immune system is necessary to maintain mucosal homeostasis. Furthermore, manipulations leading to deregulated gut permeability have resulted in susceptibility in mice to colitis as well as to creating adaptive immunity. These findings implicate a complex but dynamic association between mucosal permeability and immune homeostasis; however, they also emphasize that compromised gut permeability alone may not be sufficient to induce colitis. Emerging evidence further supports the role(s) of proteins associated with the mucosal barrier in epithelial injury and repair: manipulations of associated proteins also modified epithelial differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. Taken together, the role of gut permeability and proteins associated in regulating mucosal inflammatory diseases appears to be more complex than previously thought. Herein, we review outcomes from recent mouse models where gut permeability was altered by direct and indirect effects of manipulating mucosal barrier-associated proteins, to highlight the significance of mucosal permeability and the non-barrier-related roles of these proteins in regulating chronic mucosal inflammatory conditions.

  2. Challenges in mucosal vaccines for the control of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Azegami, Tatsuhiko; Yuki, Yoshikazu; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2014-09-01

    The mucosal surface is the largest route through which pathogens enter the human body. To control the outbreak of mucosal infectious diseases, we must use our knowledge of the mucosal immune system to create vaccines that elicit protective mucosal and systemic immunity. Mucosal vaccines have advantages over traditional injectable vaccines in that they not only induce effective mucosal immune responses, but they also do not cause physical or psychological discomfort. Mucosal vaccines currently licensed for human use include oral vaccines against Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella typhi, poliovirus and rotavirus, and nasal vaccines against influenza virus. To further improve the existing vaccines, it will be necessary to develop novel vaccine production, storage and delivery systems through innovative strategies derived from interdisciplinary scientific research. Our accumulated knowledge of the innate and acquired arms of the mucosal immune system and the recent scientific and technical advancements in the fields of molecular biology, plant biology, bio-engineering and chemical engineering, genome biology and systems biology have created a unique research and development platform for the development of the next generation of mucosal vaccines. This review summarizes the current perspectives and future directions of mucosal vaccine development with emphasis on oral and nasal vaccines for the control of infectious diseases. © The Japanese Society for Immunology. 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Mucosal melanomas in the racially diverse population of California.

    PubMed

    Altieri, Lisa; Wong, Michael K; Peng, David H; Cockburn, Myles

    2017-02-01

    Mucosal melanomas are rare, poorly understood neoplasms without a consensus standard of care. We sought to define mucosal melanoma tumor characteristics and the racial/ethnic attributes of patients with mucosal melanomas. We analyzed 130,920 cutaneous melanomas and 1919 mucosal melanomas recorded in the population-based California Cancer Registry from 1988 to 2013. Although only 1% of melanomas occurring in nonHispanic whites were mucosal, other racial/ethnic groups had a higher proportion of mucosal melanomas (15% for Asian/Pacific Islanders, 9% for nonHispanic blacks, and 4% for Hispanics). Anorectal mucosal melanomas were most common in female Asian/Pacific Islanders, whereas genitourinary mucosal melanomas were highest in nonHispanic whites, and head and neck tumors were most common among Hispanics. Stage at presentation was not uniform among racial/ethnic groups, with Asian/Pacific Islanders having the highest rates of metastasis. The lack of a standardized staging system for mucosal melanomas confounds classification and knowledge regarding metastasis. Small sample size limits comparative analysis across race, stage, site, and depth. Mucosal melanomas differ by race/ethnicity with regard to anatomic site, stage, and depth. Because early detection offers the best chance of increased survival, greater awareness will aid clinicians who care for patients at risk for these aggressive tumors. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Light and temperature effects on phenolics in dark-skinned grapes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During the past decade we refined our understanding of the effects of solar radiation and temperature on the accumulation of phenolic compounds in grapes in the field, particularly dark-skinned cultivars used for red wine. The work was precipitated by nearly universal prescriptive advice a decade pr...

  5. Low molecular-weight phenols in Tannat wines made by alternative winemaking procedures.

    PubMed

    Favre, Guzmán; Peña-Neira, Álvaro; Baldi, Cecilia; Hernández, Natalia; Traverso, Sofía; Gil, Graciela; González-Neves, Gustavo

    2014-09-01

    Low molecular weight phenols of Tannat red wines produced by Traditional Maceration (TM), Prefermentative Cold Maceration (PCM), Maceration Enzyme (ENZ) and grape-Seed Tannins additions (ST), were performed and discussed. Alternatives to TM increased wine phenolic contents but unequally, ST increased mainly smaller flavans-3-ol, PCM anthocyanins and ENZ proanthocyanidins (up to 2250 mg/L). However low molecular weight flavan-3-ols remained below 9 mg/L in all wines, showing that there is not necessarily a correspondence between wine richness in total tannins and flavan-3-ols contents at low molecular weight. PCM wines had particularly high concentrations of tyrosol and tryptophol, yeast metabolism derived compounds. The use of grape-seed enological tannins did not increase grape seed derived phenolic compounds such as gallic acid. Caftaric acid was found in concentrations much higher than those reported in other grape varieties. Wine phenolic content and composition was considerably affected by the winemaking procedures tested.

  6. Phenolic compounds and the colour of oranges subjected to a combination treatment of waxing and irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussaid, M.; Lacroix, M.; Nketsia-Tabiri, J.; Boubekri, C.

    2000-03-01

    The effects of waxing, irradiation dose and storage on phenolics and colour of irradiated oranges were investigated. Mature oranges ( Maroc late) waxed or unwaxed were treated with 0, 1 or 2 kGy radiation and stored up to 9 weeks at 20°C and 40-50% r.h. Colour of the oranges, total phenols and flavones in the peel were measured. Phenolic compounds increased with irradiation dose and storage time. Hue angle, value and chroma of the orange colour were more affected by waxing and storage time than the irradiation treatment. Changes in the phenolic compounds were linked with changes in the redness and saturation of the orange colour. Irradiation stimulated synthesis of flavones; waxing controlled changes induced by irradiation.

  7. OsmoPrep-associated Gastritis: A Histopathologic Mimic of Iron Pill Gastritis and Mucosal Calcinosis.

    PubMed

    Matsukuma, Karen; Gui, Dorina; Olson, Kristin A; Tejaswi, Sooraj; Clayton, Erica F; Thai, Anne

    2016-11-01

    We have identified 8 cases of gastritis characterized by the presence of purple to black granular deposits in the superficial mucosa associated with marked reactive epithelial changes. In each case, the patient had taken OsmoPrep, a tablet form of sodium phosphate used for bowel preparation just before upper endoscopy and had undergone concurrent colonoscopy. Endoscopic findings ranged from normal gastric mucosa to severe inflammation, congestion, and friability. No other gastrointestinal sites were noted to contain the deposits or show similar mucosal injury. On initial histologic review, the deposits raised the differential diagnosis of elemental iron and mucosal calcinosis. However, none of the patients was noted to be taking iron supplements, and none had a history of renal disease or other cause of calcium dysmetabolism. Histochemical stains revealed the deposits were negative on Perls' iron stain (8/8 cases), positive on von Kossa stain (7/8 cases), and negative on Alizarin Red stain (8/8 cases)-a histochemical profile compatible with sodium phosphate but inconsistent with mucosal calcium. A crushed OsmoPrep tablet was subjected to processing and demonstrated similar histologic features and histochemical profile. In addition, biopsies of 20 consecutive patients who did not take OsmoPrep and who underwent concurrent endoscopy and colonoscopy were reviewed, and no deposits with similar histochemical profile were identified. In summary, we have characterized a unique form of gastritis associated with OsmoPrep use. Attention to clinical history and use of a select panel of histochemical stains allow for accurate diagnosis.

  8. Starter Feeding Supplementation Alters Colonic Mucosal Bacterial Communities and Modulates Mucosal Immune Homeostasis in Newborn Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Junhua; Bian, Gaorui; Sun, Daming; Zhu, Weiyun; Mao, Shengyong

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of starter feeding supplementation on colonic mucosal bacterial communities and on mucosal immune homeostasis in pre-weaned lambs. We selected eight pairs of 10-day-old lamb twins. One twin was fed breast milk (M, n = 8), while the other was fed breast milk plus starter (M+S, n = 8). The lambs were sacrificed at 56 days age. Colonic content was collected to determine the pH and the concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and lactate. The colonic mucosa was harvested to characterize the bacterial communities using Illumina MiSeq sequencing and to determine mRNA expression levels of cytokines and toll-like receptors (TLR) using quantitative real-time PCR. The results show that starter feeding decreased luminal pH and increased the concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, total VFA, and lactate in the colon. The principal coordinate analysis (PCA) and analysis of molecular variance show that starter feeding supplementation significantly affected the colonic mucosal bacterial communities with a higher relative abundance of the dominant taxa unclassified S24-7, Oscillibacter, Prevotella, Parabacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Ruminobacter, and Succinivibrio, and a lower proportion of unclassified Ruminococcaceae, RC9_gut_group, Blautia, Phocaeicola, Phascolarctobacterium, unclassified BS11_gut_group, unclassified family_XIII, and Campylobacter in lambs. Meanwhile, starter feeding decreased mRNA expression of TLR4 and cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ in colonic tissue. Furthermore, the changes in the colonic mucosal mRNA expression of TLR and cytokines were associated with changes in mucosal bacterial composition. These findings may provide new insights into colonic mucosal bacteria and immune homeostasis in developing lambs. PMID:28382025

  9. Oxidative phenols in forage crops containing polyphenol oxidase enzymes.

    PubMed

    Parveen, Ifat; Threadgill, Michael D; Moorby, Jon M; Winters, Ana

    2010-02-10

    Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) are copper-containing enzymes that catalyze oxidation of endogenous monophenols to ortho-dihydroxyaryl compounds and of ortho-dihydroxyaryl compounds to ortho-quinones. Subsequent nucleophilic addition reactions of phenols, amino acids, and proteins with the electrophilic ortho-quinones form brown-, black-, or red-colored secondary products associated with the undesired discolouration of fruit and vegetables. Several important forage plants also exhibit significant PPO activity, and a link with improved efficiency of ruminant production has been established. In ruminant animals, extensive degradation of forage proteins, following consumption, can result in high rates of excretion of nitrogen, which contributes to point-source and diffuse pollution. Reaction of quinones with forage proteins leads to the formation of protein-phenol complexes that are resistant to proteolytic activity during ensilage and during rumen fermentation. Thus, PPO in red clover (Trifolium pratense) has been shown to improve protein utilization by ruminants. While PPO activity has been demonstrated in a number of forage crops, little work has been carried out to identify substrates of PPO, knowledge of which would be beneficial for characterizing this trait in these forages. In general, a wide range of 1,2-dihydroxyarenes can serve as PPO substrates because these are readily oxidized because of the ortho positioning of the hydroxy groups. Naturally occurring phenols isolated from forage crops with PPO activity are reviewed. A large number of phenols, which may be directly or indirectly oxidized as a consequence of PPO activity, have been identified in several forage grass, legume, cereal, and brassica species; these include hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamates, and flavonoids. In conclusion, a number of compounds are known or postulated to enable PPO activity in important PPO-expressing forage crops. Targeting the matching of these compounds with PPO activity

  10. Sacral nerve stimulation enhances early intestinal mucosal repair following mucosal injury in a pig model

    PubMed Central

    Brégeon, Jérémy; Coron, Emmanuel; Da Silva, Anna Christina Cordeiro; Jaulin, Julie; Aubert, Philippe; Chevalier, Julien; Vergnolle, Nathalie; Meurette, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Key points Reducing intestinal epithelial barrier (IEB) dysfunctions is recognized as being of major therapeutic interest for various intestinal disorders.Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) is known to reduce IEB permeability.Here, we report in a pig model that SNS enhances morphological and functional recovery of IEB following mucosal injury induced via 2,4,6‐trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid. These effects are associated with an increased expression of tight junction proteins such as ZO‐1 and FAK.These results establish that SNS enhances intestinal barrier repair in acute mucosal injury. They further set the scientific basis for future use of SNS as a complementary or alternative therapeutic option for the treatment of gut disorders with IEB dysfunctions such as inflammatory bowel diseases or irritable bowel syndrome. Abstract Intestinal epithelial barrier (IEB) dysfunctions, such as increased permeability or altered healing, are central to intestinal disorders. Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) is known to reduce IEB permeability, but its ability to modulate IEB repair remains unknown. This study aimed to characterize the impact of SNS on mucosal repair following 2,4,6‐trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)‐induced lesions. Six pigs were stimulated by SNS 3 h prior to and 3 h after TNBS enema, while sham animals (n = 8) were not stimulated. The impact of SNS on mucosal changes was evaluated by combining in vivo imaging, histological and functional methods. Biochemical and transcriptomic approaches were used to analyse the IEB and mucosal inflammatory response. We observed that SNS enhanced the recovery from TNBS‐induced increase in transcellular permeability. At 24 h, TNBS‐induced alterations of mucosal morphology were significantly less in SNS compared with sham animals. SNS reduced TNBS‐induced changes in ZO‐1 expression and its epithelial pericellular distribution, and also increased pFAK/FAK expression compared with sham. Interestingly, SNS increased

  11. Sacral nerve stimulation enhances early intestinal mucosal repair following mucosal injury in a pig model.

    PubMed

    Brégeon, Jérémy; Coron, Emmanuel; Da Silva, Anna Christina Cordeiro; Jaulin, Julie; Aubert, Philippe; Chevalier, Julien; Vergnolle, Nathalie; Meurette, Guillaume; Neunlist, Michel

    2016-08-01

    Reducing intestinal epithelial barrier (IEB) dysfunctions is recognized as being of major therapeutic interest for various intestinal disorders. Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) is known to reduce IEB permeability. Here, we report in a pig model that SNS enhances morphological and functional recovery of IEB following mucosal injury induced via 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid. These effects are associated with an increased expression of tight junction proteins such as ZO-1 and FAK. These results establish that SNS enhances intestinal barrier repair in acute mucosal injury. They further set the scientific basis for future use of SNS as a complementary or alternative therapeutic option for the treatment of gut disorders with IEB dysfunctions such as inflammatory bowel diseases or irritable bowel syndrome. Intestinal epithelial barrier (IEB) dysfunctions, such as increased permeability or altered healing, are central to intestinal disorders. Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) is known to reduce IEB permeability, but its ability to modulate IEB repair remains unknown. This study aimed to characterize the impact of SNS on mucosal repair following 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced lesions. Six pigs were stimulated by SNS 3 h prior to and 3 h after TNBS enema, while sham animals (n = 8) were not stimulated. The impact of SNS on mucosal changes was evaluated by combining in vivo imaging, histological and functional methods. Biochemical and transcriptomic approaches were used to analyse the IEB and mucosal inflammatory response. We observed that SNS enhanced the recovery from TNBS-induced increase in transcellular permeability. At 24 h, TNBS-induced alterations of mucosal morphology were significantly less in SNS compared with sham animals. SNS reduced TNBS-induced changes in ZO-1 expression and its epithelial pericellular distribution, and also increased pFAK/FAK expression compared with sham. Interestingly, SNS increased the mucosal density of neutrophils

  12. Buccal mucosal graft in reconstructive urology: uses beyond urethral stricture.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Abhishek; Dican, Razvan; Beier, Jörn; Keller, Hansjörg

    2014-07-01

    The use of buccal mucosal grafts for the reconstruction of urethral strictures is an established procedure. Because of its robustness, the buccal mucosal graft could also potentially provide an alternative for other indications in reconstructive urology. We report here six consecutive patients who received a buccal mucosal graft for ureteral strictures, glans reconstruction and stoma stenosis. The follow up for all patients ranged from 26 to 50 months. The buccal mucosal graft showed excellent functional results for the ureteral strictures and stenosis from ureterocutaneostomy. For glans reconstructions, the buccal mucosal grafts delivered excellent cosmetic and functional results without causing meatal stenosis. We conclude the buccal mucosal graft can be used in reconstructive surgery beyond the reconstruction of urethral strictures.

  13. Ionization-induced π → H site-switching in phenol-CH4 complexes studied using IR dip spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Mitsuhiko; Takeda, Akihiro; Schmies, Matthias; Sakai, Makoto; Misawa, Kentaro; Ishiuchi, Shun-ichi; Michels, François; Müller-Dethlefs, Klaus; Dopfer, Otto; Fujii, Masaaki

    2014-01-07

    IR spectra of phenol-CH4 complexes generated in a supersonic expansion were measured before and after photoionization. The IR spectrum before ionization shows the free OH stretching vibration (ν(OH)) and the structure of neutral phenol-CH4 in the electronic ground state (S0) is assigned to a π-bound geometry, in which the CH4 ligand is located above the phenol ring. The IR spectrum after ionization to the cationic ground state (D0) exhibits a red shifted ν(OH) band assigned to a hydrogen-bonded cationic structure, in which the CH4 ligand binds to the phenolic OH group. In contrast to phenol-Ar/Kr, the observed ionization-induced π → H migration has unity yield for CH4. This difference is attributed to intracluster vibrational energy redistribution processes.

  14. Enhancement of gastric mucosal blood flow with sulglycotide.

    PubMed

    Guslandi, M; Sorghi, M; Tittobello, A

    1994-01-01

    Twelve patients with dyspepsia whose gastric abnormalities ranged from diffuse reddening of the mucosa to multiple erosions were treated for 4 weeks with oral sulglycotide, a sulphated glycopeptide with known gastroprotective and ulcer-healing properties. Before and after treatment, gastric mucosal blood flow was assessed by means of laser Doppler flowmetry. A significant (P < 0.01) increase in mucosal perfusion was observed after sulglycotide treatment, suggesting that enhancement of mucosal blood flow may contribute to the therapeutic properties of the drug.

  15. Evidence for a common mucosal immune system in the pig.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Heather L; Obradovic, Milan R

    2015-07-01

    The majority of lymphocytes activated at mucosal sites receive instructions to home back to the local mucosa, but a portion also seed distal mucosa sites. By seeding distal sites with antigen-specific effector or memory lymphocytes, the foundation is laid for the animal's mucosal immune system to respond with a secondary response should to this antigen be encountered at this site in the future. The common mucosal immune system has been studied quite extensively in rodent models but less so in large animal models such as the pig. Reasons for this paucity of reported induction of the common mucosal immune system in this species may be that distal mucosal sites were examined but no induction was observed and therefore it was not reported. However, we suspect that the majority of investigators simply did not sample distal mucosal sites and therefore there is little evidence of immune response induction in the literature. It is our hope that more pig immunologists and infectious disease experts who perform mucosal immunizations or inoculations on pigs will sample distal mucosal sites and report their findings, whether results are positive or negative. In this review, we highlight papers that show that immunization/inoculation using one route triggers mucosal immune system induction locally, systemically, and within at least one distal mucosal site. Only by understanding whether immunizations at one site triggers immunity throughout the common mucosal immune system can we rationally develop vaccines for the pig, and through these works we can gather evidence about the mucosal immune system that may be extrapolated to other livestock species or humans.

  16. Modeling pegylated liposomal doxorubicin-induced hand-foot syndrome and intestinal mucositis in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yau-Hung; Lee, Ya-Ting; Wen, Chi-Chung; Chen, Yun-Chen; Chen, Yu-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) has been widely used to treat cancer. The adverse effects of PLD noted in clinical practice, especially hand-foot syndrome (HFS), are regarded as unique, and the management methods for them remain limited. This study was aimed at developing a feasible experimental model for translational medicine to solve this clinical issue by using skin fluorescent transgenic zebrafish. We established an optimal protocol for the administration of Lipo-Dox™, a PLD in current clinical use, to the Tg(k18:dsred) zebrafish line expressing red fluorescence in keratinocytes. We made use of bodyweight, survival rate, gross observation, flssuorescent microscopic assessment, and pathological examination of the zebrafish to assess this model. The consecutive administration protocol of PLD resulted in growth retardation of the zebrafish embryo and survival impairment, indicating establishment of a significant toxicity. We observed fin necrosis and keratinocyte dissociation phenotypes in the PLD-treated fish after consecutive administration. The skin toxicity induced by the Lipo-Dox injection was subsequently reversible, which might be compatible with a clinical course of skin recovery after discontinuation of Lipo-Dox administration. Furthermore, we found that the number of intestinal goblet cells, an important marker of intestinal inflammation, in the Lipo-Dox-injected zebrafish was markedly increased, accompanied by impaired mucosal integrity. The intestinal inflammation induced by Lipo-Dox resembled the intestinal mucositis the clinical patients suffered from after the administration of PLD. In conclusion, we established a zebrafish model for PLD-induced HFS. The intestinal mucositis simultaneously noted in the PLD-treated zebrafish validated the similarity of clinical courses after administration of PLD. This model is easily assessable, efficient, and worthy for use in developing a new therapeutic protocol for prevention or treatment of HFS as well

  17. Development of a phenol-enriched olive oil with both its own phenolic compounds and complementary phenols from thyme.

    PubMed

    Rubió, Laura; Motilva, Maria-José; Macià, Alba; Ramo, Tomás; Romero, Maria-Paz

    2012-03-28

    Besides affecting the oil's sensorial characteristics, the presence of herbs and spices has an impact on the nutritional value of the flavored oils. The aim of the study was to develop a new product based on the phenol-enrichment of a virgin olive oil with both its own phenolic compounds (secoiridoid derivatives) plus additional complementary phenols from thyme (flavonoids). We studied the effect of the addition of phenolic extracts (olive cake and thyme) on phenolic composition, oxidative stability, antioxidant activity, and bitter sensory attribute of olive oils. Results showed that flavonoids from thyme appeared to have higher transference ratios (average 89.7%) from the phenolic extract to oil, whereas secoiridoids from olive presented lower transference ratios (average 35.3%). The bitter sensory attribute of the phenol-enriched oils diminished with an increase of the concentration of phenols from thyme, which might denote an improvement in the consumer acceptance.

  18. Characterization of total antioxidant capacity and (poly)phenolic compounds of differently pigmented rice varieties and their changes during domestic cooking.

    PubMed

    Zaupa, Maria; Calani, Luca; Del Rio, Daniele; Brighenti, Furio; Pellegrini, Nicoletta

    2015-11-15

    In the recent years, the pigmented rice varieties are becoming more popular due to their antioxidant properties and phenolic content. In this study, we characterized the antioxidant capacity (TAC) and the phenolic profile in white, red and black rice varieties, and evaluated the effect of two cooking methods (i.e. "risotto" and boiling) on these compounds. Before the cooking, all the varieties contained several phenolic acids, whereas anthocyanins and flavonols were peculiar of black rice and flavan-3-ols of red rice. Among the rice varieties, the black had the highest TAC value. The content of (poly)phenolic compounds and TAC decreased after cooking in all three varieties, but to a lesser extent after the risotto method. As a consequence, the risotto cooking, which allows a complete absorption of water, would be a good cooking method to retain (poly)phenolic compounds and TAC in pigmented and non-pigmented whole-meal rice.

  19. Biocatalytic trifluoromethylation of unprotected phenols

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Robert C.; Busto, Eduardo; Richter, Nina; Resch, Verena; Houk, Kendall N.; Kroutil, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Organofluorine compounds have become important building blocks for a broad range of advanced materials, polymers, agrochemicals, and increasingly for pharmaceuticals. Despite tremendous progress within the area of fluorination chemistry, methods for the direct introduction of fluoroalkyl-groups into organic molecules without prefunctionalization are still highly desired. Here we present a concept for the introduction of the trifluoromethyl group into unprotected phenols by employing a biocatalyst (laccase), tBuOOH, and either the Langlois' reagent or Baran's zinc sulfinate. The method relies on the recombination of two radical species, namely, the phenol radical cation generated directly by the laccase and the CF3-radical. Various functional groups such as ketone, ester, aldehyde, ether and nitrile are tolerated. This laccase-catalysed trifluoromethylation proceeds under mild conditions and allows accessing trifluoromethyl-substituted phenols that were not available by classical methods. PMID:27834376

  20. Biocatalytic trifluoromethylation of unprotected phenols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Robert C.; Busto, Eduardo; Richter, Nina; Resch, Verena; Houk, Kendall N.; Kroutil, Wolfgang

    2016-11-01

    Organofluorine compounds have become important building blocks for a broad range of advanced materials, polymers, agrochemicals, and increasingly for pharmaceuticals. Despite tremendous progress within the area of fluorination chemistry, methods for the direct introduction of fluoroalkyl-groups into organic molecules without prefunctionalization are still highly desired. Here we present a concept for the introduction of the trifluoromethyl group into unprotected phenols by employing a biocatalyst (laccase), tBuOOH, and either the Langlois' reagent or Baran's zinc sulfinate. The method relies on the recombination of two radical species, namely, the phenol radical cation generated directly by the laccase and the CF3-radical. Various functional groups such as ketone, ester, aldehyde, ether and nitrile are tolerated. This laccase-catalysed trifluoromethylation proceeds under mild conditions and allows accessing trifluoromethyl-substituted phenols that were not available by classical methods.

  1. Mucosal and systemic adjuvant activity of alphavirus replicon particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Joseph M.; Whitmore, Alan C.; Konopka, Jennifer L.; Collier, Martha L.; Richmond, Erin M. B.; Davis, Nancy L.; Staats, Herman F.; Johnston, Robert E.

    2006-03-01

    Vaccination represents the most effective control measure in the fight against infectious diseases. Local mucosal immune responses are critical for protection from, and resolution of, infection by numerous mucosal pathogens. Antigen processing across mucosal surfaces is the natural route by which mucosal immunity is generated, as peripheral antigen delivery typically fails to induce mucosal immune responses. However, we demonstrate in this article that mucosal immune responses are evident at multiple mucosal surfaces after parenteral delivery of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles (VRP). Moreover, coinoculation of null VRP (not expressing any transgene) with inactivated influenza virions, or ovalbumin, resulted in a significant increase in antigen-specific systemic IgG and fecal IgA antibodies, compared with antigen alone. Pretreatment of VRP with UV light largely abrogated this adjuvant effect. These results demonstrate that alphavirus replicon particles possess intrinsic systemic and mucosal adjuvant activity and suggest that VRP RNA replication is the trigger for this activity. We feel that these observations and the continued experimentation they stimulate will ultimately define the specific components of an alternative pathway for the induction of mucosal immunity, and if the activity is evident in humans, will enable new possibilities for safe and inexpensive subunit and inactivated vaccines. vaccine vector | Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus | viral immunology | RNA virus

  2. Oral mucosal immunization using glucomannosylated bilosomes.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sanyog; Indulkar, Anura; Harde, Harshad; Agrawal, Ashish K

    2014-06-01

    The present study embarks on the feasibility of GM-bilosomes as a rationally designed vehicle for oral mucosal immunization. Bilosomes containing BSA as a model antigen were found to have vesicle size of 157 +/- 3 nm, PDI of 0.287 +/- 0.045, zeta potential of -21.8 +/- 2.01 mV and entrapment efficiency of 71.3 +/- 4.3%. Bilosomal formulations were freeze dried and entrapped BSA in freeze dried formulations was found to retain its structural and conformational stability as evident by SDS-PAGE and CD analysis. The GM-bilosomes were also found stable in different simulated biological fluids and bile salt solutions of different concentrations. In-vitro drug release revealed that GM-bilosomes were able to sustain drug release up to 24 h. In-vitro cell uptake in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells demonstrated significantly higher uptake of GM-bilosomes in comparison with bilosomes and free antigen. Intestinal uptake studies on excised rat intestinal sections further demonstrated higher uptake of vesicular systems throughout the intestinal region in comparison with free antigen. Significantly higher (p < 0.05) systemic immune response (serum IgG level) was observed in case of GM-bilosomes in comparison with bilosomes and alum adsorbed BSA (BSA-AL) following oral administration. The immune response observed in case of GM-bilosomes was comparable to BSA-AL administered through im route without any significant difference (p > 0.05). More importantly, GM-bilosomes were found capable of inducing mucosal immune response as well as cell mediated immune response which was not induced by im BSA-AL. In conclusion, GM-bilosomes could be considered as promising carrier and adjuvant system for oral mucosal immunization and productively exploited for oral delivery of other candidate antigens.

  3. Multiscale modeling of mucosal immune responses

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Computational modeling techniques are playing increasingly important roles in advancing a systems-level mechanistic understanding of biological processes. Computer simulations guide and underpin experimental and clinical efforts. This study presents ENteric Immune Simulator (ENISI), a multiscale modeling tool for modeling the mucosal immune responses. ENISI's modeling environment can simulate in silico experiments from molecular signaling pathways to tissue level events such as tissue lesion formation. ENISI's architecture integrates multiple modeling technologies including ABM (agent-based modeling), ODE (ordinary differential equations), SDE (stochastic modeling equations), and PDE (partial differential equations). This paper focuses on the implementation and developmental challenges of ENISI. A multiscale model of mucosal immune responses during colonic inflammation, including CD4+ T cell differentiation and tissue level cell-cell interactions was developed to illustrate the capabilities, power and scope of ENISI MSM. Background Computational techniques are becoming increasingly powerful and modeling tools for biological systems are of greater needs. Biological systems are inherently multiscale, from molecules to tissues and from nano-seconds to a lifespan of several years or decades. ENISI MSM integrates multiple modeling technologies to understand immunological processes from signaling pathways within cells to lesion formation at the tissue level. This paper examines and summarizes the technical details of ENISI, from its initial version to its latest cutting-edge implementation. Implementation Object-oriented programming approach is adopted to develop a suite of tools based on ENISI. Multiple modeling technologies are integrated to visualize tissues, cells as well as proteins; furthermore, performance matching between the scales is addressed. Conclusion We used ENISI MSM for developing predictive multiscale models of the mucosal immune system during gut

  4. Glycerol monolaurate prevents mucosal SIV transmission.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingsheng; Estes, Jacob D; Schlievert, Patrick M; Duan, Lijie; Brosnahan, Amanda J; Southern, Peter J; Reilly, Cavan S; Peterson, Marnie L; Schultz-Darken, Nancy; Brunner, Kevin G; Nephew, Karla R; Pambuccian, Stefan; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Carlis, John V; Haase, Ashley T

    2009-04-23

    Although there has been great progress in treating human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection, preventing transmission has thus far proven an elusive goal. Indeed, recent trials of a candidate vaccine and microbicide have been disappointing, both for want of efficacy and concerns about increased rates of transmission. Nonetheless, studies of vaginal transmission in the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-rhesus macaque (Macacca mulatta) model point to opportunities at the earliest stages of infection in which a vaccine or microbicide might be protective, by limiting the expansion of infected founder populations at the portal of entry. Here we show in this SIV-macaque model, that an outside-in endocervical mucosal signalling system, involving MIP-3alpha (also known as CCL20), plasmacytoid dendritic cells and CCR5(+ )cell-attracting chemokines produced by these cells, in combination with the innate immune and inflammatory responses to infection in both cervix and vagina, recruits CD4(+) T cells to fuel this obligate expansion. We then show that glycerol monolaurate-a widely used antimicrobial compound with inhibitory activity against the production of MIP-3alpha and other proinflammatory cytokines-can inhibit mucosal signalling and the innate and inflammatory response to HIV-1 and SIV in vitro, and in vivo it can protect rhesus macaques from acute infection despite repeated intra-vaginal exposure to high doses of SIV. This new approach, plausibly linked to interfering with innate host responses that recruit the target cells necessary to establish systemic infection, opens a promising new avenue for the development of effective interventions to block HIV-1 mucosal transmission.

  5. Mucosal microbiome dysbiosis in gastric carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Coker, Olabisi Oluwabukola; Dai, Zhenwei; Nie, Yongzhan; Zhao, Guijun; Cao, Lei; Nakatsu, Geicho; Wu, William Kk; Wong, Sunny Hei; Chen, Zigui; Sung, Joseph J Y; Yu, Jun

    2017-08-01

    We aimed to characterise the microbial changes associated with histological stages of gastric tumourigenesis. We performed 16S rRNA gene analysis of gastric mucosal samples from 81 cases including superficial gastritis (SG), atrophic gastritis (AG), intestinal metaplasia (IM) and gastric cancer (GC) from Xi'an, China, to determine mucosal microbiome dysbiosis across stages of GC. We validated the results in mucosal samples of 126 cases from Inner Mongolia, China. We observed significant mucosa microbial dysbiosis in IM and GC subjects, with significant enrichment of 21 and depletion of 10 bacterial taxa in GC compared with SG (q<0.05). Microbial network analysis showed increasing correlation strengths among them with disease progression (p<0.001). Five GC-enriched bacterial taxa whose species identifications correspond to Peptostreptococcus stomatis, Streptococcus anginosus, Parvimonas micra, Slackia exigua and Dialister pneumosintes had significant centralities in the GC ecological network (p<0.05) and classified GC from SG with an area under the receiver-operating curve (AUC) of 0.82. Moreover, stronger interactions among gastric microbes were observed in Helicobacter pylori-negative samples compared with H. pylori-positive samples in SG and IM. The fold changes of selected bacteria, and strengths of their interactions were successfully validated in the Inner Mongolian cohort, in which the five bacterial markers distinguished GC from SG with an AUC of 0.81. In addition to microbial compositional changes, we identified differences in bacterial interactions across stages of gastric carcinogenesis. The significant enrichments and network centralities suggest potentially important roles of P. stomatis, D. pneumosintes, S. exigua, P. micra and S. anginosus in GC progression. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Gut mucosal immunostimulation by lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Vitiñi, E; Alvarez, S; Medina, M; Medici, M; de Budeguer, M V; Perdigón, G

    2000-12-01

    The beneficial properties of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on human health have been frequently demonstrated. The interaction of LAB with the lymphoid cells associated to the gut to activate the mucosal immune system and the mechanisms by which they can exert an adjuvant effect is still unclear, as well as if this property is common for all the LAB. We studied the influence of the oral administration of different geneous of LAB such as Lactobacillus casei, L. acidophilus, L. rhamnosus, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, L. plantarum, Lactococcus lactis and Streptococcus thermophilus. We determined if the LAB assayed were able to stimulate the specific, the non-specific immune response (inflammatory response), or both. We demonstrated that all the bacteria assayed were able to increase the number of IgA producing cells associated to the lamina propria of small intestine. This effect was dose dependent. The increase in IgA+ producing cells was not always correlated with an increase in the CD4+ T cell number, indicating that some LAB assayed only induced clonal expansion of B cells triggered to produce IgA. Most of them, induced an increase in the number of cells involved in the inflammatory immune response. CD8+ T cell were diminished or not affected, with exception of L. plantarum that induced an increase at low dose. This fact would mean that LAB are unable to induce cytotoxicity mechanisms. We demonstrated the importance in the selection of LAB to be used as gut mucosal adjuvant. The different behaviours observed among them on the gut mucosal immune response, specially those that induce inflammatory immune response, show that not all the LAB can be used as oral adjuvant and that the beneficial effect of them can not generalized to genous or specie. The immunoadjuvant capacity would be a property of the strain assayed.

  7. Multiscale modeling of mucosal immune responses.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yongguo; Abedi, Vida; Carbo, Adria; Zhang, Xiaoying; Lu, Pinyi; Philipson, Casandra; Hontecillas, Raquel; Hoops, Stefan; Liles, Nathan; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Computational techniques are becoming increasingly powerful and modeling tools for biological systems are of greater needs. Biological systems are inherently multiscale, from molecules to tissues and from nano-seconds to a lifespan of several years or decades. ENISI MSM integrates multiple modeling technologies to understand immunological processes from signaling pathways within cells to lesion formation at the tissue level. This paper examines and summarizes the technical details of ENISI, from its initial version to its latest cutting-edge implementation. Object-oriented programming approach is adopted to develop a suite of tools based on ENISI. Multiple modeling technologies are integrated to visualize tissues, cells as well as proteins; furthermore, performance matching between the scales is addressed. We used ENISI MSM for developing predictive multiscale models of the mucosal immune system during gut inflammation. Our modeling predictions dissect the mechanisms by which effector CD4+ T cell responses contribute to tissue damage in the gut mucosa following immune dysregulation.Computational modeling techniques are playing increasingly important roles in advancing a systems-level mechanistic understanding of biological processes. Computer simulations guide and underpin experimental and clinical efforts. This study presents ENteric Immune Simulator (ENISI), a multiscale modeling tool for modeling the mucosal immune responses. ENISI's modeling environment can simulate in silico experiments from molecular signaling pathways to tissue level events such as tissue lesion formation. ENISI's architecture integrates multiple modeling technologies including ABM (agent-based modeling), ODE (ordinary differential equations), SDE (stochastic modeling equations), and PDE (partial differential equations). This paper focuses on the implementation and developmental challenges of ENISI. A multiscale model of mucosal immune responses during colonic inflammation, including CD4+ T

  8. Vitamin D and mucosal immune function

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review Significant advances have been made in the characterization of Vitamin D and the Vitamin D receptor (VDR) in immune function. The studies of signaling pathways involved in the response to infection and inflammation have led to a more detailed understanding of the cellular response to Vitamin D through VDR. This review summarizes recent progress in understanding how Vitamin D contributes to mucosal immune function, particularly in relation to the molecular mechanisms by which Vitamin D and VDR influence mucosal immunity, bacterial infection, and inflammation. Recent findings Recently, it was shown that Vitamin D modulates the T cell antigen receptor, further demonstrating that Vitamin D has a nonclassical role in immunoregulation. The anti-inflammation and anti-infection functions for Vitamin D are newly identified and highly significant activities. Vitamin D/VDR have multiple critical functions in regulating the response to intestinal homeostasis, tight junctions, pathogen invasion, commensal bacterial colonization, antimicrobe peptide secretion, and mucosal defense. Interestingly, microorganisms modulate the VDR signaling pathway. Summary Vitamin D is known as a key player in calcium homeostasis and electrolyte and blood pressure regulation. Recently, important progress has been made in understanding how the noncanonical activities of Vitamin D influence the pathogenesis and prevention of human disease. Vitamin D and VDR are directly involved in T cell antigen receptor signaling. The involvement of Vitamin D/VDR in anti-inflammation and anti-infection represents a newly identified and highly significant activity for VDR. Studies have indicated that the dysregulation of VDR may lead to exaggerated inflammatory responses, raising the possibility that defects in Vitamin D and VDR signaling transduction may be linked to bacterial infection and chronic inflammation. Further characterization of Vitamin D/VDR will help elucidate the pathogenesis of

  9. Glycerol monolaurate prevents mucosal SIV transmission

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qingsheng; Estes, Jacob D.; Schlievert, Patrick M.; Duan, Lijie; Brosnahan, Amanda J.; Southern, Peter J.; Reilly, Cavan S.; Peterson, Marnie L.; Schultz-Darken, Nancy; Brunner, Kevin G.; Nephew, Karla R.; Pambuccian, Stefan; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Carlis, John V.; Haase, Ashley T.

    2009-01-01

    While there has been great progress in treating HIV-1 infection1, preventing transmission has thus far proven an elusive goal. Indeed, recent trials of a candidate vaccine and microbicide have been disappointing, both for want of efficacy and concerns about increased rates of transmission2–4. Nonetheless, studies of vaginal transmission in the SIV-rhesus macaque model point to opportunities in the earliest stages of infection where a vaccine or microbicide might be protective, by limiting the expansion of infected founder populations at the portal of entry5, 6. Here we show in this SIV-macaque model, that an outside-in endocervical mucosal signalling system, involving MIP-3α, plasmacytoid dendritic cells and CCR5+cell-attracting chemokines produced by these cells, in combination with the innate immune and inflammatory responses to infection in both cervix and vagina, recruit CD4+T cells to fuel this obligate expansion. We then show that glycerol monolaurate, a widely used antimicrobial compound 7 with inhibitory activity against production of MIP-3α and other proinflammatory cytokines8, can inhibit mucosal signalling and the innate and inflammatory response to HIV-1 and SIV in vitro, and in vivo can protect rhesus macaques from acute infection despite repeated intra-vaginal exposure to high doses of SIV. This novel approach, plausibly linked to interfering with innate host responses that recruit the target cells necessary to establish systemic infection, opens a promising new avenue for development of effective interventions to block HIV-1 mucosal transmission. PMID:19262509

  10. Gastric mucosal injury in the rat. Role of iron and xanthine oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.M.; Grisham, M.B.; Manci, E.A.; Granger, D.N.; Kvietys, P.R.

    1987-04-01

    Recent studies have implicated oxygen free radicals in ischemia-reperfusion injury to the gastric mucosa. The aims of the present study were to test the hypothesis that the enzyme xanthine oxidase is the source of the oxygen radicals in the ischemic stomach and determine the importance of the iron-catalyzed Haber-Weiss reaction in generating the cytotoxic oxygen radicals. Gastric mucosal clearance of /sup 51/Cr-labeled red blood cells was measured during a 30-min control period, a 30-min ischemic period (hemorrhage to 25 mmHg arterial pressure), and a 60-80-min reperfusion period (reinfusion of shed blood). In untreated (control) rats, a dramatic rise (100-fold) in the leakage of /sup 51/Cr-labeled red blood cells into the gastric lumen was observed only during the reperfusion period. After the reperfusion period, gastric mucosal damage was further assessed using gross lesion area and histology. Rats were placed on a sodium tungstate diet (to inactivate xanthine oxidase), or treated with either deferoxamine (an iron chelating agent) or superoxide dismutase (a superoxide scavenger). All three interventions substantially reduced /sup 51/Cr-labeled red blood cell clearance and gross lesion area relative to untreated rats. However, tissue injury assessed histologically was similar in both treated and untreated animals. The results of this study support the hypothesis that oxygen free radicals mediate the hemorrhagic shock-induced extravasation of red blood cells. The data also indicate that xanthine oxidase is the source of the oxy-radicals and that the iron-catalyzed Haber-Weiss reaction is largely responsible for hydroxyl radical generation in this model.

  11. Oral lichen planus and lichenoid mucositis.

    PubMed

    De Rossi, Scott S; Ciarrocca, Katharine

    2014-04-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is commonly found in middle-aged women. Although the cause is unknown, research points to several complex immunologic events and cells that are responsible for the inflammatory destruction and chronicity of these lesions. Biopsy for histologic diagnosis is recommended. The mainstay of treatment remains topical corticosteroids; however, newer therapies such as immunomodulating agents are available for recalcitrant lesions. In cases of lichenoid mucositis or reactions, treatment should be directed at identifying and removing the presumed cause. Given the apparent risk of squamous cell carcinoma in these patients, frequent follow-up and repeat biopsy are vital.

  12. Peptic activity and gastroduodenal mucosal damage.

    PubMed Central

    Raufman, J. P.

    1996-01-01

    This contribution reviews briefly the history of the discovery and characterization of peptic activity; secretory models and current concepts regarding the regulation of pepsinogen secretion; and evidence that pepsin is a necessary co-factor for gastroduodenal mucosal injury. Several animal studies indicate that peptic activity is required for acid- and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced gastroduodenal ulceration. A more vigorous approach to the development of anti-peptic drugs for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease is encouraged. Images Figure 1 PMID:9041694

  13. Gastric Mucosal Protection by Aegle Marmelos Against Gastric Mucosal Damage: Role of Enterochromaffin Cell and Serotonin

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Purnima; Dutta, Shubha R.; Guha, Debjani

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) released from enterochromaffin (EC) cells in gastric mucosa inhibits gastric acidity by increasing the gastric mucus secretion. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of aqueous extract of Aegle marmelos (AM) ripe fruit pulp (250 mg/kg body weight) on mean ulcer index (MUI), EC cells, 5-HT content, and adherent mucosal thickness of ulcerated gastric tissue in adult albino rats. Material and Methods: Ulceration was induced by using aspirin (500 mg/kg, p.o.), cerebellar nodular lesion and applying cold-restraint stress. Results: In all cases increased MUI in gastric tissue along with decreased EC cell count was observed with concomitant decrease of 5-HT content and adherent mucosal thickness (P < 0.05). Pretreatment with AM for 14 days decreased MUI, increased EC cell count, and 5-HT content as well as adherent mucosal thickness in all ulcerated group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: AM produces gastric mucosal protection mediated by increased EC cell count and 5-HT levels. PMID:25672237

  14. Organochalcogen substituents in phenolic antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Amorati, Riccardo; Pedulli, Gian Franco; Valgimigli, Luca; Johansson, Henrik; Engman, Lars

    2010-05-21

    Little is known about the ED/EW character of organochalcogen substituents and their contribution to the O-H bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE) in phenolic compounds. A series of ortho- and para-(S,Se,Te)R-substituted phenols were prepared and investigated by EPR, IR, and computational methods. Substituents lowered the O-H BDE by >3 kcal/mol in the para position, while the ortho-effect was modest due to hydrogen bonding ( approximately 3 kcal/mol) to the O-H group.

  15. Iron bioavailability to piglets from red and white common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polyphenols in foods may chelate dietary Fe and lower its bioavailability. Concentrations of phenols are substantially higher in red beans than in white beans. The aim of this study was to compare iron bioavailabilities from red and white beans in a piglet hemoglobin repletion model. Fe deficient cr...

  16. Chemical composition and deer browsing of red alder foliage

    Treesearch

    M.A. Radwan; W.D. Ellis; G.L. Crouch

    1978-01-01

    Chemical factors suspected of influencing seasonal change in deer preference for red alder leaves were investigated. There were many differences in the leaves between seasons. It is postulated, however, that changes in contents of crude fat and total phenols were the important factors in increasing deer preference for the species from June to September.

  17. Rhubarb extract partially improves mucosal integrity in chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucositis

    PubMed Central

    Bajic, Juliana E; Eden, Georgina L; Lampton, Lorrinne S; Cheah, Ker Y; Lymn, Kerry A; Pei, Jinxin V; Yool, Andrea J; Howarth, Gordon S

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the effects of orally gavaged aqueous rhubarb extract (RE) on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced intestinal mucositis in rats. METHODS Female Dark Agouti rats (n = 8/group) were gavaged daily (1 mL) with water, high-dose RE (HDR; 200 mg/kg) or low-dose RE (LDR; 20mg/kg) for eight days. Intestinal mucositis was induced (day 5) with 5-FU (150 mg/kg) via intraperitoneal injection. Intestinal tissue samples were collected for myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and histological examination. Xenopus oocytes expressing aquaporin 4 water channels were prepared to examine the effect of aqueous RE on cell volume, indicating a potential mechanism responsible for modulating net fluid absorption and secretion in the gastrointestinal tract. Statistical significance was assumed at P < 0.05 by one-way ANOVA. RESULTS Bodyweight was significantly reduced in rats administered 5-FU compared to healthy controls (P < 0.01). Rats administered 5-FU significantly increased intestinal MPO levels (≥ 307%; P < 0.001), compared to healthy controls. However, LDR attenuated this effect in 5-FU treated rats, significantly decreasing ileal MPO activity (by 45%; P < 0.05), as compared to 5-FU controls. 5-FU significantly reduced intestinal mucosal thickness (by ≥ 29% P < 0.001) as compared to healthy controls. LDR significantly increased ileal mucosal thickness in 5-FU treated rats (19%; P < 0.05) relative to 5-FU controls. In xenopus oocytes expressing AQP4 water channels, RE selectively blocked water influx into the cell, induced by a decrease in external osmotic pressure. As water efflux was unaltered by the presence of extracellular RE, the directional flow of water across the epithelial barrier, in the presence of extracellular RE, indicated that RE may alleviate water loss across the epithelial barrier and promote intestinal health in chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucositis. CONCLUSION In summary, low dose RE improves selected parameters of mucosal integrity and reduces ileal

  18. Intraspecific variation in production of astringent phenolics over a vegetation-resource availability gradient.

    PubMed

    Muller, R N; Kalisz, P J; Kimmerer, T W

    1987-05-01

    The chemical constituency of flowering dogwood (Cornus florida L.) and red maple (Acer rubrum L.) foliage was analyzed over a species compositional gradient to test the hypothesis that over subtle gradients of moisture and nutrient availability production of phenolic compounds will be increased on sites of greatest stress. Calcium and nitrogen concentrations declined along the gradient in both species, while phosphorus showed a significant decline only in red maple. Lignin concentrations in both species were unrelated to the vegetation gradient, but astringent phenolics increased by 156% and 159% in dogwood and red maple, respectively. The correlation between production of polyphenolds and site quality supports previous observations that under conditions of environmental stress production of many secondary compounds is increased, and suggests that this relationship is significant over subtle environmental gradients.

  19. Lipid encapsulated phenolic compounds by fluidization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phenolic compounds exhibit antioxidant and antimicrobial activities with applications as functional food and feed additives. Ferulic acid, a phenolic compound present in grain crops and lignocellulose biomass, was encapsulated with saturated triglycerides using a laboratory fluidizer. Stability of t...

  20. Modulation of Phenol Oxidation in Cofacial Dyads.

    PubMed

    Koo, Bon Jun; Huynh, Michael; Halbach, Robert L; Stubbe, JoAnne; Nocera, Daniel G

    2015-09-23

    The presentation of two phenols on a xanthene backbone is akin to the tyrosine dyad (Y730 and Y731) of ribonucleotide reductase. X-ray crystallography reveals that the two phenol moieties are cofacially disposed at 4.35 Å. Cyclic voltammetry reveals that phenol oxidation is modulated within the dyad, which exhibits a splitting of one-electron waves with the second oxidation of the phenol dyad occurring at larger positive potential than that of a typical phenol. In contrast, a single phenol appended to a xanthene exhibits a two-electron process, consistent with reported oxidation pathways of phenols in acetonitrile. The perturbation of the phenol potential by stacking is reminiscent of a similar effect for guanines stacked within DNA base pairs.

  1. Plant phenolics and absorption features in vegetation reflectance spectra near 1.66 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; Skidmore, Andrew K.

    2015-12-01

    Past laboratory and field studies have quantified phenolic substances in vegetative matter from reflectance measurements for understanding plant response to herbivores and insect predation. Past remote sensing studies on phenolics have evaluated crop quality and vegetation patterns caused by bedrock geology and associated variations in soil geochemistry. We examined spectra of pure phenolic compounds, common plant biochemical constituents, dry leaves, fresh leaves, and plant canopies for direct evidence of absorption features attributable to plant phenolics. Using spectral feature analysis with continuum removal, we observed that a narrow feature at 1.66 μm is persistent in spectra of manzanita, sumac, red maple, sugar maple, tea, and other species. This feature was consistent with absorption caused by aromatic Csbnd H bonds in the chemical structure of phenolic compounds and non-hydroxylated aromatics. Because of overlapping absorption by water, the feature was weaker in fresh leaf and canopy spectra compared to dry leaf measurements. Simple linear regressions of feature depth and feature area with polyphenol concentration in tea resulted in high correlations and low errors (% phenol by dry weight) at the dry leaf (r2 = 0.95, RMSE = 1.0%, n = 56), fresh leaf (r2 = 0.79, RMSE = 2.1%, n = 56), and canopy (r2 = 0.78, RMSE = 1.0%, n = 13) levels of measurement. Spectra of leaves, needles, and canopies of big sagebrush and evergreens exhibited a weak absorption feature centered near 1.63 μm, short ward of the phenolic compounds, possibly consistent with terpenes. This study demonstrates that subtle variation in vegetation spectra in the shortwave infrared can directly indicate biochemical constituents and be used to quantify them. Phenolics are of lesser abundance compared to the major plant constituents but, nonetheless, have important plant functions and ecological significance. Additional research is needed to advance our understanding of the spectral influences

  2. The development of mucosal vaccines for both mucosal and systemic immune induction and the roles played by adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Vaccination is the most successful immunological practice that improves the quality of human life and health. Vaccine materials include antigens of pathogens and adjuvants potentiating the effectiveness of vaccination. Vaccines are categorized using various criteria, including the vaccination material used and the method of administration. Traditionally, vaccines have been injected via needles. However, given that most pathogens first infect mucosal surfaces, there is increasing interest in the establishment of protective mucosal immunity, achieved by vaccination via mucosal routes. This review summarizes recent developments in mucosal vaccines and their associated adjuvants. PMID:28168169

  3. 40 CFR 721.7210 - Epoxidized copolymer of phenol and substituted phenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Epoxidized copolymer of phenol and substituted phenol. 721.7210 Section 721.7210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7210 Epoxidized copolymer of phenol and substituted phenol. (a)...

  4. Dexmedetomidine decreases the oral mucosal blood flow.

    PubMed

    Kawaai, Hiroyoshi; Yoshida, Kenji; Tanaka, Eri; Togami, Kohei; Tada, Hitoshi; Ganzberg, Steven; Yamazaki, Shinya

    2013-12-01

    There is an abundance of blood vessels in the oral cavity, and intraoperative bleeding can disrupt operations. There have been some interesting reports about constriction of vessels in the oral cavity, one of which reported that gingival blood flow in cats is controlled by sympathetic α-adrenergic fibres that are involved with vasoconstriction. Dexmedetomidine is a sedative and analgesic agent that acts through the α-2 adrenoceptor, and is expected to have a vasoconstrictive action in the oral cavity. We have focused on the relation between the effects of α-adrenoceptors by dexmedetomidine and vasoconstriction in oral tissues, and assessed the oral mucosal blood flow during sedation with dexmedetomidine. The subjects comprised 13 healthy male volunteers, sedated with dexmedetomidine in a loading dose of 6 μg/kg/h for 10 min and a continuous infusion of 0.7 μg/kg/h for 32 min. The mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), and palatal mucosal blood flow (PMBF) were measured at 0, 5, 10, 12, 22, and 32 min after the start of the infusion. The HR, CO, and PBMF decreased significantly during the infusion even though there were no differences in the SV. The SVR increased significantly but the PMBF decreased significantly. In conclusion, PMBF was reduced by the mediating effect of dexmedetomidine on α-2 adrenoceptors.

  5. Iron medication-induced gastric mucosal injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuchen; Ouyang, Jie; Wieczorek, Rosemary; DeSoto, Fidelina

    2009-01-01

    Severe gastrointestinal erosion, ulcer, necrosis and strictures after an acute iron overdose are well described. However, gastric mucosal injury in patients receiving therapeutic iron has received only scant recognition despite its wide use. We report a case of iron medication-induced gastric mucosal injury in a 76-year-old male who presented with iron deficiency anemia and had been taking ferrous sulfate tablet for 4 years. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed a pale, villous appearing flat lesion along the lesser curvature of gastric body. Histopathologic examination of EGD biopsies of the flat lesion showed brown crystalline materials deposited in the lamina propria of gastric mucosa, which was accompanied with fibrosis, chronic inflammation, and foreign body reaction. The crystalline materials were covered and admixed with gastric epithelium. Prussian blue iron stain confirmed that the brown crystalline materials were iron. The iron and hemosiderin accumulation was also seen in cytoplasm of epithelial cells and lumen of fundic gastric glands. The recognition and reporting by pathologists of iron-induced changes in EGD biopsies will alert clinicians to this underrecognized but easily correctable complication by alternative forms of iron therapy, such as liquid preparation.

  6. Th17 cells and Mucosal Host Defense

    PubMed Central

    Aujla, Shean J.; Dubin, Patricia J.; Kolls, Jay K.

    2008-01-01

    Th17 cells are a new lineage of T-cells that are controlled by the transcription factor RORγt and develop independent of GATA-3, T-bet, Stat 4 and Stat 6. Novel effector molecules produced by these cells include IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-22, and IL-26. IL-17RA binds IL-17A and IL-17F and is critical for host defense against extracellular planktonic bacteria by regulating chemokine gradients for neutrophil emigration into infected tissue sites as well as host granulopoiesis. Moreover IL-17 and IL-22 regulate the production of antimicrobial proteins in mucosal epithelium. Although TGF-β1 and IL-6 have been shown to be critical for development of Th17 cells from naïve precursors, IL-23 is also important in regulating IL-17 release in mucosal tissues in response to infectious stimuli. Compared to Th1 cells, IL-23 and IL-17 show limited roles in controlling host defense against primary infections with intracellular bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis suggesting a predominate role of the Th17 lineage in host defense against extracellular pathogens. However in the setting of chronic biofilm infections, as that occurs with Cystic Fibrosis or bronchetctasis, Th17 cells may be key contributors of tissue injury. PMID:18054248

  7. Carbohydrate modified phenol-formaldehyde resins

    Treesearch

    Anthony H. Conner; Linda F. Lorenz

    1986-01-01

    For adhesive self-sufficiency, the wood industry needs new adhesive systems in which all or part of the petroleum-derived phenolic component is replaced by a renewable material without sacrificing high durability or ease of bonding. We tested the bonding of wood veneers, using phenolic resins in which part of the phenol-formaldehyde was replaced with carbohydrates. Our...

  8. 40 CFR 721.5867 - Substituted phenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted phenol. 721.5867 Section... Substances § 721.5867 Substituted phenol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as substituted phenol (PMNs P-89-1125,...

  9. 40 CFR 721.5763 - Methylenebisbenzotriazolyl phenols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methylenebisbenzotriazolyl phenols... Substances § 721.5763 Methylenebisbenzotriazolyl phenols. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... phenols (P-94-1042) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses described...

  10. Lignin phenols derivatives in lichens.

    PubMed

    Zavarzina, A G; Romankevich, E A; Peresypkin, V I; Ulyantzev, A S; Belyaev, N A; Zavarzin, A A

    2015-01-01

    Lignin monophenols have been measured in the cupric oxide oxidation products from lichens of different systematic groups. It is shown for the first time that syringyl structures in most lichens strongly dominate over vanillyl and p-hydroxyl ones (S/V 7-583, S/P 3-30). This distinguishes lichens from algae and mosses (p-hydroxyl phenols are dominant) and from higher plants (S/V ratios are from 0 in gymnosperms to 1.1-5.2 in angiosperms). Molecular ratios of phenols as well as the ratios of acids to aldehydes in lichens were different from lignin of higher plants, suggesting contribution of non-lignin phenols in CuO oxidation products. The contents of syringyl and vanillyl phenols in some lichen species were comparable to non-woody tissues of higher plants. Results of the study suggest that lichens can be important source of aromatic structures in soils and hydrosphere, particularly in the regions were lichens are abundant.

  11. The untapped capacity of phenolics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    My research focuses on understanding the dynamics of plant primary and secondary metabolites. Though plant metabolites, including phenolics, make up only a small portion of the compounds found in a fruit or its final product, they are crucial for their contribution towards appearance (color), taste ...

  12. Deactivation of cellulases by phenols

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials may result in the release of inhibitors and deactivators of cellulose enzyme hydrolysis. We report the identification of phenols with major inhibition and/or deactivation effect on enzymes used for conversion of cellulose to ethanol. The inhibition effects w...

  13. Phenol-mediated decolorization and removal of disperse dyes by bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Satar, Rukhsana; Husain, Qayyum

    2009-12-14

    Salt-fractionated bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) proteins were employed for the decolorization of disperse dyes in the presence of H2O2. The effect of various experimental conditions such as concentration of enzyme, H2O2, phenol, reaction time, pH and temperature on the decolorization of dyes was investigated. Dyes were recalcitrant to the decolorization catalysed by bitter gourd peroxidase. However, these dyes were decolorized significantly in the presence of a redox mediator, phenol. Bitter gourd peroxidase (0.215 U/mL) could decolorize about 60% of Disperse Red 17 in the presence of 0.2 mM phenol, whereas Disperse Brown 1 was decolorized by only 40% even in the presence of 0.4 mM phenol. Maximum decolorization of dyes was achieved in the presence of 0.75 mM H2O2 in a buffer ofpH 3.0 and 40 degrees C within 30 min. The K(m) values obtained were 0.625 mg/(L x h) and 2.5 mg/(L x h) for Disperse Red 17 and Disperse Brown 1, respectively. In all the experiments, Disperse Brown 1 was found to be more recalcitrant to decolorization catalysed by bitter gourd peroxidise, as compared to Disperse Red 17.

  14. Minimally invasive treatment of oral ranula with a mucosal tunnel.

    PubMed

    Jia, T; Xing, L; Zhu, F; Jin, X; Liu, L; Tao, J; Chen, Y; Gao, Z; Zhang, H

    2015-02-01

    We have developed a new method for minimally-invasive treatment of uncomplicated oral ranulas using a mucosal tunnel, and we report the clinical outcome. We constructed a mucosal tunnel for each of 35 patients who presented with an oral ranula, by making 2 parallel incisions across the top of the protruding ranula 2-3mm apart, and dissected the soft tissue along the incisions to its wall. The fluid was removed and the cavity irrigated with normal saline. The wall of the ranula was not treated. The first mucosal tunnel was made by suturing the base of the mucosal strip to the deepest part of the wall of the ranula. The mucosal base of the tunnel and the deepest part of the base of the ranula were fixed with absorbable sutures. The two external edges of the incisions were sutured together to form the second mucosal tunnel, and apposing sutures were inserted between the two parallel incisions to form two natural mucosal tunnels. The duration of follow-up ranged from 1 to 5 years. One patient was lost to follow-up and 34 patients were cured. Outcomes were satisfactory without relapse during the follow-up period and the patients were satisfied with the outcome. The mucosal tunnel is a safe, effective, simple, and minimally-invasive treatment for oral ranula.

  15. OCT visualization of acute radiation mucositis: pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladkova, Natalia; Maslennikova, Anna; Terentieva, Anna; Fomina, Yulia; Khomutinnikova, Nina; Balalaeva, Irina; Vyseltseva, Yulia; Larin, Roman; Kornoukhova, Natalia; Shakhov, Andrey; Shakhova, Natalia; Gelikonov, Grigory; Kamensky, Vladislav; Feldchtein, Felix

    2005-08-01

    We present pilot results in optical coherence tomography (OCT) visualization of normal mucosa radiation damage. 15 patients undergoing radiation treatment of head and neck cancer were enrolled. OCT was used to monitor the mucositis development during and after treatment. OCT can see stages of radiation mucositis development, including hidden ones, before any clinical manifestations.

  16. Induction of mucosal immunity through systemic immunization: Phantom or reality?

    PubMed Central

    Su, Fei; Patel, Girishchandra B.; Hu, Songhua; Chen, Wangxue

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Generation of protective immunity at mucosal surfaces can greatly assist the host defense against pathogens which either cause disease at the mucosal epithelial barriers or enter the host through these surfaces. Although mucosal routes of immunization, such as intranasal and oral, are being intensely explored and appear promising for eliciting protective mucosal immunity in mammals, their application in clinical practice has been limited due to technical and safety related challenges. Most of the currently approved human vaccines are administered via systemic (such as intramuscular and subcutaneous) routes. Whereas these routes are acknowledged as being capable to elicit antigen-specific systemic humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, they are generally perceived as incapable of generating IgA responses or protective mucosal immunity. Nevertheless, currently licensed systemic vaccines do provide effective protection against mucosal pathogens such as influenza viruses and Streptococcus pneumoniae. However, whether systemic immunization induces protective mucosal immunity remains a controversial topic. Here we reviewed the current literature and discussed the potential of systemic routes of immunization for the induction of mucosal immunity. PMID:26752023

  17. Red clover polyphenol oxidase and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Van Ranst, G; Lee, M R F; Fievez, V

    2011-02-01

    Increasing the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition of milk is acknowledged to be of benefit to consumer health. Despite the high PUFA content of forages, milk fat contains only about 3% of PUFA and only about 0.5% of n-3 fatty acids. This is mainly due to intensive lipid metabolism in the rumen (lipolysis and biohydrogenation) and during conservation (lipolysis and oxidation) such as drying (hay) and ensiling (silage). In red clover, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) has been suggested to protect lipids against degradation, both in the silage as well as in the rumen, leading to a higher output of PUFA in ruminant products (meat and milk). PPO mediates the oxidation of phenols and diphenols to quinones, which will readily react with nucleophilic binding sites. Such binding sites can be found on proteins, resulting in the formation of protein-bound phenols. This review summarizes the different methods that have been used to assess PPO activity in red clover, and an overview on the current understanding of PPO activity and activation in red clover. Knowledge on these aspects is of major importance to fully harness PPO's lipid-protecting role. Furthermore, we review the studies that evidence PPO-mediated lipid protection and discuss its possible importance in lab-scale silages and further in an in vitro rumen system. It is demonstrated that high (induction of) PPO activity can lead to lower lipolysis in the silage and lower biohydrogenation in the rumen. There are three hypotheses on its working mechanism: (i) protein-bound phenols could directly bind to enzymes (e.g. lipases) as such inhibiting them; (ii) binding of quinones in and between proteins embedded in a lipid membrane (e.g. in the chloroplast) could lead to encapsulation of the lipids; (iii) direct binding of quinones to nucleophilic sites in polar lipids also could lead to protection. There is no exclusive evidence on which mechanism is most important, although there are strong indications that only lipid

  18. Optimization of extraction conditions of total phenolics, antioxidant activities, and anthocyanin of oregano, thyme, terebinth, and pomegranate.

    PubMed

    Rababah, Taha M; Banat, Fawzi; Rababah, Anfal; Ereifej, Khalil; Yang, Wade

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the total phenolic extracts and antioxidant activity and anthocyanins of varieties of the investigated plants. These plants include oregano, thyme, terebinth, and pomegranate. The optimum extraction conditions including temperature and solvent of the extraction process itself were investigated. Total phenolic and anthocyanin extracts were examined according to Folin-Ciocalteu assay and Rabino and Mancinelli method, respectively. The effect of different extracting solvents and temperatures on extracts of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins were studied. Plant samples were evaluated for their antioxidant chemical activity by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazl assay, to determine their potential as a source of natural antioxidant. Results showed that all tested plants exhibited appreciable amounts of phenolic compounds. The methanolic extract (60 °C) of sour pomegranate peel contained the highest phenolic extract (4952.4 mg/100 g of dry weight). Terebinth green seed had the lowest phenolic extract (599.4 mg/100 g of dry weight). Anthocyanins ranged between 3.5 (terebinth red seed) and 0.2 mg/100 g of dry material (thyme). Significant effect of different extracting solvents and temperatures on total phenolics and anthocyanin extracts were found. The methanol and 60 °C of extraction conditions found to be the best for extracting phenolic compounds. The distilled water and 60 °C extraction conditions found to be the best for extracting anthocyanin.

  19. 40 CFR 721.10238 - Formaldehyde, polymers with acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, potassium sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-phenol reaction products and phenol, potassium sodium salts. 721.10238 Section 721.10238 Protection of..., polymers with acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, potassium sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance..., polymers with acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, potassium sodium salts (PMN P-09-147; CAS...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10238 - Formaldehyde, polymers with acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, potassium sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-phenol reaction products and phenol, potassium sodium salts. 721.10238 Section 721.10238 Protection of..., polymers with acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, potassium sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance..., polymers with acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, potassium sodium salts (PMN P-09-147; CAS...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10238 - Formaldehyde, polymers with acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, potassium sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-phenol reaction products and phenol, potassium sodium salts. 721.10238 Section 721.10238 Protection of..., polymers with acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, potassium sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance..., polymers with acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, potassium sodium salts (PMN P-09-147; CAS...

  2. Prevention and treatment of oral mucositis in patients receiving chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Sarrión-Pérez, Maria G.

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucositis is one of the most common side effects of cancer treatment (chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy). It is an inflammatory process that affects the mucosa of the oral cavity, giving rise to erythematous areas in combination with ulcers that can reach a large size. The true importance of oral mucositis is the complications it causes – fundamentally intense pain associated to the oral ulcers, and the risk of overinfection. This in turn may require reduction or even suspension of the antineoplastic treatment, with the risk of seriously worsening the patient prognosis. This points to the importance of establishing therapeutic tools of use in the prevention and/or treatment of mucositis. The present study offers a literature review of all the articles published over the last 10 years referred to the prevention and/or treatment of oral mucositis associated to chemotherapy. Key words:Oral mucositis, management, prevention, treatment, chemotherapy. PMID:24596640

  3. HIV and mucosal barrier interactions: consequences for transmission and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Burgener, Adam; McGowan, Ian; Klatt, Nichole R

    2015-10-01

    The mucosal barrier plays an integral function in human health as it is the primary defense against pathogens, and provides a critical transition between the external environment and the human internal body. In the context of HIV infection, the most relevant mucosal surfaces include those of the gastrointestinal (GI) and genital tract compartments. Several components help maintain the effectiveness of this mucosal surface, including the physical anatomy of the barrier, cellular immunity, soluble factors, and interactions between the epithelial barrier and the local microenvironment, including mucus and host microbiota. Any defects in barrier integrity or function can rapidly lead to an increase in acquisition risk, or with established infection may result in increased pathogenesis, morbidities, or mortality. Indeed, a key feature to all aspects of HIV infection from transmission to pathogenesis is disruption and/or dysfunction of mucosal barriers. Herein, we will detail the host-pathogen relationship of HIV and mucosal barriers in both of these scenarios.

  4. Recent progress in HIV vaccines inducing mucosal immune responses.

    PubMed

    Pavot, Vincent; Rochereau, Nicolas; Lawrence, Philip; Girard, Marc P; Genin, Christian; Verrier, Bernard; Paul, Stéphane

    2014-07-31

    In spite of several attempts over many years at developing a HIV vaccine based on classical strategies, none has convincingly succeeded to date. As HIV is transmitted primarily by the mucosal route, particularly through sexual intercourse, understanding antiviral immunity at mucosal sites is of major importance. An ideal vaccine should elicit HIV-specific antibodies and mucosal CD8⁺ cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) as a first line of defense at a very early stage of HIV infection, before the virus can disseminate into the secondary lymphoid organs in mucosal and systemic tissues. A primary focus of HIV preventive vaccine research is therefore the induction of protective immune responses in these crucial early stages of HIV infection. Numerous approaches are being studied in the field, including building upon the recent RV144 clinical trial. In this article, we will review current strategies and briefly discuss the use of adjuvants in designing HIV vaccines that induce mucosal immune responses.

  5. Oral Mucositis: Melatonin Gel an Effective New Treatment.

    PubMed

    Abdel Moneim, Ahmed Esmat; Guerra-Librero, Ana; Florido, Javier; Shen, Ying-Qiang; Fernández-Gil, Beatriz; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío; Escames, Germaine

    2017-05-07

    The current treatment for cervico-facial cancer involves radio and/or chemotherapy. Unfortunately, cancer therapies can lead to local and systemic complications such as mucositis, which is the most common dose-dependent complication in the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract. Mucositis can cause a considerably reduced quality of life in cancer patients already suffering from physical and psychological exhaustion. However, the role of melatonin in the treatment of mucositis has recently been investigated, and offers an effective alternative therapy in the prevention and/or management of radio and/or chemotherapy-induced mucositis. This review focuses on the pathobiology and management of mucositis in order to improve the quality of cancer patients' lives.

  6. Oral Mucositis: Melatonin Gel an Effective New Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Abdel Moneim, Ahmed Esmat; Guerra-Librero, Ana; Florido, Javier; Shen, Ying-Qiang; Fernández-Gil, Beatriz; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío; Escames, Germaine

    2017-01-01

    The current treatment for cervico-facial cancer involves radio and/or chemotherapy. Unfortunately, cancer therapies can lead to local and systemic complications such as mucositis, which is the most common dose-dependent complication in the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract. Mucositis can cause a considerably reduced quality of life in cancer patients already suffering from physical and psychological exhaustion. However, the role of melatonin in the treatment of mucositis has recently been investigated, and offers an effective alternative therapy in the prevention and/or management of radio and/or chemotherapy-induced mucositis. This review focuses on the pathobiology and management of mucositis in order to improve the quality of cancer patients’ lives. PMID:28481279

  7. The role of phenolic compounds and nutrients in determining food preference in greater snow geese.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Gilles; Bédard, Jean

    1990-10-01

    We tested Buchsbaum's hypothesis that food palatability in geese is determined by a hierarchy of feeding cues among which deterrent secondary metabolites (mostly phenols) have a primary role (Buchsbaum et al. 1984). In preference tests, greater snow goose feeding was slightly depressed when grass was sprayed with ferulic acid but not when grass was sprayed with p-coumaric and tannic acids. Extracts of Timothy grass, red clover or alfalfa sprayed on grass also failed to depress goose feeding. In a multifactor experiment, phenol and protein content and height of grass were manipulated simultaneously. When ferulic acid was sprayed, protein and phenol content interacted in determining goose feeding preferences; protein content had no effect in the absence of phenol but did have an effect when phenol was added. When tannic acid was used in a similar experiment, results were inconclusive because of a significant and complex interaction between protein content and height of grass. Our results generally failed to support Buchsbaum's hypothesis that phenol content of plants has a primary role in determining food preference in geese. Protein content of plants seemed to be a more important factor.

  8. Autologous Transplantation of Oral Mucosal Epithelial Cell Sheets Cultured on an Amniotic Membrane Substrate for Intraoral Mucosal Defects

    PubMed Central

    Amemiya, Takeshi; Nakamura, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Toshiro; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Kanamura, Narisato

    2015-01-01

    The human amniotic membrane (AM) is a thin intrauterine placental membrane that is highly biocompatible and possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-scarring properties. Using AM, we developed a novel method for cultivating oral mucosal epithelial cell sheets. We investigated the autologous transplantation of oral mucosal epithelial cells cultured on AM in patients undergoing oral surgeries. We obtained specimens of AM from women undergoing cesarean sections. This study included five patients without any history of a medical disorder who underwent autologous cultured oral epithelial transplantation following oral surgical procedures. Using oral mucosal biopsy specimens obtained from these patients, we cultured oral epithelial cells on an AM carrier. We transplanted the resultant cell sheets onto the oral mucosal defects. Patients were followed-up for at least 12 months after transplantation. After 2–3 weeks of being cultured on AM, epithelial cells were well differentiated and had stratified into five to seven layers. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the cultured cells expressed highly specific mucosal epithelial cell markers and basement membrane proteins. After the surgical procedures, no infection, bleeding, rejection, or sheet detachment occurred at the reconstructed sites, at which new oral mucous membranes were evident. No recurrence was observed in the long-term follow-up, and the postoperative course was excellent. Our results suggest that AM-cultured oral mucosal epithelial cell sheets represent a useful biomaterial and feasible method for oral mucosal reconstruction. However, our primary clinical study only evaluated their effects on a limited number of small oral mucosal defects. PMID:25915046

  9. Biological Activity of Vegetal Extracts Containing Phenols on Plant Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ertani, Andrea; Pizzeghello, Diego; Francioso, Ornella; Tinti, Anna; Nardi, Serenella

    2016-02-08

    The influence of vegetal extracts derived from red grape, blueberry fruits and hawthorn leaves on Zea mays L. plant growth and the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), a key enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway, was investigated in laboratory experiments. The extracts were characterized using FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies in order to obtain a pattern of the main functional groups. In addition, phenols content was determined by HPLC, whereas the content of indoleacetic acid and isopentenyladenosine hormones was determined by ELISA test and the auxin and gibberellin-like activities by plant-bioassays. The treated maize revealed increased root and leaf biomass, chlorophyll and sugars content with respect to untreated plants. Hawthorn, red grape skin and blueberry at 1.0 mL/L induced high p-coumaric content values, whilst hawthorn also showed high amounts of gallic and p-hydroxybenzoic acids. PAL activity induced by hawthorn at 1.0 mL/L had the highest values (11.1-fold UNT) and was strongly and linearly related with the sum of leaf phenols. Our results suggest that these vegetal extracts contain more than one group of plant-promoting substances.

  10. Mucosal drug delivery: membranes, methodologies, and applications.

    PubMed

    Song, Yifan; Wang, Yiping; Thakur, Rashmi; Meidan, Victor M; Michniak, Bozena

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, extensive research into novel forms of drug delivery has suggested that mucosal approaches offer a promising therapeutic alternative, especially for systemically acting drugs. Transmucosal drug delivery offers many benefits, including noninvasive administration, convenience, rapid onset, as well as elimination of hepatic first-pass metabolism. The investigated absorptive surfaces consist of the nasal, buccal, ocular, vaginal, and rectal mucosae. Among these, the nasal and buccal routes have proved the most promising to date. The bioavailability achieved mainly depends upon the pathophysiological state of the mucosa and the properties of both the drug and delivery systems. Various agents can increase the efficacy of transmucosal drug delivery. These include cyclodextrins, bile salts, surfactants, fusidic acid derivatives, microspheres, liposomes, and bioadhesive agents. The mechanisms of action, effectiveness, and toxicity profiles of these enhancers have been investigated extensively in both animal and human models.

  11. Mucosal cavernous hemangioma of the maxillary sinus.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Mainak; Kundu, Sohag; Barik, Sabyasachi; Banerjee, Shoham; Mukhopadhyay, Subrata

    2015-02-01

    Mucosal cavernous hemangiomas of maxillary sinus and the lateral nasal wall are seldom encountered and difficult to diagnose with misleading radiologic features like bone erosion and heterogeneity due to patchy contrast uptake. The overall picture mimicking sinonasal malignancy, it is unclear whether there is true breach in the bone or remodeling due to the lesion's chronicity. Interestingly, it often does not bleed as expected during surgery, questioning the use of therapeutic embolization and pre-intervention vascular shrinkage. The clinical presentation and management protocol of sinonasal cavernous hemangiomas seem greatly individualized. We here present a patient with cavernous hemangioma of maxillary sinus and discuss the distinguishing clinical, histologic and imaging characteristics and subsequent management options, and attempt to establish the findings as the basis of considering it as an important differential diagnosis of radiologically heterogeneous sinonasal mass with suspected bone erosions presenting with nasal obstruction and epistaxis, mostly in young women.

  12. Cyclosporin metabolism by human gastrointestinal mucosal microsomes.

    PubMed Central

    Webber, I R; Peters, W H; Back, D J

    1992-01-01

    The in vitro metabolism of the immunosuppressant cyclosporin (CsA) by human gastrointestinal mucosal microsomes has been studied. Macroscopically normal intestinal (n = 4) and liver (n = 2) tissue was obtained from kidney transplant donors, and microsomes prepared. Intestinal metabolism was most extensive with duodenal protein (15% conversion to metabolites M1/M17 after 2 h incubation at 37 degrees C; metabolite measurement by h.p.l.c). Western blotting confirmed the presence of P-4503A (enzyme subfamily responsible for CsA metabolism) in duodenum and ileum tissue, but not in colon tissue. The results of this study indicate that the gut wall may play a role in the first-pass metabolism of CsA, and could therefore be a contributory factor to the highly variable oral bioavailability of CsA. PMID:1389941

  13. Mucosal cytokine network in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Andoh, Akira; Yagi, Yuhki; Shioya, Makoto; Nishida, Atsushi; Tsujikawa, Tomoyuki; Fujiyama, Yoshihide

    2008-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD) are characterized by ongoing mucosal inflammation in which dysfunction of the host immunologic response against dietary factors and commensal bacteria is involved. The chronic inflammatory process leads to disruption of the epithelial barrier, and the formation of epithelial ulceration. This permits easy access for the luminal microbiota and dietary antigens to cells resident in the lamina propria, and stimulates further pathological immune cell responses. Cytokines are essential mediators of the interactions between activated immune cells and non-immune cells, including epithelial and mesenchymal cells. The clinical efficacy of targeting TNF-α clearly indicates that cytokines are the therapeutic targets in IBD patients. In this manuscript, we focus on the biological activities of recently-reported cytokines [Interleukin (IL)-17 cytokine family, IL-31 and IL-32], which might play a role through interaction with TNF-α in the pathophysiology of IBD. PMID:18777592

  14. The oral mucosal surface and blood vessels

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Detailed information about the size of the oral mucosa is scarce in the literature, and those studies that do exist do not take into account the size of the tongue or the enlargement of the surface by the papillae. Because of the various functions of the oral mucosa in the maintenance of oral health, knowledge of its true size may provide a better understanding of the physiology of the oral cavity and some oral diseases and direct future therapeutic strategies. The aim of this study was to determine the total size of the oral mucosa. Methods Five human adult cadaver heads were cut in the median sagittal plane, and the total area of the oral surface was determined using silicon casts. The surface of the tongue was measured with quantitative profilometry. Photographs of oral blood vessels were taken in different areas of the oral mucosa of adult test subjects using intravital microscopy, and the pictures were compared with vessel casts of the oral mucosal capillaries of a maccaca fasciculrais monkey, which was studied using a scanning electron microscope. Results The results showed that the dorsal side of the tongue comprises a large proportion of the total oral mucosal surface. The surface area of the epithelium increases moving from anterior to posterior on the tongue, and the number of underlying blood vessels increases proportionally. Conclusions It can be concluded that the back of the tongue plays an important role in the oral resorption of drugs. Clinical relevance: The results may be of relevance for the delivery and development of oral drug application. PMID:23497446

  15. Microbes and mucosal immune responses in asthma.

    PubMed

    Hansel, Trevor T; Johnston, Sebastian L; Openshaw, Peter J

    2013-03-09

    The substantial increase in the worldwide prevalence of asthma and atopy has been attributed to lifestyle changes that reduce exposure to bacteria. A recent insight is that the largely bacterial microbiome maintains a state of basal immune homoeostasis, which modulates immune responses to microbial pathogens. However, some respiratory viral infections cause bronchiolitis of infancy and childhood wheeze, and can exacerbate established asthma; whereas allergens can partly mimic infectious agents. New insights into the host’s innate sensing systems, combined with recently developed methods that characterise commensal and pathogenic microbial exposure, now allow a unified theory for how microbes cause mucosal inflammation in asthma. The respiratory mucosa provides a key microbial interface where epithelial and dendritic cells interact with a range of functionally distinct lymphocytes. Lymphoid cells then control a range of pathways, both innate and specific, which organise the host mucosal immune response. Fundamental to innate immune responses to microbes are the interactions between pathogen-associated molecular patterns and pattern recognition receptors, which are associated with production of type I interferons, proinflammatory cytokines, and the T-helper-2 cell pathway in predisposed people. These coordinated, dynamic immune responses underlie the differing asthma phenotypes, which we delineate in terms of Seven Ages of Asthma. An understanding of the role of microbes in the atopic march towards asthma, and in causing exacerbations of established asthma, provides the rationale for new specific treatments that can be assessed in clinical trials. On the basis of these new ideas, specific host biomarkers might then allow personalised treatment to become a reality for patients with asthma.

  16. Red chicory (Cichorium intybus L. cultivar) as a potential source of antioxidant anthocyanins for intestinal health.

    PubMed

    D'evoli, Laura; Morroni, Fabiana; Lombardi-Boccia, Ginevra; Lucarini, Massimo; Hrelia, Patrizia; Cantelli-Forti, Giorgio; Tarozzi, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Fruit- and vegetable-derived foods have become a very significant source of nutraceutical phytochemicals. Among vegetables, red chicory (Cichorium Intybus L. cultivar) has gained attention for its content of phenolic compounds, such as the anthocyanins. In this study, we evaluated the nutraceutical effects, in terms of antioxidant, cytoprotective, and antiproliferative activities, of extracts of the whole leaf or only the red part of the leaf of Treviso red chicory (a typical Italian red leafy plant) in various intestinal models, such as Caco-2 cells, differentiated in normal intestinal epithelia and undifferentiated Caco-2 cells. The results show that the whole leaf of red chicory can represent a good source of phytochemicals in terms of total phenolics and anthocyanins as well as the ability of these phytochemicals to exert antioxidant and cytoprotective effects in differentiated Caco-2 cells and antiproliferative effects in undifferentiated Caco-2 cells. Interestingly, compared to red chicory whole leaf extracts, the red part of leaf extracts had a significantly higher content of both total phenolics and anthocyanins. The same extracts effectively corresponded to an increase of antioxidant, cytoprotective, and antiproliferative activities. Taken together, these findings suggest that the red part of the leaf of Treviso red chicory with a high content of antioxidant anthocyanins could be interesting for development of new food supplements to improve intestinal health.

  17. Mucosal barrier injury, fever and infection in neutropenic patients with cancer: introducing the paradigm febrile mucositis.

    PubMed

    van der Velden, Walter J F M; Herbers, Alexandra H E; Netea, Mihai G; Blijlevens, Nicole M A

    2014-11-01

    Infection remains one of the most prominent complications after cytotoxic treatment for cancer. The connection between neutropenia and both infections and fever has long been designated as 'febrile neutropenia', but treatment with antimicrobial agents and haematopoietic growth factors has failed to significantly reduce its incidence. Moreover, emerging antimicrobial resistance is becoming a concern that necessitates the judicious use of available antimicrobial agents. In addition to neutropenia, patients who receive cytotoxic therapy experience mucosal barrier injury (MBI) or 'mucositis'. MBI creates a port-de-entrée for resident micro-organisms to cause blood stream infections and contributes directly to the occurrence of fever by disrupting the highly regulated host-microbe interactions, which, even in the absence of an infection, can result in strong inflammatory reactions. Indeed, MBI has been shown to be a pivotal factor in the occurrence of inflammatory complications after cytotoxic therapy. Hence, the concept 'febrile neutropenia' alone may no longer suffice and a new concept 'febrile mucositis' should be recognized as the two are at least complementary. This review we summarizes the existing evidence for both paradigms and proposes new therapeutic approaches to tackle the perturbed host-microbe interactions arising from cytotoxic therapy-induced tissue damage in order to reduce fever in neutropenic patients with cancer. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Mucosal adaptation to aspirin induced gastric damage in humans. Studies on blood flow, gastric mucosal growth, and neutrophil activation.

    PubMed Central

    Konturek, J W; Dembinski, A; Stoll, R; Domschke, W; Konturek, S J

    1994-01-01

    The gastropathy associated with the ingestion of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin is a common side effect of this class of drugs, but the precise mechanisms by which they cause mucosal damage have not been fully explained. During continued use of an injurious substance, such as aspirin, the extent of gastric mucosal damage decreases and this phenomenon is named gastric adaptation. To assess the extent of mucosal damage by aspirin and subsequent adaptation the effects of 14 days of continuous, oral administration of aspirin (2 g per day) to eight healthy male volunteers was studied. To estimate the rate of mucosal damage, gastroscopy was performed before (day 0) and at days 3, 7, 14 of aspirin treatment. Gastric microbleeding and gastric mucosal blood flow were measured using laser Doppler flowmeter and mucosal biopsy specimens were taken for the estimation of tissue DNA synthesis and RNA and DNA concentration. In addition, the activation of neutrophils in peripheral blood was assessed by measuring their ability to associate with platelets. Aspirin induced acute damage mainly in gastric corpus, reaching at day 3 about 3.5 on the endoscopic Lanza score but lessened to about 1.5 at day 14 pointing to the occurrence of gastric adaptation. Mucosal blood flow increased at day 3 by about 50% in the gastric corpus and by 88% in the antrum. The in vitro DNA synthesis and RNA concentration, an index of mucosal growth, were reduced at day 3 but then increased to reach about 150% of initial value at the end of aspirin treatment. It is concluded that the treatment with aspirin in humans induces gastric adaptation to this agent, which entails the increase in mucosal blood flow, the rise in neutrophil activation, and the enhancement in mucosal growth. PMID:7959223

  19. Soluble and bound phenolic compounds in different Bolivian purple corn ( Zea mays L.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Cuevas Montilla, Elyana; Hillebrand, Silke; Antezana, Amalia; Winterhalter, Peter

    2011-07-13

    In nine Bolivian purple corn ( Zea mays L.) varieties the content of phenolic compounds as well as the anthocyanin composition has been determined. The phenotypes under investigation included four red and five blue varieties (Kulli, Ayzuma, Paru, Tuimuru, Oke, Huaca Songo, Colorado, Huillcaparu, and Checchi). In purple corn, phenolic compounds were highly concentrated in cell walls. Thus, simultaneous determination of soluble and bound-form phenolics is essential for analysis, extraction, and quantification. The present study reports the determination of soluble and insoluble-bound fraction of phenolic compounds by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-ESI-MS(n) in Bolivian purple corn varieties. Enzymatic, thermal, and alkaline hydrolyses were used to obtain the cell wall-linked phenolic compounds. Ferulic acid values ranged from 132.9 to 298.4 mg/100 g, and p-coumaric acid contents varied between 251.8 and 607.5 mg/100 g dry weight (DW), respectively, and were identified as the main nonanthocyanin phenolics. The total content of phenolic compounds ranged from 311.0 to 817.6 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g DW, and the percentage contribution of bound to total phenolics varied from 62.1 to 86.6%. The total monomeric anthocyanin content ranged from 1.9 to 71.7 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents/100 g DW. Anthocyanin profiles are almost the same among the different samples. Differences are observed only in the relative percentage of each anthocyanin. Cyanidin-3-glucoside and its malonated derivative were detected as major anthocyanins. Several dimalonylated monoglucosides of cyanidin, peonidin, and pelargonidin were present as minor constituents.

  20. High performance phenolic pultrusion resin

    SciTech Connect

    Qureshi, S.P.; Ingram, W.H.; Smith, C.

    1996-11-01

    Today, Phenol-Formaldehyde (PF) resins are the materials of choice for aerospace interior applications, primarily due to low FST (flame, smoke and toxicity). Since 1990, growth of PF resins has been steadily increasing in non-aerospace applications (which include mass transit, construction, marine, mine ducting and offshore oil) due to low FST and reasonable cost. This paper describes one component phenol-formaldehyde resin that was jointly developed with Morrison Molded Fiber Glass for their pultrusion process. Physical properties of the resin with flame/smoke/toxicity, chemical resistance and mechanical performance of the pultruded RP are discussed. Neat resin screening tests to identify high-temperature formulations are explored. Research continues at Georgia-Pacific to investigate the effect of formulation variables on processing and mechanical properties.

  1. Mucositis and non-invasive markers of small intestinal function.

    PubMed

    Tooley, Katie L; Howarth, Gordon S; Butler, Ross N

    2009-05-01

    Mucositis is a common and debilitating side effect of chemotherapy that manifests due to the inability of chemotherapy agents to discriminate between normal and neoplastic cells. This results in ulcerating lesions lining the gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, the development of efficacious treatments for small intestinal mucositis has been hindered as the pathobiology of mucositis is still not fully understood. The small intestine is an extensive organ which is largely inaccessible by conventional means. Non-invasive biomarkers such as small intestinal permeability, H(2) breath tests, serum citrulline tests and the (13)C-sucrose breath test (SBT) have emerged as potential markers of small intestinal function. The SBT is emerging as the more appropriate biomarker to assess chemotherapy-induced mucositis in cancer patients and animal models, where it measures the decrease in sucrase activity associated with villus blunting and crypt disruption. The SBT has been successfully applied to detect mucositis induced by different classes of chemotherapy agents and has been used successfully to monitor small intestinal function with a range of candidate anti-mucositis treatments. We propose the SBT a superior biomarker of small intestinal function that could be successfully applied in clinical practice for monitoring the development of mucositis in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.

  2. The mucosal immune system: From dentistry to vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    KIYONO, Hiroshi; AZEGAMI, Tatsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    The oral cavity is the beginning of the aero-digestive tract, which is covered by mucosal epithelium continuously under the threat of invasion of pathogens, it is thus protected by the mucosal immune system. In the early phase of our scientific efforts for the demonstration of mucosal immune system, dental science was one of major driving forces due to their foreseeability to use oral immunity for the control of oral diseases. The mucosal immune system is divided functionally into, but interconnected inductive and effector sites. Intestinal Peyer’s patches (PPs) are an inductive site containing antigen-sampling M cells and immunocompetent cells required to initiate antigen-specific immune responses. At effector sites, PP-originated antigen-specific IgA B cells become plasma cells to produce polymeric IgA and form secretory IgA by binding to poly-Ig receptor expressed on epithelial cells for protective immunity. The development of new-generation mucosal vaccines, including the rice-based oral vaccine MucoRice, on the basis of the coordinated mucosal immune system is a promising strategy for the control of mucosal infectious diseases. PMID:26460320

  3. The mucosal immune system: From dentistry to vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Kiyono, Hiroshi; Azegami, Tatsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    The oral cavity is the beginning of the aero-digestive tract, which is covered by mucosal epithelium continuously under the threat of invasion of pathogens, it is thus protected by the mucosal immune system. In the early phase of our scientific efforts for the demonstration of mucosal immune system, dental science was one of major driving forces due to their foreseeability to use oral immunity for the control of oral diseases. The mucosal immune system is divided functionally into, but interconnected inductive and effector sites. Intestinal Peyer's patches (PPs) are an inductive site containing antigen-sampling M cells and immunocompetent cells required to initiate antigen-specific immune responses. At effector sites, PP-originated antigen-specific IgA B cells become plasma cells to produce polymeric IgA and form secretory IgA by binding to poly-Ig receptor expressed on epithelial cells for protective immunity. The development of new-generation mucosal vaccines, including the rice-based oral vaccine MucoRice, on the basis of the coordinated mucosal immune system is a promising strategy for the control of mucosal infectious diseases.

  4. Mucosal adenosine stimulates chloride secretion in canine tracheal epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, A.D.; Clancy, G.; Welsh, M.J.

    1986-08-01

    Adenosine is a local regulator of a variety of physiological functions in many tissues and has been observed to stimulate secretion in several Cl-secreting epithelia. In canine tracheal epithelium the authors found that adenosine stimulates Cl secretion from both the mucosal and submucosal surfaces. Addition of adenosine, or its analogue 2-chloroadenosine, to the mucosal surface potently stimulated Cl secretion with no effect on the rate of Na absorption. Stimulation resulted from an interaction of adenosine with adenosine receptors, because it was blocked by the adenosine receptor blocker, 8-phenyltheophylline. The adenosine receptor was a stimulatory receptor as judged by the rank-order potency of adenosine and its analogues and by the increase in cellular adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate levels produced by 2-chloroadenosine. Adenosine also stimulated Cl secretion when it was added to the submucosal surface, although the maximal increase in secretion was less and it was much less potent. The observation that mucosal 8-phenyletheophylline blocked the effect of submucosal 2-chloroadenosine, whereas submucosal 8-phenyltheophylline did not prevent a response to mucosal or submucosal 2-chloroadenosine, suggests that adenosine receptors are located on the mucosal surface. Thus submucosal adenosine may stimulate secretion by crossing the epithelium and interacting with receptors located on the mucosal surface. Because adenosine can be released from mast cells located in the airway lumen in response to inhaled material, and because adenosine stimulated secretion from the mucosal surface, it may be in a unique position to control the epithelium on a regional level.

  5. Oral mucosal status and major salivary gland function

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, A.; Fox, P.C.; Ship, J.A.; Atkinson, J.C.; Macynski, A.A.; Baum, B.J. )

    1990-07-01

    Normal salivary function is considered to be critical for the maintenance of healthy oral mucosa. However, few studies have examined mucosal changes in patients with objectively documented salivary gland performance. In the present report, the mucosal status of 298 subjects being evaluated in a dry mouth clinic was assessed. A complete oral examination was performed and unstimulated and stimulated salivary samples were collected separately from the parotid and submandibular/sublingual glands. Data were analyzed according to diagnosis and salivary output after the assignment of an oral mucosal rating to each subject. In general, the mucosal surfaces were well preserved and infections were not seen. Patients evaluated for Sjoegren's syndrome and radiation-induced xerostomia had the lowest salivary gland performance but displayed a mucosal status similar to denture-wearing healthy subjects or patients with normal salivary flow who had idiopathic xerostomia. However, those patients with a total lack of salivary flow rarely had normal-appearing oral mucosa. These results confirm a role for saliva in oral mucosal preservation and also suggest that other factors may act to maintain oral mucosal integrity.

  6. Simultaneous in vivo measurements of intranasal air and mucosal temperature.

    PubMed

    Wiesmiller, Kerstin; Keck, Tilman; Leiacker, Richard; Lindemann, Jörg

    2007-06-01

    Nasal cavity volume and blood temperature along the nasal airways, reflecting the mucosal temperature, are considered to be the most important predictors of nasal air conditioning. The purpose of this study was to simultaneously in vivo measure intranasal air as well as mucosal temperature for the first time. Fifteen healthy subjects were enrolled into the study. Two combined miniaturized thermocouples were used for simultaneous recording of intranasal air and mucosal temperature within the anterior turbinate area close to the head of the middle turbinate without interruption of nasal breathing. The highest air and mucosal temperature values were detected at the end of expiration, the lowest values at the end of inspiration. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The mean mucosal temperature ranged from 30.2 +/- 0.9 to 32.2 +/- 0.8 degrees C. The mean air temperature ranged from 28.5 +/- 1.2 to 34.1 +/- 0.7 degrees C. The mean differences between air and mucosal temperature were 1.7 +/- 0.5 degrees C after inspiration and 1.9 +/- 0.7 degrees C after expiration. Simultaneous measurements of intranasal air and mucosal temperature are practicable. The detected temperature gradient between air and mucosa confirm a relevant heat exchange during inspiration and expiration. This gradient between air and mucosa is obligatory for heat and water exchange to ensure adequate nasal air conditioning.

  7. Oral Mucosal Lesions in Indians From Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cury, Patricia Ramos; Porto, Lia Pontes Arruda; dos Santos, Jean Nunes; e Ribeiro, Livia Silva Figueiredo; de Aquino Xavier, Flavia Caló; Figueiredo, Andreia Leal; Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions, and their risk indicators in adult Kiriri Indians from Northeast Brazil. Clinical oral examination was performed on a representative sample of 223 Indians (age ≥19 years). A systematic evaluation of lips, labial mucosa and sulcus, commissures, buccal mucosa and sulcus, gingiva and alveolar ridge, tongue, floor of the mouth, and soft and hard palate was performed. Bivariate analysis was conducted to assess associations between mucosal conditions and age, gender, income, educational level, diabetic status, and smoking status. Mucosal lesions were found in 50 participants (22.4%). The most prevalent lesions were fistulae (6.2%) and traumatic ulcers (4.48%). Oral mucosal was associated with higher age (≥35 years; odds ratio [OR] = 1.99, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05–3.76, P = 0.03) and lower education level (<9 years; OR = 2.13, 95% CI: 0.96–4.71, P = 0.06). Mucosal conditions are prevalent in Kiriri Indians and the presence of mucosal lesions is associated with advanced age and lower education. A public health program aimed at preventing and treating mucosal lesions and targeted toward the high-risk group is vital to improve the oral health status of this population. PMID:25501053

  8. Synthesis of improved phenolic resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delano, C. B.; Mcleod, A. H.

    1979-01-01

    Twenty seven addition cured phenolic resin compositions were prepared and tested for their ability to give char residues comparable to state-of-the-art phenolic resins. Cyanate, epoxy, allyl, acrylate, methacrylate and ethynyl derivatized phenolic oligomers were investigated. The novolac-cyanate and propargyl-novolac resins provided anaerobic char yields at 800 C of 58 percent. A 59 percent char yield was obtained from modified epoxy novolacs. A phosphonitrilic derivative was found to be effective as an additive for increasing char yields. The novolac-cyanate, epoxy-novolac and methacrylate-epoxy-novolac systems were investigated as composite matrices with Thornel 300 graphite fiber. All three resins showed good potential as composite matrices. The free radical cured methacrylate-epoxy-novolac graphite composite provided short beam shear strengths at room temperature of 93.3 MPa (13.5 ksi). The novolac-cyanate graphite composite produced a short beam shear strength of 74 MPa (10.7 ksi) and flexural strength of 1302 MPa (189 ksi) at 177 C. Air heat aging of the novolac-cyanate and epoxy novolac based composites for 12 weeks at 204 C showed good property retention.

  9. Phenolic compounds of three unconventional Sudanese oils.

    PubMed

    Mariod, Abdalbasit; Matthäus, Bertrand; Eichner, Karl; Hussein, Ismail H

    2015-01-01

    The total amount and content of phenolic and flavonoid compounds using the Folin-Ciocalteu and Aluminum chloride methods of the methanolic extracts of Sclerocarya birrea oil (SCO), Melon bug oil (MBO), and Sorghum bug oil (SBO) were studied. Dry samples of Sclerocarya birrea, Aspongopus vidiuatus and Agonoscelis pubescens were used in this study. The oil was extracted using n-hexane following AOCS method. The phenolic compounds were extracted following a well known method and the total amounts of phenolic and flavonoids were determined using Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminum chloride methods, respectively and were identified by HPLC. The concentration of total phenolic compounds was determined as 3.3, 20.7 and 0.9 mg/100 g oil, in SCO, MBO and SBO, respectively, calculated as gallic acid equivalents. The polar fraction of the three oils was separated using solid phase extraction method. The variation of simple and complex oils phenols studied by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (DAD) using sephadex eluted by acetone revealed six phenolic compounds which were identified as vanillic acid, callistephin, sinapic acid, t-cinnamic acid, epicatechin, and luteolin in SCO, and four phenolic compounds were identified as vanillin, sinapic acid, o-coumaric acid, and quercetin, in SBO, while in MBO four phenolic compounds were identified as t-cinnamic, syringic acid, quercetin and pelargonin. The phenolic compounds found in SCO, SBO, and MBO can be divided into phenolic compounds and flavonoids.

  10. Seeing Red

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This New Horizons image of Jupiter's volcanic moon Io was taken at 13:05 Universal Time during the spacecraft's Jupiter flyby on February 28, 2007. It shows the reddish color of the deposits from the giant volcanic eruption at the volcano Tvashtar, near the top of the sunlit crescent, as well as the bluish plume itself and the orange glow of the hot lava at its source. The relatively unprocessed image on the left provides the best view of the volcanic glow and the plume deposits, while the version on the right has been brightened to show the much fainter plume, and the Jupiter-lit night side of Io.

    New Horizons' color imaging of Io's sunlit side was generally overexposed because the spacecraft's color camera, the super-sensitive Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC), was designed for the much dimmer illumination at Pluto. However, two of MVIC's four color filters, the blue and 'methane' filter (a special filter designed to map methane frost on the surface of Pluto at an infrared wavelength of 0.89 microns), are less sensitive than the others, and thus obtained some well-exposed views of the surface when illumination conditions were favorable. Because only two color filters are used, rather than the usual three, and because one filter uses infrared light, the color is only a rough approximation to what the human eye would see.

    The red color of the Tvashtar plume fallout is typical of Io's largest volcanic plumes, including the previous eruption of Tvashtar seen by the Galileo and Cassini spacecraft in 2000, and the long-lived Pele plume on the opposite side of Io. The color likely results from the creation of reddish three-atom and four-atom sulfur molecules (S3 and S4) from plume gases rich in two-atom sulfur molecules (S2 After a few months or years, the S3 and S4 molecules recombine into the more stable and familiar yellowish form of sulfur consisting of eight-atom molecules (S8), so these red deposits are only seen around recently-active Io

  11. Seeing Red

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This New Horizons image of Jupiter's volcanic moon Io was taken at 13:05 Universal Time during the spacecraft's Jupiter flyby on February 28, 2007. It shows the reddish color of the deposits from the giant volcanic eruption at the volcano Tvashtar, near the top of the sunlit crescent, as well as the bluish plume itself and the orange glow of the hot lava at its source. The relatively unprocessed image on the left provides the best view of the volcanic glow and the plume deposits, while the version on the right has been brightened to show the much fainter plume, and the Jupiter-lit night side of Io.

    New Horizons' color imaging of Io's sunlit side was generally overexposed because the spacecraft's color camera, the super-sensitive Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC), was designed for the much dimmer illumination at Pluto. However, two of MVIC's four color filters, the blue and 'methane' filter (a special filter designed to map methane frost on the surface of Pluto at an infrared wavelength of 0.89 microns), are less sensitive than the others, and thus obtained some well-exposed views of the surface when illumination conditions were favorable. Because only two color filters are used, rather than the usual three, and because one filter uses infrared light, the color is only a rough approximation to what the human eye would see.

    The red color of the Tvashtar plume fallout is typical of Io's largest volcanic plumes, including the previous eruption of Tvashtar seen by the Galileo and Cassini spacecraft in 2000, and the long-lived Pele plume on the opposite side of Io. The color likely results from the creation of reddish three-atom and four-atom sulfur molecules (S3 and S4) from plume gases rich in two-atom sulfur molecules (S2 After a few months or years, the S3 and S4 molecules recombine into the more stable and familiar yellowish form of sulfur consisting of eight-atom molecules (S8), so these red deposits are only seen around recently-active Io

  12. Collaboration of epithelial cells with organized mucosal lymphoid tissues.

    PubMed

    Neutra, M R; Mantis, N J; Kraehenbuhl, J P

    2001-11-01

    Immune surveillance of mucosal surfaces requires the delivery of intact macromolecules and microorganisms across epithelial barriers to organized mucosal lymphoid tissues. Transport, processing and presentation of foreign antigens, as well as local induction and clonal expansion of antigen-specific effector lymphocytes, involves a close collaboration between organized lymphoid tissues and the specialized follicle-associated epithelium. M cells in the follicle-associated epithelium transport foreign macromolecules and microorganisms to antigen-presenting cells within and under the epithelial barrier. Determination of the earliest cellular interactions that occur in and under the follicle-associated epithelium could greatly facilitate the design of effective mucosal vaccines in the future.

  13. Prevention and management of antineoplastic therapy induced oral mucositis.

    PubMed

    Bey, Afshan; Ahmed, Syed S; Hussain, Bilal; Devi, Seema; Hashmi, Sarwat H

    2010-07-01

    With the scientific advancements in the management of malignant diseases, the treatment is expensive and bears high morbidity in term of oral mucositis. It is a debilitating condition and has been researched extensively for its pathogenesis and treatment. Various treatment options include barrier forming, mucosal protectants, mouth rinses, growth factors, lasers and midline-sparing procedures. Some agents are used locally while others are administered systemically. Despite the availability of a wide range of treatment options for mucositis, a cost-effective treatment is yet to be evolved.

  14. Adaptation of a phenol-degrading denitrifying bacteria to high concentration of phenol in the medium.

    PubMed

    Son, T T; Błaszczyk, M; Mycielski, R

    1998-01-01

    The growth and uptake of phenol by 8 strains isolated from wastewater sediments in stationary cultures in medium with increasing concentrations of phenol (from 100 to 600 mg/L) under denitrifying conditions were studied. All the strains grew in media containing 250 mg phenol/L and only strains 101/1, 83/2 and 21/1/ in consecutive passages visibly increased both specific growth rate (mu day-1) as well as phenol-degrading activity (mg/L x day). Consecutive passages of the culture in medium containing 400 mg phenol/L resulted in the elimination of 3 out of the 5 strains growing in the medium in the first passage. Only strain 101/1 demonstrated high specific growth rate and phenol-degrading activity in medium containing 600 mg phenol/L. In consecutive passages in medium containing 250, 400 and 600 mg phenol/L the specific growth (mu day-1) and phenol-degrading activity (mg/L x day) of P. aeruginosa 101/1 were 0.38 and 36; 0.12 and 19; 0.09 and 20, respectively.

  15. Red blood cell production

    MedlinePlus

    ... to one part of the body or another. Red blood cells are an important element of blood. Their job ... is carried to and eliminated by the lungs. Red blood cells are formed in the red bone marrow of ...

  16. Total phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant activity, crude fibre and digestibility in non-traditional wheat flakes and muesli.

    PubMed

    Sumczynski, Daniela; Bubelova, Zuzana; Sneyd, Jan; Erb-Weber, Susanne; Mlcek, Jiri

    2015-05-01

    The five different types of muesli composed of non-traditional wheat flakes were prepared and analysed. Dickkopf wheat, red wheat, kamut and spelt were compared with commercial wheat flakes. Wheat flakes and muesli were assessed for basic analyses (dry matter, ash, protein, starch and fat content), total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant activity (ABTS and DPPH assays), crude fibre content and in vitro digestibility. Furthermore, sensory evaluation of muesli involving scale and ranking preference tests was provided. Flakes and muesli made from Dickkopf wheat and red wheat showed the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content and, consequently, the highest antioxidant activity. Moreover, these cereals were high in crude fibre and thus were less digestible. On the other hand, the lowest total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity were determined in commercial flakes and muesli produced from these flakes. The flakes made from non-traditional wheat were sensorially comparable to commercial products.

  17. Surface-modified TiO2 powders with phenol derivatives: A comparative DFT and experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sredojević, Dušan N.; Kovač, Tijana; Džunuzović, Enis; Ðorđević, Vesna; Grgur, Branimir N.; Nedeljković, Jovan M.

    2017-10-01

    The charge transfer complex formation between TiO2 powder and variety of phenol derivatives (phenol, 4-nitrophenol, 4-bromophenol, 4-tert-butylphenol, hydroquinone) was achieved. The red-shift of optical absorption was observed upon surface modification of TiO2 powders with phenol derivatives. The influence of substituent functional groups in para position on the optical band gap and conduction band edge of inorganic/organic hybrids was studied using reflection spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The experimental findings were supported by density functional theory calculations. The measured reflection spectra of surface-modified TiO2 powders with phenol derivatives were compared with calculated electronic excitation spectra of corresponding model systems.

  18. Analysis of a whole diet in terms of phenolic content and antioxidant capacity: effects of a simulated gastrointestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    Koehnlein, Eloá Angélica; Koehnlein, Érica Marcela; Corrêa, Rúbia Carvalho Gomes; Nishida, Verônica Sayuri; Correa, Vanesa Gesser; Bracht, Adelar; Peralta, Rosane Marina

    2016-09-01

    This work compares the phenolic contents and the total antioxidant capacity of the 36 most popular Brazilian foods submitted to aqueous extraction or in vitro digestion. The purpose was to evaluate the extent by which digestion differs from the simple aqueous extraction procedures of several food matrices. After in vitro digestion, cereals, legumes, vegetables, tuberous vegetables, chocolates and fruits showed higher phenolic contents and higher antioxidant activities than those obtained by aqueous extraction. Contrarily, the digestion caused a reduction in the phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of beverages (red wine, coffee and yerba mate). Our results suggest that the phenolics of food groups with solid and complex matrix are protected against enzymatic action and alteration in pH during the digestion, what does not occur in liquid food matrices such as the beverages. This fact would overestimate the antioxidant activities of beverages submitted solely to aqueous extraction.

  19. Chemistry and health of olive oil phenolics.

    PubMed

    Cicerale, Sara; Conlan, Xavier A; Sinclair, Andrew J; Keast, Russell S J

    2009-03-01

    The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially attributed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Most recent interest has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils. Studies (human, animal, in vivo and in vitro) have shown that olive oil phenolics have positive effects on certain physiological parameters, such as plasma lipoproteins, oxidative damage, inflammatory markers, platelet and cellular function, and antimicrobial activity. Presumably, regular dietary consumption of virgin olive oil containing phenolic compounds manifests in health benefits associated with a Mediterranean diet. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the physiological effects of olive oil phenolics. Moreover, a number of factors have the ability to affect phenolic concentrations in virgin olive oil, so it is of great importance to understand these factors in order to preserve the essential health promoting benefits of olive oil phenolic compounds.

  20. Alleviating mucositis: are we on track for a novel therapeutic?

    PubMed

    Lalla, Rajesh V

    2015-02-01

    Oral and gastrointestinal mucositis has emerged as an important toxicity of cancer therapy. In addition to supportive care measures, agents for the prevention or treatment of mucositis in specific patient populations are described in the evidence-based clinical practice guidelines published by the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer/International Society of Oral Oncology. However, there still remains an unmet clinical need for preventive and therapeutic agents in several patient populations. The successful development of such agents will rely on our improved understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying mucositis. Studies are also underway on novel delivery mechanisms and risk prediction models that can facilitate the selective use of interventions for mucositis in a targeted and cost-effective manner. A large number of agents are at various stages in the clinical development pipeline. Enhanced management of this dose-limiting toxicity will allow the delivery of optimal cancer therapy and improve patient prognosis.

  1. [Mucositis in head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiochemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Santos, Renata Cristina Schmidt; Dias, Rodrigo Souza; Giordani, Adelmo José; Segreto, Roberto Araújo; Segreto, Helena Regina Comodo

    2011-12-01

    The objective of present study was to classify oral mucositis according to the Common Toxicity Criterion (CTC) international parameters in head and neck tumor patients simultaneously treated with radio and chemotherapy, and characterize a patient profile in our area, observing the individuals' habits, tumor characteristics, treatment protocol and acute reaction intensity. Fifty patients undergoing simultaneous 66 to 70 Gy megavoltage radiotherapy and cisplatin/carboplatin chemotherapy were evaluated in this study. Weekly evaluations of the degree of mucositis were perfoemed according to CTC, a four-degree ordinal scale; 36% of all patients and 100% of those with diabetes discontinued treatment due to mucositis, showing that this pathology contributes to the severity of mucositis.

  2. Gene, environment, microbiome and mucosal immune tolerance in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Deane, Kevin D.; Scher, Jose U.

    2016-01-01

    RA is a complex multifactorial chronic disease that transitions through several stages. Multiple studies now support that there is a prolonged phase in early RA development during which there is serum elevation of RA-related autoantibodies including RF and ACPAs in the absence of clinically evident synovitis. This suggests that RA pathogenesis might originate in an extra-articular location, which we hypothesize is a mucosal site. In discussing this hypothesis, we will present herein the current understanding of mucosal immunology, including a discussion about the generation of autoimmune responses at these surfaces. We will also examine how other factors such as genes, microbes and other environmental toxins (including tobacco smoke) could influence the triggering of autoimmunity at mucosal sites and eventually systemic organ disease. We will also propose a research agenda to improve our understanding of the role of mucosal inflammation in the development of RA. PMID:25539828

  3. Mucosal environmental sensors in the pathogenesis of dry eye.

    PubMed

    Pflugfelder, Stephen C; Stern, Michael E

    2014-09-01

    The 4th Cullen Symposium, held April 17 and 18, 2014, included expert researchers in mucosal immunity of the eye and other mucosal surfaces, particularly the gut. The theme of the meeting was environmental sensing mechanisms in mucosal tissues and their relevance for initiating ocular surface inflammation in dry eye. There are a number of shared features between the ocular surface and other mucosal surfaces, but distinct differences may exist in the type and distribution of mucins and microbiota. Mechanisms to regulate DC maturation and prevent tissue-damaging inflammation are shared among these sites. Epithelial and dendritic cells are key environmental sensors participating in initiation of innate and adaptive immune responses in response to a variety of environmental stresses.

  4. Physiology and immunology of mucosal barriers in catfish (Ictalurus spp.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The mucosal barriers of catfish (Ictalurus spp.) constitute the first line of defense against pathogen invasion while simultaneously carrying out a diverse array of other critical physiological processes, including nutrient adsorption, osmoregulation, waste excretion, and environmental sensing. Catf...

  5. Prevention of acute gastric mucosal lesions by Solcoseryl.

    PubMed

    Brzozowski, T; Radecki, T; Sendur, R; Gustaw, P; Konturek, S J

    1987-04-01

    Solcoseryl, a deproteinized extract from calf blood containing various biologically active substances, has been reported to promote the healing of skin wounds and gastric ulceration In this study, the gastroprotective effects of Solcoseryl vis-a-vis acute gastric mucosal damage were examined in rats. Solcoseryl significantly reduced the formation of acute lesions induced by intragastric application of absolute ethanol or acidified taurocholate and by water immersion and restraint stress, but failed to affect those caused by acidified aspirin. Since Solcoseryl did not offer protection in the absence of mucosal prostaglandins (PG) e.g. in aspirin-induced gastric damage, it is likely that PG may be involved in the observed gastroprotective activity of the drug. Solcoseryl failed to affect gastric acid or pepsin secretion, but increased mucosal blood flow. Thus PG generated by Solcoseryl might contribute to the maintenance of the observed mucosal microcirculation and the prevention of lesion formation by corrosive substances and stress conditions.

  6. Gastrointestinal mucositis: the role of MMP-tight junction interactions in tissue injury.

    PubMed

    Al-Dasooqi, Noor; Wardill, Hannah R; Gibson, Rachel J

    2014-07-01

    Chemotherapy for cancer causes significant gut toxicity known as mucositis. The pathogenesis of mucositis is ill defined. Recent clinical research guidelines have highlighted epithelial junctional complexes as emerging targets within mucositis research. Given the robust biological evidence linking tight junctions and matrix metalloproteinases, key mediators of mucositis, tight junction proteins have received significant attention. Despite this, the link between tight junctions, matrix metalloproteinases and mucositis development is yet to be established. This critical review therefore aims to describe the role of matrix metalloproteinases in mucositis, and how matrix metalloproteinase-dependent tight junction disruption may contribute to the pathobiology of mucositis.

  7. Comparative study of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in different species of cherries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun; Liu, Xinyan; Zhong, Fei; Tian, Rongrong; Zhang, Kaichun; Zhang, Xiaoming; Li, Tianhong

    2011-05-01

    A new spectrometric method ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric with high precision and rapid analysis was developed to separate 17 phenolic compounds. Different species of cherries, including 10 sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars, a tart cherry (P. cerasus L.) rootstock (CAB), and a hybrid rootstock 'Colt' (P. avium × P. pseudocerasus), were analyzed for phenolics contents by this method. The results showed that significant differences were observed among the phenolic compound contents in different cherry species. In 10 sweet cherry cultivars, the contents of neochlorogenic acid and cyanidin-3O-rutinoside were much higher in red-colored fruits (for example, 64.60 and 44.50 mg/100 g fresh weight in Burlat, respectively) than those in bicolored ones. Principal component analysis revealed that cyanidin-3O-rutinoside was an effective index for grouping the cultivars with similar species and fruit colors. Moreover, there were strong positive correlations between phenolics content and antioxidant activity, which was higher in red-colored cherries.

  8. Evaluation of the effect of germination on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in sorghum varieties.

    PubMed

    Dicko, Mamoudou H; Gruppen, Harry; Traore, Alfred S; van Berkel, Willem J H; Voragen, Alphons G J

    2005-04-06

    The screening of 50 sorghum varieties showed that, on average, germination did not affect the content in total phenolic compounds but decreased the content of proanthocyanidins, 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, and flavan-4-ols. Independent of germination, there are intervarietal differences in antioxidant activities among sorghum varieties. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities were more positively correlated in ungerminated varieties than in germinated ones. Sorghum grains with pigmented testa layer, chestnut color glumes, and red plants had higher contents, larger diversity of phenolic compounds, and higher antioxidant activities than other sorghums. Some red sorghum varieties had higher antioxidant activities (30-80 mumol of Trolox equiv/g) than several sources of natural antioxidants from plant foods. Among varieties used for "to", "dolo", couscous, and porridge preparation, the "dolo"(local beer) varieties had the highest average content and diversity in phenolic compounds as well as the highest antioxidant activities. The biochemical markers determined are useful indicators for the selection of sorghum varieties for food and agronomic properties.

  9. Localization and functional properties of two galectin-1 proteins in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) mucosal tissues.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Binoy; Kiron, Viswanath; Fernandes, Jorge M O; Brinchmann, Monica F

    2013-06-01

    Galectin-1 is a β-galactoside binding lectin with multiple immune functions in higher vertebrates. We report the characterization of two galectin-1 proteins from Atlantic cod, with emphasis on mucosal tissues. Tissue distribution of these two ≈14kDa galectin-1 proteins (Codgal1-1 and Codgal1-2) was ascertained by western blotting of one dimensional (1D) and two dimensional (2DE) gels. The two galectin-1 proteins were differentially localized in the mucosal tissues of cod. Codgal1-1 was predominantly localized in the basal cells of skin and this protein was present in all the early developmental stages examined, indicating a likely involvement in developmental processes. The two lectins were also localized in the adherent macrophage-like cells (MLC) from cod head kidney and results gathered indicate their possible secretion during Francisella noatunensis infection, suggesting that they are active components of immune defence. Lactose affinity chromatography coupled with gel filtration co-purified the two cod galectin-1 proteins, which hemagglutinated horse red blood cells in a lactose inhibitable manner. They also could bind and agglutinate both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. This study suggests multiple functional roles for galectin-1, especially in development and innate immune response of Atlantic cod. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Production of Phenol from Benzene via Cumene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, D. J.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate chemistry laboratory experiment involving the production of phenol from benzene with the intermediate production of isopropylbenzene and isopropylbenzene hydroperoxide. (SL)

  11. Substrate inhibition kinetics of phenol biodegradation

    SciTech Connect

    Goudar, C.T.; Ganji, S.H.; Pujar, B.G.; Strevett, K.A.

    2000-02-01

    Phenol biodegradation was studied in batch experiments using an acclimated inoculum and initial phenol concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1.3 g/L. Phenol depletion an associated microbial growth were monitored over time to provide information that was used to estimate the kinetics of phenol biodegradation. Phenol inhibited biodegradation at high concentrations, and a generalized substrate inhibition model based on statistical thermodynamics was used to describe the dynamics of microbial growth in phenol. For experimental data obtained in this study, the generalized substrate inhibition model reduced to a form that is analogous to the Andrews equation, and the biokinetic parameters {micro}{sub max}, maximum specific growth; K{sub s}, saturation constant; and K{sub i}, inhibition constant were estimated as 0.251 h{sup {minus}1}, 0.011 g/L, and 0.348 g/L, respectively, using a nonlinear least squares technique. Given the wide variability in substrate inhibition models used to describe phenol biodegradation, an attempt was made to justify selection of particular model based on theoretical considerations. Phenol biodegradation data from nine previously published studies were used in the generalized substrate inhibition model to determine the appropriate form of the substrate inhibition model. In all nine cases, the generalized substrate inhibition model reduced to a form analogous to the Andrews equation suggesting the suitability of the Andrews equation to describe phenol biodegradation data.

  12. Production of Phenol from Benzene via Cumene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, D. J.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate chemistry laboratory experiment involving the production of phenol from benzene with the intermediate production of isopropylbenzene and isopropylbenzene hydroperoxide. (SL)

  13. Factors affecting the separation and bioactivity of red clover (Trifolium pratense) extracts assayed against Clostridium sticklandii, a ruminal hyper ammonia-producing bacterium

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense) is rich in phenolic compounds. Both the crude phenolic extract and biochanin A, an isoflavonoid component of the extract, suppress growth of Clostridium sticklandii, a bovine, Gram positive, ruminal hyper-ammonia producing bacterium (HAB). The purpose of this study ...

  14. Polymeric penetration enhancers promote humoral immune responses to mucosal vaccines.

    PubMed

    Klein, Katja; Mann, Jamie F S; Rogers, Paul; Shattock, Robin J

    2014-06-10

    Protective mucosal immune responses are thought best induced by trans-mucosal vaccination, providing greater potential to generate potent local immune responses than conventional parenteral vaccination. However, poor trans-mucosal permeability of large macromolecular antigens limits bioavailability to local inductive immune cells. This study explores the utility of polymeric penetration enhancers to promote trans-mucosal bioavailability of insulin, as a biomarker of mucosal absorption, and two vaccine candidates: recombinant HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (CN54gp140) and tetanus toxoid (TT). Responses to vaccinating antigens were assessed by measurement of serum and the vaginal humoral responses. Polyethyleneimine (PEI), Dimethyl-β-cyclodextrin (DM-β-CD) and Chitosan enhanced the bioavailability of insulin following intranasal (IN), sublingual (SL), intravaginal (I.Vag) and intrarectal (IR) administration. The same penetration enhancers also increased antigen-specific IgG and IgA antibody responses to the model vaccine antigens in serum and vaginal secretions following IN and SL application. Co-delivery of both antigens with PEI or Chitosan showed the highest increase in systemic IgG and IgA responses following IN or SL administration. However the highest IgA titres in vaginal secretions were achieved after IN immunisations with PEI and Chitosan. None of the penetration enhancers were able to increase antibody responses to gp140 after I.Vag immunisations, while in contrast PEI and Chitosan were able to induce TT-specific systemic IgG levels following I.Vag administration. In summary, we present supporting data that suggest appropriate co-formulation of vaccine antigens with excipients known to influence mucosal barrier functions can increase the bioavailability of mucosally applied antigens promoting the induction of mucosal and systemic antibody responses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of the temperature and oxygen exposure in red Port wine: A kinetic approach.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Carla Maria; Barros, António S; Silva Ferreira, António César; Silva, Artur M S

    2015-09-01

    Although phenolics are recognized to be related with health benefits by limiting lipid oxidation, in wine, they are the primary substrates for oxidation resulting in the quinone by-products with the participation of transition metal ions. Nevertheless, high quality Port wines require a period of aging in either bottle or barrels. During this time, a modification of sensory properties of wines such as the decrease of astringency or the stabilization of color is recognized to phenolic compounds, mainly attributed to anthocyanins and derived pigments. The present work aims to illustrate the oxidation of red Port wine based on its phenolic composition by the effect of both thermal and oxygen exposures. A kinetic approach toanthocyanins degradation was also achieved. For this purpose a forced red Port wine aging protocol was performed at four different storage temperatures, respectively, 20, 30, 35 and 40°C, and two adjusted oxygen saturation levels, no oxygen addition (treatment I), and oxygen addition (treatment II). Three hydroxycinnamic esters, three hydroxycinnamic acids, three hydroxybenzoic acids, two flavan-3-ols, and six anthocyanins were quantitated weekly during 63days, along with oxygen consumption. The most relevant phenolic oxidation markers were anthocyanins and catechin-type flavonoids, which had the highest decreases during the thermal and oxidative red Port wine process. Both temperature and oxygen treatments affected the rate of phenolic degradation. In addition, temperature seems to influence mostly the phenolics kinetic degradation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sino-nasal mucosal malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Karim, Muneeb Uddin; Khan, Khursheed; Ali, Nasir; Ikram, Mubasher

    2015-04-29

    A 49-year-old man with a history of left nasal discharge and nasal cavity blockage for 5 months was diagnosed with sino-nasal mucosal malignant melanoma on nasal biopsy. On CT scan, the tumour involved the nasal cavity, left maxillary sinus, ethmoid sinus and medial left orbit. The tumour was grossly excised and adjuvant radiation therapy was offered. The patient was planned for an Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy technique to keep tolerance doses of organs at risk within normal limits and at same time deliver the intended dose of radiation to the tumour site, using 66 Gy in 33 fractions. Owing to the anatomical complexity of the sino-nasal region, precision radiotherapy (RT) is mandatory to optimally irradiate the tumour area while sparing critical surrounding normal structures from late toxicity of RT. Established dose constraints for at-risk organs can only be accomplished through this novel technique of RT. However, despite advances in techniques, current treatment modalities have not significantly made an impact on survival of these patients. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  17. Cystic fibrosis: a mucosal immunodeficiency syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Taylor Sitarik; Prince, Alice

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) functions as a channel that regulates the transport of ions and the movement of water across the epithelial barrier. Mutations in CFTR, which form the basis for the clinical manifestations of cystic fibrosis, affect the epithelial innate immune function in the lung, resulting in exaggerated and ineffective airway inflammation that fails to eradicate pulmonary pathogens. Compounding the effects of excessive neutrophil recruitment, the mutant CFTR channel does not transport antioxidants to counteract neutrophil-associated oxidative stress. Whereas mutant CFTR expression in leukocytes outside of the lung does not markedly impair their function, the expected regulation of inflammation in the airways is clearly deficient in cystic fibrosis. The resulting bacterial infections, which are caused by organisms that have substantial genetic and metabolic flexibility, can resist multiple classes of antibiotics and evade phagocytic clearance. The development of animal models that approximate the human pulmonary phenotypes—airway inflammation and spontaneous infection—may provide the much-needed tools to establish how CFTR regulates mucosal immunity and to test directly the effect of pharmacologic potentiation and correction of mutant CFTR function on bacterial clearance. PMID:22481418

  18. Vaccination against Salmonella Infection: the Mucosal Way.

    PubMed

    Gayet, Rémi; Bioley, Gilles; Rochereau, Nicolas; Paul, Stéphane; Corthésy, Blaise

    2017-09-01

    Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica includes several serovars infecting both humans and other animals and leading to typhoid fever or gastroenteritis. The high prevalence of associated morbidity and mortality, together with an increased emergence of multidrug-resistant strains, is a current global health issue that has prompted the development of vaccination strategies that confer protection against most serovars. Currently available systemic vaccine approaches have major limitations, including a reduced effectiveness in young children and a lack of cross-protection among different strains. Having studied host-pathogen interactions, microbiologists and immunologists argue in favor of topical gastrointestinal administration for improvement in vaccine efficacy. Here, recent advances in this field are summarized, including mechanisms of bacterial uptake at the intestinal epithelium, the assessment of protective host immunity, and improved animal models that closely mimic infection in humans. The pros and cons of existing vaccines are presented, along with recent progress made with novel formulations. Finally, new candidate antigens and their relevance in the refined design of anti-Salmonella vaccines are discussed, along with antigen vectorization strategies such as nanoparticles or secretory immunoglobulins, with a focus on potentiating mucosal vaccine efficacy. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. Immunotherapy for drug-refractory mucosal leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Badaro, Roberto; Lobo, Iza; Munos, Alvaro; Netto, Eduardo M; Modabber, Farrokh; Campos-Neto, Antonio; Coler, Rhea N; Reed, Steven G

    2006-10-15

    Pentavalent antimony (Sb(v)) is the mainstay therapy for mucosal leishmaniasis (ML), but it is toxic, and relapses are common. Immunotherapy using a mixture of killed parasites, with or without bacille Calmette-Guerin, is an alternative but is used sporadically because of inconsistent results. We developed a defined immunotherapeutic antigen preparation for use in an observational, open-label trial to treat 6 patients with ML with a history of Sb(v) therapy failure. All patients were treated with the antigens thiol-specific antioxidant, Leishmania major stress inducible protein 1, Leishmania elongation initiation factor, and Leishmania heat shock protein 83, plus granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Patients underwent clinical and pathological evaluations before the initiation of immunotherapy and at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, and 60 months after. One month after the third injection, 1 patient showed complete clinical remission (CC) and remained disease free for the duration of the study. At the 9-month follow-up examination, 5 patients showed CC, and all patients were asymptomatic at a subsequent 5-year follow-up examination. These data support the concept that vaccine therapy with a defined antigen combination, used with standard chemotherapy, is a safe and effective approach to treat drug-refractory ML.

  20. Human papillomavirus DNA in oral mucosal lesions.

    PubMed

    Giovannelli, Lucia; Campisi, Giuseppina; Lama, Anna; Giambalvo, Ornella; Osborn, John; Margiotta, Valerio; Ammatuna, Pietro

    2002-03-15

    This study determined the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in oral mucosa cells from 121 patients with different types of oral mucosal lesions (13 squamous cell carcinomas, 59 potentially malignant lesions, 49 benign erosive ulcerative lesions) and from 90 control subjects. HPV DNA was detected by nested polymerase chain reaction, and genotype was determined by DNA sequencing. HPV prevalence was 61.5% in carcinomas, 27.1% in potentially malignant lesions, 26.5% in erosive ulcerative lesions, and 5.5% in control subjects. The risk of malignant or potentially malignant lesions was associated with HPV and was statistically significant. HPV-18 was found in 86.5% of HPV-positive lesions but was not associated with a particular type of lesion and was found in 80% of the HPV-positive control subjects. HPV infection was related to older age but not to sex, smoking, or alcohol use; the presence of lesions in the oral cavity increased the risk of HPV infection.

  1. Role of helminths in regulating mucosal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Joel V; Summers, Robert W; Elliott, David E

    2005-09-01

    The rapid rise in prevalence of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) in highly developed countries suggests that environmental change engenders risk for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Eradication of parasitic worms (helminths) through increased hygiene may be one such change that has led to increased prevalence of these diseases. Helminths alter host mucosal and systemic immunity, inhibiting dysregulated inflammatory responses. Animals exposed to helminths are protected from experimental colitis, encephalitis, and diabetes. Patients with CD or UC improve when exposed to whipworm. Lamina propria (LP) mononuclear cells from helminth-colonized mice make less interleukin (IL)-12 p40 and IFN-gamma, but more IL-4, IL-13, IL-10, TGF-beta, and PGE(2) compared to LP mononuclear cells from naive mice. Systemic immune responses show similar skewing toward Th2 and regulatory cytokine production in worm-colonized animal models and humans. Recent reports suggest that helminths induce regulatory T cell activity. These effects by once ubiquitous organisms may have protected individuals from many of the emerging immune-mediated illnesses like IBD, multiple sclerosis, type I diabetes, and asthma.

  2. Mucosal immune responses following intestinal nematode infection

    PubMed Central

    Zaph, C; Cooper, P J; Harris, N L

    2014-01-01

    In most natural environments, the large majority of mammals harbour parasitic helminths that often live as adults within the intestine for prolonged periods (1–2 years) 1. Although these organisms have been eradicated to a large extent within westernized human populations, those living within rural areas of developing countries continue to suffer from high infection rates. Indeed, recent estimates indicate that approximately 2·5 billion people worldwide, mainly children, currently suffer from infection with intestinal helminths (also known as geohelminths and soil-transmitted helminths) 2. Paradoxically, the eradication of helminths is thought to contribute to the increased incidence of autoimmune diseases and allergy observed in developed countries. In this review, we will summarize our current understanding of host–helminth interactions at the mucosal surface that result in parasite expulsion or permit the establishment of chronic infections with luminal dwelling adult worms. We will also provide insight into the adaptive immune mechanisms that provide immune protection against re-infection with helminth larvae, a process that is likely to be key to the future development of successful vaccination strategies. Lastly, the contribution of helminths to immune modulation and particularly to the treatment of allergy and inflammatory bowel disease will be discussed. PMID:25201407

  3. Mucosal disease series. Number IV. Erythema multiforme.

    PubMed

    Farthing, P; Bagan, J-V; Scully, C

    2005-09-01

    Erythema multiforme (EM) is an acute mucocutaneous hypersensitivity reaction characterised by a skin eruption, with or without oral or other mucous membrane lesions. Occasionally EM may involve the mouth alone. EM has been classified into a number of different variants based on the degree of mucosal involvement and the nature and distribution of the skin lesions. EM minor typically affects no more than one mucosa, is the most common form and may be associated with symmetrical target lesions on the extremities. EM major is more severe, typically involving two or more mucous membranes with more variable skin involvement - which is used to distinguish it from Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), where there is extensive skin involvement and significant morbidity and a mortality rate of 5-15%. Both EM major and SJS can involve internal organs and typically are associated with systemic symptoms. Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) may be a severe manifestation of EM, but some experts regard it as a discrete disease. EM can be triggered by a number of factors, but the best documented is preceding infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV), the lesions resulting from a cell mediated immune reaction triggered by HSV-DNA. SJS and TEN are usually initiated by drugs, and the tissue damage is mediated by soluble factors including Fas and FasL.

  4. Using Light to Treat Mucositis and Help Wounds Heal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ignatius, Robert W.; Martin, Todd S.; Kirk, Charles

    2008-01-01

    A continuing program of research and development is focusing on the use of controlled illumination by light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to treat mucositis and to accelerate healing of wounds. The basic idea is to illuminate the affected area of a patient with light of an intensity, duration, and wavelength (or combination of wavelengths) chosen to produce a therapeutic effect while generating only a minimal amount of heat. This method of treatment was originally intended for treating the mucositis that is a common complication of chemotherapy and radiation therapy for cancer. It is now also under consideration as a means to accelerate the healing of wounds and possibly also to treat exposure to chemical and radioactive warfare agents. Radiation therapy and many chemotherapeutic drugs often damage the mucosal linings of the mouth and gastrointestinal tract, leading to mouth ulcers (oral mucositis), nausea, and diarrhea. Hyperbaric-oxygen therapy is currently the standard of care for ischemic, hypoxic, infected, and otherwise slowlyhealing problem wounds, including those of oral mucositis. Hyperbaric-oxygen therapy increases such cellular activities as collagen production and angiogenesis, leading to an increased rate of healing. Biostimulation by use of laser light has also been found to be effective in treating mucositis. For hyperbaricoxygen treatment, a patient must remain inside a hyperbaric chamber for an extended time. Laser treatment is limited by laser-wavelength capabilities and by narrowness of laser beams, and usually entails the generation of significant amounts of heat.

  5. Nocifensive Behaviors in Mice with Radiation-Induced Oral Mucositis.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Michael W; Long, C Tyler; Marcus, Karen L; Sarmadi, Shayan; Roback, Donald M; Fukuyama, Tomoki; Baeumer, Wolfgang; Lascelles, B Duncan X

    2017-02-10

    Oral mucositis can result in significant dysphagia, and is the most common dose-limiting acute toxicity in head and neck cancer patients receiving chemoradiotherapy. There is a critical need to determine the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie radiotherapy-associated discomfort in patients with mucositis. The objective was to induce oral mucositis in mice, using a clinical linear accelerator, and to quantify resultant discomfort, and characterize peripheral sensitization. A clinical linear accelerator was used to deliver ionizing radiation to the oral cavity of mice. Mucositis severity scoring, and various behavioral assays were performed to quantify bouts of orofacial wiping and scratching, bite force, gnawing behavior and burrowing activity. Calcium imaging was performed on neurons of the trigeminal ganglia. Glossitis was induced with a single fraction of at least 27 Gy. Body weight decreased and subsequently returned to baseline, in concert with development and resolution of mucositis, which was worst at day 10 and 11 postirradiation, however was resolved within another 10 days. Neither bite force, nor gnawing behavior were measurably affected. However, burrowing activity was decreased, and both facial wiping and scratching were increased while mice had visible mucositis lesions. Sensory nerves of irradiated mice were more responsive to histamine, tumor necrosis factor alpha and capsaicin. Radiation-induced glossitis is associated with hyper-reactivity of sensory neurons in the trigeminal ganglia of mice, and is accompanied by several behaviors indicative of both itch and pain. These data validate an appropriate model for cancer treatment related discomfort in humans.

  6. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis.

    PubMed

    Volpato, Luiz Evaristo Ricci; Silva, Thiago Cruvinel; Oliveira, Thaís Marchini; Sakai, Vivien Thiemy; Machado, Maria Aparecida Andrade Moreira

    2007-01-01

    Increasing the intensity of radiation therapy and chemotherapy in the management of cancer has increased the incidence of adverse effects, especially oral mucositis. a bibliographical review was conducted on the definition of oral mucositis, its clinical findings, the incidence, its etiology, the pathophysiology, associated morbidity, prevention and treatment. current studies define oral mucositis as a very frequent and painful inflammation with ulcers on the oral mucosa that are covered by a pseudo membrane. The incidence and severity of lesions are influenced by patient and treatment variables. Oral mucositis is a result of two major mechanisms: direct toxicity on the mucosa and myelosuppression due to the treatment. Its pathophysiology is composed of four interdependent phases: an initial inflammatory/vascular phase; an epithelial phase; an ulcerative/bacteriological phase; and a healing phase. It is considered a potential source of life-threatening infection and often is a dose-limiting factor in anticancer therapy. Some interventions have been shown to be potentially effective to prevent and treat oral mucositis. Further intensive research through well-structured clinical trials to obtain the best scientific evidence over the standard therapy of oral mucositis is necessary to attain ideal parameters for radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

  7. LED phototherapy to prevent mucositis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lang-Bicudo, Leticia; Eduardo, Fernanda De Paula; Eduardo, Carlos De Paula; Zezell, Denise Maria

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this case report was to evaluate the efficacy of phototherapy using light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to prevent oral mucositis in a Hodgkin's disease patient treated with the ABVD (doxorubicin [Adriamycin], bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine) chemotherapy regimen. Mucositis is a common dose-limiting complication of cancer treatment, and if severe it can lead to alterations in treatment planning or suspension of cancer therapy, with serious consequences for tumor response and survival. Therefore, low-power lasers and more recently LEDs, have been used for oral mucositis prevention and management, with good results. In this study, a 34-year-old man received intraoral irradiation with an infrared LED array (880 nm, 3.6 J/cm2, 74 mW) for five consecutive days, starting on chemotherapy day 1. In each chemotherapy cycle, he received the ABVD protocol on days 1 and 15, and received LED treatment for 5 d during each cycle. To analyze the results, the World Health Organization (WHO) scale was used to grade his mucositis, and a visual analogue scale (VAS) was used for pain evaluation, on days 1, 3, 7, 10, and 13 post-chemotherapy. The results showed that the patient did not develop oral mucositis during the five chemotherapy cycles, and he had no pain symptoms. LED therapy was a safe and effective method for preventing oral mucositis in this case report. However, further randomized studies with more patients are needed to prove the efficacy of this method.

  8. Prophylaxis for mucositis induced by ambulatory chemotherapy: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Manzi, Natália de Melo; Silveira, Renata Cristina de Campos Pereira; dos Reis, Paula Elaine Diniz

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of clinical trials covering interventions used as prophylaxis for oral mucositis induced by ambulatory antineoplastic chemotherapy. Oral mucositis in patients undergoing chemotherapy is a side effect that can impact the quality of treatment and can interfere with eating and therapeutic adherence. Quantitative systematic review. Relevant databases were searched, from January 2002-July 2013, by using the combination of the keywords mucositis, stomatitis, neoplasms, antineoplastic agents, drug therapy, prevention and control and chemotherapy. Two researchers independently read the titles and abstracts from every cross-reference. The quality of the included studies was analysed by the Jadad Scale and the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool. Data were extracted from the selected studies with a data collection form developed specifically for this purpose. Of the 23 controlled clinical trials that were identified in this study, five articles evaluated the use of oral cryotherapy to prevent oral mucositis and three studies analysed the prophylactic use of glutamine. Interventions of protocols for oral care, palifermin, allopurinol and chlorhexidine were evaluated by two articles each. Interventions of zinc sulphate, amifostine, chewing gum, sucralfate, recombination human intestinal trefoil factor, kefir and vitamin E were evaluated by one article each. There is strong evidence that cryotherapy can prevent oral mucositis arising from ambulatory treatment with 5-flurouracil chemotherapy. Other interventions, although showing positive results in preventing oral mucositis, require further study to confirm their conclusions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Oral mucositis in children suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Pels, Elżbieta

    2012-01-01

    Oral mucositis is the most commonly reported side effect observed in neoplastic patients treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy of the head and neck region as well as in patients who have received a haematopoietic stem cell transplant. The aim of the study was to assess the oral mucosa status in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) during antineoplastic therapy. The clinical examination included 78 children aged 2-18 with ALL. The clinical examination was conducted using the dental preset tray. The condition of the oral mucosa was determined using the WHO scale for oral mucositis. In the first period of antineoplastic therapy the pathological lesions of the oral mucosa of the mucositis type were observed among the examined patients. The lesions had various levels of intensity. Pain was found to be the primary symptom of oral mucositis. In this study the following were observed: local erythema of the oral mucosa in 35%, white pseudomembranous lesions in 18%, erosions in 40% and oral ulcerative lesions in 4% of patients who underwent the antineoplastic therapy. Oral mucositis was observed in 3.17% of children after 6 months of chemotherapy. Local treatment of oral mucositis with polyantibiotic-antifungal mixture, supporting antifungal systemic treatment, and improving the overall peripheral blood conditions in children suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukaemia improve the condition of the oral mucosa.

  10. Definition and evaluation of mucosal healing in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Mazzuoli, Silvia; Guglielmi, Francesco W; Antonelli, Elisabetta; Salemme, Marianna; Bassotti, Gabrio; Villanacci, Vincenzo

    2013-12-01

    Since the introduction of biological therapy, endoscopic and histological remission, i.e. mucosal healing, has become an important therapeutic goal in Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis. Mucosal healing is associated with lower rates of hospitalization and surgery, although its role in preventing progression and changing the natural history of the disease has not been clearly demonstrated. A precise definition of mucosal healing has not yet been established, although the concept used in clinical trials is the "complete absence of all inflammatory and ulcerative lesions in all segments of gut" at endoscopy. This definition does not include mucosal improvement and does not distinguish among grades of mucosal healing. In both Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis trials, several qualitative and quantitative numeric endoscopic indices have been proposed to measure and distinguish endoscopic changes. In addition, the microscopic features associated with inflammatory bowel diseases are considerably modified by the course of the disease and the treatments adopted. However, it is not yet clear whether microscopic healing should be a primary endpoint in clinical trials. In this paper we discuss endoscopic and histological findings and the limitations of the endoscopic and histological indices as a basis for a standardised diagnosis of mucosal healing. Copyright © 2013 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Berberine Reduces Uremia-Associated Intestinal Mucosal Barrier Damage.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chao; Tan, Shanjun; Zhou, Chunyu; Zhu, Cuilin; Kang, Xin; Liu, Shuai; Zhao, Shuang; Fan, Shulin; Yu, Zhen; Peng, Ai; Wang, Zhen

    2016-11-01

    Berberine is one of the main active constituents of Rhizoma coptidis, a traditional Chinese medicine, and has long been used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of berberine on the intestinal mucosal barrier damage in a rat uremia model induced by the 5/6 kidney resection. Beginning at postoperative week 4, the uremia rats were treated with daily 150 mg/kg berberine by oral gavage for 6 weeks. To assess the intestinal mucosal barrier changes, blood samples were collected for measuring the serum D-lactate level, and terminal ileum tissue samples were used for analyses of intestinal permeability, myeloperoxidase activity, histopathology, malondialdehyde (MDA) level, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Berberine treatment resulted in significant decreases in the serum D-lactate level, intestinal permeability, intestinal myeloperoxidase activity, and intestinal mucosal and submucosal edema and inflammation, and the Chiu's scores assessed for intestinal mucosal injury. The intestinal MDA level was reduced and the intestinal SOD activity was increased following berberine treatment. In conclusion, berberine reduces intestinal mucosal barrier damage induced by uremia, which is most likely due to its anti-oxidative activity. It may be developed as a potential treatment for preserving intestinal mucosal barrier function in patients with uremia.

  12. Oral mucositis in children suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study Oral mucositis is the most commonly reported side effect observed in neoplastic patients treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy of the head and neck region as well as in patients who have received a haematopoietic stem cell transplant. The aim of the study was to assess the oral mucosa status in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) during antineoplastic therapy. Material and methods The clinical examination included 78 children aged 2-18 with ALL. The clinical examination was conducted using the dental preset tray. The condition of the oral mucosa was determined using the WHO scale for oral mucositis. Results In the first period of antineoplastic therapy the pathological lesions of the oral mucosa of the mucositis type were observed among the examined patients. The lesions had various levels of intensity. Pain was found to be the primary symptom of oral mucositis. In this study the following were observed: local erythema of the oral mucosa in 35%, white pseudomembranous lesions in 18%, erosions in 40% and oral ulcerative lesions in 4% of patients who underwent the antineoplastic therapy. Oral mucositis was observed in 3.17% of children after 6 months of chemotherapy. Conclusion Local treatment of oral mucositis with polyantibiotic-antifungal mixture, supporting antifungal systemic treatment, and improving the overall peripheral blood conditions in children suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukaemia improve the condition of the oral mucosa. PMID:23788849

  13. Removal Of Phenol From Wastewater By Using Low-Cost Catalyst From Metal Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galbičková, Blanka; Soldán, Maroš; Belčík, Michal; Balog, Karol

    2014-12-01

    Utilization of AOPs (Advanced oxidation processes) as an emerging technology for removing of pollutants from wastewater is developed. In this paper, UV photodegradation was used for removing of phenol from wastewater. As a source of UV radiation medium pressure mercury lamp with output 400W was used. The influence of low-cost catalysts on this process was also monitored. Wastes from metal production, red mud and black nickel mud, were used as catalysts.

  14. 40 CFR 721.10237 - Formaldehyde, polymers with acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-phenol reaction products and phenol, sodium salts. 721.10237 Section 721.10237 Protection of Environment... acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... reaction products and phenol, sodium salts (PMN P-09-146; CAS No. 1065544-88-8) is subject to...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10237 - Formaldehyde, polymers with acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-phenol reaction products and phenol, sodium salts. 721.10237 Section 721.10237 Protection of Environment... acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... reaction products and phenol, sodium salts (PMN P-09-146; CAS No. 1065544-88-8) is subject to...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10237 - Formaldehyde, polymers with acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-phenol reaction products and phenol, sodium salts. 721.10237 Section 721.10237 Protection of Environment... acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... reaction products and phenol, sodium salts (PMN P-09-146; CAS No. 1065544-88-8) is subject to...

  17. Fiber reinforced hybrid phenolic foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Amit

    Hybrid composites in recent times have been developed by using more than one type of fiber reinforcement to bestow synergistic properties of the chosen filler and matrix and also facilitating the design of materials with specific properties matched to end use. However, the studies for hybrid foams have been very limited because of problems related to fiber dispersion in matrix, non uniform mixing due to presence of more than one filler and partially cured foams. An effective approach to synthesize hybrid phenolic foam has been proposed and investigated here. Hybrid composite phenolic foams were reinforced with chopped glass and aramid fibers in varied proportions. On assessing mechanical properties in compression and shear several interesting facts surfaced but overall hybrid phenolic foams exhibited a more graceful failure, greater resistance to cracking and were significantly stiffer and stronger than foams with only glass and aramid fibers. The optimum fiber ratio for the reinforced hybrid phenolic foam system was found to be 1:1 ratio of glass to aramid fibers. Also, the properties of hybrid foam were found to deviate from rule of mixture (ROM) and thus the existing theories of fiber reinforcement fell short in explaining their complex behavior. In an attempt to describe and predict mechanical behavior of hybrid foams a statistical design tool using analysis of variance technique was employed. The utilization of a statistical model for predicting foam properties was found to be an appropriate tool that affords a global perspective of the influence of process variables such as fiber weight fraction, fiber length etc. on foam properties (elastic modulus and strength). Similar approach could be extended to study other fiber composite foam systems such as polyurethane, epoxy etc. and doing so will reduce the number of experimental iterations needed to optimize foam properties and identify critical process variables. Diffusivity, accelerated aging and flammability

  18. Antioxidant activities of two sweet pepper Capsicum annuum L. varieties phenolic extracts and the effects of thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Yazdizadeh Shotorbani, Narmin; Jamei, Rashid; Heidari, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Sweet peppers Capsicum annuum L. (C. annuum) are an excellent source of vitamins A and C as well as phenolic compounds, which are important antioxidant components that may reduce the risk of diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate their antioxidant activity under various temperatures. To compare the antioxidant activity in various temperatures (20, 35, 50, and 65 °C), two different types of colored (red and green) sweet bell peppers C annuum were selected. The red peppers were selected from those cultivated in Shahreza, Esfahan and the green peppers with the local name of Gijlar were selected from those cultivated in Urmia, West Azarbayjan. The experiments were carried out to measure the total phenolic and flavonoid content, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), chain-breaking activity, scavenging activities of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and hydrogen peroxide radicals. Total phenol and flavonoid contents of pepper extracts were enhanced with increasing temperature to 65 °C. Scavenging capacity of DPPH radical of red pepper extract was enhanced because of putting at 50 °C for 30 min and for Gijlar pepper extract scavenging capacity was increased at 65 °C. Scavenging capacity of hydrogen peroxide radical of extracts was the highest at 35 °C. Chain-breaking activity of red pepper extract was increased for 60 min at 35 °C. FRAP (C) of red pepper extract was significantly different (p<0.05) in compare with Gijlar pepper. An appropriate temperature maintained a high antioxidant activity of phenolic compound, which could be due to the combined effect of non enzymatic reaction and phenolic compound stability.

  19. Antioxidant activities of two sweet pepper Capsicum annuum L. varieties phenolic extracts and the effects of thermal treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yazdizadeh Shotorbani, Narmin; Jamei, Rashid; Heidari, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Sweet peppers Capsicum annuum L. (C. annuum) are an excellent source of vitamins A and C as well as phenolic compounds, which are important antioxidant components that may reduce the risk of diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate their antioxidant activity under various temperatures. Materials and Methods: To compare the antioxidant activity in various temperatures (20, 35, 50, and 65 °C), two different types of colored (red and green) sweet bell peppers C annuum were selected. The red peppers were selected from those cultivated in Shahreza, Esfahan and the green peppers with the local name of Gijlar were selected from those cultivated in Urmia, West Azarbayjan. The experiments were carried out to measure the total phenolic and flavonoid content, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), chain-breaking activity, scavenging activities of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and hydrogen peroxide radicals. Results: Total phenol and flavonoid contents of pepper extracts were enhanced with increasing temperature to 65 °C. Scavenging capacity of DPPH radical of red pepper extract was enhanced because of putting at 50 °C for 30 min and for Gijlar pepper extract scavenging capacity was increased at 65 °C. Scavenging capacity of hydrogen peroxide radical of extracts was the highest at 35 °C. Chain-breaking activity of red pepper extract was increased for 60 min at 35 °C. FRAP (C) of red pepper extract was significantly different (p<0.05) in compare with Gijlar pepper. Conclusion: An appropriate temperature maintained a high antioxidant activity of phenolic compound, which could be due to the combined effect of non enzymatic reaction and phenolic compound stability. PMID:25050256

  20. Effect of winemaking treatment and wine aging on phenolic content in Vranec wines.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Violeta; Vojnoski, Borimir; Stefova, Marina

    2012-04-01

    Phenolic compounds and colour stability of red wines produced from Vranec Vitis vinifera L. grape variety were investigated by means of different maceration times (3, 6 and 10 days), two doses of SO2 (30 and 70 mg/L SO2), two yeasts for fermentation (Vinalco and Levuline), temperature of storage and time of aging (3, 6 and 16 months). In general, maceration time influenced the phenolics extraction from the grapes into the wine. Highest concentrations of phenolic components were observed in the wines produced with 6 days of maceration, except for the flavan-3-ols which were present in highest amounts in the wines macerated for 10 days. Higher doses of SO2 increased the extraction of polyphenols, preventing the wines from oxidation, while the effect of yeast on phenolics extraction was not significant. Wine aging affected the phenolic content of wines produced with 3 days of maceration and caused intensive decrease of anthocyanins during the storage period. Wines aged at higher temperature showed lower anthocyanin levels and less intense coloration. Principal component analysis revealed that separation of the wines was performed according to the hue value in correlation with the maceration time and time of wine aging.

  1. Phenolic Profiles and Contribution of Individual Compounds to Antioxidant Activity of Apple Powders.

    PubMed

    Raudone, Lina; Raudonis, Raimondas; Liaudanskas, Mindaugas; Viskelis, Jonas; Pukalskas, Audrius; Janulis, Valdimaras

    2016-05-01

    Apples (Malus domestica L.) are the most common source of phenolic compounds in northern European diet. Besides pectins, dietary fibers, vitamins, and oligosaccharides they contain phenolic compounds of different classes. Apple powders are convenient functional forms retaining significant amounts of phenolic antioxidants. In this study reducing and radical scavenging profiles of freeze-dried powders of "Aldas,ˮ "Auksis,ˮ "Connel Red,ˮ "Ligol,ˮ "Lodel,ˮ and "Rajkaˮ were determined and phenolic constituents were identified using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole and time-of-flight mass spectrometers. A negative ionization mode was applied and seventeen compounds: phenolic acids (coumaroylquinic, chlorogenic), flavonoids (quercetin derivatives), and procyanidin derivatives (B1, B2, and C1) were identified in all tested apple samples. Total values of Trolox equivalents varied from 7.72 ± 0.32 up to 20.02 ± 0.52 and from 11.10 ± 0.57 up to 21.42 ± 0.75 μmol/g of dry weight of apple powder in FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) and ABTS (2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) postcolumn assays, respectively. The greatest Trolox equivalent values were determined for apples of "Aldasˮ cultivar. Chlorogenic acid and procyanidin C1 were the most significant contributors to total reducing and radical scavenging activity in all apple cultivars tested, therefore they could be considered as markers of antioxidant activity.

  2. Chemometric compositional analysis of phenolic compounds in fermenting samples and wines using different infrared spectroscopy techniques.

    PubMed

    Aleixandre-Tudo, Jose Luis; Nieuwoudt, Helene; Aleixandre, Jose Luis; du Toit, Wessel

    2018-01-01

    The wine industry requires reliable methods for the quantification of phenolic compounds during the winemaking process. Infrared spectroscopy appears as a suitable technique for process control and monitoring. The ability of Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR), attenuated total reflectance mid infrared (ATR-MIR) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopies to predict compositional phenolic levels during red wine fermentation and aging was investigated. Prediction models containing a large number of samples collected over two vintages from several industrial fermenting tanks as well as wine samples covering a varying number of vintages were validated. FT-NIR appeared as the most accurate technique to predict the phenolic content. Although slightly less accurate models were observed, ATR-MIR and FT-IR can also be used for the prediction of the majority of phenolic measurements. Additionally, the slope and intercept test indicated a systematic error for the three spectroscopies which seems to be slightly more pronounced for HPLC generated phenolics data than for the spectrophotometric parameters. However, the results also showed that the predictions made with the three instruments are statistically comparable. The robustness of the prediction models was also investigated and discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Further knowledge on the phenolic profile of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Shott.

    PubMed

    Ferreres, Federico; Gonçalves, Rui F; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Valentão, Patrícia; Silva, Artur M S; Silva, João B; Santos, Delfim; Andrade, Paula B

    2012-07-18

    Colocasia esculenta (L.) Shott, commonly called taro, is an ancient species selected for its edible tuber. Its huge "elephant ear" like leaves are also consumed in sauces and stews or as soups. Forty-one phenolic metabolites (11 hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and 30 glycosylated flavonoids) were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n)) in the leaves of two C. esculenta varieties cultivated in Azores Islands. To our knowledge, 34 of the 41 phenolic compounds are being reported for the first time in this species. Phenolics quantification was achieved by an HPLC-DAD accurate and sensitive validated method. Although the qualitative profile of the two varieties is quite similar, quantitative differences were observed between them. "Giant white" and "red" varieties (local denomination) contain, respectively, ca. 14 and 21% of phenolic acids, 37 and 28% of flavones mono-C-glycosides, 42 and 43% of flavones di-C-glycosides, 3 and 4% of flavones mono-C-(O-glycosyl)glycosides, and both of them ca. 2% of flavones di-C-(O-glycosyl)glycosides and 2% of flavones-O-glycosides. Luteolin-6-C-hexoside was the compound present in higher amounts in both varieties. The established phenolic profile is an added value for the authenticity and quality control of C. esculenta and may be useful in the discrimination of its varieties.

  4. Phenolics, antioxidant capacity and bioaccessibility of chicory varieties (Cichorium spp.) grown in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sahan, Yasemin; Gurbuz, Ozan; Guldas, Metin; Degirmencioglu, Nurcan; Begenirbas, Aynur

    2017-02-15

    In this study, the changes in phenolics, anthocyanin, antioxidant capacity, and bioaccessibility of chicory varieties (Cichorium spp.) in Turkey were investigated. A total of 19 phenolic standards were screened in the chicory varieties studied and the most abundant compounds in the samples, extracted with methanol, were phenolic acids, syringic (2.54mg/kg) and trans-ferulic acid (1.85mg/kg), whilst (+)-catechin was the major flavanol. The highest flavanol content using either methanol or ethanol was determined in the green chicory samples (0.62mg/kg). The red chicory variety had higher anthocyanin (12.80mg/kg), and contained more phenolics, extractable (8855.50mg GAE/100g) and hydrolysable (7005.51mg GAE/100g), than the other varieties. Also, the antioxidant capacities in this variety, as measured using the CUPRAC assay (570.54 and 425.14μmol Trolox/g dw, respectively), had a wider range of difference than was found in the other assays used. Total phenolics were more bioaccessible from the white chicory variety (61.48%). However, the bioaccessibility of antioxidants was higher in the green chicory variety.

  5. XRD analysis and leachability of solidified phenol-cement mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Vipulanandan, C.; Krishnan, S. . Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering)

    1993-07-01

    The microstructure and leachability of phenol from solidified phenol-Portland cement mixtures cured up to 6 months were investigated. Phenol was solidified with Type I Portland cement at concentrations of 0.5% and 2% by weight of the cement. XRD studies and pore fluid analyses indicate that phenol inhibits cement setting by reacting with the calcium hydroxide produced during the hydration of cement. Phenol leachability was studied using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test recommended by the U. S. EPA. The quantity of phenol leached is dependent on the initial phenol concentration and the curing time and a simple model has been proposed to predict the leachability. Phenol increases the initial and final setting times of cement. The compressive strength of the solidified cement-phenol mixtures decrease with increasing phenol content in the matrix and increase with curing time. The relationship between leaching of phenol and strength of cement-phenol mixtures has been verified.

  6. Protein energy malnutrition alters mucosal IgA responses and reduces mucosal vaccine efficacy in mice.

    PubMed

    Rho, Semi; Kim, Heejoo; Shim, Seung Hyun; Lee, Seung Young; Kim, Min Jung; Yang, Bo-Gie; Jang, Myoung Ho; Han, Byung Woo; Song, Man Ki; Czerkinsky, Cecil; Kim, Jae-Ouk

    2017-08-30

    Oral vaccine responsiveness is often lower in children from less developed countries. Childhood malnutrition may be associated with poor immune response to oral vaccines. The present study was designed to investigate whether protein energy malnutrition (PEM) impairs B cell immunity and ultimately reduces oral vaccine efficacy in a mouse model. Purified isocaloric diets containing low protein (1/10 the protein of the control diet) were used to determine the effect of PEM. PEM increased both nonspecific total IgA and oral antigen-specific IgA in serum without alteration of gut permeability. However, PEM decreased oral antigen-specific IgA in feces, which is consistent with decreased expression of polymeric Immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) in the small intestine. Of note, polymeric IgA was predominant in serum under PEM. In addition, PEM altered B cell development status in the bone marrow and increased the frequency of IgA-secreting B cells, as well as IgA secretion by long-lived plasma cells in the small intestinal lamina propria. Moreover, PEM reduced the protective efficacy of the mucosally administered cholera vaccine and recombinant attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine in a mouse model. Our results suggest that PEM can impair mucosal immunity where IgA plays an important role in host protection and may partly explain the reduced efficacy of oral vaccines in malnourished subjects. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Paired-ion reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography of phenol sulfates in synthetic mixtures, algal extracts and urine.

    PubMed

    Ragan, M A; Mackinnon, M D

    1979-10-31

    Phenol sulfate esters have been analyzed by paired-ion reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The method provided direct, rapid chromatography of phenol sulfates in crude extracts of the red alga (Polysiphonia lanosa (2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl alcohol 1',4-disulfate), of the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum (1,2,3,5-tetrahydroxybenzene 2,5-disulfate), and in rat urine (resorcinol mono- and disulfates). Detector response (254 nm) was linear within the approximate range from 30--125 ng to 5--10 microgram. Semipreparative scale chromatography provided sufficient amounts of purified phenol sulfates for further analysis by paper electrophoresis.

  8. Lubricant Provides Poor Rectal Mucosal HIV Coverage.

    PubMed

    Shieh, Eugenie C; Weld, Ethel D; Fuchs, Edward J; Hiruy, Hiwot; Buckheit, Karen W; Buckheit, Robert W; Breakey, Jennifer; Hendrix, Craig W

    2017-08-01

    Given the rising HIV incidence in men who have sex with men (MSM) despite repeatedly proven effectiveness of oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis, behaviorally congruent periodic dosing strategies, such as dosing microbicides as lubricants, are now in demand. Rectal microbicide gel studies largely administer gels using vaginal applicators, which have not been well received and do not mimic lubricant use. We compared rectal gel manually dosed as lubricant with applicator dosing in five healthy, HIV-negative MSM who received 10 or 3.5 ml of (99m)Tc-DTPA-radiolabeled hydroxyethyl cellulose universal placebo gel intrarectally. After washout, participants received 10 ml of radiolabeled Wet(®) Original(®) lubricant to apply to the anus with fingers and/or a phallus in a manner typical of sexual lubricant use with a partner, followed by simulated receptive anal intercourse. Single-photon emission computed tomography with transmission computed tomography was performed 4 h after each gel administration. Manual dosing was associated with more variable rectosigmoid distribution, 4.4-15.3 cm from the anorectal junction, compared with more uniform distribution, 5.9-7.4 and 5.3-7.6 cm after 10 and 3.5 ml applicator dosing, respectively. A significantly smaller fraction of the initial 10 ml dose was retained within the colon after manual dosing, 3.4%, compared with 94.9% and 88.4% after 10 and 3.5 ml applicator dosing, respectively (both p < .001). Manual dosing of a sexual lubricant delivered a small, variable fraction of the dose with variable rectosigmoid distribution compared with applicator dosing. These results raise concern that dosing a rectal microbicide gel as a sexual lubricant may not provide adequate or predictable mucosal coverage for HIV protection.

  9. Principal component analysis of phenolic acid spectra

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phenolic acids are common plant metabolites that exhibit bioactive properties and have applications in functional food and animal feed formulations. The ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) spectra of four closely related phenolic acid structures were evaluated by principal component analysis (PCA) to...

  10. Phenol esterase activity of porcine skin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The alkyl esters of plant-derived phenols may serve as slow-release sources for cutaneous delivery of antioxidants. The ability of skin esterases to hydrolyze phenolic esters was examined. Esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol were prepared from decanoic and lipoic acids. Ferulic acid was esterified ...

  11. Food phenolics and lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Héctor; Curiel, José Antonio; Landete, José María; de las Rivas, Blanca; López de Felipe, Félix; Gómez-Cordovés, Carmen; Mancheño, José Miguel; Muñoz, Rosario

    2009-06-30

    Phenolic compounds are important constituents of food products of plant origin. These compounds are directly related to sensory characteristics of foods such as flavour, astringency, and colour. In addition, the presence of phenolic compounds on the diet is beneficial to health due to their chemopreventive activities against carcinogenesis and mutagenesis, mainly due to their antioxidant activities. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are autochthonous microbiota of raw vegetables. To get desirable properties on fermented plant-derived food products, LAB has to be adapted to the characteristics of the plant raw materials where phenolic compounds are abundant. Lactobacillus plantarum is the commercial starter most frequently used in the fermentation of food products of plant origin. However, scarce information is still available on the influence of phenolic compounds on the growth and viability of L. plantarum and other LAB species. Moreover, metabolic pathways of biosynthesis or degradation of phenolic compounds in LAB have not been completely described. Results obtained in L. plantarum showed that L. plantarum was able to degrade some food phenolic compounds giving compounds influencing food aroma as well as compounds presenting increased antioxidant activity. Recently, several L. plantarum proteins involved in the metabolism of phenolic compounds have been genetically and biochemically characterized. The aim of this review is to give a complete and updated overview of the current knowledge among LAB and food phenolics interaction, which could facilitate the possible application of selected bacteria or their enzymes in the elaboration of food products with improved characteristics.

  12. Extraction of phenolic compounds from soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Understanding the composition and amount of phenolic inputs from plants is important for studies of soil organic matter formation and nutrient cycling. However, some phenolic compounds, including tannins, can sorb or complex with the soil making them difficult to extract. We extracted soils with a...

  13. Plant phenolics – from field to fork

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant secondary metabolites, such as phenolics, are important to human health and for the organoleptic properties they impart to fresh and processed foods. Consumers judge appearance, taste, and texture when making purchasing decisions. Thorough identification of phenolic compounds is key to discern...

  14. Mucosal immunoglobulins and B cells of Teleost fish

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Irene; Zhang, Yong-An; Sunyer, J. Oriol

    2012-01-01

    As physical barriers that separate teleost fish from the external environment, mucosae are also active immunological sites that protect them against exposure to microbes and stressors. In mammals, the sites where antigens are sampled from mucosal surfaces and where stimulation of naive T and B lymphocytes occurs are known as inductive sites and are constituted by mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). According to anatomical location, the MALT in teleost fish is subdivided into gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), skin-associated lymphoid tissue (SALT), and gill-associated lymphoid tissue (GIALT). All MALT contain a variety of leukocytes, including, but not limited to, T cells, B cells, plasma cells, macrophages and granulocytes. Secretory immunoglobulins are produced mainly by plasmablasts and plasma cells, and play key roles in the maintenance of mucosal homeostasis. Until recently, teleost fish B cells were thought to express only two classes of immunoglobulins, IgM and IgD, in which IgM was thought to be the only one responding to pathogens both in systemic and mucosal compartments. However, a third teleost immunoglobulin class, IgT/IgZ, was discovered in 2005, and it has recently been shown to behave as the prevalent immunoglobulin in gut mucosal immune responses. The purpose of this review is to summarise the current knowledge of mucosal immunoglobulins and B cells of fish MALT. Moreover, we attempt to integrate the existing knowledge on both basic and applied research findings on fish mucosal immune responses, with the goal to provide new directions that may facilitate the development of novel vaccination strategies that stimulate not only systemic, but also mucosal immunity. PMID:22133710

  15. Mucosal immunoglobulins and B cells of teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Irene; Zhang, Yong-An; Sunyer, J Oriol

    2011-12-01

    As physical barriers that separate teleost fish from the external environment, mucosae are also active immunological sites that protect them against exposure to microbes and stressors. In mammals, the sites where antigens are sampled from mucosal surfaces and where stimulation of naïve T and B lymphocytes occurs are known as inductive sites and are constituted by mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). According to anatomical location, the MALT in teleost fish is subdivided into gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), skin-associated lymphoid tissue (SALT), and gill-associated lymphoid tissue (GIALT). All MALT contain a variety of leukocytes, including, but not limited to, T cells, B cells, plasma cells, macrophages and granulocytes. Secretory immunoglobulins are produced mainly by plasmablasts and plasma cells, and play key roles in the maintenance of mucosal homeostasis. Until recently, teleost fish B cells were thought to express only two classes of immunoglobulins, IgM and IgD, in which IgM was thought to be the only one responding to pathogens both in systemic and mucosal compartments. However, a third teleost immunoglobulin class, IgT/IgZ, was discovered in 2005, and it has recently been shown to behave as the prevalent immunoglobulin in gut mucosal immune responses. The purpose of this review is to summarise the current knowledge of mucosal immunoglobulins and B cells of fish MALT. Moreover, we attempt to integrate the existing knowledge on both basic and applied research findings on fish mucosal immune responses, with the goal to provide new directions that may facilitate the development of novel vaccination strategies that stimulate not only systemic, but also mucosal immunity.

  16. Mucosal immunization using recombinant plant-based oral vaccines.

    PubMed

    Streatfield, Stephen J

    2006-02-01

    The induction of mucosal immunity is very important in conferring protection against pathogens that typically invade via mucosal surfaces. Delivery of a vaccine to a mucosal surface optimizes the induction of mucosal immunity. The apparent linked nature of the mucosal immune system allows delivery to any mucosal surface to potentially induce immunity at others. Oral administration is a very straightforward and inexpensive approach to deliver a vaccine to the mucosal lining of the gut. However, vaccines administered by this route are subject to proteolysis in the gastrointestinal tract. Thus, dose levels for protein subunit vaccines are likely to be very high and the antigen may need to be protected from proteolysis for oral delivery to be efficacious. Expression of candidate vaccine antigens in edible recombinant plant material offers an inexpensive means to deliver large doses of vaccines in encapsulated forms. Certain plant tissues can also stably store antigens for extensive periods of time at ambient temperatures, obviating the need for a cold-chain during vaccine storage and distribution, and so further limiting costs. Antigens can be expressed from transgenes stably incorporated into a host plant's nuclear or plastid genome, or from engineered plant viruses infected into plant tissues. Molecular approaches can serve to boost expression levels and target the expressed protein for appropriate post-translational modification. There is a wide range of options for processing plant tissues to allow for oral delivery of a palatable product. Alternatively, the expressed antigen can be enriched or purified prior to formulation in a tablet or capsule for oral delivery. Fusions to carrier molecules can stabilize the expressed antigen, aid in antigen enrichment or purification strategies, and facilitate delivery to effector sites in the gastrointestinal tract. Many antigens have been expressed in plants. In a few cases, vaccine candidates have entered into early phase

  17. Composition of sugars, organic acids, and total phenolics in 25 wild or cultivated berry species.

    PubMed

    Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Schmitzer, Valentina; Slatnar, Ana; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert

    2012-10-01

    Sugars, organic acids, and total phenolic content in fruit of 25 wild and cultivated berry species were identified and quantified with high-performance liquid chromatograph. The composition of sugars, organic acids, and total phenolic compounds in various species of Vaccinium, Rubus, Ribes, and Fragaria genus was evaluated. Additonally, total phenolics of less known berry species of the Morus, Amelanchier, Sorbus, Sambucus, Rosa, Lycium, Actinidia, and Aronia genus were determined in wild growing as well as in cultivated fruits. Significant differences in the concentration of sugars and organic acids were detected among the berry species. Glucose and fructose were the most abundant sugars in berry fruits and the major organic acids were malic and citric acid. However, in kiwi fruit, sucrose represented as much as 71.9% of total sugars. Sorbitol has been detected and quantified in chokeberry, rowanberry, and eastern shadbush fruit. The highest content of total analyzed sugars was determined in rowanberry fruit, followed by dog rose, eastern shadbush, hardy kiwifruit, American cranberry, chokeberry, and jostaberry fruit. Rowanberry stands out as the fruit with the highest content of total analyzed organic acids, followed by jostaberry, lingonberry, red gooseberry, hardy kiwifruit, and black currant. The berries of white gooseberry, black currant, red currant, and white currant had the lowest sugar/organic acid ratio and were thus perceptively the sourest species analyzed. On the other hand, the species with highest sugar/organic acid ratio were goji berry, eastern shadbush, black mulberry, and wild grown blackberry. The highest amounts of total phenols were quantified in chokeberry fruit. Wild strawberry, raspberry, and blackberry had 2- to 5-fold more total phenolics compared to cultivated plants. The fruit of analyzed berry species contained different levels of sugars, organic acids, and total phenolics. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that wild grown species

  18. Serum and colonic mucosal immune markers in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chang, Lin; Adeyemo, Mopelola; Karagiannides, Iordanis; Karagiannidis, Iordanis; Videlock, Elizabeth J; Bowe, Collin; Shih, Wendy; Presson, Angela P; Yuan, Pu-Qing; Cortina, Galen; Gong, Hua; Singh, Sharat; Licudine, Arlene; Mayer, Minou; Tache, Yvette; Pothoulakis, Charalabos; Mayer, Emeran A

    2012-02-01

    Low-grade colonic mucosal inflammation has been postulated to have an important role in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The objectives of this study were (i) to identify serum and tissue-based immunological and neuroendocrine markers associated with mucosal inflammation in male (M) and female (F) patients with non-post-infectious IBS (non-PI-IBS) compared with healthy controls and (ii) to assess possible correlations of such markers with IBS symptoms. Sigmoid mucosal biopsies were obtained from 45 Rome II positive IBS patients without a history of PI-IBS (26 F, 35.5% IBS-C, 33.3% IBS-D, 31.1% IBS-A/M) and 41 healthy controls (22 F) in order to measure immunological markers (serum cytokine levels, colonic mucosal mRNA levels of cytokines, mucosal immune cell counts) and neuroendocrine markers associated with mucosal inflammation (corticotropin releasing factor- and neurokinin (NK)-related ligands and receptors, enterochromaffin cells). Symptoms were measured using validated questionnaires. Of all the serum and mucosal cytokines measured, only interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA expression showed a group difference, with female, but not male, patients showing lower levels compared with female controls (18.0±2.9 vs. 29.5±4.0, P=0.006). Mucosal mRNA expression of NK-1 receptor was significantly lower (1.15±0.19 vs. 2.66±0.56, P=0.008) in female, but not male, patients compared with healthy controls. No other significant differences were observed. Immune cell counts and levels of cytokines and neuropeptides that are associated with inflammation were not significantly elevated in the colonic mucosa of non-PI-IBS patients, and did not correlate with symptoms. Thus, these findings do not support that colonic mucosal inflammation consistently has a primary role in these patients. However, the finding of decreased IL-10 mRNA expression may be a possible biomarker of IBS and warrants further investigation.

  19. Serum and Colonic Mucosal Immune Markers in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Lin; Adeyemo, Mopelola; Karagiannides, Iordanis; Videlock, Elizabeth J.; Bowe, Collin; Shih, Wendy; Presson, Angela P.; Yuan, Pu-Qing; Cortina, Galen; Gong, Hua; Singh, Sharat; Licudine, Arlene; Mayer, Minou; Tache, Yvette; Pothoulakis, Charalabos; Mayer, Emeran A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Low-grade colonic mucosal inflammation has been postulated to have an important role in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The objectives of this study were (i) to identify serum and tissue-based immunological and neuroendocrine markers associated with mucosal inflammation in male (M) and female (F) patients with non-post-infectious IBS (non-PI-IBS) compared with healthy controls and (ii) to assess possible correlations of such markers with IBS symptoms. METHODS Sigmoid mucosal biopsies were obtained from 45 Rome II positive IBS patients without a history of PI-IBS (26 F, 35.5% IBS-C, 33.3% IBS-D, 31.1% IBS-A/M) and 41 healthy controls (22 F) in order to measure immunological markers (serum cytokine levels, colonic mucosal mRNA levels of cytokines, mucosal immune cell counts) and neuroendocrine markers associated with mucosal inflammation (corticotropin releasing factor- and neurokinin (NK)-related ligands and receptors, enterochromaffin cells). Symptoms were measured using validated questionnaires. RESULTS Of all the serum and mucosal cytokines measured, only interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA expression showed a group difference, with female, but not male, patients showing lower levels compared with female controls (18.0 ± 2.9 vs. 29.5 ± 4.0, P = 0.006). Mucosal mRNA expression of NK-1 receptor was significantly lower (1.15 ± 0.19 vs. 2.66 ± 0.56, P = 0.008) in female, but not male, patients compared with healthy controls. No other significant differences were observed. CONCLUSIONS Immune cell counts and levels of cytokines and neuropeptides that are associated with inflammation were not significantly elevated in the colonic mucosa of non-PI-IBS patients, and did not correlate with symptoms. Thus, these findings do not support that colonic mucosal inflammation consistently has a primary role in these patients. However, the finding of decreased IL-10 mRNA expression may be a possible biomarker of IBS and warrants further investigation

  20. Production of Jet Fuels from Coal Derived Liquids. Volume 5. Recovery of Benzene/Benzene Plus Phenol From the Great Plains Gasification Plant Crude Phenol Stream

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    GPGP Crude Phenol Results - Benzene and Phenol Yields ...... 21 5 GPGP Crude Phenol Results - Cresol, Xylenol and Ethylphenol 22 6 GPGP Crude Phenol...Results - Toluene, Xylene and Ethylbenzene 23 7 GPGP Crude Phenol Results - CI-C 3 Gas Yields ............... 24 8 GPGP Crude Phenol Results - CO, CO2...and Total Gas Yields ... 25 9 GPGP Crude Phenol Results - Hydrogen Consumption ........... 26 10 GPGP Cut Phenol Results - Benzene and Phenol Yields

  1. Management of a large mucosal defect after duodenal endoscopic resection

    PubMed Central

    Fujihara, Shintaro; Mori, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Nishiyama, Noriko; Matsunaga, Tae; Ayaki, Maki; Yachida, Tatsuo; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    Duodenal endoscopic resection is the most difficult type of endoscopic treatment in the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and is technically challenging because of anatomical specificities. In addition to these technical difficulties, this procedure is associated with a significantly higher rate of complication than endoscopic treatment in other parts of the GI tract. Postoperative delayed perforation and bleeding are hazardous complications, and emergency surgical intervention is sometimes required. Therefore, it is urgently necessary to establish a management protocol for preventing serious complications. For instance, the prophylactic closure of large mucosal defects after endoscopic resection may reduce the risk of hazardous complications. However, the size of mucosal defects after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is relatively large compared with the size after endoscopic mucosal resection, making it impossible to achieve complete closure using only conventional clips. The over-the-scope clip and polyglycolic acid sheets with fibrin gel make it possible to close large mucosal defects after duodenal ESD. In addition to the combination of laparoscopic surgery and endoscopic resection, endoscopic full-thickness resection holds therapeutic potential for difficult duodenal lesions and may overcome the disadvantages of endoscopic resection in the near future. This review aims to summarize the complications and closure techniques of large mucosal defects and to highlight some directions for management after duodenal endoscopic treatment. PMID:27547003

  2. Awareness assessment in Turkish subpopulation with chronic oral mucosal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Okumus, Ozlem; Kalkan, Sevda; Keser, Gaye; Pekiner, Filiz Namdar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the awareness of group Turkish patients with chronic oral mucosal diseases by chronic oral mucosal diseases questionnaires (COMDQ). Materials and Methods: Eighty patients with chronic oral mucosal diseases were participated in the study. A detailed medical history of each patient was taken, and all the COMDQ questions, which were translated from English version, were filled out. The data were analyzed with the IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences Statistics 22.0. Results: The mean ages of patients were 48.91 ± 13.36 years. Of the total 80 cases of chronic oral mucosal diseases identified 52 (65%) were female and 28 (35%) male. The standardized mean scores for COMDQ were 1.72 ± 1.11 for “pain and functional limitation,” 1.09 ± 0.94 for “medication and treatment,” 2.31 ± 1.06 for “social and emotional,” and 2.27 ± 0.83 for “patient support,” respectively. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that the Turkish version of the COMDQ has the profitable psychometric peculiarity and comfortable to patients with chronic oral mucosal diseases in Turkey. PMID:26929697

  3. Patient perspectives of diagnostic delay for suspicious oral mucosal lesions.

    PubMed

    Allen, K; Farah, C S

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate patient experiences regarding the discovery of and subsequent referral for suspicious oral mucosal pathology. The population under investigation were patients of an oral medicine clinic in Australia who had been referred for oral lesions suspected for malignancy. A self-completed questionnaire gathered information regarding patient experiences and beliefs leading up to diagnosis at their review appointments. Fifty-four per cent of participants knew about their mucosal pathology before referral. The highest proportion of delay occurred between self-discovery of a lesion and seeking help. Ninety-one per cent of self-aware participants had reason for seeking help in relation to their mucosal pathology. The three most common reasons for this was the desire for an explanation, being advised by a health care provider or presence of pain. Some patients were unaware of their own oral mucosal pathology and some seek help only when worried, in pain or following advice. Practitioners should examine the oral mucosa to detect suspicious oral mucosal pathology since patients may not be aware of its existence. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  4. Bacterial chemotactic oligopeptides and the intestinal mucosal barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Ferry, D.M.; Butt, T.J.; Broom, M.F.; Hunter, J.; Chadwick, V.S.

    1989-07-01

    Intestinal absorption and enterohepatic circulation of N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-/sup 125/I-tyrosine, a bioactive synthetic analog of the bacterial chemotactic peptide N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine has been investigated in the rat. In ileum and proximal and distal colon, dithiothreitol, which increases mucosal permeability, increased peptide absorption and biliary recovery fourfold, 70-fold, and 20-fold over control values, respectively. When dithiothreitol was combined with d-l-benzyl succinate, a potent inhibitor of intestinal carboxypeptidase, absorption and biliary recovery from ileal loops increased markedly to 40-fold over control, whereas there was no further increase in absorption from colon loops. There was a strong correlation between biliary N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-/sup 125/I-tyrosine recovery and intestinal absorption of /sup 51/Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetate, a marker of passive mucosal permeability (r = 0.97). We conclude that in the ileum both enzymic degradation and restricted mucosal permeability contribute to the intestinal barrier to luminal bacterial formyl oligopeptides. In the colon, however, enzymic mechanisms are less active and restricted mucosal permeability is the major factor. Abnormalities of the intestinal mucosal barrier to proinflammatory bacterial peptides could play a role in inflammatory disorders of the gut.

  5. Do mucosal folds in the eustachian tube function as microturbinates?

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Kayhan; Snyderman, Carl H; Sando, Isamu

    2011-04-01

    Mucosal folds in the eustachian tube (ET) may function as microturbinates and provide protection and clearance. Descriptive study. Nineteen whole-mount temporal bone ET specimens (nine pediatric and 10 adult) were evaluated in the present study. Five specific localizations for each case were selected. The cartilaginous segment of the ET was divided vertically and the length of mucosal surfaces and the number of mucosal folds of anterior and posterior walls on the histological sections were analyzed with MetaMorph 7.5.2.0 software. The length of the mucosal surface of the posterior wall of the ET was longer than the anterior wall (P < .05). In pediatric specimens, the posterior wall had more mucosal folds than adult specimens (P < .05). Microturbinates in the posterior wall of the ET may provide important protection and clearance functions for children and play a role in the pathogenesis of eustachian tube dysfunction Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc., Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. Airway structural cells regulate TLR5-mediated mucosal adjuvant activity.

    PubMed

    Van Maele, L; Fougeron, D; Janot, L; Didierlaurent, A; Cayet, D; Tabareau, J; Rumbo, M; Corvo-Chamaillard, S; Boulenouar, S; Jeffs, S; Vande Walle, L; Lamkanfi, M; Lemoine, Y; Erard, F; Hot, D; Hussell, T; Ryffel, B; Benecke, A G; Sirard, J-C

    2014-05-01

    Antigen-presenting cell (APC) activation is enhanced by vaccine adjuvants. Most vaccines are based on the assumption that adjuvant activity of Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists depends on direct, functional activation of APCs. Here, we sought to establish whether TLR stimulation in non-hematopoietic cells contributes to flagellin's mucosal adjuvant activity. Nasal administration of flagellin enhanced T-cell-mediated immunity, and systemic and secretory antibody responses to coadministered antigens in a TLR5-dependent manner. Mucosal adjuvant activity was not affected by either abrogation of TLR5 signaling in hematopoietic cells or the presence of flagellin-specific, circulating neutralizing antibodies. We found that flagellin is rapidly degraded in conducting airways, does not translocate into lung parenchyma and stimulates an early immune response, suggesting that TLR5 signaling is regionalized. The flagellin-specific early response of lung was regulated by radioresistant cells expressing TLR5 (particularly the airway epithelial cells). Flagellin stimulated the epithelial production of a small set of mediators that included the chemokine CCL20, which is known to promote APC recruitment in mucosal tissues. Our data suggest that (i) the adjuvant activity of TLR agonists in mucosal vaccination may require TLR stimulation of structural cells and (ii) harnessing the effect of adjuvants on epithelial cells can improve mucosal vaccines.

  7. Oleic acid-induced mucosal injury in developing piglet intestine.

    PubMed

    Velasquez, O R; Henninger, K; Fowler, M; Tso, P; Crissinger, K D

    1993-03-01

    A role for luminal nutrients, in particular products of lipid digestion, in the pathogenesis of mucosal injury to developing intestine has been postulated. We evaluated changes in mucosal permeability and light and electron microscopic histology induced by luminal perfusion with the long-chain fatty acid oleate in developing piglet intestine as a function of age and concentration of the fatty acid. 51Cr-labeled EDTA plasma-to-lumen clearance was measured in jejunum and ileum of 1-day-, 3-day-, 2-wk-, and 1-mo-old piglets during sequential perfusion with saline control (20 min); 0, 1, 5, and 10 mM oleic acid/10 mM taurocholate in saline (20 min); and normal saline (60 min). The jejunum of piglets < or = 2 wk showed significantly greater increases in mucosal permeability compared with 1-mo-old animals after perfusion with oleic acid. This effect was dependent on the luminal concentration of the fatty acid and was associated with mucosal injury evident under light and electron microscopy. In contrast, the overall response in ileum was more attenuated compared with jejunum. Thus oleic acid, a common dietary fatty acid, induces dose- and age-dependent injury in developing piglet intestine. Investigation of the mechanisms of this injury may provide the basis for dietary modifications directed at decreasing the risk of mucosal injury during enteral feeding in neonatal intestine.

  8. Mucosal mast cells and developmental changes in gastric absorption.

    PubMed

    Catto-Smith, A G; Ripper, J L

    1995-01-01

    We aimed to establish whether gastric mucosal mast cells undergo degranulation during normal postnatal development and to correlate this with gastric electrical parameters, paracellular permeability, and macromolecular absorption. Sprague-Dawley rats were studied between 10 and 30 days after birth. Gastric mucosal mast cell degranulation occurred and was maximal on days 15 and 17, measured by histology and gastric and serum levels of rat mast cell protease II. Short-circuit current, transepithelial conductance, and permeability of voltage-clamped glandular stomach were elevated in younger animals, falling with age except for a transient but significant increase in conductance and permeability at 17 days, closely correlated with maximal mast cell degranulation. Macromolecular uptake was significantly increased in animals aged 10-15 days. Concanavalin A and antigen-induced mast cell degranulation increased conductance and permeability in vitro in younger animals. We conclude that 1) gastric mucosal mast cells degranulate during development, 2) the neonatal stomach has increased permeability and uptake of macromolecules, and 3) gastric mucosal mast cell degranulation during development may affect mucosal permeability.

  9. Prevention and Treatment of Oral Mucositis in Children with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Misty M.; Donald, David V.; Hagemann, Tracy M.

    2012-01-01

    Oral mucositis affects more than three-fourths of patients undergoing chemotherapy and represents a significant burden to patients and caregivers. Lesions develop as a result of chemotherapeutic agents attacking the rapidly dividing cells of the gastrointestinal tract. Severity can range from mild, painless tissue changes to bleeding ulcerations that prevent oral intake and require narcotic pain relievers. Oral mucositis also leads to an increased risk of infection and can often delay further chemotherapy treatment. A number of assessment scales have been developed to better qualify the symptoms associated with this condition. Few pharmacologic agents have been approved to either prevent the development or alleviate the symptoms of oral mucositis. Current options include the use of antimicrobial mouthwashes, amino acid rinses, and topical healing agents. Palifermin, a keratinocyte growth factor, may be a future option after its use in children is explored. With achievements in other areas of supportive care in patients undergoing chemotherapy, oral mucositis should represent the forefront of new research. This review will provide a comprehensive examination of available options for children who have oral mucositis. PMID:23413048

  10. Physiology and immunology of mucosal barriers in catfish (Ictalurus spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Peatman, Eric; Lange, Miles; Zhao, Honggang; Beck, Benjamin H

    2015-01-01

    The mucosal barriers of catfish (Ictalurus spp) constitute the first line of defense against pathogen invasion while simultaneously carrying out a diverse array of other critical physiological processes, including nutrient adsorption, osmoregulation, waste excretion, and environmental sensing. Catfish depend more heavily on mucosal barriers than their terrestrial counterparts as they are continuously interacting with the aquatic microbiota. Our understanding of these barriers, while growing, is still limited relative to that of mammalian model systems. Nevertheless, a combination of molecular and cellular studies in catfish over the last few decades, and particularly within the last few years, has helped to elucidate many of the primary actors and pathways critical to their mucosal health. Here we describe aspects of innate and adaptive immune responses in the primary mucosal tissues (skin, gill, and intestine) of catfish, focusing on mucus-driven responses, pathogen recognition, soluble mediators, and immunoglobulin and T-cell derived immunity. Modulation of mucosal barriers will be critical moving forward for crafting better diets, improving vaccine delivery, enhancing water quality, and ensuring sustainable production practices in catfish. PMID:26716071

  11. Infrared Spectroscopy of Phenol-Triethylsilane Dihydrogen-Bonded Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Haruki; Kawasaki, Takayuki

    2013-06-01

    Dihydrogen bond is a hydrogen bond between oppositely charged two hydrogen atoms, X-H\\cdotsH-Y, where X = O, N and Y = B, metal atoms, for example. In 2005, Ishikawa and coworkers reported the observation of the dihydrogen-bond system involving Si-H group as the proton acceptor. They carried out infrared (IR) spectroscopy of phenol(PhOH)-Diethylmethylsilane(DEMS) clusters. All of the three isomers of PhOH-DEMS 1:1 clusters observed exhibit a small red-shift of ˜{ν}_{ OH} of the PhOH moiety in the cluster compared with that of bare PhOH. The largest shift is -29 cm^{-1}. The small red-shift is considered to be the result of the competition between the O-H\\cdotsH-Si dihydrogen-bond and the dispersion interaction of alkyl group of DEMS with phenyl ring. It means that the strength of the O-H\\cdotsH-Si dihydrogen-bond is comparable to the dispersion force. In the present study, we have performed fluorescence excitation (FE) and IR spectroscopies of phenol-triethylsilane(TES) to widen the knowledge of the dihydrogen bond. Similar to the case of PhOH-DEMS system, the electronic origin bands of three PhOH-TES isomers appear in the vicinity of that of PhOH monomer in the FE spectrum. In the present study, we have found an origin band of another PhOH-TES isomer showing a red-shift of -120 cm^{-1}. The shift of ˜{ν}_{ OH} of this cluster is found to be -78 cm^{-1}. This value is much larger than those of the other PhOH-TES 1:1 clusters. It is expected that the spatial overlap of between the TES and the phenyl ring in this cluster is small so that the contribution of the O-H\\cdotsH-Si dihydrogen-bond becomes larger than the other isomers. We have performed density-functional-theory (DFT) calculation of the PhOH-TES clusters using M05-2X functional. The result of the DFT calculation supported the cluster structure and the large red-shift of ˜{ν}_{ OH} of the newly found isomer of PhOH-TES. H. Ishikawa, A. Saito, M. Sugiyama, N. Mikami, J. Chem. Phys. 123, 224309 (2005).

  12. Antioxidant Activity of a Red Lentil Extract and Its Fractions

    PubMed Central

    Amarowicz, Ryszard; Estrella, Isabell; Hernández, Teresa; Dueñas, Montserrat; Troszyńska, Agnieszka; Agnieszka, Kosińska; Pegg, Ronald B.

    2009-01-01

    Phenolic compounds were extracted from red lentil seeds using 80% (v/v) aqueous acetone. The crude extract was applied to a Sephadex LH-20 column. Fraction 1, consisting of sugars and low-molecular-weight phenolics, was eluted from the column by ethanol. Fraction 2, consisting of tannins, was obtained using acetone-water (1:1; v/v) as the mobile phase. Phenolic compounds present in the crude extract and its fractions demonstrated antioxidant and antiradical activities as revealed from studies using a β-carotene-linoleate model system, the total antioxidant activity (TAA) method, the DPPH radical-scavenging activity assay, and a reducing power evaluation. Results of these assays showed the highest values when tannins (fraction 2) were tested. For instance, the TAA of the tannin fraction was 5.85 μmol Trolox® eq./mg, whereas the crude extract and fraction 1 showed 0.68 and 0.33 μmol Trolox® eq./mg, respectively. The content of total phenolics in fraction 2 was the highest (290 mg/g); the tannin content, determined using the vanillin method and expressed as absorbance units at 500 nm per 1 g, was 129. There were 24 compounds identified in the crude extract using an HPLC-ESI-MS method: quercetin diglycoside, catechin, digallate procyanidin, and p-hydroxybenzoic were the dominant phenolics in the extract. PMID:20054484

  13. Targeted and untargeted high resolution mass approach for a putative profiling of glycosylated simple phenols in hybrid grapes.

    PubMed

    Barnaba, Chiara; Dellacassa, Eduardo; Nicolini, Giorgio; Giacomelli, Mattia; Roman Villegas, Tomas; Nardin, Tiziana; Larcher, Roberto

    2017-08-01

    Vitis vinifera is one of the most widespread grapevines around the world representing the raw material for high quality wine production. The availability of more resistant interspecific hybrid vine varieties, developed from crosses between Vitis vinifera and other Vitis species, has generated much interest, also due to the low environmental effect of production. However, hybrid grape wine composition and varietal differences between interspecific hybrids have not been well defined, particularly for the simple phenols profile. The dynamic of these phenols in wines, where the glycosylated forms can be transformed into the free ones during winemaking, also raises an increasing health interest by their role as antoxidants in wine consumers. In this work an on-line SPE clean-up device, to reduce matrix interference, was combined with ultra-high liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry in order to increase understanding of the phenolic composition of hybrid grape varieties. Specifically, the phenolic composition of 4 hybrid grape varieties (red, Cabernet Cantor and Prior; white, Muscaris and Solaris) and 2 European grape varieties (red, Merlot; white, Chardonnay) was investigated, focusing on free and glycosidically bound simple phenols and considering compound distribution in pulp, skin, seeds and wine. Using a targeted approach 53 free simple phenols and 7 glycosidic precursors were quantified with quantification limits ranging from 0.001 to 2mgKg(-1) and calibration R(2) of 0.99 for over 86% of compounds. The untargeted approach made it possible to tentatively identify 79 glycosylated precursors of selected free simple phenols in the form of -hexoside (N=30), -pentoside (21), -hexoside-hexoside (17), -hexoside-pentoside (4), -pentoside-hexoside (5) and -pentoside-pentoside (2) derivatives on the basis of accurate mass, isotopic pattern and MS/MS fragmentation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Phenol removal efficiencies of sewage treatment processes and ecological risks associated with phenols in effluents.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Wenjue; Wang, Donghong; Xu, Xiaowei

    2012-05-30

    Phenols pose a risk to the environment and to human health. Phenols found in rivers mainly originate from sewage treatment plants (STPs). In this paper, analytical procedures, based on deconvolution technology and retention time locking technology, were investigated to simultaneously identify and determine the concentrations of fifty different phenols in sewage water and effluents. Seventeen different phenols were found in sewage and five - including two regulated phenols (phenol and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol) and three un-regulated phenols (2-chlorophenol, 2,5-dichlorophenol and 2,4-dichloro-3-ethyl-6-nitrophenol) - were identified in effluents of five STPs. A number of processes undertaken in five STPs were also investigated. These processes can be used to remove phenols at efficiency levels of between 88.95% and 99.97%. Among the processes tested, a combination of anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A(2)/O), continuous microfiltration (CMF), ozone oxidation (O(3)), and chlorination, appeared to be the best option for the removal of key phenols. Among the five phenols identified in effluents, 2,5-dichlorophenol (1.89 μg/L) and 2,4-dichloro-3-ethyl-6-nitrophenol (22.6 μg/L) pose the greatest ecological risk to receiving waters.

  15. Great heterogeneity of commercial fruit juices to induce endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated porcine coronary arteries: role of the phenolic content and composition.

    PubMed

    Auger, Cyril; Pollet, Brigitte; Arnold, Cécile; Marx, Céline; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

    2015-01-01

    Since polyphenol-rich products such as red wine, grape juice, and grape extracts have been shown to induce potent endothelium-dependent relaxations, we have evaluated whether commercial fruit juices such as those from berries are also able to induce endothelium-dependent relaxations of isolated coronary arteries and, if so, to determine whether this effect is related to their phenolic content. Among the 51 fruit juices tested, 2/12 grape juices, 3/7 blackcurrant juices, 4/5 cranberry juices, 1/6 apple juices, 0/5 orange juices, 2/6 red fruit and berry juices, 3/6 blends of red fruit juices, and 0/4 non-red fruit juices were able to induce relaxations achieving more than 50% at a volume of 1%. The active fruit juices had phenolic contents ranging from 0.31 to 1.86 g GAE/L, which were similar to those of most of the less active juices with the exception of one active grape juice (2.14 g GAE/L) and one active blend of red fruit juices (3.48 g GAE/L). Altogether, these findings indicate that very few commercial fruit juices have the ability to induce potent endothelium-dependent relaxations, and that this effect is not related to their quantitative phenolic content, but rather to their qualitative phenolic composition.

  16. Phenolic acids in berries, fruits, and beverages.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Pirjo; Hellström, Jarkko; Törrönen, Riitta

    2006-09-20

    The contents of soluble and total phenolic acids were analyzed in samples of 29 berries and berry products, 24 fruits and fruit peels, and 12 beverages. Variation of phenolic acids in berries was also studied. Soluble phenolic acids were extracted with methanolic acetic acid, and a tentative quantification was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The total phenolic acid content was determined by HPLC after alkaline and acid hydrolyses. The content of total phenolic acids as aglycones in the above samples varied from 0 (pear cider) to 103 mg/100 g fresh weight (rowanberry). Besides rowanberry, the best phenolic acid sources among berries were chokeberry (96 mg/100 g), blueberry (85 mg/100 g), sweet rowanberry (75 mg/100 g), and saskatoon berry (59 mg/100 g). Among fruits, the highest contents (28 mg/100 g) were determined in dark plum, cherry, and one apple variety (Valkea Kuulas). Coffee (97 mg/100 g) as well as green and black teas (30-36 mg/100 g) were the best sources among beverages. Caffeic acid dominated in all of these samples except in tea brews. Variation in the phenolic acid contents of the berries was either small or moderate.

  17. Electrochemical oxidation of phenol using graphite anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Awad, Y.M.; Abuzaid, N.S.

    1999-02-01

    The effects of current and pH on the electrochemical oxidation of phenol on graphite electrodes is investigated in this study. There was no sign of deterioration of the graphite bed after 5 months of operation. Phenol removal efficiency was a function of the current applied and was around 70% at a current of 2.2 A. The increase of phenol removal efficiency with current is attributed to the increase of ionic transport which increases the rate of electrode reactions responsible for the removal process. The percentage of complete oxidation of phenol increases with current, with a maximum value of about 50%. However, at pH 0.2 it is slightly higher than that at pH 0.5 at all currents. The phenol removal rate increases with increases of current and pH. While the current (CO{sub 2}) efficiency reaches a maximum value in the current range of 1.0--1.2 A, it increases with an increase of acid concentration. The findings of this study have important implications: while anodic oxidation of phenol on graphite can achieve acceptable removal of phenol, the extent of oxidation should not be overlooked.

  18. Chemical oxidation of biologically treated phenolic effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Kamenev, S.; Kallas, J.; Munter, R.; Trapido, M.

    1995-12-01

    Experimental research into the oxidative purification of biologically treated phenolic effluents of the Estonian oil shale chemical industry was undertaken. The main phenolic compounds identified in this wastewater were phenol, cresols, resorcinol and 5-methylresorcinols. For chemical oxidation of phenols different advanced oxidation methods (O{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, UV, O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, O{sub 3}/UV, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV, O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV) were tested. For tracking of the changes in the concentration of different phenols during the treatment process, HPLC and colorimetry were applied. It was shown that, in principle, phenols can be reduced almost by any oxidation method studied. Oxidation with molecular ozone has the most potential for practical application. Methods not including ozone (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, UV, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV) had, in general, lower efficiency for total phenols reduction than the methods combining ozone.

  19. Phytochemical phenolics in organically grown vegetables.

    PubMed

    Young, Janice E; Zhao, Xin; Carey, Edward E; Welti, Ruth; Yang, Shie-Shien; Wang, Weiqun

    2005-12-01

    Fruit and vegetable intake is inversely correlated with risks for several chronic diseases in humans. Phytochemicals, and in particular, phenolic compounds, present in plant foods may be partly responsible for these health benefits through a variety of mechanisms. Since environmental factors play a role in a plant's production of secondary metabolites, it was hypothesized that an organic agricultural production system would increase phenolic levels. Cultivars of leaf lettuce, collards, and pac choi were grown either on organically certified plots or on adjacent conventional plots. Nine prominent phenolic agents were quantified by HPLC, including phenolic acids (e. g. caffeic acid and gallic acid) and aglycone or glycoside flavonoids (e. g. apigenin, kaempferol, luteolin, and quercetin). Statistically, we did not find significant higher levels of phenolic agents in lettuce and collard samples grown organically. The total phenolic content of organic pac choi samples as measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay, however, was significantly higher than conventional samples (p < 0.01), and seemed to be associated with a greater attack the plants in organic plots by flea beetles. These results indicated that although organic production method alone did not enhance biosynthesis of phytochemicals in lettuce and collards, the organic system provided an increased opportunity for insect attack, resulting in a higher level of total phenolic agents in pac choi.

  20. Elevated CO2 and salinity are responsible for phenolics-enrichment in two differently pigmented lettuces.

    PubMed

    Sgherri, Cristina; Pérez-López, Usue; Micaelli, Francesco; Miranda-Apodaca, Jon; Mena-Petite, Amaia; Muñoz-Rueda, Alberto; Quartacci, Mike Frank

    2017-06-01

    Both salt stress and high CO2 level, besides influencing secondary metabolism, can affect oxidative status of plants mainly acting in an opposite way with salinity provoking oxidative stress and elevated CO2 alleviating it. The aim of the present work was to study the changes in the composition of phenolic acids and flavonoids as well as in the antioxidant activity in two differently pigmented lettuce cvs (green or red leaf) when submitted to salinity (200 mM NaCl) or elevated CO2 (700 ppm) or to their combination in order to evaluate how a future global change can affect lettuce quality. Following treatments, the red cv. always maintained higher levels of antioxidant secondary metabolites as well as antioxidant activity, proving to be more responsive to altered environmental conditions than the green one. Overall, these results suggest that the application of moderate salinity or elevated CO2, alone or in combination, can induce the production of some phenolics that increase the health benefits of lettuce. In particular, moderate salinity was able to induce the synthesis of the flavonoids quercetin, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide and quercitrin. Phenolics-enrichment as well as a higher antioxidant capacity were also observed under high CO2 with the red lettuce accumulating cyanidin, free chlorogenic acid, conjugated caffeic and ferulic acid as well as quercetin, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, rutin, quercitrin and kaempferol. When salinity was present in combination with elevated CO2, reduction in yield was prevented and a higher presence of phenolic compounds, in particular luteolin, was observed compared to salinity alone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Toxicity of phenolic compounds to sediment bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Dean-Ross, D.; Rahimi, M.

    1995-08-01

    Biodegradation of organic compounds plays an important role in remediation of polluted environments. Several factors influence the rate and extent of biodegradation: number of degrading organisms, adequate supply of nutrients, adequate availability of a suitable electron acceptor. One important factor is the toxicity of the organic chemical itself. Very often chemicals may be susceptible to biodegradation at low concentrations, yet may be toxic to the degrading population at higher concentrations, thus inhibiting their own biodegradation. Phenolic compounds are known to exhibit toxicity to bacteria. Under batch conditions, a strain of Pseudomonas could degrade 0.1% phenol in approximately 48 hr, while taking over 130 hr to degrade 0.15% phenol. A concentration of 0.2% phenol was inhibitory to the cells, killing 50% of the inoculum within 10 d. Activated sludge bacteria maintained in pulse fed batch reactors were inhibited by concentrations of phenol in excess of 50 mg/L. Biodegradation of 4-chlorophenol by Alcaligenes sp. A 7-2 showed a similar concentration effect, being inhibited at concentrations above 160 mg/L in fed-batch culture. The present report is part of an investigation on the biodegradation of phenol in contaminated soils and sediments in northwestern Indiana. Phenol has been found in groundwater aquifers which drain into the Grand Calumet watershed, and in groundwater contaminated by a Superfund site. Data on phenol toxicity were needed in order to assess the potential for in situ biodegradation of phenol and related compounds in sediments of the Grand Calumet River. 10 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Limitations in assessment of mucosal healing in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Hugh James

    2010-01-01

    An emerging parameter to define the effectiveness of new therapeutic agents in clinical trials, and by extension, for use in day-to-day clinical practice has been labeled mucosal healing. It has been hypothesized that complete healing of the intestinal mucosa in inflammatory bowel diseases should result in reduced disease complications, reduced hospitalization and reduced surgical treatment. By implication, the natural history of inflammatory bowel disease might then be altered. Measurement of mucosal healing, however, is largely observational, requiring repeated invasive endoscopic examinations, sometimes with mucosal biopsies. Other indirect imaging methods may play a role in this assessment along with other surrogate markers, including intestinal permeability. These measurements may have significant limitations that prohibit precise correlation with symptom-based disease activity indices in clinical trials. This likely reflects the dynamic nature of this evolving and individualized inflammatory process that tends to be focused, but not limited, to the mucosa of the intestinal tract. PMID:20039444

  3. How can probiotics and prebiotics impact mucosal immunity?

    PubMed

    O'Flaherty, Sarah; Saulnier, Delphine M; Pot, Bruno; Versalovic, James

    2010-09-01

    The study of probiotics and prebiotics is an expanding field of interest and scientific research that has resulted in insights related to the host immune response. Recent advances have naturally led to key questions. What are the specific probiotic components that mediate immunomodulation? Can we extrapolate the results of in vitro studies in animal and human trials? Which biomarkers and immune parameters should be measured in probiotic and prebiotic intervention studies? These questions were part of a discussion entitled "How Can Probiotics and Prebiotics Impact Mucosal Immunity" at the 2009 Annual Meeting of the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP). This review highlights recent knowledge about the modulation of mucosal immunity by probiotics and prebiotics, as well as considerations for measuring their effects on mucosal immunity. A list of biomarkers and immune parameters to be measured in human clinical trials is included.

  4. The mucosal immune system: from fundamental concepts to vaccine development.

    PubMed

    McGhee, J R; Mestecky, J; Dertzbaugh, M T; Eldridge, J H; Hirasawa, M; Kiyono, H

    1992-01-01

    Recent studies in experimental animals and humans have shown that the mucosal immune system, which is characterized by secretory IgA (S-IgA) antibodies as the major humoral defence factor, contains specialized lymphoid tissues where antigens are encountered from the environment, are taken up and induce B- and T-cell responses. This event is followed by an exodus of specific lymphocytes, which home to various effector sites such as the lamina propria regions and glands. These responses are regulated by T cells and cytokines and lead to plasma cell differentiation and subsequent production of S-IgA antibodies in external secretions. This knowledge has led to practical approaches for vaccine construction and delivery into mucosal inductive sites in an effort to elicit host protection at mucosal surfaces where the infection actually occurs.

  5. Potential Benefits of Oral Cryotherapy for Chemotherapy-Induced Mucositis.

    PubMed

    Wodzinski, Amelia

    2016-10-01

    Mucositis is a common side effect of cancer therapies that causes painful, erythematous lesions to develop in the gastrointestinal tract. These lesions can lead to malnutrition, increased risk for serious infection, prolonged hospital stays, and reduced quality of life. Oral cryotherapy, or the use of ice chips to cool the mucous membranes during bolus chemotherapy infusions (e.g., 5-fluorouracil [Adrucil®] and melphalan [Alkeran®]), is the most readily accessible and cost-effective intervention available. Although many factors may contribute to the development of mucositis during cancer treatment, studies have found a reduction in the incidence and the severity of mucositis with the use of oral cryotherapy.


  6. Permeability of Luminal Surface of Intestinal Mucosal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lindemann, B.; Solomon, A. K.

    1962-01-01

    A method has been devised to measure the permeability characteristics of the intestinal mucosal cells in the rat. The method makes use of an electrical recording balance to register changes in weight when the mucosal face of a small strip of intestine is exposed to anisotonic solutions. The permeability coefficient of the luminal surface of intestinal mucosal cells to water is measured as 0.15 cm4/OSM, sec. and reasons are adduced to suggest that the true value might be higher than this. The equivalent pore radius of the luminal face of the tissue, measured in experiments in which lipid-insoluble non-electrolytes have been used according to the method of Goldstein and Solomon, appears to be 4.0 Å. PMID:14465429

  7. Immunomodulation by mucosal gene transfer using TGF-beta DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Kuklin, N A; Daheshia, M; Chun, S; Rouse, B T

    1998-01-01

    This report evaluates the efficacy of DNA encoding TGF-beta administered mucosally to suppress immunity and modulate the immunoinflammatory response to herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. A single intranasal administration of an eukaryotic expression vector encoding TGF-beta1 led to expression in the lung and lymphoid tissue. T cell-mediated immune responses to HSV infection were suppressed with this effect persisting as measured by the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction for at least 7 wk. Treated animals were more susceptible to systemic infection with HSV. Multiple prophylactic mucosal administrations of TGF-beta DNA also suppressed the severity of ocular lesions caused by HSV infection, although no effects on this immunoinflammatory response were evident after therapeutic treatment with TGF-beta DNA. Our results demonstrate that the direct mucosal gene transfer of immunomodulatory cytokines provides a convenient means of modulating immunity and influencing the expression of inflammatory disorders. PMID:9664086

  8. Mucosal vaccination by adenoviruses displaying reovirus sigma 1.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Eric A; Camacho, Zenaido T; Hillestad, Matthew L; Crosby, Catherine M; Turner, Mallory A; Guenzel, Adam J; Fadel, Hind J; Mercier, George T; Barry, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    We developed adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vectors displaying the sigma 1 protein from reovirus as mucosal vaccines. Ad5-sigma retargets to JAM-1 and sialic acid, but has 40-fold reduced gene delivery when compared to Ad5. While weaker at transduction, Ad5-sigma generates stronger T cell responses than Ad5 when used for mucosal immunization. In this work, new Ad5-fiber-sigma vectors were generated by varying the number of fiber β-spiral shaft repeats (R) between the fiber tail and sigma. Increasing chimera length led to decreasing insertion of these proteinsAd5 virions. Ad-R3 and R14 vectors effectively targeted JAM-1 in vitro while R20 did not. When wereused to immunize mice by the intranasal route, Ad5-R3-sigma produced higher serum and vaginal antibody responses than Ad5. These data suggest optimized Ad-sigma vectors may be useful vectors for mucosal vaccination.

  9. Plant phenolics and absorption features in vegetation reflectance spectra near 1.66 μm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; Skidmore, Andrew K

    2015-01-01

    Past laboratory and field studies have quantified phenolic substances in vegetative matter from reflectance measurements for understanding plant response to herbivores and insect predation. Past remote sensing studies on phenolics have evaluated crop quality and vegetation patterns caused by bedrock geology and associated variations in soil geochemistry. We examined spectra of pure phenolic compounds, common plant biochemical constituents, dry leaves, fresh leaves, and plant canopies for direct evidence of absorption features attributable to plant phenolics. Using spectral feature analysis with continuum removal, we observed that a narrow feature at 1.66 μm is persistent in spectra of manzanita, sumac, red maple, sugar maple, tea, and other species. This feature was consistent with absorption caused by aromatic C-H bonds in the chemical structure of phenolic compounds and non-hydroxylated aromatics. Because of overlapping absorption by water, the feature was weaker in fresh leaf and canopy spectra compared to dry leaf measurements. Simple linear regressions of feature depth and feature area with polyphenol concentration in tea resulted in high correlations and low errors (% phenol by dry weight) at the dry leaf (r2 = 0.95, RMSE = 1.0%, n = 56), fresh leaf (r2 = 0.79, RMSE = 2.1%, n = 56), and canopy (r2 = 0.78, RMSE = 1.0%, n = 13) levels of measurement. Spectra of leaves, needles, and canopies of big sagebrush and evergreens exhibited a weak absorption feature centered near 1.63 μm, short ward of the phenolic compounds, possibly consistent with terpenes. This study demonstrates that subtle variation in vegetation spectra in the shortwave infrared can directly indicate biochemical constituents and be used to quantify them. Phenolics are of lesser abundance compared to the major plant constituents but, nonetheless, have important plant functions and ecological significance. Additional research is needed to advance our understanding of the

  10. Expression Profile of Human Fc Receptors in Mucosal Tissue: Implications for Antibody-Dependent Cellular Effector Functions Targeting HIV-1 Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Cheeseman, Hannah M.; Carias, Ann M.; Evans, Abbey B.; Olejniczak, Natalia J.; Ziprin, Paul; King, Deborah F. L.; Hope, Thomas J.; Shattock, Robin J.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of new Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-1 infections are acquired via sexual transmission at mucosal surfaces. Partial efficacy (31.2%) of the Thai RV144 HIV-1 vaccine trial has been correlated with Antibody-dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity (ADCC) mediated by non-neutralizing antibodies targeting the V1V2 region of the HIV-1 envelope. This has led to speculation that ADCC and other antibody-dependent cellular effector functions might provide an important defense against mucosal acquisition of HIV-1 infection. However, the ability of antibody-dependent cellular effector mechanisms to impact on early mucosal transmission events will depend on a variety of parameters including effector cell type, frequency, the class of Fc-Receptor (FcR) expressed, the number of FcR per cell and the glycoslyation pattern of the induced antibodies. In this study, we characterize and compare the frequency and phenotype of IgG (CD16 [FcγRIII], CD32 [FcγRII] and CD64 [FcγRI]) and IgA (CD89 [FcαR]) receptor expression on effector cells within male and female genital mucosal tissue, colorectal tissue and red blood cell-lysed whole blood. The frequency of FcR expression on CD14+ monocytic cells, myeloid dendritic cells and natural killer cells were similar across the three mucosal tissue compartments, but significantly lower when compared to the FcR expression profile of effector cells isolated from whole blood, with many cells negative for all FcRs. Of the three tissues tested, penile tissue had the highest percentage of FcR positive effector cells. Immunofluorescent staining was used to determine the location of CD14+, CD11c+ and CD56+ cells within the three mucosal tissues. We show that the majority of effector cells across the different mucosal locations reside within the subepithelial lamina propria. The potential implication of the observed FcR expression patterns on the effectiveness of FcR-dependent cellular effector functions to impact on the initial events in

  11. Process for producing phenolic compounds from lignins

    DOEpatents

    Agblevor, Foster A.

    1998-01-01

    A process for the production of low molecular weight phenolic compounds from lignins through the pyrolysis of the lignins in the presence of a strong base. In a preferred embodiment, potassium hydroxide is present in an amount of from about 0.1% to about 5% by weight, the pyrolysis temperature is from about 400.degree. C. to about 600.degree. C. at atmospheric pressure, and the time period for substantial completion of the reaction is from about 1-3 minutes. Examples of low molecular weight phenolic compounds produced include methoxyphenols, non-methoxylated phenols, and mixtures thereof.

  12. Process for producing phenolic compounds from lignins

    DOEpatents

    Agblevor, F.A.

    1998-09-15

    A process is described for the production of low molecular weight phenolic compounds from lignins through the pyrolysis of the lignins in the presence of a strong base. In a preferred embodiment, potassium hydroxide is present in an amount of from about 0.1% to about 5% by weight, the pyrolysis temperature is from about 400 C to about 600 C at atmospheric pressure, and the time period for substantial completion of the reaction is from about 1--3 minutes. Examples of low molecular weight phenolic compounds produced include methoxyphenols, non-methoxylated phenols, and mixtures thereof. 16 figs.

  13. Process for producing phenolic compounds from lignins

    SciTech Connect

    Agblevor, F.A.

    1998-09-15

    A process is described for the production of low molecular weight phenolic compounds from lignins through the pyrolysis of the lignins in the presence of a strong base. In a preferred embodiment, potassium hydroxide is present in an amount of from about 0.1% to about 5% by weight, the pyrolysis temperature is from about 400 C to about 600 C at atmospheric pressure, and the time period for substantial completion of the reaction is from about 1--3 minutes. Examples of low molecular weight phenolic compounds produced include methoxyphenols, non-methoxylated phenols, and mixtures thereof. 16 figs.

  14. Prevalence of Oral Mucosal Lesions in an Adult Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Mansour Ghanaei, Fariborz; Joukar, Farahnaz; Rabiei, Maryam; Dadashzadeh, Alireza; Kord Valeshabad, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background Nowadays the importance of oral health to life quality is not obvious to anyone in our world. Oral lesions can interfere with daily social activities in involved patients through impacts on mastication, swallowing and speech and symptoms like xerostomia, halitosis or dysesthesia. Objectives To assess the prevalence and types of oral lesions in a general population in Rasht, Northern Province of Iran. Patients and Methods 1581 people aged > 30 years old who were inhabitant of Rasht, Iran, enrolled in a cross-sectional study. For each individual a detailed questionnaire based on the world health organization (WHO) guidelines in order to diagnosis of the lesions was filled and it contained all the required data. Participants were divided into two groups with and without oral mucosal lesions and oral mucosal lesions were divided into two groups with and without. Demographic characteristics and clinical information including age, sex, smoking (cigarette and tobacco), opium consumption, medication and oral and dental hygiene were collected and compared between these two groups. Results The prevalence of mucosal lesions in our study was 19.4%. Our data demonstrated higher prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in males and young adults (30-40 years). The most common mucosal lesion among our participants was Fissured tongue(4%), followed by Fordyce granules(2.8%), geographic tongue(2.6%) , Pigmentation(2.5%), Candida(1.8%), Smoker Plate(1.6%), lingual Varices(1.5%), Petechiae(1.4%) and lingual labial(1.4%) . Leukoplakia was observed only in two people (0.1%).No case of malignant lesions was detected. No statistically significant difference was confirmed between the two groups regarding smoking, opium consumption, medication and oral and dental hygiene. Conclusions Our data has provided baseline information about epidemiologic aspects of oral mucosal lesions which can be valuable in organized national program targeting on oral health and hygiene in the society. PMID

  15. Differential Apoptosis in Mucosal and Dermal Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Ariel; Francis, Marybeth; DiPietro, Luisa Ann

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Dermal and mucosal healing are mechanistically similar. However, scarring and closure rates are dramatically improved in mucosal healing, possibly due to differences in apoptosis. Apoptosis, nature's preprogrammed form of cell death, occurs via two major pathways, extrinsic and intrinsic, which intersect at caspase3 (Casp3) cleavage and activation. The purpose of this experiment was to identify the predominant pathways of apoptosis in mucosal and dermal wound healing. Approach: Wounds (1 mm biopsy punch) were made in the dorsal skin (n=3) or tongue (n=3) of female Balb/C mice aged 6 weeks. Wounds were harvested at 6 h, 24 h, day 3 (D3), D5, D7, and D10. RNA was isolated and analyzed using real time reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction. Expression levels for genes in the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways were compared in dermal and mucosal wounds. Results: Compared to mucosal healing, dermal wounds exhibited significantly higher expression of Casp3 (at D5; p<0.05), Casp7 (at D5; p<0.05), Trp53 (at 24 h and D5; p<0.05), Tnfrsf1b (at 24 h; p<0.05), FasR (at 24 h, D5, and D7; p<0.05), and Casp8 (at 24 h; p<0.05) and significantly lower gene expression of Tradd (at 24 h; p<0.05). Innovation: Our observations indicate differential execution of apoptosis in oral wound healing compared to skin. Conclusion: Expression patterns of key regulators of apoptosis in wound healing indicate that apoptosis occurs predominantly through the intrinsic pathway in the healing mucosa, but predominantly through the extrinsic pathway in the healing skin. The identification of differences in the apoptotic pathways in skin and mucosal wounds may allow the development of therapeutics to improve skin healing. PMID:25493209

  16. Enhanced mucosal reactions in AIDS patients receiving oropharyngeal irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, E.B.; Findlay, P.; Gelmann, E.; Lane, H.C.; Zabell, A.

    1987-09-01

    The oropharynx and hypopharynx are common sites of involvement in AIDS patients with mucocutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma. The radiotherapist is often asked to intervene with these patients due to problems with pain, difficulty in swallowing, or impending airway obstruction. We have noted an unexpected decrease in normal tissue tolerance of the oropharyngeal mucosa to irradiation in AIDS patients treated in our department. Data on 12 patients with AIDS and Kaposi's sarcoma receiving oropharyngeal irradiation are presented here. Doses ranged from 1000 cGy to 1800 cGy delivered in 150-300 cGy fractions. Seven of eight patients receiving doses of 1200 cGy or more developed some degree of mucositis, four of these developed mucositis severe enough to require termination of treatment. All patients in this study received some form of systemic therapy during the course of their disease, but no influence on mucosal response to irradiation was noted. Four patients received total body skin electron treatments, but no effect on degree of mucositis was seen. Presence or absence of oral candidiasis was not an obvious factor in the radiation response of the oral mucosa in these patients. T4 counts were done on 9 of the 12 patients. Although the timing of the T4 counts was quite variable, no correlation with immune status and degree of mucositis was found. The degree of mucositis seen in these patients occurred at doses much lower than expected based on normal tissue tolerances seen in other patient populations receiving head and neck irradiations. We believe that the ability of the oral mucosa to repair radiation damage is somehow altered in patients with AIDS.

  17. A diversity of peri-implant mucosal thickness by site.