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Sample records for phenomenological lagrangian approach

  1. Forecasting Future Sea Ice Conditions: A Lagrangian Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Forecasting Future Sea Ice Conditions: A Lagrangian ...GCMs participating in IPCC AR5 agree with observed source region patterns from the satellite- derived dataset. 4- Compare Lagrangian ice... Lagrangian sea-ice back trajectories to estimate thermodynamic and dynamic (advection) ice loss. APPROACH We use a Lagrangian trajectory model to

  2. Learn the Lagrangian: A Vector-Valued RKHS Approach to Identifying Lagrangian Systems.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ching-An; Huang, Han-Pang

    2016-12-01

    We study the modeling of Lagrangian systems with multiple degrees of freedom. Based on system dynamics, canonical parametric models require ad hoc derivations and sometimes simplification for a computable solution; on the other hand, due to the lack of prior knowledge in the system's structure, modern nonparametric models in machine learning face the curse of dimensionality, especially in learning large systems. In this paper, we bridge this gap by unifying the theories of Lagrangian systems and vector-valued reproducing kernel Hilbert space. We reformulate Lagrangian systems with kernels that embed the governing Euler-Lagrange equation-the Lagrangian kernels-and show that these kernels span a subspace capturing the Lagrangian's projection as inverse dynamics. By such property, our model uses only inputs and outputs as in machine learning and inherits the structured form as in system dynamics, thereby removing the need for the mundane derivations for new systems as well as the generalization problem in learning from scratches. In effect, it learns the system's Lagrangian, a simpler task than directly learning the dynamics. To demonstrate, we applied the proposed kernel to identify the robot inverse dynamics in simulations and experiments. Our results present a competitive novel approach to identifying Lagrangian systems, despite using only inputs and outputs.

  3. The S-Lagrangian and a theory of homeostasis in living systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandler, U.; Tsitolovsky, L.

    2017-04-01

    A major paradox of living things is their ability to actively counteract degradation in a continuously changing environment or being injured through homeostatic protection. In this study, we propose a dynamic theory of homeostasis based on a generalized Lagrangian approach (S-Lagrangian), which can be equally applied to physical and nonphysical systems. Following discoverer of homeostasis Cannon (1935), we assume that homeostasis results from tendency of the organisms to decrease of the stress and avoid of death. We show that the universality of homeostasis is a consequence of analytical properties of the S-Lagrangian, while peculiarities of the biochemical and physiological mechanisms of homeostasis determine phenomenological parameters of the S-Lagrangian. Additionally, we reveal that plausible assumptions about S-Lagrangian features lead to good agreement between theoretical descriptions and observed homeostatic behavior. Here, we have focused on homeostasis of living systems, however, the proposed theory is also capable of being extended to social systems.

  4. Lagrangian Perturbation Approach to the Formation of Large-scale Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchert, Thomas

    The present lecture notes address three columns on which the Lagrangian perturbation approach to cosmological dynamics is based: 1. the formulation of a Lagrangian theory of self-gravitating flows in which the dynamics is described in terms of a single field variable; 2. the procedure, how to obtain the dynamics of Eulerian fields from the Lagrangian picture, and 3. a precise definition of a Newtonian cosmology framework in which Lagrangian perturbation solutions can be studied. While the first is a discussion of the basic equations obtained by transforming the Eulerian evolution and field equations to the Lagrangian picture, the second exemplifies how the Lagrangian theory determines the evolution of Eulerian fields including kinematical variables like expansion, vorticity, as well as the shear and tidal tensors. The third column is based on a specification of initial and boundary conditions, and in particular on the identification of the average flow of an inhomogeneous cosmology with a `Hubble-flow'. Here, we also look at the limits of the Lagrangian perturbation approach as inferred from comparisons with N-body simulations and illustrate some striking properties of the solutions.

  5. Lagrangian Approach to Study Catalytic Fluidized Bed Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madi, Hossein; Hossein Madi Team; Marcelo Kaufman Rechulski Collaboration; Christian Ludwig Collaboration; Tilman Schildhauer Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Lagrangian approach of fluidized bed reactors is a method, which simulates the movement of catalyst particles (caused by the fluidization) by changing the gas composition around them. Application of such an investigation is in the analysis of the state of catalysts and surface reactions under quasi-operando conditions. The hydrodynamics of catalyst particles within a fluidized bed reactor was studied to improve a Lagrangian approach. A fluidized bed methanation employed in the production of Synthetic Natural Gas from wood was chosen as the case study. The Lagrangian perspective was modified and improved to include different particle circulation patterns, which were investigated through this study. Experiments were designed to evaluate the concepts of the model. The results indicate that the setup is able to perform the designed experiments and a good agreement between the simulation and the experimental results were observed. It has been shown that fluidized bed reactors, as opposed to fixed beds, can be used to avoid the deactivation of the methanation catalyst due to carbon deposits. Carbon deposition on the catalysts tested with the Lagrangian approach was investigated by temperature programmed oxidation (TPO) analysis of ex-situ catalyst samples. This investigation was done to identify the effects of particles velocity and their circulation patterns on the amount and type of deposited carbon on the catalyst surface. Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne(EPFL), Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI)

  6. A Godunov-like point-centered essentially Lagrangian hydrodynamic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Nathaniel R.; Waltz, Jacob I.; Burton, Donald E.

    We present an essentially Lagrangian hydrodynamic scheme suitable for modeling complex compressible flows on tetrahedron meshes. The scheme reduces to a purely Lagrangian approach when the flow is linear or if the mesh size is equal to zero; as a result, we use the term essentially Lagrangian for the proposed approach. The motivation for developing a hydrodynamic method for tetrahedron meshes is because tetrahedron meshes have some advantages over other mesh topologies. Notable advantages include reduced complexity in generating conformal meshes, reduced complexity in mesh reconnection, and preserving tetrahedron cells with automatic mesh refinement. A challenge, however, is tetrahedron meshesmore » do not correctly deform with a lower order (i.e. piecewise constant) staggered-grid hydrodynamic scheme (SGH) or with a cell-centered hydrodynamic (CCH) scheme. The SGH and CCH approaches calculate the strain via the tetrahedron, which can cause artificial stiffness on large deformation problems. To resolve the stiffness problem, we adopt the point-centered hydrodynamic approach (PCH) and calculate the evolution of the flow via an integration path around the node. The PCH approach stores the conserved variables (mass, momentum, and total energy) at the node. The evolution equations for momentum and total energy are discretized using an edge-based finite element (FE) approach with linear basis functions. A multidirectional Riemann-like problem is introduced at the center of the tetrahedron to account for discontinuities in the flow such as a shock. Conservation is enforced at each tetrahedron center. The multidimensional Riemann-like problem used here is based on Lagrangian CCH work [8, 19, 37, 38, 44] and recent Lagrangian SGH work [33-35, 39, 45]. In addition, an approximate 1D Riemann problem is solved on each face of the nodal control volume to advect mass, momentum, and total energy. The 1D Riemann problem produces fluxes [18] that remove a volume error in the PCH

  7. A Godunov-like point-centered essentially Lagrangian hydrodynamic approach

    DOE PAGES

    Morgan, Nathaniel R.; Waltz, Jacob I.; Burton, Donald E.; ...

    2014-10-28

    We present an essentially Lagrangian hydrodynamic scheme suitable for modeling complex compressible flows on tetrahedron meshes. The scheme reduces to a purely Lagrangian approach when the flow is linear or if the mesh size is equal to zero; as a result, we use the term essentially Lagrangian for the proposed approach. The motivation for developing a hydrodynamic method for tetrahedron meshes is because tetrahedron meshes have some advantages over other mesh topologies. Notable advantages include reduced complexity in generating conformal meshes, reduced complexity in mesh reconnection, and preserving tetrahedron cells with automatic mesh refinement. A challenge, however, is tetrahedron meshesmore » do not correctly deform with a lower order (i.e. piecewise constant) staggered-grid hydrodynamic scheme (SGH) or with a cell-centered hydrodynamic (CCH) scheme. The SGH and CCH approaches calculate the strain via the tetrahedron, which can cause artificial stiffness on large deformation problems. To resolve the stiffness problem, we adopt the point-centered hydrodynamic approach (PCH) and calculate the evolution of the flow via an integration path around the node. The PCH approach stores the conserved variables (mass, momentum, and total energy) at the node. The evolution equations for momentum and total energy are discretized using an edge-based finite element (FE) approach with linear basis functions. A multidirectional Riemann-like problem is introduced at the center of the tetrahedron to account for discontinuities in the flow such as a shock. Conservation is enforced at each tetrahedron center. The multidimensional Riemann-like problem used here is based on Lagrangian CCH work [8, 19, 37, 38, 44] and recent Lagrangian SGH work [33-35, 39, 45]. In addition, an approximate 1D Riemann problem is solved on each face of the nodal control volume to advect mass, momentum, and total energy. The 1D Riemann problem produces fluxes [18] that remove a volume error in the PCH

  8. Differentiating between descriptive and interpretive phenomenological research approaches.

    PubMed

    Matua, Gerald Amandu; Van Der Wal, Dirk Mostert

    2015-07-01

    To provide insight into how descriptive and interpretive phenomenological research approaches can guide nurse researchers during the generation and application of knowledge. Phenomenology is a discipline that investigates people's experiences to reveal what lies 'hidden' in them. It has become a major philosophy and research method in the humanities, human sciences and arts. Phenomenology has transitioned from descriptive phenomenology, which emphasises the 'pure' description of people's experiences, to the 'interpretation' of such experiences, as in hermeneutic phenomenology. However, nurse researchers are still challenged by the epistemological and methodological tenets of these two methods. The data came from relevant online databases and research books. A review of selected peer-reviewed research and discussion papers published between January 1990 and December 2013 was conducted using CINAHL, Science Direct, PubMed and Google Scholar databases. In addition, selected textbooks that addressed phenomenology as a philosophy and as a research methodology were used. Evidence from the literature indicates that most studies following the 'descriptive approach' to research are used to illuminate poorly understood aspects of experiences. In contrast, the 'interpretive/hermeneutic approach' is used to examine contextual features of an experience in relation to other influences such as culture, gender, employment or wellbeing of people or groups experiencing the phenomenon. This allows investigators to arrive at a deeper understanding of the experience, so that caregivers can derive requisite knowledge needed to address such clients' needs. Novice nurse researchers should endeavour to understand phenomenology both as a philosophy and research method. This is vitally important because in-depth understanding of phenomenology ensures that the most appropriate method is chosen to implement a study and to generate knowledge for nursing practice. This paper adds to the current

  9. Geometric Lagrangian approach to the physical degree of freedom count in field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, Bogar; Montesinos, Merced

    2018-05-01

    To circumvent some technical difficulties faced by the geometric Lagrangian approach to the physical degree of freedom count presented in the work of Díaz, Higuita, and Montesinos [J. Math. Phys. 55, 122901 (2014)] that prevent its direct implementation to field theory, in this paper, we slightly modify the geometric Lagrangian approach in such a way that its resulting version works perfectly for field theory (and for particle systems, of course). As in previous work, the current approach also allows us to directly get the Lagrangian constraints, a new Lagrangian formula for the counting of the number of physical degrees of freedom, the gauge transformations, and the number of first- and second-class constraints for any action principle based on a Lagrangian depending on the fields and their first derivatives without performing any Dirac's canonical analysis. An advantage of this approach over the previous work is that it also allows us to handle the reducibility of the constraints and to get the off-shell gauge transformations. The theoretical framework is illustrated in 3-dimensional generalized general relativity (Palatini and Witten's exotic actions), Chern-Simons theory, 4-dimensional BF theory, and 4-dimensional general relativity given by Palatini's action with a cosmological constant.

  10. Leading-order classical Lagrangians for the nonminimal standard-model extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, J. A. A. S.; Schreck, M.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we derive the general leading-order classical Lagrangian covering all fermion operators of the nonminimal standard-model extension (SME). Such a Lagrangian is considered to be the point-particle analog of the effective field theory description of Lorentz violation that is provided by the SME. At leading order in Lorentz violation, the Lagrangian obtained satisfies the set of five nonlinear equations that govern the map from the field theory to the classical description. This result can be of use for phenomenological studies of classical bodies in gravitational fields.

  11. Symmetries of SU(2) Skyrmion in Hamiltonian and Lagrangian Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Soon-Tae; Kim, Yong-Wan; Park, Young-Jai

    We apply the Batalin-Fradkin-Tyutin (BFT) method to the SU(2) Skyrmion to study the full symmetry structure of the model at the first-class Hamiltonian level. On the other hand, we also analyze the symmetry structure of the action having the WZ term, which corresponds to this Hamiltonian, in the framework of the Lagrangian approach. Furthermore, following the BFV formalism we derive the BRST invariant gauge fixed Lagrangian from the above extended action.

  12. Nonpolynomial Lagrangian approach to regular black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colléaux, Aimeric; Chinaglia, Stefano; Zerbini, Sergio

    We present a review on Lagrangian models admitting spherically symmetric regular black holes (RBHs), and cosmological bounce solutions. Nonlinear electrodynamics, nonpolynomial gravity, and fluid approaches are explained in details. They consist respectively in a gauge invariant generalization of the Maxwell-Lagrangian, in modifications of the Einstein-Hilbert action via nonpolynomial curvature invariants, and finally in the reconstruction of density profiles able to cure the central singularity of black holes. The nonpolynomial gravity curvature invariants have the special property to be second-order and polynomial in the metric field, in spherically symmetric spacetimes. Along the way, other models and results are discussed, and some general properties that RBHs should satisfy are mentioned. A covariant Sakharov criterion for the absence of singularities in dynamical spherically symmetric spacetimes is also proposed and checked for some examples of such regular metric fields.

  13. Researching Embodiment in Movement Contexts: A Phenomenological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standal, Oyvind F.; Engelsrud, Gunn

    2013-01-01

    This article takes a phenomenological approach to understanding embodiment in relation to teaching and learning taking place in movement contexts. Recently a number of studies have pointed to the potential that phenomenology has to understand the meanings and experiences of moving subjects. By presenting two examples of our own work on embodied…

  14. From Husserl to van Manen. A review of different phenomenological approaches.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Maura

    2007-01-01

    This paper traces the development of phenomenology as a philosophy originating from the writings of Husserl to its use in phenomenological research and theory development in nursing. The key issues of phenomenological reduction and bracketing are also discussed as they play a pivotal role in the how phenomenological research studies are approached. What has become to be known as "new" phenomenology is also explored and the key differences between it and "traditional" phenomenology are discussed. van Manen's phenomenology is also considered in light of its contemporary popularity among nurse researchers.

  15. The Hamiltonian and Lagrangian approaches to the dynamics of nonholonomic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koon, Wang Sang; Marsden, Jerrold E.

    1997-08-01

    This paper compares the Hamiltonian approach to systems with nonholonomic constraints (see [31, 2, 4, 29] and references therein) with the Lagrangian approach (see [16, 27, 9]). There are many differences in the approaches and each has its own advantages; some structures have been discovered on one side and their analogues on the other side are interesting to clarify. For example, the momentum equation and the reconstruction equation were first found on the Lagrangian side and are useful for the control theory of these systems, while the failure of the reduced two-form to be closed (i.e., the failure of the Poisson bracket to satisfy the Jacobi identity) was first noticed on the Hamiltonian side. Clarifying the relation between these approaches is important for the future development of the control theory and stability and bifurcation theory for such systems. In addition to this work, we treat, in this unified framework, a simplified model of the bicycle (see [12, 13]), which is an important underactuated (nonminimum phase) control system.

  16. Asymptotic-preserving Lagrangian approach for modeling anisotropic transport in magnetized plasmas for arbitrary magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacon, Luis; Del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego; Hauck, Cory

    2012-10-01

    Modeling electron transport in magnetized plasmas is extremely challenging due to the extreme anisotropy between parallel (to the magnetic field) and perpendicular directions (χ/χ˜10^10 in fusion plasmas). Recently, a Lagrangian Green's function approach, developed for the purely parallel transport case,footnotetextD. del-Castillo-Negrete, L. Chac'on, PRL, 106, 195004 (2011)^,footnotetextD. del-Castillo-Negrete, L. Chac'on, Phys. Plasmas, 19, 056112 (2012) has been extended to the anisotropic transport case in the tokamak-ordering limit with constant density.footnotetextL. Chac'on, D. del-Castillo-Negrete, C. Hauck, JCP, submitted (2012) An operator-split algorithm is proposed that allows one to treat Eulerian and Lagrangian components separately. The approach is shown to feature bounded numerical errors for arbitrary χ/χ ratios, which renders it asymptotic-preserving. In this poster, we will present the generalization of the Lagrangian approach to arbitrary magnetic fields. We will demonstrate the potential of the approach with various challenging configurations, including the case of transport across a magnetic island in cylindrical geometry.

  17. Asymptotic-preserving Lagrangian approach for modeling anisotropic transport in magnetized plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacon, Luis; Del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego

    2012-03-01

    Modeling electron transport in magnetized plasmas is extremely challenging due to the extreme anisotropy between parallel (to the magnetic field) and perpendicular directions (the transport-coefficient ratio χ/χ˜10^10 in fusion plasmas). Recently, a novel Lagrangian Green's function method has been proposedfootnotetextD. del-Castillo-Negrete, L. Chac'on, PRL, 106, 195004 (2011); D. del-Castillo-Negrete, L. Chac'on, Phys. Plasmas, submitted (2011) to solve the local and non-local purely parallel transport equation in general 3D magnetic fields. The approach avoids numerical pollution, is inherently positivity-preserving, and is scalable algorithmically (i.e., work per degree-of-freedom is grid-independent). In this poster, we discuss the extension of the Lagrangian Green's function approach to include perpendicular transport terms and sources. We present an asymptotic-preserving numerical formulation, which ensures a consistent numerical discretization temporally and spatially for arbitrary χ/χ ratios. We will demonstrate the potential of the approach with various challenging configurations, including the case of transport across a magnetic island in cylindrical geometry.

  18. Interdisciplinary Approaches to the Phenomenology of Auditory Verbal Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Angela; Jones, Nev; Bernini, Marco; Callard, Felicity; Alderson-Day, Ben; Badcock, Johanna C.; Bell, Vaughan; Cook, Chris C. H.; Csordas, Thomas; Humpston, Clara; Krueger, Joel; Larøi, Frank; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Moseley, Peter; Powell, Hilary; Raballo, Andrea; Smailes, David; Fernyhough, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Despite the recent proliferation of scientific, clinical, and narrative accounts of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), the phenomenology of voice hearing remains opaque and undertheorized. In this article, we outline an interdisciplinary approach to understanding hallucinatory experiences which seeks to demonstrate the value of the humanities and social sciences to advancing knowledge in clinical research and practice. We argue that an interdisciplinary approach to the phenomenology of AVH utilizes rigorous and context-appropriate methodologies to analyze a wider range of first-person accounts of AVH at 3 contextual levels: (1) cultural, social, and historical; (2) experiential; and (3) biographical. We go on to show that there are significant potential benefits for voice hearers, clinicians, and researchers. These include (1) informing the development and refinement of subtypes of hallucinations within and across diagnostic categories; (2) “front-loading” research in cognitive neuroscience; and (3) suggesting new possibilities for therapeutic intervention. In conclusion, we argue that an interdisciplinary approach to the phenomenology of AVH can nourish the ethical core of scientific enquiry by challenging its interpretive paradigms, and offer voice hearers richer, potentially more empowering ways to make sense of their experiences. PMID:24903416

  19. Hearing the Voices of Students and Teachers: A Phenomenological Approach to Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohn, Brian Kelleher; Thomas, Sandra P.; Greenberg, Katherine H.; Pollio, Howard R.

    2017-01-01

    Many contemporary researchers claim to use a phenomenological approach but seldom connect their methods to tenets from phenomenological philosophy. We describe a distinctive approach, grounded in the writings of French philosopher Maurice Merleau-Ponty, for conducting educational research. Procedures are outlined for bracketing pre-understandings…

  20. Modeling of combustion processes of stick propellants via combined Eulerian-Lagrangian approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, K. K.; Hsieh, K. C.; Athavale, M. M.

    1988-01-01

    This research is motivated by the improved ballistic performance of large-caliber guns using stick propellant charges. A comprehensive theoretical model for predicting the flame spreading, combustion, and grain deformation phenomena of long, unslotted stick propellants is presented. The formulation is based upon a combined Eulerian-Lagrangian approach to simulate special characteristics of the two phase combustion process in a cartridge loaded with a bundle of sticks. The model considers five separate regions consisting of the internal perforation, the solid phase, the external interstitial gas phase, and two lumped parameter regions at either end of the stick bundle. For the external gas phase region, a set of transient one-dimensional fluid-dynamic equations using the Eulerian approach is obtained; governing equations for the stick propellants are formulated using the Lagrangian approach. The motion of a representative stick is derived by considering the forces acting on the entire propellant stick. The instantaneous temperature and stress fields in the stick propellant are modeled by considering the transient axisymmetric heat conduction equation and dynamic structural analysis.

  1. Unsteady force estimation using a Lagrangian drift-volume approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhaden, Cameron J.; Rival, David E.

    2018-04-01

    A novel Lagrangian force estimation technique for unsteady fluid flows has been developed, using the concept of a Darwinian drift volume to measure unsteady forces on accelerating bodies. The construct of added mass in viscous flows, calculated from a series of drift volumes, is used to calculate the reaction force on an accelerating circular flat plate, containing highly-separated, vortical flow. The net displacement of fluid contained within the drift volumes is, through Darwin's drift-volume added-mass proposition, equal to the added mass of the plate and provides the reaction force of the fluid on the body. The resultant unsteady force estimates from the proposed technique are shown to align with the measured drag force associated with a rapid acceleration. The critical aspects of understanding unsteady flows, relating to peak and time-resolved forces, often lie within the acceleration phase of the motions, which are well-captured by the drift-volume approach. Therefore, this Lagrangian added-mass estimation technique opens the door to fluid-dynamic analyses in areas that, until now, were inaccessible by conventional means.

  2. A LES-based Eulerian-Lagrangian approach to predict the dynamics of bubble plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraga, Bruño; Stoesser, Thorsten; Lai, Chris C. K.; Socolofsky, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    An approach for Eulerian-Lagrangian large-eddy simulation of bubble plume dynamics is presented and its performance evaluated. The main numerical novelties consist in defining the gas-liquid coupling based on the bubble size to mesh resolution ratio (Dp/Δx) and the interpolation between Eulerian and Lagrangian frameworks through the use of delta functions. The model's performance is thoroughly validated for a bubble plume in a cubic tank in initially quiescent water using experimental data obtained from high-resolution ADV and PIV measurements. The predicted time-averaged velocities and second-order statistics show good agreement with the measurements, including the reproduction of the anisotropic nature of the plume's turbulence. Further, the predicted Eulerian and Lagrangian velocity fields, second-order turbulence statistics and interfacial gas-liquid forces are quantified and discussed as well as the visualization of the time-averaged primary and secondary flow structure in the tank.

  3. Lagrangian approach to understanding the origin of the gill-kinematics switch in mayfly nymphs.

    PubMed

    Chabreyrie, R; Balaras, E; Abdelaziz, K; Kiger, K

    2014-12-01

    The mayfly nymph breathes under water through an oscillating array of plate-shaped tracheal gills. As the nymph grows, the kinematics of these gills change abruptly from rowing to flapping. The classical fluid dynamics approach to consider the mayfly nymph as a pumping device fails in giving clear reasons for this switch. In order to shed some light on this switch between the two distinct kinematics, we analyze the problem under a Lagrangian viewpoint. We consider that a good Lagrangian transport that effectively distributes and stirs water and dissolved oxygen between and around the gills is the main goal of the gill motion. Using this Lagrangian approach, we are able to provide possible reasons behind the observed switch from rowing to flapping. More precisely, we conduct a series of in silico mayfly nymph experiments, where body shape, as well as gill shapes, structures, and kinematics are matched to those from in vivo. In this paper, we show both qualitatively and quantitatively how the change of kinematics enables better attraction, confinement, and stirring of water charged of dissolved oxygen inside the gills area. We reveal the attracting barriers to transport, i.e., attracting Lagrangian coherent structures, that form the transport skeleton between and around the gills. In addition, we quantify how well the fluid particles are stirred inside the gills area, which by extension leads us to conclude that it will increase the proneness of molecules of dissolved oxygen to be close enough to the gills for extraction.

  4. Asymptotic-preserving Lagrangian approach for modeling anisotropic transport in magnetized plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacon, Luis; Del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego

    2011-10-01

    Modeling electron transport in magnetized plasmas is extremely challenging due to the extreme anisotropy introduced by the presence of the magnetic field (χ∥ /χ⊥ ~1010 in fusion plasmas). Recently, a novel Lagrangian method has been proposed to solve the local and non-local purely parallel transport equation in general 3D magnetic fields. The approach avoids numerical pollution (in fact, it respects transport barriers -flux surfaces- exactly by construction), is inherently positivity-preserving, and is scalable algorithmically (i.e., work per degree-of-freedom is grid-independent). In this poster, we discuss the extension of the Lagrangian approach to include perpendicular transport and sources. We present an asymptotic-preserving numerical formulation that ensures a consistent numerical discretization temporally and spatially for arbitrary χ∥ /χ⊥ ratios. This is of importance because parallel and perpendicular transport terms in the transport equation may become comparable in regions of the plasma (e.g., at incipient islands), while remaining disparate elsewhere. We will demonstrate the potential of the approach with various challenging configurations, including the case of transport across a magnetic island in cylindrical geometry. D. del-Castillo-Negrete, L. Chacón, PRL, 106, 195004 (2011); DPP11 invited talk by del-Castillo-Negrete.

  5. Eulerian and Lagrangian approaches to multidimensional condensation and collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang-Yu; Brandenburg, A.; Haugen, N. E. L.; Svensson, G.

    2017-06-01

    Turbulence is argued to play a crucial role in cloud droplet growth. The combined problem of turbulence and cloud droplet growth is numerically challenging. Here an Eulerian scheme based on the Smoluchowski equation is compared with two Lagrangian superparticle (or superdroplet) schemes in the presence of condensation and collection. The growth processes are studied either separately or in combination using either two-dimensional turbulence, a steady flow or just gravitational acceleration without gas flow. Good agreement between the different schemes for the time evolution of the size spectra is observed in the presence of gravity or turbulence. The Lagrangian superparticle schemes are found to be superior over the Eulerian one in terms of computational performance. However, it is shown that the use of interpolation schemes such as the cloud-in-cell algorithm is detrimental in connection with superparticle or superdroplet approaches. Furthermore, the use of symmetric over asymmetric collection schemes is shown to reduce the amount of scatter in the results. For the Eulerian scheme, gravitational collection is rather sensitive to the mass bin resolution, but not so in the case with turbulence.Plain Language SummaryThe bottleneck problem of cloud droplet growth is one of the most challenging problems in cloud physics. Cloud droplet growth is neither dominated by condensation nor gravitational collision in the size range of 15 μm ˜ 40 μm [1]. Turbulence-generated collection has been thought to be the mechanism to bridge the size gap, i.e., the bottleneck problem. This study compares the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> and Eulerian schemes in detail to tackle with the turbulence-generated collection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27415358','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27415358"><span>Spectral-clustering <span class="hlt">approach</span> to <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> vortex detection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hadjighasem, Alireza; Karrasch, Daniel; Teramoto, Hiroshi; Haller, George</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>One of the ubiquitous features of real-life turbulent flows is the existence and persistence of coherent vortices. Here we show that such coherent vortices can be extracted as clusters of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> trajectories. We carry out the clustering on a weighted graph, with the weights measuring pairwise distances of fluid trajectories in the extended phase space of positions and time. We then extract coherent vortices from the graph using tools from spectral graph theory. Our method locates all coherent vortices in the flow simultaneously, thereby showing high potential for automated vortex tracking. We illustrate the performance of this technique by identifying coherent <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> vortices in several two- and three-dimensional flows.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvD..96l3538A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvD..96l3538A"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> theory of structure formation in relativistic cosmology. IV. <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> to gravitational waves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Al Roumi, Fosca; Buchert, Thomas; Wiegand, Alexander</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>The relativistic generalization of the Newtonian <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> perturbation theory is investigated. In previous works, the perturbation and solution schemes that are generated by the spatially projected gravitoelectric part of the Weyl tensor were given to any order of the perturbations, together with extensions and applications for accessing the nonperturbative regime. We here discuss more in detail the general first-order scheme within the Cartan formalism including and concentrating on the gravitational wave propagation in matter. We provide master equations for all parts of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>-linearized perturbations propagating in the perturbed spacetime, and we outline the solution procedure that allows one to find general solutions. Particular emphasis is given to global properties of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> perturbation fields by employing results of Hodge-de Rham theory. We here discuss how the Hodge decomposition relates to the standard scalar-vector-tensor decomposition. Finally, we demonstrate that we obtain the known linear perturbation solutions of the standard relativistic perturbation scheme by performing two steps: first, by restricting our solutions to perturbations that propagate on a flat unperturbed background spacetime and, second, by transforming to Eulerian background coordinates with truncation of nonlinear terms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26827193','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26827193"><span>Communication: A simplified coupled-cluster <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> for polarizable embedding.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Krause, Katharina; Klopper, Wim</p> <p>2016-01-28</p> <p>A simplified coupled-cluster <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>, which is linear in the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> multipliers, is proposed for the coupled-cluster treatment of a quantum mechanical system in a polarizable environment. In the simplified <span class="hlt">approach</span>, the amplitude equations are decoupled from the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> multipliers and the energy obtained from the projected coupled-cluster equation corresponds to a stationary point of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22493676-communication-simplified-coupled-cluster-lagrangian-polarizable-embedding','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22493676-communication-simplified-coupled-cluster-lagrangian-polarizable-embedding"><span>Communication: A simplified coupled-cluster <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> for polarizable embedding</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Krause, Katharina; Klopper, Wim, E-mail: klopper@kit.edu</p> <p></p> <p>A simplified coupled-cluster <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>, which is linear in the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> multipliers, is proposed for the coupled-cluster treatment of a quantum mechanical system in a polarizable environment. In the simplified <span class="hlt">approach</span>, the amplitude equations are decoupled from the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> multipliers and the energy obtained from the projected coupled-cluster equation corresponds to a stationary point of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20068190','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20068190"><span>What makes a <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> study <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span>? An analysis of peer-reviewed empirical nursing studies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Norlyk, Annelise; Harder, Ingegerd</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>This article contributes to the debate about <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> as a research <span class="hlt">approach</span> in nursing by providing a systematic review of what nurse researchers hold as <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> in published empirical studies. Based on the assumption that presentations of <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approaches</span> in peer-reviewed journals have consequences for the quality of future research, the aim was to analyze articles presenting <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> studies and, in light of the findings, raise a discussion about addressing scientific criteria. The analysis revealed considerable variations, ranging from brief to detailed descriptions of the stated <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span>, and from inconsistencies to methodological clarity and rigor. Variations, apparent inconsistencies, and omissions made it unclear what makes a <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> study <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span>. There is a need for clarifying how the principles of the <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> philosophy are implemented in a particular study before publishing. This should include an articulation of methodological keywords of the investigated phenomenon, and how an open attitude was adopted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JCoPh.351..422P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JCoPh.351..422P"><span>An adaptive reconstruction for <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>, direct-forcing, immersed-boundary methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Posa, Antonio; Vanella, Marcos; Balaras, Elias</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>, direct-forcing, immersed boundary (IB) methods have been receiving increased attention due to their robustness in complex fluid-structure interaction problems. They are very sensitive, however, on the selection of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> grid, which is typically used to define a solid or flexible body immersed in a fluid flow. In the present work we propose a cost-efficient solution to this problem without compromising accuracy. Central to our <span class="hlt">approach</span> is the use of isoparametric mapping to bridge the relative resolution requirements of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> IB, and Eulerian grids. With this <span class="hlt">approach</span>, the density of surface <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> markers, which is essential to properly enforce boundary conditions, is adapted dynamically based on the characteristics of the underlying Eulerian grid. The markers are not stored and the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> data-structure is not modified. The proposed scheme is implemented in the framework of a moving least squares reconstruction formulation, but it can be adapted to any <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>, direct-forcing formulation. The accuracy and robustness of the <span class="hlt">approach</span> is demonstrated in a variety of test cases of increasing complexity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DFDA34001M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DFDA34001M"><span>Analysis of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> stretching in turbulent channel flow using a database task-parallel particle tracking <span class="hlt">approach</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meneveau, Charles; Johnson, Perry; Hamilton, Stephen; Burns, Randal</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>An intrinsic property of turbulent flows is the exponential deformation of fluid elements along <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> paths. The production of enstrophy by vorticity stretching follows from a similar mechanism in the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> view, though the alignment statistics differ and viscosity prevents unbounded growth. In this paper, the stretching properties of fluid elements and vorticity along <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> paths are studied in a channel flow at Reτ = 1000 and compared with prior, known results from isotropic turbulence. To track <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> paths in a public database containing Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) results, the task-parallel <span class="hlt">approach</span> previously employed in the isotropic database is extended to the case of flow in a bounded domain. It is shown that above 100 viscous units from the wall, stretching statistics are equal to their isotropic values, in support of the local isotropy hypothesis. Normalized by dissipation rate, the stretching in the buffer layer and below is less efficient due to less favorable alignment statistics. The Cramér function characterizing cumulative <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> stretching statistics shows that overall the channel flow has about half of the stretching per unit dissipation compared with isotropic turbulence. Supported by a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program under Grant No. DGE-1232825, and by National Science Foundation Grants CBET-1507469, ACI-1261715, OCI-1244820 and by JHU IDIES.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22809180','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22809180"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> motion, coherent structures, and lines of persistent material strain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Samelson, R M</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> motion in geophysical fluids may be strongly influenced by coherent structures that support distinct regimes in a given flow. The problems of identifying and demarcating <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> regime boundaries associated with dynamical coherent structures in a given velocity field can be studied using <span class="hlt">approaches</span> originally developed in the context of the abstract geometric theory of ordinary differential equations. An essential insight is that when coherent structures exist in a flow, <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> regime boundaries may often be indicated as material curves on which the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>-mean principal-axis strain is large. This insight is the foundation of many numerical techniques for identifying such features in complex observed or numerically simulated ocean flows. The basic theoretical ideas are illustrated with a simple, kinematic traveling-wave model. The corresponding numerical algorithms for identifying candidate <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> regime boundaries and lines of principal <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> strain (also called <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> coherent structures) are divided into parcel and bundle schemes; the latter include the finite-time and finite-size Lyapunov exponent/<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> strain (FTLE/FTLS and FSLE/FSLS) metrics. Some aspects and results of oceanographic studies based on these <span class="hlt">approaches</span> are reviewed, and the results are discussed in the context of oceanographic observations of dynamical coherent structures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvA..81b2112K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvA..81b2112K"><span>Functional integral for non-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kochan, Denis</p> <p>2010-02-01</p> <p>A functional integral formulation of quantum mechanics for non-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> systems is presented. The <span class="hlt">approach</span>, which we call “stringy quantization,” is based solely on classical equations of motion and is free of any ambiguity arising from <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> and/or Hamiltonian formulation of the theory. The functionality of the proposed method is demonstrated on several examples. Special attention is paid to the stringy quantization of systems with a general A-power friction force -κq˙A. Results for A=1 are compared with those obtained in the <span class="hlt">approaches</span> by Caldirola-Kanai, Bateman, and Kostin. Relations to the Caldeira-Leggett model and to the Feynman-Vernon <span class="hlt">approach</span> are discussed as well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930040954&hterms=Lagrangian&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DLagrangian','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930040954&hterms=Lagrangian&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DLagrangian"><span>Computing 3-D steady supersonic flow via a new <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Loh, C. Y.; Liou, M.-S.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The new <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> method introduced by Loh and Hui (1990) is extended for 3-D steady supersonic flow computation. Details of the conservation form, the implementation of the local Riemann solver, and the Godunov and the high resolution TVD schemes are presented. The new <span class="hlt">approach</span> is robust yet accurate, capable of handling complicated geometry and reactions between discontinuous waves. It keeps all the advantages claimed in the 2-D method of Loh and Hui, e.g., crisp resolution for a slip surface (contact discontinuity) and automatic grid generation along the stream.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MNRAS.458.1517F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MNRAS.458.1517F"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> methods of cosmic web classification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fisher, J. D.; Faltenbacher, A.; Johnson, M. S. T.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The cosmic web defines the large-scale distribution of matter we see in the Universe today. Classifying the cosmic web into voids, sheets, filaments and nodes allows one to explore structure formation and the role environmental factors have on halo and galaxy properties. While existing studies of cosmic web classification concentrate on grid-based methods, this work explores a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> where the V-web algorithm proposed by Hoffman et al. is implemented with techniques borrowed from smoothed particle hydrodynamics. The <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> allows one to classify individual objects (e.g. particles or haloes) based on properties of their nearest neighbours in an adaptive manner. It can be applied directly to a halo sample which dramatically reduces computational cost and potentially allows an application of this classification scheme to observed galaxy samples. Finally, the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> nature admits a straightforward inclusion of the Hubble flow negating the necessity of a visually defined threshold value which is commonly employed by grid-based classification methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=science+AND+education&pg=2&id=EJ1062753','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=science+AND+education&pg=2&id=EJ1062753"><span>The Sociopolitical Importance of Genetic, <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">Approaches</span> to Science Teaching and Learning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bazzul, Jesse</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This article discusses Wolff-Michael Roth's theoretical framework for a <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span>, genetic <span class="hlt">approach</span> to science teaching and learning based on the work of Edmund Husserl. This <span class="hlt">approach</span> advocates the inclusion of student lifeworlds in science education and underlines the importance of thinking about subjectivity in both science and science…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25903879','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25903879"><span>Thermostating extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Martínez, Enrique; Cawkwell, Marc J; Voter, Arthur F; Niklasson, Anders M N</p> <p>2015-04-21</p> <p>Extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics is developed and analyzed for applications in canonical (NVT) simulations. Three different <span class="hlt">approaches</span> are considered: the Nosé and Andersen thermostats and Langevin dynamics. We have tested the temperature distribution under different conditions of self-consistent field (SCF) convergence and time step and compared the results to analytical predictions. We find that the simulations based on the extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Born-Oppenheimer framework provide accurate canonical distributions even under approximate SCF convergence, often requiring only a single diagonalization per time step, whereas regular Born-Oppenheimer formulations exhibit unphysical fluctuations unless a sufficiently high degree of convergence is reached at each time step. The thermostated extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> framework thus offers an accurate <span class="hlt">approach</span> to sample processes in the canonical ensemble at a fraction of the computational cost of regular Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=email+AND+writing&pg=2&id=ED550455','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=email+AND+writing&pg=2&id=ED550455"><span>Retention in Special Education Teachers in Georgia: A <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">Approach</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jackson, Arndra N.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this qualitative study using a <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> was to identify and examine factors influencing the retention rate of special education teachers in rural and urban schools in middle Georgia. Provided in this study are factors that are related to retention in special education teachers. Semistructured interviews were used to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8038622','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8038622"><span>"<span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span>" and qualitative research methods.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nakayama, Y</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span> is generally based on <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> tradition from Husserl to Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty. As philosophical stances provide the assumptions in research methods, different philosophical stances produce different methods. However, the term "<span class="hlt">phenomenology</span>" is used in various ways without the definition being given, such as <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span>, <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> method, <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> research, etc. The term "<span class="hlt">phenomenology</span>" is sometimes used as a paradigm and it is sometimes even viewed as synonymous with qualitative methods. As a result, the term "<span class="hlt">phenomenology</span>" leads to conceptual confusions in qualitative research methods. The purpose of this paper is to examine the term "<span class="hlt">phenomenology</span>" and explore philosophical assumptions, and discuss the relationship between philosophical stance and <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> as a qualitative research method in nursing.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li class="active"><span>2</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_2 --> <div id="page_3" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="41"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1422959','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1422959"><span>Thermostating extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Martínez, Enrique; Cawkwell, Marc J.; Voter, Arthur F.</p> <p></p> <p>Here, Extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics is developed and analyzed for applications in canonical (NVT) simulations. Three different <span class="hlt">approaches</span> are considered: the Nosé and Andersen thermostats and Langevin dynamics. We have tested the temperature distribution under different conditions of self-consistent field (SCF) convergence and time step and compared the results to analytical predictions. We find that the simulations based on the extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Born-Oppenheimer framework provide accurate canonical distributions even under approximate SCF convergence, often requiring only a single diagonalization per time step, whereas regular Born-Oppenheimer formulations exhibit unphysical fluctuations unless a sufficiently high degree of convergence is reached atmore » each time step. Lastly, the thermostated extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> framework thus offers an accurate <span class="hlt">approach</span> to sample processes in the canonical ensemble at a fraction of the computational cost of regular Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1422959-thermostating-extended-lagrangian-born-oppenheimer-molecular-dynamics','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1422959-thermostating-extended-lagrangian-born-oppenheimer-molecular-dynamics"><span>Thermostating extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Martínez, Enrique; Cawkwell, Marc J.; Voter, Arthur F.; ...</p> <p>2015-04-21</p> <p>Here, Extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics is developed and analyzed for applications in canonical (NVT) simulations. Three different <span class="hlt">approaches</span> are considered: the Nosé and Andersen thermostats and Langevin dynamics. We have tested the temperature distribution under different conditions of self-consistent field (SCF) convergence and time step and compared the results to analytical predictions. We find that the simulations based on the extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Born-Oppenheimer framework provide accurate canonical distributions even under approximate SCF convergence, often requiring only a single diagonalization per time step, whereas regular Born-Oppenheimer formulations exhibit unphysical fluctuations unless a sufficiently high degree of convergence is reached atmore » each time step. Lastly, the thermostated extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> framework thus offers an accurate <span class="hlt">approach</span> to sample processes in the canonical ensemble at a fraction of the computational cost of regular Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8421722','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8421722"><span>Alternative <span class="hlt">approaches</span> to research in physical therapy: positivism and <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shepard, K F; Jensen, G M; Schmoll, B J; Hack, L M; Gwyer, J</p> <p>1993-02-01</p> <p>This article presents philosophical <span class="hlt">approaches</span> to research in physical therapy. A comparison is made to demonstrate how the research purpose, research design, research methods, and research data differ when one <span class="hlt">approaches</span> research from the philosophical perspective of positivism (predominantly quantitative) as compared with the philosophical perspective of <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> (predominantly qualitative). Differences between the two <span class="hlt">approaches</span> are highlighted by examples from research articles published in Physical Therapy. The authors urge physical therapy researchers to become familiar with the tenets, rigor, and knowledge gained from the use of both <span class="hlt">approaches</span> in order to increase their options in conducting research relevant to the practice of physical therapy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930039947&hterms=sing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dsing','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930039947&hterms=sing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dsing"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> solution of supersonic real gas flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Loh, Ching-Yuen; Liou, Meng-Sing</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The present extention of a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> of the Riemann solution procedure, which was originally proposed for perfect gases, to real gases, is nontrivial and requires the development of an exact real-gas Riemann solver for the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> form of the conservation laws. Calculations including complex wave interactions of various types were conducted to test the accuracy and robustness of the <span class="hlt">approach</span>. Attention is given to the case of 2D oblique waves' capture, where a slip line is clearly in evidence; the real gas effect is demonstrated in the case of a generic engine nozzle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhyD..346...59X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhyD..346...59X"><span>Assimilating Eulerian and <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> data in traffic-flow models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xia, Chao; Cochrane, Courtney; DeGuire, Joseph; Fan, Gaoyang; Holmes, Emma; McGuirl, Melissa; Murphy, Patrick; Palmer, Jenna; Carter, Paul; Slivinski, Laura; Sandstede, Björn</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Data assimilation of traffic flow remains a challenging problem. One difficulty is that data come from different sources ranging from stationary sensors and camera data to GPS and cell phone data from moving cars. Sensors and cameras give information about traffic density, while GPS data provide information about the positions and velocities of individual cars. Previous methods for assimilating <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> data collected from individual cars relied on specific properties of the underlying computational model or its reformulation in <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> coordinates. These <span class="hlt">approaches</span> make it hard to assimilate both Eulerian density and <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> positional data simultaneously. In this paper, we propose an alternative <span class="hlt">approach</span> that allows us to assimilate both Eulerian and <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> data. We show that the proposed algorithm is accurate and works well in different traffic scenarios and regardless of whether ensemble Kalman or particle filters are used. We also show that the algorithm is capable of estimating parameters and assimilating real traffic observations and synthetic observations obtained from microscopic models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70011338','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70011338"><span>Euler-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> computation for estuarine hydrodynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cheng, Ralph T.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>The transport of conservative and suspended matter in fluid flows is a phenomenon of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> nature because the process is usually convection dominant. Nearly all numerical investigations of such problems use an Eulerian formulation for the convenience that the computational grids are fixed in space and because the vast majority of field data are collected in an Eulerian reference frame. Several examples are given in this paper to illustrate a modeling <span class="hlt">approach</span> which combines the advantages of both the Eulerian and <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> computational techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008secp.book.....R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008secp.book.....R"><span>The Self-Evolving Cosmos: A <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">Approach</span> to Nature's Unity-in-Diversity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rosen, Steven M.</p> <p></p> <p>ch. 1. Introduction: individuation and the quest for unity -- ch. 2. The obstacle to unification in modern physics. 2.1. Introduction. 2.2. Does contemporary mathematical physics actually depart from the classical formulation? -- ch. 3. The <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> challenge to the classical formula -- ch. 4. Topological <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span>. 4.1. Introduction. 4.2. <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> intuition, topology, and the Klein bottle. 4.3. The physical significance of the Klein bottle -- ch. 5. The dimensional family of topological spinors. 5.1. Generalization of intuitive topology. 5.2. Topodimensional spin matrix -- ch. 6. Basic principles of dimensional transformation. 6.1. Synsymmetry and the self-transformation of space. 6.2. From symmetry breaking to dimensional generation. 6.3. The three basic stages of dimensional generation. 6.4. Kleinian topogeny -- ch. 7. Waves carrying waves: the co-evolution of lifeworlds -- ch. 8. The forces of nature. 8.1. The phenomenon of light. 8.2. <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> Kaluza-Klein theory. 8.3. Summary comparison of conventional and topo-<span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approaches</span> to Kaluza-Klein theory -- ch. 9. Cosmogony, symmetry, and <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> intuition. 9.1. Conventional view of the evolving cosmos. 9.2. The problem of symmetry. 9.3. A new kind of clarity -- ch. 10. The self-evolving cosmos. 10.1. Introduction to the cosmogonic matrix. 10.2. Overview of cosmic evolution. 10.3. The role of the fermions in dimensional generation. 10.4. Projective stages of cosmogony: dimensional divergence. 10.5. Proprioceptive stages of cosmogony: dimensional convergence. 10.6. Conclusion: wider horizons of cosmic evolution -- ch. 11. The psychophysics of cosmogony. 11.1. Psychical aspects of the fundamental particles. 11.2. Toward a reflexive physics. 11.3. Concretization of the self-evolving cosmos.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12424957','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12424957"><span>[<span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span> and <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> method: their usefulness for nursing knowledge and practice].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vellone, E; Sinapi, N; Rastelli, D</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span> is a thought movement the main aim of which is to study human fenomena as they are experienced and lived. Key concepts of <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> are: the study of lived experience and subjectivity of human beings, the intentionality of consciousness, perception and interpretation. <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> research method has nine steps: definition of the research topic; superficial literature searching; sample selection; gathering of lived experiences; analysis of lived experiences; written synthesis of lived experiences; validation of written synthesis; deep literature searching; writing of the scientific document. <span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span> and <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> method are useful for nursing either to develop knowledge or to guide practice. Qualitative-<span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> and quantitative-positivistic research are complementary: the first one guides clinicians towards a person-centered <span class="hlt">approach</span>, the second one allows the manipulation of phenomena which can damage health, worsen illness or decrease the quality of life of people who rely on nursing care.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhyS...83c5007N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhyS...83c5007N"><span>Some <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span> for systems without a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nucci, M. C.; Leach, P. G. L.</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>We demonstrate how to construct many different <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span> for two famous examples that were deemed by Douglas (1941 Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 50 71-128) not to have a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>. Following Bateman's dictum (1931 Phys. Rev. 38 815-9), we determine different sets of equations that are compatible with those of Douglas and derivable from a variational principle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H21A1348C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H21A1348C"><span>A new <span class="hlt">approach</span> to enforce element-wise mass/species balance using the augmented <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chang, J.; Nakshatrala, K.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The least-squares finite element method (LSFEM) is one of many ways in which one can discretize and express a set of first ordered partial differential equations as a mixed formulation. However, the standard LSFEM is not locally conservative by design. The absence of this physical property can have serious implications in the numerical simulation of subsurface flow and transport. Two commonly employed ways to circumvent this issue is through the Lagrange multiplier method, which explicitly satisfies the element-wise divergence by introducing new unknowns, or through appending a penalty factor to the continuity constraint, which reduces the violation in the mass balance. However, these methodologies have some well-known drawbacks. Herein, we propose a new <span class="hlt">approach</span> to improve the local balance of species/mass balance. The <span class="hlt">approach</span> augments constraints to a least-square function by a novel mathematical construction of the local species/mass balance, which is different from the conventional ways. The resulting constrained optimization problem is solved using the augmented <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>, which corrects the balance errors in an iterative fashion. The advantages of this methodology are that the problem size is not increased (thus preserving the symmetry and positive definite-ness) and that one need not provide an accurate guess for the initial penalty to reach a prescribed mass balance tolerance. We derive the least-squares weighting needed to ensure accurate solutions. We also demonstrate the robustness of the weighted LSFEM coupled with the augmented <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> by solving large-scale heterogenous and variably saturated flow through porous media problems. The performance of the iterative solvers with respect to various user-defined augmented <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> parameters will be documented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017APS..DFDD37005K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017APS..DFDD37005K"><span>Investigation of erosion behavior in different pipe-fitting using Eulerian-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kulkarni, Harshwardhan; Khadamkar, Hrushikesh; Mathpati, Channamallikarjun</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>Erosion is a wear mechanism of piping system in which wall thinning occurs because of turbulent flow along with along with impact of solid particle on the pipe wall, because of this pipe ruptures causes costly repair of plant and personal injuries. In this study two way coupled Eulerian-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> is used to solve the liquid solid (water-ferrous suspension) flow in the different pipe fitting namely elbow, t-junction, reducer, orifice and 50% open gate valve. Simulations carried out using incomressible transient solver in OpenFOAM for different Reynolds's number (10k, 25k, 50k) and using WenYu drag model to find out possible higher erosion region in pipe fitting. Used transient solver is a hybrid in nature which is combination of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> library and pimpleFoam. Result obtained from simulation shows that exit region of elbow specially downstream of straight, extradose of the bend section more affected by erosion. Centrifugal force on solid particle at bend affect the erosion behavior. In case of t-junction erosion occurs below the locus of the projection of branch pipe on the wall. For the case of reducer, orifice and a gate valve reduction area as well as downstream is getting more affected by erosion because of increase in velocities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhFl...24h5101V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhFl...24h5101V"><span>A <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> subgrid-scale model with dynamic estimation of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> time scale for large eddy simulation of complex flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Verma, Aman; Mahesh, Krishnan</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>The dynamic <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> averaging <span class="hlt">approach</span> for the dynamic Smagorinsky model for large eddy simulation is extended to an unstructured grid framework and applied to complex flows. The <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> time scale is dynamically computed from the solution and does not need any adjustable parameter. The time scale used in the standard <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> model contains an adjustable parameter θ. The dynamic time scale is computed based on a "surrogate-correlation" of the Germano-identity error (GIE). Also, a simple material derivative relation is used to approximate GIE at different events along a pathline instead of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> tracking or multi-linear interpolation. Previously, the time scale for homogeneous flows was computed by averaging along directions of homogeneity. The present work proposes modifications for inhomogeneous flows. This development allows the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> averaged dynamic model to be applied to inhomogeneous flows without any adjustable parameter. The proposed model is applied to LES of turbulent channel flow on unstructured zonal grids at various Reynolds numbers. Improvement is observed when compared to other averaging procedures for the dynamic Smagorinsky model, especially at coarse resolutions. The model is also applied to flow over a cylinder at two Reynolds numbers and good agreement with previous computations and experiments is obtained. Noticeable improvement is obtained using the proposed model over the standard <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> model. The improvement is attributed to a physically consistent <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> time scale. The model also shows good performance when applied to flow past a marine propeller in an off-design condition; it regularizes the eddy viscosity and adjusts locally to the dominant flow features.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26456304','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26456304"><span>The Trapping Index: How to integrate the Eulerian and the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> for the computation of the transport time scales of semi-enclosed basins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cucco, Andrea; Umgiesser, Georg</p> <p>2015-09-15</p> <p>In this work, we investigated if the Eulerian and the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">approaches</span> for the computation of the Transport Time Scales (TTS) of semi-enclosed water bodies can be used univocally to define the spatial variability of basin flushing features. The Eulerian and <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> TTS were computed for both simplified test cases and a realistic domain: the Venice Lagoon. The results confirmed the two <span class="hlt">approaches</span> cannot be adopted univocally and that the spatial variability of the water renewal capacity can be investigated only through the computation of both the TTS. A specific analysis, based on the computation of a so-called Trapping Index, was then suggested to integrate the information provided by the two different <span class="hlt">approaches</span>. The obtained results proved the Trapping Index to be useful to avoid any misleading interpretation due to the evaluation of the basin renewal features just from an Eulerian only or from a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> only perspective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1437781-lagrangian-ocean-analysis-fundamentals-practices','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1437781-lagrangian-ocean-analysis-fundamentals-practices"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> ocean analysis: Fundamentals and practices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>van Sebille, Erik; Griffies, Stephen M.; Abernathey, Ryan; ...</p> <p>2017-11-24</p> <p><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> analysis is a powerful way to analyse the output of ocean circulation models and other ocean velocity data such as from altimetry. In the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span>, large sets of virtual particles are integrated within the three-dimensional, time-evolving velocity fields. A variety of tools and methods for this purpose have emerged, over several decades. Here, we review the state of the art in the field of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> analysis of ocean velocity data, starting from a fundamental kinematic framework and with a focus on large-scale open ocean applications. Beyond the use of explicit velocity fields, we consider the influence of unresolvedmore » physics and dynamics on particle trajectories. We comprehensively list and discuss the tools currently available for tracking virtual particles. We then showcase some of the innovative applications of trajectory data, and conclude with some open questions and an outlook. Our overall goal of this review paper is to reconcile some of the different techniques and methods in <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> ocean analysis, while recognising the rich diversity of codes that have and continue to emerge, and the challenges of the coming age of petascale computing.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018OcMod.121...49V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018OcMod.121...49V"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> ocean analysis: Fundamentals and practices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>van Sebille, Erik; Griffies, Stephen M.; Abernathey, Ryan; Adams, Thomas P.; Berloff, Pavel; Biastoch, Arne; Blanke, Bruno; Chassignet, Eric P.; Cheng, Yu; Cotter, Colin J.; Deleersnijder, Eric; Döös, Kristofer; Drake, Henri F.; Drijfhout, Sybren; Gary, Stefan F.; Heemink, Arnold W.; Kjellsson, Joakim; Koszalka, Inga Monika; Lange, Michael; Lique, Camille; MacGilchrist, Graeme A.; Marsh, Robert; Mayorga Adame, C. Gabriela; McAdam, Ronan; Nencioli, Francesco; Paris, Claire B.; Piggott, Matthew D.; Polton, Jeff A.; Rühs, Siren; Shah, Syed H. A. M.; Thomas, Matthew D.; Wang, Jinbo; Wolfram, Phillip J.; Zanna, Laure; Zika, Jan D.</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> analysis is a powerful way to analyse the output of ocean circulation models and other ocean velocity data such as from altimetry. In the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span>, large sets of virtual particles are integrated within the three-dimensional, time-evolving velocity fields. Over several decades, a variety of tools and methods for this purpose have emerged. Here, we review the state of the art in the field of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> analysis of ocean velocity data, starting from a fundamental kinematic framework and with a focus on large-scale open ocean applications. Beyond the use of explicit velocity fields, we consider the influence of unresolved physics and dynamics on particle trajectories. We comprehensively list and discuss the tools currently available for tracking virtual particles. We then showcase some of the innovative applications of trajectory data, and conclude with some open questions and an outlook. The overall goal of this review paper is to reconcile some of the different techniques and methods in <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> ocean analysis, while recognising the rich diversity of codes that have and continue to emerge, and the challenges of the coming age of petascale computing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1437781-lagrangian-ocean-analysis-fundamentals-practices','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1437781-lagrangian-ocean-analysis-fundamentals-practices"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> ocean analysis: Fundamentals and practices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>van Sebille, Erik; Griffies, Stephen M.; Abernathey, Ryan</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> analysis is a powerful way to analyse the output of ocean circulation models and other ocean velocity data such as from altimetry. In the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span>, large sets of virtual particles are integrated within the three-dimensional, time-evolving velocity fields. A variety of tools and methods for this purpose have emerged, over several decades. Here, we review the state of the art in the field of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> analysis of ocean velocity data, starting from a fundamental kinematic framework and with a focus on large-scale open ocean applications. Beyond the use of explicit velocity fields, we consider the influence of unresolvedmore » physics and dynamics on particle trajectories. We comprehensively list and discuss the tools currently available for tracking virtual particles. We then showcase some of the innovative applications of trajectory data, and conclude with some open questions and an outlook. Our overall goal of this review paper is to reconcile some of the different techniques and methods in <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> ocean analysis, while recognising the rich diversity of codes that have and continue to emerge, and the challenges of the coming age of petascale computing.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1194068-point-centered-arbitrary-lagrangian-eulerian-hydrodynamic-approach-tetrahedral-meshes','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1194068-point-centered-arbitrary-lagrangian-eulerian-hydrodynamic-approach-tetrahedral-meshes"><span>A point-centered arbitrary <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Eulerian hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">approach</span> for tetrahedral meshes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Morgan, Nathaniel R.; Waltz, Jacob I.; Burton, Donald E.; ...</p> <p>2015-02-24</p> <p>We present a three dimensional (3D) arbitrary <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Eulerian (ALE) hydrodynamic scheme suitable for modeling complex compressible flows on tetrahedral meshes. The new <span class="hlt">approach</span> stores the conserved variables (mass, momentum, and total energy) at the nodes of the mesh and solves the conservation equations on a control volume surrounding the point. This type of an <span class="hlt">approach</span> is termed a point-centered hydrodynamic (PCH) method. The conservation equations are discretized using an edge-based finite element (FE) <span class="hlt">approach</span> with linear basis functions. All fluxes in the new <span class="hlt">approach</span> are calculated at the center of each tetrahedron. A multidirectional Riemann-like problem is solved atmore » the center of the tetrahedron. The advective fluxes are calculated by solving a 1D Riemann problem on each face of the nodal control volume. A 2-stage Runge–Kutta method is used to evolve the solution forward in time, where the advective fluxes are part of the temporal integration. The mesh velocity is smoothed by solving a Laplacian equation. The details of the new ALE hydrodynamic scheme are discussed. Results from a range of numerical test problems are presented.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=pages+AND+taken&pg=2&id=ED568420','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=pages+AND+taken&pg=2&id=ED568420"><span>The Nontraditional Community College Student: A <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">Approach</span> to the Educational Experience</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tuel, Alexander D.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Nontraditional students make up a larger population at community colleges than their traditional counterparts making this study a necessity to further explore their experience (American Association of Community Colleges, 2013). To better understand this population, a <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> was taken with an emphasis on a social constructivism…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12779582','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12779582"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> averages, averaged <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span>, and the mean effects of fluctuations in fluid dynamics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Holm, Darryl D.</p> <p>2002-06-01</p> <p>We begin by placing the generalized <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> mean (GLM) equations for a compressible adiabatic fluid into the Euler-Poincare (EP) variational framework of fluid dynamics, for an averaged <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>. This is the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> averaged Euler-Poincare (LAEP) theorem. Next, we derive a set of approximate small amplitude GLM equations (glm equations) at second order in the fluctuating displacement of a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> trajectory from its mean position. These equations express the linear and nonlinear back-reaction effects on the Eulerian mean fluid quantities by the fluctuating displacements of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> trajectories in terms of their Eulerian second moments. The derivation of the glm equations uses the linearized relations between Eulerian and <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> fluctuations, in the tradition of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> stability analysis for fluids. The glm derivation also uses the method of averaged <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span>, in the tradition of wave, mean flow interaction. Next, the new glm EP motion equations for incompressible ideal fluids are compared with the Euler-alpha turbulence closure equations. An alpha model is a GLM (or glm) fluid theory with a Taylor hypothesis closure. Such closures are based on the linearized fluctuation relations that determine the dynamics of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> statistical quantities in the Euler-alpha equations. Thus, by using the LAEP theorem, we bridge between the GLM equations and the Euler-alpha closure equations, through the small-amplitude glm approximation in the EP variational framework. We conclude by highlighting a new application of the GLM, glm, and alpha-model results for <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> averaged ideal magnetohydrodynamics. (c) 2002 American Institute of Physics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JHEP...07..061G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JHEP...07..061G"><span>Parent formulation at the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> level</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grigoriev, Maxim</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>The recently proposed first-order parent formalism at the level of equations of motion is specialized to the case of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> systems. It is shown that for diffeomorphism-invariant theories the parent formulation takes the form of an AKSZ-type sigma model. The proposed formulation can be also seen as a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> version of the BV-BRST extension of the Vasiliev unfolded <span class="hlt">approach</span>. We also discuss its possible interpretation as a multidimensional generalization of the Hamiltonian BFV-BRST formalism. The general construction is illustrated by examples of (parametrized) mechanics, relativistic particle, Yang-Mills theory, and gravity.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930064132&hterms=Lagrangian&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DLagrangian','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930064132&hterms=Lagrangian&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DLagrangian"><span>Reduction of numerical diffusion in three-dimensional vortical flows using a coupled Eulerian/<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> solution procedure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Felici, Helene M.; Drela, Mark</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>A new <span class="hlt">approach</span> based on the coupling of an Eulerian and a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> solver, aimed at reducing the numerical diffusion errors of standard Eulerian time-marching finite-volume solvers, is presented. The <span class="hlt">approach</span> is applied to the computation of the secondary flow in two bent pipes and the flow around a 3D wing. Using convective point markers the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> provides a correction of the basic Eulerian solution. The Eulerian flow in turn integrates in time the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> state-vector. A comparison of coarse and fine grid Eulerian solutions makes it possible to identify numerical diffusion. It is shown that the Eulerian/<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> is an effective method for reducing numerical diffusion errors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1414156-lagrangian-discontinuous-galerkin-hydrodynamic-method','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1414156-lagrangian-discontinuous-galerkin-hydrodynamic-method"><span>A <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> discontinuous Galerkin hydrodynamic method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Liu, Xiaodong; Morgan, Nathaniel Ray; Burton, Donald E.</p> <p></p> <p>Here, we present a new <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> discontinuous Galerkin (DG) hydrodynamic method for solving the two-dimensional gas dynamic equations on unstructured hybrid meshes. The physical conservation laws for the momentum and total energy are discretized using a DG method based on linear Taylor expansions. Three different <span class="hlt">approaches</span> are investigated for calculating the density variation over the element. The first <span class="hlt">approach</span> evolves a Taylor expansion of the specific volume field. The second <span class="hlt">approach</span> follows certain finite element methods and uses the strong mass conservation to calculate the density field at a location inside the element or on the element surface. The thirdmore » <span class="hlt">approach</span> evolves a Taylor expansion of the density field. The nodal velocity, and the corresponding forces, are explicitly calculated by solving a multidirectional approximate Riemann problem. An effective limiting strategy is presented that ensures monotonicity of the primitive variables. This new <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> DG hydrodynamic method conserves mass, momentum, and total energy. Results from a suite of test problems are presented to demonstrate the robustness and expected second-order accuracy of this new method.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1414156-lagrangian-discontinuous-galerkin-hydrodynamic-method','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1414156-lagrangian-discontinuous-galerkin-hydrodynamic-method"><span>A <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> discontinuous Galerkin hydrodynamic method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Liu, Xiaodong; Morgan, Nathaniel Ray; Burton, Donald E.</p> <p>2017-12-11</p> <p>Here, we present a new <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> discontinuous Galerkin (DG) hydrodynamic method for solving the two-dimensional gas dynamic equations on unstructured hybrid meshes. The physical conservation laws for the momentum and total energy are discretized using a DG method based on linear Taylor expansions. Three different <span class="hlt">approaches</span> are investigated for calculating the density variation over the element. The first <span class="hlt">approach</span> evolves a Taylor expansion of the specific volume field. The second <span class="hlt">approach</span> follows certain finite element methods and uses the strong mass conservation to calculate the density field at a location inside the element or on the element surface. The thirdmore » <span class="hlt">approach</span> evolves a Taylor expansion of the density field. The nodal velocity, and the corresponding forces, are explicitly calculated by solving a multidirectional approximate Riemann problem. An effective limiting strategy is presented that ensures monotonicity of the primitive variables. This new <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> DG hydrodynamic method conserves mass, momentum, and total energy. Results from a suite of test problems are presented to demonstrate the robustness and expected second-order accuracy of this new method.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18578797','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18578797"><span>Heart transplantation experiences: a <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sadala, Maria Lúcia Araújo; Stolf, Noedir Antônio Groppo</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to understand the heart transplantation experience based on patients' descriptions. To patients with heart failure, heart transplantation represents a possibility to survive and improve their quality of life. Studies have shown that more quality of life is related to patients' increasing awareness and participation in the work of the healthcare team in the post-transplantation period. Deficient relationships between patients and healthcare providers result in lower compliance with the postoperative regimen. A <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> was used to interview 26 patients who were heart transplant recipients. Patients were interviewed individually and asked this single question: What does the experience of being heart transplanted mean? Participants' descriptions were analysed using <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> reduction, analysis and interpretation. Three categories emerged from data analysis: (i) the time lived by the heart recipient; (ii) donors, family and caregivers and (iii) reflections on the experience lived. Living after heart transplant means living in a complex situation: recipients are confronted with lifelong immunosuppressive therapy associated with many side-effects. Some felt healthy whereas others reported persistence of complications as well as the onset of other pathologies. However, all participants celebrated an improvement in quality of life. Health caregivers, their social and family support had been essential for their struggle. Participants realised that life after heart transplantation was a continuing process demanding support and structured follow-up for the rest of their lives. The findings suggest that each individual has unique experiences of the heart transplantation process. To go on living participants had to accept changes and adapt: to the organ change, to complications resulting from rejection of the organ, to lots of pills and food restrictions. Stimulating a heart transplant patients spontaneous expression about what</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JHEP...04..110A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JHEP...04..110A"><span><span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span> of the Higgs effective <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> via F eynR ules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alloul, Adam; Fuks, Benjamin; Sanz, Verónica</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>The Higgs discovery and the lack of any other hint for new physics favor a description of non-standard Higgs physics in terms of an effective field theory. We present an implementation of a general Higgs effective <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> containing operators up to dimension six in the framework of F eynR ules and provide details on the translation between the mass and interaction bases, in particular for three- and four-point interaction vertices involving Higgs and gauge bosons. We illustrate the strengths of this implementation by using the UFO interface of F eynR ules capable to generate model files that can be understood by the M adG raph 5 event generator and that have the specificity to contain all interaction vertices, without any restriction on the number of external legs or on the complexity of the Lorentz structures. We then investigate several new physics effects in total rates and differential distributions for different Higgs production modes, including gluon fusion, associated production with a gauge boson and di-Higgs production. We finally study contact interactions of gauge and Higgs bosons to fermions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNG23A..04D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNG23A..04D"><span>Bayesian <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Data Assimilation and Drifter Deployment Strategies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dutt, A.; Lermusiaux, P. F. J.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>Ocean currents transport a variety of natural (e.g. water masses, phytoplankton, zooplankton, sediments, etc.) and man-made materials and other objects (e.g. pollutants, floating debris, search and rescue, etc.). <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Coherent Structures (LCSs) or the most influential/persistent material lines in a flow, provide a robust <span class="hlt">approach</span> to characterize such <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> transports and organize classic trajectories. Using the flow-map stochastic advection and a dynamically-orthogonal decomposition, we develop uncertainty prediction schemes for both Eulerian and <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> variables. We then extend our Bayesian Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM)-DO filter to a joint Eulerian-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Bayesian data assimilation scheme. The resulting nonlinear filter allows the simultaneous non-Gaussian estimation of Eulerian variables (e.g. velocity, temperature, salinity, etc.) and <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> variables (e.g. drifter/float positions, trajectories, LCSs, etc.). Its results are showcased using a double-gyre flow with a random frequency, a stochastic flow past a cylinder, and realistic ocean examples. We further show how our Bayesian mutual information and adaptive sampling equations provide a rigorous efficient methodology to plan optimal drifter deployment strategies and predict the optimal times, locations, and types of measurements to be collected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017APS..DFDG28009L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017APS..DFDG28009L"><span>Scale-by-scale contributions to <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particle acceleration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lalescu, Cristian C.; Wilczek, Michael</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>Fluctuations on a wide range of scales in both space and time are characteristic of turbulence. <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particles, advected by the flow, probe these fluctuations along their trajectories. In an effort to isolate the influence of the different scales on <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> statistics, we employ direct numerical simulations (DNS) combined with a filtering <span class="hlt">approach</span>. Specifically, we study the acceleration statistics of tracers advected in filtered fields to characterize the smallest temporal scales of the flow. Emphasis is put on the acceleration variance as a function of filter scale, along with the scaling properties of the relevant terms of the Navier-Stokes equations. We furthermore discuss scaling ranges for higher-order moments of the tracer acceleration, as well as the influence of the choice of filter on the results. Starting from the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> tracer acceleration as the short time limit of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> velocity increment, we also quantify the influence of filtering on <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> intermittency. Our work complements existing experimental results on intermittency and accelerations of finite-sized, neutrally-buoyant particles: for the passive tracers used in our DNS, feedback effects are neglected such that the spatial averaging effect is cleanly isolated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730006017','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730006017"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> description of warm plasmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kim, H.</p> <p>1970-01-01</p> <p>Efforts are described to extend the averaged <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> method of describing small signal wave propagation and nonlinear wave interaction, developed by earlier workers for cold plasmas, to the more general conditions of warm collisionless plasmas, and to demonstrate particularly the effectiveness of the method in analyzing wave-wave interactions. The theory is developed for both the microscopic description and the hydrodynamic approximation to plasma behavior. First, a microscopic <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> is formulated rigorously, and expanded in terms of perturbations about equilibrium. Two methods are then described for deriving a hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>. In the first of these, the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> is obtained by velocity integration of the exact microscopic <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>. In the second, the expanded hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> is obtained directly from the expanded microscopic <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>. As applications of the microscopic <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>, the small-signal dispersion relations and the coupled mode equations are derived for all possible waves in a warm infinite, weakly inhomogeneous magnetoplasma, and their interactions are examined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810057814&hterms=averaged+lagrangian&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Daveraged%2Blagrangian','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810057814&hterms=averaged+lagrangian&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Daveraged%2Blagrangian"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> methods in nonlinear plasma wave interaction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Crawford, F. W.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Analysis of nonlinear plasma wave interactions is usually very complicated, and simplifying mathematical <span class="hlt">approaches</span> are highly desirable. The application of averaged-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> methods offers a considerable reduction in effort, with improved insight into synchronism and conservation (Manley-Rowe) relations. This chapter indicates how suitable <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> densities have been defined, expanded, and manipulated to describe nonlinear wave-wave and wave-particle interactions in the microscopic, macroscopic and cold plasma models. Recently, further simplifications have been introduced by the use of techniques derived from Lie algebra. These and likely future developments are reviewed briefly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhLB..772..694C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhLB..772..694C"><span>Extended hamiltonian formalism and Lorentz-violating <span class="hlt">lagrangians</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Colladay, Don</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>A new perspective on the classical mechanical formulation of particle trajectories in Lorentz-violating theories is presented. Using the extended hamiltonian formalism, a Legendre Transformation between the associated covariant <span class="hlt">lagrangian</span> and hamiltonian varieties is constructed. This <span class="hlt">approach</span> enables calculation of trajectories using Hamilton's equations in momentum space and the Euler-Lagrange equations in velocity space away from certain singular points that arise in the theory. Singular points are naturally de-singularized by requiring the trajectories to be smooth functions of both velocity and momentum variables. In addition, it is possible to identify specific sheets of the dispersion relations that correspond to specific solutions for the <span class="hlt">lagrangian</span>. Examples corresponding to bipartite Finsler functions are computed in detail. A direct connection between the <span class="hlt">lagrangians</span> and the field-theoretic solutions to the Dirac equation is also established for a special case.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017APS..DFDQ34007F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017APS..DFDQ34007F"><span>Uncertainty quantification in Eulerian-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> models for particle-laden flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fountoulakis, Vasileios; Jacobs, Gustaaf; Udaykumar, Hs</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>A common <span class="hlt">approach</span> to ameliorate the computational burden in simulations of particle-laden flows is to use a point-particle based Eulerian-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> model, which traces individual particles in their <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> frame and models particles as mathematical points. The particle motion is determined by Stokes drag law, which is empirically corrected for Reynolds number, Mach number and other parameters. The empirical corrections are subject to uncertainty. Treating them as random variables renders the coupled system of PDEs and ODEs stochastic. An <span class="hlt">approach</span> to quantify the propagation of this parametric uncertainty to the particle solution variables is proposed. The <span class="hlt">approach</span> is based on averaging of the governing equations and allows for estimation of the first moments of the quantities of interest. We demonstrate the feasibility of our proposed methodology of uncertainty quantification of particle-laden flows on one-dimensional linear and nonlinear Eulerian-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> systems. This research is supported by AFOSR under Grant FA9550-16-1-0008.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18999489','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18999489"><span><span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> to mechanical damage growth analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pugno, Nicola; Bosia, Federico; Gliozzi, Antonio S; Delsanto, Pier Paolo; Carpinteri, Alberto</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p>The problem of characterizing damage evolution in a generic material is addressed with the aim of tracing it back to existing growth models in other fields of research. Based on energetic considerations, a system evolution equation is derived for a generic damage indicator describing a material system subjected to an increasing external stress. The latter is found to fit into the framework of a recently developed <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> universality (PUN) <span class="hlt">approach</span> and, more specifically, the so-called U2 class. Analytical results are confirmed by numerical simulations based on a fiber-bundle model and statistically assigned local strengths at the microscale. The fits with numerical data prove, with an excellent degree of reliability, that the typical evolution of the damage indicator belongs to the aforementioned PUN class. Applications of this result are briefly discussed and suggested.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20840140','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20840140"><span><span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span> as research method or substantive metaphysics? An overview of <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span>'s uses in nursing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Earle, Vicki</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>In exploring <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> literature, it is evident that the term '<span class="hlt">phenomenology</span>' holds rather different meanings depending upon the context. <span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span> has been described as both a philosophical movement and an <span class="hlt">approach</span> to human science research. The <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> of Husserl, Heidegger, Gadamer, and Merleau-Ponty was philosophical in nature and not intended to provide rules or procedures for conducting research. The Canadian social scientist, van Manen, however, introduced specific guidelines for conducting human science research, which is rooted in hermeneutic <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> and this particular method has been employed in professional disciplines such as education, nursing, clinical psychology, and law. The purpose of this paper is to explore the difference between the <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> method as described by van Manen and that of other philosophers such as Husserl, Heidegger, Gadamer, and Merleau-Ponty. In so doing, the author aims to address the blurred boundaries of <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> as a research method and as a philosophical movement and highlight the influence of these blurred boundaries on nursing knowledge development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1270630','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1270630"><span>A <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> effective field theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Vlah, Zvonimir; White, Martin; Aviles, Alejandro</p> <p></p> <p>We have continued the development of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>, cosmological perturbation theory for the low-order correlators of the matter density field. We provide a new route to understanding how the effective field theory (EFT) of large-scale structure can be formulated in the Lagrandian framework and a new resummation scheme, comparing our results to earlier work and to a series of high-resolution N-body simulations in both Fourier and configuration space. The `new' terms arising from EFT serve to tame the dependence of perturbation theory on small-scale physics and improve agreement with simulations (though with an additional free parameter). We find that all ofmore » our models fare well on scales larger than about two to three times the non-linear scale, but fail as the non-linear scale is <span class="hlt">approached</span>. This is slightly less reach than has been seen previously. At low redshift the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> model fares as well as EFT in its Eulerian formulation, but at higher z the Eulerian EFT fits the data to smaller scales than resummed, <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> EFT. Furthermore, all the perturbative models fare better than linear theory.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22525478-lagrangian-effective-field-theory','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22525478-lagrangian-effective-field-theory"><span>A <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> effective field theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Vlah, Zvonimir; White, Martin; Aviles, Alejandro, E-mail: zvlah@stanford.edu, E-mail: mwhite@berkeley.edu, E-mail: aviles@berkeley.edu</p> <p></p> <p>We have continued the development of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>, cosmological perturbation theory for the low-order correlators of the matter density field. We provide a new route to understanding how the effective field theory (EFT) of large-scale structure can be formulated in the Lagrandian framework and a new resummation scheme, comparing our results to earlier work and to a series of high-resolution N-body simulations in both Fourier and configuration space. The 'new' terms arising from EFT serve to tame the dependence of perturbation theory on small-scale physics and improve agreement with simulations (though with an additional free parameter). We find that all ofmore » our models fare well on scales larger than about two to three times the non-linear scale, but fail as the non-linear scale is <span class="hlt">approached</span>. This is slightly less reach than has been seen previously. At low redshift the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> model fares as well as EFT in its Eulerian formulation, but at higher z the Eulerian EFT fits the data to smaller scales than resummed, <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> EFT. All the perturbative models fare better than linear theory.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1270630-lagrangian-effective-field-theory','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1270630-lagrangian-effective-field-theory"><span>A <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> effective field theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Vlah, Zvonimir; White, Martin; Aviles, Alejandro</p> <p>2015-09-02</p> <p>We have continued the development of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>, cosmological perturbation theory for the low-order correlators of the matter density field. We provide a new route to understanding how the effective field theory (EFT) of large-scale structure can be formulated in the Lagrandian framework and a new resummation scheme, comparing our results to earlier work and to a series of high-resolution N-body simulations in both Fourier and configuration space. The `new' terms arising from EFT serve to tame the dependence of perturbation theory on small-scale physics and improve agreement with simulations (though with an additional free parameter). We find that all ofmore » our models fare well on scales larger than about two to three times the non-linear scale, but fail as the non-linear scale is <span class="hlt">approached</span>. This is slightly less reach than has been seen previously. At low redshift the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> model fares as well as EFT in its Eulerian formulation, but at higher z the Eulerian EFT fits the data to smaller scales than resummed, <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> EFT. Furthermore, all the perturbative models fare better than linear theory.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29543383','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29543383"><span>Conducting <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> research: Rationalizing the methods and rigour of the <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> of practice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Errasti-Ibarrondo, Begoña; Jordán, José Antonio; Díez-Del-Corral, Mercedes P; Arantzamendi, María</p> <p>2018-07-01</p> <p>To offer a complete outlook in a readable easy way of van Manen's hermeneutic-<span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> method to nurses interested in undertaking <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> research. <span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span>, as research methodology, involves a certain degree of complexity. It is difficult to identify a single article or author which sets out the didactic guidelines that specifically guide research of this kind. In this context, the theoretical-practical view of Max van Manen's <span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span> of Practice may be seen as a rigorous guide and directive on which researchers may find support to undertake <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> research. Discussion paper. This discussion paper is based on our own experiences and supported by literature and theory. Our central sources of data have been the books and writings of Max van Manen and his website "Phenomenologyonline". The principal methods of the hermeneutic-<span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> method are addressed and explained providing an enriching overview of <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> of practice. A proposal is made for the way the suggestions made by van Manen might be organized for use with the methods involved in <span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span> of Practice: Social sciences, philosophical and philological methods. Thereby, nurse researchers interested in conducting <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> research may find a global outlook and support to understand and conduct this type of inquiry which draws on the art. The <span class="hlt">approach</span> in this article may help nurse scholars and researchers reach an overall, encompassing perspective of the main methods and activities involved in doing <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> research. Nurses interested in doing <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> of practice are expected to commit with reflection and writing. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009IJMPA..24.5319K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009IJMPA..24.5319K"><span>Quantization of Non-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kochan, Denis</p> <p></p> <p>A novel method for quantization of non-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> (open) systems is proposed. It is argued that the essential object, which provides both classical and quantum evolution, is a certain canonical two-form defined in extended velocity space. In this setting classical dynamics is recovered from the stringy-type variational principle, which employs umbilical surfaces instead of histories of the system. Quantization is then accomplished in accordance with the introduced variational principle. The path integral for the transition probability amplitude (propagator) is rearranged to a surface functional integral. In the standard case of closed (<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>) systems the presented method reduces to the standard Feynman's <span class="hlt">approach</span>. The inverse problem of the calculus of variation, the problem of quantization ambiguity and the quantum mechanics in the presence of friction are analyzed in detail.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28682719','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28682719"><span>Teaching <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> Research and Writing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Adams, Catherine; van Manen, Michael Anders</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>In this article, we describe our <span class="hlt">approach</span> and philosophical methodology of teaching and doing <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span>. The human science seminar that we offer involves participants in the primary <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> literature as well as in a variety of carefully engaged writing exercises. Each seminar participant selects a personal <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> project that aims at producing a publishable research paper. We show how the qualitative methodology of hermeneutic <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> requires of its practitioner a sensitivity and attitudinal disposition that has to be internalized and that cannot be captured in a procedural or step-by-step program. Our experience is that seminar participants become highly motivated and committed to their <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> project while involved in the rather intense progression of lectures, workshop activities, readings, and discussions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70164425','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70164425"><span>On tide-induced <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> residual current and residual transport: 1. <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> residual current</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Feng, Shizuo; Cheng, Ralph T.; Pangen, Xi</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Residual currents in tidal estuaries and coastal embayments have been recognized as fundamental factors which affect the long-term transport processes. It has been pointed out by previous studies that it is more relevant to use a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> mean velocity than an Eulerian mean velocity to determine the movements of water masses. Under weakly nonlinear approximation, the parameter k, which is the ratio of the net displacement of a labeled water mass in one tidal cycle to the tidal excursion, is assumed to be small. Solutions for tides, tidal current, and residual current have been considered for two-dimensional, barotropic estuaries and coastal seas. Particular attention has been paid to the distinction between the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> and Eulerian residual currents. When k is small, the first-order <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> residual is shown to be the sum of the Eulerian residual current and the Stokes drift. The <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> residual drift velocity or the second-order <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> residual current has been shown to be dependent on the phase of tidal current. The <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> drift velocity is induced by nonlinear interactions between tides, tidal currents, and the first-order residual currents, and it takes the form of an ellipse on a hodograph plane. Several examples are given to further demonstrate the unique properties of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> residual current.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22069184-about-non-standard-lagrangians-cosmology','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22069184-about-non-standard-lagrangians-cosmology"><span>About non standard <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span> in cosmology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dimitrijevic, Dragoljub D.; Milosevic, Milan</p> <p></p> <p>A review of non standard <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span> present in modern cosmological models will be considered. Well known example of non standard <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> is Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) type <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> for tachyon field. Another type of non standard <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> under consideration contains scalar field which describes open p-adic string tachyon and is called p-adic string theory <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>. We will investigate homogenous cases of both DBI and p-adic fields and obtain <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span> of the standard type which have the same equations of motions as aforementioned non standard one.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22572061-phenomenology-minimal-theory-massive-gravity','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22572061-phenomenology-minimal-theory-massive-gravity"><span><span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span> in minimal theory of massive gravity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Felice, Antonio De; Mukohyama, Shinji; Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe</p> <p>2016-04-15</p> <p>We investigate the minimal theory of massive gravity (MTMG) recently introduced. After reviewing the original construction based on its Hamiltonian in the vielbein formalism, we reformulate it in terms of its <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> in both the vielbein and the metric formalisms. It then becomes obvious that, unlike previous attempts in the literature of Lorentz-violating massive gravity, not only the potential but also the kinetic structure of the action is modified from the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley (dRGT) massive gravity theory. We confirm that the number of physical degrees of freedom in MTMG is two at fully nonlinear level. This proves the absence ofmore » various possible pathologies such as superluminality, acausality and strong coupling. Afterwards, we discuss the <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> of MTMG in the presence of a dust fluid. We find that on a flat homogeneous and isotropic background we have two branches. One of them (self-accelerating branch) naturally leads to acceleration without the genuine cosmological constant or dark energy. For this branch both the scalar and the vector modes behave exactly as in general relativity (GR). The <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> of this branch differs from GR in the tensor modes sector, as the tensor modes acquire a non-zero mass. Hence, MTMG serves as a stable nonlinear completion of the self-accelerating cosmological solution found originally in dRGT theory. The other branch (normal branch) has a dynamics which depends on the time-dependent fiducial metric. For the normal branch, the scalar mode sector, even though as in GR only one scalar mode is present (due to the dust fluid), differs from the one in GR, and, in general, structure formation will follow a different <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span>. The tensor modes will be massive, whereas the vector modes, for both branches, will have the same <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> as in GR.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12955966','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12955966"><span>Are <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> and postpositivism strange bedfellows?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Racher, Frances E; Robinson, Steven</p> <p>2003-08-01</p> <p>Researchers are advocating that a necessary condition of scholarly research is congruence between philosophical positions and research <span class="hlt">approaches</span>. <span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span> and postpositivism, traditionally, may appear to be situated in scientific inquiry as polar opposites and mutually exclusive paradigms. This article (a) describes the reflections of a nurse researcher and clarifies her philosophical assumptions; (b) delineates the postpositive paradigm and the interpretive paradigm, which traditionally includes <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span>; (c) discusses <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> as a philosophy, an <span class="hlt">approach</span>, and a research method; and (d) demonstrates the consistency between postpositivism and <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span>. Nurse researchers must be aware of their philosophical assumptions and appraise the philosophical underpinnings of the methodologies, but this process should not restrict and limit their exploration of possibilities and the creativity in their efforts to address the growing challenges that await nursing science research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740019118','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740019118"><span>A macroscopic plasma <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> and its application to wave interactions and resonances</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Peng, Y. K. M.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>The derivation of a macroscopic plasma <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> is considered, along with its application to the description of nonlinear three-wave interaction in a homogeneous plasma and linear resonance oscillations in a inhomogeneous plasma. One <span class="hlt">approach</span> to obtain the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> is via the inverse problem of the calculus of variations for arbitrary first and second order quasilinear partial differential systems. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the given equations to be Euler-Lagrange equations of a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> are obtained. These conditions are then used to determine the transformations that convert some classes of non-Euler-Lagrange equations to Euler-Lagrange equation form. The <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span> for a linear resistive transmission line and a linear warm collisional plasma are derived as examples. Using energy considerations, the correct macroscopic plasma <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> is shown to differ from the velocity-integrated low <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> by a macroscopic potential energy that equals twice the particle thermal kinetic energy plus the energy lost by heat conduction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22375832-simulating-universe-ii-phenomenology-cosmic-bubble-collisions-full-general-relativity','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22375832-simulating-universe-ii-phenomenology-cosmic-bubble-collisions-full-general-relativity"><span>Simulating the universe(s) II: <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> of cosmic bubble collisions in full general relativity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wainwright, Carroll L.; Aguirre, Anthony; Johnson, Matthew C.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Observing the relics of collisions between bubble universes would provide direct evidence for the existence of an eternally inflating Multiverse; the non-observation of such events can also provide important constraints on inflationary physics. Realizing these prospects requires quantitative predictions for observables from the properties of the possible scalar field <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span> underlying eternal inflation. Building on previous work, we establish this connection in detail. We perform a fully relativistic numerical study of the <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> of bubble collisions in models with a single scalar field, computing the comoving curvature perturbation produced in a wide variety of models. We also construct a setmore » of analytic predictions, allowing us to identify the <span class="hlt">phenomenologically</span> relevant properties of the scalar field <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>. The agreement between the analytic predictions and numerics in the relevant regions is excellent, and allows us to generalize our results beyond the models we adopt for the numerical studies. Specifically, the signature is completely determined by the spatial profile of the colliding bubble just before the collision, and the de Sitter invariant distance between the bubble centers. The analytic and numerical results support a power-law fit with an index 1< κ ∼< 2. For collisions between identical bubbles, we establish a lower-bound on the observed amplitude of collisions that is set by the present energy density in curvature.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70164423','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70164423"><span>On <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> residual currents with applications in south San Francisco Bay, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cheng, Ralph T.; Casulli, Vincenzo</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> residual circulation has often been introduced as the sum of the Eulerian residual circulation and the Stokes' drift. Unfortunately, this definition of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> residual circulation is conceptually incorrect because both the Eulerian residual circulation and the Stokes' drift are Eulerian variables. In this paper a classification of various residual variables are reviewed and properly defined. The <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> residual circulation is then studied by means of a two-stage formulation of a computer model. The tidal circulation is first computed in a conventional Eulerian way, and then the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> residual circulation is determined by a method patterned after the method of markers and cells. To demonstrate properties of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> residual circulation, application of this <span class="hlt">approach</span> in South San Francisco Bay, California, is considered. With the aid of the model results, properties of the Eulerian and <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> residual circulation are examined. It can be concluded that estimation of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> residual circulation from Eulerian data may lead to unacceptable error, particularly in a tidal estuary where the tidal excursion is of the same order of magnitude as the length scale of the basin. A direction calculation of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> residual circulation must be made and has been shown to be feasible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1913672M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1913672M"><span>Three dimensional <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> structures in the Antarctic Polar Vortex.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mancho, Ana M.; Garcia-Garrido, Victor J.; Curbelo, Jezabel; Niang, Coumba; Mechoso, Carlos R.; Wiggins, Stephen</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Dynamical systems theory has supported the description of transport processes in fluid dynamics. For understanding trajectory patterns in chaotic advection the geometrical <span class="hlt">approach</span> by Poincaré seeks for spatial structures that separate regions corresponding to qualitatively different types of trajectories. These structures have been referred to as <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Coherent Structures (LCS), which typically in geophysical flows are well described under the <span class="hlt">approach</span> of incompressible 2D flows. Different tools have been used to visualize LCS. In this presentation we use <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Descriptors [1,2,3,4] (function M) for visualizing 3D <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> structures in the atmosphere, in particular in the Antarctic Polar Vortex. The function M is computed in a fully 3D incompressible flow obtained from data provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast and it is represented in 2D surfaces. We discuss the findings during the final warming that took place in the spring of 1979 [5]. This research is supported by MINECO grant MTM2014-56392-R. Support is acknowledged also from CSIC grant COOPB20265, U.S. NSF grant AGS-1245069 and ONR grant No. N00014- 01-1-0769. C. Niang acknowledges Fundacion Mujeres por Africa and ICMAT Severo Ochoa project SEV-2011-0087 for financial support. [1] C. Mendoza, A. M. Mancho. The hidden geometry of ocean flows. Physical Review Letters 105 (2010), 3, 038501-1-038501-4. [2] A. M. Mancho, S. Wiggins, J. Curbelo, C. Mendoza. <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Descriptors: A Method for Revealing Phase Space Structures of General Time Dependent Dynamical Systems. Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation. 18 (2013) 3530-3557. [3] C. Lopesino, F. Balibrea-Iniesta, S. Wiggins and A. M. Mancho. <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> descriptors for two dimensional, area preserving autonomous and nonautonomous maps. Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulations, 27 (2015) (1-3), 40-51. [4] C. Lopesino, F. Balibrea-Iniesta, V. J. García-Garrido, S. Wiggins, and A</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970001872','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970001872"><span>An Extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Liou, Meng-Sing</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>A unique formulation of describing fluid motion is presented. The method, referred to as 'extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> method,' is interesting from both theoretical and numerical points of view. The formulation offers accuracy in numerical solution by avoiding numerical diffusion resulting from mixing of fluxes in the Eulerian description. The present method and the Arbitrary <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>-Eulerian (ALE) method have a similarity in spirit-eliminating the cross-streamline numerical diffusion. For this purpose, we suggest a simple grid constraint condition and utilize an accurate discretization procedure. This grid constraint is only applied to the transverse cell face parallel to the local stream velocity, and hence our method for the steady state problems naturally reduces to the streamline-curvature method, without explicitly solving the steady stream-coordinate equations formulated a priori. Unlike the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> method proposed by Loh and Hui which is valid only for steady supersonic flows, the present method is general and capable of treating subsonic flows and supersonic flows as well as unsteady flows, simply by invoking in the same code an appropriate grid constraint suggested in this paper. The <span class="hlt">approach</span> is found to be robust and stable. It automatically adapts to flow features without resorting to clustering, thereby maintaining rather uniform grid spacing throughout and large time step. Moreover, the method is shown to resolve multi-dimensional discontinuities with a high level of accuracy, similar to that found in one-dimensional problems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28682720','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28682720"><span><span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span> in Its Original Sense.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van Manen, Max</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>In this article, I try to think through the question, "What distinguishes <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> in its original sense?" My intent is to focus on the project and methodology of <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> in a manner that is not overly technical and that may help others to further elaborate on or question the singular features that make <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> into a unique qualitative form of inquiry. I pay special attention to the notion of "lived" in the <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> term "lived experience" to demonstrate its critical role and significance for understanding <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> reflection, meaning, analysis, and insights. I also attend to the kind of experiential material that is needed to focus on a genuine <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> question that should guide any specific research project. Heidegger, van den Berg, and Marion provide some poignant exemplars of the use of narrative "examples" in <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> explorations of the phenomena of "boredom," "conversation," and "the meaningful look in eye-contact." Only what is given or what gives itself in lived experience (or conscious awareness) are proper <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> "data" or "givens," but these givens are not to be confused with data material that can be coded, sorted, abstracted, and accordingly analyzed in some "systematic" manner. The latter <span class="hlt">approach</span> to experiential research may be appropriate and worthwhile for various types of qualitative inquiry but not for <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> in its original sense. Finally, I use the mythical figure of Kairos to show that the famous <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> couplet of the epoché-reduction aims for <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> insights that require experiential analysis and attentive (but serendipitous) methodical inquiry practices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1429745','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1429745"><span>Heuristic <span class="hlt">approach</span> to Satellite Range Scheduling with Bounds using <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Relaxation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Brown, Nathanael J. K.; Arguello, Bryan; Nozick, Linda Karen</p> <p></p> <p>This paper focuses on scheduling antennas to track satellites using a heuristic method. In order to validate the performance of the heuristic, bounds are developed using <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> relaxation. The performance of the algorithm is established using several illustrative problems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29051631','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29051631"><span>Acoustic streaming: an arbitrary <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>-Eulerian perspective.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nama, Nitesh; Huang, Tony Jun; Costanzo, Francesco</p> <p>2017-08-25</p> <p>We analyse acoustic streaming flows using an arbitrary <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Eulerian (ALE) perspective. The formulation stems from an explicit separation of time scales resulting in two subproblems: a first-order problem, formulated in terms of the fluid displacement at the fast scale, and a second-order problem, formulated in terms of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> flow velocity at the slow time scale. Following a rigorous time-averaging procedure, the second-order problem is shown to be intrinsically steady, and with exact boundary conditions at the oscillating walls. Also, as the second-order problem is solved directly for the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> velocity, the formulation does not need to employ the notion of Stokes drift, or any associated post-processing, thus facilitating a direct comparison with experiments. Because the first-order problem is formulated in terms of the displacement field, our formulation is directly applicable to more complex fluid-structure interaction problems in microacoustofluidic devices. After the formulation's exposition, we present numerical results that illustrate the advantages of the formulation with respect to current <span class="hlt">approaches</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940017007','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940017007"><span>A semi-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> to the shallow water equation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bates, J. R.; Mccormick, Stephen F.; Ruge, John; Sholl, David S.; Yavneh, Irad</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>We present a formulation of the shallow water equations that emphasizes the conservation of potential vorticity. A locally conservative semi-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> time-stepping scheme is developed, which leads to a system of three coupled PDE's to be solved at each time level. We describe a smoothing analysis of these equations, on which an effective multigrid solver is constructed. Some results from applying this solver to the static version of these equations are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980237451','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980237451"><span>Eulerian-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Simulations of Transonic Flutter Instabilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bendiksen, Oddvar O.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents an overview of recent applications of Eulerian-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> computational schemes in simulating transonic flutter instabilities. This <span class="hlt">approach</span>, the fluid-structure system is treated as a single continuum dynamics problem, by switching from an Eulerian to a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> formulation at the fluid-structure boundary. This computational <span class="hlt">approach</span> effectively eliminates the phase integration errors associated with previous methods, where the fluid and structure are integrated sequentially using different schemes. The formulation is based on Hamilton's Principle in mixed coordinates, and both finite volume and finite element discretization schemes are considered. Results from numerical simulations of transonic flutter instabilities are presented for isolated wings, thin panels, and turbomachinery blades. The results suggest that the method is capable of reproducing the energy exchange between the fluid and the structure with significantly less error than existing methods. Localized flutter modes and panel flutter modes involving traveling waves can also be simulated effectively with no a priori knowledge of the type of instability involved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29347330','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29347330"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> formulation and symmetrical description of liquid dynamics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Trachenko, K</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>Theoretical description of liquids has been primarily based on the hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">approach</span> and its generalization to the solid-like regime. We show that the same liquid properties can be derived starting from solid-like equations and generalizing them to account for the hydrodynamic flow. Both <span class="hlt">approaches</span> predict propagating shear waves with the notable gap in k-space. This gives an important symmetry of liquids regarding their description. We subsequently construct a two-field <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> of liquid dynamics where the dissipative hydrodynamic and solid-like terms are treated on equal footing. The <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> predicts two gapped waves propagating in opposite space-time directions. The dissipative and mass terms compete by promoting gaps in k-space and energy, respectively. When bare mass is close to the field hopping frequency, both gaps close and the dissipative term annihilates the bare mass.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvE..96f2134T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvE..96f2134T"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> formulation and symmetrical description of liquid dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Trachenko, K.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>Theoretical description of liquids has been primarily based on the hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">approach</span> and its generalization to the solid-like regime. We show that the same liquid properties can be derived starting from solid-like equations and generalizing them to account for the hydrodynamic flow. Both <span class="hlt">approaches</span> predict propagating shear waves with the notable gap in k -space. This gives an important symmetry of liquids regarding their description. We subsequently construct a two-field <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> of liquid dynamics where the dissipative hydrodynamic and solid-like terms are treated on equal footing. The <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> predicts two gapped waves propagating in opposite space-time directions. The dissipative and mass terms compete by promoting gaps in k -space and energy, respectively. When bare mass is close to the field hopping frequency, both gaps close and the dissipative term annihilates the bare mass.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985AmJPh..53..982J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985AmJPh..53..982J"><span>Form of the manifestly covariant <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Johns, Oliver Davis</p> <p>1985-10-01</p> <p>The preferred form for the manifestly covariant <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> function of a single, charged particle in a given electromagnetic field is the subject of some disagreement in the textbooks. Some authors use a ``homogeneous'' <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> and others use a ``modified'' form in which the covariant Hamiltonian function is made to be nonzero. We argue in favor of the ``homogeneous'' form. We show that the covariant <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> theories can be understood only if one is careful to distinguish quantities evaluated on the varied (in the sense of the calculus of variations) world lines from quantities evaluated on the unvaried world lines. By making this distinction, we are able to derive the Hamilton-Jacobi and Klein-Gordon equations from the ``homogeneous'' <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>, even though the covariant Hamiltonian function is identically zero on all world lines. The derivation of the Klein-Gordon equation in particular gives <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> theoretical support to the derivations found in standard quantum texts, and is also shown to be consistent with the Feynman path-integral method. We conclude that the ``homogeneous'' <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> is a completely adequate basis for covariant <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> theory both in classical and quantum mechanics. The article also explores the analogy with the Fermat theorem of optics, and illustrates a simple invariant notation for the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> and other four-vector equations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=metamorphosis&pg=2&id=EJ982019','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=metamorphosis&pg=2&id=EJ982019"><span>Franz Kafka in the Design Studio: A Hermeneutic-<span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">Approach</span> to Architectural Design Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hisarligil, Beyhan Bolak</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This article demonstrates the outcomes of taking a hermeneutic <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> to architectural design and discusses the potentials for imaginative reasoning in design education. This study tests the use of literature as a verbal form of art and design and the contribution it can make to imaginative design processes--which are all too…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24277435','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24277435"><span>Source apportion of atmospheric particulate matter: a joint Eulerian/<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Riccio, A; Chianese, E; Agrillo, G; Esposito, C; Ferrara, L; Tirimberio, G</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>PM2.5 samples were collected during an annual monitoring campaign (January 2012-January 2013) in the urban area of Naples, one of the major cities in Southern Italy. Samples were collected by means of a standard gravimetric sampler (Tecora Echo model) and characterized from a chemical point of view by ion chromatography. As a result, 143 samples together with their ionic composition have been collected. We extend traditional source apportionment techniques, usually based on multivariate factor analysis, interpreting the chemical analysis results within a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> framework. The Hybrid Single-Particle <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT) model was used, providing linkages to the source regions in the upwind areas. Results were analyzed in order to quantify the relative weight of different source types/areas. Model results suggested that PM concentrations are strongly affected not only by local emissions but also by transboundary emissions, especially from the Eastern and Northern European countries and African Saharan dust episodes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18518379','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18518379"><span>Extreme <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> acceleration in confined turbulent flow.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kadoch, Benjamin; Bos, Wouter J T; Schneider, Kai</p> <p>2008-05-09</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> study of two-dimensional turbulence for two different geometries, a periodic and a confined circular geometry, is presented to investigate the influence of solid boundaries on the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> dynamics. It is found that the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> acceleration is even more intermittent in the confined domain than in the periodic domain. The flatness of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> acceleration as a function of the radius shows that the influence of the wall on the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> dynamics becomes negligible in the center of the domain, and it also reveals that the wall is responsible for the increased intermittency. The transition in the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> statistics between this region, not directly influenced by the walls, and a critical radius which defines a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> boundary layer is shown to be very sharp with a sudden increase of the acceleration flatness from about 5 to about 20.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CMaPh.351..689B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CMaPh.351..689B"><span>A Constructive <span class="hlt">Approach</span> to Regularity of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Trajectories for Incompressible Euler Flow in a Bounded Domain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Besse, Nicolas; Frisch, Uriel</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The 3D incompressible Euler equations are an important research topic in the mathematical study of fluid dynamics. Not only is the global regularity for smooth initial data an open issue, but the behaviour may also depend on the presence or absence of boundaries. For a good understanding, it is crucial to carry out, besides mathematical studies, high-accuracy and well-resolved numerical exploration. Such studies can be very demanding in computational resources, but recently it has been shown that very substantial gains can be achieved first, by using Cauchy's <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> formulation of the Euler equations and second, by taking advantage of analyticity results of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> trajectories for flows whose initial vorticity is Hölder-continuous. The latter has been known for about 20 years (Serfati in J Math Pures Appl 74:95-104, 1995), but the combination of the two, which makes use of recursion relations among time-Taylor coefficients to obtain constructively the time-Taylor series of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> map, has been achieved only recently (Frisch and Zheligovsky in Commun Math Phys 326:499-505, 2014; Podvigina et al. in J Comput Phys 306:320-342, 2016 and references therein). Here we extend this methodology to incompressible Euler flow in an impermeable bounded domain whose boundary may be either analytic or have a regularity between indefinite differentiability and analyticity. Non-constructive regularity results for these cases have already been obtained by Glass et al. (Ann Sci Éc Norm Sup 45:1-51, 2012). Using the invariance of the boundary under the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> flow, we establish novel recursion relations that include contributions from the boundary. This leads to a constructive proof of time-analyticity of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> trajectories with analytic boundaries, which can then be used subsequently for the design of a very high-order Cauchy-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> method.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4759292','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4759292"><span>The <span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span> of Hair Pulling Urges in Trichotillomania: A Comparative <span class="hlt">Approach</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Madjar, Shai; Sripada, Chandra S.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Trichotillomania is a disorder characterized by recurrent urges to pull out one's hair, but the experiential characteristics of hair pulling urges are poorly understood. This study used a comparative <span class="hlt">approach</span> to understand the subjective <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> of hair pulling: participants with trichotillomania symptoms were asked about their hair pulling urges as well as their urges to eat unhealthy foods. Participants who reported experiencing problematic unhealthy food urges were identified and asked to compare the <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> characteristics of their hair pulling and unhealthy food urges across a variety of dimensions. Results revealed significant differences for only some urge properties measured, and differences that existed were small to moderate in magnitude. Qualitative comparisons of the two urges revealed situational characteristics of hair pulling that could explain these small to moderate differences between the two urges. We conclude that hair pulling urges may be more comparable to ordinary urges such as unhealthy food urges than one might expect, but that hair pulling urges may nevertheless be rated as slightly more severe due to situational characteristics of these urges. This conception may improve clinician and lay understanding of the condition, assist with destigmatization efforts, and facilitate the development of treatment strategies. PMID:26925017</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26551100','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26551100"><span>"<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>" for a Non-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Field Theory with N=2 Supersymmetry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gadde, Abhijit; Razamat, Shlomo S; Willett, Brian</p> <p>2015-10-23</p> <p>We suggest that at least some of the strongly coupled N=2 quantum field theories in 4D can have a nonconformal N=1 <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> description flowing to them at low energies. In particular, we construct such a description for the N=2 rank one superconformal field theory with E(6) flavor symmetry, for which a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> description was previously unavailable. We utilize this description to compute several supersymmetric partition functions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NPGeo..24..379C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NPGeo..24..379C"><span>Insights into the three-dimensional <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> geometry of the Antarctic polar vortex</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Curbelo, Jezabel; José García-Garrido, Víctor; Mechoso, Carlos Roberto; Mancho, Ana Maria; Wiggins, Stephen; Niang, Coumba</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>In this paper we study the three-dimensional (3-D) <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> structures in the stratospheric polar vortex (SPV) above Antarctica. We analyse and visualize these structures using <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> descriptor function M. The procedure for calculation with reanalysis data is explained. Benchmarks are computed and analysed that allow us to compare 2-D and 3-D aspects of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> transport. Dynamical systems concepts appropriate to 3-D, such as normally hyperbolic invariant curves, are discussed and applied. In order to illustrate our <span class="hlt">approach</span> we select an interval of time in which the SPV is relatively undisturbed (August 1979) and an interval of rapid SPV changes (October 1979). Our results provide new insights into the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> structure of the vertical extension of the stratospheric polar vortex and its evolution. Our results also show complex <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> patterns indicative of strong mixing processes in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Finally, during the transition to summer in the late spring, we illustrate the vertical structure of two counterrotating vortices, one the polar and the other an emerging one, and the invariant separatrix that divides them.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1424084-toroidal-regularization-guiding-center-lagrangian','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1424084-toroidal-regularization-guiding-center-lagrangian"><span>Toroidal regularization of the guiding center <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Burby, J. W.; Ellison, C. L.</p> <p>2017-11-22</p> <p>In the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> theory of guiding center motion, an effective magnetic field B* = B+ (m/e)v ∥∇ x b appears prominently in the equations of motion. Because the parallel component of this field can vanish, there is a range of parallel velocities where the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> guiding center equations of motion are either ill-defined or very badly behaved. Moreover, the velocity dependence of B* greatly complicates the identification of canonical variables and therefore the formulation of symplectic integrators for guiding center dynamics. Here, this letter introduces a simple coordinate transformation that alleviates both these problems simultaneously. In the new coordinates, themore » Liouville volume element is equal to the toroidal contravariant component of the magnetic field. Consequently, the large-velocity singularity is completely eliminated. Moreover, passing from the new coordinate system to canonical coordinates is extremely simple, even if the magnetic field is devoid of flux surfaces. We demonstrate the utility of this <span class="hlt">approach</span> in regularizing the guiding center <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> by presenting a new and stable one-step variational integrator for guiding centers moving in arbitrary time-dependent electromagnetic fields.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1424084-toroidal-regularization-guiding-center-lagrangian','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1424084-toroidal-regularization-guiding-center-lagrangian"><span>Toroidal regularization of the guiding center <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Burby, J. W.; Ellison, C. L.</p> <p></p> <p>In the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> theory of guiding center motion, an effective magnetic field B* = B+ (m/e)v ∥∇ x b appears prominently in the equations of motion. Because the parallel component of this field can vanish, there is a range of parallel velocities where the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> guiding center equations of motion are either ill-defined or very badly behaved. Moreover, the velocity dependence of B* greatly complicates the identification of canonical variables and therefore the formulation of symplectic integrators for guiding center dynamics. Here, this letter introduces a simple coordinate transformation that alleviates both these problems simultaneously. In the new coordinates, themore » Liouville volume element is equal to the toroidal contravariant component of the magnetic field. Consequently, the large-velocity singularity is completely eliminated. Moreover, passing from the new coordinate system to canonical coordinates is extremely simple, even if the magnetic field is devoid of flux surfaces. We demonstrate the utility of this <span class="hlt">approach</span> in regularizing the guiding center <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> by presenting a new and stable one-step variational integrator for guiding centers moving in arbitrary time-dependent electromagnetic fields.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26524392','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26524392"><span>Uncovering the Geometry of Barrierless Reactions Using <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Descriptors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Junginger, Andrej; Hernandez, Rigoberto</p> <p>2016-03-03</p> <p>Transition-state theories describing barrierless chemical reactions, or more general activated problems, are often hampered by the lack of a saddle around which the dividing surface can be constructed. For example, the time-dependent transition-state trajectory uncovering the nonrecrossing dividing surface in thermal reactions in the framework of the Langevin equation has relied on perturbative <span class="hlt">approaches</span> in the vicinity of the saddle. We recently obtained an alternative <span class="hlt">approach</span> using <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> descriptors to construct time-dependent and recrossing-free dividing surfaces. This is a nonperturbative <span class="hlt">approach</span> making no reference to a putative saddle. Here we show how the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> descriptor can be used to obtain the transition-state geometry of a dissipated and thermalized reaction across barrierless potentials. We illustrate the method in the case of a 1D Brownian motion for both barrierless and step potentials; however, the method is not restricted and can be directly applied to different kinds of potentials and higher dimensional systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ981463.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ981463.pdf"><span>Interpretive and Critical <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> Crime Studies: A Model Design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Miner-Romanoff, Karen</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The critical and interpretive <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> is underutilized in the study of crime. This commentary describes this <span class="hlt">approach</span>, guided by the question, "Why are interpretive <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> methods appropriate for qualitative research in criminology?" Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to describe a model of the interpretive…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AtmEn..45..839O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AtmEn..45..839O"><span>Development and evaluation of GRAL-C dispersion model, a hybrid Eulerian-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> capturing NO-NO 2-O 3 chemistry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oettl, Dietmar; Uhrner, Ulrich</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>Based on two recent publications using <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> dispersion models to simulate NO-NO 2-O 3 chemistry for industrial plumes, a similar modified <span class="hlt">approach</span> was implemented using GRAL-C ( Graz <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Model with Chemistry) and tested on two urban applications. In the hybrid dispersion model GRAL-C, the transport and turbulent diffusion of primary species such as NO and NO 2 are treated in a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> framework while those of O 3 are treated in an Eulerian framework. GRAL-C was employed on a one year street canyon simulation in Berlin and on a four-day simulation during a winter season in Graz, the second biggest city in Austria. In contrast to Middleton D.R., Jones A.R., Redington A.L., Thomson D.J., Sokhi R.S., Luhana L., Fisher B.E.A. (2008. <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> modelling of plume chemistry for secondary pollutants in large industrial plumes. Atmospheric Environment 42, 415-427) and Alessandrini S., Ferrero E. (2008. A <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> model with chemical reactions: application in real atmosphere. Proceedings of the 12th Int. Conf. on Harmonization within atmospheric dispersion modelling for regulatory purposes. Croatian Meteorological Journal, 43, ISSN: 1330-0083, 235-239) the treatment of ozone was modified in order to facilitate urban scale simulations encompassing dense road networks. For the street canyon application, modelled daily mean NO x/NO 2 concentrations deviated by +0.4%/-15% from observations, while the correlations for NO x and NO 2 were 0.67 and 0.76 respectively. NO 2 concentrations were underestimated in summer, but were captured well for other seasons. In Graz a fair agreement for NO x and NO 2 was obtained between observed and modelled values for NO x and NO 2. Simulated diurnal cycles of NO 2 and O 3 matched observations reasonably well, although O 3 was underestimated during the day. A possible explanation here might lie in the non-consideration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) chemistry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28618792','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28618792"><span>Effect of evaporation and condensation on a thermoacoustic engine: A <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> simulation <span class="hlt">approach</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yasui, Kyuichi; Izu, Noriya</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>Acoustic oscillations of a fluid (a mixture of gas and vapor) parcel in a wet stack of a thermoacoustic engine are numerically simulated with a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> taking into account Rott equations and the effect of non-equilibrium evaporation and condensation of water vapor at the stack surface. In a traveling-wave engine, the volume oscillation amplitude of a fluid parcel always increases by evaporation and condensation. As a result, pV work done by a fluid parcel is enhanced, which means enhancement of acoustic energy in a thermoacoustic engine. On the other hand, in a standing-wave engine, the volume oscillation amplitude sometimes decreases by evaporation and condensation, and pV work is suppressed. Presence of a tiny traveling-wave component, however, results in the enhancement of pV work by evaporation and condensation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017RSPSA.47370558O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017RSPSA.47370558O"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> averaging with geodesic mean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oliver, Marcel</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>This paper revisits the derivation of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> averaged Euler (LAE), or Euler-α equations in the light of an intrinsic definition of the averaged flow map as the geodesic mean on the volume-preserving diffeomorphism group. Under the additional assumption that first-order fluctuations are statistically isotropic and transported by the mean flow as a vector field, averaging of the kinetic energy <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> of an ideal fluid yields the LAE <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>. The derivation presented here assumes a Euclidean spatial domain without boundaries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29225505','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29225505"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> averaging with geodesic mean.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oliver, Marcel</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>This paper revisits the derivation of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> averaged Euler (LAE), or Euler- α equations in the light of an intrinsic definition of the averaged flow map as the geodesic mean on the volume-preserving diffeomorphism group. Under the additional assumption that first-order fluctuations are statistically isotropic and transported by the mean flow as a vector field, averaging of the kinetic energy <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> of an ideal fluid yields the LAE <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>. The derivation presented here assumes a Euclidean spatial domain without boundaries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ACPD....818727S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ACPD....818727S"><span>Implications of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> transport for coupled chemistry-climate simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stenke, A.; Dameris, M.; Grewe, V.; Garny, H.</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p>For the first time a purely <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> transport algorithm is applied in a fully coupled chemistry-climate model (CCM). We use the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> scheme ATTILA for the transport of water vapour, cloud water and chemical trace species in the ECHAM4.L39(DLR)/CHEM (E39C) CCM. The advantage of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> is that it is numerically non-diffusive and therefore maintains steeper and more realistic gradients than the operational semi-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> transport scheme. In case of radiatively active species changes in the simulated distributions feed back to model dynamics which in turn affect the modelled transport. The implications of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> transport scheme for stratospheric model dynamics and tracer distributions in the upgraded model version E39C-ATTILA (E39C-A) are evaluated by comparison with observations and results of the E39C model with the operational semi-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> advection scheme. We find that several deficiencies in stratospheric dynamics in E39C seem to originate from a pronounced modelled wet bias and an associated cold bias in the extra-tropical lowermost stratosphere. The reduction of the simulated moisture and temperature bias in E39C-A leads to a significant advancement of stratospheric dynamics in terms of the mean state as well as annual and interannual variability. As a consequence of the favourable numerical characteristics of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> transport scheme and the improved model dynamics, E39C-A generally shows more realistic stratospheric tracer distributions: Compared to E39C high stratospheric chlorine (Cly) concentrations extend further downward and agree now well with analyses derived from observations. Therefore E39C-A realistically covers the altitude of maximum ozone depletion in the stratosphere. The location of the ozonopause, i.e. the transition from low tropospheric to high stratospheric ozone values, is also clearly improved in E39C-A. Furthermore, the simulated temporal evolution of stratospheric Cly in the past is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JGRC..123..759C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JGRC..123..759C"><span>Nitrate Sources, Supply, and Phytoplankton Growth in the Great Australian Bight: An Eulerian-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Modeling <span class="hlt">Approach</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cetina-Heredia, Paulina; van Sebille, Erik; Matear, Richard J.; Roughan, Moninya</p> <p>2018-02-01</p> <p>The Great Australian Bight (GAB), a coastal sea bordered by the Pacific, Southern, and Indian Oceans, sustains one of the largest fisheries in Australia but the geographical origin of nutrients that maintain its productivity is not fully known. We use 12 years of modeled data from a coupled hydrodynamic and biogeochemical model and an Eulerian-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> to quantify nitrate supply to the GAB and the region between the GAB and the Subantarctic Australian Front (GAB-SAFn), identify phytoplankton growth within the GAB, and ascertain the source of nitrate that fuels it. We find that nitrate concentrations have a decorrelation timescale of ˜60 days; since most of the water from surrounding oceans takes longer than 60 days to reach the GAB, 23% and 75% of nitrate used by phytoplankton to grow are sourced within the GAB and from the GAB-SAFn, respectively. Thus, most of the nitrate is recycled locally. Although nitrate concentrations and fluxes into the GAB are greater below 100 m than above, 79% of the nitrate fueling phytoplankton growth is sourced from above 100 m. Our findings suggest that topographical uplift and stratification erosion are key mechanisms delivering nutrients from below the nutricline into the euphotic zone and triggering large phytoplankton growth. We find annual and semiannual periodicities in phytoplankton growth, peaking in the austral spring and autumn when the mixed layer deepens leading to a subsurface maximum of phytoplankton growth. This study highlights the importance of examining phytoplankton growth at depth and the utility of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">approaches</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=hand+AND+writing&pg=6&id=EJ1167679','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=hand+AND+writing&pg=6&id=EJ1167679"><span>"Understanding Things from Within". A Husserlian <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">Approach</span> to Doing Educational Research and Inquiring about Learning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Creely, Edwin</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>This article describes a <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> to doing educational inquiry and understanding learning. Working within the qualitative tradition, the research is conceived as 'narrow and deep', intimate research that focuses definitively on internality and on first-hand experiences of learning. The theoretical background for doing…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017APS..SHK.H5003N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017APS..SHK.H5003N"><span>Next Generation Extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Quantum-based Molecular Dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Negre, Christian</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>A new framework for extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> first-principles molecular dynamics simulations is presented, which overcomes shortcomings of regular, direct Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics, while maintaining important advantages of the unified extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> formulation of density functional theory pioneered by Car and Parrinello three decades ago. The new framework allows, for the first time, energy conserving, linear-scaling Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations, which is necessary to study larger and more realistic systems over longer simulation times than previously possible. Expensive, self-consinstent-field optimizations are avoided and normal integration time steps of regular, direct Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics can be used. Linear scaling electronic structure theory is presented using a graph-based <span class="hlt">approach</span> that is ideal for parallel calculations on hybrid computer platforms. For the first time, quantum based Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulation is becoming a practically feasible <span class="hlt">approach</span> in simulations of +100,000 atoms-representing a competitive alternative to classical polarizable force field methods. In collaboration with: Anders Niklasson, Los Alamos National Laboratory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JPhA...42U5207C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JPhA...42U5207C"><span>Unambiguous formalism for higher order <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> field theories</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Campos, Cédric M.; de León, Manuel; Martín de Diego, David; Vankerschaver, Joris</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>The aim of this paper is to propose an unambiguous intrinsic formalism for higher order field theories which avoids the arbitrariness in the generalization of the conventional description of field theories, and implies the existence of different Cartan forms and Legendre transformations. We propose a differential-geometric setting for the dynamics of a higher order field theory, based on the Skinner and Rusk formalism for mechanics. This <span class="hlt">approach</span> incorporates aspects of both the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> and the Hamiltonian description, since the field equations are formulated using the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> on a higher order jet bundle and the canonical multisymplectic form on its affine dual. As both of these objects are uniquely defined, the Skinner-Rusk <span class="hlt">approach</span> has the advantage that it does not suffer from the arbitrariness in conventional descriptions. The result is that we obtain a unique and global intrinsic version of the Euler-Lagrange equations for higher order field theories. Several examples illustrate our construction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26196088','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26196088"><span>Pragmatic <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> types.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Goranson, Ted; Cardier, Beth; Devlin, Keith</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We <span class="hlt">approach</span> a well-known problem: how to relate component physical processes in biological systems to governing imperatives in multiple system levels. The intent is to further practical tools that can be used in the clinical context. An example proposes a formal type system that would support this kind of reasoning, including in machines. Our example is based on a model of the connection between a quality of mind associated with creativity and neuropsychiatric dynamics: constructing narrative as a form of conscious introspection, which allows the manipulation of one's own driving imperatives. In this context, general creativity is indicated by an ability to manage multiple heterogeneous worldviews simultaneously in a developing narrative. 'Narrative' in this context is framed as the organizing concept behind rational linearization that can be applied to metaphysics as well as modeling perceptive dynamics. Introspection is framed as the <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> 'tip' that allows a perceiver to be within experience or outside it, reflecting on and modifying it. What distinguishes the <span class="hlt">approach</span> is the rooting in well founded but disparate disciplines: <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span>, ontic virtuality, two-sorted geometric logics, functional reactive programming, multi-level ontologies and narrative cognition. This paper advances the work by proposing a type strategy within a two-sorted reasoning system that supports cross-ontology structure. The paper describes influences on this <span class="hlt">approach</span>, and presents an example that involves phenotype classes and monitored creativity enhanced by both soft methods and transcranial direct-current stimulation. The proposed solution integrates pragmatic <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span>, situation theory, narratology and functional programming in one framework. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27839859','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27839859"><span>Comprehensive computational model for combining fluid hydrodynamics, light transport and biomass growth in a Taylor vortex algal photobioreactor: <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gao, Xi; Kong, Bo; Vigil, R Dennis</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>A comprehensive quantitative model incorporating the effects of fluid flow patterns, light distribution, and algal growth kinetics on biomass growth rate is developed in order to predict the performance of a Taylor vortex algal photobioreactor for culturing Chlorella vulgaris. A commonly used <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> strategy for coupling the various factors influencing algal growth was employed whereby results from computational fluid dynamics and radiation transport simulations were used to compute numerous microorganism light exposure histories, and this information in turn was used to estimate the global biomass specific growth rate. The simulations provide good quantitative agreement with experimental data and correctly predict the trend in reactor performance as a key reactor operating parameter is varied (inner cylinder rotation speed). However, biomass growth curves are consistently over-predicted and potential causes for these over-predictions and drawbacks of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> are addressed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NPGeo..24..661P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NPGeo..24..661P"><span>Network-based study of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> transport and mixing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Padberg-Gehle, Kathrin; Schneide, Christiane</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>Transport and mixing processes in fluid flows are crucially influenced by coherent structures and the characterization of these <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> objects is a topic of intense current research. While established mathematical <span class="hlt">approaches</span> such as variational methods or transfer-operator-based schemes require full knowledge of the flow field or at least high-resolution trajectory data, this information may not be available in applications. Recently, different computational methods have been proposed to identify coherent behavior in flows directly from <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> trajectory data, that is, numerical or measured time series of particle positions in a fluid flow. In this context, spatio-temporal clustering algorithms have been proven to be very effective for the extraction of coherent sets from sparse and possibly incomplete trajectory data. Inspired by these recent <span class="hlt">approaches</span>, we consider an unweighted, undirected network, where <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particle trajectories serve as network nodes. A link is established between two nodes if the respective trajectories come close to each other at least once in the course of time. Classical graph concepts are then employed to analyze the resulting network. In particular, local network measures such as the node degree, the average degree of neighboring nodes, and the clustering coefficient serve as indicators of highly mixing regions, whereas spectral graph partitioning schemes allow us to extract coherent sets. The proposed methodology is very fast to run and we demonstrate its applicability in two geophysical flows - the Bickley jet as well as the Antarctic stratospheric polar vortex.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018GMD....11..103G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018GMD....11..103G"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> condensation microphysics with Twomey CCN activation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grabowski, Wojciech W.; Dziekan, Piotr; Pawlowska, Hanna</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>We report the development of a novel <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> microphysics methodology for simulations of warm ice-free clouds. The <span class="hlt">approach</span> applies the traditional Eulerian method for the momentum and continuous thermodynamic fields such as the temperature and water vapor mixing ratio, and uses <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <q>super-droplets</q> to represent condensed phase such as cloud droplets and drizzle or rain drops. In other applications of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> warm-rain microphysics, the super-droplets outside clouds represent unactivated cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) that become activated upon entering a cloud and can further grow through diffusional and collisional processes. The original methodology allows for the detailed study of not only effects of CCN on cloud microphysics and dynamics, but also CCN processing by a cloud. However, when cloud processing is not of interest, a simpler and computationally more efficient <span class="hlt">approach</span> can be used with super-droplets forming only when CCN is activated and no super-droplet existing outside a cloud. This is possible by applying the Twomey activation scheme where the local supersaturation dictates the concentration of cloud droplets that need to be present inside a cloudy volume, as typically used in Eulerian bin microphysics schemes. Since a cloud volume is a small fraction of the computational domain volume, the Twomey super-droplets provide significant computational advantage when compared to the original super-droplet methodology. Additional advantage comes from significantly longer time steps that can be used when modeling of CCN deliquescence is avoided. Moreover, other formulation of the droplet activation can be applied in case of low vertical resolution of the host model, for instance, linking the concentration of activated cloud droplets to the local updraft speed. This paper discusses the development and testing of the Twomey super-droplet methodology, focusing on the activation and diffusional growth. Details of the activation</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29316401','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29316401"><span>Extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Excited State Molecular Dynamics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bjorgaard, J A; Sheppard, D; Tretiak, S; Niklasson, A M N</p> <p>2018-02-13</p> <p>An extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> framework for excited state molecular dynamics (XL-ESMD) using time-dependent self-consistent field theory is proposed. The formulation is a generalization of the extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> formulations for ground state Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics [Phys. Rev. Lett. 2008 100, 123004]. The theory is implemented, demonstrated, and evaluated using a time-dependent semiempirical model, though it should be generally applicable to ab initio theory. The simulations show enhanced energy stability and a significantly reduced computational cost associated with the iterative solutions of both the ground state and the electronically excited states. Relaxed convergence criteria can therefore be used both for the self-consistent ground state optimization and for the iterative subspace diagonalization of the random phase approximation matrix used to calculate the excited state transitions. The XL-ESMD <span class="hlt">approach</span> is expected to enable numerically efficient excited state molecular dynamics for such methods as time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TD-HF), Configuration Interactions Singles (CIS), and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21517594','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21517594"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> statistics and flow topology in forced two-dimensional turbulence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kadoch, B; Del-Castillo-Negrete, D; Bos, W J T; Schneider, K</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>A study of the relationship between <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> statistics and flow topology in fluid turbulence is presented. The topology is characterized using the Weiss criterion, which provides a conceptually simple tool to partition the flow into topologically different regions: elliptic (vortex dominated), hyperbolic (deformation dominated), and intermediate (turbulent background). The flow corresponds to forced two-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence in doubly periodic and circular bounded domains, the latter with no-slip boundary conditions. In the double periodic domain, the probability density function (pdf) of the Weiss field exhibits a negative skewness consistent with the fact that in periodic domains the flow is dominated by coherent vortex structures. On the other hand, in the circular domain, the elliptic and hyperbolic regions seem to be statistically similar. We follow a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> and obtain the statistics by tracking large ensembles of passively advected tracers. The pdfs of residence time in the topologically different regions are computed introducing the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Weiss field, i.e., the Weiss field computed along the particles' trajectories. In elliptic and hyperbolic regions, the pdfs of the residence time have self-similar algebraic decaying tails. In contrast, in the intermediate regions the pdf has exponential decaying tails. The conditional pdfs (with respect to the flow topology) of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> velocity exhibit Gaussian-like behavior in the periodic and in the bounded domains. In contrast to the freely decaying turbulence case, the conditional pdfs of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> acceleration in forced turbulence show a comparable level of intermittency in both the periodic and the bounded domains. The conditional pdfs of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> curvature are characterized, in all cases, by self-similar power-law behavior with a decay exponent of order -2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1919023P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1919023P"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Observations and Modeling of Marine Larvae</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Paris, Claire B.; Irisson, Jean-Olivier</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Just within the past two decades, studies on the early-life history stages of marine organisms have led to new paradigms in population dynamics. Unlike passive plant seeds that are transported by the wind or by animals, marine larvae have motor and sensory capabilities. As a result, marine larvae have a tremendous capacity to actively influence their dispersal. This is continuously revealed as we develop new techniques to observe larvae in their natural environment and begin to understand their ability to detect cues throughout ontogeny, process the information, and use it to ride ocean currents and navigate their way back home, or to a place like home. We present innovative in situ and numerical modeling <span class="hlt">approaches</span> developed to understand the underlying mechanisms of larval transport in the ocean. We describe a novel concept of a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> platform, the Drifting In Situ Chamber (DISC), designed to observe and quantify complex larval behaviors and their interactions with the pelagic environment. We give a brief history of larval ecology research with the DISC, showing that swimming is directional in most species, guided by cues as diverse as the position of the sun or the underwater soundscape, and even that (unlike humans!) larvae orient better and swim faster when moving as a group. The observed <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> behavior of individual larvae are directly implemented in the Connectivity Modeling System (CMS), an open source <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> tracking application. Simulations help demonstrate the impact that larval behavior has compared to passive <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> trajectories. These methodologies are already the base of exciting findings and are promising tools for documenting and simulating the behavior of other small pelagic organisms, forecasting their migration in a changing ocean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17124802','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17124802"><span>[Rating scales based on the <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> and structural <span class="hlt">approach</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schiltz, L</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>A current tendency of research in clinical psychology consists in using an integrated quantitative and qualitative methodology. This <span class="hlt">approach</span> is especially suited to the study of the therapeutic intervention where the researcher is himself part of the situation he is investigating. As to the tools of research, the combination of the semi-structured clinical interview, of psychometric scales and projective tests has proved to be pertinent to describe the multidimensional and fluctuating reality of the therapeutic relationship and the changes induced by it in the two partners. In arts therapeutic research the investigation of the artistic production or of the free expression of people may complete the psychometric and projective tools. The concept of "expressive test" is currently being used to characterise this method. In this context, the development of rating scales, based on the <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> and structural or holistic <span class="hlt">approach</span> allows us making the link between qualitative analysis and quantification, leading to the use of inferential statistics, providing that we remain at the nominal or ordinal level of measurement. We are explaining the principle of construction of these rating scales and we are illustrating our practice with some examples drawn from studies we realized in clinical psychology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23035337','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23035337"><span>[Social actors and <span class="hlt">phenomenologic</span> modelling].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Laflamme, Simon</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> has a quasi-monopoly in the individual and subjectivity analyses in social sciences. However, the conceptual apparatus associated with this <span class="hlt">approach</span> is very restrictive. The human being has to be understood as rational, conscious, intentional, interested, and autonomous. Because of this, a large dimension of human activity cannot be taken into consideration: all that does not fit into the analytical categories (nonrational, nonconscious, etc.). Moreover, this <span class="hlt">approach</span> cannot really move toward a relational analysis unless it is between individuals predefined by its conceptual apparatus. This lack of complexity makes difficult the establishment of links between <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> and systemic analysis in which relation (and its derivatives such as recursiveness, dialectic, correlation) plays an essential role. This article intends to propose a way for systemic analysis to apprehend the individual with respect to his complexity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25059889','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25059889"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> postprocessing of computational hemodynamics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shadden, Shawn C; Arzani, Amirhossein</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Recent advances in imaging, modeling, and computing have rapidly expanded our capabilities to model hemodynamics in the large vessels (heart, arteries, and veins). This data encodes a wealth of information that is often under-utilized. Modeling (and measuring) blood flow in the large vessels typically amounts to solving for the time-varying velocity field in a region of interest. Flow in the heart and larger arteries is often complex, and velocity field data provides a starting point for investigating the hemodynamics. This data can be used to perform <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particle tracking, and other <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>-based postprocessing. As described herein, <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> methods are necessary to understand inherently transient hemodynamic conditions from the fluid mechanics perspective, and to properly understand the biomechanical factors that lead to acute and gradual changes of vascular function and health. The goal of the present paper is to review <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> methods that have been used in post-processing velocity data of cardiovascular flows.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4289096','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4289096"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> postprocessing of computational hemodynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shadden, Shawn C.; Arzani, Amirhossein</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Recent advances in imaging, modeling and computing have rapidly expanded our capabilities to model hemodynamics in the large vessels (heart, arteries and veins). This data encodes a wealth of information that is often under-utilized. Modeling (and measuring) blood flow in the large vessels typically amounts to solving for the time-varying velocity field in a region of interest. Flow in the heart and larger arteries is often complex, and velocity field data provides a starting point for investigating the hemodynamics. This data can be used to perform <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particle tracking, and other <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>-based postprocessing. As described herein, <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> methods are necessary to understand inherently transient hemodynamic conditions from the fluid mechanics perspective, and to properly understand the biomechanical factors that lead to acute and gradual changes of vascular function and health. The goal of the present paper is to review <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> methods that have been used in post-processing velocity data of cardiovascular flows. PMID:25059889</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730004050','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730004050"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> methods in the analysis of nonlinear wave interactions in plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Galloway, J. J.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>An averaged-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> method is developed for obtaining the equations which describe the nonlinear interactions of the wave (oscillatory) and background (nonoscillatory) components which comprise a continuous medium. The method applies to monochromatic waves in any continuous medium that can be described by a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> density, but is demonstrated in the context of plasma physics. The theory is presented in a more general and unified form by way of a new averaged-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> formalism which simplifies the perturbation ordering procedure. Earlier theory is extended to deal with a medium distributed in velocity space and to account for the interaction of the background with the waves. The analytic steps are systematized, so as to maximize calculational efficiency. An assessment of the applicability and limitations of the method shows that it has some definite advantages over other <span class="hlt">approaches</span> in efficiency and versatility.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1408834-multi-scale-residual-based-anti-hourglass-control-compatible-staggered-lagrangian-hydrodynamics','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1408834-multi-scale-residual-based-anti-hourglass-control-compatible-staggered-lagrangian-hydrodynamics"><span>A multi-scale residual-based anti-hourglass control for compatible staggered <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> hydrodynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kucharik, M.; Scovazzi, Guglielmo; Shashkov, Mikhail Jurievich</p> <p></p> <p>Hourglassing is a well-known pathological numerical artifact affecting the robustness and accuracy of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> methods. There exist a large number of hourglass control/suppression strategies. In the community of the staggered compatible <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> methods, the <span class="hlt">approach</span> of sub-zonal pressure forces is among the most widely used. However, this <span class="hlt">approach</span> is known to add numerical strength to the solution, which can cause potential problems in certain types of simulations, for instance in simulations of various instabilities. To avoid this complication, we have adapted the multi-scale residual-based stabilization typically used in the finite element <span class="hlt">approach</span> for staggered compatible framework. In this study, wemore » describe two discretizations of the new <span class="hlt">approach</span> and demonstrate their properties and compare with the method of sub-zonal pressure forces on selected numerical problems.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1408834-multi-scale-residual-based-anti-hourglass-control-compatible-staggered-lagrangian-hydrodynamics','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1408834-multi-scale-residual-based-anti-hourglass-control-compatible-staggered-lagrangian-hydrodynamics"><span>A multi-scale residual-based anti-hourglass control for compatible staggered <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> hydrodynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Kucharik, M.; Scovazzi, Guglielmo; Shashkov, Mikhail Jurievich; ...</p> <p>2017-10-28</p> <p>Hourglassing is a well-known pathological numerical artifact affecting the robustness and accuracy of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> methods. There exist a large number of hourglass control/suppression strategies. In the community of the staggered compatible <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> methods, the <span class="hlt">approach</span> of sub-zonal pressure forces is among the most widely used. However, this <span class="hlt">approach</span> is known to add numerical strength to the solution, which can cause potential problems in certain types of simulations, for instance in simulations of various instabilities. To avoid this complication, we have adapted the multi-scale residual-based stabilization typically used in the finite element <span class="hlt">approach</span> for staggered compatible framework. In this study, wemore » describe two discretizations of the new <span class="hlt">approach</span> and demonstrate their properties and compare with the method of sub-zonal pressure forces on selected numerical problems.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018PhRvD..97h4048D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018PhRvD..97h4048D"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> formulation of the general relativistic Poynting-Robertson effect</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>De Falco, Vittorio; Battista, Emmanuele; Falanga, Maurizio</p> <p>2018-04-01</p> <p>We propose the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> formulation for describing the motion of a test particle in a general relativistic, stationary, and axially symmetric spacetime. The test particle is also affected by a radiation field, modeled as a coherent flux of photons traveling along the null geodesics of the background spacetime, including the general relativistic Poynting-Robertson effect. The innovative part of this work is to prove the existence of the potential linked to the dissipative action caused by the Poynting-Robertson effect in general relativity through the help of an integrating factor, depending on the energy of the system. Generally, such kinds of inverse problems involving dissipative effects might not admit a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> formulation; especially, in general relativity, there are no examples of such attempts in the literature so far. We reduce this general relativistic <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> formulation to the classic case in the weak-field limit. This <span class="hlt">approach</span> facilitates further studies in improving the treatment of the radiation field, and it contains, for example, some implications for a deeper comprehension of the gravitational waves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhyA..393..337B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhyA..393..337B"><span>Option volatility and the acceleration <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baaquie, Belal E.; Cao, Yang</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This paper develops a volatility formula for option on an asset from an acceleration <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> model and the formula is calibrated with market data. The Black-Scholes model is a simpler case that has a velocity dependent <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>. The acceleration <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> is defined, and the classical solution of the system in Euclidean time is solved by choosing proper boundary conditions. The conditional probability distribution of final position given the initial position is obtained from the transition amplitude. The volatility is the standard deviation of the conditional probability distribution. Using the conditional probability and the path integral method, the martingale condition is applied, and one of the parameters in the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> is fixed. The call option price is obtained using the conditional probability and the path integral method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.8041M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.8041M"><span>Testing of a new dense gas <span class="hlt">approach</span> in the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Dispersion Model SPRAY.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mortarini, Luca; Alessandrini, Stefano; Ferrero, Enrico; Anfossi, Domenico; Manfrin, Massimiliano</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>A new original method for the dispersion of a positively and negatively buoyant plume is proposed. The buoyant pollutant movement is treated introducing a fictitious scalar inside the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Stochastic Particle Model SPRAY. The method is based on the same idea of Alessandrini and Ferrero (Phys. A 388:1375-1387, 2009) for the treatment of a background substance entrainment into the plume. In this application, the fictitious scalar is the density and momentum difference between the plume portions and the environment air that naturally takes into account the interaction between the plume and the environment. As a consequence, no more particles than those inside the plume have to be released to simulate the entrainment of the background air temperature. In this way the entrainment is properly simulated and the plume sink is calculated from the local property of the flow. This new <span class="hlt">approach</span> is wholly <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> in the sense that the Eulerian grid is only used to compute the propriety of a portion of the plume from the particles contained in every cell. No equation of the bulk plume is solved on a fixed grid. To thoroughly test the turbulent velocity field calculated by the model, the latter is compared with a water tank experiment carried out in the TURLAB laboratory in Turin (Italy). A vertical density driven current was created releasing a saline solution (salt and water) in a water tank with no mean flow. The experiment reproduces in physical similarity, based on the density Froud number, the release of a dense gas in the planetary boundary layer and the Particle Image Velocimetry technique has been used to analyze the buoyancy generated velocity field. The high temporal and spatial resolution of the measurements gives a deep insight to the problems of the bouncing of the dense gas and of the creation of the outflow velocity at the ground.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002APS..DFD.AK010R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002APS..DFD.AK010R"><span>Stochastic modeling of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> accelerations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reynolds, Andy</p> <p>2002-11-01</p> <p>It is shown how Sawford's second-order <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> stochastic model (Phys. Fluids A 3, 1577-1586, 1991) for fluid-particle accelerations can be combined with a model for the evolution of the dissipation rate (Pope and Chen, Phys. Fluids A 2, 1437-1449, 1990) to produce a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> stochastic model that is consistent with both the measured distribution of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> accelerations (La Porta et al., Nature 409, 1017-1019, 2001) and Kolmogorov's similarity theory. The later condition is found not to be satisfied when a constant dissipation rate is employed and consistency with prescribed acceleration statistics is enforced through fulfilment of a well-mixed condition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..11810243H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..11810243H"><span>Identification and uncertainty estimation of vertical reflectivity profiles using a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> to support quantitative precipitation measurements by weather radar</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hazenberg, P.; Torfs, P. J. J. F.; Leijnse, H.; Delrieu, G.; Uijlenhoet, R.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>This paper presents a novel <span class="hlt">approach</span> to estimate the vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR) from volumetric weather radar data using both a traditional Eulerian as well as a newly proposed <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> implementation. For this latter implementation, the recently developed Rotational Carpenter Square Cluster Algorithm (RoCaSCA) is used to delineate precipitation regions at different reflectivity levels. A piecewise linear VPR is estimated for either stratiform or neither stratiform/convective precipitation. As a second aspect of this paper, a novel <span class="hlt">approach</span> is presented which is able to account for the impact of VPR uncertainty on the estimated radar rainfall variability. Results show that implementation of the VPR identification and correction procedure has a positive impact on quantitative precipitation estimates from radar. Unfortunately, visibility problems severely limit the impact of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> implementation beyond distances of 100 km. However, by combining this procedure with the global Eulerian VPR estimation procedure for a given rainfall type (stratiform and neither stratiform/convective), the quality of the quantitative precipitation estimates increases up to a distance of 150 km. Analyses of the impact of VPR uncertainty shows that this aspect accounts for a large fraction of the differences between weather radar rainfall estimates and rain gauge measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..DFDD17004A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..DFDD17004A"><span>Getting Things Sorted With <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Coherent Structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Atis, Severine; Peacock, Thomas; Environmental Dynamics Laboratory Team</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The dispersion of a tracer in a fluid flow is influenced by the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> motion of fluid elements. Even in laminar regimes, the irregular chaotic behavior of a fluid flow can lead to effective stirring that rapidly redistributes a tracer throughout the domain. For flows with arbitrary time-dependence, the modern <span class="hlt">approach</span> of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Coherent Structures (LCSs) provide a method for identifying the key material lines that organize flow transport. When the advected tracer particles possess a finite size and nontrivial shape, however, their dynamics can differ markedly from passive tracers, thus affecting the dispersion phenomena. We present details of numerical simulations and laboratory experiments that investigate the behavior of finite size particles in 2-dimensional chaotic flows. We show that the shape and the size of the particles alter the underlying LCSs, facilitating segregation between tracers of different shape in the same flow field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=action+AND+potential&pg=3&id=EJ890547','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=action+AND+potential&pg=3&id=EJ890547"><span>Inquiring into the Real: A Realist <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">Approach</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Budd, John M.; Hill, Heather; Shannon, Brooke</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The need for postpositivist or antipositivist methods in the social sciences, including library and information science, is well documented. A promising alternative synthesizes critical realism and <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span>. This method embraces ontological reality in all things, including human and social action. The ontology underlying the realist…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29507245','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29507245"><span>Coherent <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> swirls among submesoscale motions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Beron-Vera, F J; Hadjighasem, A; Xia, Q; Olascoaga, M J; Haller, G</p> <p>2018-03-05</p> <p>The emergence of coherent <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> swirls (CLSs) among submesoscale motions in the ocean is illustrated. This is done by applying recent nonlinear dynamics tools for <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> coherence detection on a surface flow realization produced by a data-assimilative submesoscale-permitting ocean general circulation model simulation of the Gulf of Mexico. Both mesoscale and submesoscale CLSs are extracted. These extractions prove the relevance of coherent <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> eddies detected in satellite-altimetry-based geostrophic flow data for the arguably more realistic ageostrophic multiscale flow.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1155394.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1155394.pdf"><span>Distance Education Examination Management in a Lowly Resourced North-Eastern Region of Zambia: a <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">Approach</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Simui, Francis; Chibale, Henry; Namangala, Boniface</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>This paper focuses on the management of distance education examination in a lowly resourced North-Eastern region of Zambia. The study applies Hermeneutic <span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> to generate and make sense of the data. It is the lived experiences of 2 invigilators and 66 students purposively selected that the study draws its insights from. Meaning…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JPhA...43R5204S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JPhA...43R5204S"><span>Alternative kinetic energy metrics for <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sarlet, W.; Prince, G.</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>We examine <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> systems on \\ {R}^n with standard kinetic energy terms for the possibility of additional, alternative <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span> with kinetic energy metrics different to the Euclidean one. Using the techniques of the inverse problem in the calculus of variations we find necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of such <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span>. We illustrate the problem in two and three dimensions with quadratic and cubic potentials. As an aside we show that the well-known anomalous <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span> for the Coulomb problem can be removed by switching on a magnetic field, providing an appealing resolution of the ambiguous quantizations of the hydrogen atom.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24385440','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24385440"><span><span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span> and adapted physical activity: philosophy and professional practice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Standal, Øyvind F</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Through the increased use of qualitative research methods, the term <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> has become a quite familiar notion for researchers in adapted physical activity (APA). In contrast to this increasing interest in <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> as methodology, relatively little work has focused on <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> as philosophy or as an <span class="hlt">approach</span> to professional practice. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine the relevance of <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> as philosophy and as pedagogy to the field of APA. First, <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> as philosophy is introduced through three key notions, namely the first-person perspective, embodiment, and life-world. The relevance of these terms to APA is then outlined. Second, the concept of <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> pedagogy is introduced, and its application and potential for APA are discussed. In conclusion, it is argued that <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> can help theorize ways of understanding human difference in movement contexts and form a basis of action-oriented research aiming at developing professional practice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JMP....43.1441N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JMP....43.1441N"><span>Multi-<span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span> for integrable systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nutku, Y.; Pavlov, M. V.</p> <p>2002-03-01</p> <p>We propose a general scheme to construct multiple <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span> for completely integrable nonlinear evolution equations that admit multi-Hamiltonian structure. The recursion operator plays a fundamental role in this construction. We use a conserved quantity higher/lower than the Hamiltonian in the potential part of the new <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> and determine the corresponding kinetic terms by generating the appropriate momentum map. This leads to some remarkable new developments. We show that nonlinear evolutionary systems that admit N-fold first order local Hamiltonian structure can be cast into variational form with 2N-1 <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span> which will be local functionals of Clebsch potentials. This number increases to 3N-2 when the Miura transformation is invertible. Furthermore we construct a new <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> for polytropic gas dynamics in 1+1 dimensions which is a free, local functional of the physical field variables, namely density and velocity, thus dispensing with the necessity of introducing Clebsch potentials entirely. This is a consequence of bi-Hamiltonian structure with a compatible pair of first and third order Hamiltonian operators derived from Sheftel's recursion operator.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930017014','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930017014"><span>An extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Liou, Meng-Sing</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>A unique formulation of describing fluid motion is presented. The method, referred to as 'extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> method', is interesting from both theoretical and numerical points of view. The formulation offers accuracy in numerical solution by avoiding numerical diffusion resulting from mixing of fluxes in the Eulerian description. Meanwhile, it also avoids the inaccuracy incurred due to geometry and variable interpolations used by the previous <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> methods. Unlike the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> method previously imposed which is valid only for supersonic flows, the present method is general and capable of treating subsonic flows as well as supersonic flows. The method proposed in this paper is robust and stable. It automatically adapts to flow features without resorting to clustering, thereby maintaining rather uniform grid spacing throughout and large time step. Moreover, the method is shown to resolve multi-dimensional discontinuities with a high level of accuracy, similar to that found in one-dimensional problems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817332C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817332C"><span>Coupled Eulerian-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> transport of large debris by tsunamis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Conde, Daniel A. S.; Ferreira, Rui M. L.; Sousa Oliveira, Carlos</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Tsunamis are notorious for the large disruption they can cause on coastal environments, not only due to the imparted momentum of the incoming wave but also due to its capacity to transport large quantities of solid debris, either from natural or human-made sources, over great distances. A 2DH numerical model under development at CERIS-IST (Ferreira et al., 2009; Conde, 2013) - STAV2D - capable of simulating solid transport in both Eulerian and <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> paradigms will be used to assess the relevance of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>-Eulerian coupling when modelling the transport of solid debris by tsunamis. The model has been previously validated and applied to tsunami scenarios (Conde, 2013), being well-suited for overland tsunami propagation and capable of handling morphodynamic changes in estuaries and seashores. The discretization scheme is an explicit Finite Volume technique employing flux-vector splitting and a reviewed Roe-Riemann solver. Source term formulations are employed in a semi-implicit way, including the two-way coupling of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> and Eulerian solvers by means of conservative mass and momentum transfers between fluid and solid phases. The model was applied to Sines Port, a major commercial port in Portugal, where two tsunamigenic scenarios are considered: an 8.5 Mw scenario, consistent with the Great Lisbon Earthquake and Tsunami of the 1st November 1755 (Baptista, 2009), and an hypothetical 9.5 Mw worst-case scenario based on the same historical event. Open-ocean propagation of these scenarios were simulated with GeoClaw model from ClawPack (Leveque, 2011). Following previous efforts on the modelling of debris transport by tsunamis in seaports (Conde, 2015), this work discusses the sensitivity of the obtained results with respect to the <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> detail of the employed Eulerian-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> formulation and the resolution of the mesh used in the Eulerian solver. The results have shown that the fluid to debris mass ratio is the key parameter regarding the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1422924-extended-lagrangian-excited-state-molecular-dynamics','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1422924-extended-lagrangian-excited-state-molecular-dynamics"><span>Extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Excited State Molecular Dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Bjorgaard, Josiah August; Sheppard, Daniel Glen; Tretiak, Sergei; ...</p> <p>2018-01-09</p> <p>In this work, an extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> framework for excited state molecular dynamics (XL-ESMD) using time-dependent self-consistent field theory is proposed. The formulation is a generalization of the extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> formulations for ground state Born–Oppenheimer molecular dynamics [Phys. Rev. Lett. 2008 100, 123004]. The theory is implemented, demonstrated, and evaluated using a time-dependent semiempirical model, though it should be generally applicable to ab initio theory. The simulations show enhanced energy stability and a significantly reduced computational cost associated with the iterative solutions of both the ground state and the electronically excited states. Relaxed convergence criteria can therefore be used both formore » the self-consistent ground state optimization and for the iterative subspace diagonalization of the random phase approximation matrix used to calculate the excited state transitions. In conclusion, the XL-ESMD <span class="hlt">approach</span> is expected to enable numerically efficient excited state molecular dynamics for such methods as time-dependent Hartree–Fock (TD-HF), Configuration Interactions Singles (CIS), and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT).« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1422924-extended-lagrangian-excited-state-molecular-dynamics','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1422924-extended-lagrangian-excited-state-molecular-dynamics"><span>Extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Excited State Molecular Dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bjorgaard, Josiah August; Sheppard, Daniel Glen; Tretiak, Sergei</p> <p></p> <p>In this work, an extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> framework for excited state molecular dynamics (XL-ESMD) using time-dependent self-consistent field theory is proposed. The formulation is a generalization of the extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> formulations for ground state Born–Oppenheimer molecular dynamics [Phys. Rev. Lett. 2008 100, 123004]. The theory is implemented, demonstrated, and evaluated using a time-dependent semiempirical model, though it should be generally applicable to ab initio theory. The simulations show enhanced energy stability and a significantly reduced computational cost associated with the iterative solutions of both the ground state and the electronically excited states. Relaxed convergence criteria can therefore be used both formore » the self-consistent ground state optimization and for the iterative subspace diagonalization of the random phase approximation matrix used to calculate the excited state transitions. In conclusion, the XL-ESMD <span class="hlt">approach</span> is expected to enable numerically efficient excited state molecular dynamics for such methods as time-dependent Hartree–Fock (TD-HF), Configuration Interactions Singles (CIS), and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT).« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9730404','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9730404"><span>On "being inspired" by Husserl's <span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span>: reflections on Omery's exposition of <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> as a method of nursing research.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Porter, E J</p> <p>1998-09-01</p> <p>The impact of Omery's article, "<span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span>: A Method for Nursing Research," on nursing science is appraised. In particular, the influence of her emphasis on "being inspired" was compared with that of her detailed reviews of psychological <span class="hlt">phenomenologic</span> methods. The author's experience of "being inspired" by Husserl's book, Ideas, is described. The author also discusses the tapping of this resource during three phases of her development as a researcher: (1) appraising methods derived from Husserl's <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span>; (2) spelling out an <span class="hlt">approach</span>, with help; and (3) "making clearer while glancing-toward." Omery's proposed linkage between philosophic inspiration and methodologic development is highlighted as a challenge to nurse researchers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27739805','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27739805"><span>Target <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> kinematic simulation for particle-laden flows.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Murray, S; Lightstone, M F; Tullis, S</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The target <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> kinematic simulation method was motivated as a stochastic <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particle model that better synthesizes turbulence structure, relative to stochastic separated flow models. By this method, the trajectories of particles are constructed according to synthetic turbulent-like fields, which conform to a target <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> integral timescale. In addition to recovering the expected <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> properties of fluid tracers, this method is shown to reproduce the crossing trajectories and continuity effects, in agreement with an experimental benchmark.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGrav.2014E..1E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGrav.2014E..1E"><span>Gravitational <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span>, Mach's Principle, and the Equivalence Principle in an Expanding Universe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Essén, Hanno</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Gravitational <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span> as derived by Fock for the Einstein-Infeld-Hoffmann <span class="hlt">approach</span>, and by Kennedy assuming only a fourth rank tensor interaction, contain long range interactions. Here we investigate how these affect the local dynamics when integrated over an expanding universe out to the Hubble radius. Taking the cosmic expansion velocity into account in a heuristic manner it is found that these long range interactions imply Mach's principle, provided the universe has the critical density, and that mass is renormalized. Suitable higher order additions to the <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span> make the formalism consistent with the equivalence principle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GReGr..45.1333S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GReGr..45.1333S"><span>The canonical <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> to three-space general relativity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shyam, Vasudev; Venkatesh, Madhavan</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>We study the action for the three-space formalism of general relativity, better known as the Barbour-Foster-Ó Murchadha action, which is a square-root Baierlein-Sharp-Wheeler action. In particular, we explore the (pre)symplectic structure by pulling it back via a Legendre map to the tangent bundle of the configuration space of this action. With it we attain the canonical <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> vector field which generates the gauge transformations (3-diffeomorphisms) and the true physical evolution of the system. This vector field encapsulates all the dynamics of the system. We also discuss briefly the observables and perennials for this theory. We then present a symplectic reduction of the constrained phase space.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018LMaPh.108..699C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018LMaPh.108..699C"><span>A Chiang-type <span class="hlt">lagrangian</span> in CP^2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cannas da Silva, Ana</p> <p>2018-03-01</p> <p>We analyse a monotone <span class="hlt">lagrangian</span> in CP^2 that is hamiltonian isotopic to the standard <span class="hlt">lagrangian</span> RP^2, yet exhibits a distinguishing behaviour under reduction by one of the toric circle actions, namely it intersects transversally the reduction level set and it projects one-to-one onto a great circle in CP^1. This <span class="hlt">lagrangian</span> thus provides an example of embedded composition fitting work of Wehrheim-Woodward and Weinstein.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhyA..486..218S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhyA..486..218S"><span>S-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> dynamics of many-body systems and behavior of social groups: Dominance and hierarchy formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sandler, U.</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>In this paper, we extend our generalized <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> dynamics (i.e., S-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> dynamics, which can be applied equally to physical and non-physical systems as per Sandler (2014)) to many-body systems. Unlike common <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> dynamics, this is not a trivial task. For many-body systems with S-dependent <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span>, the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> and the corresponding Hamiltonian or energy become vector functions, conjugated momenta become second-order tensors, and the system inevitably develops a hierarchical structure, even if all bodies initially have similar status and <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span>. As an application of our theory, we consider dominance and hierarchy formation, which is present in almost all communities of living species. As a biological basis for this application, we assume that the primary motivation of a groups activity is to attempt to cope with stress arising as pressure from the environment and from intrinsic unmet needs of individuals. It has been shown that the S-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> to a group's evolution naturally leads to formation of linear or despotic dominance hierarchies, depending on differences between individuals in coping with stress. That is, individuals that cope more readily with stress take leadership roles during the evolution. Experimental results in animal groups which support our assumption and findings are considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940010374','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940010374"><span>A new <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> method for three-dimensional steady supersonic flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Loh, Ching-Yuen; Liou, Meng-Sing</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>In this report, the new <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> method introduced by Loh and Hui is extended for three-dimensional, steady supersonic flow computation. The derivation of the conservation form and the solution of the local Riemann solver using the Godunov and the high-resolution TVD (total variation diminished) scheme is presented. This new <span class="hlt">approach</span> is accurate and robust, capable of handling complicated geometry and interactions between discontinuous waves. Test problems show that the extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> method retains all the advantages of the two-dimensional method (e.g., crisp resolution of a slip-surface (contact discontinuity) and automatic grid generation). In this report, we also suggest a novel three dimensional Riemann problem in which interesting and intricate flow features are present.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28726683','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28726683"><span>Canonical-ensemble extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics for the linear scaling density functional theory.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hirakawa, Teruo; Suzuki, Teppei; Bowler, David R; Miyazaki, Tsuyoshi</p> <p>2017-10-11</p> <p>We discuss the development and implementation of a constant temperature (NVT) molecular dynamics scheme that combines the Nosé-Hoover chain thermostat with the extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (BOMD) scheme, using a linear scaling density functional theory (DFT) <span class="hlt">approach</span>. An integration scheme for this canonical-ensemble extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> BOMD is developed and discussed in the context of the Liouville operator formulation. Linear scaling DFT canonical-ensemble extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> BOMD simulations are tested on bulk silicon and silicon carbide systems to evaluate our integration scheme. The results show that the conserved quantity remains stable with no systematic drift even in the presence of the thermostat.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28113769','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28113769"><span>A Combined Eulerian-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Data Representation for Large-Scale Applications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sauer, Franz; Xie, Jinrong; Ma, Kwan-Liu</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>The Eulerian and <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> reference frames each provide a unique perspective when studying and visualizing results from scientific systems. As a result, many large-scale simulations produce data in both formats, and analysis tasks that simultaneously utilize information from both representations are becoming increasingly popular. However, due to their fundamentally different nature, drawing correlations between these data formats is a computationally difficult task, especially in a large-scale setting. In this work, we present a new data representation which combines both reference frames into a joint Eulerian-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> format. By reorganizing <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> information according to the Eulerian simulation grid into a "unit cell" based <span class="hlt">approach</span>, we can provide an efficient out-of-core means of sampling, querying, and operating with both representations simultaneously. We also extend this design to generate multi-resolution subsets of the full data to suit the viewer's needs and provide a fast flow-aware trajectory construction scheme. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method using three large-scale real world scientific datasets and provide insight into the types of performance gains that can be achieved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017APS..DFDQ15004O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017APS..DFDQ15004O"><span>Direct <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> tracking simulations of particles in vertically-developing atmospheric clouds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Onishi, Ryo; Kunishima, Yuichi</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>We have been developing the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Cloud Simulator (LCS), which follows the so-called Euler-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> framework, where flow motion and scalar transportations (i.e., temperature and humidity) are computed with the Euler method and particle motion with the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> method. The LCS simulation considers the hydrodynamic interaction between <span class="hlt">approaching</span> particles for robust collision detection. This leads to reliable simulations of collision growth of cloud droplets. Recently the activation process, in which aerosol particles become tiny liquid droplets, has been implemented in the LCS. The present LCS can therefore consider the whole warm-rain precipitation processes -activation, condensation, collision and drop precipitation. In this talk, after briefly introducing the LCS, we will show kinematic simulations using the LCS for quasi-one dimensional domain, i.e., vertically elongated 3D domain. They are compared with one-dimensional kinematic simulations using a spectral-bin cloud microphysics scheme, which is based on the Euler method. The comparisons show fairly good agreement with small discrepancies, the source of which will be presented. The <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> statistics, obtained for the first time for the vertical domain, will be the center of discussion. This research was supported by MEXT as ``Exploratory Challenge on Post-K computer'' (Frontiers of Basic Science: Challenging the Limits).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IzMat..80.1257T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IzMat..80.1257T"><span>Special Bohr-Sommerfeld <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> submanifolds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tyurin, N. A.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>We introduce a new notion in symplectic geometry, that of speciality for <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> submanifolds satisfying the Bohr- Sommerfeld condition. We show that it enables one to construct finite-dimensional moduli spaces of special Bohr- Sommerfeld <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> submanifolds with respect to any ample line bundle on an algebraic variety with a Hodge metric regarded as the symplectic form. This construction can be used to study mirror symmetry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16367107','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16367107"><span>Individualized assessment and <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> psychology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fischer, C T</p> <p>1979-04-01</p> <p>Although there is growing openness to tailoring of assessment procedures and reports to the particular client, these efforts typically have been sporadic and incomplete. This article reviews a systematic <span class="hlt">approach</span> to individualized assessment, one whose practices are referred to as collaborative, contextual, and interventional. Clinical examples of these practices are presented in terms of their grounding in <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> psychology. Prior to that, themes such as intentionality, situatedness, dialectics, structuralism, and hermeneutics are introduced briefly. <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> psychology as such is not seen here as necessary for all individualized practices, but it is seen as a critical touchpoint for development of theory and further practices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1412853-computing-eddy-driven-effective-diffusivity-using-lagrangian-particles','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1412853-computing-eddy-driven-effective-diffusivity-using-lagrangian-particles"><span>Computing eddy-driven effective diffusivity using <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Wolfram, Phillip J.; Ringler, Todd D.</p> <p>2017-08-14</p> <p>A novel method to derive effective diffusivity from <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particle trajectory data sets is developed and then analyzed relative to particle-derived meridional diffusivity for eddy-driven mixing in an idealized circumpolar current. Quantitative standard dispersion- and transport-based mixing diagnostics are defined, compared and contrasted to motivate the computation and use of effective diffusivity derived from <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particles. We compute the effective diffusivity by first performing scalar transport on <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> control areas using stored trajectories computed from online <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> In-situ Global High-performance particle Tracking (LIGHT) using the Model for Prediction Across Scales Ocean (MPAS-O). Furthermore, the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> scalar transport scheme is comparedmore » against an Eulerian scalar transport scheme. Spatially-variable effective diffusivities are computed from resulting time-varying cumulative concentrations that vary as a function of cumulative area. The transport-based Eulerian and <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> effective diffusivity diagnostics are found to be qualitatively consistent with the dispersion-based diffusivity. All diffusivity estimates show a region of increased subsurface diffusivity within the core of an idealized circumpolar current and results are within a factor of two of each other. The Eulerian and <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> effective diffusivities are most similar; smaller and more spatially diffused values are obtained with the dispersion-based diffusivity computed with particle clusters.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1412853','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1412853"><span>Computing eddy-driven effective diffusivity using <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wolfram, Phillip J.; Ringler, Todd D.</p> <p></p> <p>A novel method to derive effective diffusivity from <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particle trajectory data sets is developed and then analyzed relative to particle-derived meridional diffusivity for eddy-driven mixing in an idealized circumpolar current. Quantitative standard dispersion- and transport-based mixing diagnostics are defined, compared and contrasted to motivate the computation and use of effective diffusivity derived from <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particles. We compute the effective diffusivity by first performing scalar transport on <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> control areas using stored trajectories computed from online <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> In-situ Global High-performance particle Tracking (LIGHT) using the Model for Prediction Across Scales Ocean (MPAS-O). Furthermore, the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> scalar transport scheme is comparedmore » against an Eulerian scalar transport scheme. Spatially-variable effective diffusivities are computed from resulting time-varying cumulative concentrations that vary as a function of cumulative area. The transport-based Eulerian and <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> effective diffusivity diagnostics are found to be qualitatively consistent with the dispersion-based diffusivity. All diffusivity estimates show a region of increased subsurface diffusivity within the core of an idealized circumpolar current and results are within a factor of two of each other. The Eulerian and <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> effective diffusivities are most similar; smaller and more spatially diffused values are obtained with the dispersion-based diffusivity computed with particle clusters.« less</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018AdWR..113..141E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018AdWR..113..141E"><span>Shear and shearless <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> structures in compound channels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Enrile, F.; Besio, G.; Stocchino, A.</p> <p>2018-03-01</p> <p>Transport processes in a physical model of a natural stream with a composite cross-section (compound channel) are investigated by means of a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> analysis based on nonlinear dynamical system theory. Two-dimensional free surface Eulerian experimental velocity fields of a uniform flow in a compound channel form the basis for the identification of the so-called <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Coherent Structures. <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> structures are recognized as the key features that govern particle trajectories. We seek for two particular class of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> structures: Shear and shearless structures. The former are generated whenever the shear dominates the flow whereas the latter behave as jet-cores. These two type of structures are detected as ridges and trenches of the Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponents fields, respectively. Besides, shearlines computed applying the geodesic theory of transport barriers mark Shear <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Coherent Structures. So far, the detection of these structures in real experimental flows has not been deeply investigated. Indeed, the present results obtained in a wide range of the controlling parameters clearly show a different behaviour depending on the shallowness of the flow. Shear and Shearless <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Structures detected from laboratory experiments clearly appear as the flow develops in shallow conditions. The presence of these <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Structures tends to fade in deep flow conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=methods&pg=7&id=EJ1140735','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=methods&pg=7&id=EJ1140735"><span>Introducing Postphenomenological Research: A Brief and Selective Sketch of <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> Research Methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Aagaard, Jesper</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>In time, <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> has become a viable <span class="hlt">approach</span> to conducting qualitative studies in education. Popular and well-established methods include descriptive and hermeneutic <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span>. Based on critiques of the essentialism and receptivity of these two methods, however, this article offers a third variation of empirical <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span>:…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRC..119.8029L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRC..119.8029L"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> predictability characteristics of an Ocean Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lacorata, Guglielmo; Palatella, Luigi; Santoleri, Rosalia</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS) Ocean Model, provided by INGV, has been chosen as case study to analyze <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> trajectory predictability by means of a dynamical systems <span class="hlt">approach</span>. To this regard, numerical trajectories are tested against a large amount of Mediterranean drifter data, used as sample of the actual tracer dynamics across the sea. The separation rate of a trajectory pair is measured by computing the Finite-Scale Lyapunov Exponent (FSLE) of first and second kind. An additional kinematic <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> model (KLM), suitably treated to avoid "sweeping"-related problems, has been nested into the MFS in order to recover, in a statistical sense, the velocity field contributions to pair particle dispersion, at mesoscale level, smoothed out by finite resolution effects. Some of the results emerging from this work are: (a) drifter pair dispersion displays Richardson's turbulent diffusion inside the [10-100] km range, while numerical simulations of MFS alone (i.e., without subgrid model) indicate exponential separation; (b) adding the subgrid model, model pair dispersion gets very close to observed data, indicating that KLM is effective in filling the energy "mesoscale gap" present in MFS velocity fields; (c) there exists a threshold size beyond which pair dispersion becomes weakly sensitive to the difference between model and "real" dynamics; (d) the whole methodology here presented can be used to quantify model errors and validate numerical current fields, as far as forecasts of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> dispersion are concerned.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JCoPh.237..251S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JCoPh.237..251S"><span>A cell-centered <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> finite volume <span class="hlt">approach</span> for computing elasto-plastic response of solids in cylindrical axisymmetric geometries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sambasivan, Shiv Kumar; Shashkov, Mikhail J.; Burton, Donald E.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>A finite volume cell-centered <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> formulation is presented for solving large deformation problems in cylindrical axisymmetric geometries. Since solid materials can sustain significant shear deformation, evolution equations for stress and strain fields are solved in addition to mass, momentum and energy conservation laws. The total strain-rate realized in the material is split into an elastic and plastic response. The elastic and plastic components in turn are modeled using hypo-elastic theory. In accordance with the hypo-elastic model, a predictor-corrector algorithm is employed for evolving the deviatoric component of the stress tensor. A trial elastic deviatoric stress state is obtained by integrating a rate equation, cast in the form of an objective (Jaumann) derivative, based on Hooke's law. The dilatational response of the material is modeled using an equation of state of the Mie-Grüneisen form. The plastic deformation is accounted for via an iterative radial return algorithm constructed from the J2 von Mises yield condition. Several benchmark example problems with non-linear strain hardening and thermal softening yield models are presented. Extensive comparisons with representative Eulerian and <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> hydrocodes in addition to analytical and experimental results are made to validate the current <span class="hlt">approach</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=theories+AND+administrative&id=ED567530','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=theories+AND+administrative&id=ED567530"><span>Exploring the Experiences of Administrative Interns: A <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">Approach</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jamison, Kimberly R.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> investigation explores the experiences of administrative interns throughout their administrative internship to discover how they perceive and make meaning of their internship experiences--their thoughts, feelings, concerns, and aspirations. All thirteen participants were students in one university administrator preparation…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002IJMPA..17..405H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002IJMPA..17..405H"><span>Hamiltonian vs <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Embedding of a Massive Spin-One Theory Involving Two-Form Field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harikumar, E.; Sivakumar, M.</p> <p></p> <p>We consider the Hamiltonian and <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> embedding of a first-order, massive spin-one, gauge noninvariant theory involving antisymmetric tensor field. We apply the BFV-BRST generalized canonical <span class="hlt">approach</span> to convert the model to a first class system and construct nilpotent BFV-BRST charge and a unitarizing Hamiltonian. The canonical analysis of the Stückelberg formulation of this model is presented. We bring out the contrasting feature in the constraint structure, specifically with respect to the reducibility aspect, of the Hamiltonian and the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> embedded model. We show that to obtain manifestly covariant Stückelberg <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> from the BFV embedded Hamiltonian, phase space has to be further enlarged and show how the reducible gauge structure emerges in the embedded model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED424268.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED424268.pdf"><span>Multidimensional Test Assembly Based on <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Relaxation Techniques. Research Report 98-08.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Veldkamp, Bernard P.</p> <p></p> <p>In this paper, a mathematical programming <span class="hlt">approach</span> is presented for the assembly of ability tests measuring multiple traits. The values of the variance functions of the estimators of the traits are minimized, while test specifications are met. The <span class="hlt">approach</span> is based on <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> relaxation techniques and provides good results for the two…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910015431','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910015431"><span>Parallel computing using a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> formulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Liou, May-Fun; Loh, Ching Yuen</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>A new <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> formulation of the Euler equation is adopted for the calculation of 2-D supersonic steady flow. The <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> formulation represents the inherent parallelism of the flow field better than the common Eulerian formulation and offers a competitive alternative on parallel computers. The implementation of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> formulation on the Thinking Machines Corporation CM-2 Computer is described. The program uses a finite volume, first-order Godunov scheme and exhibits high accuracy in dealing with multidimensional discontinuities (slip-line and shock). By using this formulation, a better than six times speed-up was achieved on a 8192-processor CM-2 over a single processor of a CRAY-2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950059889&hterms=fun&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dfun','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950059889&hterms=fun&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dfun"><span>Parallel computing using a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> formulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Liou, May-Fun; Loh, Ching-Yuen</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>This paper adopts a new <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> formulation of the Euler equation for the calculation of two dimensional supersonic steady flow. The <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> formulation represents the inherent parallelism of the flow field better than the common Eulerian formulation and offers a competitive alternative on parallel computers. The implementation of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> formulation on the Thinking Machines Corporation CM-2 Computer is described. The program uses a finite volume, first-order Godunov scheme and exhibits high accuracy in dealing with multidimensional discontinuities (slip-line and shock). By using this formulation, we have achieved better than six times speed-up on a 8192-processor CM-2 over a single processor of a CRAY-2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900006575','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900006575"><span>Application of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> blending functions for grid generation around airplane geometries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Abolhassani, Jamshid S.; Sadrehaghighi, Ideen; Tiwari, Surendra N.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>A simple procedure was developed and applied for the grid generation around an airplane geometry. This <span class="hlt">approach</span> is based on a transfinite interpolation with <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> interpolation for the blending functions. A monotonic rational quadratic spline interpolation was employed for the grid distributions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960011642','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960011642"><span>Floating shock fitting via <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> adaptive meshes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Vanrosendale, John</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>In recent work we have formulated a new <span class="hlt">approach</span> to compressible flow simulation, combining the advantages of shock-fitting and shock-capturing. Using a cell-centered on Roe scheme discretization on unstructured meshes, we warp the mesh while marching to steady state, so that mesh edges align with shocks and other discontinuities. This new algorithm, the Shock-fitting <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Adaptive Method (SLAM), is, in effect, a reliable shock-capturing algorithm which yields shock-fitted accuracy at convergence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26753780','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26753780"><span>Geometric effects in microfluidics on heterogeneous cell stress using an Eulerian-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Warren, K M; Mpagazehe, J N; LeDuc, P R; Higgs, C F</p> <p>2016-02-07</p> <p>The response of individual cells at the micro-scale in cell mechanics is important in understanding how they are affected by changing environments. To control cell stresses, microfluidics can be implemented since there is tremendous control over the geometry of the devices. Designing microfluidic devices to induce and manipulate stress levels on biological cells can be aided by computational modeling <span class="hlt">approaches</span>. Such <span class="hlt">approaches</span> serve as an efficient precursor to fabricating various microfluidic geometries that induce predictable levels of stress on biological cells, based on their mechanical properties. Here, a three-dimensional, multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling <span class="hlt">approach</span> was implemented for soft biological materials. The computational model incorporates the physics of the particle dynamics, fluid dynamics and solid mechanics, which allows us to study how stresses affect the cells. By using an Eulerian-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> to treat the fluid domain as a continuum in the microfluidics, we are conducting studies of the cells' movement and the stresses applied to the cell. As a result of our studies, we were able to determine that a channel with periodically alternating columns of obstacles was capable of stressing cells at the highest rate, and that microfluidic systems can be engineered to impose heterogenous cell stresses through geometric configuring. We found that when using controlled geometries of the microfluidics channels with staggered obstructions, we could increase the maximum cell stress by nearly 200 times over cells flowing through microfluidic channels with no obstructions. Incorporating computational modeling in the design of microfluidic configurations for controllable cell stressing could help in the design of microfludic devices for stressing cells such as cell homogenizers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22297773','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22297773"><span>A <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> to assessing a DUI/DWI program.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Narag, Raymund E; Maxwell, Sheila Royo; Lee, Byung</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>In an effort to find a more proactive solution to the problem of drunk driving, a midwestern city has implemented a Driving Under the Influence or Driving While Impaired (DUI/DWI) Court program, a derivative of the popular drug courts. Eligible participants are those who have had two or more drunk-driving offenses but who have not been convicted of a violent offense. Participants volunteer for a 36-week program in exchange for a suspension of their prison sentence. Program elements include drug/alcohol monitoring, support groups, counseling, and extensive supervision. Using a <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span>, this article describes the challenges faced by 20 participants, how they navigated the program requirements, their key realizations about their conditions, and their views on the viability and effectiveness of the program. The article uses qualitative interviews of participants and stakeholders collected for a process evaluation of the DUI program, and official records collected for programming purposes. Findings from this research can be used broadly for programming purposes and can be used by other court jurisdictions that are developing similar programs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900032575&hterms=Lagrangian&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DLagrangian','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900032575&hterms=Lagrangian&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DLagrangian"><span>Applications of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> blending functions for grid generation around airplane geometries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Abolhassani, Jamshid S.; Sadrehaghighi, Ideen; Tiwari, Surendra N.; Smith, Robert E.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>A simple procedure has been developed and applied for the grid generation around an airplane geometry. This <span class="hlt">approach</span> is based on a transfinite interpolation with <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> interpolation for the blending functions. A monotonic rational quadratic spline interpolation has been employed for the grid distributions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27106878','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27106878"><span>Distinguishing Features and Similarities Between Descriptive <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> and Qualitative Description Research.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Willis, Danny G; Sullivan-Bolyai, Susan; Knafl, Kathleen; Cohen, Marlene Z</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Scholars who research phenomena of concern to the discipline of nursing are challenged with making wise choices about different qualitative research <span class="hlt">approaches</span>. Ultimately, they want to choose an <span class="hlt">approach</span> that is best suited to answer their research questions. Such choices are predicated on having made distinctions between qualitative methodology, methods, and analytic frames. In this article, we distinguish two qualitative research <span class="hlt">approaches</span> widely used for descriptive studies: descriptive <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> and qualitative description. Providing a clear basis that highlights the distinguishing features and similarities between descriptive <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> and qualitative description research will help students and researchers make more informed choices in deciding upon the most appropriate methodology in qualitative research. We orient the reader to distinguishing features and similarities associated with each <span class="hlt">approach</span> and the kinds of research questions descriptive <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> and qualitative description research address. © The Author(s) 2016.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MMTB...48.1248L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MMTB...48.1248L"><span>Modeling of Quasi-Four-Phase Flow in Continuous Casting Mold Using Hybrid Eulerian and <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">Approach</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Zhongqiu; Sun, Zhenbang; Li, Baokuan</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> tracking model combined with Eulerian multi-phase model is employed to predict the time-dependent argon-steel-slag-air quasi-four-phase flow inside a slab continuous casting mold. The Eulerian <span class="hlt">approach</span> is used for the description of three phases (molten steel, liquid slag, and air at the top of liquid slag layer). The dispersed argon bubble injected from the SEN is treated in the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> way. The complex interfacial momentum transfers between various phases are considered. Validation is supported by the measurement data of cold model experiments and industrial practice. Close agreements were achieved for the gas volume fraction, liquid flow pattern, level fluctuation, and exposed slag eye phenomena. Many known phenomena and new predictions were successfully reproduced using this model. The vortex slag entrapment phenomenon at the slag-steel interface was obtained using this model, some small slag drops are sucked deep into the liquid pool of molten steel. Varying gas flow rates have a large effect on the steel flow pattern in the upper recirculation zone. Three typical flow patterns inside the mold with different argon gas flow rates have been obtained: double roll, three roll, and single roll. Effects of argon gas flow rate, casting speed, and slag layer thickness on the exposed slag eye and level fluctuation at the slag-steel interface were studied. A dimensionless value of H ave/ h was proposed to describe the time-averaged level fluctuation of slag-steel interface. The exposed slag eye near the SEN would be formed when the value of H ave/ h is larger than 0.4.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JCoPh.225..464J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JCoPh.225..464J"><span>A purely <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> method for computing linearly-perturbed flows in spherical geometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jaouen, Stéphane</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>In many physical applications, one wishes to control the development of multi-dimensional instabilities around a one-dimensional (1D) complex flow. For predicting the growth rates of these perturbations, a general numerical <span class="hlt">approach</span> is viable which consists in solving simultaneously the one-dimensional equations and their linearized form for three-dimensional perturbations. In Clarisse et al. [J.-M. Clarisse, S. Jaouen, P.-A. Raviart, A Godunov-type method in <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> coordinates for computing linearly-perturbed planar-symmetric flows of gas dynamics, J. Comp. Phys. 198 (2004) 80-105], a class of Godunov-type schemes for planar-symmetric flows of gas dynamics has been proposed. Pursuing this effort, we extend these results to spherically symmetric flows. A new method to derive the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> perturbation equations, based on the canonical form of systems of conservation laws with zero entropy flux [B. Després, <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> systems of conservation laws. Invariance properties of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> systems of conservation laws, approximate Riemann solvers and the entropy condition, Numer. Math. 89 (2001) 99-134; B. Després, C. Mazeran, <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> gas dynamics in two dimensions and <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> systems, Arch. Rational Mech. Anal. 178 (2005) 327-372] is also described. It leads to many advantages. First of all, many physical problems we are interested in enter this formalism (gas dynamics, two-temperature plasma equations, ideal magnetohydrodynamics, etc.) whatever is the geometry. Secondly, a class of numerical entropic schemes is available for the basic flow [11]. Last, linearizing and devising numerical schemes for the perturbed flow is straightforward. The numerical capabilities of these methods are illustrated on three test cases of increasing difficulties and we show that - due to its simplicity and its low computational cost - the Linear Perturbations Code (LPC) is a powerful tool to understand and predict the development of hydrodynamic instabilities in the linear regime.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018PhLB..781..568M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018PhLB..781..568M"><span>BRST-BV <span class="hlt">approach</span> to continuous-spin field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Metsaev, R. R.</p> <p>2018-06-01</p> <p>Using BRST-BV <span class="hlt">approach</span>, massless and massive continuous-spin fields propagating in the flat space are studied. For such fields, BRST-BV gauge invariant <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> is obtained. The <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> and gauge transformations are constructed out of traceless gauge fields and traceless gauge transformation parameters. Interrelation between the BRST-BV <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> and the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> for the continuous-spin fields in metric-like <span class="hlt">approach</span> is demonstrated. Considering the BRST-BV <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> in the Siegel gauge, we get gauge-fixed <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> which is invariant under global BRST and antiBRST transformations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013978','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013978"><span>Eulerian-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> solution of the convection-dispersion equation in natural coordinates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cheng, Ralph T.; Casulli, Vincenzo; Milford, S. Nevil</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The vast majority of numerical investigations of transport phenomena use an Eulerian formulation for the convenience that the computational grids are fixed in space. An Eulerian-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> method (ELM) of solution for the convection-dispersion equation is discussed and analyzed. The ELM uses the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> concept in an Eulerian computational grid system. The values of the dependent variable off the grid are calculated by interpolation. When a linear interpolation is used, the method is a slight improvement over the upwind difference method. At this level of approximation both the ELM and the upwind difference method suffer from large numerical dispersion. However, if second-order <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> polynomials are used in the interpolation, the ELM is proven to be free of artificial numerical dispersion for the convection-dispersion equation. The concept of the ELM is extended for treatment of anisotropic dispersion in natural coordinates. In this <span class="hlt">approach</span> the anisotropic properties of dispersion can be conveniently related to the properties of the flow field. Several numerical examples are given to further substantiate the results of the present analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPJWC..8501001M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPJWC..8501001M"><span><span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span> of TMDs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Melis, Stefano</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We present a review of current Transverse Momentum Dependent (TMD) <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> focusing our attention on the unpolarized TMD parton distribution function and the Sivers function. The paper introduces and comments about the new Collins-Soper-Sterman (CSS) TMD evolution formalism [1]. We make use of a selection of results obtained by several groups to illustrate the achievements and the failures of the simple Gaussian <span class="hlt">approach</span> and the TMD CSS evolution formalism.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22482601','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22482601"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> displacement tracking using a polar grid between endocardial and epicardial contours for cardiac strain imaging.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ma, Chi; Varghese, Tomy</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Accurate cardiac deformation analysis for cardiac displacement and strain imaging over time requires <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> description of deformation of myocardial tissue structures. Failure to couple the estimated displacement and strain information with the correct myocardial tissue structures will lead to erroneous result in the displacement and strain distribution over time. <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> based tracking in this paper divides the tissue structure into a fixed number of pixels whose deformation is tracked over the cardiac cycle. An algorithm that utilizes a polar-grid generated between the estimated endocardial and epicardial contours for cardiac short axis images is proposed to ensure <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> description of the pixels. Displacement estimates from consecutive radiofrequency frames were then mapped onto the polar grid to obtain a distribution of the actual displacement that is mapped to the polar grid over time. A finite element based canine heart model coupled with an ultrasound simulation program was used to verify this <span class="hlt">approach</span>. Segmental analysis of the accumulated displacement and strain over a cardiac cycle demonstrate excellent agreement between the ideal result obtained directly from the finite element model and our <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> to strain estimation. Traditional Eulerian based estimation results, on the other hand, show significant deviation from the ideal result. An in vivo comparison of the displacement and strain estimated using parasternal short axis views is also presented. <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> displacement tracking using a polar grid provides accurate tracking of myocardial deformation demonstrated using both finite element and in vivo radiofrequency data acquired on a volunteer. In addition to the cardiac application, this <span class="hlt">approach</span> can also be utilized for transverse scans of arteries, where a polar grid can be generated between the contours delineating the outer and inner wall of the vessels from the blood flowing though the vessel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PAN....80..275D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PAN....80..275D"><span><span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span> of the standard model under conditions of spontaneously broken mirror symmetry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dyatlov, I. T.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Spontaneously broken mirror symmetry is able to reproduce observed qualitative properties of weak mixing for quark and leptons. Under conditions of broken mirror symmetry, the <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> of leptons—that is, small neutrino masses and a mixing character other than that in the case of quarks—requires the Dirac character of the neutrinos and the existence of processes violating the total lepton number. Such processes involve heavy mirror neutrinos; that is, they proceed at very high energies. Here, CP violation implies that a P-even mirror-symmetric <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> must simultaneously be T-odd and, according to the CPT theorem, C-odd. All these properties create preconditions for the occurrence of leptogenesis, which is a mechanism of the emergence of the baryon-lepton asymmetry of the universe in models featuring broken mirror symmetry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030052220','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030052220"><span>A Vertically <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Finite-Volume Dynamical Core for Global Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lin, Shian-Jiann</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>A finite-volume dynamical core with a terrain-following <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> control-volume discretization is described. The vertically <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> discretization reduces the dimensionality of the physical problem from three to two with the resulting dynamical system closely resembling that of the shallow water dynamical system. The 2D horizontal-to-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>-surface transport and dynamical processes are then discretized using the genuinely conservative flux-form semi-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> algorithm. Time marching is split- explicit, with large-time-step for scalar transport, and small fractional time step for the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> dynamics, which permits the accurate propagation of fast waves. A mass, momentum, and total energy conserving algorithm is developed for mapping the state variables periodically from the floating <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> control-volume to an Eulerian terrain-following coordinate for dealing with physical parameterizations and to prevent severe distortion of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> surfaces. Deterministic baroclinic wave growth tests and long-term integrations using the Held-Suarez forcing are presented. Impact of the monotonicity constraint is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CPM.....1...85O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CPM.....1...85O"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> analysis of multiscale particulate flows with the particle finite element method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oñate, Eugenio; Celigueta, Miguel Angel; Latorre, Salvador; Casas, Guillermo; Rossi, Riccardo; Rojek, Jerzy</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>We present a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> numerical technique for the analysis of flows incorporating physical particles of different sizes. The numerical <span class="hlt">approach</span> is based on the particle finite element method (PFEM) which blends concepts from particle-based techniques and the FEM. The basis of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> formulation for particulate flows and the procedure for modelling the motion of small and large particles that are submerged in the fluid are described in detail. The numerical technique for analysis of this type of multiscale particulate flows using a stabilized mixed velocity-pressure formulation and the PFEM is also presented. Examples of application of the PFEM to several particulate flows problems are given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1896n0006K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1896n0006K"><span>Comparison of updated <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> FEM with arbitrary <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Eulerian method for 3D thermo-mechanical extrusion of a tube profile</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kronsteiner, J.; Horwatitsch, D.; Zeman, K.</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>Thermo-mechanical numerical modelling and simulation of extrusion processes faces several serious challenges. Large plastic deformations in combination with a strong coupling of thermal with mechanical effects leads to a high numerical demand for the solution as well as for the handling of mesh distortions. The two numerical methods presented in this paper also reflect two different ways to deal with mesh distortions. <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Finite Element Methods (FEM) tackle distorted elements by building a new mesh (called re-meshing) whereas Arbitrary <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Eulerian (ALE) methods use an "advection" step to remap the solution from the distorted to the undistorted mesh. Another difference between conventional <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> and ALE methods is the separate treatment of material and mesh in ALE, allowing the definition of individual velocity fields. In theory, an ALE formulation contains the Eulerian formulation as a subset to the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> description of the material. The investigations presented in this paper were dealing with the direct extrusion of a tube profile using EN-AW 6082 aluminum alloy and a comparison of experimental with <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> and ALE results. The numerical simulations cover the billet upsetting and last until one third of the billet length is extruded. A good qualitative correlation of experimental and numerical results could be found, however, major differences between <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> and ALE methods concerning thermo-mechanical coupling lead to deviations in the thermal results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhTea..48..512H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhTea..48..512H"><span>Gravity, Time, and <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huggins, Elisha</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>Feynman mentioned to us that he understood a topic in physics if he could explain it to a college freshman, a high school student, or a dinner guest. Here we will discuss two topics that took us a while to get to that level. One is the relationship between gravity and time. The other is the minus sign that appears in the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>. (Why would one subtract potential energy from kinetic energy?) In this paper we discuss a thought experiment that relates gravity and time. Then we use a Feynman thought experiment to explain the minus sign in the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>. Our surprise was that these two topics are related.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28872043','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28872043"><span>Representations of their own sexuality and aging body by old people: <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> and psychodynamic <span class="hlt">approach</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Meyrignac, Lucile; Bouati, Noureddine; Sagne, Alain; Gavazzi, Gaëtan; Zipper, Anne-Claire</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>The sexuality of the elderly is rarely mentioned in general medicine although it holds an important place in many old people's life, and sexual well-being is a part of the global well-being according to the World Health Organization. To explore the representations of their own sexuality and aging body by the elderly. Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews in 15 healthy elderly people over 65 years of age, living at home. In-depth interviews were transcribed and submitted to qualitative content using a <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> and a psychodynamic analysis. The <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> allows to explore the meaning and significance of the sexuality of older people (their representations and individual experience). The psychodynamic <span class="hlt">approach</span> allows an analysis of defense mechanisms in verbal and nonverbal behavior. Some elderly maintain a view of their sexuality in accordance with the societal standards existing before the sexual liberalization following the events of May 68 in France. For these people, sexuality is tabooed and only linked to procreation, no longer part of the aging body, and perceived as degraded, then difficult to be <span class="hlt">approached</span> by general practitioners in relation with defense mechanisms. Other elderly people have managed to free themselves from those previous societal standards. The notion of pleasure is still present in these people and their aging body is perceived as an altered body, difficult to be accepted on account of the pressure for conformity due to actual societal standards. These standards reserve sexuality to young people and convey a picture of a sexuality that would be improper for the elderly. Understanding the representations of their sexuality by the elderly allows GPs a better <span class="hlt">approach</span> for helping older patients to improve their sexual well-being.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPlPh..82c9004B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPlPh..82c9004B"><span>The initial value problem in <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> drift kinetic theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Burby, J. W.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>> Existing high-order variational drift kinetic theories contain unphysical rapidly varying modes that are not seen at low orders. These unphysical modes, which may be rapidly oscillating, damped or growing, are ushered in by a failure of conventional high-order drift kinetic theory to preserve the structure of its parent model's initial value problem. In short, the (infinite dimensional) system phase space is unphysically enlarged in conventional high-order variational drift kinetic theory. I present an alternative, `renormalized' variational <span class="hlt">approach</span> to drift kinetic theory that manifestly respects the parent model's initial value problem. The basic philosophy underlying this alternate <span class="hlt">approach</span> is that high-order drift kinetic theory ought to be derived by truncating the all-orders system phase-space <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> instead of the usual `field particle' <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>. For the sake of clarity, this story is told first through the lens of a finite-dimensional toy model of high-order variational drift kinetics; the analogous full-on drift kinetic story is discussed subsequently. The renormalized drift kinetic system, while variational and just as formally accurate as conventional formulations, does not support the troublesome rapidly varying modes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JCoPh.339...68G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JCoPh.339...68G"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> transported MDF methods for compressible high speed flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gerlinger, Peter</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>This paper deals with the application of thermochemical <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> MDF (mass density function) methods for compressible sub- and supersonic RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes) simulations. A new <span class="hlt">approach</span> to treat molecular transport is presented. This technique on the one hand ensures numerical stability of the particle solver in laminar regions of the flow field (e.g. in the viscous sublayer) and on the other hand takes differential diffusion into account. It is shown in a detailed analysis, that the new method correctly predicts first and second-order moments on the basis of conventional modeling <span class="hlt">approaches</span>. Moreover, a number of challenges for MDF particle methods in high speed flows is discussed, e.g. high cell aspect ratio grids close to solid walls, wall heat transfer, shock resolution, and problems from statistical noise which may cause artificial shock systems in supersonic flows. A Mach 2 supersonic mixing channel with multiple shock reflection and a model rocket combustor simulation demonstrate the eligibility of this technique to practical applications. Both test cases are simulated successfully for the first time with a hybrid finite-volume (FV)/<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particle solver (PS).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22482465-lagrangian-flows-within-reflecting-internal-waves-horizontal-free-slip-surface','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22482465-lagrangian-flows-within-reflecting-internal-waves-horizontal-free-slip-surface"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> flows within reflecting internal waves at a horizontal free-slip surface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhou, Qi, E-mail: q.zhou@damtp.cam.ac.uk; Diamessis, Peter J.</p> <p></p> <p>In this paper sequel to Zhou and Diamessis [“Reflection of an internal gravity wave beam off a horizontal free-slip surface,” Phys. Fluids 25, 036601 (2013)], we consider <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> flows within nonlinear internal waves (IWs) reflecting off a horizontal free-slip rigid lid, the latter being a model of the ocean surface. The problem is <span class="hlt">approached</span> both analytically using small-amplitude approximations and numerically by tracking <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> fluid particles in direct numerical simulation (DNS) datasets of the Eulerian flow. Inviscid small-amplitude analyses for both plane IWs and IW beams (IWBs) show that Eulerian mean flow due to wave-wave interaction and wave-induced Stokes driftmore » cancels each other out completely at the second order in wave steepness A, i.e., O(A{sup 2}), implying zero <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> mean flow up to that order. However, high-accuracy particle tracking in finite-Reynolds-number fully nonlinear DNS datasets from the work of Zhou and Diamessis suggests that the Euler-Stokes cancelation on O(A{sup 2}) is not complete. This partial cancelation significantly weakens the mean <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> flows but does not entirely eliminate them. As a result, reflecting nonlinear IWBs produce mean <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> drifts on O(A{sup 2}) and thus particle dispersion on O(A{sup 4}). The above findings can be relevant to predicting IW-driven mass transport in the oceanic surface and subsurface region which bears important observational and environmental implications, under circumstances where the effect of Earth rotation can be ignored.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27248037','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27248037"><span>The <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> Circle and the Unity of Life and Thought.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Atwood, George E; Stolorow, Robert D</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>This paper describes the important role of our deep immersions in philosophy in the development of our <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span>-contextualist <span class="hlt">approach</span> to psychoanalysis. Influenced most particularly by the <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> movement, our collaborative dialogue over more than four decades has led us to a shared commitment to reflection upon the philosophical underpinnings and constitutive contexts of origin of all our theoretical ideas. The growth of our thinking follows an endlessly recurring <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> circle joining theoretical perspectives with the inquirers from whose emotional worlds they arise.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25783150','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25783150"><span>Choosing <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> as a guiding philosophy for nursing research.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Matua, Gerald Amandu</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>To provide an overview of important methodological considerations that nurse researchers need to adhere to when choosing <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> as a guiding philosophy and research method. <span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span> is a major philosophy and research method in the humanities, human sciences and arts disciplines with a central goal of describing people's experiences. However, many nurse researchers continue to grapple with methodological issues related to their choice of <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> method. The author conducted online and manual searches of relevant research books and electronic databases. Using an integrative method, peer-reviewed research and discussion papers published between January 1990 and December 2011 and listed in the CINAHL, Science Direct, PubMed and Google Scholar databases were reviewed. In addition, textbooks that addressed research methodologies such as <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> were used. Although <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> is widely used today to broaden understanding of human phenomena relevant to nursing practice, nurse researchers often fail to adhere to acceptable scientific and <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> standards. Cognisant of these challenges, researchers are expected to indicate in their work the focus of their investigations, designs, and <span class="hlt">approaches</span> to collecting and analysing data. They are also expected to present their findings in an evocative and expressive manner. Choosing <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> requires researchers to understand it as a philosophy, including basic assumptions and tenets of <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> as a research method. This awareness enables researchers, especially novices, to make important methodological decisions, particularly those necessary to indicate the study's scientific rigour and <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> validity. This paper adds to the discussion of <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> as a guiding philosophy for nursing research. It aims to guide new researchers on important methodological decisions they need to make to safeguard their study's scientific rigour and <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> validity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED435880.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED435880.pdf"><span>Applications of <span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span> in Transpersonal, Person-Centered, and Existential Counseling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Souza, Katherine Zimmer; Do, Vinh The</p> <p></p> <p>This article explains that the <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> in counseling began as a movement to counterbalance the influence of psychoanalysis in psychotherapy and counseling. <span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span> is defined as the study of the world as we immediately experience it, pre-reflectively rather than as we conceptualize, categorize, or reflect on it. Through…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CNSNS..20..516I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CNSNS..20..516I"><span>Transport induced by mean-eddy interaction: I. Theory, and relation to <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> lobe dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ide, Kayo; Wiggins, Stephen</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>In this paper we develop a method for the estimation of Transport Induced by the Mean-Eddy interaction (TIME) in two-dimensional unsteady flows. The method is based on the dynamical systems <span class="hlt">approach</span> to fluid transport and can be viewed as a hybrid combination of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> and Eulerian methods. The (Eulerian) boundaries across which we consider (<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>) transport are kinematically defined by appropriately chosen streamlines of the mean flow. By evaluating the impact of the mean-eddy interaction on transport, the TIME method can be used as a diagnostic tool for transport processes that occur during a specified time interval along a specified boundary segment. We introduce two types of TIME functions: one that quantifies the accumulation of flow properties and another that measures the displacement of the transport geometry. The spatial geometry of transport is described by the so-called pseudo-lobes, and temporal evolution of transport by their dynamics. In the case where the TIME functions are evaluated along a separatrix, the pseudo-lobes have a relationship to the lobes of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> transport theory. In fact, one of the TIME functions is identical to the Melnikov function that is used to measure the distance, at leading order in a small parameter, between the two invariant manifolds that define the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> lobes. We contrast the similarities and differences between the TIME and <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> lobe dynamics in detail. An application of the TIME method is carried out for inter-gyre transport in the wind-driven oceanic circulation model and a comparison with the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> transport theory is made.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMOS42A..05T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMOS42A..05T"><span>Modeling possible spreadings of a buoyant surface plume with <span class="hlt">lagrangian</span> and eulerian <span class="hlt">approaches</span> at different resolutions using flow syntheses from 1992-2007 - a Gulf of Mexico study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tulloch, R.; Hill, C. N.; Jahn, O.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>We present results from an ensemble of BP oil spill simulations. The oil spill slick is modeled as a buoyant surface plume that is transported by ocean currents modulated, in some experiments, by surface winds. Ocean currents are taken from ECCO2 project (see http://ecco2.org ) observationally constrained state estimates spanning 1992-2007. In this work we (i) explore the role of increased resolution of ocean eddies, (ii) compare inferences from particle based, <span class="hlt">lagrangian</span>, <span class="hlt">approaches</span> with eulerian, field based, <span class="hlt">approaches</span> and (ii) examine the impact of differential response of oil particles and water to normal and extreme, hurricane derived, wind stress. We focus on three main questions. Is the simulated response to an oil spill markedly different for different years, depending on ocean circulation and wind forcing? Does the simulated response depend heavily on resolution and are <span class="hlt">lagrangian</span> and eulerian estimates comparable? We start from two regional configurations of the MIT General Circulation Model (MITgcm - see http://mitgcm.org ) at 16km and 4km resolutions respectively, both covering the Gulf of Mexico and western North Atlantic regions. The simulations are driven at open boundaries with momentum and hydrographic fields from ECCO2 observationally constrained global circulation estimates. The time dependent surface flow fields from these simulations are used to transport a dye that can optionally decay over time (approximating biological breakdown) and to transport <span class="hlt">lagrangian</span> particles. Using these experiments we examine the robustness of conclusions regarding the fate of a buoyant slick, injected at a single point. In conclusion we discuss how future drilling operations could use similar <span class="hlt">approaches</span> to better anticipate outcomes of accidents both in this region and elsewhere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/934850','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/934850"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> continuum dynamics in ALEGRA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wong, Michael K. W.; Love, Edward</p> <p></p> <p>Alegra is an ALE (Arbitrary <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>-Eulerian) multi-material finite element code that emphasizes large deformations and strong shock physics. The <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> continuum dynamics package in Alegra uses a Galerkin finite element spatial discretization and an explicit central-difference stepping method in time. The goal of this report is to describe in detail the characteristics of this algorithm, including the conservation and stability properties. The details provided should help both researchers and analysts understand the underlying theory and numerical implementation of the Alegra continuum hydrodynamics algorithm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=mothers&pg=4&id=EJ1134952','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=mothers&pg=4&id=EJ1134952"><span>Single Mothers' Experiences of Support at Their Young Children's School: An Interpretative <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">Approach</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>West, Erin M.; Miller, Lynne Guillot; Moate, Randall M.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> study explored six single mothers' experiences of support at their young children's school. Themes resulting from interpretative <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> analysis suggest the single mothers experienced tangible (e.g., school resources, school-wide events, structural flexibility, teachers' formal communication) and intangible (e.g.,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.A22E..06K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.A22E..06K"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Particle Tracking Simulation for Warm-Rain Processes in Quasi-One-Dimensional Domain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kunishima, Y.; Onishi, R.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>Conventional cloud simulations are based on the Euler method and compute each microphysics process in a stochastic way assuming infinite numbers of particles within each numerical grid. They therefore cannot provide the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> statistics of individual particles in cloud microphysics (i.e., aerosol particles, cloud particles, and rain drops) nor discuss the statistical fluctuations due to finite number of particles. We here simulate the entire precipitation process of warm-rain, with tracking individual particles. We use the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Cloud Simulator (LCS), which is based on the Euler-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> framework. In that framework, flow motion and scalar transportation are computed with the Euler method, and particle motion with the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> one. The LCS tracks particle motions and collision events individually with considering the hydrodynamic interaction between <span class="hlt">approaching</span> particles with a superposition method, that is, it can directly represent the collisional growth of cloud particles. It is essential for trustworthy collision detection to take account of the hydrodynamic interaction. In this study, we newly developed a stochastic model based on the Twomey cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activation for the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> tracking simulation and integrated it into the LCS. Coupling with the Euler computation for water vapour and temperature fields, the initiation and condensational growth of water droplets were computed in the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> way. We applied the integrated LCS for a kinematic simulation of warm-rain processes in a vertically-elongated domain of, at largest, 0.03×0.03×3000 (m3) with horizontal periodicity. Aerosol particles with a realistic number density, 5×107 (m3), were evenly distributed over the domain at the initial state. Prescribed updraft at the early stage initiated development of a precipitating cloud. We have confirmed that the obtained bulk statistics fairly agree with those from a conventional spectral-bin scheme for a vertical column</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013803','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013803"><span>Two-dimensional <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> simulation of suspended sediment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Schoellhamer, David H.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>A two-dimensional laterally averaged model for suspended sediment transport in steady gradually varied flow that is based on the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> reference frame is presented. The layered <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> transport model (LLTM) for suspended sediment performs laterally averaged concentration. The elevations of nearly horizontal streamlines and the simulation time step are selected to optimize model stability and efficiency. The computational elements are parcels of water that are moved along the streamlines in the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> sense and are mixed with neighboring parcels. Three applications show that the LLTM can accurately simulate theoretical and empirical nonequilibrium suspended sediment distributions and slug injections of suspended sediment in a laboratory flume.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A51I0188M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A51I0188M"><span>A novel <span class="hlt">approach</span> to <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> sampling of marine boundary layer cloud and aerosol in the northeast Pacific: case studies from CSET</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mohrmann, J.; Albrecht, B. A.; Bretherton, C. S.; Ghate, V. P.; Zuidema, P.; Wood, R.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Cloud System Evolution in the Trades (CSET) field campaign took place during July/August 2015 with the purpose of characterizing the cloud, aerosol and thermodynamic properties of the northeast Pacific marine boundary layer. One major science goal of the campaign was to observe a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> transition from thin stratocumulus (Sc) upwind near California to trade cumulus (Cu) nearer to Hawaii. Cloud properties were observed from the NSF/NCAR Gulfstream V research plane (GV) using the HIAPER Cloud Radar (HCR) and the HIAPER Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL), among other instrumentation. Aircraft observations were complemented by a suite of satellite-derived products. To observe a the evolution of airmasses over the course of two days, upwind regions were sampled on an outbound flight to from Sacramento, CA, to Kona, HI. The sampled airmasses were then tracked using HYSPLIT trajectories based on GFS model forecasts, and the return flight to California was planned to intercept those airmasses, using satellite observation to track cloud evolution in the interim. This <span class="hlt">approach</span> required that trajectories were reasonably stable up to 3 days prior to final sampling, and also that forecast trajectories were in agreement with post-flight analysis and visual cloud feature tracking. The extent to which this was realised, and hence the validity of this new <span class="hlt">approach</span> to <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> airmass observation, is assessed here. We also present results showing that a Sc-Cu airmass transition was consistently observed during the CSET study using measurements from research flights and satellite.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22474139','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22474139"><span><span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span> as a resource for patients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carel, Havi</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Patient support tools have drawn on a variety of disciplines, including psychotherapy, social psychology, and social care. One discipline that has not so far been used to support patients is philosophy. This paper proposes that a particular philosophical <span class="hlt">approach</span>, <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span>, could prove useful for patients, giving them tools to reflect on and expand their understanding of their illness. I present a framework for a resource that could help patients to philosophically examine their illness, its impact on their life, and its meaning. I explain the need for such a resource, provide philosophical grounding for it, and outline the epistemic and existential gains philosophy offers. Illness often begins as an intrusion on one's life but with time becomes a way of being. I argue that this transition impacts on core human features such as the experience of space and time, human abilities, and adaptability. It therefore requires philosophical analysis and response. The paper uses ideas from Husserl and Merleau-Ponty to present such a response in the form of a <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> toolkit for patients. The toolkit includes viewing illness as a form of <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> reduction, thematizing illness, and examining illness as altering the ill person's being in the world. I suggest that this toolkit could be offered to patients as a workshop, using <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> concepts, texts, and film clips to reflect on illness. I conclude by arguing that examining illness as a limit case of embodied existence deepens our understanding of <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010CompM..46..883R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010CompM..46..883R"><span>A monolithic <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> for fluid-structure interaction problems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ryzhakov, P. B.; Rossi, R.; Idelsohn, S. R.; Oñate, E.</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>Current work presents a monolithic method for the solution of fluid-structure interaction problems involving flexible structures and free-surface flows. The technique presented is based upon the utilization of a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> description for both the fluid and the structure. A linear displacement-pressure interpolation pair is used for the fluid whereas the structure utilizes a standard displacement-based formulation. A slight fluid compressibility is assumed that allows to relate the mechanical pressure to the local volume variation. The method described features a global pressure condensation which in turn enables the definition of a purely displacement-based linear system of equations. A matrix-free technique is used for the solution of such linear system, leading to an efficient implementation. The result is a robust method which allows dealing with FSI problems involving arbitrary variations in the shape of the fluid domain. The method is completely free of spurious added-mass effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1413605S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1413605S"><span>An online-coupled NWP/ACT model with conserved <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> levels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sørensen, B.; Kaas, E.; Lauritzen, P. H.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Numerical weather and climate modelling is under constant development. Semi-implicit semi-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> (SISL) models have proven to be numerically efficient in both short-range weather forecasts and climate models, due to the ability to use long time steps. Chemical/aerosol feedback mechanism are becoming more and more relevant in NWP as well as climate models, since the biogenic and anthropogenic emissions can have a direct effect on the dynamics and radiative properties of the atmosphere. To include chemical feedback mechanisms in the NWP models, on-line coupling is crucial. In 3D semi-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> schemes with quasi-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> vertical coordinates the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> levels are remapped to Eulerian model levels each time step. This remapping introduces an undesirable tendency to smooth sharp gradients and creates unphysical numerical diffusion in the vertical distribution. A semi-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> advection method is introduced, it combines an inherently mass conserving 2D semi-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> scheme, with a SISL scheme employing both hybrid vertical coordinates and a fully <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> vertical coordinate. This minimizes the vertical diffusion and thus potentially improves the simulation of the vertical profiles of moisture, clouds, and chemical constituents. Since the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> levels suffer from traditional <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> limitations caused by the convergence and divergence of the flow, remappings to the Eulerian model levels are generally still required - but this need only be applied after a number of time steps - unless dynamic remapping methods are used. For this several different remapping methods has been implemented. The combined scheme is mass conserving, consistent, and multi-tracer efficient.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29251443','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29251443"><span>The use of <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> in mental health nursing research.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Picton, Caroline Jane; Moxham, Lorna; Patterson, Christopher</p> <p>2017-12-18</p> <p>Historically, mental health research has been strongly influenced by the underlying positivism of the quantitative paradigm. Quantitative research dominates scientific enquiry and contributes significantly to understanding our natural world. It has also greatly benefitted the medical model of healthcare. However, the more literary, silent, qualitative <span class="hlt">approach</span> is gaining prominence in human sciences research, particularly mental healthcare research. To examine the qualitative methodological assumptions of <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> to illustrate the benefits to mental health research of studying the experiences of people with mental illness. <span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span> is well positioned to ask how people with mental illness reflect on their experiences. <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> research is congruent with the principles of contemporary mental healthcare, as person-centred care is favoured at all levels of mental healthcare, treatment, service and research. <span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span> is a highly appropriate and suitable methodology for mental health research, given it includes people's experiences and enables silent voices to be heard. This overview of the development of <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> informs researchers new to <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> enquiry. ©2017 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21279359','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21279359"><span>Differential geometry based solvation model II: <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> formulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Zhan; Baker, Nathan A; Wei, G W</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p> computation, thanks to the equivalence of the Laplace-Beltrami operator in the two representations. The coupled partial differential equations (PDEs) are solved with an iterative procedure to reach a steady state, which delivers desired solvent-solute interface and electrostatic potential for problems of interest. These quantities are utilized to evaluate the solvation free energies and protein-protein binding affinities. A number of computational methods and algorithms are described for the interconversion of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> and Eulerian representations, and for the solution of the coupled PDE system. The proposed <span class="hlt">approaches</span> have been extensively validated. We also verify that the mean curvature flow indeed gives rise to the minimal molecular surface and the proposed variational procedure indeed offers minimal total free energy. Solvation analysis and applications are considered for a set of 17 small compounds and a set of 23 proteins. The salt effect on protein-protein binding affinity is investigated with two protein complexes by using the present model. Numerical results are compared to the experimental measurements and to those obtained by using other theoretical methods in the literature. © Springer-Verlag 2011</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3113640','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3113640"><span>Differential geometry based solvation model II: <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> formulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chen, Zhan; Baker, Nathan A.; Wei, G. W.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p> the purpose of computation, thanks to the equivalence of the Laplace-Beltrami operator in the two representations. The coupled partial differential equations (PDEs) are solved with an iterative procedure to reach a steady state, which delivers desired solvent-solute interface and electrostatic potential for problems of interest. These quantities are utilized to evaluate the solvation free energies and protein-protein binding affinities. A number of computational methods and algorithms are described for the interconversion of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> and Eulerian representations, and for the solution of the coupled PDE system. The proposed <span class="hlt">approaches</span> have been extensively validated. We also verify that the mean curvature flow indeed gives rise to the minimal molecular surface (MMS) and the proposed variational procedure indeed offers minimal total free energy. Solvation analysis and applications are considered for a set of 17 small compounds and a set of 23 proteins. The salt effect on protein-protein binding affinity is investigated with two protein complexes by using the present model. Numerical results are compared to the experimental measurements and to those obtained by using other theoretical methods in the literature. PMID:21279359</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22613989-phenomenology-standard-model-under-conditions-spontaneously-broken-mirror-symmetry','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22613989-phenomenology-standard-model-under-conditions-spontaneously-broken-mirror-symmetry"><span><span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span> of the standard model under conditions of spontaneously broken mirror symmetry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dyatlov, I. T., E-mail: dyatlov@thd.pnpi.spb.ru</p> <p>2017-03-15</p> <p>Spontaneously broken mirror symmetry is able to reproduce observed qualitative properties of weak mixing for quark and leptons. Under conditions of broken mirror symmetry, the <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> of leptons—that is, small neutrino masses and a mixing character other than that in the case of quarks—requires the Dirac character of the neutrinos and the existence of processes violating the total lepton number. Such processes involve heavy mirror neutrinos; that is, they proceed at very high energies. Here, CP violation implies that a P-even mirror-symmetric <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> must simultaneously be T-odd and, according to the CPT theorem, C-odd. All these properties create preconditions formore » the occurrence of leptogenesis, which is a mechanism of the emergence of the baryon–lepton asymmetry of the universe in models featuring broken mirror symmetry.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28505811','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28505811"><span>Chaotic <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> models for turbulent relative dispersion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lacorata, Guglielmo; Vulpiani, Angelo</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>A deterministic multiscale dynamical system is introduced and discussed as a prototype model for relative dispersion in stationary, homogeneous, and isotropic turbulence. Unlike stochastic diffusion models, here trajectory transport and mixing properties are entirely controlled by <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> chaos. The anomalous "sweeping effect," a known drawback common to kinematic simulations, is removed through the use of quasi-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> coordinates. <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> dispersion statistics of the model are accurately analyzed by computing the finite-scale Lyapunov exponent (FSLE), which is the optimal measure of the scaling properties of dispersion. FSLE scaling exponents provide a severe test to decide whether model simulations are in agreement with theoretical expectations and/or observation. The results of our numerical experiments cover a wide range of "Reynolds numbers" and show that chaotic deterministic flows can be very efficient, and numerically low-cost, models of turbulent trajectories in stationary, homogeneous, and isotropic conditions. The mathematics of the model is relatively simple, and, in a geophysical context, potential applications may regard small-scale parametrization issues in general circulation models, mixed layer, and/or boundary layer turbulence models as well as <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> predictability studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..DFD.G6009Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..DFD.G6009Y"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> statistics in compressible isotropic homogeneous turbulence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Yantao; Wang, Jianchun; Shi, Yipeng; Chen, Shiyi</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>In this work we conducted the Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of a forced compressible isotropic homogeneous turbulence and investigated the flow statistics from the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> point of view, namely the statistics is computed following the passive tracers trajectories. The numerical method combined the Eulerian field solver which was developed by Wang et al. (2010, J. Comp. Phys., 229, 5257-5279), and a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> module for tracking the tracers and recording the data. The <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> probability density functions (p.d.f.'s) have then been calculated for both kinetic and thermodynamic quantities. In order to isolate the shearing part from the compressing part of the flow, we employed the Helmholtz decomposition to decompose the flow field (mainly the velocity field) into the solenoidal and compressive parts. The solenoidal part was compared with the incompressible case, while the compressibility effect showed up in the compressive part. The <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> structure functions and cross-correlation between various quantities will also be discussed. This work was supported in part by the China's Turbulence Program under Grant No.2009CB724101.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvE..95d3106L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvE..95d3106L"><span>Chaotic <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> models for turbulent relative dispersion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lacorata, Guglielmo; Vulpiani, Angelo</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>A deterministic multiscale dynamical system is introduced and discussed as a prototype model for relative dispersion in stationary, homogeneous, and isotropic turbulence. Unlike stochastic diffusion models, here trajectory transport and mixing properties are entirely controlled by <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> chaos. The anomalous "sweeping effect," a known drawback common to kinematic simulations, is removed through the use of quasi-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> coordinates. <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> dispersion statistics of the model are accurately analyzed by computing the finite-scale Lyapunov exponent (FSLE), which is the optimal measure of the scaling properties of dispersion. FSLE scaling exponents provide a severe test to decide whether model simulations are in agreement with theoretical expectations and/or observation. The results of our numerical experiments cover a wide range of "Reynolds numbers" and show that chaotic deterministic flows can be very efficient, and numerically low-cost, models of turbulent trajectories in stationary, homogeneous, and isotropic conditions. The mathematics of the model is relatively simple, and, in a geophysical context, potential applications may regard small-scale parametrization issues in general circulation models, mixed layer, and/or boundary layer turbulence models as well as <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> predictability studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130011909','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130011909"><span>Imposing a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Particle Framework on an Eulerian Hydrodynamics Infrastructure in Flash</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dubey, A.; Daley, C.; ZuHone, J.; Ricker, P. M.; Weide, K.; Graziani, C.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In many astrophysical simulations, both Eulerian and <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> quantities are of interest. For example, in a galaxy cluster merger simulation, the intracluster gas can have Eulerian discretization, while dark matter can be modeled using particles. FLASH, a component-based scientific simulation code, superimposes a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> framework atop an adaptive mesh refinement Eulerian framework to enable such simulations. The discretization of the field variables is Eulerian, while the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> entities occur in many different forms including tracer particles, massive particles, charged particles in particle-in-cell mode, and <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> markers to model fluid structure interactions. These widely varying roles for <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> entities are possible because of the highly modular, flexible, and extensible architecture of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> framework. In this paper, we describe the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> framework in FLASH in the context of two very different applications, Type Ia supernovae and galaxy cluster mergers, which use the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> entities in fundamentally different ways.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ApJS..201...27D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ApJS..201...27D"><span>Imposing a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Particle Framework on an Eulerian Hydrodynamics Infrastructure in FLASH</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dubey, A.; Daley, C.; ZuHone, J.; Ricker, P. M.; Weide, K.; Graziani, C.</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>In many astrophysical simulations, both Eulerian and <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> quantities are of interest. For example, in a galaxy cluster merger simulation, the intracluster gas can have Eulerian discretization, while dark matter can be modeled using particles. FLASH, a component-based scientific simulation code, superimposes a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> framework atop an adaptive mesh refinement Eulerian framework to enable such simulations. The discretization of the field variables is Eulerian, while the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> entities occur in many different forms including tracer particles, massive particles, charged particles in particle-in-cell mode, and <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> markers to model fluid-structure interactions. These widely varying roles for <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> entities are possible because of the highly modular, flexible, and extensible architecture of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> framework. In this paper, we describe the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> framework in FLASH in the context of two very different applications, Type Ia supernovae and galaxy cluster mergers, which use the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> entities in fundamentally different ways.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhA...49g5501W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhA...49g5501W"><span>Vorticity and symplecticity in multi-symplectic, <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> gas dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Webb, G. M.; Anco, S. C.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>, multi-dimensional, ideal, compressible gas dynamic equations are written in a multi-symplectic form, in which the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> fluid labels, m i (the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> mass coordinates) and time t are the independent variables, and in which the Eulerian position of the fluid element {x}={x}({m},t) and the entropy S=S({m},t) are the dependent variables. Constraints in the variational principle are incorporated by means of Lagrange multipliers. The constraints are: the entropy advection equation S t = 0, the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> map equation {{x}}t={u} where {u} is the fluid velocity, and the mass continuity equation which has the form J=τ where J={det}({x}{ij}) is the Jacobian of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> map in which {x}{ij}=\\partial {x}i/\\partial {m}j and τ =1/ρ is the specific volume of the gas. The internal energy per unit volume of the gas \\varepsilon =\\varepsilon (ρ ,S) corresponds to a non-barotropic gas. The <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> is used to define multi-momenta, and to develop de Donder-Weyl Hamiltonian equations. The de Donder-Weyl equations are cast in a multi-symplectic form. The pullback conservation laws and the symplecticity conservation laws are obtained. One class of symplecticity conservation laws give rise to vorticity and potential vorticity type conservation laws, and another class of symplecticity laws are related to derivatives of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> energy conservation law with respect to the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> mass coordinates m i . We show that the vorticity-symplecticity laws can be derived by a Lie dragging method, and also by using Noether’s second theorem and a fluid relabelling symmetry which is a divergence symmetry of the action. We obtain the Cartan-Poincaré form describing the equations and we discuss a set of differential forms representing the equation system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ascl.soft02021T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ascl.soft02021T"><span>COLAcode: COmoving <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Acceleration code</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tassev, Svetlin V.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>COLAcode is a serial particle mesh-based N-body code illustrating the COLA (COmoving <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Acceleration) method; it solves for Large Scale Structure (LSS) in a frame that is comoving with observers following trajectories calculated in <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Perturbation Theory (LPT). It differs from standard N-body code by trading accuracy at small-scales to gain computational speed without sacrificing accuracy at large scales. This is useful for generating large ensembles of accurate mock halo catalogs required to study galaxy clustering and weak lensing; such catalogs are needed to perform detailed error analysis for ongoing and future surveys of LSS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JHEP...12..104D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JHEP...12..104D"><span>Spontaneous CP breaking in QCD and the axion potential: an effective <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Di Vecchia, Paolo; Rossi, Giancarlo; Veneziano, Gabriele; Yankielowicz, Shimon</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>Using the well-known low-energy effective <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> of QCD — valid for small (non-vanishing) quark masses and a large number of colors — we study in detail the regions of parameter space where CP is spontaneously broken/unbroken for a vacuum angle θ = π. In the CP broken region there are first order phase transitions as one crosses θ = π, while on the (hyper)surface separating the two regions, there are second order phase transitions signalled by the vanishing of the mass of a pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson and by a divergent QCD topological susceptibility. The second order point sits at the end of a first order line associated with the CP spontaneous breaking, in the appropriate complex parameter plane. When the effective <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> is extended by the inclusion of an axion these features of QCD imply that standard calculations of the axion potential have to be revised if the QCD parameters fall in the above mentioned CP broken region, in spite of the fact that the axion solves the strong- CP problem. These last results could be of interest for axionic dark matter calculations if the topological susceptibility of pure Yang-Mills theory falls off sufficiently fast when temperature is increased towards the QCD deconfining transition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29543033','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29543033"><span>Nonunitary <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span> and Unitary Non-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Conformal Field Theories.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Buican, Matthew; Laczko, Zoltan</p> <p>2018-02-23</p> <p>In various dimensions, we can sometimes compute observables of interacting conformal field theories (CFTs) that are connected to free theories via the renormalization group (RG) flow by computing protected quantities in the free theories. On the other hand, in two dimensions, it is often possible to algebraically construct observables of interacting CFTs using free fields without the need to explicitly construct an underlying RG flow. In this Letter, we begin to extend this idea to higher dimensions by showing that one can compute certain observables of an infinite set of unitary strongly interacting four-dimensional N=2 superconformal field theories (SCFTs) by performing simple calculations involving sets of nonunitary free four-dimensional hypermultiplets. These free fields are distant cousins of the Majorana fermion underlying the two-dimensional Ising model and are not obviously connected to our interacting theories via an RG flow. Rather surprisingly, this construction gives us <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span> for particular observables in certain subsectors of many "non-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>" SCFTs by sacrificing unitarity while preserving the full N=2 superconformal algebra. As a by-product, we find relations between characters in unitary and nonunitary affine Kac-Moody algebras. We conclude by commenting on possible generalizations of our construction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018PhRvL.120h1601B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018PhRvL.120h1601B"><span>Nonunitary <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span> and Unitary Non-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Conformal Field Theories</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Buican, Matthew; Laczko, Zoltan</p> <p>2018-02-01</p> <p>In various dimensions, we can sometimes compute observables of interacting conformal field theories (CFTs) that are connected to free theories via the renormalization group (RG) flow by computing protected quantities in the free theories. On the other hand, in two dimensions, it is often possible to algebraically construct observables of interacting CFTs using free fields without the need to explicitly construct an underlying RG flow. In this Letter, we begin to extend this idea to higher dimensions by showing that one can compute certain observables of an infinite set of unitary strongly interacting four-dimensional N =2 superconformal field theories (SCFTs) by performing simple calculations involving sets of nonunitary free four-dimensional hypermultiplets. These free fields are distant cousins of the Majorana fermion underlying the two-dimensional Ising model and are not obviously connected to our interacting theories via an RG flow. Rather surprisingly, this construction gives us <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span> for particular observables in certain subsectors of many "non-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>" SCFTs by sacrificing unitarity while preserving the full N =2 superconformal algebra. As a by-product, we find relations between characters in unitary and nonunitary affine Kac-Moody algebras. We conclude by commenting on possible generalizations of our construction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22483221-lagrangian-based-methods-coherent-structure-detection','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22483221-lagrangian-based-methods-coherent-structure-detection"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> based methods for coherent structure detection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Allshouse, Michael R., E-mail: mallshouse@chaos.utexas.edu; Peacock, Thomas, E-mail: tomp@mit.edu</p> <p></p> <p>There has been a proliferation in the development of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> analytical methods for detecting coherent structures in fluid flow transport, yielding a variety of qualitatively different <span class="hlt">approaches</span>. We present a review of four <span class="hlt">approaches</span> and demonstrate the utility of these methods via their application to the same sample analytic model, the canonical double-gyre flow, highlighting the pros and cons of each <span class="hlt">approach</span>. Two of the methods, the geometric and probabilistic <span class="hlt">approaches</span>, are well established and require velocity field data over the time interval of interest to identify particularly important material lines and surfaces, and influential regions, respectively. The other twomore » <span class="hlt">approaches</span>, implementing tools from cluster and braid theory, seek coherent structures based on limited trajectory data, attempting to partition the flow transport into distinct regions. All four of these <span class="hlt">approaches</span> share the common trait that they are objective methods, meaning that their results do not depend on the frame of reference used. For each method, we also present a number of example applications ranging from blood flow and chemical reactions to ocean and atmospheric flows.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Chaos..25i7617A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Chaos..25i7617A"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> based methods for coherent structure detection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Allshouse, Michael R.; Peacock, Thomas</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>There has been a proliferation in the development of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> analytical methods for detecting coherent structures in fluid flow transport, yielding a variety of qualitatively different <span class="hlt">approaches</span>. We present a review of four <span class="hlt">approaches</span> and demonstrate the utility of these methods via their application to the same sample analytic model, the canonical double-gyre flow, highlighting the pros and cons of each <span class="hlt">approach</span>. Two of the methods, the geometric and probabilistic <span class="hlt">approaches</span>, are well established and require velocity field data over the time interval of interest to identify particularly important material lines and surfaces, and influential regions, respectively. The other two <span class="hlt">approaches</span>, implementing tools from cluster and braid theory, seek coherent structures based on limited trajectory data, attempting to partition the flow transport into distinct regions. All four of these <span class="hlt">approaches</span> share the common trait that they are objective methods, meaning that their results do not depend on the frame of reference used. For each method, we also present a number of example applications ranging from blood flow and chemical reactions to ocean and atmospheric flows.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22482572','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22482572"><span>A <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> to modeling chemical dynamics in nonlinear and two-dimensional spectroscopy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ramasesha, Krupa; De Marco, Luigi; Horning, Andrew D; Mandal, Aritra; Tokmakoff, Andrei</p> <p>2012-04-07</p> <p>We present an <span class="hlt">approach</span> for calculating nonlinear spectroscopic observables, which overcomes the approximations inherent to current <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> models without requiring the computational cost of performing molecular dynamics simulations. The trajectory mapping method uses the semi-classical approximation to linear and nonlinear response functions, and calculates spectra from trajectories of the system's transition frequencies and transition dipole moments. It rests on identifying dynamical variables important to the problem, treating the dynamics of these variables stochastically, and then generating correlated trajectories of spectroscopic quantities by mapping from the dynamical variables. This <span class="hlt">approach</span> allows one to describe non-Gaussian dynamics, correlated dynamics between variables of the system, and nonlinear relationships between spectroscopic variables of the system and the bath such as non-Condon effects. We illustrate the <span class="hlt">approach</span> by applying it to three examples that are often not adequately treated by existing analytical models--the non-Condon effect in the nonlinear infrared spectra of water, non-Gaussian dynamics inherent to strongly hydrogen bonded systems, and chemical exchange processes in barrier crossing reactions. The methods described are generally applicable to nonlinear spectroscopy throughout the optical, infrared and terahertz regions.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IJGMM..1450171E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IJGMM..1450171E"><span>Scalar curvature of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Riemannian submersions and their harmonicity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eken Meri˙ç, Şemsi; Kiliç, Erol; Sağiroğlu, Yasemi˙n</p> <p></p> <p>In this paper, we consider a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Riemannian submersion from a Hermitian manifold to a Riemannian manifold and establish some basic inequalities to obtain relationships between the intrinsic and extrinsic invariants for such a submersion. Indeed, using these inequalities, we provide necessary and sufficient conditions for which a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Riemannian submersion π has totally geodesic or totally umbilical fibers. Moreover, we study the harmonicity of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Riemannian submersions and obtain a characterization for such submersions to be harmonic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11150221','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11150221"><span>Tip-of-the-tongue phenomena: an introductory <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brown, S R</p> <p>2000-12-01</p> <p>The issue of meaningful yet unexpressed background-to language and to our experiences of the body-is one whose exploration is still in its infancy. There are various aspects of "invisible," implicit, or background experiences which have been investigated from the viewpoints of <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span>, cognitive psychology, and linguistics. I will argue that James's concept of the phenomenon of fringes, as explicated by Gurwitsch, provides a structural framework from which to investigate and better understand ideas and concepts that are indeterminate, particularly those experienced in the sense of being sought-after. Johnson's conception of the image-schematic gestalt (ISG) provides an <span class="hlt">approach</span> to bridging the descriptive gap between <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> and cognitive psychology. Starting from an analysis of the fringes, I will turn to a consideration of the tip-of-tongue (TOT) state, as a kind of feeling-of-knowing (FOK) state, from a variety of <span class="hlt">approaches</span>, focusing mainly on cognitive psychology and <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span>. I will then integrate a <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> analysis of these experiences, from the James/Gurwitsch structural viewpoint, with a cognitive/<span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> analysis in terms of ISGs, and further integrate that with a cognitive/functional analysis of the relation between consciousness and retrieval, employing Anderson et al's theory of inhibitory mechanisms in cognition. This synthesis of these viewpoints will be employed to explore the thesis that the TOT state and similar experiences may relate to the gestalt nature of schemas, and that figure/ground and other contrast-enhancing structures may be both explanatory and descriptive characterizations of the field of consciousness. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=involvement+AND+parent+AND+education&pg=7&id=ED571733','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=involvement+AND+parent+AND+education&pg=7&id=ED571733"><span>Parental Involvement in Elementary Children's Religious Education: A <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">Approach</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bunnell, Peter Wayne</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The issue of parental involvement in religious education is an important one for the family, the church, the Christian school, and society. The purpose of this <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> study was to describe parents' concepts and practices of involvement in their children's religious education as evangelical Christian parents in Midwestern communities.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1013709','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1013709"><span>Bayesian Nonlinear Assimilation of Eulerian and <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Coastal Flow Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-09-30</p> <p><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Coastal Flow Data Dr. Pierre F.J. Lermusiaux Department of Mechanical Engineering Center for Ocean Science and Engineering Massachusetts...Develop and apply theory, schemes and computational systems for rigorous Bayesian nonlinear assimilation of Eulerian and <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> coastal flow data...coastal ocean fields, both in Eulerian and <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> forms. - Further develop and implement our GMM-DO schemes for robust Bayesian nonlinear estimation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22381071','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22381071"><span>Unspoken phenomena: using the photovoice method to enrich <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> inquiry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Plunkett, Robyn; Leipert, Beverly D; Ray, Susan L</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Photovoice is a powerful method that is gaining momentum in nursing research. As a relatively new method in nursing science, the situatedness of photovoice within or alongside various research methodologies in a single study remains in a stage of early development. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the photovoice method as a means to elicit <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> data when researching the lived experience. While the foundational bases of <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> and photovoice differ substantially, the argument presented in this paper suggests that the photovoice method can be successfully used in <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> inquiry provided that significant rigour checks are pursued. This includes reflecting upon the origins and understandings of both methodology and method to promote methodological congruency. Data collection and analysis <span class="hlt">approaches</span> that contribute to <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> inquiry using the photovoice method in addition to rigour and ethical considerations are discussed. The use of data generated from photovoice in <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> inquiry may fill a void of understanding furnished by limitations of traditional <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> inquiry and of spoken language and can enhance understanding of the lived experience, which may not always be best understood by words alone. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930061006&hterms=sing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dsing','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930061006&hterms=sing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dsing"><span>An extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Liou, Meng-Sing</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>A unique formulation of describing fluid motion is presented. The method, referred to as 'extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> method', is interesting from both theoretical and numerical points of view. The formulation offers accuracy in numerical solution by avoiding numerical diffusion resulting from mixing of fluxes in the Eulerian description. Meanwhile, it also avoids the inaccuracy incurred due to geometry and variable interpolations used by the previous <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> methods. The present method is general and capable of treating subsonic flows as well as supersonic flows. The method proposed in this paper is robust and stable. It automatically adapts to flow features without resorting to clustering, thereby maintaining rather uniform grid spacing throughout and large time step. Moreover, the method is shown to resolve multidimensional discontinuities with a high level of accuracy, similar to that found in 1D problems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920016571&hterms=sing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dsing','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920016571&hterms=sing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dsing"><span>A new <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> method for real gases at supersonic speed</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Loh, C. Y.; Liou, Meng-Sing</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>With the renewed interest in high speed flights, the real gas effect is of theoretical as well as practical importance. In the past decade, upwind splittings or Godunov-type Riemann solutions have received tremendous attention and as a result significant progress has been made both in the ideal and non-ideal gas. In this paper, we propose a new <span class="hlt">approach</span> that is formulated using the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> description, for the calculation of supersonic/hypersonic real gas inviscid flows. This new formulation avoids the grid generation step which is automatically obtained as the solution procedure marches in the 'time-like' direction. As a result, no remapping is required and the accuracy is faithfully maintained in the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> level. In this paper, we give numerical results for a variety of real gas problems consisting of essential elements in high speed flows, such as shock waves, expansion waves, slip surfaces and their interactions. Finally, calculations for flows in a generic inlet and nozzle are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvD..94h5011B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvD..94h5011B"><span><span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> implications of a predictive formulation of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model having tensor couplings and isospin symmetry breaking terms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Battistel, O. A.; Pimenta, T. H.; Dallabona, G.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>In the present work we consider the <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> consequences of a predictive formulation of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model at the one loop level of perturbative calculations. The investigation reported here can be considered as an extension of previously made ones on the same issue. In the study made in this work we have included vector and tensor couplings, simultaneously, as well as S U (2 ) isospin symmetry breaking terms. As a consequence of the last ingredient mentioned, there are different masses in the model amplitudes. In spite of this, within the context of the adopted procedure, we verify that it is possible to eliminate unphysical dependencies on the arbitrary choices for the routing of internal lines momenta as well as Ward identities violating contributions and scale ambiguous terms, from the corresponding one loop amplitudes, through the simple and universal Consistency Relations. The total content of divergence of the amplitudes is reduced to only two basic divergent objects. They are related to two inputs of the model in a way that, due to their scale properties, an unique arbitrariness remains. However, due to the critical condition found in the mechanism which generates the constituent quark mass, within our <span class="hlt">approach</span>, this arbitrariness is also removed turning the model predictive in the sense that its <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> consequences is not dependent in possible choices made in intermediary steps of the calculations, as occurs in usual treatments. In this scenario, we investigate the most typical static properties of the scalar, pseudoscalar, vector and axial-vector mesons at low-energy. Special attention is given to the consequences of the S U (2 ) isospin symmetry breaking for the <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> predictions. The implications of the tensor couplings for the model observables, which can be considered an original contribution of the present work, at the level of the content and not only in the form, is analyzed in a detailed way. The found</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23870383','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23870383"><span><span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span> and homeopathy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Whitmarsh, Tom</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>There is a great overlap between the way of seeing the world in clinical homeopathy and in the technical philosophical system known as <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span>. A knowledge of <span class="hlt">phenomenologic</span> principles reveals Hahnemann to have been an unwitting phenomenologist. The ideas of <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> as applied to medicine show that homeopathy is the ideal medical system to fulfill the goals of coming ever closer to true patient concerns and experience of illness. Copyright © 2013 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010028951','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010028951"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">Approach</span> to Jet Mixing and Optimization of the Reactor for Production of Carbon Nanotubes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Povitsky, Alex; Salas, Manuel D.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>This study was motivated by an attempt to optimize the High Pressure carbon oxide (HiPco) process for the production of carbon nanotubes from gaseous carbon oxide, The goal is to achieve rapid and uniform heating of catalyst particles by an optimal arrangement of jets. A mixed Eulerian and <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> is implemented to track the temperature of catalyst particles along their trajectories as a function of time. The FLUENT CFD software with second-order upwind approximation of convective terms and an algebraic multigrid-based solver is used. The poor performance of the original reactor configuration is explained in terms of features of particle trajectories. The trajectories most exposed to the hot jets appear to be the most problematic for heating because they either bend towards the cold jet interior or rotate upwind of the mixing zone. To reduce undesirable slow and/or oscillatory heating of catalyst particles, a reactor configuration with three central jets is proposed and the optimal location of the central and peripheral nozzles is determined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930061066&hterms=Lagrangian&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DLagrangian','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930061066&hterms=Lagrangian&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DLagrangian"><span>An Eulerian/<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> coupling procedure for three-dimensional vortical flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Felici, Helene M.; Drela, Mark</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>A coupled Eulerian/<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> method is presented for the reduction of numerical diffusion observed in solutions of 3D vortical flows using standard Eulerian finite-volume time-marching procedures. A <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particle tracking method, added to the Eulerian time-marching procedure, provides a correction of the Eulerian solution. In turn, the Eulerian solution is used to integrate the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> state-vector along the particles trajectories. While the Eulerian solution ensures the conservation of mass and sets the pressure field, the particle markers describe accurately the convection properties and enhance the vorticity and entropy capturing capabilities of the Eulerian solver. The Eulerian/<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> coupling strategies are discussed and the combined scheme is tested on a constant stagnation pressure flow in a 90 deg bend and on a swirling pipe flow. As the numerical diffusion is reduced when using the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> correction, a vorticity gradient augmentation is identified as a basic problem of this inviscid calculation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1247151','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1247151"><span>Adaptive reconnection-based arbitrary <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Eulerian method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bo, Wurigen; Shashkov, Mikhail</p> <p></p> <p>We present a new adaptive Arbitrary <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Eulerian (ALE) method. This method is based on the reconnection-based ALE (ReALE) methodology of Refs. [35], [34] and [6]. The main elements in a standard ReALE method are: an explicit <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> phase on an arbitrary polygonal (in 2D) mesh in which the solution and positions of grid nodes are updated; a rezoning phase in which a new grid is defined by changing the connectivity (using Voronoi tessellation) but not the number of cells; and a remapping phase in which the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> solution is transferred onto the new grid. Furthermore, in the standard ReALEmore » method, the rezoned mesh is smoothed by using one or several steps toward centroidal Voronoi tessellation, but it is not adapted to the solution in any way.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1247151-adaptive-reconnection-based-arbitrary-lagrangian-eulerian-method','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1247151-adaptive-reconnection-based-arbitrary-lagrangian-eulerian-method"><span>Adaptive reconnection-based arbitrary <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Eulerian method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Bo, Wurigen; Shashkov, Mikhail</p> <p>2015-07-21</p> <p>We present a new adaptive Arbitrary <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Eulerian (ALE) method. This method is based on the reconnection-based ALE (ReALE) methodology of Refs. [35], [34] and [6]. The main elements in a standard ReALE method are: an explicit <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> phase on an arbitrary polygonal (in 2D) mesh in which the solution and positions of grid nodes are updated; a rezoning phase in which a new grid is defined by changing the connectivity (using Voronoi tessellation) but not the number of cells; and a remapping phase in which the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> solution is transferred onto the new grid. Furthermore, in the standard ReALEmore » method, the rezoned mesh is smoothed by using one or several steps toward centroidal Voronoi tessellation, but it is not adapted to the solution in any way.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CoPhC.202..326E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CoPhC.202..326E"><span>High performance computing aspects of a dimension independent semi-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> discontinuous Galerkin code</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Einkemmer, Lukas</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The recently developed semi-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> discontinuous Galerkin <span class="hlt">approach</span> is used to discretize hyperbolic partial differential equations (usually first order equations). Since these methods are conservative, local in space, and able to limit numerical diffusion, they are considered a promising alternative to more traditional semi-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> schemes (which are usually based on polynomial or spline interpolation). In this paper, we consider a parallel implementation of a semi-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> discontinuous Galerkin method for distributed memory systems (so-called clusters). Both strong and weak scaling studies are performed on the Vienna Scientific Cluster 2 (VSC-2). In the case of weak scaling we observe a parallel efficiency above 0.8 for both two and four dimensional problems and up to 8192 cores. Strong scaling results show good scalability to at least 512 cores (we consider problems that can be run on a single processor in reasonable time). In addition, we study the scaling of a two dimensional Vlasov-Poisson solver that is implemented using the framework provided. All of the simulations are conducted in the context of worst case communication overhead; i.e., in a setting where the CFL (Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy) number increases linearly with the problem size. The framework introduced in this paper facilitates a dimension independent implementation of scientific codes (based on C++ templates) using both an MPI and a hybrid <span class="hlt">approach</span> to parallelization. We describe the essential ingredients of our implementation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED312720.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED312720.pdf"><span>Toward a <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span>-Longitudinal Model of Media Gratification Processes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kielwasser, Alfred P.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>While not dismissing the "uses and gratifications" <span class="hlt">approach</span> to research, this paper attempts to increase the theoretical and practical utility of gratifications measures by <span class="hlt">approaching</span> them through a more <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> and longitudinal tack. The paper suggests that any "gratification unit" is given a unique meaning by the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960049629','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960049629"><span>Atomization simulations using an Eulerian-VOF-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Yen-Sen; Shang, Huan-Min; Liaw, Paul; Chen, C. P.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This paper summarizes the technical development and validation of a multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) numerical method using the volume-of-fluid (VOF) model and a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> tracking model which can be employed to analyze general multiphase flow problems with free surface mechanism. The gas-liquid interface mass, momentum and energy conservations are modeled by continuum surface mechanisms. A new solution method is developed such that the present VOF model can be applied for all-speed flow regimes. The objectives of the present study are to develop and verify the fractional volume-of-fluid cell partitioning <span class="hlt">approach</span> into a predictor-corrector algorithm and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the present innovative <span class="hlt">approach</span> by simulating benchmark problems including the coaxial jet atomization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUSM.A34A..01S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUSM.A34A..01S"><span>Implications of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Tracer Transport for Coupled Chemistry-Climate Simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stenke, A.</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>Today's coupled chemistry-climate models (CCM) consider a large number of trace species and feedback processes. Due to the radiative effect of some species, errors in simulated tracer distributions can feed back to model dynamics. Thus, shortcomings of the applied transport schemes can have severe implications for the overall model performance. Traditional Eulerian <span class="hlt">approaches</span> show a satisfactory performance in case of homogeneously distributed trace species, but they can lead to severe problems when applied to highly inhomogeneous tracer distributions. In case of sharp gradients many schemes show a considerable numerical diffusion. <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">approaches</span>, on the other hand, combine a number of favourable numerical properties: They are strictly mass-conserving and do not suffer from numerical diffusion. Therefore they are able to maintain steeper gradients. A further advantage is that they allow the transport of a large number of tracers without being prohibitively expensive. A variety of benefits for stratospheric dynamics and chemistry resulting from a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> transport algorithm are demonstrated by the example of the CCM E39C. In an updated version of E39C, called E39C-A, the operational semi-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> advection scheme has been replaced with the purely <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> scheme ATTILA. It will be shown that several model deficiencies can be cured by the choice of an appropriate transport algorithm. The most important advancement concerns the reduction of a pronounced wet bias in the extra- tropical lowermost stratosphere. In turn, the associated temperature error ("cold bias") is significantly reduced. Stratospheric wind variations are now in better agreement with observations, e.g. E39C-A is able to reproduce the stratospheric wind reversal in the Southern Hemisphere in summer which was not captured by the previous model version. Resulting changes in wave propagation and dissipation lead to a weakening of the simulated mean meridional circulation and therefore a more</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26311801','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26311801"><span>Method development at Nordic School of Public Health NHV: <span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span> and Grounded Theory.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Strandmark, Margaretha</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Qualitative methods such as <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> and grounded theory have been valuable tools in studying public health problems. A description and comparison of these methods. <span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span> emphasises an inside perspective in form of consciousness and subjectively lived experiences, whereas grounded theory emanates from the idea that interactions between people create new insights and knowledge. Fundamental aspects of <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> include life world, consciousness, <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> reduction and essence. Significant elements in grounded theory are coding, categories and core categories, which develop a theory. There are differences in the philosophical <span class="hlt">approach</span>, the name of the concept and the systematic tools between the methods. Thus, the <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> method is appropriate when studying emotional and existential research problems, and grounded theory is a method more suited to investigate processes. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29915927','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29915927"><span>Toward a <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> Account of Embodied Subjectivity in Autism.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Boldsen, Sofie</p> <p>2018-06-18</p> <p>Sensorimotor research is currently challenging the dominant understanding of autism as a deficit in the cognitive ability to 'mindread'. This marks an emerging shift in autism research from a focus on the structure and processes of the mind to a focus on autistic behavior as grounded in the body. Contemporary researchers in sensorimotor differences in autism call for a reconciliation between the scientific understanding of autism and the first-person experience of autistic individuals. I argue that fulfilling this ambition requires a <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> understanding of the body as it presents itself in ordinary experience, namely as the subject of experience rather than a physical object. On this basis, I investigate how the <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> of Maurice Merleau-Ponty can be employed as a frame of understanding for bodily experience in autism. Through a <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> analysis of Tito Mukhopadhyay's autobiographical work, How can I talk if my lips don't move (2009), I illustrate the relevance and potential of <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> philosophy in autism research, arguing that this <span class="hlt">approach</span> enables a deeper understanding of bodily and subjective experiences related to autism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25918497','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25918497"><span>Family members of older persons with multi-morbidity and their experiences of case managers in Sweden: an interpretive <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hjelm, Markus; Holmgren, Ann-Charlotte; Willman, Ania; Bohman, Doris; Holst, Göran</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Family members of older persons (75+) with multi-morbidity are likely to benefit from utilising case management services performed by case managers. However, research has not yet explored their experiences of case managers. The aim of the study was to deepen the understanding of the importance of case managers to family members of older persons (75+) with multi-morbidity. The study design was based on an interpretive <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span>. Data were collected through individual interviews with 16 family members in Sweden. The interviews were analysed by means of an interpretive <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span>. The findings revealed one overarching theme: "Helps to fulfil my unmet needs", based on three sub-themes: (1) "Helps me feel secure - Experiencing a trusting relationship", (2) "Confirms and strengthens me - Challenging my sense of being alone" and (3) "Being my personal guide - Increasing my competence". The findings indicate that case managers were able to fulfil unmet needs of family members. The latter recognised the importance of case managers providing them with professional services tailored to their individual needs. The findings can contribute to the improvement of case management models not only for older persons but also for their family members.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29060488','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29060488"><span>Serial fusion of Eulerian and <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">approaches</span> for accurate heart-rate estimation using face videos.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gupta, Puneet; Bhowmick, Brojeshwar; Pal, Arpan</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>Camera-equipped devices are ubiquitous and proliferating in the day-to-day life. Accurate heart rate (HR) estimation from the face videos acquired from the low cost cameras in a non-contact manner, can be used in many real-world scenarios and hence, require rigorous exploration. This paper has presented an accurate and near real-time HR estimation system using these face videos. It is based on the phenomenon that the color and motion variations in the face video are closely related to the heart beat. The variations also contain the noise due to facial expressions, respiration, eye blinking and environmental factors which are handled by the proposed system. Neither Eulerian nor <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> temporal signals can provide accurate HR in all the cases. The cases where Eulerian temporal signals perform spuriously are determined using a novel poorness measure and then both the Eulerian and <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> temporal signals are employed for better HR estimation. Such a fusion is referred as serial fusion. Experimental results reveal that the error introduced in the proposed algorithm is 1.8±3.6 which is significantly lower than the existing well known systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JGP...128..140K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JGP...128..140K"><span>Hamiltonian stability for weighted measure and generalized <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> mean curvature flow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kajigaya, Toru; Kunikawa, Keita</p> <p>2018-06-01</p> <p>In this paper, we generalize several results for the Hamiltonian stability and the mean curvature flow of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> submanifolds in a Kähler-Einstein manifold to more general Kähler manifolds including a Fano manifold equipped with a Kähler form ω ∈ 2 πc1(M) by using the method proposed by Behrndt (2011). Namely, we first consider a weighted measure on a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> submanifold L in a Kähler manifold M and investigate the variational problem of L for the weighted volume functional. We call a stationary point of the weighted volume functional f-minimal, and define the notion of Hamiltonian f-stability as a local minimizer under Hamiltonian deformations. We show such examples naturally appear in a toric Fano manifold. Moreover, we consider the generalized <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> mean curvature flow in a Fano manifold which is introduced by Behrndt and Smoczyk-Wang. We generalize the result of H. Li, and show that if the initial <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> submanifold is a small Hamiltonian deformation of an f-minimal and Hamiltonian f-stable <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> submanifold, then the generalized MCF converges exponentially fast to an f-minimal <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> submanifold.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27327139','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27327139"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> descriptors in dissipative systems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Junginger, Andrej; Hernandez, Rigoberto</p> <p>2016-11-09</p> <p>The reaction dynamics of time-dependent systems can be resolved through a recrossing-free dividing surface associated with the transition state trajectory-that is, the unique trajectory which is bound to the barrier region for all time in response to a given time-dependent potential. A general procedure based on the minimization of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> descriptors has recently been developed by Craven and Hernandez [Phys. Rev. Lett., 2015, 115, 148301] to construct this particular trajectory without requiring perturbative expansions relative to the naive transition state point at the top of the barrier. The extension of the method to account for dissipation in the equations of motion requires additional considerations established in this paper because the calculation of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> descriptor involves the integration of trajectories in forward and backward time. The two contributions are in general very different because the friction term can act as a source (in backward time) or sink (in forward time) of energy, leading to the possibility that information about the phase space structure may be lost due to the dominance of only one of the terms. To compensate for this effect, we introduce a weighting scheme within the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> descriptor and demonstrate that for thermal Langevin dynamics it preserves the essential phase space structures, while they are lost in the nonweighted case.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=armour&pg=2&id=EJ1153105','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=armour&pg=2&id=EJ1153105"><span>"Being" in the Coaching World: New Insights on Youth Performance Coaching from an Interpretative <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">Approach</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cronin, Colum; Armour, Kathleen M.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Since Heidegger's influential text; "Being and time" (1927/2005), the <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> question of what it means to "be" has generated a vast body of work. This paper reports data from a <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> study that investigated what it means to "be" a youth performance coach. An overview of the interpretive…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSEC14C1023C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSEC14C1023C"><span>On modeling heterogeneous coastal sediment transport - A numerical study using multiphase Eulerian and Euler-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">approaches</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cheng, Z.; Yu, X.; Hsu, T. J.; Calantoni, J.; Chauchat, J.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Regional scale coastal evolution models do not explicitly resolve wave-driven sediment transport and must rely on bedload/suspended modules that utilize empirical assumptions. Under extreme wave events or in regions of high sediment heterogeneity, these empirical bedload/suspended load modules may need to be reevaluated with detailed observation and more sophisticated small-scale models. In the past decade, significant research efforts have been devoted to modeling sediment transport using multiphase Eulerian or Euler-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">approaches</span>. Recently, an open-source multi-dimensional Reynolds-averaged two-phase sediment transport model, SedFOAM is developed by the authors and it has been adopted by many researchers to study momentary bed failure, granular rheology in sheet flow and scour around structures. In this abstract, we further report our recent progress made in extending the model with 3D turbulence-resolving capability and to model the sediment phase with the Discrete Element method (DEM). Adopting the large-eddy simulation methodology, we validate the 3D model with measured fine sediment transport is oscillatory sheet flow and demonstrate that the model is able to resolve sediment burst events during flow reversals. To better resolve the intergranular interactions and to model heterogeneous properties of sediment (e.g., mixed grain sizes and grain shape), we use an Euler-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> solver called CFDEM, which couples OpenFOAM for the fluid phase and LIGGGHTS for the particle phase. We improve the model by better enforcing conservation of mass in the pressure solver. The modified CFDEM solver is validated with measured oscillatory sheet flow data for coarse sand and we demonstrated that the model can reproduce the well-known armoring effects. We show that under Stokes second-order wave forcing, the armoring effect is more significant during the energetic positive peak, and hence the net onshore transport is reduced. Preliminary results modeling the shape</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Research&pg=5&id=EJ1171885','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Research&pg=5&id=EJ1171885"><span>Credible <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> Research: A Mixed-Methods Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Flynn, Stephen V.; Korcuska, James S.</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>The authors conducted a 3-phase investigation into the credible standards for <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> research practices identified in the literature and endorsed by a sample of counselor education qualitative research experts. Utilizing a mixed-methods <span class="hlt">approach</span>, the findings offer evidence that professional counseling has a distinctive format in which…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JChPh.147e4103N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JChPh.147e4103N"><span>Next generation extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> first principles molecular dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Niklasson, Anders M. N.</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics [A. M. N. Niklasson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 123004 (2008)] is formulated for general Hohenberg-Kohn density-functional theory and compared with the extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> framework of first principles molecular dynamics by Car and Parrinello [Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2471 (1985)]. It is shown how extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics overcomes several shortcomings of regular, direct Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics, while improving or maintaining important features of Car-Parrinello simulations. The accuracy of the electronic degrees of freedom in extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics, with respect to the exact Born-Oppenheimer solution, is of second-order in the size of the integration time step and of fourth order in the potential energy surface. Improved stability over recent formulations of extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics is achieved by generalizing the theory to finite temperature ensembles, using fractional occupation numbers in the calculation of the inner-product kernel of the extended harmonic oscillator that appears as a preconditioner in the electronic equations of motion. Material systems that normally exhibit slow self-consistent field convergence can be simulated using integration time steps of the same order as in direct Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics, but without the requirement of an iterative, non-linear electronic ground-state optimization prior to the force evaluations and without a systematic drift in the total energy. In combination with proposed low-rank and on the fly updates of the kernel, this formulation provides an efficient and general framework for quantum-based Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28789552','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28789552"><span>Next generation extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> first principles molecular dynamics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Niklasson, Anders M N</p> <p>2017-08-07</p> <p>Extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics [A. M. N. Niklasson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 123004 (2008)] is formulated for general Hohenberg-Kohn density-functional theory and compared with the extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> framework of first principles molecular dynamics by Car and Parrinello [Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2471 (1985)]. It is shown how extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics overcomes several shortcomings of regular, direct Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics, while improving or maintaining important features of Car-Parrinello simulations. The accuracy of the electronic degrees of freedom in extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics, with respect to the exact Born-Oppenheimer solution, is of second-order in the size of the integration time step and of fourth order in the potential energy surface. Improved stability over recent formulations of extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics is achieved by generalizing the theory to finite temperature ensembles, using fractional occupation numbers in the calculation of the inner-product kernel of the extended harmonic oscillator that appears as a preconditioner in the electronic equations of motion. Material systems that normally exhibit slow self-consistent field convergence can be simulated using integration time steps of the same order as in direct Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics, but without the requirement of an iterative, non-linear electronic ground-state optimization prior to the force evaluations and without a systematic drift in the total energy. In combination with proposed low-rank and on the fly updates of the kernel, this formulation provides an efficient and general framework for quantum-based Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830044831&hterms=averaged+lagrangian&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Daveraged%2Blagrangian','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830044831&hterms=averaged+lagrangian&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Daveraged%2Blagrangian"><span>Microscopic <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> description of warm plasmas. IV - Macroscopic approximation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kim, H.; Crawford, F. W.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>The averaged-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> method is applied to linear wave propagation and nonlinear three-wave interaction in a warm magnetoplasma, in the macroscopic approximation. The microscopic <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> treated by Kim and Crawford (1977) and by Galloway and Crawford (1977) is first expanded to third order in perturbation. Velocity integration is then carried out, before applying Hamilton's principle to obtain a general description of wave propagation and coupling. The results are specialized to the case of interaction between two electron plasma waves and an Alfven wave. The method is shown to be more powerful than the alternative possibility of working from the beginning with a macroscopic <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> density.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvF...2e4602S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvF...2e4602S"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> acceleration statistics in a turbulent channel flow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stelzenmuller, Nickolas; Polanco, Juan Ignacio; Vignal, Laure; Vinkovic, Ivana; Mordant, Nicolas</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> acceleration statistics in a fully developed turbulent channel flow at Reτ=1440 are investigated, based on tracer particle tracking in experiments and direct numerical simulations. The evolution with wall distance of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> velocity and acceleration time scales is analyzed. Dependency between acceleration components in the near-wall region is described using cross-correlations and joint probability density functions. The strong streamwise coherent vortices typical of wall-bounded turbulent flows are shown to have a significant impact on the dynamics. This results in a strong anisotropy at small scales in the near-wall region that remains present in most of the channel. Such statistical properties may be used as constraints in building advanced <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> stochastic models to predict the dispersion and mixing of chemical components for combustion or environmental studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvD..95b5017K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvD..95b5017K"><span>Effective <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> in de Sitter spacetime</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kitamoto, Hiroyuki; Kitazawa, Yoshihisa</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Scale invariant fluctuations of metric are a universal feature of quantum gravity in de Sitter spacetime. We construct an effective <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> which summarizes their implications on local physics by integrating superhorizon metric fluctuations. It shows infrared quantum effects are local and render fundamental couplings time dependent. We impose Lorenz invariance on the effective <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> as it is required by the principle of general covariance. We show that such a requirement leads to unique physical predictions by fixing the quantization ambiguities. We explain how the gauge parameter dependence of observables is canceled. In particular the relative evolution speed of the couplings are shown to be gauge invariant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=problem+AND+centered+AND+interview&pg=7&id=EJ917402','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=problem+AND+centered+AND+interview&pg=7&id=EJ917402"><span>High School Teachers' Experience of Student Behavior Problems: A <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">Approach</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bean, Roy A.; Gillet, Kyle S.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>In this article, we examine the findings of a qualitative study exploring high school teachers' perceptions of student behavior problems. Four focus groups, each including four to eight teachers, were conducted through major school districts in two Southwestern states (Texas and Arizona). Descriptive <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> was used to identify patterns and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017WRR....53.9040S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017WRR....53.9040S"><span>A <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Transport Eulerian Reaction Spatial (LATERS) Markov Model for Prediction of Effective Bimolecular Reactive Transport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sund, Nicole; Porta, Giovanni; Bolster, Diogo; Parashar, Rishi</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>Prediction of effective transport for mixing-driven reactive systems at larger scales, requires accurate representation of mixing at small scales, which poses a significant upscaling challenge. Depending on the problem at hand, there can be benefits to using a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> framework, while in others an Eulerian might have advantages. Here we propose and test a novel hybrid model which attempts to leverage benefits of each. Specifically, our framework provides a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> closure required for a volume-averaging procedure of the advection diffusion reaction equation. This hybrid model is a <span class="hlt">LAgrangian</span> Transport Eulerian Reaction Spatial Markov model (LATERS Markov model), which extends previous implementations of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Spatial Markov model and maps concentrations to an Eulerian grid to quantify closure terms required to calculate the volume-averaged reaction terms. The advantage of this <span class="hlt">approach</span> is that the Spatial Markov model is known to provide accurate predictions of transport, particularly at preasymptotic early times, when assumptions required by traditional volume-averaging closures are least likely to hold; likewise, the Eulerian reaction method is efficient, because it does not require calculation of distances between particles. This manuscript introduces the LATERS Markov model and demonstrates by example its ability to accurately predict bimolecular reactive transport in a simple benchmark 2-D porous medium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29315672','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29315672"><span>The general setting for the zero-flux condition: The <span class="hlt">lagrangian</span> and zero-flux conditions that give the heisenberg equation of motion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anderson, James S M; Ayers, Paul W</p> <p>2018-06-30</p> <p>Generalizing our recent work on relativistic generalizations of the quantum theory of atoms in molecules, we present the general setting under which the principle of stationary action for a region leads to open quantum subsystems. The <span class="hlt">approach</span> presented here is general and works for any Hamiltonian, and when a reasonable <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> is selected, it often leads to the integral of the Laplacian of the electron density on the region vanishing as a necessary condition for the zero-flux surface. Alternatively, with this method, one can design a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> that leads to a surface of interest (though this <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> may not be, and indeed probably will not be, "reasonable"). For any reasonable <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> for the electronic wave function and any two-component method (related by integration by parts to the Hamiltonian) considered, the Bader definition of an atom is recaptured. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920064328&hterms=Lagrangian&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DLagrangian','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920064328&hterms=Lagrangian&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DLagrangian"><span>An Eulerian/<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> method for computing blade/vortex impingement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Steinhoff, John; Senge, Heinrich; Yonghu, Wenren</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>A combined Eulerian/<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> to calculating helicopter rotor flows with concentrated vortices is described. The method computes a general evolving vorticity distribution without any significant numerical diffusion. Concentrated vortices can be accurately propagated over long distances on relatively coarse grids with cores only several grid cells wide. The method is demonstrated for a blade/vortex impingement case in 2D and 3D where a vortex is cut by a rotor blade, and the results are compared to previous 2D calculations involving a fifth-order Navier-Stokes solver on a finer grid.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhFl...28j3604G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhFl...28j3604G"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> analysis of the laminar flat plate boundary layer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gabr, Mohammad</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The flow properties at the leading edge of a flat plate represent a singularity to the Blasius laminar boundary layer equations; by applying the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span>, the leading edge velocity profiles of the laminar boundary layer over a flat plate are studied. Experimental observations as well as the theoretical analysis show an exact Gaussian distribution curve as the original starting profile of the laminar flow. Comparisons between the Blasius solution and the Gaussian curve solution are carried out providing a new insight into the physics of the laminar flow.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012MeSol..47..137K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012MeSol..47..137K"><span>Forms of null <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span> in field theories of continuum mechanics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kovalev, V. A.; Radaev, Yu. N.</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>The divergence representation of a null <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> that is regular in a star-shaped domain is used to obtain its general expression containing field gradients of order ≤ 1 in the case of spacetime of arbitrary dimension. It is shown that for a static three-component field in the three-dimensional space, a null <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> can contain up to 15 independent elements in total. The general form of a null <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> in the four-dimensional Minkowski spacetime is obtained (the number of physical field variables is assumed arbitrary). A complete theory of the null <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> for the n-dimensional spacetime manifold (including the four-dimensional Minkowski spacetime as a special case) is given. Null <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span> are then used as a basis for solving an important variational problem of an integrating factor. This problem involves searching for factors that depend on the spacetime variables, field variables, and their gradients and, for a given system of partial differential equations, ensure the equality between the scalar product of a vector multiplier by the system vector and some divergence expression for arbitrary field variables and, hence, allow one to formulate a divergence conservation law on solutions to the system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018PhLB..779..485L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018PhLB..779..485L"><span>A unifying framework for ghost-free Lorentz-invariant <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> field theories</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Wenliang</p> <p>2018-04-01</p> <p>We propose a framework for Lorentz-invariant <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> field theories where Ostrogradsky's scalar ghosts could be absent. A key ingredient is the generalized Kronecker delta. The general <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span> are reformulated in the language of differential forms. The absence of higher order equations of motion for the scalar modes stems from the basic fact that every exact form is closed. The well-established <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> theories for spin-0, spin-1, p-form, spin-2 fields have natural formulations in this framework. We also propose novel building blocks for <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> field theories. Some of them are novel nonlinear derivative terms for spin-2 fields. It is nontrivial that Ostrogradsky's scalar ghosts are absent in these fully nonlinear theories.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012CSR....47..145F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012CSR....47..145F"><span>Using <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Coherent Structures to understand coastal water quality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fiorentino, L. A.; Olascoaga, M. J.; Reniers, A.; Feng, Z.; Beron-Vera, F. J.; MacMahan, J. H.</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>The accumulation of pollutants near the shoreline can result in low quality coastal water with negative effects on human health. To understand the role of mixing by tidal flows in coastal water quality we study the nearshore <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> circulation. Specifically, we reveal <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Coherent Structures (LCSs), i.e., distinguished material curves which shape global mixing patterns and thus act as skeletons of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> circulation. This is done using the recently developed geodesic theory of transport barriers. Particular focus is placed on Hobie Beach, a recreational subtropical marine beach located in Virginia Key, Miami, Florida. According to studies of water quality, Hobie Beach is characterized by high microbial levels. Possible sources of pollution in Hobie Beach include human bather shedding, dog fecal matter, runoff, and sand efflux at high tides. Consistent with the patterns formed by satellite-tracked drifter trajectories, the LCSs extracted from simulated currents reveal a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> circulation favoring the retention near the shoreline of pollutants released along the shoreline, which can help explain the low quality water registered at Hobie Beach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018NuPhB.928..107M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018NuPhB.928..107M"><span>Integration over families of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> submanifolds in BV formalism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mikhailov, Andrei</p> <p>2018-03-01</p> <p>Gauge fixing is interpreted in BV formalism as a choice of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> submanifold in an odd symplectic manifold (the BV phase space). A natural construction defines an integration procedure on families of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> submanifolds. In string perturbation theory, the moduli space integrals of higher genus amplitudes can be interpreted in this way. We discuss the role of gauge symmetries in this construction. We derive the conditions which should be imposed on gauge symmetries for the consistency of our integration procedure. We explain how these conditions behave under the deformations of the worldsheet theory. In particular, we show that integrated vertex operator is actually an inhomogeneous differential form on the space of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> submanifolds.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JCoPh.348..493T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JCoPh.348..493T"><span>An updated <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particle hydrodynamics (ULPH) for Newtonian fluids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tu, Qingsong; Li, Shaofan</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>In this work, we have developed an updated <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particle hydrodynamics (ULPH) for Newtonian fluid. Unlike the smoothed particle hydrodynamics, the non-local particle hydrodynamics formulation proposed here is consistent and convergence. Unlike the state-based peridynamics, the discrete particle dynamics proposed here has no internal material bond between particles, and it is not formulated with respect to initial or a fixed referential configuration. In specific, we have shown that (1) the non-local update <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particle hydrodynamics formulation converges to the conventional local fluid mechanics formulation; (2) the non-local updated <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particle hydrodynamics can capture arbitrary flow discontinuities without any changes in the formulation, and (3) the proposed non-local particle hydrodynamics is computationally efficient and robust.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=magnetic+AND+particles&id=EJ832524','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=magnetic+AND+particles&id=EJ832524"><span>Symmetries in <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ferrario, Carlo; Passerini, Arianna</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>In the framework of Noether's theorem, a distinction between <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> and dynamical symmetries is made, in order to clarify some aspects neglected by textbooks. An intuitive setting of the concept of invariance of differential equations is presented. The analysis is completed by deriving the symmetry properties in the motion of a charged…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23887790','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23887790"><span>[Understanding the meaning of leadership to the undergraduate nursing student: a <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guerra, Karina Juliana; Spiri, Wilza Carla</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This study aimed at understanding the meaning of leadership to undergraduate nursing students and the expectation related to their professional practice. <span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span> was used as theoretical framework. Fifteen undergraduate nursing students were recruited as subjects and answered the following question: "What do you understand by leadership, and how can it be applied in your professional practice?" The topics which were revealed and analyzed, Leadership Styles and Leadership Exercise, enabled us to understand that the meaning attributed to leadership is unveiled as a dynamic process, and the style adopted is the form to lead a team; therefore, an ideal leadership style does not exist. In teaching, the leadership style began to be discussed when the participant forms of personnel management were <span class="hlt">approached</span>. In leadership practice, the dissociation between leadership theory and practice is emphasized, pointing out that integration with practice is relevant for leadership learning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFMNG42A0407P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFMNG42A0407P"><span>Predictability of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Motion in the Upper Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Piterbarg, L. I.; Griffa, A.; Griffa, A.; Mariano, A. J.; Ozgokmen, T. M.; Ryan, E. H.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>The complex non-linear dynamics of the upper ocean leads to chaotic behavior of drifter trajectories in the ocean. Our study is focused on estimating the predictability limit for the position of an individual <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particle or a particle cluster based on the knowledge of mean currents and observations of nearby particles (predictors). The <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> prediction problem, besides being a fundamental scientific problem, is also of great importance for practical applications such as search and rescue operations and for modeling the spread of fish larvae. A stochastic multi-particle model for the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> motion has been rigorously formulated and is a generalization of the well known "random flight" model for a single particle. Our model is mathematically consistent and includes a few easily interpreted parameters, such as the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> velocity decorrelation time scale, the turbulent velocity variance, and the velocity decorrelation radius, that can be estimated from data. The top Lyapunov exponent for an isotropic version of the model is explicitly expressed as a function of these parameters enabling us to approximate the predictability limit to first order. <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> prediction errors for two new prediction algorithms are evaluated against simple algorithms and each other and are used to test the predictability limits of the stochastic model for isotropic turbulence. The first algorithm is based on a Kalman filter and uses the developed stochastic model. Its implementation for drifter clusters in both the Tropical Pacific and Adriatic Sea, showed good prediction skill over a period of 1-2 weeks. The prediction error is primarily a function of the data density, defined as the number of predictors within a velocity decorrelation spatial scale from the particle to be predicted. The second algorithm is model independent and is based on spatial regression considerations. Preliminary results, based on simulated, as well as, real data, indicate that it performs</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJMPS..4260159F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJMPS..4260159F"><span>a Marker-Based Eulerian-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Method for Multiphase Flow with Supersonic Combustion Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fan, Xiaofeng; Wang, Jiangfeng</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The atomization of liquid fuel is a kind of intricate dynamic process from continuous phase to discrete phase. Procedures of fuel spray in supersonic flow are modeled with an Eulerian-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> computational fluid dynamics methodology. The method combines two distinct techniques and develops an integrated numerical simulation method to simulate the atomization processes. The traditional finite volume method based on stationary (Eulerian) Cartesian grid is used to resolve the flow field, and multi-component Navier-Stokes equations are adopted in present work, with accounting for the mass exchange and heat transfer occupied by vaporization process. The marker-based moving (<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>) grid is utilized to depict the behavior of atomized liquid sprays injected into a gaseous environment, and discrete droplet model 13 is adopted. To verify the current <span class="hlt">approach</span>, the proposed method is applied to simulate processes of liquid atomization in supersonic cross flow. Three classic breakup models, TAB model, wave model and K-H/R-T hybrid model, are discussed. The numerical results are compared with multiple perspectives quantitatively, including spray penetration height and droplet size distribution. In addition, the complex flow field structures induced by the presence of liquid spray are illustrated and discussed. It is validated that the maker-based Eulerian-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> method is effective and reliable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2632288','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2632288"><span>Perceptual Anomalies in Schizophrenia: Integrating <span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span> and Cognitive Neuroscience</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Uhlhaas, Peter J.; Mishara, Aaron L.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>From <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> and experimental perspectives, research in schizophrenia has emphasized deficits in “higher” cognitive functions, including attention, executive function, as well as memory. In contrast, general consensus has viewed dysfunctions in basic perceptual processes to be relatively unimportant in the explanation of more complex aspects of the disorder, including changes in self-experience and the development of symptoms such as delusions. We present evidence from <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> and cognitive neuroscience that changes in the perceptual field in schizophrenia may represent a core impairment. After introducing the <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> to perception (Husserl, the Gestalt School), we discuss the views of Paul Matussek, Klaus Conrad, Ludwig Binswanger, and Wolfgang Blankenburg on perception in schizophrenia. These 4 psychiatrists describe changes in perception and automatic processes that are related to the altered experience of self. The altered self-experience, in turn, may be responsible for the emergence of delusions. The <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> data are compatible with current research that conceptualizes dysfunctions in perceptual processing as a deficit in the ability to combine stimulus elements into coherent object representations. Relationships of deficits in perceptual organization to cognitive and social dysfunction as well as the possible neurobiological mechanisms are discussed. PMID:17118973</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018PhyD..372...31B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018PhyD..372...31B"><span>Generalized <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> coherent structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Balasuriya, Sanjeeva; Ouellette, Nicholas T.; Rypina, Irina I.</p> <p>2018-06-01</p> <p>The notion of a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Coherent Structure (LCS) is by now well established as a way to capture transient coherent transport dynamics in unsteady and aperiodic fluid flows that are known over finite time. We show that the concept of an LCS can be generalized to capture coherence in other quantities of interest that are transported by, but not fully locked to, the fluid. Such quantities include those with dynamic, biological, chemical, or thermodynamic relevance, such as temperature, pollutant concentration, vorticity, kinetic energy, plankton density, and so on. We provide a conceptual framework for identifying the Generalized <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Coherent Structures (GLCSs) associated with such evolving quantities. We show how LCSs can be seen as a special case within this framework, and provide an overarching discussion of various methods for identifying LCSs. The utility of this more general viewpoint is highlighted through a variety of examples. We also show that although LCSs approximate GLCSs in certain limiting situations under restrictive assumptions on how the velocity field affects the additional quantities of interest, LCSs are not in general sufficient to describe their coherent transport.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018PhFl...30d5105A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018PhFl...30d5105A"><span>Impact of <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> theory of turbulence on pragmatic <span class="hlt">approach</span> to fluvial hydraulics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ali, Sk Zeeshan; Dey, Subhasish</p> <p>2018-04-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> theory of turbulence (PTT) remains a long-standing and fascinating theory in turbulence research. In this review article, we highlight the state-of-the-science of the impact of the PTT on the pragmatic <span class="hlt">approach</span> to fluvial hydraulics, explored over recent decades, discussing the salient and the subtle roles that the turbulence plays in governing many physical processes. To acquire a theoretical explanation of this pragmatic <span class="hlt">approach</span> necessitates an intuitive thought that can bring together the background mechanisms of all the physical processes under one law—a thought that is capable of finding their inextricable links with the turbulent energy spectrum. We begin here with emphasizing the spectral and the co-spectral origin of the well-recognized laws of the wall, the resistance equation, and the turbulence intensities by portraying the typical momentum transfer mechanism of eddies in a turbulent flow. Next, we focus on the scaling laws of key fluvial processes derived from the perspective of the PTT, enlightening their physical insight and ability to judge how far the so-called empirical formulas can be used with confidence. The PTT has been able to disclose the origin of several primeval empirical formulas that have been used over many years without having any theoretical clarification and confirmation. Finally, we make an effort to describe some unsolved issues to be resolved as a future scope of research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4410135','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4410135"><span>Family members of older persons with multi-morbidity and their experiences of case managers in Sweden: an interpretive <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hjelm, Markus; Holmgren, Ann-Charlotte; Willman, Ania; Bohman, Doris; Holst, Göran</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background Family members of older persons (75+) with multi-morbidity are likely to benefit from utilising case management services performed by case managers. However, research has not yet explored their experiences of case managers. Objectives The aim of the study was to deepen the understanding of the importance of case managers to family members of older persons (75+) with multi-morbidity. Design The study design was based on an interpretive <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span>. Method Data were collected through individual interviews with 16 family members in Sweden. The interviews were analysed by means of an interpretive <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span>. Results The findings revealed one overarching theme: “Helps to fulfil my unmet needs”, based on three sub-themes: (1) “Helps me feel secure – Experiencing a trusting relationship”, (2) “Confirms and strengthens me – Challenging my sense of being alone” and (3) “Being my personal guide – Increasing my competence”. Conclusion and discussion The findings indicate that case managers were able to fulfil unmet needs of family members. The latter recognised the importance of case managers providing them with professional services tailored to their individual needs. The findings can contribute to the improvement of case management models not only for older persons but also for their family members. PMID:25918497</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26575543','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26575543"><span>Adaptive switching of interaction potentials in the time domain: an extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> tailored to transmute force field to QM/MM simulations and back.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Böckmann, Marcus; Doltsinis, Nikos L; Marx, Dominik</p> <p>2015-06-09</p> <p>An extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> formalism that allows for a smooth transition between two different descriptions of interactions during a molecular dynamics simulation is presented. This time-adaptive method is particularly useful in the context of multiscale simulation as it provides a sound recipe to switch on demand between different hierarchical levels of theory, for instance between ab initio ("QM") and force field ("MM") descriptions of a given (sub)system in the course of a molecular dynamics simulation. The equations of motion can be integrated straightforwardly using the usual propagators, such as the Verlet algorithm. First test cases include a bath of harmonic oscillators, of which a subset is switched to a different force constant and/or equilibrium position, as well as an all-MM to QM/MM transition in a hydrogen-bonded water dimer. The method is then applied to a smectic 8AB8 liquid crystal and is shown to be able to switch dynamically a preselected 8AB8 molecule from an all-MM to a QM/MM description which involves partition boundaries through covalent bonds. These examples show that the extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> is not only easy to implement into existing code but that it is also efficient and robust. The technique moreover provides easy access to a conserved energy quantity, also in cases when Nosé-Hoover chain thermostatting is used throughout dynamical switching. A simple quadratic driving potential proves to be sufficient to guarantee a smooth transition whose time scale can be easily tuned by varying the fictitious mass parameter associated with the auxiliary variable used to extend the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>. The method is general and can be applied to time-adaptive switching on demand between two different levels of theory within the framework of hybrid scale-bridging simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23138331','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23138331"><span>[<span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> anthropological social psychiatry--paving the way for a theoretical reanimation].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thoma, Samuel</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>This article tries to link the present lack of theoretical discussion within German Social Psychiatry with a loss of <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> and anthropological thought. The so-called <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> Psychiatry used to play a very important role in German psychiatry during the 50 ies until the 70 ies and had strong influences on the first reformers of German psychiatry, such as Walter Ritter von Baeyer, Heinz Häfner, Caspar Kulenkampff, Karl Peter Kisker and Erich Wulff. Their reforms were not only founded by a social criticism put forth by theories such as marxism (Basaglia, Wulff) or structuralism (Foucault) but also by a concrete notion of what it is like to suffer from mental illness and what kind of needs are linked to such suffering. This very notion was given by the <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span>. Finally the article tries to give reasons for today's reciprocal loss of connection of the <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> and the socio-psychiatric school. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27575211','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27575211"><span>Influence of compressibility on the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> statistics of vorticity-strain-rate interactions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Danish, Mohammad; Sinha, Sawan Suman; Srinivasan, Balaji</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of compressibility on <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> statistics of vorticity and strain-rate interactions. The <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> statistics are extracted from "almost" time-continuous data sets of direct numerical simulations of compressible decaying isotropic turbulence by employing a cubic spline-based <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particle tracker. We study the influence of compressibility on <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> statistics of alignment in terms of compressibility parameters-turbulent Mach number, normalized dilatation-rate, and flow topology. In comparison to incompressible turbulence, we observe that the presence of compressibility in a flow field weakens the alignment tendency of vorticity toward the largest strain-rate eigenvector. Based on the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> statistics of alignment conditioned on dilatation and topology, we find that the weakened tendency of alignment observed in compressible turbulence is because of a special group of fluid particles that have an initially negligible dilatation-rate and are associated with stable-focus-stretching topology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1184028-generalized-extended-lagrangian-born-oppenheimer-molecular-dynamics','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1184028-generalized-extended-lagrangian-born-oppenheimer-molecular-dynamics"><span>Generalized extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Niklasson, Anders M. N.; Cawkwell, Marc J.</p> <p>2014-10-29</p> <p>Extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics based on Kohn-Sham density functional theory is generalized in the limit of vanishing self-consistent field optimization prior to the force evaluations. The equations of motion are derived directly from the extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> under the condition of an adiabatic separation between the nuclear and the electronic degrees of freedom. We show how this separation is automatically fulfilled and system independent. The generalized equations of motion require only one diagonalization per time step and are applicable to a broader range of materials with improved accuracy and stability compared to previous formulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26274277','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26274277"><span>Intermittent <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> velocities and accelerations in three-dimensional porous medium flow.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Holzner, M; Morales, V L; Willmann, M; Dentz, M</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Intermittency of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> velocity and acceleration is a key to understanding transport in complex systems ranging from fluid turbulence to flow in porous media. High-resolution optical particle tracking in a three-dimensional (3D) porous medium provides detailed 3D information on <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> velocities and accelerations. We find sharp transitions close to pore throats, and low flow variability in the pore bodies, which gives rise to stretched exponential <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> velocity and acceleration distributions characterized by a sharp peak at low velocity, superlinear evolution of particle dispersion, and double-peak behavior in the propagators. The velocity distribution is quantified in terms of pore geometry and flow connectivity, which forms the basis for a continuous-time random-walk model that sheds light on the observed <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> flow and transport behaviors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018BoLMe.167..509B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018BoLMe.167..509B"><span>A Theoretically Consistent Framework for Modelling <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Particle Deposition in Plant Canopies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bailey, Brian N.; Stoll, Rob; Pardyjak, Eric R.</p> <p>2018-06-01</p> <p>We present a theoretically consistent framework for modelling <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particle deposition in plant canopies. The primary focus is on describing the probability of particles encountering canopy elements (i.e., potential deposition), and provides a consistent means for including the effects of imperfect deposition through any appropriate sub-model for deposition efficiency. Some aspects of the framework draw upon an analogy to radiation propagation through a turbid medium with which to develop model theory. The present method is compared against one of the most commonly used heuristic <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> frameworks, namely that originally developed by Legg and Powell (Agricultural Meteorology, 1979, Vol. 20, 47-67), which is shown to be theoretically inconsistent. A recommendation is made to discontinue the use of this heuristic <span class="hlt">approach</span> in favour of the theoretically consistent framework developed herein, which is no more difficult to apply under equivalent assumptions. The proposed framework has the additional advantage that it can be applied to arbitrary canopy geometries given readily measurable parameters describing vegetation structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23061271','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23061271"><span>Philosophy of <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span>: how understanding aids research.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Converse, Mary</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>To assist the researcher in understanding the similarities and differences between the Husserlian and Heideggerian philosophies of <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span>, and how that philosophy can inform nursing research as a useful methodology. Nurse researchers using <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> as a methodology need to understand the philosophy of <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> to produce a research design that is philosophically congruent. However, <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> has a long and complex history of development, and may be difficult to understand and apply. The author draws from Heidegger (1962), Gadamer (2004), and nurse scholars and methodologists. To give the reader a sense of the development of the philosophy of <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span>, the author briefly recounts its historical origins and interpretations, specifically related to Husserl, Heidegger and Gadamer. The author outlines the ontological and epistemological assumptions of Husserlian and Heideggerian <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> and guidance for methodology inspired by these philosophers. Difficulties with engaging in <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> research are addressed, especially the processes of <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> reduction and bracketing, and the lack of clarity about the methods of interpretation. Despite its complexity, <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> can provide the nurse researcher with indepth insight into nursing practice. An understanding of <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> can guide nurse researchers to produce results that have meaning in nursing patient care.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29234051','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29234051"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Statistics and Intermittency in Gulf of Mexico.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lin, Liru; Zhuang, Wei; Huang, Yongxiang</p> <p>2017-12-12</p> <p>Due to the nonlinear interaction between different flow patterns, for instance, ocean current, meso-scale eddies, waves, etc, the movement of ocean is extremely complex, where a multiscale statistics is then relevant. In this work, a high time-resolution velocity with a time step 15 minutes obtained by the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> drifter deployed in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) from July 2012 to October 2012 is considered. The measured <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> velocity correlation function shows a strong daily cycle due to the diurnal tidal cycle. The estimated Fourier power spectrum E(f) implies a dual-power-law behavior which is separated by the daily cycle. The corresponding scaling exponents are close to -1.75 and -2.75 respectively for the time scale larger (resp. 0.1 ≤ f ≤ 0.4 day -1 ) and smaller (resp. 2 ≤ f ≤ 8 day -1 ) than 1 day. A Hilbert-based <span class="hlt">approach</span> is then applied to this data set to identify the possible multifractal property of the cascade process. The results show an intermittent dynamics for the time scale larger than 1 day, while a less intermittent dynamics for the time scale smaller than 1 day. It is speculated that the energy is partially injected via the diurnal tidal movement and then transferred to larger and small scales through a complex cascade process, which needs more studies in the near future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGP....60..857V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGP....60..857V"><span>The <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>-Hamiltonian formalism for higher order field theories</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vitagliano, Luca</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>We generalize the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>-Hamiltonian formalism of Skinner and Rusk to higher order field theories on fiber bundles. As a byproduct we solve the long standing problem of defining, in a coordinate free manner, a Hamiltonian formalism for higher order <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> field theories. Namely, our formalism does only depend on the action functional and, therefore, unlike previously proposed ones, is free from any relevant ambiguity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JPhA...44L5203P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JPhA...44L5203P"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>-Hamiltonian unified formalism for autonomous higher order dynamical systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Prieto-Martínez, Pedro Daniel; Román-Roy, Narciso</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>-Hamiltonian unified formalism of Skinner and Rusk was originally stated for autonomous dynamical systems in classical mechanics. It has been generalized for non-autonomous first-order mechanical systems, as well as for first-order and higher order field theories. However, a complete generalization to higher order mechanical systems is yet to be described. In this work, after reviewing the natural geometrical setting and the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> and Hamiltonian formalisms for higher order autonomous mechanical systems, we develop a complete generalization of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>-Hamiltonian unified formalism for these kinds of systems, and we use it to analyze some physical models from this new point of view.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1013698','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1013698"><span>Near-Surface Monsoonal Circulation of the Vietnam East Sea from <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Drifters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-09-30</p> <p>Sea from <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Drifters Luca Centurioni Scripps Institution of Oceanography 9500 Gilman Drive Mail Code 0213 La Jolla, California 92103...Contribute to the study of coastal and open ocean current systems in sparsely sampled regions such us the South China Sea (SCS), using a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> ...We intend to make new <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> and Eulerian observations to measure the seasonal circulation 1) in the coastal waters of Vietnam and 2) in the SCS</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H33D0855P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H33D0855P"><span>Incomplete Mixing and Reactions - A <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">Approach</span> in a Pure Shear Flow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Paster, A.; Aquino, T.; Bolster, D.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Incomplete mixing of reactive solutes is well known to slow down reaction rates relative to what would be expected from assuming perfect mixing. As reactions progress in a system and deplete reactant concentrations, initial fluctuations in the concentrations of reactions can be amplified relative to mean background concentrations and lead to spatial segregation of reactants. As the system evolves, in the absence of sufficient mixing, this segregation will increase, leading to a persistence of incomplete mixing that fundamentally changes the effective rate at which overall reactions will progress. On the other hand, non-uniform fluid flows are known to affect mixing between interacting solutes. Thus a natural question arises: Can non-uniform flows sufficiently enhance mixing to suppress incomplete mixing effects, and if so, under what conditions? In this work we address this question by considering one of the simplest possible flows, a laminar pure shear flow, which is known to significantly enhance mixing relative to diffusion alone. To study this system we adapt a novel <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particle-based random walk method, originally designed to simulate reactions in purely diffusive systems, to the case of advection and diffusion in a shear flow. To interpret the results we develop a semi-analytical solution, by proposing a closure approximation that aims to capture the effect of incomplete mixing. The results obtained via the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> model and the semi-analytical solutions consistently highlight that if shear effects in the system are not sufficiently strong, incomplete mixing effects initially similar to purely diffusive systems will occur, slowing down the overall reaction rate. Then, at some later time, dependent on the strength of the shear, the system will return to behaving as if it were well-mixed, but represented by a reduced effective reaction rate. If shear effects are sufficiently strong, the incomplete mixing regime never emerges and the system can behave</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714169P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714169P"><span>Incomplete Mixing and Reactions - A <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">Approach</span> in a Pure Shear Flow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Paster, Amir; Bolster, Diogo; Aquino, Tomas</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Incomplete mixing of reactive solutes is well known to slow down reaction rates relative to what would be expected from assuming perfect mixing. As reactions progress in a system and deplete reactant concentrations, initial fluctuations in the concentrations of reactions can be amplified relative to mean background concentrations and lead to spatial segregation of reactants. As the system evolves, in the absence of sufficient mixing, this segregation will increase, leading to a persistence of incomplete mixing that fundamentally changes the effective rate at which overall reactions will progress. On the other hand, nonuniform fluid flows are known to affect mixing between interacting solutes. Thus a natural question arises: Can non-uniform flows sufficiently enhance mixing to suppress incomplete mixing effects, and if so, under what conditions? In this work we address this question by considering one of the simplest possible flows, a laminar pure shear flow, which is known to significantly enhance mixing relative to diffusion alone. To study this system we adapt a novel <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particle-based random walk method, originally designed to simulate reactions in purely diffusive systems, to the case of advection and diffusion in a shear flow. To interpret the results we develop a semi-analytical solution, by proposing a closure approximation that aims to capture the effect of incomplete mixing. The results obtained via the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> model and the semi-analytical solutions consistently highlight that if shear effects in the system are not sufficiently strong, incomplete mixing effects initially similar to purely diffusive systems will occur, slowing down the overall reaction rate. Then, at some later time, dependent on the strength of the shear, the system will return to behaving as if it were well-mixed, but represented by a reduced effective reaction rate. If shear effects are sufficiently strong, the incomplete mixing regime never emerges and the system can behave</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26328579','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26328579"><span>Identifying finite-time coherent sets from limited quantities of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Williams, Matthew O; Rypina, Irina I; Rowley, Clarence W</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>A data-driven procedure for identifying the dominant transport barriers in a time-varying flow from limited quantities of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> data is presented. Our <span class="hlt">approach</span> partitions state space into coherent pairs, which are sets of initial conditions chosen to minimize the number of trajectories that "leak" from one set to the other under the influence of a stochastic flow field during a pre-specified interval in time. In practice, this partition is computed by solving an optimization problem to obtain a pair of functions whose signs determine set membership. From prior experience with synthetic, "data rich" test problems, and conceptually related methods based on approximations of the Perron-Frobenius operator, we observe that the functions of interest typically appear to be smooth. We exploit this property by using the basis sets associated with spectral or "mesh-free" methods, and as a result, our <span class="hlt">approach</span> has the potential to more accurately approximate these functions given a fixed amount of data. In practice, this could enable better approximations of the coherent pairs in problems with relatively limited quantities of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> data, which is usually the case with experimental geophysical data. We apply this method to three examples of increasing complexity: The first is the double gyre, the second is the Bickley Jet, and the third is data from numerically simulated drifters in the Sulu Sea.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22482317-identifying-finite-time-coherent-sets-from-limited-quantities-lagrangian-data','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22482317-identifying-finite-time-coherent-sets-from-limited-quantities-lagrangian-data"><span>Identifying finite-time coherent sets from limited quantities of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Williams, Matthew O.; Rypina, Irina I.; Rowley, Clarence W.</p> <p></p> <p>A data-driven procedure for identifying the dominant transport barriers in a time-varying flow from limited quantities of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> data is presented. Our <span class="hlt">approach</span> partitions state space into coherent pairs, which are sets of initial conditions chosen to minimize the number of trajectories that “leak” from one set to the other under the influence of a stochastic flow field during a pre-specified interval in time. In practice, this partition is computed by solving an optimization problem to obtain a pair of functions whose signs determine set membership. From prior experience with synthetic, “data rich” test problems, and conceptually related methods basedmore » on approximations of the Perron-Frobenius operator, we observe that the functions of interest typically appear to be smooth. We exploit this property by using the basis sets associated with spectral or “mesh-free” methods, and as a result, our <span class="hlt">approach</span> has the potential to more accurately approximate these functions given a fixed amount of data. In practice, this could enable better approximations of the coherent pairs in problems with relatively limited quantities of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> data, which is usually the case with experimental geophysical data. We apply this method to three examples of increasing complexity: The first is the double gyre, the second is the Bickley Jet, and the third is data from numerically simulated drifters in the Sulu Sea.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29181888','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29181888"><span>Preconditioned augmented <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> formulation for nearly incompressible cardiac mechanics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Campos, Joventino Oliveira; Dos Santos, Rodrigo Weber; Sundnes, Joakim; Rocha, Bernardo Martins</p> <p>2018-04-01</p> <p>Computational modeling of the heart is a subject of substantial medical and scientific interest, which may contribute to increase the understanding of several phenomena associated with cardiac physiological and pathological states. Modeling the mechanics of the heart have led to considerable insights, but it still represents a complex and a demanding computational problem, especially in a strongly coupled electromechanical setting. Passive cardiac tissue is commonly modeled as hyperelastic and is characterized by quasi-incompressible, orthotropic, and nonlinear material behavior. These factors are known to be very challenging for the numerical solution of the model. The near-incompressibility is known to cause numerical issues such as the well-known locking phenomenon and ill-conditioning of the stiffness matrix. In this work, the augmented <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> method is used to handle the nearly incompressible condition. This <span class="hlt">approach</span> can potentially improve computational performance by reducing the condition number of the stiffness matrix and thereby improving the convergence of iterative solvers. We also improve the performance of iterative solvers by the use of an algebraic multigrid preconditioner. Numerical results of the augmented <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> method combined with a preconditioned iterative solver for a cardiac mechanics benchmark suite are presented to show its improved performance. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22489841-lagrangian-hamiltonian-constraints-guiding-center-hamiltonian-theories','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22489841-lagrangian-hamiltonian-constraints-guiding-center-hamiltonian-theories"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> and Hamiltonian constraints for guiding-center Hamiltonian theories</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tronko, Natalia; Brizard, Alain J.</p> <p></p> <p>A consistent guiding-center Hamiltonian theory is derived by Lie-transform perturbation method, with terms up to second order in magnetic-field nonuniformity. Consistency is demonstrated by showing that the guiding-center transformation presented here satisfies separate Jacobian and <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> constraints that have not been explored before. A new first-order term appearing in the guiding-center phase-space <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> is identified through a calculation of the guiding-center polarization. It is shown that this new polarization term also yields a simpler expression of the guiding-center toroidal canonical momentum, which satisfies an exact conservation law in axisymmetric magnetic geometries. Finally, an application of the guiding-center <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> constraint onmore » the guiding-center Hamiltonian yields a natural interpretation for its higher-order corrections.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26328583','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26328583"><span>Dissipative inertial transport patterns near coherent <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> eddies in the ocean.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Beron-Vera, Francisco J; Olascoaga, María J; Haller, George; Farazmand, Mohammad; Triñanes, Joaquín; Wang, Yan</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Recent developments in dynamical systems theory have revealed long-lived and coherent <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> (i.e., material) eddies in incompressible, satellite-derived surface ocean velocity fields. Paradoxically, observed drifting buoys and floating matter tend to create dissipative-looking patterns near oceanic eddies, which appear to be inconsistent with the conservative fluid particle patterns created by coherent <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> eddies. Here, we show that inclusion of inertial effects (i.e., those produced by the buoyancy and size finiteness of an object) in a rotating two-dimensional incompressible flow context resolves this paradox. Specifically, we obtain that anticyclonic coherent <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> eddies attract (repel) negatively (positively) buoyant finite-size particles, while cyclonic coherent <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> eddies attract (repel) positively (negatively) buoyant finite-size particles. We show how these results explain dissipative-looking satellite-tracked surface drifter and subsurface float trajectories, as well as satellite-derived Sargassum distributions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22499090-few-words-about-resonances-electroweak-effective-lagrangian','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22499090-few-words-about-resonances-electroweak-effective-lagrangian"><span>A few words about resonances in the electroweak effective <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rosell, Ignasi; Pich, Antonio; Santos, Joaquín</p> <p></p> <p>Contrary to a widely spread believe, we have demonstrated that strongly coupled electroweak models including both a light Higgs-like boson and massive spin-1 resonances are not in conflict with experimental constraints on the oblique S and T parameters. We use an effective <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> implementing the chiral symmetry breaking SU (2){sub L} ⊗ SU (2){sub R} → SU (2){sub L+R} that contains the Standard Model gauge bosons coupled to the electroweak Goldstones, one Higgs-like scalar state h with mass m{sub h} = 126 GeV and the lightest vector and axial-vector resonance multiplets V and A. We have considered the one-loop calculationmore » of S and T in order to study the viability of these strongly-coupled scenarios, being short-distance constraints and dispersive relations the main ingredients of the calculation. Once we have constrained the resonance parameters, we do a first <span class="hlt">approach</span> to the determination of the low energy constants of the electroweak effective theory at low energies (without resonances). We show this determination in the case of the purely Higgsless bosonic <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT........20T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT........20T"><span><span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span> of the N = 3 Lee-Wick Standard Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>TerBeek, Russell Henry</p> <p></p> <p>With the discovery of the Higgs Boson in 2012, particle physics has decidedly moved beyond the Standard Model into a new epoch. Though the Standard Model particle content is now completely accounted for, there remain many theoretical issues about the structure of the theory in need of resolution. Among these is the hierarchy problem: since the renormalized Higgs mass receives quadratic corrections from a higher cutoff scale, what keeps the Higgs boson light? Many possible solutions to this problem have been advanced, such as supersymmetry, Randall-Sundrum models, or sub-millimeter corrections to gravity. One such solution has been advanced by the Lee-Wick Standard Model. In this theory, higher-derivative operators are added to the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> for each Standard Model field, which result in propagators that possess two physical poles and fall off more rapidly in the ultraviolet regime. It can be shown by an auxiliary field transformation that the higher-derivative theory is identical to positing a second, manifestly renormalizable theory in which new fields with opposite-sign kinetic and mass terms are found. These so-called Lee-Wick fields have opposite-sign propagators, and famously cancel off the quadratic divergences that plague the renormalized Higgs mass. The states in the Hilbert space corresponding to Lee-Wick particles have negative norm, and implications for causality and unitarity are examined. This dissertation explores a variant of the theory called the N = 3 Lee-Wick Standard Model. The <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> of this theory features a yet-higher derivative operator, which produces a propagator with three physical poles and possesses even better high-energy behavior than the minimal Lee-Wick theory. An analogous auxiliary field transformation takes this higher-derivative theory into a renormalizable theory with states of alternating positive, negative, and positive norm. The <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> of this theory is examined in detail, with particular emphasis on the collider</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1134155-asymptotic-preserving-lagrangian-algorithm-time-dependent-anisotropic-heat-transport-equation','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1134155-asymptotic-preserving-lagrangian-algorithm-time-dependent-anisotropic-heat-transport-equation"><span>An asymptotic-preserving <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> algorithm for the time-dependent anisotropic heat transport equation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chacon, Luis; del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego; Hauck, Cory D.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>We propose a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> numerical algorithm for a time-dependent, anisotropic temperature transport equation in magnetized plasmas in the large guide field regime. The <span class="hlt">approach</span> is based on an analytical integral formal solution of the parallel (i.e., along the magnetic field) transport equation with sources, and it is able to accommodate both local and non-local parallel heat flux closures. The numerical implementation is based on an operator-split formulation, with two straightforward steps: a perpendicular transport step (including sources), and a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> (field-line integral) parallel transport step. Algorithmically, the first step is amenable to the use of modern iterative methods, while themore » second step has a fixed cost per degree of freedom (and is therefore scalable). Accuracy-wise, the <span class="hlt">approach</span> is free from the numerical pollution introduced by the discrete parallel transport term when the perpendicular to parallel transport coefficient ratio X ⊥ /X ∥ becomes arbitrarily small, and is shown to capture the correct limiting solution when ε = X⊥L 2 ∥/X1L 2 ⊥ → 0 (with L∥∙ L⊥ , the parallel and perpendicular diffusion length scales, respectively). Therefore, the <span class="hlt">approach</span> is asymptotic-preserving. We demonstrate the capabilities of the scheme with several numerical experiments with varying magnetic field complexity in two dimensions, including the case of transport across a magnetic island.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1214912-modeling-high-speed-friction-stir-spot-welding-using-lagrangian-finite-element-approach','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1214912-modeling-high-speed-friction-stir-spot-welding-using-lagrangian-finite-element-approach"><span>MODELING OF HIGH SPEED FRICTION STIR SPOT WELDING USING A <span class="hlt">LAGRANGIAN</span> FINITE ELEMENT <span class="hlt">APPROACH</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Miles, Michael; Karki, U.; Woodward, C.</p> <p>2013-09-03</p> <p>Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) has been shown to be capable of joining steels of very high strength, while also being very flexible in terms of controlling the heat of welding and the resulting microstructure of the joint. This makes FSSW a potential alternative to resistance spot welding (RSW) if tool life is sufficiently high, and if machine spindle loads are sufficiently low so that the process can be implemented on an industrial robot. Robots for spot welding can typically sustain vertical loads of about 8kN, but FSSW at tool speeds of less than 3000 rpm cause loads that aremore » too high, in the range of 11-14 kN. Therefore, in the current work tool speeds of 3000 rpm and higher were employed, in order to generate heat more quickly and to reduce welding loads to acceptable levels. The FSSW process was modeled using a finite element <span class="hlt">approach</span> with the Forge® software package. An updated <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> scheme with explicit time integration was employed to model the flow of the sheet material, subjected to boundary conditions of a rotating tool and a fixed backing plate [3]. The modeling <span class="hlt">approach</span> can be described as two-dimensional, axisymmetric, but with an aspect of three dimensions in terms of thermal boundary conditions. Material flow was calculated from a velocity field which was two dimensional, but heat generated by friction was computed using a virtual rotational velocity component from the tool surface. An isotropic, viscoplastic Norton-Hoff law was used to model the evolution of material flow stress as a function of strain, strain rate, and temperature. The model predicted welding temperatures and the movement of the joint interface with reasonable accuracy for the welding of a dual phase 980 steel.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18187964','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18187964"><span><span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> investigation of despair in depression.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bürgy, Martin</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>In current psychopathological literature, the concept of despair is almost redundant. At most, the term is applied in a behavioral biological context as a synonym for helplessness and hopelessness. In light of the fact that the subjective experience of despair is neglected, the present paper adopts a <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span>. The selection and hermeneutic investigation of philosophical concepts serve as tools for an initial delineation of the core structure of despair. On the basis of a growing deviation between desire and reality, target and actual status, an alternating development is initiated which increasingly constricts and leads to hopelessness and suicide. This <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> core structure is identified from a number of integral characteristics of depression and further developed. Despair, thus, becomes a psychopathological key term through which access can be gained to the subjective experience of the depressive individual and which can provide the basis for promoting understanding and communication as well as developing successful therapeutic interventions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JHEP...10..106B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JHEP...10..106B"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span> for generalized Argyres-Douglas theories</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Benvenuti, Sergio; Giacomelli, Simone</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>We continue the study of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> descriptions of N=2 Argyres-Douglas theories. We use our recent interpretation in terms of sequential confinement to guess the <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span> of all the Argyres-Douglas models with Abelian three dimensional mirror. We find classes of four dimensional N=1 quivers that flow in the infrared to generalized Argyres-Douglas theories, such as the ( A k , A kN + N -1) models. We study in detail how the N=1 chiral rings map to the Coulomb and Higgs Branches of the N=2 CFT's. The three dimensional mirror RG flows are shown to land on the N=4 complete graph quivers. We also compactify to three dimensions the gauge theory dual to ( A 1, D 4), and find the expected Abelianization duality with N=4 SQED with 3 flavors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Chaos..26j3102H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Chaos..26j3102H"><span>Level set formulation of two-dimensional <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> vortex detection methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hadjighasem, Alireza; Haller, George</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>We propose here the use of the variational level set methodology to capture <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> vortex boundaries in 2D unsteady velocity fields. This method reformulates earlier <span class="hlt">approaches</span> that seek material vortex boundaries as extremum solutions of variational problems. We demonstrate the performance of this technique for two different variational formulations built upon different notions of coherence. The first formulation uses an energy functional that penalizes the deviation of a closed material line from piecewise uniform stretching [Haller and Beron-Vera, J. Fluid Mech. 731, R4 (2013)]. The second energy function is derived for a graph-based <span class="hlt">approach</span> to vortex boundary detection [Hadjighasem et al., Phys. Rev. E 93, 063107 (2016)]. Our level-set formulation captures an a priori unknown number of vortices simultaneously at relatively low computational cost. We illustrate the <span class="hlt">approach</span> by identifying vortices from different coherence principles in several examples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1177283.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1177283.pdf"><span>Teaching the Poor in Turkey: A <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> Insight</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ömür, Yunus Emre</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to analyze how primary school classroom teachers experienced teaching poor students. This study was designed in a <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span>. To fulfill the aim of the study, in-depth and focus group interviews were held as well as classroom observations. The data gathered through interviews and observations was…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040086560','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040086560"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Assimilation of Satellite Data for Climate Studies in the Arctic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lindsay, Ronald W.; Zhang, Jin-Lun; Stern, Harry</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Under this grant we have developed and tested a new <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> model of sea ice. A <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> model keeps track of material parcels as they drift in the model domain. Besides providing a natural framework for the assimilation of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> data, it has other advantages: 1) a model that follows material elements is well suited for a medium such as sea ice in which an element retains its identity for a long period of time; 2) model cells can be added or dropped as needed, allowing the spatial resolution to be increased in areas of high variability or dense observations; 3) ice from particular regions, such as the marginal seas, can be marked and traced for a long time; and 4) slip lines in the ice motion are accommodated more naturally because there is no internal grid. Our work makes use of these strengths of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> formulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NuPhB.869..523R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NuPhB.869..523R"><span>General <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> formulation for higher spin fields with arbitrary index symmetry. 2. Fermionic fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reshetnyak, A.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>We continue the construction of a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> description of irreducible half-integer higher-spin representations of the Poincare group with an arbitrary Young tableaux having k rows, on a basis of the BRST-BFV <span class="hlt">approach</span> suggested for bosonic fields in our first article [I.L. Buchbinder, A. Reshetnyak, Nucl. Phys. B 862 (2012) 270, arXiv:1110.5044 [hep-th</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=thought+AND+experiments&pg=2&id=EJ912884','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=thought+AND+experiments&pg=2&id=EJ912884"><span>Gravity, Time, and <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Huggins, Elisha</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Feynman mentioned to us that he understood a topic in physics if he could explain it to a college freshman, a high school student, or a dinner guest. Here we will discuss two topics that took us a while to get to that level. One is the relationship between gravity and time. The other is the minus sign that appears in the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>. (Why would one…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25783151','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25783151"><span>van Manen's method and reduction in a <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> hermeneutic study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Heinonen, Kristiina</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>To describe van Manen's method and concept of reduction in a study that used a <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> hermeneutic <span class="hlt">approach</span>. Nurse researchers have used van Manen's method in different ways. Participants' lifeworlds are described in depth, but descriptions of reduction have been brief. The literature and knowledge review and manual search of research articles. Databases Web Science, PubMed, CINAHL and PsycINFO, without applying a time period, to identify uses of van Manen's method. This paper shows how van Manen's method has been used in nursing research and gives some examples of van Manen's reduction. Reduction enables us to conduct in-depth <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> hermeneutic research and understand people's lifeworlds. As there are many variations in adapting reduction, it is complex and confusing. This paper contributes to the discussion of <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span>, hermeneutic study and reduction. It opens up reduction as a method for researchers to exploit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950017213','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950017213"><span>A Generalized Eulerian-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Analysis, with Application to Liquid Flows with Vapor Bubbles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dejong, Frederik J.; Meyyappan, Meyya</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Under a NASA MSFC SBIR Phase 2 effort an analysis has been developed for liquid flows with vapor bubbles such as those in liquid rocket engine components. The analysis is based on a combined Eulerian-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> technique, in which Eulerian conservation equations are solved for the liquid phase, while <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> equations of motion are integrated in computational coordinates for the vapor phase. The novel aspect of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> analysis developed under this effort is that it combines features of the so-called particle distribution <span class="hlt">approach</span> with those of the so-called particle trajectory <span class="hlt">approach</span> and can, in fact, be considered as a generalization of both of those traditional methods. The result of this generalization is a reduction in CPU time and memory requirements. Particle time step (stability) limitations have been eliminated by semi-implicit integration of the particle equations of motion (and, for certain applications, the particle temperature equation), although practical limitations remain in effect for reasons of accuracy. The analysis has been applied to the simulation of cavitating flow through a single-bladed section of a labyrinth seal. Models for the simulation of bubble formation and growth have been included, as well as models for bubble drag and heat transfer. The results indicate that bubble formation is more or less 'explosive'. for a given flow field, the number density of bubble nucleation sites is very sensitive to the vapor properties and the surface tension. The bubble motion, on the other hand, is much less sensitive to the properties, but is affected strongly by the local pressure gradients in the flow field. In situations where either the material properties or the flow field are not known with sufficient accuracy, parametric studies can be carried out rapidly to assess the effect of the important variables. Future work will include application of the analysis to cavitation in inducer flow fields.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016242','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016242"><span>Stability analysis of Eulerian-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> methods for the one-dimensional shallow-water equations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Casulli, V.; Cheng, R.T.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>In this paper stability and error analyses are discussed for some finite difference methods when applied to the one-dimensional shallow-water equations. Two finite difference formulations, which are based on a combined Eulerian-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span>, are discussed. In the first part of this paper the results of numerical analyses for an explicit Eulerian-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> method (ELM) have shown that the method is unconditionally stable. This method, which is a generalized fixed grid method of characteristics, covers the Courant-Isaacson-Rees method as a special case. Some artificial viscosity is introduced by this scheme. However, because the method is unconditionally stable, the artificial viscosity can be brought under control either by reducing the spatial increment or by increasing the size of time step. The second part of the paper discusses a class of semi-implicit finite difference methods for the one-dimensional shallow-water equations. This method, when the Eulerian-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> is used for the convective terms, is also unconditionally stable and highly accurate for small space increments or large time steps. The semi-implicit methods seem to be more computationally efficient than the explicit ELM; at each time step a single tridiagonal system of linear equations is solved. The combined explicit and implicit ELM is best used in formulating a solution strategy for solving a network of interconnected channels. The explicit ELM is used at channel junctions for each time step. The semi-implicit method is then applied to the interior points in each channel segment. Following this solution strategy, the channel network problem can be reduced to a set of independent one-dimensional open-channel flow problems. Numerical results support properties given by the stability and error analyses. ?? 1990.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4695775','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4695775"><span>The Classification of Hysteria and Related Disorders: Historical and <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> Considerations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>North, Carol S.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This article examines the history of the conceptualization of dissociative, conversion, and somatoform syndromes in relation to one another, chronicles efforts to classify these and other <span class="hlt">phenomenologically</span>-related psychopathology in the American diagnostic system for mental disorders, and traces the subsequent divergence in opinions of dissenting sectors on classification of these disorders. This article then considers the extensive <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> overlap across these disorders in empirical research, and from this foundation presents a new model for the conceptualization of these disorders. The classification of disorders formerly known as hysteria and <span class="hlt">phenomenologically</span>-related syndromes has long been contentious and unsettled. Examination of the long history of the conceptual difficulties, which remain inherent in existing classification schemes for these disorders, can help to address the continuing controversy. This review clarifies the need for a major conceptual revision of the current classification of these disorders. A new <span class="hlt">phenomenologically</span>-based classification scheme for these disorders is proposed that is more compatible with the agnostic and atheoretical <span class="hlt">approach</span> to diagnosis of mental disorders used by the current classification system. PMID:26561836</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22107674-stochastic-lagrangian-dynamics-charged-flows-regions-ionosphere','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22107674-stochastic-lagrangian-dynamics-charged-flows-regions-ionosphere"><span>Stochastic <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> dynamics for charged flows in the E-F regions of ionosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tang Wenbo; Mahalov, Alex</p> <p>2013-03-15</p> <p>We develop a three-dimensional numerical model for the E-F region ionosphere and study the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> dynamics for plasma flows in this region. Our interest rests on the charge-neutral interactions and the statistics associated with stochastic <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> motion. In particular, we examine the organizing mixing patterns for plasma flows due to polarized gravity wave excitations in the neutral field, using <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> coherent structures (LCS). LCS objectively depict the flow topology-the extracted attractors indicate generation of ionospheric density gradients, due to accumulation of plasma. Using <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> measures such as the finite-time Lyapunov exponents, we locate the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> skeletons for mixing in plasma,more » hence where charged fronts are expected to appear. With polarized neutral wind, we find that the corresponding plasma velocity is also polarized. Moreover, the polarized velocity alone, coupled with stochastic <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> motion, may give rise to polarized density fronts in plasma. Statistics of these trajectories indicate high level of non-Gaussianity. This includes clear signatures of variance, skewness, and kurtosis of displacements taking polarized structures aligned with the gravity waves, and being anisotropic.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED251752.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED251752.pdf"><span>Foundations of <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> Psychology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Aanstoos, Christopher M.</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span>, hermeneutics and experiential psychology form the backbone of an emerging paradigm within psychology known as human science. Human science's use of <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> provides a way to set aside the naturalistic presupposition and directly study the irreducible involvement of human existence within a meaningful world, as it is given in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26118209','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26118209"><span>[MENTORING IN NURSING, A <span class="hlt">PHENOMENOLOGICAL</span> <span class="hlt">APPROACH</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Osuna Torres, Blanca Herlinda; González Rendón, M C E Cristina</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The essay explains that mentoring, originally established to improve student trajectories, reflects a deeper improvement of the people involved in the process. The method used is the analysis of the mentoring experience from participant observation and <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> of lived processes. The results reveal that the early analysis of risk factors present in academics--socio-psychological, family and institutional matters, that may affect the student experience in its passage through the academic unit--, requires the intervention of a preventive nature and monitoring operating variables. In addition, tutoring is a teaching experience which is consolidated with the daily life from the human relationship established between the mentor and the mentee, from the position of the older adult and experience is a state meet demand related care. However, in the tutorial process face to face, usually with academic aspects, therefore, the teaching function is fulfilled but operated in particular. By helping to find meaning to knowledge not understood, this function is still performed if tutors pairs learn to know each other that occasionally is the mirror which reflects the own story. While they are recognizing the problems of the mentee, the mentor will exorcise his ghosts. Therefore, we argue that, although originally born tutoring to abate dropout rates, failure and increase retention and degree, over time, has become a process of improving people.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1000319.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1000319.pdf"><span>Memory, Reality, and Ethnography in a Colombian War Zone: Towards a Social <span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span> of Collective Remembrance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Haymes, Stephen Nathan</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This paper considers <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> as a philosophical framework from which to understand the moral experience of collective memory. As a philosophical <span class="hlt">approach</span> to human reality, <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> contributes insight into the connection between the experiential grounding of collective memory and the reality of the social world. The inspiration for…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NuPhB.889..650G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NuPhB.889..650G"><span>Dirac gauginos in low scale supersymmetry breaking</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goodsell, Mark D.; Tziveloglou, Pantelis</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>It has been claimed that Dirac gaugino masses are necessary for realistic models of low-scale supersymmetry breaking, and yet very little attention has been paid to the <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> of a light gravitino when gauginos have Dirac masses. We begin to address this deficit by investigating the couplings and <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> of the gravitino in the effective <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span>. We pay particular attention to the <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> of the scalar octets, where new decay channels open up. This leads us to propose a new simplified effective scenario including only light gluinos, sgluons and gravitinos, allowing the squarks to be heavy - with the possible exception of the third generation. Finally, we comment on the application of our results to Fake Split Supersymmetry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1986/4145/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1986/4145/report.pdf"><span>Users manual for a one-dimensional <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> transport model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Schoellhamer, D.H.; Jobson, H.E.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>A Users Manual for the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Transport Model (LTM) is presented. The LTM uses <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> calculations that are based on a reference frame moving with the river flow. The <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> reference frame eliminates the need to numerically solve the convective term of the convection-diffusion equation and provides significant numerical advantages over the more commonly used Eulerian reference frame. When properly applied, the LTM can simulate riverine transport and decay processes within the accuracy required by most water quality studies. The LTM is applicable to steady or unsteady one-dimensional unidirectional flows in fixed channels with tributary and lateral inflows. Application of the LTM is relatively simple and optional capabilities improve the model 's convenience. Appendices give file formats and three example LTM applications that include the incorporation of the QUAL II water quality model 's reaction kinetics into the LTM. (Author 's abstract)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=goethe&pg=2&id=EJ810534','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=goethe&pg=2&id=EJ810534"><span>Doing <span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span> in Science Education: A Research Review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>OStergaard, Edvin; Dahlin, Bo; Hugo, Aksel</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This article is a review of applications of <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span>, as a philosophy of knowledge and qualitative research <span class="hlt">approach</span>, to the field of science education (SE). The purpose is to give an overview of work that has been done as well as to assess it and discuss its possibilities of future development. We ask: what attempts for connecting…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DPPG10004R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DPPG10004R"><span>Applying Boundary Conditions Using a Time-Dependent <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> for Modeling Laser-Plasma Interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reyes, Jonathan; Shadwick, B. A.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Modeling the evolution of a short, intense laser pulse propagating through an underdense plasma is of particular interest in the physics of laser-plasma interactions. Numerical models are typically created by first discretizing the equations of motion and then imposing boundary conditions. Using the variational principle of Chen and Sudan, we spatially discretize the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> density to obtain discrete equations of motion and a discrete energy conservation law which is exactly satisfied regardless of the spatial grid resolution. Modifying the derived equations of motion (e.g., enforcing boundary conditions) generally ruins energy conservation. However, time-dependent terms can be added to the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> which force the equations of motion to have the desired boundary conditions. Although some foresight is needed to choose these time-dependent terms, this <span class="hlt">approach</span> provides a mechanism for energy to exit the closed system while allowing the conservation law to account for the loss. An appropriate time discretization scheme is selected based on stability analysis and resolution requirements. We present results using this variational <span class="hlt">approach</span> in a co-moving coordinate system and compare such results to those using traditional second-order methods. This work was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-SC0008382 and by the National Science Foundation under Contract No. PHY- 1104683.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=teenager&pg=7&id=EJ1128418','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=teenager&pg=7&id=EJ1128418"><span>Challenging Normative Assumptions Regarding Disengaged Youth: A <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> Perspective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lewthwaite, Brian; Wilson, Kimberley; Wallace, Valda; McGinty, Sue; Swain, Luke</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>This paper explores the experiences of 12 young people, all teenagers, who have chosen to attend alternative schools known as flexible learning options within the Australian context. Using a <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span>, the study seeks to understand their experiences outside the normalised public discourse that they had "disengaged" from…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24176703','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24176703"><span>Evaluation of wastewater contaminant transport in surface waters using verified <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> sampling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Antweiler, Ronald C; Writer, Jeffrey H; Murphy, Sheila F</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Contaminants released from wastewater treatment plants can persist in surface waters for substantial distances. Much research has gone into evaluating the fate and transport of these contaminants, but this work has often assumed constant flow from wastewater treatment plants. However, effluent discharge commonly varies widely over a 24-hour period, and this variation controls contaminant loading and can profoundly influence interpretations of environmental data. We show that methodologies relying on the normalization of downstream data to conservative elements can give spurious results, and should not be used unless it can be verified that the same parcel of water was sampled. <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> sampling, which in theory samples the same water parcel as it moves downstream (the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> parcel), links hydrologic and chemical transformation processes so that the in-stream fate of wastewater contaminants can be quantitatively evaluated. However, precise <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> sampling is difficult, and small deviations - such as missing the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> parcel by less than 1h - can cause large differences in measured concentrations of all dissolved compounds at downstream sites, leading to erroneous conclusions regarding in-stream processes controlling the fate and transport of wastewater contaminants. Therefore, we have developed a method termed "verified <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>" sampling, which can be used to determine if the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> parcel was actually sampled, and if it was not, a means for correcting the data to reflect the concentrations which would have been obtained had the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> parcel been sampled. To apply the method, it is necessary to have concentration data for a number of conservative constituents from the upstream, effluent, and downstream sites, along with upstream and effluent concentrations that are constant over the short-term (typically 2-4h). These corrections can subsequently be applied to all data, including non-conservative constituents. Finally, we show how data</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28618545','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28618545"><span>Mean-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> formalism and covariance of fluid turbulence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ariki, Taketo</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Mean-field-based <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> framework is developed for the fluid turbulence theory, which enables physically objective discussions, especially, of the history effect. Mean flow serves as a purely geometrical object of Lie group theory, providing useful operations to measure the objective rate and history integration of the general tensor field. The proposed framework is applied, on the one hand, to one-point closure model, yielding an objective expression of the turbulence viscoelastic effect. Application to two-point closure, on the other hand, is also discussed, where natural extension of known <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> correlation is discovered on the basis of an extended covariance group.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910035662&hterms=Lagrangian&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DLagrangian','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910035662&hterms=Lagrangian&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DLagrangian"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> and Eulerian statistics obtained from direct numerical simulations of homogeneous turbulence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Squires, Kyle D.; Eaton, John K.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Direct numerical simulation is used to study dispersion in decaying isotropic turbulence and homogeneous shear flow. Both <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> and Eulerian data are presented allowing direct comparison, but at fairly low Reynolds number. The quantities presented include properties of the dispersion tensor, isoprobability contours of particle displacement, <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> and Eulerian velocity autocorrelations and time scale ratios, and the eddy diffusivity tensor. The <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> time microscale is found to be consistently larger than the Eulerian microscale, presumably due to the advection of the small scales by the large scales in the Eulerian reference frame.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhLB..742...80H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhLB..742...80H"><span>Effective interaction of electroweak-interacting dark matter with Higgs boson and its <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hisano, Junji; Kobayashi, Daiki; Mori, Naoya; Senaha, Eibun</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>We study <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> of electroweak-interacting fermionic dark matter (DM) with a mass of O (100) GeV. Constructing the effective <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> that describes the interactions between the Higgs boson and the SU (2)L isospin multiplet fermion, we evaluate the electric dipole moment (EDM) of electron, the signal strength of Higgs boson decay to two photons and the spin-independent elastic-scattering cross section with proton. As representative cases, we consider the SU (2)L triplet fermions with zero/nonzero hypercharges and SU (2)L doublet fermion. It is found that the electron EDM gives stringent constraints on those model parameter spaces. In the cases of the triplet fermion with zero hypercharge and the doublet fermion, the Higgs signal strength does not deviate from the standard model prediction by more than a few % once the current DM direct detection constraint is taken into account, even if the CP violation is suppressed. On the contrary, O (10- 20)% deviation may occur in the case of the triplet fermion with nonzero hypercharge. Our representative scenarios may be tested by the future experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7773528','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7773528"><span>Listening to the voices of older patients: an existential-<span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> to quality assurance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Koch, T; Webb, C; Williams, A M</p> <p>1995-05-01</p> <p>The motivation behind this study was a desire to gain access to the experiences of elderly people receiving nursing care in hospital. Previous experience with quantitative <span class="hlt">approaches</span> to quality assurance had led to dissatisfaction with their neglect of the patient perspective or reliance on patient satisfaction questionnaires. An existential-<span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> was used in an attempt to reconstruct patients' experiences as reported in their own words. Themes which emerged from the data and are reported here focus on 'routine geriatric care', 'care deprivation', 'depersonalization', and 'geriatric segregation'. The findings are discussed against the background of literature about nursing care of elderly people. It is suggested that in the setting studied, limitations posed by past management deficiencies, under-staffing and poor physical environment contributed to the situation reported. Trained nurses felt they worked hard to give the best care they could but, with a high ratio of untrained staff and lack of continuing education, they were aware that their levels of achievement were far from ideal. The study demonstrates that, with an appropriate methodology, it is possible to gain access to how patients' experience their care and in this sense the attempt to 'listen to the voices of patients' was successful and gives pointers to developing more patient-sensitive quality-assurance processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IJGMM..1450017F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IJGMM..1450017F"><span>Relativistic thermodynamics, a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> field theory for general flows including rotation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Frønsdal, Christian</p> <p></p> <p>Any theory that is based on an action principle has a much greater predictive power than one that does not have such a formulation. The formulation of a dynamical theory of General Relativity, including matter, is here viewed as a problem of coupling Einstein’s theory of pure gravity to an independently chosen and well-defined field theory of matter. It is well known that this is accomplished in a most natural way when both theories are formulated as relativistic, <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> field theories, as is the case with Einstein-Maxwell theory. Special matter models of this type have been available; here a more general thermodynamical model that allows for vortex flows is presented. In a wider context, the problem of subjecting hydrodynamics and thermodynamics to an action principle is one that has been pursued for at least 150 years. A solution to this problem has been known for some time, but only under the strong restriction to potential flows. A variational principle for general flows has become available. It represents a development of the Navier-Stokes-Fourier <span class="hlt">approach</span> to fluid dynamics. The principal innovation is the recognition that two kinds of flow velocity fields are needed, one the gradient of a scalar field and the other the time derivative of a vector field, the latter closely associated with vorticity. In the relativistic theory that is presented here, the latter is the Hodge dual of an exact 3-form, well known as the notoph field of Ogievetskij and Palubarinov, the B-field of Kalb and Ramond and the vorticity field of Lund and Regge. The total number of degrees of freedom of a unary system, including the density and the two velocity fields is 4, as expected — as in classical hydrodynamics. In this paper, we do not reduce Einstein’s dynamical equation for the metric to <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span>, which would have denied the relevance of any intrinsic dynamics for the matter sector, nor do we abandon the equation of continuity - the very soul of hydrodynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28793814','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28793814"><span>Being Mindful as a <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> Attitude.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gustin, Lena Wiklund</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>The purpose of this article is to reflect on being mindful as a <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> attitude rather than on describing mindfulness as a therapeutic intervention. I will also explore the possibilities that being mindful might open up in relation to nursing research and holistic nursing. I will describe and interpret mindfulness as a state of being by means of van Manen's <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> method, using the language of <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> rather than the language of reductionist science. Thus, this article can be considered a reflective narrative, describing both the process of orienting to the phenomenon, making preunderstandings-including own experiences of mindfulness-visible, and a thematic analysis of nine scientific articles describing the phenomenon. Being mindful as a <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> attitude can be described as a deliberate intentionality, where the person is present in the moment and open to what is going on, bridling personal values and accepting the unfamiliar, thus achieving a sense of being peacefully situated in the world, and able to apprehend one's being-in-the-world. Being mindful as a <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> attitude can contribute not only to <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> nursing research but also support nurses' presence and awareness.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSPO41B..05A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSPO41B..05A"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> clustering detection of internal wave boluses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Allshouse, M.; Salvador Vieira, G.; Swinney, H. L.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The shoaling of internal waves on a continental slope or shelf produces boluses that travel up the slope with the wave. The boluses are regions of trapped fluid that are transported along with the wave, unlike fluid in the bulk that is temporarily pertubed by a passing wave. Boluses have been observed to transport oxygen-depleted water and induce rapid changes in temperature (Walter et al, JGR, 2012), both of which have potential ramifications for marine biology. Several previous studies have investigated boluses in systems with two layers of different density (e.g., Helfrich, JFM, 1992, and Sutherland et al., JGR, 2013). We conduct laboratory and computational studies of bolus generation and material transport in continuously stratified fluids with a pycnocline, as in the oceans. Our laboratory experiments in a 4 m long tank are complemented by 2-dimensional direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations. Efforts have been made to identify boluses with Eularian measures in the past, but a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> perspective is necessary to objectively identify the bolus over its lifespan. Here we use a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> based coherent structure method relying on trajectory clustering using the fuzzy c-means <span class="hlt">approach</span> (Froyland and Padberg-Gehle, Chaos, 2015). The objective detection of a bolus enables examination of the volume, distance traveled, and increased available potential energy of a bolus, as a function of the stratification, wave properties, and the angle of the sloping topography. The decay of a bolus through turbulent mixing is investigated by locating where the Richardson number drops below ¼, where velocity shear overcomes the tendency of a stratified fluid to remain stratified. (supported by ONR MURI grant N000141110701)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24235888','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24235888"><span>Incomplete augmented <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> preconditioner for steady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tan, Ning-Bo; Huang, Ting-Zhu; Hu, Ze-Jun</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>An incomplete augmented <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> preconditioner, for the steady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations discretized by stable finite elements, is proposed. The eigenvalues of the preconditioned matrix are analyzed. Numerical experiments show that the incomplete augmented <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>-based preconditioner proposed is very robust and performs quite well by the Picard linearization or the Newton linearization over a wide range of values of the viscosity on both uniform and stretched grids.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3819930','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3819930"><span>Incomplete Augmented <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Preconditioner for Steady Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tan, Ning-Bo; Huang, Ting-Zhu; Hu, Ze-Jun</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>An incomplete augmented <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> preconditioner, for the steady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations discretized by stable finite elements, is proposed. The eigenvalues of the preconditioned matrix are analyzed. Numerical experiments show that the incomplete augmented <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>-based preconditioner proposed is very robust and performs quite well by the Picard linearization or the Newton linearization over a wide range of values of the viscosity on both uniform and stretched grids. PMID:24235888</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1986/4144/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1986/4144/report.pdf"><span>Programmers manual for a one-dimensional <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> transport model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Schoellhamer, D.H.; Jobson, H.E.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>A one-dimensional <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> transport model for simulating water-quality constituents such as temperature, dissolved oxygen , and suspended sediment in rivers is presented in this Programmers Manual. <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> transport modeling techniques, the model 's subroutines, and the user-written decay-coefficient subroutine are discussed in detail. Appendices list the program codes. The Programmers Manual is intended for the model user who needs to modify code either to adapt the model to a particular need or to use reaction kinetics not provided with the model. (Author 's abstract)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5862380','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5862380"><span>Dimensions of <span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span> in Exploring Patient’s Suffering in Long-Life Illnesses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Al Kalaldeh, Mahmoud; Shosha, Ghada Abu; Saiah, Najah; Salameh, Omar</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Background: Patients’ suffering has been increasingly investigated by health-care researchers especially in the chronically ill. Suffering is viewed as a progressive negative consequence that associated with pain, impaired self-esteem, and social alienation. This qualitative evidence synthesis aimed to provide further insights into the application of <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> in explaining suffering among patients with chronic illnesses. Methods: Studies included in this qualitative evidence synthesis study were retrieved by searching from the following electronic databases: CINAHL, PubMed Central, and EBSCO. Findings: <span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span> is regarded as influential to generate in-depth evidence about suffering that are grounded in chronically ill patients’ perspectives. The philosophical constructs of suffering suggested fundamental dimensions such as stress, distress, hopelessness, and depression along with pain. Evidence encompasses the entire manifestation of suffering in which all interrelated meanings are understood and referred to a unique structure. Hermeneutic <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> was adopted as an effective strategy to elucidate human experience leading to the discovery of the embedded meanings of life experience. Conclusion: The <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> provides nursing research with the pathway to explore patients’ suffering experiences in the chronically ill. PMID:29582010</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=defining+AND+essence&pg=2&id=EJ930292','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=defining+AND+essence&pg=2&id=EJ930292"><span>Defining Campus Violence: A <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> Analysis of Community Stakeholder Perspectives</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mayhew, Matthew J.; Caldwell, Rebecca J.; Goldman, Emily Grey</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to derive an empirically based understanding of campus violence. Grounded in a communication paradigm offered by sociolinguistic scholars, we adopted a <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> for conducting and analyzing 23 interviews from campus community stakeholders, including students, staff, faculty, administrators, and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980IJTP...19..405C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980IJTP...19..405C"><span>Lorentz Invariance of Gravitational <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span> in the Space of Reference Frames</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cognola, G.</p> <p>1980-06-01</p> <p>The recently proposed theories of gravitation in the space of reference frames S are based on a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> invariant with respect to the homogeneous Lorentz group. However, in theories of this kind, the Lorentz invariance is not a necessary consequence of some physical principles, as in the theories formulated in space-time, but rather a purely esthetic request. In the present paper, we give a systematic method for the construction of gravitational theories in the space S, without assuming a priori the Lorentz invariance of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>. The Einstein-Cartan equations of gravitation are obtained requiring only that the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> is invariant under proper rotations and has particular transformation properties under space reflections and space-time dilatations</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26778728','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26778728"><span>Deconstructing field-induced ketene isomerization through <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> descriptors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Craven, Galen T; Hernandez, Rigoberto</p> <p>2016-02-07</p> <p>The time-dependent geometrical separatrices governing state transitions in field-induced ketene isomerization are constructed using the method of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> descriptors. We obtain the stable and unstable manifolds of time-varying transition states as dynamic phase space objects governing configurational changes when the ketene molecule is subjected to an oscillating electric field. The dynamics of the isomerization reaction are modeled through classical trajectory studies on the Gezelter-Miller potential energy surface and an approximate dipole moment model which is coupled to a time-dependent electric field. We obtain a representation of the reaction geometry, over varying field strengths and oscillation frequencies, by partitioning an initial phase space into basins labeled according to which product state is reached at a given time. The borders between these basins are in agreement with those obtained using <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> descriptors, even in regimes exhibiting chaotic dynamics. Major outcomes of this work are: validation and extension of a transition state theory framework built from <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> descriptors, elaboration of the applicability for this theory to periodically- and aperiodically-driven molecular systems, and prediction of regimes in which isomerization of ketene and its derivatives may be controlled using an external field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014DSRI...90...27P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014DSRI...90...27P"><span>Identifying <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> fronts with favourable fishery conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Prants, S. V.; Budyansky, M. V.; Uleysky, M. Yu.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> fronts (LFs) in the ocean are defined as boundaries between surface waters with strongly different <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> properties. They can be accurately detected in a given velocity field by computing synoptic maps for displacements of synthetic tracers and other <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> indicators. We use Pacific saury catch and location data for a number of commercial fishery seasons in the region of the northwest Pacific with one of the richest fishery in the world. It is shown statistically that the saury fishing grounds with maximal catches are not randomly distributed over the region but located mainly along the sharp LFs where productive cold waters of the Oyashio Current, warmer waters of the southern branch of the Soya Current, and waters of warm-core Kuroshio rings converge. Computation of those fronts in altimetric geostrophic velocity fields both in the years with the First and Second Oyashio Intrusions shows that in spite of different oceanographic conditions LF locations may serve as good indicators of potential fishing grounds. Possible biophysical reasons for saury aggregation near sharp LFs are discussed. We propose a mechanism for effective export of nutrient rich waters based on stretching of material lines in the vicinity of hyperbolic objects in the ocean. The developed method, based on identifying LFs in any velocity fields, is quite general and may be applied to find potential fishing grounds for the other pelagic fish.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985PhRvD..31.3104A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985PhRvD..31.3104A"><span>Spinor matter fields in SL(2,C) gauge theories of gravity: <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> and Hamiltonian <span class="hlt">approaches</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Antonowicz, Marek; Szczyrba, Wiktor</p> <p>1985-06-01</p> <p>We consider the SL(2,C)-covariant <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> formulation of gravitational theories with the presence of spinor matter fields. The invariance properties of such theories give rise to the conservation laws (the contracted Bianchi identities) having in the presence of matter fields a more complicated form than those known in the literature previously. A general SL(2,C) gauge theory of gravity is cast into an SL(2,C)-covariant Hamiltonian formulation. Breaking the SL(2,C) symmetry of the system to the SU(2) symmetry, by introducing a spacelike slicing of spacetime, we get an SU(2)-covariant Hamiltonian picture. The qualitative analysis of SL(2,C) gauge theories of gravity in the SU(2)-covariant formulation enables us to define the dynamical symplectic variables and the gauge variables of the theory under consideration as well as to divide the set of field equations into the dynamical equations and the constraints. In the SU(2)-covariant Hamiltonian formulation the primary constraints, which are generic for first-order matter <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span> (Dirac, Weyl, Fierz-Pauli), can be reduced. The effective matter symplectic variables are given by SU(2)-spinor-valued half-forms on three-dimensional slices of spacetime. The coupled Einstein-Cartan-Dirac (Weyl, Fierz-Pauli) system is analyzed from the (3+1) point of view. This analysis is complete; the field equations of the Einstein-Cartan-Dirac theory split into 18 gravitational dynamical equations, 8 dynamical Dirac equations, and 7 first-class constraints. The system has 4+8=12 independent degrees of freedom in the phase space.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950005164','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950005164"><span>A coupled Eulerian/<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> method for the solution of three-dimensional vortical flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Felici, Helene Marie</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>A coupled Eulerian/<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> method is presented for the reduction of numerical diffusion observed in solutions of three-dimensional rotational flows using standard Eulerian finite-volume time-marching procedures. A <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particle tracking method using particle markers is added to the Eulerian time-marching procedure and provides a correction of the Eulerian solution. In turn, the Eulerian solutions is used to integrate the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> state-vector along the particles trajectories. The <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> correction technique does not require any a-priori information on the structure or position of the vortical regions. While the Eulerian solution ensures the conservation of mass and sets the pressure field, the particle markers, used as 'accuracy boosters,' take advantage of the accurate convection description of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> solution and enhance the vorticity and entropy capturing capabilities of standard Eulerian finite-volume methods. The combined solution procedures is tested in several applications. The convection of a Lamb vortex in a straight channel is used as an unsteady compressible flow preservation test case. The other test cases concern steady incompressible flow calculations and include the preservation of turbulent inlet velocity profile, the swirling flow in a pipe, and the constant stagnation pressure flow and secondary flow calculations in bends. The last application deals with the external flow past a wing with emphasis on the trailing vortex solution. The improvement due to the addition of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> correction technique is measured by comparison with analytical solutions when available or with Eulerian solutions on finer grids. The use of the combined Eulerian/<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> scheme results in substantially lower grid resolution requirements than the standard Eulerian scheme for a given solution accuracy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991umas.rept.....O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991umas.rept.....O"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> turbulence: Structures and mixing in admissible model flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ottino, Julio M.</p> <p>1991-12-01</p> <p>The goal of our research was to bridge the gap between modern ideas from dynamical systems and chaos and more traditional <span class="hlt">approaches</span> to turbulence. In order to reach this objective we conducted theoretical and computational work on two systems: (1) a perturbed-Kelvin cat eyes flow, and (2) prototype solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations near solid walls. The main results obtained are two-fold: we have been able to produce flows capable of producing complex distributions of vorticity, and we have been able to construct flowfields, based on solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations, which are capable of displaying both Eulerian and <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> turbulence. These results exemplify typical mechanisms of mixing enhancement in transitional flows.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARV39011R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARV39011R"><span>Inferring <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> models of Markov processes from data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rivera, Catalina; Nemenman, Ilya</p> <p></p> <p>Microscopically accurate modeling of stochastic dynamics of biochemical networks is hard due to the extremely high dimensionality of the state space of such networks. Here we propose an algorithm for inference of <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span>, coarse-grained models of Markov processes describing the network dynamics directly from data, without the intermediate step of microscopically accurate modeling. The <span class="hlt">approach</span> relies on the linear nature of the Chemical Master Equation and uses Bayesian Model Selection for identification of parsimonious models that fit the data. When applied to synthetic data from the Kinetic Proofreading process (KPR), a common mechanism used by cells for increasing specificity of molecular assembly, the algorithm successfully uncovers the known coarse-grained description of the process. This <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> description has been notice previously, but this time it is derived in an automated manner by the algorithm. James S. McDonnell Foundation Grant No. 220020321.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CPM.....4..321N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CPM.....4..321N"><span>Seakeeping with the semi-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particle finite element method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nadukandi, Prashanth; Servan-Camas, Borja; Becker, Pablo Agustín; Garcia-Espinosa, Julio</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>The application of the semi-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particle finite element method (SL-PFEM) for the seakeeping simulation of the wave adaptive modular vehicle under spray generating conditions is presented. The time integration of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> advection is done using the explicit integration of the velocity and acceleration along the streamlines (X-IVAS). Despite the suitability of the SL-PFEM for the considered seakeeping application, small time steps were needed in the X-IVAS scheme to control the solution accuracy. A preliminary proposal to overcome this limitation of the X-IVAS scheme for seakeeping simulations is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28041621','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28041621"><span>A new method to calibrate <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> model with ASAR images for oil slick trajectory.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tian, Siyu; Huang, Xiaoxia; Li, Hongga</p> <p>2017-03-15</p> <p>Since <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> model coefficients vary with different conditions, it is necessary to calibrate the model to obtain optimal coefficient combination for special oil spill accident. This paper focuses on proposing a new method to calibrate <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> model with time series of Envisat ASAR images. Oil slicks extracted from time series images form a detected trajectory of special oil slick. <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> model is calibrated by minimizing the difference between simulated trajectory and detected trajectory. mean center position distance difference (MCPD) and rotation difference (RD) of Oil slicks' or particles' standard deviational ellipses (SDEs) are calculated as two evaluations. The two parameters are taken to evaluate the performance of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> transport model with different coefficient combinations. This method is applied to Penglai 19-3 oil spill accident. The simulation result with calibrated model agrees well with related satellite observations. It is suggested the new method is effective to calibrate <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1434487-augmented-lagrangian-filter-method-real-time-embedded-optimization','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1434487-augmented-lagrangian-filter-method-real-time-embedded-optimization"><span>An Augmented <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Filter Method for Real-Time Embedded Optimization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Chiang, Nai -Yuan; Huang, Rui; Zavala, Victor M.</p> <p>2017-04-17</p> <p>We present a filter line-search algorithm for nonconvex continuous optimization that combines an augmented <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> function and a constraint violation metric to accept and reject steps. The <span class="hlt">approach</span> is motivated by real-time optimization applications that need to be executed on embedded computing platforms with limited memory and processor speeds. The proposed method enables primal–dual regularization of the linear algebra system that in turn permits the use of solution strategies with lower computing overheads. We prove that the proposed algorithm is globally convergent and we demonstrate the developments using a nonconvex real-time optimization application for a building heating, ventilation, and airmore » conditioning system. Our numerical tests are performed on a standard processor and on an embedded platform. Lastly, we demonstrate that the <span class="hlt">approach</span> reduces solution times by a factor of over 1000.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1434487','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1434487"><span>An Augmented <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Filter Method for Real-Time Embedded Optimization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chiang, Nai -Yuan; Huang, Rui; Zavala, Victor M.</p> <p></p> <p>We present a filter line-search algorithm for nonconvex continuous optimization that combines an augmented <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> function and a constraint violation metric to accept and reject steps. The <span class="hlt">approach</span> is motivated by real-time optimization applications that need to be executed on embedded computing platforms with limited memory and processor speeds. The proposed method enables primal–dual regularization of the linear algebra system that in turn permits the use of solution strategies with lower computing overheads. We prove that the proposed algorithm is globally convergent and we demonstrate the developments using a nonconvex real-time optimization application for a building heating, ventilation, and airmore » conditioning system. Our numerical tests are performed on a standard processor and on an embedded platform. Lastly, we demonstrate that the <span class="hlt">approach</span> reduces solution times by a factor of over 1000.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017APS..DFDD33003C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017APS..DFDD33003C"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> transport in a class of three-dimensional buoyancy-driven flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Contreras, Sebastian; Speetjens, Michel; Clercx, Herman</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>The study concerns the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> dynamics of three-dimensional (3D) buoyancy-driven cavity flows under steady and laminar conditions due to a global temperature gradient imposed via an opposite hot and cold sidewall. This serves as archetypal configuration for natural-convection flows in which gravity is perpendicular to the global temperature gradient. Limited insight into the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> properties of this class of flows motivates this study. The 3D <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> dynamics are investigated in terms of the generic structure of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> flow topology that is described in terms of the Grashof number (Gr) and the Prandtl number (Pr). Gr is the principal control parameter for the flow topology: vanishing Gr yields a state of closed streamlines (integrable state); increasing Gr causes the formation of toroidal coherent structures embedded in chaotic streamlines governed by Hamiltonian mechanisms. Fluid inertia prevails for ``smaller'' Gr. A buoyancy-induced bifurcation of the flow topology occurs for ``larger'' Gr and underlies the emergence of ``secondary rolls'' and secondary tori for ``larger'' Pr. Stagnation points and corresponding manifold interactions are key to the dynamics. S.C. acknowledges financial support from Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15154197','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15154197"><span>Toward a <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> of trance logic in posttraumatic stress disorder.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Beshai, J A</p> <p>2004-04-01</p> <p>Some induction procedures result in trance logic as an essential feature of hypnosis. Trance logic is a voluntary state of acceptance of suggestions without the critical evaluation that would destroy the validity of the meaningfulness of the suggestion. Induction procedures in real and simulated conditions induce a conflict between two contradictory messages in experimental hypnosis. In military induction the conflict is much more subtle involving society's need for security and its need for ethics. Such conflicts are often construed by the subject as trance logic. Trance logic provides an opportunity for therapists using the <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> of "presence" to deal with the objectified concepts of "avoidance," "numbing" implicit in this kind of dysfunctional thinking in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. An individual <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> of induction procedures and suggestions, which trigger trance logic, may lead to a resolution of logical fallacies and recurring painful memories. It invites a reconciliation of conflicting messages implicit in phobias and avoidance traumas. Such a <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> analysis of trance logic may well be a novel <span class="hlt">approach</span> to restructure the meaning of trauma.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=moral+AND+enhancement&pg=2&id=EJ735198','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=moral+AND+enhancement&pg=2&id=EJ735198"><span><span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span> Depends on Human Nature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Reber, Rolf</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>This paper comments on the article "Psychology and <span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span>: A Clarification" by H. H. Kendler. Kendler contrasted objective phenomena going on in the mind with <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> convictions. He concluded, on the basis of a thoughtful analysis, that scientific psychology cannot validate moral principles, which have to be agreed upon by…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989umas.reptQ....O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989umas.reptQ....O"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> turbulence near walls: Structures and mixing in admissible model flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ottino, J. M.</p> <p>1989-05-01</p> <p>The general objective of work during this period was to bridge the gap between modern ideas from dynamical systems and chaos and more traditional <span class="hlt">approaches</span> to turbulence. In order to reach this objective we conducted theoretical and computational work on two systems: a perturbed Kelvin cat eyes flow, and prototype solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations near solid walls. The main results obtained are two-fold: production flows capable of producing complex distributions of vorticity, and constructed flow fields, based on solutions of the Navier Stokes equations, which are capable of displaying both Eulerian and <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> turbulence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20552844','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20552844"><span>[Dealing with the <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> interview with prostitutes: experience report].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moreira, Isabel Cristina Cavalcante Carvalho; Monteiro, Claudete Ferreira de Souza</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This article aims at describing our experience in obtaining statements using the <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> interview. Eleven prostitutes were interviewed in Teresina, PI. Along this journey we have had several remarkable moments such as: the strategy of <span class="hlt">approaching</span> the interviewee, the site of the interviews and the own emotional narration of the prostitutes. This process has showed us that one needs to be familiar and empathic with the research subjects. We have also learned that there is not a specific formula of conducting the interview, but it is the role of the researcher to identify the difficulties and propose strategies to obtain the statements. Thus, the empathic relationship that we have experienced in obtaining the statements from these women through the <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> interview was essential to understand the contact with violence throughout the prostitution daily life.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950063861&hterms=sing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dsing','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950063861&hterms=sing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dsing"><span>An extended <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> method for subsonic flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Liou, Meng-Sing; Loh, Ching Y.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>It is well known that fluid motion can be specified by either the Eulerian of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> description. Most of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) developments over the last three decades have been based on the Eulerian description and considerable progress has been made. In particular, the upwind methods, inspired and guided by the work of Gudonov, have met with many successes in dealing with complex flows, especially where discontinuities exist. However, this shock capturing property has proven to be accurate only when the discontinuity is aligned with one of the grid lines since most upwind methods are strictly formulated in 1-D framework and only formally extended to multi-dimensions. Consequently, the attractive property of crisp resolution of these discontinuities is lost and research on genuine multi-dimensional <span class="hlt">approach</span> has just been undertaken by several leading researchers. Nevertheless they are still based on the Eulerian description.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhRvD..73a3008M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhRvD..73a3008M"><span>Broken flavor 2↔3 symmetry and <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> for universal quark and lepton mass matrices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Matsuda, Koichi; Nishiura, Hiroyuki</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> for the universal mass matrix model with a broken flavor 2↔3 symmetry is explored by introducing the 2↔3 antisymmetric parts of mass matrices for quarks and charged leptons. We present explicit texture components of the mass matrices, which are consistent with all the neutrino oscillation experiments and quark mixing data. The mass matrices have a common structure for quarks and leptons, while the large lepton mixings and the small quark mixings are derived with no fine-tuning due to the difference of the phase factors. The model predicts a value 2.4×10-3 for the lepton mixing matrix element square |U13|2, and also ⟨mν⟩=(0.89-1.4)×10-4eV for the averaged neutrino mass which appears in the neutrinoless double beta decay.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015WRR....51.1916W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015WRR....51.1916W"><span>Variational <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> data assimilation in open channel networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Qingfang; Tinka, Andrew; Weekly, Kevin; Beard, Jonathan; Bayen, Alexandre M.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>This article presents a data assimilation method in a tidal system, where data from both <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> drifters and Eulerian flow sensors were fused to estimate water velocity. The system is modeled by first-order, hyperbolic partial differential equations subject to periodic forcing. The estimation problem can then be formulated as the minimization of the difference between the observed variables and model outputs, and eventually provide the velocity and water stage of the hydrodynamic system. The governing equations are linearized and discretized using an implicit discretization scheme, resulting in linear equality constraints in the optimization program. Thus, the flow estimation can be formed as an optimization problem and efficiently solved. The effectiveness of the proposed method was substantiated by a large-scale field experiment in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta in California. A fleet of 100 sensors developed at the University of California, Berkeley, were deployed in Walnut Grove, CA, to collect a set of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> data, a time series of positions as the sensors moved through the water. Measurements were also taken from Eulerian sensors in the region, provided by the United States Geological Survey. It is shown that the proposed method can effectively integrate <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> and Eulerian measurement data, resulting in a suited estimation of the flow variables within the hydraulic system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DFDD17004D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DFDD17004D"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> analysis of premixed turbulent combustion in hydrogen-air flames</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Darragh, Ryan; Poludnenko, Alexei; Hamlington, Peter</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> analysis has long been a tool used to analyze non-reacting turbulent flows, and has recently gained attention in the reacting flow and combustion communities. The <span class="hlt">approach</span> itself allows one to separate local molecular effects, such as those due to reactions or diffusion, from turbulent advective effects along fluid pathlines, or trajectories. Accurate calculation of these trajectories can, however, be rather difficult due to the chaotic nature of turbulent flows and the added complexity of reactions. In order to determine resolution requirements and verify the numerical algorithm, extensive tests are described in this talk for prescribed steady, unsteady, and chaotic flows, as well as for direct numerical simulations (DNS) of non-reacting homogeneous isotropic turbulence. The <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> analysis is then applied to DNS of premixed hydrogen-air flames at two different turbulence intensities for both single- and multi-step chemical mechanisms. Non-monotonic temperature and fuel-mass fraction evolutions are found to exist along trajectories passing through the flame brush. Such non-monotonicity is shown to be due to molecular diffusion resulting from large spatial gradients created by turbulent advection. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) under Award No. FA9550-14-1-0273, and the Department of Defense (DoD) High Performance Computing Modernization Program (HPCMP) under a Frontier project award.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=multi+AND+location&pg=4&id=ED579731','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=multi+AND+location&pg=4&id=ED579731"><span>Teacher Experiences in Elementary Word Study Instruction: A <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mihalik, Gregory Stephen</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> study was to describe the experience of integrating word study spelling programs for second grade teachers across six elementary schools in Northern Virginia. Word study is a developmental spelling <span class="hlt">approach</span> that can be used by teachers to differentiate instruction and meet student needs. Despite the growing…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900036170&hterms=ito&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dito','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900036170&hterms=ito&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dito"><span>The augmented <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> method for parameter estimation in elliptic systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ito, Kazufumi; Kunisch, Karl</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>In this paper a new technique for the estimation of parameters in elliptic partial differential equations is developed. It is a hybrid method combining the output-least-squares and the equation error method. The new method is realized by an augmented <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> formulation, and convergence as well as rate of convergence proofs are provided. Technically the critical step is the verification of a coercivity estimate of an appropriately defined <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> functional. To obtain this coercivity estimate a seminorm regularization technique is used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22280229-palatini-actions-quantum-gravity-phenomenology','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22280229-palatini-actions-quantum-gravity-phenomenology"><span>Palatini actions and quantum gravity <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Olmo, Gonzalo J., E-mail: gonzalo.olmo@csic.es</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>We show that an invariant an universal length scale can be consistently introduced in a generally covariant theory through the gravitational sector using the Palatini <span class="hlt">approach</span>. The resulting theory is able to capture different aspects of quantum gravity <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> in a single framework. In particular, it is found that in this theory field excitations propagating with different energy-densities perceive different background metrics, which is a fundamental characteristic of the DSR and Rainbow Gravity <span class="hlt">approaches</span>. We illustrate these properties with a particular gravitational model and explicitly show how the soccer ball problem is avoided in this framework. The isotropic and anisotropicmore » cosmologies of this model also avoid the big bang singularity by means of a big bounce.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70189679','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70189679"><span>Evaluation of wastewater contaminant transport in surface waters using verified <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> sampling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Antweiler, Ronald C.; Writer, Jeffrey H.; Murphy, Sheila F.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Contaminants released from wastewater treatment plants can persist in surface waters for substantial distances. Much research has gone into evaluating the fate and transport of these contaminants, but this work has often assumed constant flow from wastewater treatment plants. However, effluent discharge commonly varies widely over a 24-hour period, and this variation controls contaminant loading and can profoundly influence interpretations of environmental data. We show that methodologies relying on the normalization of downstream data to conservative elements can give spurious results, and should not be used unless it can be verified that the same parcel of water was sampled. <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> sampling, which in theory samples the same water parcel as it moves downstream (the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> parcel), links hydrologic and chemical transformation processes so that the in-stream fate of wastewater contaminants can be quantitatively evaluated. However, precise <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> sampling is difficult, and small deviations – such as missing the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> parcel by less than 1 h – can cause large differences in measured concentrations of all dissolved compounds at downstream sites, leading to erroneous conclusions regarding in-stream processes controlling the fate and transport of wastewater contaminants. Therefore, we have developed a method termed “verified Lagrangian” sampling, which can be used to determine if the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> parcel was actually sampled, and if it was not, a means for correcting the data to reflect the concentrations which would have been obtained had the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> parcel been sampled. To apply the method, it is necessary to have concentration data for a number of conservative constituents from the upstream, effluent, and downstream sites, along with upstream and effluent concentrations that are constant over the short-term (typically 2–4 h). These corrections can subsequently be applied to all data, including non-conservative constituents. Finally, we</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Lagrangian&id=EJ206977','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Lagrangian&id=EJ206977"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span> and Systems They Describe-How Not to Treat Dissipation in Quantum Mechanics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ray, John R.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The author argues that a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> that yields equations of motion for a damped simple harmonic oscillator does not describe this system, but a completely different physical system, and constructs a physical system that the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> describes and derives some of its properties. (Author/GA)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhDT.......192W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhDT.......192W"><span>Dynamics of Multibody Systems Near <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Points</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wong, Brian</p> <p></p> <p>This thesis examines the dynamics of a physically connected multi-spacecraft system in the vicinity of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> points of a Circular Restricted Three-Body System. The spacecraft system is arranged in a wheel-spoke configuration with smaller and less massive satellites connected to a central hub using truss/beams or tether connectors. The kinematics of the system is first defined, and the kinetic, gravitational potential energy and elastic potential energy of the system are derived. The Assumed Modes Method is used to discretize the continuous variables of the system, and a general set of ordinary differential equations describing the dynamics of the connectors and the central hub are obtained using the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> method. The flexible body dynamics of the tethered and truss connected systems are examined using numerical simulations. The results show that these systems experienced only small elastic deflections when they are naturally librating or rotating at moderate angular velocities, and these deflections have relatively small effect on the attitude dynamics of the systems. Based on these results, it is determined that the connectors can be modeled as rigid when only the attitude dynamics of the system is of interest. The equations of motion of rigid satellites stationed at the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> points are linearized, and the stability conditions of the satellite are obtained from the linear equations. The required conditions are shown to be similar to those of geocentric satellites. Study of the linear equations also revealed the resonant conditions of rigid <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> point satellites, when a librational natural frequency of the satellite matches the frequency of its station-keeping orbit leading to large attitude motions. For tethered satellites, the linear analysis shows that the tethers are in stable equilibrium when they lie along a line joining the two primary celestial bodies of the Three-Body System. Numerical simulations are used to study the long term</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840031013&hterms=averaged+lagrangian&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Daveraged%2Blagrangian','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840031013&hterms=averaged+lagrangian&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Daveraged%2Blagrangian"><span>Macroscopic <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> description of warm plasmas. II Nonlinear wave interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kim, H.; Crawford, F. W.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>A macroscopic <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> is simplified to the adiabatic limit and expanded about equilibrium, to third order in perturbation, for three illustrative cases: one-dimensional compression parallel to the static magnetic field, two-dimensional compression perpendicular to the static magnetic field, and three-dimensional compression. As examples of the averaged-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> method applied to nonlinear wave interactions, coupling coefficients are derived for interactions between two electron plasma waves and an ion acoustic wave, and between an ordinary wave, an electron plasma wave, and an ion acoustic wave.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5367296','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5367296"><span>A non-conventional discontinuous <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> for viscous flow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Marner, F.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Drawing an analogy with quantum mechanics, a new <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> is proposed for a variational formulation of the Navier–Stokes equations which to-date has remained elusive. A key feature is that the resulting <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> is discontinuous in nature, posing additional challenges apropos the mathematical treatment of the related variational problem, all of which are resolvable. In addition to extending Lagrange's formalism to problems involving discontinuous behaviour, it is demonstrated that the associated equations of motion can self-consistently be interpreted within the framework of thermodynamics beyond local equilibrium, with the limiting case recovering the classical Navier–Stokes equations. Perspectives for applying the new formalism to discontinuous physical phenomena such as phase and grain boundaries, shock waves and flame fronts are provided. PMID:28386415</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28386415','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28386415"><span>A non-conventional discontinuous <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> for viscous flow.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Scholle, M; Marner, F</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Drawing an analogy with quantum mechanics, a new <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> is proposed for a variational formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations which to-date has remained elusive. A key feature is that the resulting <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> is discontinuous in nature, posing additional challenges apropos the mathematical treatment of the related variational problem, all of which are resolvable. In addition to extending Lagrange's formalism to problems involving discontinuous behaviour, it is demonstrated that the associated equations of motion can self-consistently be interpreted within the framework of thermodynamics beyond local equilibrium, with the limiting case recovering the classical Navier-Stokes equations. Perspectives for applying the new formalism to discontinuous physical phenomena such as phase and grain boundaries, shock waves and flame fronts are provided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14626013','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14626013"><span>The nature, meanings, and dynamics of lived experiences of a person with syringomyelia: a <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hilton, Edith L; Henderson, Lesley J</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Syringomyelia, considered a rare neurological disease, is relatively uninvestigated in the nursing literature. The aims of this qualitative <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> case study were to discover the nature, meanings, and dynamics of lived experiences of a 52-year-old Caucasian male with syringomyelia. Using van Manen's Method of <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> inquiry (van Manen, 1990), data were collected, checked, and analyzed according to the philosophy, <span class="hlt">approach</span>, and methodological procedures of <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span>. Findings revealed an overarching theme of engulfment by disease. Essential themes included loss of abilities, struggles to adapt to changes, and life as a person who was disabled. Eleven sub-themes were also identified. Implications for nursing practice are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70018031','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70018031"><span>A finite-volume Eulerian-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Localized Adjoint Method for solution of the advection-dispersion equation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Healy, R.W.; Russell, T.F.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>A new mass-conservative method for solution of the one-dimensional advection-dispersion equation is derived and discussed. Test results demonstrate that the finite-volume Eulerian-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> localized adjoint method (FVELLAM) outperforms standard finite-difference methods, in terms of accuracy and efficiency, for solute transport problems that are dominated by advection. For dispersion-dominated problems, the performance of the method is similar to that of standard methods. Like previous ELLAM formulations, FVELLAM systematically conserves mass globally with all types of boundary conditions. FVELLAM differs from other ELLAM <span class="hlt">approaches</span> in that integrated finite differences, instead of finite elements, are used to approximate the governing equation. This <span class="hlt">approach</span>, in conjunction with a forward tracking scheme, greatly facilitates mass conservation. The mass storage integral is numerically evaluated at the current time level, and quadrature points are then tracked forward in time to the next level. Forward tracking permits straightforward treatment of inflow boundaries, thus avoiding the inherent problem in backtracking, as used by most characteristic methods, of characteristic lines intersecting inflow boundaries. FVELLAM extends previous ELLAM results by obtaining mass conservation locally on <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> space-time elements. Details of the integration, tracking, and boundary algorithms are presented. Test results are given for problems in Cartesian and radial coordinates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26026433','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26026433"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> formulation of irreversible thermodynamics and the second law of thermodynamics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Glavatskiy, K S</p> <p>2015-05-28</p> <p>We show that the equations which describe irreversible evolution of a system can be derived from a variational principle. We suggest a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>, which depends on the properties of the normal and the so-called "mirror-image" system. The <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> is symmetric in time and therefore compatible with microscopic reversibility. The evolution equations in the normal and mirror-imaged systems are decoupled and describe therefore independent irreversible evolution of each of the systems. The second law of thermodynamics follows from a symmetry of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>. Entropy increase in the normal system is balanced by the entropy decrease in the mirror-image system, such that there exists an "integral of evolution" which is a constant. The derivation relies on the property of local equilibrium, which states that the local relations between the thermodynamic quantities in non-equilibrium are the same as in equilibrium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=ULRICH&pg=2&id=ED549048','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=ULRICH&pg=2&id=ED549048"><span>Generational Differences and Participant Experiences in Leadership Development: A <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Remedies, Suzanne E.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This qualitative <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> study examines generational cohort perceptions as they apply to civilian leadership training within the DOD. Zenger, Ulrich and Smallwood (2000) describe that a new <span class="hlt">approach</span> for developing future leaders is necessary. Identifying whether generational perceptions of ELDP members positively or negatively impact DOD…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DFD.H8002C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DFD.H8002C"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> chaos in three- dimensional steady buoyancy-driven flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Contreras, Sebastian; Speetjens, Michel; Clercx, Herman</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Natural convection plays a key role in fluid dynamics owing to its ubiquitous presence in nature and industry. Buoyancy-driven flows are prototypical systems in the study of thermal instabilities and pattern formation. The differentially heated cavity problem has been widely studied for the investigation of buoyancy-induced oscillatory flow. However, far less attention has been devoted to the three-dimensional <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> transport properties in such flows. This study seeks to address this by investigating <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> transport in the steady flow inside a cubic cavity differentially-heated from the side. The theoretical and numerical analysis expands on previously reported similarities between the current flow and lid-driven flows. The <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> dynamics are controlled by the Péclet number (Pe) and the Prandtl number (Pr). Pe controls the behaviour qualitatively in that growing Pe progressively perturbs the integable state (Pe =0), thus paving the way to chaotic dynamics. Pr plays an entirely quantitative role in that Pr<1 and Pr>1 amplifies and diminishes, respectively, the perturbative effect of non-zero Pe. S.C. acknowledges financial support from Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28364756','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28364756"><span>Spatio-temporal organization of dynamics in a two-dimensional periodically driven vortex flow: A <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> flow network perspective.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lindner, Michael; Donner, Reik V</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>We study the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> dynamics of passive tracers in a simple model of a driven two-dimensional vortex resembling real-world geophysical flow patterns. Using a discrete approximation of the system's transfer operator, we construct a directed network that describes the exchange of mass between distinct regions of the flow domain. By studying different measures characterizing flow network connectivity at different time-scales, we are able to identify the location of dynamically invariant structures and regions of maximum dispersion. Specifically, our <span class="hlt">approach</span> allows us to delimit co-existing flow regimes with different dynamics. To validate our findings, we compare several network characteristics to the well-established finite-time Lyapunov exponents and apply a receiver operating characteristic analysis to identify network measures that are particularly useful for unveiling the skeleton of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> chaos.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018PhLB..780..308C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018PhLB..780..308C"><span>Power corrections to the HTL effective <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> of QED</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carignano, Stefano; Manuel, Cristina; Soto, Joan</p> <p>2018-05-01</p> <p>We present compact expressions for the power corrections to the hard thermal loop (HTL) <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> of QED in d space dimensions. These are corrections of order (L / T) 2, valid for momenta L ≪ T, where T is the temperature. In the limit d → 3 we achieve a consistent regularization of both infrared and ultraviolet divergences, which respects the gauge symmetry of the theory. Dimensional regularization also allows us to witness subtle cancellations of infrared divergences. We also discuss how to generalize our results in the presence of a chemical potential, so as to obtain the power corrections to the hard dense loop (HDL) <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950011695','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950011695"><span>Floating shock fitting via <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> adaptive meshes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Vanrosendale, John</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>In recent works we have formulated a new <span class="hlt">approach</span> to compressible flow simulation, combining the advantages of shock-fitting and shock-capturing. Using a cell-centered Roe scheme discretization on unstructured meshes, we warp the mesh while marching to steady state, so that mesh edges align with shocks and other discontinuities. This new algorithm, the Shock-fitting <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Adaptive Method (SLAM) is, in effect, a reliable shock-capturing algorithm which yields shock-fitted accuracy at convergence. Shock-capturing algorithms like this, which warp the mesh to yield shock-fitted accuracy, are new and relatively untried. However, their potential is clear. In the context of sonic booms, accurate calculation of near-field sonic boom signatures is critical to the design of the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). SLAM should allow computation of accurate N-wave pressure signatures on comparatively coarse meshes, significantly enhancing our ability to design low-boom configurations for high-speed aircraft.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22596686-hamiltonian-analysis-linearly-acceleration-dependent-lagrangians','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22596686-hamiltonian-analysis-linearly-acceleration-dependent-lagrangians"><span>Hamiltonian analysis for linearly acceleration-dependent <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cruz, Miguel, E-mail: miguelcruz02@uv.mx, E-mail: roussjgc@gmail.com, E-mail: molgado@fc.uaslp.mx, E-mail: efrojas@uv.mx; Gómez-Cortés, Rosario, E-mail: miguelcruz02@uv.mx, E-mail: roussjgc@gmail.com, E-mail: molgado@fc.uaslp.mx, E-mail: efrojas@uv.mx; Rojas, Efraín, E-mail: miguelcruz02@uv.mx, E-mail: roussjgc@gmail.com, E-mail: molgado@fc.uaslp.mx, E-mail: efrojas@uv.mx</p> <p>2016-06-15</p> <p>We study the constrained Ostrogradski-Hamilton framework for the equations of motion provided by mechanical systems described by second-order derivative actions with a linear dependence in the accelerations. We stress out the peculiar features provided by the surface terms arising for this type of theories and we discuss some important properties for this kind of actions in order to pave the way for the construction of a well defined quantum counterpart by means of canonical methods. In particular, we analyse in detail the constraint structure for these theories and its relation to the inherent conserved quantities where the associated energies togethermore » with a Noether charge may be identified. The constraint structure is fully analyzed without the introduction of auxiliary variables, as proposed in recent works involving higher order <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span>. Finally, we also provide some examples where our <span class="hlt">approach</span> is explicitly applied and emphasize the way in which our original arrangement results in propitious for the Hamiltonian formulation of covariant field theories.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22525714-effect-vsr-invariant-chern-simons-lagrangian-photon-polarization','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22525714-effect-vsr-invariant-chern-simons-lagrangian-photon-polarization"><span>Effect of VSR invariant Chern-Simons <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> on photon polarization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nayak, Alekha C.; Verma, Ravindra K.; Jain, Pankaj, E-mail: acnayak@iitk.ac.in, E-mail: ravindkv@iitk.ac.in, E-mail: pkjain@iitk.ac.in</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>We propose a generalization of the Chern-Simons (CS) <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> which is invariant under the SIM(2) transformations but not under the full Lorentz group. The generalized <span class="hlt">lagrangian</span> is also invariant under a SIM(2) gauge transformation. We study the effect of such a term on radiation propagating over cosmological distances. We find that the dominant effect of this term is to produce circular polarization as radiation propagates through space. We use the circular polarization data from distant radio sources in order to impose a limit on this term.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22458353-effect-vsr-invariant-chern-simons-lagrangian-photon-polarization','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22458353-effect-vsr-invariant-chern-simons-lagrangian-photon-polarization"><span>Effect of VSR invariant Chern-Simons <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> on photon polarization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nayak, Alekha C.; Verma, Ravindra K.; Jain, Pankaj</p> <p></p> <p>We propose a generalization of the Chern-Simons (CS) <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> which is invariant under the SIM(2) transformations but not under the full Lorentz group. The generalized <span class="hlt">lagrangian</span> is also invariant under a SIM(2) gauge transformation. We study the effect of such a term on radiation propagating over cosmological distances. We find that the dominant effect of this term is to produce circular polarization as radiation propagates through space. We use the circular polarization data from distant radio sources in order to impose a limit on this term.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ISPAr42W4...39L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ISPAr42W4...39L"><span>The Use of GIS for the Application of the <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">Approach</span> to the Seismic Risk Analysis: the Case of the Italian Fortified Architecture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lenticchia, E.; Coïsson, E.</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>The present paper proposes the use of GIS for the application of the so-called <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> to the analysis of the seismic behaviour of historical buildings. This <span class="hlt">approach</span> is based on the awareness that the different masonry building typologies are characterized by different, recurring vulnerabilities. Thus, the observation and classification of the real damage is seen as the first step for recognizing and classifying these vulnerabilities, in order to plan focused preventive interventions. For these purposes, the GIS has proven to be a powerful instrument to collect and manage this type of information on a large number of cases. This paper specifically focuses on the application of the <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> to the analysis of the seismic behaviour of fortified buildings, including castles, fortresses, citadels, and all the typical historical constructions characterized by the presence of massive towers and defensive walls. The main earthquakes which struck Italy in the last 40 years (up to the recent Central Italy seismic swarm) were taken into consideration and described by means of shake maps. A previously published work has been continued with the addition of new data and some improvements, including a specific symbology for the description of building typologies and conservation status on the maps, the indications of damage levels and the comparison between shake maps in terms of pga and in terms of pseudo-acceleration. The increase in knowledge obtained and the broader frame given by the analysis of the data are here directed to the primary aim of cultural heritage preservation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1911392T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1911392T"><span>Mass and tracer transport within oceanic <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> coherent vortices as diagnosed in a global mesoscale eddying climate model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tarshish, Nathaniel; Abernathey, Ryan; Dufour, Carolina; Frenger, Ivy; Griffies, Stephen</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Transient ocean mesoscale fluctuations play a central role in the global climate system, transporting climate relevant tracers such as heat and carbon. In satellite observations and numerical simulations, mesoscale vortices feature prominently as collectively rotating regions that remain visibly coherent. Prior studies on transport from ocean vortices typically rely on Eulerian identification methods, in which vortices are identified by selecting closed contours of Eulerian fields (e.g. sea surface height, or the Okubo-Weiss parameter) that satisfy geometric criteria and anomaly thresholds. In contrast, recent studies employ <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> analysis of virtual particle trajectories initialized within the selected Eulerian contours, revealing significant discrepancies between the advection of the contour's material interior and the evolution of the Eulerian field contour. This work investigates the global mass and tracer transport associated with materially coherent surface ocean vortices. Further, it addresses differences between Eulerian and <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> analyses for the detection of vortices. To do so, we use GFDL's CM2.6 coupled climate model with 5-10km horizontal grid spacing. We identify coherent vortices in CM2.6 by implementing the Rotationally Coherent <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Vortex (RCLV) framework, which recently emerged from dynamical systems theory. This <span class="hlt">approach</span> involves the numerical advection of millions of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particles and guarantees material coherence by construction. We compute the statistics, spatial distribution, and lifetimes of coherent vortices in addition to calculating the associated mass and tracer transports. We offer compelling evidence that Eulerian vortex methods are poorly suited to answer questions of mass and tracer transport.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17955459','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17955459"><span>A <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> calculus of Wiener description space.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Richardson, I W; Louie, A H</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> calculus is a categorical example of Robert Rosen's modeling relation. This paper is an alligation of the <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> calculus and generalized harmonic analysis, another categorical example. Our epistemological exploration continues into the realm of Wiener description space, in which constitutive parameters are extended from vectors to vector-valued functions of a real variable. Inherent in the <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> are fundamental representations of time and nearness to equilibrium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29758947','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29758947"><span><span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> Characteristics of Future Thinking in Alzheimer's Disease.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moustafa, Ahmed A; El Haj, Mohamad</p> <p>2018-05-11</p> <p>This study investigates <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> reliving of future thinking in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and matched controls. All participants were asked to imagine in detail a future event, and afterward, were asked to rate <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> characteristics of their future thinking. As compared to controls, AD participants showed poor rating for reliving, travel in time, visual imagery, auditory imagery, language, and spatiotemporal specificity. However, no significant differences were observed between both groups in emotion and importance of future thinking. Results also showed lower rating for visual imagery relative to remaining <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> features in AD participants compared to controls; conversely, these participants showed higher ratings for emotion and importance of future thinking. AD seems to compromise some <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> characteristics of future thinking, especially, visual imagery; however, other <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> characteristics, such as emotion, seem to be relatively preserved in these populations. By highlighting the <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> experience of future thinking in AD, our paper opens a unique window into the conscious experience of the future in AD patients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27237084','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27237084"><span>Electron correlation in the interacting quantum atoms partition via coupled-cluster <span class="hlt">lagrangian</span> densities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Holguín-Gallego, Fernando José; Chávez-Calvillo, Rodrigo; García-Revilla, Marco; Francisco, Evelio; Pendás, Ángel Martín; Rocha-Rinza, Tomás</p> <p>2016-07-15</p> <p>The electronic energy partition established by the Interacting Quantum Atoms (IQA) <span class="hlt">approach</span> is an important method of wavefunction analyses which has yielded valuable insights about different phenomena in physical chemistry. Most of the IQA applications have relied upon approximations, which do not include either dynamical correlation (DC) such as Hartree-Fock (HF) or external DC like CASSCF theory. Recently, DC was included in the IQA method by means of HF/Coupled-Cluster (CC) transition densities (Chávez-Calvillo et al., Comput. Theory Chem. 2015, 1053, 90). Despite the potential utility of this <span class="hlt">approach</span>, it has a few drawbacks, for example, it is not consistent with the calculation of CC properties different from the total electronic energy. To improve this situation, we have implemented the IQA energy partition based on CC <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> one- and two-electron orbital density matrices. The development presented in this article is tested and illustrated with the H2 , LiH, H2 O, H2 S, N2 , and CO molecules for which the IQA results obtained under the consideration of (i) the CC <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>, (ii) HF/CC transition densities, and (iii) HF are critically analyzed and compared. Additionally, the effect of the DC in the different components of the electronic energy in the formation of the T-shaped (H2 )2 van der Waals cluster and the bimolecular nucleophilic substitution between F(-) and CH3 F is examined. We anticipate that the <span class="hlt">approach</span> put forward in this article will provide new understandings on subjects in physical chemistry wherein DC plays a crucial role like molecular interactions along with chemical bonding and reactivity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JMP....59a3510C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JMP....59a3510C"><span>Reductions of topologically massive gravity I: Hamiltonian analysis of second order degenerate <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ćaǧatay Uçgun, Filiz; Esen, Oǧul; Gümral, Hasan</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>We present Skinner-Rusk and Hamiltonian formalisms of second order degenerate Clément and Sarıoğlu-Tekin <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span>. The Dirac-Bergmann constraint algorithm is employed to obtain Hamiltonian realizations of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> theories. The Gotay-Nester-Hinds algorithm is used to investigate Skinner-Rusk formalisms of these systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990008891','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990008891"><span>Effects of Helicity on <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> and Eulerian Time Correlations in Turbulence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rubinstein, Robert; Zhou, Ye</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Taylor series expansions of turbulent time correlation functions are applied to show that helicity influences Eulerian time correlations more strongly than <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> time correlations: to second order in time, the helicity effect on <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> time correlations vanishes, but the helicity effect on Eulerian time correlations is nonzero. Fourier analysis shows that the helicity effect on Eulerian time correlations is confined to the largest inertial range scales. Some implications for sound radiation by swirling flows are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986PhDT.......166S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986PhDT.......166S"><span><span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span> of Heavy Quarkonia and Quantum Chromodynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schmitz, Stefan Josef Anton</p> <p></p> <p>Heavy quarkonia, the cc, b(')b, and soon to be discovered t(')t families of states, are studied in the framework of potential theory. The earlier proposed, flavor independent "Riverside"-potential is fit to masses of cc and b(')b states and their electronic widths are calculated. An unusual feature of the potential is the use of a parameter b which controls the small r or "asymptotic freedom" behavior and which can be related to the QCD scale parameter (LAMDA)(,MS). This param- eter b is virtually undetermined by the cc and b(')b spectra, merely excluding the range b < 4 or (LAMDA)(,MS) < 120MeV and slightly favoring (LAMDA)(,MS) (DBLTURN) 250MeV. It is shown how even minimal information on the t(')t states will restrict the (LAMDA)(,MS) value to a range of the order of 50MeV. A recent Lattice Gauge potential shows a remarkable closeness to the <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span>. In view of the approximations involved, the difference between the two potentials is small. This difference is investigated in terms of the strong coupling constant (alpha) which can be extracted from both potentials. In the main r regime the Lattice Gauge (alpha) is markedly smaller than the <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> one. It is shown that the absence of intermediate, virtual quark loops in the Lattice Gauge calculation, i.e. the so-called quenched approximation, accounts for at least some and possibly most of that difference. Overall, the <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> of heavy quarkonia as studied in this work is in no conflict with QCD.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ITSP...59.3889J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ITSP...59.3889J"><span>Cooperative Convex Optimization in Networked Systems: Augmented <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Algorithms With Directed Gossip Communication</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jakovetic, Dusan; Xavier, João; Moura, José M. F.</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>We study distributed optimization in networked systems, where nodes cooperate to find the optimal quantity of common interest, x=x^\\star. The objective function of the corresponding optimization problem is the sum of private (known only by a node,) convex, nodes' objectives and each node imposes a private convex constraint on the allowed values of x. We solve this problem for generic connected network topologies with asymmetric random link failures with a novel distributed, decentralized algorithm. We refer to this algorithm as AL-G (augmented <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> gossiping,) and to its variants as AL-MG (augmented <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> multi neighbor gossiping) and AL-BG (augmented <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> broadcast gossiping.) The AL-G algorithm is based on the augmented <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> dual function. Dual variables are updated by the standard method of multipliers, at a slow time scale. To update the primal variables, we propose a novel, Gauss-Seidel type, randomized algorithm, at a fast time scale. AL-G uses unidirectional gossip communication, only between immediate neighbors in the network and is resilient to random link failures. For networks with reliable communication (i.e., no failures,) the simplified, AL-BG (augmented <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> broadcast gossiping) algorithm reduces communication, computation and data storage cost. We prove convergence for all proposed algorithms and demonstrate by simulations the effectiveness on two applications: l_1-regularized logistic regression for classification and cooperative spectrum sensing for cognitive radio networks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22415860-lagrangian-formulation-irreversible-thermodynamics-second-law-thermodynamics','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22415860-lagrangian-formulation-irreversible-thermodynamics-second-law-thermodynamics"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> formulation of irreversible thermodynamics and the second law of thermodynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Glavatskiy, K. S.</p> <p></p> <p>We show that the equations which describe irreversible evolution of a system can be derived from a variational principle. We suggest a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>, which depends on the properties of the normal and the so-called “mirror-image” system. The <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> is symmetric in time and therefore compatible with microscopic reversibility. The evolution equations in the normal and mirror-imaged systems are decoupled and describe therefore independent irreversible evolution of each of the systems. The second law of thermodynamics follows from a symmetry of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>. Entropy increase in the normal system is balanced by the entropy decrease in the mirror-image system, such thatmore » there exists an “integral of evolution” which is a constant. The derivation relies on the property of local equilibrium, which states that the local relations between the thermodynamic quantities in non-equilibrium are the same as in equilibrium.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1454436','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1454436"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> space consistency relation for large scale structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Horn, Bart; Hui, Lam; Xiao, Xiao</p> <p></p> <p>Consistency relations, which relate the squeezed limit of an (N+1)-point correlation function to an N-point function, are non-perturbative symmetry statements that hold even if the associated high momentum modes are deep in the nonlinear regime and astrophysically complex. Recently, Kehagias & Riotto and Peloso & Pietroni discovered a consistency relation applicable to large scale structure. We show that this can be recast into a simple physical statement in <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> space: that the squeezed correlation function (suitably normalized) vanishes. This holds regardless of whether the correlation observables are at the same time or not, and regardless of whether multiple-streaming is present.more » Furthermore, the simplicity of this statement suggests that an analytic understanding of large scale structure in the nonlinear regime may be particularly promising in <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> space.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1454436-lagrangian-space-consistency-relation-large-scale-structure','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1454436-lagrangian-space-consistency-relation-large-scale-structure"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> space consistency relation for large scale structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Horn, Bart; Hui, Lam; Xiao, Xiao</p> <p>2015-09-29</p> <p>Consistency relations, which relate the squeezed limit of an (N+1)-point correlation function to an N-point function, are non-perturbative symmetry statements that hold even if the associated high momentum modes are deep in the nonlinear regime and astrophysically complex. Recently, Kehagias & Riotto and Peloso & Pietroni discovered a consistency relation applicable to large scale structure. We show that this can be recast into a simple physical statement in <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> space: that the squeezed correlation function (suitably normalized) vanishes. This holds regardless of whether the correlation observables are at the same time or not, and regardless of whether multiple-streaming is present.more » Furthermore, the simplicity of this statement suggests that an analytic understanding of large scale structure in the nonlinear regime may be particularly promising in <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> space.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EPJH...42..537F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EPJH...42..537F"><span>A contemporary look at Hermann Hankel's 1861 pioneering work on <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> fluid dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Frisch, Uriel; Grimberg, Gérard; Villone, Barbara</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>The present paper is a companion to the paper by Villone and Rampf (2017), titled "Hermann Hankel's On the general theory of motion of fluids, an essay including an English translation of the complete Preisschrift from 1861" together with connected documents [Eur. Phys. J. H 42, 557-609 (2017)]. Here we give a critical assessment of Hankel's work, which covers many important aspects of fluid dynamics considered from a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>-coordinates point of view: variational formulation in the spirit of Hamilton for elastic (barotropic) fluids, transport (we would now say Lie transport) of vorticity, the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> significance of Clebsch variables, etc. Hankel's work is also put in the perspective of previous and future work. Hence, the action spans about two centuries: from Lagrange's 1760-1761 Turin paper on variational <span class="hlt">approaches</span> to mechanics and fluid mechanics problems to Arnold's 1966 founding paper on the geometrical/variational formulation of incompressible flow. The 22-year-old Hankel - who was to die 12 years later — emerges as a highly innovative master of mathematical fluid dynamics, fully deserving Riemann's assessment that his Preisschrift contains "all manner of good things."</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900048341&hterms=Lagrangian&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DLagrangian','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900048341&hterms=Lagrangian&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DLagrangian"><span>Modeling of confined turbulent fluid-particle flows using Eulerian and <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> schemes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Adeniji-Fashola, A.; Chen, C. P.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Two important aspects of fluid-particulate interaction in dilute gas-particle turbulent flows (the turbulent particle dispersion and the turbulence modulation effects) are addressed, using the Eulerian and <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> modeling <span class="hlt">approaches</span> to describe the particulate phase. Gradient-diffusion approximations are employed in the Eulerian formulation, while a stochastic procedure is utilized to simulate turbulent dispersion in the Lagrangina formulation. The k-epsilon turbulence model is used to characterize the time and length scales of the continuous phase turbulence. Models proposed for both schemes are used to predict turbulent fully-developed gas-solid vertical pipe flow with reasonable accuracy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1256634-lagrangian-geometrical-optics-nonadiabatic-vector-waves-spin-particles','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1256634-lagrangian-geometrical-optics-nonadiabatic-vector-waves-spin-particles"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> geometrical optics of nonadiabatic vector waves and spin particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Ruiz, D. E.; Dodin, I. Y.</p> <p>2015-07-29</p> <p>Linear vector waves, both quantum and classical, experience polarization-driven bending of ray trajectories and polarization dynamics that can be interpreted as the precession of the "wave spin". Here, both phenomena are governed by an effective gauge Hamiltonian vanishing in leading-order geometrical optics. This gauge Hamiltonian can be recognized as a generalization of the Stern-Gerlach Hamiltonian that is commonly known for spin-1/2 quantum particles. The corresponding reduced <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span> for continuous nondissipative waves and their geometrical-optics rays are derived from the fundamental wave <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>. The resulting Euler-Lagrange equations can describe simultaneous interactions of N resonant modes, where N is arbitrary, and leadmore » to equations for the wave spin, which happens to be an (N 2 - 1)-dimensional spin vector. As a special case, classical equations for a Dirac particle (N = 2) are deduced formally, without introducing additional postulates or interpretations, from the Dirac quantum <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> with the Pauli term. The model reproduces the Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi equations with added Stern-Gerlach force.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Lagrangian&id=EJ196862','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Lagrangian&id=EJ196862"><span>Examination of Eulerian and <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Coordinate Systems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Remillard, Wilfred J.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Studies the relationship between Eulerian and <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> coordinate systems with the help of computer plots of variables such as density and particle displacement. Gives examples which illustrate the differences in the shape of a traveling wave as seen by observers in the two systems. (Author/GA)</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613316G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613316G"><span>Eulerian <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Adaptive Fup Collocation Method for solving the conservative solute transport in heterogeneous porous media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gotovac, Hrvoje; Srzic, Veljko</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Contaminant transport in natural aquifers is a complex, multiscale process that is frequently studied using different Eulerian, <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> and hybrid numerical methods. Conservative solute transport is typically modeled using the advection-dispersion equation (ADE). Despite the large number of available numerical methods that have been developed to solve it, the accurate numerical solution of the ADE still presents formidable challenges. In particular, current numerical solutions of multidimensional advection-dominated transport in non-uniform velocity fields are affected by one or all of the following problems: numerical dispersion that introduces artificial mixing and dilution, grid orientation effects, unresolved spatial and temporal scales and unphysical numerical oscillations (e.g., Herrera et al, 2009; Bosso et al., 2012). In this work we will present Eulerian <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Adaptive Fup Collocation Method (ELAFCM) based on Fup basis functions and collocation <span class="hlt">approach</span> for spatial approximation and explicit stabilized Runge-Kutta-Chebyshev temporal integration (public domain routine SERK2) which is especially well suited for stiff parabolic problems. Spatial adaptive strategy is based on Fup basis functions which are closely related to the wavelets and splines so that they are also compactly supported basis functions; they exactly describe algebraic polynomials and enable a multiresolution adaptive analysis (MRA). MRA is here performed via Fup Collocation Transform (FCT) so that at each time step concentration solution is decomposed using only a few significant Fup basis functions on adaptive collocation grid with appropriate scales (frequencies) and locations, a desired level of accuracy and a near minimum computational cost. FCT adds more collocations points and higher resolution levels only in sensitive zones with sharp concentration gradients, fronts and/or narrow transition zones. According to the our recent achievements there is no need for solving the large</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25215826','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25215826"><span>Statistical scaling of pore-scale <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> velocities in natural porous media.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Siena, M; Guadagnini, A; Riva, M; Bijeljic, B; Pereira Nunes, J P; Blunt, M J</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>We investigate the scaling behavior of sample statistics of pore-scale <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> velocities in two different rock samples, Bentheimer sandstone and Estaillades limestone. The samples are imaged using x-ray computer tomography with micron-scale resolution. The scaling analysis relies on the study of the way qth-order sample structure functions (statistical moments of order q of absolute increments) of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> velocities depend on separation distances, or lags, traveled along the mean flow direction. In the sandstone block, sample structure functions of all orders exhibit a power-law scaling within a clearly identifiable intermediate range of lags. Sample structure functions associated with the limestone block display two diverse power-law regimes, which we infer to be related to two overlapping spatially correlated structures. In both rocks and for all orders q, we observe linear relationships between logarithmic structure functions of successive orders at all lags (a phenomenon that is typically known as extended power scaling, or extended self-similarity). The scaling behavior of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> velocities is compared with the one exhibited by porosity and specific surface area, which constitute two key pore-scale geometric observables. The statistical scaling of the local velocity field reflects the behavior of these geometric observables, with the occurrence of power-law-scaling regimes within the same range of lags for sample structure functions of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> velocity, porosity, and specific surface area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=racial+AND+bias&pg=2&id=EJ1035595','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=racial+AND+bias&pg=2&id=EJ1035595"><span>White Counseling Supervisees' Experiences Working with Latino Youth: A <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Malott, Krista M.; Havlik, Stacey; Palacios, Lyda Holguín; Contrisciane Lewis, Colleen</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of White counseling students who facilitated a group intervention with Latino adolescents. A <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> revealed several challenges experienced by the counselors in working across race and culture. Two major themes that emerged from the analysis included counselors' lack of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8876419','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8876419"><span>The politics of <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> concepts in nursing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Holmes, C A</p> <p>1996-09-01</p> <p>This paper challenges those nurses who champion Heideggerian <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span>, by outlining some of the possible political consequences of that philosophy. Some relationships between <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> and fascism are discussed, with special reference to anti-humanism and authenticity. Heidegger's commitment to Nazism is affirmed and, following the lead of other recent contributions to the debate, it is suggested that this was the likely, if not inevitable, result of his <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> philosophy. It is concluded that, because of its immanent fascism, Heideggerian <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> is at odds with the general value orientation publicly espoused by the nursing profession, and that this may render it not only unsuitable as a means of understanding and elaborating nursing knowledge, but also actively counter-productive to the conventional aspirations of nurses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=advertising&pg=7&id=ED583279','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=advertising&pg=7&id=ED583279"><span>A <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">Approach</span> to Understanding Minority Student Engagement with the University through Service Learning Courses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Withrow, Jennifer</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> action research study examined the experiences of minority students who participated in service learning activities at Northern Kentucky University. Five individual interviews were completed with students, consisting of undergraduate, graduate, and university alumni. Interviews uncovered five overarching themes. The five…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhDT.......252P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhDT.......252P"><span>Causal Set <span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Philpott, Lydia</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>Central to the development of any new theory is the investigation of the observable consequences of the theory. In the search for quantum gravity, research in <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> has been dominated by models violating Lorentz invariance (LI) -- despite there being, at present, no evidence that LI is violated. Causal set theory is a LI candidate theory of QG that seeks not to quantise gravity as such, but rather to develop a new understanding of the universe from which both GR and QM could arise separately. The key hypothesis is that spacetime is a discrete partial order: a set of events where the partial ordering is the physical causal ordering between the events. This thesis investigates Lorentz invariant QG <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> motivated by the causal set <span class="hlt">approach</span>. Massive particles propagating in a discrete spacetime will experience diffusion in both position and momentum in proper time. This thesis considers this idea in more depth, providing a rigorous derivation of the diffusion equation in terms of observable cosmic time. The diffusion behaviour does not depend on any particular underlying particle model. Simulations of three different models are conducted, revealing behaviour that matches the diffusion equation despite limitations on the size of causal set simulated. The effect of spacetime discreteness on the behaviour of massless particles is also investigated. Diffusion equations in both affine time and cosmic time are derived, and it is found that massless particles undergo diffusion and drift in energy. Constraints are placed on the magnitudes of the drift and diffusion parameters by considering the blackbody nature of the CMB. Spacetime discreteness also has a potentially observable effect on photon polarisation. For linearly polarised photons, underlying discreteness is found to cause a rotation in polarisation angle and a suppression in overall polarisation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Volunteering&pg=2&id=EJ1021962','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Volunteering&pg=2&id=EJ1021962"><span>Process and Positive Development: An Interpretative <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> Analysis of University Student Volunteering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>MacNeela, Pádraig; Gannon, Niall</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Volunteering among university students is an important expression of civic engagement, but the impact of this experience on the development of emerging adults requires further contextualization. Adopting interpretative <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> analysis as a qualitative research <span class="hlt">approach</span>, we carried out semistructured interviews with 10 students of one…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017APS..DPPN11052C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017APS..DPPN11052C"><span>Higher-Order Advection-Based Remap of Magnetic Fields in an Arbitrary <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>-Eulerian Code</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cornille, Brian; White, Dan</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>We will present methods formulated for the Eulerian advection stage of an arbitrary <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>-Eulerian code for the new addition of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects. The various physical fields are advanced in time using a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> formulation of the system. When this <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> motion produces substantial distortion of the mesh, it can be difficult or impossible to progress the simulation forward. This is overcome by relaxation of the mesh while the physical fields are frozen. The code has already successfully been extended to include evolution of magnetic field diffusion during the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> motion stage. This magnetic field is discretized using an H(div) compatible finite element basis. The advantage of this basis is that the divergence-free constraint of magnetic fields is maintained exactly during the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> motion evolution. Our goal is to preserve this property during Eulerian advection as well. We will demonstrate this property and the importance of MHD effects in several numerical experiments. In pulsed-power experiments magnetic fields may be imposed or spontaneously generated. When these magnetic fields are present, the evolution of the experiment may differ from a comparable configuration without magnetic fields. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Supported by DOE CSGF under Grant Number DE-FG02-97ER25308.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3462029','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3462029"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> transport properties of pulmonary interfacial flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Smith, Bradford J.; Lukens, Sarah; Yamaguchi, Eiichiro; Gaver, Donald P.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Disease states characterized by airway fluid occlusion and pulmonary surfactant insufficiency, such as respiratory distress syndrome, have a high mortality rate. Understanding the mechanics of airway reopening, particularly involving surfactant transport, may provide an avenue to increase patient survival via optimized mechanical ventilation waveforms. We model the occluded airway as a liquid-filled rigid tube with the fluid phase displaced by a finger of air that propagates with both mean and sinusoidal velocity components. Finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) fields are employed to analyse the convective transport characteristics, taking note of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> coherent structures (LCSs) and their effects on transport. The <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> perspective of these techniques reveals flow characteristics that are not readily apparent by observing Eulerian measures. These analysis techniques are applied to surfactant-free velocity fields determined computationally, with the boundary element method, and measured experimentally with micro particle image velocimetry (μ-PIV). We find that the LCS divides the fluid into two regimes, one advected upstream (into the thin residual film) and the other downstream ahead of the advancing bubble. At higher oscillatory frequencies particles originating immediately inside the LCS experience long residence times at the air–liquid interface, which may be conducive to surfactant transport. At high frequencies a well-mixed attractor region is identified; this volume of fluid cyclically travels along the interface and into the bulk fluid. The <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> analysis is applied to velocity data measured with 0.01 mg ml−1 of the clinical pulmonary surfactant Infasurf in the bulk fluid, demonstrating flow field modifications with respect to the surfactant-free system that were not visible in the Eulerian frame. PMID:23049141</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1818317B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1818317B"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> and Eulerian description of bed-load particle kinematics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ballio, Francesco; Sadabadi, Seyed Abbas Hosseini; Pokrajac, Dubravka; Radice, Alessio</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The motion of bed-load sediment particles transported by a flow can be analyzed within a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> or an Eulerian framework. In the former case, we consider the particles as individual objects in motion and we study their kinematic properties. The latter <span class="hlt">approach</span> is instead referred to suitably chosen control volumes. Quantities describing sediment motion in the two frameworks are different, and the relationships among the two <span class="hlt">approaches</span> are not straightforward. In this work, we intend to discuss the kinematic properties of sediment transport: first, a set of quantities is univocally defined; then, relationships among different representations are explored. Proof-of-concept results presented in the study are from a recent experiment involving weak bed-load sediment transport, where the moving particles were released over a fixed rough bed. The bulk flow velocity was 1.4 times the critical value for incipient particle motion, and particles were mostly moving by rolling and sliding, with limited saltation. The particle motion was filmed from the top and the measurements were conducted by image-based methods, obtaining extensive samples of virtually-instantaneous quantities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IJBC...2730001L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IJBC...2730001L"><span>A Theoretical Framework for <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Descriptors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lopesino, C.; Balibrea-Iniesta, F.; García-Garrido, V. J.; Wiggins, S.; Mancho, A. M.</p> <p></p> <p>This paper provides a theoretical background for <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Descriptors (LDs). The goal of achieving rigorous proofs that justify the ability of LDs to detect invariant manifolds is simplified by introducing an alternative definition for LDs. The definition is stated for n-dimensional systems with general time dependence, however we rigorously prove that this method reveals the stable and unstable manifolds of hyperbolic points in four particular 2D cases: a hyperbolic saddle point for linear autonomous systems, a hyperbolic saddle point for nonlinear autonomous systems, a hyperbolic saddle point for linear nonautonomous systems and a hyperbolic saddle point for nonlinear nonautonomous systems. We also discuss further rigorous results which show the ability of LDs to highlight additional invariants sets, such as n-tori. These results are just a simple extension of the ergodic partition theory which we illustrate by applying this methodology to well-known examples, such as the planar field of the harmonic oscillator and the 3D ABC flow. Finally, we provide a thorough discussion on the requirement of the objectivity (frame-invariance) property for tools designed to reveal phase space structures and their implications for <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> descriptors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHEP...04..016H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHEP...04..016H"><span>Sigma decomposition: the CP-odd <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hierro, I. M.; Merlo, L.; Rigolin, S.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In Alonso et al., JHEP 12 (2014) 034, the CP-even sector of the effective chiral <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> for a generic composite Higgs model with a symmetric coset has been constructed, up to four momenta. In this paper, the CP-odd couplings are studied within the same context. If only the Standard Model bosonic sources of custodial symmetry breaking are considered, then at most six independent operators form a basis. One of them is the weak- θ term linked to non-perturbative sources of CP violation, while the others describe CP-odd perturbative couplings between the Standard Model gauge bosons and an Higgs-like scalar belonging to the Goldstone boson sector. The procedure is then applied to three distinct exemplifying frameworks: the original SU(5)/SO(5) Georgi-Kaplan model, the minimal custodial-preserving SO(5)/SO(4) model and the minimal SU(3)/(SU(2) × U(1)) model, which intrinsically breaks custodial symmetry. Moreover, the projection of the high-energy electroweak effective theory to the low-energy chiral effective <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> for a dynamical Higgs is performed, uncovering strong relations between the operator coefficients and pinpointing the differences with the elementary Higgs scenario.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018PhRvD..97f4019A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018PhRvD..97f4019A"><span>Matter <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> of particles and fluids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Avelino, P. P.; Sousa, L.</p> <p>2018-03-01</p> <p>We consider a model where particles are described as localized concentrations of energy, with fixed rest mass and structure, which are not significantly affected by their self-induced gravitational field. We show that the volume average of the on-shell matter <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Lm describing such particles, in the proper frame, is equal to the volume average of the trace T of the energy-momentum tensor in the same frame, independently of the particle's structure and constitution. Since both Lm and T are scalars, and thus independent of the reference frame, this result is also applicable to collections of moving particles and, in particular, to those which can be described by a perfect fluid. Our results are expected to be particularly relevant in the case of modified theories of gravity with nonminimal coupling to matter where the matter <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> appears explicitly in the equations of motion of the gravitational and matter fields, such as f (R ,Lm) and f (R ,T ) gravity. In particular, they indicate that, in this context, f (R ,Lm) theories may be regarded as a subclass of f (R ,T ) gravity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=textural+AND+features&id=ED552338','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=textural+AND+features&id=ED552338"><span>A <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> Exploration of Resilience in Cheyenne and Arapaho University Students</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Boyd, Ruth M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This study explored the experience of transitioning from common education to higher education for a group of Cheyenne and Arapaho students. Additional features of resilience were examined as well, which included their persistence in pursuit of a baccalaureate degree. A <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> was used in order to explore the lived experiences of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26826855','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26826855"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> statistics in weakly forced two-dimensional turbulence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rivera, Michael K; Ecke, Robert E</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Measurements of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> single-point and multiple-point statistics in a quasi-two-dimensional stratified layer system are reported. The system consists of a layer of salt water over an immiscible layer of Fluorinert and is forced electromagnetically so that mean-squared vorticity is injected at a well-defined spatial scale ri. Simultaneous cascades develop in which enstrophy flows predominately to small scales whereas energy cascades, on average, to larger scales. <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> correlations and one- and two-point displacements are measured for random initial conditions and for initial positions within topological centers and saddles. Some of the behavior of these quantities can be understood in terms of the trapping characteristics of long-lived centers, the slow motion near strong saddles, and the rapid fluctuations outside of either centers or saddles. We also present statistics of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> velocity fluctuations using energy spectra in frequency space and structure functions in real space. We compare with complementary Eulerian velocity statistics. We find that simultaneous inverse energy and enstrophy ranges present in spectra are not directly echoed in real-space moments of velocity difference. Nevertheless, the spectral ranges line up well with features of moment ratios, indicating that although the moments are not exhibiting unambiguous scaling, the behavior of the probability distribution functions is changing over short ranges of length scales. Implications for understanding weakly forced 2D turbulence with simultaneous inverse and direct cascades are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1351187','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1351187"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> statistics in weakly forced two-dimensional turbulence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rivera, Michael K.; Ecke, Robert E.</p> <p></p> <p>Measurements of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> single-point and multiple-point statistics in a quasi-two-dimensional stratified layer system are reported. The system consists of a layer of salt water over an immiscible layer of Fluorinert and is forced electromagnetically so that mean-squared vorticity is injected at a well-defined spatial scale r i. Simultaneous cascades develop in which enstrophy flows predominately to small scales whereas energy cascades, on average, to larger scales. <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> correlations and one- and two-point displacements are measured for random initial conditions and for initial positions within topological centers and saddles. Some of the behavior of these quantities can be understood in termsmore » of the trapping characteristics of long-lived centers, the slow motion near strong saddles, and the rapid fluctuations outside of either centers or saddles. We also present statistics of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> velocity fluctuations using energy spectra in frequency space and structure functions in real space. We compare with complementary Eulerian velocity statistics. We find that simultaneous inverse energy and enstrophy ranges present in spectra are not directly echoed in real-space moments of velocity difference. Nevertheless, the spectral ranges line up well with features of moment ratios, indicating that although the moments are not exhibiting unambiguous scaling, the behavior of the probability distribution functions is changing over short ranges of length scales. Furthermore, implications for understanding weakly forced 2D turbulence with simultaneous inverse and direct cascades are discussed.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1351187-lagrangian-statistics-weakly-forced-two-dimensional-turbulence','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1351187-lagrangian-statistics-weakly-forced-two-dimensional-turbulence"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> statistics in weakly forced two-dimensional turbulence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Rivera, Michael K.; Ecke, Robert E.</p> <p>2016-01-14</p> <p>Measurements of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> single-point and multiple-point statistics in a quasi-two-dimensional stratified layer system are reported. The system consists of a layer of salt water over an immiscible layer of Fluorinert and is forced electromagnetically so that mean-squared vorticity is injected at a well-defined spatial scale r i. Simultaneous cascades develop in which enstrophy flows predominately to small scales whereas energy cascades, on average, to larger scales. <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> correlations and one- and two-point displacements are measured for random initial conditions and for initial positions within topological centers and saddles. Some of the behavior of these quantities can be understood in termsmore » of the trapping characteristics of long-lived centers, the slow motion near strong saddles, and the rapid fluctuations outside of either centers or saddles. We also present statistics of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> velocity fluctuations using energy spectra in frequency space and structure functions in real space. We compare with complementary Eulerian velocity statistics. We find that simultaneous inverse energy and enstrophy ranges present in spectra are not directly echoed in real-space moments of velocity difference. Nevertheless, the spectral ranges line up well with features of moment ratios, indicating that although the moments are not exhibiting unambiguous scaling, the behavior of the probability distribution functions is changing over short ranges of length scales. Furthermore, implications for understanding weakly forced 2D turbulence with simultaneous inverse and direct cascades are discussed.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18851205','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18851205"><span>Deflected mirage mediation: a <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> framework for generalized supersymmetry breaking.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Everett, Lisa L; Kim, Ian-Woo; Ouyang, Peter; Zurek, Kathryn M</p> <p>2008-09-05</p> <p>We present a general <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> framework for dialing between gravity mediation, gauge mediation, and anomaly mediation. The <span class="hlt">approach</span> is motivated from recent developments in moduli stabilization, which suggest that gravity mediated terms can be effectively loop suppressed and thus comparable to gauge and anomaly mediated terms. The gauginos exhibit a mirage unification behavior at a "deflected" scale, and gluinos are often the lightest colored sparticles. The <span class="hlt">approach</span> provides a rich setting in which to explore generalized supersymmetry breaking at the CERN Large Hadron Collider.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24320982','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24320982"><span>Is there nursing <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> after Paley? Essay on rigorous reading.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Petrovskaya, Olga</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>At the bedside, nurses are expected to be precise when they read indications on screens and on the bodies of patients and decide on the meaning of words framed by the context of acute care. In academia, although there is no incident report to fill when we misread or misrepresent complex philosophical ideas, the consequences of inaccurate reading include misplaced epistemological claims and poor scholarship. A long and broad convention of nursing <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> research, in its various forms, claims a philosophical grounding in the ideas of Husserl, Heidegger, and other thinkers. But for nearly two decades, nurse phenomenologists' knowledge claims have been challenged by well-informed criticisms, most notably by John Paley. At the heart of criticism lies an observation that Continental <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> thought is misrepresented in many nursing sources and that nursing <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span>, both descriptive and interpretive, cannot appeal to the authority of either Husserl or Heidegger. Taking these criticisms seriously, I am asking, Is <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> after Paley possible? If misreading seems to be an issue, how can - or should - we read rigorously? My thinking through these questions is influenced by the ideas of Jacques Derrida. Under a condition of a play of language, of Derridian différance, when meaning is never self-identical and never fully arrives, I suggest that one has to negotiate meanings through reading for differences. I develop this idea in relation to the methodological conventions of <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> nursing research and argue for a careful rereading of the whole field of <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> nursing research. Such rereading presupposes and necessitates interdisciplinary engagement between nursing and the humanities and interpretive social sciences. Greater familiarity with research practices of those disciplines that stress theoretical and writing rigour might make visible the limits of nursing research <span class="hlt">approaches</span> and their quality criteria. An understanding</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/89786-micromechanics-based-phenomenological-damage-modeling','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/89786-micromechanics-based-phenomenological-damage-modeling"><span>Micromechanics based <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> damage modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Muju, S.; Anderson, P.M.; Popelar, C.H.</p> <p></p> <p>A model is developed for the study of process zone effects on dominant cracks. The model proposed here is intended to bridge the gap between the micromechanics based and the <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> models for the class of problems involving microcracking, transforming inclusions etc. It is based on representation of localized eigenstrains using dislocation dipoles. The eigenstrain (fitting strain) is represented as the strength (Burgers vector) of the dipole which obeys a certain <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> constitutive relation.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22525326-lagrangian-space-consistency-relation-large-scale-structure','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22525326-lagrangian-space-consistency-relation-large-scale-structure"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> space consistency relation for large scale structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Horn, Bart; Hui, Lam; Xiao, Xiao, E-mail: bh2478@columbia.edu, E-mail: lh399@columbia.edu, E-mail: xx2146@columbia.edu</p> <p></p> <p>Consistency relations, which relate the squeezed limit of an (N+1)-point correlation function to an N-point function, are non-perturbative symmetry statements that hold even if the associated high momentum modes are deep in the nonlinear regime and astrophysically complex. Recently, Kehagias and Riotto and Peloso and Pietroni discovered a consistency relation applicable to large scale structure. We show that this can be recast into a simple physical statement in <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> space: that the squeezed correlation function (suitably normalized) vanishes. This holds regardless of whether the correlation observables are at the same time or not, and regardless of whether multiple-streaming is present.more » The simplicity of this statement suggests that an analytic understanding of large scale structure in the nonlinear regime may be particularly promising in <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> space.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5995H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5995H"><span>Determination of NH3 emissions from confined areas using backward <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> stochastic dispersion modelling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Häni, Christoph; Neftel, Albrecht; Sintermann, Jörg</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Employing backward <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> stochastic (bLS) dispersion modelling to infer emission strengths from confined areas using trace gas concentration measurements is a convenient way of emission estimation from field measurements (see Wilson et al., 2012 and references therein). The freely available software 'WindTrax' (www.thunderbeachscientific.com), providing a graphical interface for the application of a bLS model, has spurred its utilisation in the past decade. Investigations include mainly methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3) emissions based on experimental plots with dimensions between approximately 102 to 104 m2. Whereas for CH4 deposition processes can be neglected, NH3 has a strong affinity to any surface and is therefore efficiently deposited. Neglecting dry deposition will underestimate NH3 emissions, e.g. with a standard WindTrax <span class="hlt">approach</span>. We extended the bLS model described in Flesch et al. (2004) by a dry deposition process using a simple, one-directional deposition velocity <span class="hlt">approach</span>. At every contact of the model trajectories with ground level (here at the height of the roughness length Zo), deposition is modelled as: Fdep = vdep × CT raj (1) where vdep represents deposition velocity, and CTraj is the actual concentration of the specific trajectory at contact. A convenient way to model vdep is given by a resistances <span class="hlt">approach</span>. The deposition velocity is modelled as the inverse of the sum of a series of different resistances to deposition. The aerodynamic resistance is already implicitly included in the bLS model, thus vdep is given as: v = ---1--- dep Rb + Rc (2) Rb and Rc represent resistances of different model layers between Zo and the surfaces where deposition take place. With this <span class="hlt">approach</span> we analysed a dataset from measurements with an artificial NH3 source that consisted of 36 individual orifices mimicking a circular area source with a radius of 10 m. The use of three open-path miniDOAS (Sintermann et al., submitted to AMT) systems allowed to measure</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080015925','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080015925"><span>Establishing <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Connections between Observations within Air Masses Crossing the Atlantic during the ICARTT Experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Methven, J.; Arnold, S. R.; Stohl, A.; Evans, M. J.; Avery, M.; Law, K.; Lewis, A. C.; Monks, P. S.; Parrish, D.; Reeves, C.; <a style="text-decoration: none; " href="javascript:void(0); " onClick="displayelement('author_20080015925'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20080015925_show'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20080015925_hide'); "> <img style="display:inline; width:12px; height:12px; " src="images/arrow-up.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20080015925_show"> <img style="width:12px; height:12px; display:none; " src="images/arrow-down.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20080015925_hide"></p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT)-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> experiment was conceived with an aim to quantify the effects of photochemistry and mixing on the transformation of air masses in the free troposphere away from emissions. To this end attempts were made to intercept and sample air masses several times during their journey across the North Atlantic using four aircraft based in New Hampshire (USA), Faial (Azores) and Creil (France). This article begins by describing forecasts using two <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> models that were used to direct the aircraft into target air masses. A novel technique is then used to identify <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> matches between flight segments. Two independent searches are conducted: for <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> model matches and for pairs of whole air samples with matching hydrocarbon fingerprints. The information is filtered further by searching for matching hydrocarbon samples that are linked by matching trajectories. The quality of these coincident matches is assessed using temperature, humidity and tracer observations. The technique pulls out five clear <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> cases covering a variety of situations and these are examined in detail. The matching trajectories and hydrocarbon fingerprints are shown and the downwind minus upwind differences in tracers are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.3609H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.3609H"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> transport simulations of volcanic sulfur dioxide emissions: impact of meteorological data products</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hoffmann, Lars; Rößler, Thomas; Griessbach, Sabine; Heng, Yi; Stein, Olaf</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from strong volcanic eruptions are an important natural cause for climate variations. We applied our new <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> transport model Massive-Parallel Trajectory Calculations (MPTRAC) to perform simulations for three case studies of volcanic eruption events. The case studies cover the eruptions of Grímsvötn, Iceland, Puyehue-Cordón Caulle, Chile, and Nabro, Eritrea, in May and June 2011. We used SO2 observations of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS/Aqua) and a backward trajectory <span class="hlt">approach</span> to initialize the simulations. Besides validation of the new model, the main goal of our study was a comparison of simulations with different meteorological data products. We considered three reanalyses (ERA-Interim, MERRA, and NCAR/NCEP) and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) operational analysis. Qualitatively, the SO2 distributions from the simulations compare well with the AIRS data, but also with Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) aerosol observations. Transport deviations and the critical success index (CSI) are analyzed to evaluate the simulations quantitatively. During the first 5 or 10 days after the eruptions we found the best performance for the ECMWF analysis (CSI range of 0.25 - 0.31), followed by ERA-Interim (0.25 - 0.29), MERRA (0.23 - 0.27), and NCAR/NCEP (0.21 - 0.23). High temporal and spatial resolution of the meteorological data does lead to improved performance of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> transport simulations of volcanic emissions in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Reference: Hoffmann L., Rößler, T., Griessbach, S., Heng, Y., and Stein, O., <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> transport simulations of volcanic sulfur dioxide emissions: impact of meteorological data products, J. Geophys. Res., 121(9), 4651-4673, doi:10.1002/2015JD023749, 2016.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.753h2031F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.753h2031F"><span>Wake modeling in complex terrain using a hybrid Eulerian-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Split Solver</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fuchs, Franz G.; Rasheed, Adil; Tabib, Mandar; Fonn, Eivind</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Wake vortices (WVs) generated by aircraft are a source of risk to the following aircraft. The probability of WV related accidents increases in the vicinity of airport runways due to the shorter time of recovery after a WV encounter. Hence, solutions that can reduce the risk of WV encounters are needed to ensure increased flight safety. In this work we propose an interesting <span class="hlt">approach</span> to model such wake vortices in real time using a hybrid Eulerian- <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span>. We derive an appropriate mathematical model, and show a comparison of the different types of solvers. We will conclude with a real life application of the methodology by simulating how wake vortices left behind by an aircraft at the Vffirnes airport in Norway get transported and decay under the influence of a background wind and turbulence field. Although the work demonstrates the application in an aviation context the same <span class="hlt">approach</span> can be used in a wind energy context.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=block&id=EJ1145553','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=block&id=EJ1145553"><span>A <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> Research Study on Writer's Block: Causes, Processes, and Results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bastug, Muhammet; Ertem, Ihsan Seyit; Keskin, Hasan Kagan</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the causes, processes of writer's block experienced by a group of classroom teacher candidates and its impact on them. Design/methodology/<span class="hlt">approach</span>: The <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> design, which is a qualitative research design, was preferred in the research since it was aimed to investigate the causes,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhR...392..279S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhR...392..279S"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> fluid description with simple applications in compressible plasma and gas dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schamel, Hans</p> <p>2004-03-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> fluid description, in which the dynamics of fluids is formulated in terms of trajectories of fluid elements, not only presents an alternative to the more common Eulerian description but has its own merits and advantages. This aspect, which seems to be not fully explored yet, is getting increasing attention in fluid dynamics and related areas as <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> codes and experimental techniques are developed utilizing the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> point of view with the ultimate goal of a deeper understanding of flow dynamics. In this tutorial review we report on recent progress made in the analysis of compressible, more or less perfect flows such as plasmas and dilute gases. The equations of motion are exploited to get further insight into the formation and evolution of coherent structures, which often exhibit a singular or collapse type behavior occurring in finite time. It is argued that this technique of solution has a broad applicability due to the simplicity and generality of equations used. The focus is on four different topics, the physics of which being governed by simple fluid equations subject to initial and/or boundary conditions. Whenever possible also experimental results are mentioned. In the expansion of a semi-infinite plasma into a vacuum the energetic ion peak propagating supersonically towards the vacuum-as seen in laboratory experiments-is interpreted by means of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> fluid description as a relic of a wave breaking scenario of the corresponding inviscid ion dynamics. The inclusion of viscosity is shown numerically to stabilize the associated density collapse giving rise to a well defined fast ion peak reminiscent of adhesive matter. In purely convection driven flows the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> flow velocity is given by its initial value and hence the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> velocity gradient tensor can be evaluated accurately to find out the appearance of singularities in density and vorticity and the emergence of new structures such as wavelets in one-dimension (1D</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16866813','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16866813"><span>Critical appraisal of rigour in interpretive <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> nursing research.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>de Witt, Lorna; Ploeg, Jenny</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>This paper reports a critical review of published nursing research for expressions of rigour in interpretive <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span>, and a new framework of rigour specific to this methodology is proposed. The rigour of interpretive <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> is an important nursing research methods issue that has direct implications for the legitimacy of nursing science. The use of a generic set of qualitative criteria of rigour for interpretive <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> studies is problematic because it is philosophically inconsistent with the methodology and creates obstacles to full expression of rigour in such studies. A critical review was conducted of the published theoretical interpretive <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> nursing literature from 1994 to 2004 and the expressions of rigour in this literature identified. We used three sources to inform the derivation of a proposed framework of expressions of rigour for interpretive <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span>: the <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> scholar van Manen, the theoretical interpretive <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> nursing literature, and Madison's criteria of rigour for hermeneutic <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span>. The nursing literature reveals a broad range of criteria for judging the rigour of interpretive <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> research. The proposed framework for evaluating rigour in this kind of research contains the following five expressions: balanced integration, openness, concreteness, resonance, and actualization. Balanced integration refers to the intertwining of philosophical concepts in the study methods and findings and a balance between the voices of study participants and the philosophical explanation. Openness is related to a systematic, explicit process of accounting for the multiple decisions made throughout the study process. Concreteness relates to usefulness for practice of study findings. Resonance encompasses the experiential or felt effect of reading study findings upon the reader. Finally, actualization refers to the future realization of the resonance of study findings. Adoption of this</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006IJTFM.126...61K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006IJTFM.126...61K"><span>Lightning <span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kawasaki, Zen</p> <p></p> <p>This paper presents a <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> idea about lightning flash to share the back ground understanding for this special issue. Lightning discharges are one of the terrible phenomena, and Benjamin Franklin has led this natural phenomenon to the stage of scientific investigation. Technical aspects like monitoring and location are also summarized in this article.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4201093','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4201093"><span>On the temporality of creative insight: a psychological and <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> perspective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cosmelli, Diego; Preiss, David D.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Research into creative insight has had a strong emphasis on the psychological processes underlying problem-solving situations as a standard model for the empirical study of this phenomenon. Although this model has produced significant advances in our scientific understanding of the nature of insight, we believe that a full comprehension of insight requires complementing cognitive and neuroscientific studies with a descriptive, first-person, <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> into how creative insight is experienced. Here we propose to take such first-person perspective while paying special attention to the temporal aspects of this experience. When this first-person perspective is taken into account, a dynamic past–future interplay can be identified at the core of the experience of creative insight, a structure that is compatible with both biological and biographical evidences. We believe this <span class="hlt">approach</span> could complement and help bring together biological and psychological perspectives. Furthermore, we argue that because of its spontaneous but recurrent nature, creative insight could represent a relevant target for the <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> investigation of the flow of experience itself. PMID:25368595</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26328576','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26328576"><span>Quantitative flow analysis of swimming dynamics with coherent <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> vortices.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huhn, F; van Rees, W M; Gazzola, M; Rossinelli, D; Haller, G; Koumoutsakos, P</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Undulatory swimmers flex their bodies to displace water, and in turn, the flow feeds back into the dynamics of the swimmer. At moderate Reynolds number, the resulting flow structures are characterized by unsteady separation and alternating vortices in the wake. We use the flow field from simulations of a two-dimensional, incompressible viscous flow of an undulatory, self-propelled swimmer and detect the coherent <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> vortices in the wake to dissect the driving momentum transfer mechanisms. The detected material vortex boundary encloses a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> control volume that serves to track back the vortex fluid and record its circulation and momentum history. We consider two swimming modes: the C-start escape and steady anguilliform swimming. The backward advection of the coherent <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> vortices elucidates the geometry of the vorticity field and allows for monitoring the gain and decay of circulation and momentum transfer in the flow field. For steady swimming, momentum oscillations of the fish can largely be attributed to the momentum exchange with the vortex fluid. For the C-start, an additionally defined jet fluid region turns out to balance the high momentum change of the fish during the rapid start.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23679366','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23679366"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> single-particle turbulent statistics through the Hilbert-Huang transform.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Yongxiang; Biferale, Luca; Calzavarini, Enrico; Sun, Chao; Toschi, Federico</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The Hilbert-Huang transform is applied to analyze single-particle <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> velocity data from numerical simulations of hydrodynamic turbulence. The velocity trajectory is described in terms of a set of intrinsic mode functions C(i)(t) and of their instantaneous frequency ω(i)(t). On the basis of this decomposition we define the ω-conditioned statistical moments of the C(i) modes, named q-order Hilbert spectra (HS). We show that such quantities have enhanced scaling properties as compared to traditional Fourier transform- or correlation-based (structure functions) statistical indicators, thus providing better insights into the turbulent energy transfer process. We present clear empirical evidence that the energylike quantity, i.e., the second-order HS, displays a linear scaling in time in the inertial range, as expected from a dimensional analysis. We also measure high-order moment scaling exponents in a direct way, without resorting to the extended self-similarity procedure. This leads to an estimate of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> structure function exponents which are consistent with the multifractal prediction in the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> frame as proposed by Biferale et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 064502 (2004)].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=agent+AND+based+AND+modeling&pg=3&id=EJ1087143','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=agent+AND+based+AND+modeling&pg=3&id=EJ1087143"><span>Alexander Meets Michotte: A Simulation Tool Based on Pattern Programming and <span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Basawapatna, Ashok</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Simulation and modeling activities, a key point of computational thinking, are currently not being integrated into the science classroom. This paper describes a new visual programming tool entitled the Simulation Creation Toolkit. The Simulation Creation Toolkit is a high level pattern-based <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> to bringing rapid simulation…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Time+AND+series+AND+design+AND+approach&pg=6&id=ED551330','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Time+AND+series+AND+design+AND+approach&pg=6&id=ED551330"><span>A <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> Study of Undergraduate Instructors Using the Inverted or Flipped Classroom Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brown, Anna F.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The changing educational needs of undergraduate students have not been addressed with a corresponding development of instructional methods in higher education classrooms. This study used a <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> to investigate a classroom-based instructional model called the "inverted" or "flipped" classroom. The flipped…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7631176','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7631176"><span>Schizophrenia among Hispanics: epidemiology, <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span>, course, and outcome.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dassori, A M; Miller, A L; Saldana, D</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>A number of studies point to the influence of culture and ethnicity on the presentation and course of schizophrenia. In general, a relatively powerful influence of environmental factors is identified. This article reviews the literature on schizophrenia among Hispanics in the United States and uses the results of this review as a basis for identifying directions for future study. Research is divided into three major areas: epidemiology, <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span>, and illness course and outcome. Ethnic comparisons suggest similar prevalence rates of schizophrenia. However, differences in illness <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> between certain subgroups of Hispanics are also observed. Moreover, culture can affect various aspects of the illness process, including illness definition, help- seeking behavior, response to treatment, and post-treatment adjustment. Proposed guidelines to direct future research ventures include (1) better delineation of the sociocultural attributes of the group under study, (2) validation of assessment instruments across ethnic groups, (3) use of innovative <span class="hlt">approaches</span> to assess incidence and prevalence, (4) incorporation of qualitative methodology, (5) use of illness behavior models to provide a conceptual framework to guide investigations, and (6) integration of cross-cultural and biological studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=creativity&pg=5&id=EJ1088994','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=creativity&pg=5&id=EJ1088994"><span>The Domain-Specificity of Creativity: Insights from New <span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Julmi, Christian; Scherm, Ewald</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The question of the domain-specificity of creativity represents one of the key questions in creativity research. This article contributes to the discussion by applying insights from "new <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span>," which is a <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> movement from Germany initiated by philosopher Hermann Schmitz. The findings of new <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> suggest…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JCoPh.350...84S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JCoPh.350...84S"><span>Parallel implementation of a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>-based model on an adaptive mesh in C++: Application to sea-ice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Samaké, Abdoulaye; Rampal, Pierre; Bouillon, Sylvain; Ólason, Einar</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>We present a parallel implementation framework for a new dynamic/thermodynamic sea-ice model, called neXtSIM, based on the Elasto-Brittle rheology and using an adaptive mesh. The spatial discretisation of the model is done using the finite-element method. The temporal discretisation is semi-implicit and the advection is achieved using either a pure <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> scheme or an Arbitrary <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Eulerian scheme (ALE). The parallel implementation presented here focuses on the distributed-memory <span class="hlt">approach</span> using the message-passing library MPI. The efficiency and the scalability of the parallel algorithms are illustrated by the numerical experiments performed using up to 500 processor cores of a cluster computing system. The performance obtained by the proposed parallel implementation of the neXtSIM code is shown being sufficient to perform simulations for state-of-the-art sea ice forecasting and geophysical process studies over geographical domain of several millions squared kilometers like the Arctic region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760014401','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760014401"><span>Experimental design for drifting buoy <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> test</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Saunders, P. M.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>A test of instrumentation fabricated to measure the performance of a free drifting buoy as a (<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>) current meter is described. Specifically it is proposed to distinguish between the trajectory of a drogued buoy and the trajectory of the water at the level of the drogue by measuring the flow relative to the drogue.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20564757','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20564757"><span>Beyond a code of ethics: <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> ethics for everyday practice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Greenfield, Bruce; Jensen, Gail M</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>Physical therapy, like all health-care professions, governs itself through a code of ethics that defines its obligations of professional behaviours. The code of ethics provides professions with a consistent and common moral language and principled guidelines for ethical actions. Yet, and as argued in this paper, professional codes of ethics have limits applied to ethical decision-making in the presence of ethical dilemmas. Part of the limitations of the codes of ethics is that there is no particular hierarchy of principles that govern in all situations. Instead, the exigencies of clinical practice, the particularities of individual patient's illness experiences and the transformative nature of chronic illnesses and disabilities often obscure the ethical concerns and issues embedded in concrete situations. Consistent with models of expert practice, and with contemporary models of patient-centred care, we advocate and describe in this paper a type of interpretative and narrative <span class="hlt">approach</span> to moral practice and ethical decision-making based on <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span>. The tools of <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> that are well defined in research are applied and examined in a case that illustrates their use in uncovering the values and ethical concerns of a patient. Based on the deconstruction of this case on a phenomenologist <span class="hlt">approach</span>, we illustrate how such <span class="hlt">approaches</span> for ethical understanding can help assist clinicians and educators in applying principles within the context and needs of each patient. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28447879','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28447879"><span>The lived experience of caregivers of persons with heart failure: A <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Petruzzo, Antonio; Paturzo, Marco; Naletto, Monica; Cohen, Marlene Z; Alvaro, Rosaria; Vellone, Ercole</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>Heart failure (HF) patients need to follow a strict pharmacological and nonpharmacological regimen in order to counteract the burden of the disease, and informal caregivers are an important resource for HF patients in managing and coping with their disease. Few studies have examined the lived experience of these caregivers with a rigorous <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span>, and none have been conducted in Italy. To describe the lived experience of the caregivers of HF patients. A hermeneutic <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> method was used. Caregivers were enrolled in a HF clinic in central Italy. Interviews were analysed using a <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span>. Credibility, dependability, confirmability and transferability were adopted in order to strengthen trustworthiness. Thirty HF caregivers (mean age: 53 years) were enrolled. Of these, 63% of the caregivers were female and 80% were patients' spouses or children. Six themes emerged: (1) fear and worry related to the illness; (2) life changes and restrictions; (3) burden due to caregiving; (4) uncertainty about illness management; (5) helping patients to cope with the illness; and (6) love and affection towards the patient. The findings of our study may help providers to guide interventions for HF caregivers. Providers should be supportive of caregivers and provide them with education in order to reduce their fears and worries about the illness and to handle the course of HF and its symptoms. An empathetic and practical <span class="hlt">approach</span> with caregivers that considers the patient-caregiver relationship may help caregivers to cope with the changes and restrictions that caregiving brings to their lives and to reduce their burden.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JCoPh.362....1S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JCoPh.362....1S"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particle method for compressible fluid dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Samulyak, Roman; Wang, Xingyu; Chen, Hsin-Chiang</p> <p>2018-06-01</p> <p>A new <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particle method for solving Euler equations for compressible inviscid fluid or gas flows is proposed. Similar to smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), the method represents fluid cells with <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particles and is suitable for the simulation of complex free surface/multiphase flows. The main contributions of our method, which is different from SPH in all other aspects, are (a) significant improvement of approximation of differential operators based on a polynomial fit via weighted least squares approximation and the convergence of prescribed order, (b) a second-order particle-based algorithm that reduces to the first-order upwind method at local extremal points, providing accuracy and long term stability, and (c) more accurate resolution of entropy discontinuities and states at free interfaces. While the method is consistent and convergent to a prescribed order, the conservation of momentum and energy is not exact and depends on the convergence order. The method is generalizable to coupled hyperbolic-elliptic systems. Numerical verification tests demonstrating the convergence order are presented as well as examples of complex multiphase flows.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018GeoRL..45..891D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018GeoRL..45..891D"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Timescales of Southern Ocean Upwelling in a Hierarchy of Model Resolutions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Drake, Henri F.; Morrison, Adele K.; Griffies, Stephen M.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Weijer, Wilbert; Gray, Alison R.</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>In this paper we study upwelling pathways and timescales of Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) in a hierarchy of models using a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particle tracking method. <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> timescales of CDW upwelling decrease from 87 years to 31 years to 17 years as the ocean resolution is refined from 1° to 0.25° to 0.1°. We attribute some of the differences in timescale to the strength of the eddy fields, as demonstrated by temporally degrading high-resolution model velocity fields. Consistent with the timescale dependence, we find that an average <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particle completes 3.2 circumpolar loops in the 1° model in comparison to 0.9 loops in the 0.1° model. These differences suggest that advective timescales and thus interbasin merging of upwelling CDW may be overestimated by coarse-resolution models, potentially affecting the skill of centennial scale climate change projections.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=flight&pg=4&id=EJ1075731','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=flight&pg=4&id=EJ1075731"><span>Curriculum as Post-Intentional <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> Text: Working along the Edges and Margins of <span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span> Using Post-Structuralist Ideas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Vagle, Mark D.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In this article, I experiment along the edges and margins of the <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> notion of intentionality using the Deleuzoguattarian concepts of multiplicity and line of flight. Working from Pinar et al.'s anticipation that <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> would undergo discursive shifts tending towards the post-structural, I theorize curriculum as…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JCoPh.268..154K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JCoPh.268..154K"><span>Compatible, total energy conserving and symmetry preserving arbitrary <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>-Eulerian hydrodynamics in 2D rz - Cylindrical coordinates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kenamond, Mack; Bement, Matthew; Shashkov, Mikhail</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>We present a new discretization for 2D arbitrary <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>-Eulerian hydrodynamics in rz geometry (cylindrical coordinates) that is compatible, total energy conserving and symmetry preserving. In the first part of the paper, we describe the discretization of the basic <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> hydrodynamics equations in axisymmetric 2D rz geometry on general polygonal meshes. It exactly preserves planar, cylindrical and spherical symmetry of the flow on meshes aligned with the flow. In particular, spherical symmetry is preserved on polar equiangular meshes. The discretization conserves total energy exactly up to machine round-off on any mesh. It has a consistent definition of kinetic energy in the zone that is exact for a velocity field with constant magnitude. The method for discretization of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> equations is based on ideas presented in [2,3,7], where the authors use a special procedure to distribute zonal mass to corners of the zone (subzonal masses). The momentum equation is discretized in its “Cartesian” form with a special definition of “planar” masses (area-weighted). The principal contributions of this part of the paper are as follows: a definition of “planar” subzonal mass for nodes on the z axis (r=0) that does not require a special procedure for movement of these nodes; proof of conservation of the total energy; formulated for general polygonal meshes. We present numerical examples that demonstrate the robustness of the new method for <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> equations on a variety of grids and test problems including polygonal meshes. In particular, we demonstrate the importance of conservation of total energy for correctly modeling shock waves. In the second part of the paper we describe the remapping stage of the arbitrary <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>-Eulerian algorithm. The general idea is based on the following papers [25-28], where it was described for Cartesian coordinates. We describe a distribution-based algorithm for the definition of remapped subzonal densities and a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993PhDT........32F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993PhDT........32F"><span>Effective <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span> and Current Algebra in Three Dimensions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ferretti, Gabriele</p> <p></p> <p>In this thesis we study three dimensional field theories that arise as effective <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span> of quantum chromodynamics in Minkowski space with signature (2,1) (QCD3). In the first chapter, we explain the method of effective Langrangians and the relevance of current algebra techniques to field theory. We also provide the physical motivations for the study of QCD3 as a toy model for confinement and as a theory of quantum antiferromagnets (QAF). In chapter two, we derive the relevant effective <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> by studying the low energy behavior of QCD3, paying particular attention to how the global symmetries are realized at the quantum level. In chapter three, we show how baryons arise as topological solitons of the effective <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> and also show that their statistics depends on the number of colors as predicted by the quark model. We calculate mass splitting and magnetic moments of the soliton and find logarithmic corrections to the naive quark model predictions. In chapter four, we drive the current algebra of the theory. We find that the current algebra is a co -homologically non-trivial generalization of Kac-Moody algebras to three dimensions. This fact may provide a new, non -perturbative way to quantize the theory. In chapter five, we discuss the renormalizability of the model in the large-N expansion. We prove the validity of the non-renormalization theorem and compute the critical exponents in a specific limiting case, the CP^ {N-1} model with a Chern-Simons term. Finally, chapter six contains some brief concluding remarks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ying+Li&pg=4&id=EJ995618','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ying+Li&pg=4&id=EJ995618"><span>Recovery Experiences of Taiwanese Women after Terminating Abusive Relationships: A <span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span> Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hou, Wen-Li; Ko, Nai-Ying; Shu, Bih-Ching</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This article describes the recovery experiences of women who had suffered intimate partner violence in Taiwan. A <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> study design using semi-structured interviews was used to obtain data from a purposive sample of eight women. Colaizzi's <span class="hlt">approach</span> to narrative analysis was applied. Findings indicate that "reconstructing the self"…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=technology&id=ED582527','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=technology&id=ED582527"><span>A <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> Study: Experiences of Chinese Students Using Educational Technology in American Universities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jiang, Ying</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> study explores the educational technology experiences of ten Chinese international students at American universities. It describes their technology experiences and the influence on their technology self-efficacy and acculturation to the university culture in America. Seidman's (1998) three-interview <span class="hlt">approach</span> was employed to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26871161','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26871161"><span>Structure of sheared and rotating turbulence: Multiscale statistics of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> and Eulerian accelerations and passive scalar dynamics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jacobitz, Frank G; Schneider, Kai; Bos, Wouter J T; Farge, Marie</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The acceleration statistics of sheared and rotating homogeneous turbulence are studied using direct numerical simulation results. The statistical properties of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> and Eulerian accelerations are considered together with the influence of the rotation to shear ratio, as well as the scale dependence of their statistics. The probability density functions (pdfs) of both <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> and Eulerian accelerations show a strong and similar dependence on the rotation to shear ratio. The variance and flatness of both accelerations are analyzed and the extreme values of the Eulerian acceleration are observed to be above those of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> acceleration. For strong rotation it is observed that flatness yields values close to three, corresponding to Gaussian-like behavior, and for moderate and vanishing rotation the flatness increases. Furthermore, the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> and Eulerian accelerations are shown to be strongly correlated for strong rotation due to a reduced nonlinear term in this case. A wavelet-based scale-dependent analysis shows that the flatness of both Eulerian and <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> accelerations increases as scale decreases, which provides evidence for intermittent behavior. For strong rotation the Eulerian acceleration is even more intermittent than the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> acceleration, while the opposite result is obtained for moderate rotation. Moreover, the dynamics of a passive scalar with gradient production in the direction of the mean velocity gradient is analyzed and the influence of the rotation to shear ratio is studied. Concerning the concentration of a passive scalar spread by the flow, the pdf of its Eulerian time rate of change presents higher extreme values than those of its <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> time rate of change. This suggests that the Eulerian time rate of change of scalar concentration is mainly due to advection, while its <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> counterpart is only due to gradient production and viscous dissipation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1919137F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1919137F"><span>Evaluation of the HF-Radar network system around Taiwan using normalized cumulative <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> separation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fredj, Erick; Kohut, Josh; Roarty, Hugh; Lai, Jian-Wu</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> separation distance between the endpoints of simulated and observed drifter trajectories is often used to assess the performance of numerical particle trajectory models. However, the separation distance fails to indicate relative model performance in weak and strong current regions, such as over continental shelves and the adjacent deep ocean. A skill score described in detail by (Lui et.al. 2011) was applied to estimate the cumulative <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> separation distances normalized by the associated cumulative trajectory lengths. In contrast, the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> separation distance alone gives a misleading result. The proposed dimensionless skill score is particularly useful when the number of drifter trajectories is limited and neither a conventional Eulerian-based velocity nor a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> based probability density function may be estimated. The skill score assesses The Taiwan Ocean Radar Observing System (TOROS) performance. TOROS consists of 17 SeaSonde type radars around the Taiwan Island. The currents off Taiwan are significantly influenced by the nearby Kuroshio current. The main stream of the Kuroshio flows along the east coast of Taiwan to the north throughout the year. Sometimes its branch current also bypasses the south end of Taiwan and goes north along the west coast of Taiwan. The Kuroshio is also prone to seasonal change in its speed of flow, current capacity, distribution width, and depth. The evaluations of HF-Radar National Taiwanese network performance using <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> drifter records demonstrated the high quality and robustness of TOROS HF-Radar data using a purely trajectory-based non-dimensional index. Yonggang Liu and Robert H. Weisberg, "Evaluation of trajectory modeling in different dynamic regions using normalized cumulative <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> separation", Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 116, C09013, doi:10.1029/2010JC006837, 2011</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22525003-general-form-coupled-horndeski-lagrangian-allows-cosmological-scaling-solutions','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22525003-general-form-coupled-horndeski-lagrangian-allows-cosmological-scaling-solutions"><span>The general form of the coupled Horndeski <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> that allows cosmological scaling solutions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gomes, Adalto R.; Amendola, Luca, E-mail: argomes.ufma@gmail.com, E-mail: l.amendola@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de</p> <p></p> <p>We consider the general scalar field Horndeski <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> coupled to dark matter. Within this class of models, we present two results that are independent of the particular form of the model. First, we show that in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric the Horndeski <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> coincides with the pressure of the scalar field. Second, we employ the previous result to identify the most general form of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> that allows for cosmological scaling solutions, i.e. solutions where the ratio of dark matter to field density and the equation of state remain constant. Scaling solutions of this kind may help solving the coincidence problemmore » since in this case the presently observed ratio of matter to dark energy does not depend on initial conditions, but rather on the theoretical parameters.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..DFD.B1003B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..DFD.B1003B"><span>Stanley Corrsin Award Lecture: <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Measurements in Turbulence: From Fundamentals to Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bodenschatz, Eberhard</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>In my talk I shall present results from particle tracking experiments in turbulence. After a short review of the history of the field, I shall summarize the most recent technological advances that range form low and high-density particle tracking to direct measurements of the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> evolution of vorticity. I shall embark on a journey that describes the discoveries made possible by this new technology in the last 15 years. I present results that challenge our understanding of turbulence and show how <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particle tracking can help us ask questions on turbulent flows that so far were hidden. I shall show how <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particle tracking may provide important insights into the reversibility of turbulent flows, on vorticity generation, the energy cascade and turbulent mixing. I shall describe the consequences of inertial particle transport on rain formation and end with an outlook on how <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particle tracking experiments on non-stationary flows in real-world situations may provide high quality data that can support real world engineering problems. I am very thankful for the support by Cornell University, the National Science Foundation, the Research Corporation, the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, the German Research Foundation, the European Union and the Max Planck Society. I very gratefully acknowledge the excellent partnership with many colleagues in the field of fluid mechanics and turbulence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960008688','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960008688"><span>Analytical and <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> studies of rotating turbulence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mahalov, Alex; Zhou, YE</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>A framework, which combines mathematical analysis, closure theory, and <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> treatment, is developed to study the spectral transfer process and reduction of dimensionality in turbulent flows that are subject to rotation. First, we outline a mathematical procedure that is particularly appropriate for problems with two disparate time scales. The <span class="hlt">approach</span> which is based on the Green's method leads to the Poincare velocity variables and the Poincare transformation when applied to rotating turbulence. The effects of the rotation are now reflected in the modifications to the convolution of a nonlinear term. The Poincare transformed equations are used to obtain a time-dependent analog of the Taylor-Proudman theorem valid in the asymptotic limit when the non-dimensional parameter mu is identical to Omega(t) <span class="hlt">approaches</span> infinity (Omega is the rotation rate and t is the time). The 'split' of the energy transfer in both direct and inverse directions is established. Secondly, we apply the Eddy-Damped-Quasinormal-Markovian (EDQNM) closure to the Poincare transformed Euler/Navier-Stokes equations. This closure leads to expressions for the spectral energy transfer. In particular, an unique triple velocity decorrelation time is derived with an explicit dependence on the rotation rate. This provides an important input for applying the <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> treatment of Zhou. In order to characterize the relative strength of rotation, another non-dimensional number, a spectral Rossby number, which is defined as the ratio of rotation and turbulence time scales, is introduced. Finally, the energy spectrum and the spectral eddy viscosity are deduced.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900035993&hterms=Lagrangian&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DLagrangian','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900035993&hterms=Lagrangian&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DLagrangian"><span>On the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> description of unsteady boundary-layer separation. I - General theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Van Dommelen, Leon L.; Cowley, Stephen J.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Although unsteady, high-Reynolds number, laminar boundary layers have conventionally been studied in terms of Eulerian coordinates, a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> may have significant analytical and computational advantages. In <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> coordinates the classical boundary layer equations decouple into a momentum equation for the motion parallel to the boundary, and a hyperbolic continuity equation (essentially a conserved Jacobian) for the motion normal to the boundary. The momentum equations, plus the energy equation if the flow is compressible, can be solved independently of the continuity equation. Unsteady separation occurs when the continuity equation becomes singular as a result of touching characteristics, the condition for which can be expressed in terms of the solution of the momentum equations. The solutions to the momentum and energy equations remain regular. Asymptotic structures for a number of unsteady 3-D separating flows follow and depend on the symmetry properties of the flow. In the absence of any symmetry, the singularity structure just prior to separation is found to be quasi 2-D with a displacement thickness in the form of a crescent shaped ridge. Physically the singularities can be understood in terms of the behavior of a fluid element inside the boundary layer which contracts in a direction parallel to the boundary and expands normal to it, thus forcing the fluid above it to be ejected from the boundary layer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4873050','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4873050"><span>Sour Fruits on the Trail: Renewing <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> Practice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>De Monticelli, Roberta; Simionescu-Panait, Andrei</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This summer, Europe’s Journal of Psychology hosts a fruitful discussion about <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span>, its method, the possibilities of application in today's context and its current troubled waters stemming from recent historical-ideological debates. Prof. Roberta De Monticelli offers lush and informative answers to provocative issues like overdriving the epoché, Heidegger's dark undertones, the relation between pedagogy and authorship in <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> and the idea of filtering politics through Husserlian <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span>. PMID:27247664</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19736746','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19736746"><span><span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span> in nursing research: methodology, interviewing and transcribing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Balls, Paula</p> <p></p> <p>While nurses can relate to the <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> because they see it as sharing the values of nursing, this may not be sufficient on its own to start conducting this kind of research. Using examples from my own research experience, this article aims to examine what draws nursing to this method and why nurses think they may be good at it. It also offers practical advice on how to carry out a good interview, how and what to transcribe and how to use quotes to support research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1324262-second-order-upwind-lagrangian-particle-method-euler-equations','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1324262-second-order-upwind-lagrangian-particle-method-euler-equations"><span>Second order upwind <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particle method for Euler equations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Samulyak, Roman; Chen, Hsin -Chiang; Yu, Kwangmin</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>A new second order upwind <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particle method for solving Euler equations for compressible inviscid fluid or gas flows is proposed. Similar to smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), the method represents fluid cells with <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particles and is suitable for the simulation of complex free surface / multiphase flows. The main contributions of our method, which is different from SPH in all other aspects, are (a) significant improvement of approximation of differential operators based on a polynomial fit via weighted least squares approximation and the convergence of prescribed order, (b) an upwind second-order particle-based algorithm with limiter, providing accuracy and longmore » term stability, and (c) accurate resolution of states at free interfaces. In conclusion, numerical verification tests demonstrating the convergence order for fixed domain and free surface problems are presented.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1324262','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1324262"><span>Second order upwind <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particle method for Euler equations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Samulyak, Roman; Chen, Hsin -Chiang; Yu, Kwangmin</p> <p></p> <p>A new second order upwind <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particle method for solving Euler equations for compressible inviscid fluid or gas flows is proposed. Similar to smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), the method represents fluid cells with <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particles and is suitable for the simulation of complex free surface / multiphase flows. The main contributions of our method, which is different from SPH in all other aspects, are (a) significant improvement of approximation of differential operators based on a polynomial fit via weighted least squares approximation and the convergence of prescribed order, (b) an upwind second-order particle-based algorithm with limiter, providing accuracy and longmore » term stability, and (c) accurate resolution of states at free interfaces. In conclusion, numerical verification tests demonstrating the convergence order for fixed domain and free surface problems are presented.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25860563','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25860563"><span><span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> aspects of the cognitive rumination construct.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Meyer, Leonardo Fernandez; Taborda, José Geraldo Vernet; da Costa, Fábio Antônio; Soares, Ana Luiza Alfaya Galego; Mecler, Kátia; Valença, Alexandre Martins</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>To evaluate the importance of <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> aspects of the cognitive rumination (CR) construct in current empirical psychiatric research. We searched SciELO, Scopus, ScienceDirect, MEDLINE, OneFile (GALE), SpringerLink, Cambridge Journals and Web of Science between February and March of 2014 for studies whose title and topic included the following keywords: cognitive rumination; rumination response scale; and self-reflection. The inclusion criteria were: empirical clinical study; CR as the main object of investigation; and study that included a conceptual definition of CR. The studies selected were published in English in biomedical journals in the last 10 years. Our <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> analysis was based on Karl Jaspers' General Psychopathology. Most current empirical studies adopt <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> cognitive elements in conceptual definitions. However, these elements do not seem to be carefully examined and are indistinctly understood as objective empirical factors that may be measured, which may contribute to misunderstandings about CR, erroneous interpretations of results and problematic theoretical models. Empirical studies fail when evaluating <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> aspects of the cognitive elements of the CR construct. Psychopathology and <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> may help define the characteristics of CR elements and may contribute to their understanding and hierarchical organization as a construct. A review of the psychopathology principles established by Jasper may clarify some of these issues.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012cosp...39.1660S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012cosp...39.1660S"><span>Alternative Transfer to the Earth-Moon <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Points L4 and L5 Using Lunar Gravity assist</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Salazar, Francisco; Winter, Othon; Macau, Elbert; Bertachini de Almeida Prado, Antonio Fernando</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> points L4 and L5 lie at 60 degrees ahead of and behind Moon in its orbit with respect to the Earth. Each one of them is a third point of an equilateral triangle with the base of the line defined by those two bodies. These <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> points are stable for the Earth-Moon mass ratio. Because of their distance electromagnetic radiations from the Earth arrive on them substantially attenuated. As so, these <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> points represent remarkable positions to host astronomical observatories. However, this same distance characteristic may be a challenge for periodic servicing mission. This paper studies transfer orbits in the planar restricted three-body problem. To avoid solving a two-boundary problem, the patched-conic approximation is used to find initial conditions to transfer a spacecraft between an Earth circular parking orbit and the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> points L4, L5 (in the Earth-Moon system), such that a swing-by maneuver is applied using the lunar gravity. We also found orbits that can be used to make a tour to the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> points L4, L5 based on the theorem of image trajectories. Keywords: Stable <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> points, L4, L5, Three-Body problem, Patched Conic, Swing-by</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhFl...29d5103A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhFl...29d5103A"><span>Subgrid-scale stresses and scalar fluxes constructed by the multi-scale turnover <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> map</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>AL-Bairmani, Sukaina; Li, Yi; Rosales, Carlos; Xie, Zheng-tong</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The multi-scale turnover <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> map (MTLM) [C. Rosales and C. Meneveau, "Anomalous scaling and intermittency in three-dimensional synthetic turbulence," Phys. Rev. E 78, 016313 (2008)] uses nested multi-scale <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> advection of fluid particles to distort a Gaussian velocity field and, as a result, generate non-Gaussian synthetic velocity fields. Passive scalar fields can be generated with the procedure when the fluid particles carry a scalar property [C. Rosales, "Synthetic three-dimensional turbulent passive scalar fields via the minimal <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> map," Phys. Fluids 23, 075106 (2011)]. The synthetic fields have been shown to possess highly realistic statistics characterizing small scale intermittency, geometrical structures, and vortex dynamics. In this paper, we present a study of the synthetic fields using the filtering <span class="hlt">approach</span>. This <span class="hlt">approach</span>, which has not been pursued so far, provides insights on the potential applications of the synthetic fields in large eddy simulations and subgrid-scale (SGS) modelling. The MTLM method is first generalized to model scalar fields produced by an imposed linear mean profile. We then calculate the subgrid-scale stress, SGS scalar flux, SGS scalar variance, as well as related quantities from the synthetic fields. Comparison with direct numerical simulations (DNSs) shows that the synthetic fields reproduce the probability distributions of the SGS energy and scalar dissipation rather well. Related geometrical statistics also display close agreement with DNS results. The synthetic fields slightly under-estimate the mean SGS energy dissipation and slightly over-predict the mean SGS scalar variance dissipation. In general, the synthetic fields tend to slightly under-estimate the probability of large fluctuations for most quantities we have examined. Small scale anisotropy in the scalar field originated from the imposed mean gradient is captured. The sensitivity of the synthetic fields on the input spectra is assessed by</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=armour&pg=7&id=EJ604219','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=armour&pg=7&id=EJ604219"><span>Sport Sciences and the Promise of <span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span>: Philosophy, Method, and Insight.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kerry, Daniel S.; Armour, Kathleen M.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Examines how <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> might make a more significant contribution to knowledge and understanding within sport-related research. The paper discusses the philosophical roots of <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span>; highlights the key contributions of and differences between Husserl and Heidegger; examines <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> as philosophy and <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> as method; and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Example+AND+methodological+AND+research&pg=5&id=EJ1155631','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Example+AND+methodological+AND+research&pg=5&id=EJ1155631"><span><span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> Research: Inquiry to Understand the Meanings of People's Experiences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bliss, Linda A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this article is to introduce readers to <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> inquiry, an inductive qualitative research <span class="hlt">approach</span> that is rooted in the philosophical proposition that researchers can gain valuable insight into the structure of how people understand their experiences. It is assumed that there is a structure or essence to the meaning…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/21502629-effective-lagrangian-nonlinear-electrodynamics-its-properties-causality-unitarity','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/21502629-effective-lagrangian-nonlinear-electrodynamics-its-properties-causality-unitarity"><span>Effective <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> in nonlinear electrodynamics and its properties of causality and unitarity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shabad, Anatoly E.; Usov, Vladimir V.</p> <p>2011-05-15</p> <p>In nonlinear electrodynamics, by implementing the causality principle as the requirement that the group velocity of elementary excitations over a background field should not exceed the speed of light in the vacuum c=1, and the unitarity principle as the requirement that the residue of the propagator should be nonnegative, we establish the positive convexity of the effective <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> on the class of constant fields, also the positivity of all characteristic dielectric and magnetic permittivity constants that are derivatives of the effective <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> with respect to the field invariants. Violation of the general principles by the one-loop approximation in QED atmore » exponentially large magnetic field is analyzed, resulting in complex energy ghosts that signal the instability of the magnetized vacuum. Superluminal excitations (tachyons) appear, too, but for the magnetic field exceeding its instability threshold. Also other popular <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span> are tested to establish that the ones leading to spontaneous vacuum magnetization possess wrong convexity.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28961072','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28961072"><span>A Satellite-Based <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> View on Phytoplankton Dynamics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lehahn, Yoav; d'Ovidio, Francesco; Koren, Ilan</p> <p>2018-01-03</p> <p>The well-lit upper layer of the open ocean is a dynamical environment that hosts approximately half of global primary production. In the remote parts of this environment, distant from the coast and from the seabed, there is no obvious spatially fixed reference frame for describing the dynamics of the microscopic drifting organisms responsible for this immense production of organic matter-the phytoplankton. Thus, a natural perspective for studying phytoplankton dynamics is to follow the trajectories of water parcels in which the organisms are embedded. With the advent of satellite oceanography, this <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> perspective has provided valuable information on different aspects of phytoplankton dynamics, including bloom initiation and termination, spatial distribution patterns, biodiversity, export of carbon to the deep ocean, and, more recently, bottom-up mechanisms that affect the distribution and behavior of higher-trophic-level organisms. Upcoming submesoscale-resolving satellite observations and swarms of autonomous platforms open the way to the integration of vertical dynamics into the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> view of phytoplankton dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26353373','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26353373"><span>Multiphase Interface Tracking with Fast Semi-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Contouring.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Xiaosheng; He, Xiaowei; Liu, Xuehui; Zhang, Jian J; Liu, Baoquan; Wu, Enhua</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>We propose a semi-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> method for multiphase interface tracking. In contrast to previous methods, our method maintains an explicit polygonal mesh, which is reconstructed from an unsigned distance function and an indicator function, to track the interface of arbitrary number of phases. The surface mesh is reconstructed at each step using an efficient multiphase polygonization procedure with precomputed stencils while the distance and indicator function are updated with an accurate semi-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> path tracing from the meshes of the last step. Furthermore, we provide an adaptive data structure, multiphase distance tree, to accelerate the updating of both the distance function and the indicator function. In addition, the adaptive structure also enables us to contour the distance tree accurately with simple bisection techniques. The major advantage of our method is that it can easily handle topological changes without ambiguities and preserve both the sharp features and the volume well. We will evaluate its efficiency, accuracy and robustness in the results part with several examples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018ARMS...10...99L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018ARMS...10...99L"><span>A Satellite-Based <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> View on Phytoplankton Dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lehahn, Yoav; d'Ovidio, Francesco; Koren, Ilan</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>The well-lit upper layer of the open ocean is a dynamical environment that hosts approximately half of global primary production. In the remote parts of this environment, distant from the coast and from the seabed, there is no obvious spatially fixed reference frame for describing the dynamics of the microscopic drifting organisms responsible for this immense production of organic matter—the phytoplankton. Thus, a natural perspective for studying phytoplankton dynamics is to follow the trajectories of water parcels in which the organisms are embedded. With the advent of satellite oceanography, this <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> perspective has provided valuable information on different aspects of phytoplankton dynamics, including bloom initiation and termination, spatial distribution patterns, biodiversity, export of carbon to the deep ocean, and, more recently, bottom-up mechanisms that affect the distribution and behavior of higher-trophic-level organisms. Upcoming submesoscale-resolving satellite observations and swarms of autonomous platforms open the way to the integration of vertical dynamics into the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> view of phytoplankton dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSIS53A..06F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSIS53A..06F"><span>Collaborative Visual Seafloor Imaging using a Photographic AUV and a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Imaging Float</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Friedman, A.; Pizarro, O.; Roman, C.; Toohey, L.; Snyder, W.; Johnson-Roberson, M.; Iscar, E.; Williams, S. B.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>High resolution seafloor imaging from mobile autonomous platforms has become a valuable tool for habitat classification, stock assessment and seafloor exploration. This abstract addresses the concept of joint seafloor survey planning using both navigable and drifting platforms, and presents results from an experiment using a bottom surveying AUV and a drifting <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> camera float. We consider two classes of vehicles; one which is able to self propel and execute structured surveys, and one which is <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> and moves only with the currents. The navigable vehicle is the more capable and the more expensives asset of the two. The <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> platforms is a low cost imaging tool that can actively control its altitude above the seafloor to obtain high quality images but can not otherwise control its trajectory over the bottom. When used together the vehicles offer several scenarios for joint operations. When used in an exploratory manner the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> float is an inexpensive way to collect images from an unknown area. Depending on the collected images, a follow on structured survey with the navigable AUV can collect additional information if the cost is acceptable given the need and prior data. When used simultaneously the drifting float can guide the AUV trajectory over an area. When both platforms are equipped with acoustic tracking and communications the AUV trajectory can be automatically redirected to follow the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> float using one of many patterns. This capability allows for surveys that are potentially more representative of the near bottom oceanographic conditions at the desired location. Results will be presented from a cruise to Scott Reef, Australia, where both platforms were used as part of a coral habitat monitoring project.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27637938','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27637938"><span>Narcissism, self-esteem, and the <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> of autobiographical memories.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jones, Lara L; Norville, Gregory A; Wright, A Michelle</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>Across two studies, we investigated the influence of narcissism and self-esteem along with gender on <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> ratings across the four subscales of the Autobiographical Memory Questionnaire (AMQ; impact, recollection, rehearsal, and belief). Memory cues varied in valence (positive vs. negative) and agency (agentic vs. communal). In Study 2, we used different memory cues reflecting these four Valence by Agency conditions and additionally investigated retrieval times for the autobiographical memories (AMs). Results were consistent with the agency model of narcissism [Campbell, W. K., Brunell, A. B., & Finkel, E. J. (2006). Narcissism, interpersonal self-regulation, and romantic relationships: An agency model <span class="hlt">approach</span>. In E. J. Finkel & K. D. Vohs (Eds.), Self and relationships: Connecting intrapersonal and interpersonal processes. New York, NY: Guilford], which characterises narcissists as being more concerned with agentic (self-focused) rather than communal (other-focused) positive self-relevant information. Narcissism predicted greater <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> across the four subscales for the positive-agentic memories (Study 1: clever; Study 2: attractive, talented) as well as faster memory retrieval times. Narcissism also predicted greater recollection and faster retrieval times for the negative-communal AMs (Study 1: rude; Study 2: annoying, dishonest). In contrast, self-esteem predicted greater <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> and faster retrieval times for the positive-communal AMs (Study 1: cooperative; Study 2: romantic, sympathetic). In both studies, results of LIWC analyses further differentiated between narcissism and self-esteem in the content (word usage) of the AMs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27135811','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27135811"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Hotspots of In-Use NOX Emissions from Transit Buses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kotz, Andrew J; Kittelson, David B; Northrop, William F</p> <p>2016-06-07</p> <p>In-use, spatiotemporal NOX emissions were measured from a conventional powertrain transit bus and a series electric hybrid bus over gradients of route kinetic intensity and ambient temperature. This paper introduces a new method for identifying NOX emissions hotspots along a bus route using high fidelity <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> vehicle data to explore spatial interactions that may influence emissions production. Our study shows that the studied transit buses emit higher than regulated emissions because on-route operation does not accurately represent the range of engine operation tested according to regulatory standards. Using the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> hotspot detection, we demonstrate that NOX hotspots occurred at bus stops, during cold starts, on inclines, and for accelerations. On the selected routes, bus stops resulted in 3.3 times the route averaged emissions factor in grams/km without significant dependence on bus type or climate. The buses also emitted 2.3 times the route averaged NOX emissions factor at the beginning of each route due to cold selective catalytic reduction aftertreatment temperature. The <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> hotspot detection technique demonstrated here could be employed in future connected vehicles empowered by advances in computational power, data storage capability, and improved sensor technology to optimize emissions as a function of spatial location.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1912050R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1912050R"><span>Dry intrusions: <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> climatology and impact on the boundary layer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Raveh-Rubin, Shira; Wernli, Heini</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Dry air intrusions (DIs) are large-scale descending airstreams. A DI is typically referred to as a coherent airstream in the cold sector of an extratropical cyclone. Emerging evidence suggests that DIs are linked to severe surface wind gusts. However, there is yet no strict <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> definition of DIs, and so their climatological frequency, dynamical characteristics as well as their seasonal and spatial distributions are unknown. Furthermore, the dynamical interaction between DIs and the planetary boundary layer is not fully understood. Here, we suggest a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> definition for DI air parcels, namely a minimum pressure increase along a trajectory of 400 hPa in 48 hours. Based on this criterion, the open questions are addressed by: (i) a novel global <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> climatology for the ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset for the years 1979-2014; (ii) a case study illustrating the interaction between DIs and the boundary layer. We find that DIs occur predominantly in winter. DIs coherently descend from the upper troposphere (their stratospheric origin is small), to the mid- and low levels, where they mix with their environment and diverge. Different physical characteristics typify DIs in the different regions and seasons. Finally, we demonstrate the different mechanisms by which DIs can destabilize the boundary layer and facilitate the formation of strong surface winds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Definition+AND+phenomenology&pg=4&id=EJ140776','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Definition+AND+phenomenology&pg=4&id=EJ140776"><span>Some <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> Aspects of the Peak Experience</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rosenblatt, Howard S.; Bartlett, Iris</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>This article relates the psychological dynamics of "peak experiences" to two concepts, intentionality and paradoxical intention, within the philosophical orientation of <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span>. A review of early philosophical theories of self (Kant and Hume) is presented and compared with the experiential emphasis found in the <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> of Husserl.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017WRR....53.3513E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017WRR....53.3513E"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> simulation of mixing and reactions in complex geochemical systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Engdahl, Nicholas B.; Benson, David A.; Bolster, Diogo</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Simulations of detailed geochemical systems have traditionally been restricted to Eulerian reactive transport algorithms. This note introduces a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> method for modeling multicomponent reaction systems. The <span class="hlt">approach</span> uses standard random walk-based methods for the particle motion steps but allows the particles to interact with each other by exchanging mass of their various chemical species. The colocation density of each particle pair is used to calculate the mass transfer rate, which creates a local disequilibrium that is then relaxed back toward equilibrium using the reaction engine PhreeqcRM. The mass exchange is the only step where the particles interact and the remaining transport and reaction steps are entirely independent for each particle. Several validation examples are presented, which reproduce well-known analytical solutions. These are followed by two demonstration examples of a competitive decay chain and an acid-mine drainage system. The source code, entitled Complex Reaction on Particles (CRP), and files needed to run these examples are hosted openly on GitHub (https://github.com/nbengdahl/CRP), so as to enable interested readers to readily apply this <span class="hlt">approach</span> with minimal modifications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29097881','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29097881"><span>A <span class="hlt">LAGRANGIAN</span> GAUSS-NEWTON-KRYLOV SOLVER FOR MASS- AND INTENSITY-PRESERVING DIFFEOMORPHIC IMAGE REGISTRATION.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mang, Andreas; Ruthotto, Lars</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>We present an efficient solver for diffeomorphic image registration problems in the framework of Large Deformations Diffeomorphic Metric Mappings (LDDMM). We use an optimal control formulation, in which the velocity field of a hyperbolic PDE needs to be found such that the distance between the final state of the system (the transformed/transported template image) and the observation (the reference image) is minimized. Our solver supports both stationary and non-stationary (i.e., transient or time-dependent) velocity fields. As transformation models, we consider both the transport equation (assuming intensities are preserved during the deformation) and the continuity equation (assuming mass-preservation). We consider the reduced form of the optimal control problem and solve the resulting unconstrained optimization problem using a discretize-then-optimize <span class="hlt">approach</span>. A key contribution is the elimination of the PDE constraint using a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> hyperbolic PDE solver. <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> methods rely on the concept of characteristic curves. We approximate these curves using a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. We also present an efficient algorithm for computing the derivatives of the final state of the system with respect to the velocity field. This allows us to use fast Gauss-Newton based methods. We present quickly converging iterative linear solvers using spectral preconditioners that render the overall optimization efficient and scalable. Our method is embedded into the image registration framework FAIR and, thus, supports the most commonly used similarity measures and regularization functionals. We demonstrate the potential of our new <span class="hlt">approach</span> using several synthetic and real world test problems with up to 14.7 million degrees of freedom.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28462289','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28462289"><span>Living With Chronic Lower Pulmonary Disease: Disruptions of the Embodied <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> Self.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pooler, Charlotte</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In this article, I present a <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> study of individuals' experiences of living with moderate to very severe chronic lower pulmonary disease (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, or both). <span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span> is a philosophy, distinct from descriptive or thematic research, which is useful as a foundation for scientific inquiry. In this study, I used the lens of Merleau-Ponty to understand and interpret participants' experiences of living with pulmonary disease, and the <span class="hlt">approach</span> of van Manen for analysis. I conclude that in chronic pulmonary disease, awareness of breathing and the body is experienced in the sounds, sensations, and signals of breathing and the body, and in the experiences of the body-in-the-world. Central themes of being-in-the-world from the study describe the disruption of the embodied <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> self: Participants experienced slowing down, doing less, and having to stop due to shortness of breath. Both chronic and acute dyspnea were prevalent and the taken-for-granted aspects of daily activities were disrupted. Findings of this study have implications for public and patient education, and opportunities for integration of experiential aspects within nursing education and practice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017FBS....58...71V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017FBS....58...71V"><span>S-wave <span class="hlt">Approach</span> for \\varvec{nnp} and \\varvec{ppn} Systems with <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> Correction for Singlet \\varvec{NN} Potentials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vlahovic, B.; Suslov, V. M.; Filikhin, I.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Three-nucleon systems are considered assuming the neutrons and protons to be distinguishable particles. The configuration space Faddeev equations within the s-wave <span class="hlt">approach</span> are applied for studying bound state and scattering problems. The <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> Malfliet-Tjon MT I-III and Afnan-Tang ATS3 NN potentials are used with scaling factors chosen to reproduce the singlet nn, pp and np experimental scattering lengths. Numerical evaluation for the charge symmetry breaking energy is found to be about 50 keV for ^3H and ^3He nuclei. To determine any effects related to the nn ( pp) and np potential differences, the nd and pd breakup scattering calculations were performed at E_{lab}=4.0 and 14.1 MeV. We found the effects due to potential differences are small but noticeable. We discuss the dependence of calculated inelasticities and phase-shifts with respect to the chosen value for cutoff radius.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1439449-lagrangian-particle-method-compressible-fluid-dynamics','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1439449-lagrangian-particle-method-compressible-fluid-dynamics"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particle method for compressible fluid dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Samulyak, Roman; Wang, Xingyu; Chen, Hsin -Chiang</p> <p></p> <p>A new <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particle method for solving Euler equations for compressible inviscid fluid or gas flows is proposed. Similar to smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), the method represents fluid cells with <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particles and is suitable for the simulation of complex free surface / multi-phase flows. The main contributions of our method, which is different from SPH in all other aspects, are (a) significant improvement of approximation of differential operators based on a polynomial fit via weighted least squares approximation and the convergence of prescribed order, (b) a second-order particle-based algorithm that reduces to the first-order upwind method at local extremalmore » points, providing accuracy and long term stability, and (c) more accurate resolution of entropy discontinuities and states at free inter-faces. While the method is consistent and convergent to a prescribed order, the conservation of momentum and energy is not exact and depends on the convergence order . The method is generalizable to coupled hyperbolic-elliptic systems. As a result, numerical verification tests demonstrating the convergence order are presented as well as examples of complex multiphase flows.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28950601','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28950601"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> descriptors of driven chemical reaction manifolds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Craven, Galen T; Junginger, Andrej; Hernandez, Rigoberto</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>The persistence of a transition state structure in systems driven by time-dependent environments allows the application of modern reaction rate theories to solution-phase and nonequilibrium chemical reactions. However, identifying this structure is problematic in driven systems and has been limited by theories built on series expansion about a saddle point. Recently, it has been shown that to obtain formally exact rates for reactions in thermal environments, a transition state trajectory must be constructed. Here, using optimized <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> descriptors [G. T. Craven and R. Hernandez, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 148301 (2015)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.115.148301], we obtain this so-called distinguished trajectory and the associated moving reaction manifolds on model energy surfaces subject to various driving and dissipative conditions. In particular, we demonstrate that this is exact for harmonic barriers in one dimension and this verification gives impetus to the application of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> descriptor-based methods in diverse classes of chemical reactions. The development of these objects is paramount in the theory of reaction dynamics as the transition state structure and its underlying network of manifolds directly dictate reactivity and selectivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950014634','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950014634"><span>A <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> dynamic subgrid-scale model turbulence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Meneveau, C.; Lund, T. S.; Cabot, W.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>A new formulation of the dynamic subgrid-scale model is tested in which the error associated with the Germano identity is minimized over flow pathlines rather than over directions of statistical homogeneity. This procedure allows the application of the dynamic model with averaging to flows in complex geometries that do not possess homogeneous directions. The characteristic <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> time scale over which the averaging is performed is chosen such that the model is purely dissipative, guaranteeing numerical stability when coupled with the Smagorinsky model. The formulation is tested successfully in forced and decaying isotropic turbulence and in fully developed and transitional channel flow. In homogeneous flows, the results are similar to those of the volume-averaged dynamic model, while in channel flow, the predictions are superior to those of the plane-averaged dynamic model. The relationship between the averaged terms in the model and vortical structures (worms) that appear in the LES is investigated. Computational overhead is kept small (about 10 percent above the CPU requirements of the volume or plane-averaged dynamic model) by using an approximate scheme to advance the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> tracking through first-order Euler time integration and linear interpolation in space.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1439449-lagrangian-particle-method-compressible-fluid-dynamics','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1439449-lagrangian-particle-method-compressible-fluid-dynamics"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particle method for compressible fluid dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Samulyak, Roman; Wang, Xingyu; Chen, Hsin -Chiang</p> <p>2018-02-09</p> <p>A new <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particle method for solving Euler equations for compressible inviscid fluid or gas flows is proposed. Similar to smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), the method represents fluid cells with <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particles and is suitable for the simulation of complex free surface / multi-phase flows. The main contributions of our method, which is different from SPH in all other aspects, are (a) significant improvement of approximation of differential operators based on a polynomial fit via weighted least squares approximation and the convergence of prescribed order, (b) a second-order particle-based algorithm that reduces to the first-order upwind method at local extremalmore » points, providing accuracy and long term stability, and (c) more accurate resolution of entropy discontinuities and states at free inter-faces. While the method is consistent and convergent to a prescribed order, the conservation of momentum and energy is not exact and depends on the convergence order . The method is generalizable to coupled hyperbolic-elliptic systems. As a result, numerical verification tests demonstrating the convergence order are presented as well as examples of complex multiphase flows.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EPJC...73.2375C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EPJC...73.2375C"><span><span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span> tools on cloud infrastructures using OpenStack</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Campos, I.; Fernández-del-Castillo, E.; Heinemeyer, S.; Lopez-Garcia, A.; Pahlen, F.; Borges, G.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>We present a new environment for computations in particle physics <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> employing recent developments in cloud computing. On this environment users can create and manage "virtual" machines on which the <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> codes/tools can be deployed easily in an automated way. We analyze the performance of this environment based on "virtual" machines versus the utilization of physical hardware. In this way we provide a qualitative result for the influence of the host operating system on the performance of a representative set of applications for <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> calculations.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=volunteer+AND+learning&pg=7&id=ED552063','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=volunteer+AND+learning&pg=7&id=ED552063"><span>Boulder City 31ers: A <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> Study of a Community-Based History Preservation Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lynch, Arthur T.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This dissertation used a <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> in investigating the development of a grassroots community history-based educational outreach and chronicled its development from inception to incorporation into the mission of an established institution. The research questions focused on Deweyan principles of student-centered, experiential…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26104831','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26104831"><span>The <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> of shame in the clinical encounter.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dolezal, Luna</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>This article examines the <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> of body shame in the context of the clinical encounter, using the television program 'Embarrassing Bodies' as illustrative. I will expand on the insights of Aaron Lazare's 1987 article 'Shame and Humiliation in the Medical Encounter' where it is argued that patients often see their diseases and ailments as defects, inadequacies or personal shortcomings and that visits to doctors and medical professionals involve potentially humiliating physical and psychological exposure. I will start by outlining a <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> of shame in order to understand more clearly the effect shame about the body can have in terms of one's personal experience and, furthermore, one's interpersonal dynamics. I will then examine shame in the clinical encounter, linking body shame to the cultural stigma attached to illness, dysfunction and bodily frailty. I will furthermore explore how shame can be exacerbated or even incited by physicians through judgment and as a result of the power imbalance inherent to the physician-patient dynamic, compounded by the contemporary tendency to moralise about 'lifestyle' illnesses. Lastly, I will provide some reflections for how health care workers might <span class="hlt">approach</span> patient shame in clinical practice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1125605.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1125605.pdf"><span>A <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> Investigation of Social Networking Privacy Awareness through a Media Literacy Lens</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Magolis, David; Briggs, Audra</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This research study focused on the social networking site (SNS) awareness of undergraduate students, examining their experiences through the type and extent of the information shared on their SNSs in order to discover the students' experiences with SNS privacy. A <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> research <span class="hlt">approach</span> was used to interview eight undergraduates to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Lagrangian&id=EJ185838','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Lagrangian&id=EJ185838"><span>Construction of <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span> and Hamiltonians from the Equation of Motion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Yan, C. C.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Demonstrates that infinitely many <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span> and Hamiltonians can be constructed from a given equation of motion. Points out the lack of an established criterion for making a proper selection. (Author/GA)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5186H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5186H"><span>Automated detection of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> eddies and coherent transport of heat and salinity in the Agulhas leakage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huhn, Florian; Haller, George</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Haller and Beron-Vera(2013) have recently introduced a new objective method to detect coherent <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> eddies in turbulence. They find that closed null-geodesics of a generalized Green-Lagrange strain tensor act as coherent <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> eddy boundaries, showing near-zero and uniform material stretching. We make use of this method to develop an automated detection procedure for coherent <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> eddies in large-scale ocean data. We apply our results to a recent 3D general circulation model, the Southern Ocean State Estimate (SOSE), with focus on the South Atlantic Ocean and the inter-ocean exchange between the Indian and Atlantic ocean. We detect a large number of coherent <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> eddies and present statistics of their properties. The largest and most circular eddy boundaries represent <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Agulhas rings. Circular regions inside these rings with higher temperature and salinity than the surrounding waters can be explained by the coherent eddy boundaries that enclose and isolate the eddy interiors. We compare eddy boundaries at different depths with eddy boundaries obtained from geostrophic velocities derived from the model's sea surface height (SSH). The transport of mass, heat and salinity enclosed by coherent eddies through a section in the Cape basin is quantified and compared to the non-coherent transport by the background flow.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMOS41B..06L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMOS41B..06L"><span>A Skill Score of Trajectory Model Evaluation Using Reinitialized Series of Normalized Cumulative <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Separation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Y.; Weisberg, R. H.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> separation distance between the endpoints of simulated and observed drifter trajectories is often used to assess the performance of numerical particle trajectory models. However, the separation distance fails to indicate relative model performance in weak and strong current regions, such as a continental shelf and its adjacent deep ocean. A skill score is proposed based on the cumulative <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> separation distances normalized by the associated cumulative trajectory lengths. The new metrics correctly indicates the relative performance of the Global HYCOM in simulating the strong currents of the Gulf of Mexico Loop Current and the weaker currents of the West Florida Shelf in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. In contrast, the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> separation distance alone gives a misleading result. Also, the observed drifter position series can be used to reinitialize the trajectory model and evaluate its performance along the observed trajectory, not just at the drifter end position. The proposed dimensionless skill score is particularly useful when the number of drifter trajectories is limited and neither a conventional Eulerian-based velocity nor a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>-based probability density function may be estimated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26578642','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26578642"><span>Segmental Analysis of Cardiac Short-Axis Views Using <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Radial and Circumferential Strain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ma, Chi; Wang, Xiao; Varghese, Tomy</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Accurate description of myocardial deformation in the left ventricle is a three-dimensional problem, requiring three normal strain components along its natural axis, that is, longitudinal, radial, and circumferential strains. Although longitudinal strains are best estimated from long-axis views, radial and circumferential strains are best depicted in short-axis views. An algorithm that utilizes a polar grid for short-axis views previously developed in our laboratory for a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> description of tissue deformation is utilized for radial and circumferential displacement and strain estimation. Deformation of the myocardial wall, utilizing numerical simulations with ANSYS, and a finite-element analysis-based canine heart model were adapted as the input to a frequency-domain ultrasound simulation program to generate radiofrequency echo signals. Clinical in vivo data were also acquired from a healthy volunteer. Local displacements estimated along and perpendicular to the ultrasound beam propagation direction are then transformed into radial and circumferential displacements and strains using the polar grid based on a pre-determined centroid location. <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> strain variations demonstrate good agreement with the ideal strain when compared with Eulerian results. <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> radial and circumferential strain estimation results are also demonstrated for experimental data on a healthy volunteer. <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> radial and circumferential strain tracking provide accurate results with the assistance of the polar grid, as demonstrated using both numerical simulations and in vivo study. © The Author(s) 2015.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4868801','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4868801"><span>Segmental Analysis of Cardiac Short-Axis Views Using <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Radial and Circumferential Strain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ma, Chi; Wang, Xiao; Varghese, Tomy</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Accurate description of myocardial deformation in the left ventricle is a three-dimensional problem, requiring three normal strain components along its natural axis, that is, longitudinal, radial, and circumferential strains. Although longitudinal strains are best estimated from long-axis views, radial and circumferential strains are best depicted in short-axis views. An algorithm that utilizes a polar grid for short-axis views previously developed in our laboratory for a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> description of tissue deformation is utilized for radial and circumferential displacement and strain estimation. Deformation of the myocardial wall, utilizing numerical simulations with ANSYS, and a finite-element analysis–based canine heart model were adapted as the input to a frequency-domain ultrasound simulation program to generate radiofrequency echo signals. Clinical in vivo data were also acquired from a healthy volunteer. Local displacements estimated along and perpendicular to the ultrasound beam propagation direction are then transformed into radial and circumferential displacements and strains using the polar grid based on a pre-determined centroid location. <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> strain variations demonstrate good agreement with the ideal strain when compared with Eulerian results. <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> radial and circumferential strain estimation results are also demonstrated for experimental data on a healthy volunteer. <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> radial and circumferential strain tracking provide accurate results with the assistance of the polar grid, as demonstrated using both numerical simulations and in vivo study. PMID:26578642</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=SMD&id=ED571927','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=SMD&id=ED571927"><span>What Do the Teachers Have to Say? A <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> Study of the Use of Stationary Movement Devices in Elementary and Middle School Classrooms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Allen, Amanda Hudson</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> study was to explore and describe the experiences of elementary and middle schoolteachers who have used stationary movement devices (SMDs) in their classrooms. A <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> was as a foundational exploration of SMD use in the classroom setting because there was a lack of directly related research.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70185380','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70185380"><span>A <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> stochastic model for aerial spray transport above an oak forest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wang, Yansen; Miller, David R.; Anderson, Dean E.; McManus, Michael L.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>An aerial spray droplets' transport model has been developed by applying recent advances in <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> stochastic simulation of heavy particles. A two-dimensional <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> stochastic model was adopted to simulate the spray droplet dispersion in atmospheric turbulence by adjusting the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> integral time scale along the drop trajectory. The other major physical processes affecting the transport of spray droplets above a forest canopy, the aircraft wingtip vortices and the droplet evaporation, were also included in each time step of the droplets' transport.The model was evaluated using data from an aerial spray field experiment. In generally neutral stability conditions, the accuracy of the model predictions varied from run-to-run as expected. The average root-mean-square error was 24.61 IU cm−2, and the average relative error was 15%. The model prediction was adequate in two-dimensional steady wind conditions, but was less accurate in variable wind condition. The results indicated that the model can simulate successfully the ensemble; average transport of aerial spray droplets under neutral, steady atmospheric wind conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018PhRvD..97f4018A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018PhRvD..97f4018A"><span>Perfect fluid <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> and its cosmological implications in theories of gravity with nonminimally coupled matter fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Avelino, P. P.; Azevedo, R. P. L.</p> <p>2018-03-01</p> <p>In this paper we show that the on-shell <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> of a perfect fluid depends on microscopic properties of the fluid, giving specific examples of perfect fluids with different on-shell <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span> but with the same energy-momentum tensor. We demonstrate that if the fluid is constituted by localized concentrations of energy with fixed rest mass and structure (solitons) then the average on-shell <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> of a perfect fluid is given by Lm=T , where T is the trace of the energy-momentum tensor. We show that our results have profound implications for theories of gravity where the matter <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> appears explicitly in the equations of motion of the gravitational and matter fields, potentially leading to observable deviations from a nearly perfect cosmic microwave background black body spectrum: n -type spectral distortions, affecting the normalization of the spectral energy density. Finally, we put stringent constraints on f (R ,Lm) theories of gravity using the COBE-FIRAS measurement of the spectral radiance of the cosmic microwave background.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890014450','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890014450"><span>On the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> description of unsteady boundary layer separation. Part 1: General theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Vandommelen, Leon L.; Cowley, Stephen J.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Although unsteady, high-Reynolds number, laminar boundary layers have conventionally been studied in terms of Eulerian coordinates, a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> may have significant analytical and computational advantages. In <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> coordinates the classical boundary layer equations decouple into a momentum equation for the motion parallel to the boundary, and a hyperbolic continuity equation (essentially a conserved Jacobian) for the motion normal to the boundary. The momentum equations, plus the energy equation if the flow is compressible, can be solved independently of the continuity equation. Unsteady separation occurs when the continuity equation becomes singular as a result of touching characteristics, the condition for which can be expressed in terms of the solution of the momentum equations. The solutions to the momentum and energy equations remain regular. Asymptotic structures for a number of unsteady 3-D separating flows follow and depend on the symmetry properties of the flow. In the absence of any symmetry, the singularity structure just prior to separation is found to be quasi 2-D with a displacement thickness in the form of a crescent shaped ridge. Physically the singularities can be understood in terms of the behavior of a fluid element inside the boundary layer which contracts in a direction parallel to the boundary and expands normal to it, thus forcing the fluid above it to be ejected from the boundary layer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016TCry...10.1513R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016TCry...10.1513R"><span>Arctic sea-ice diffusion from observed and simulated <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> trajectories</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rampal, Pierre; Bouillon, Sylvain; Bergh, Jon; Ólason, Einar</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>We characterize sea-ice drift by applying a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> diffusion analysis to buoy trajectories from the International Arctic Buoy Programme (IABP) dataset and from two different models: the standalone <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> sea-ice model neXtSIM and the Eulerian coupled ice-ocean model used for the TOPAZ reanalysis. By applying the diffusion analysis to the IABP buoy trajectories over the period 1979-2011, we confirm that sea-ice diffusion follows two distinct regimes (ballistic and Brownian) and we provide accurate values for the diffusivity and integral timescale that could be used in Eulerian or <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> passive tracers models to simulate the transport and diffusion of particles moving with the ice. We discuss how these values are linked to the evolution of the fluctuating displacements variance and how this information could be used to define the size of the search area around the position predicted by the mean drift. By comparing observed and simulated sea-ice trajectories for three consecutive winter seasons (2007-2011), we show how the characteristics of the simulated motion may differ from or agree well with observations. This comparison illustrates the usefulness of first applying a diffusion analysis to evaluate the output of modeling systems that include a sea-ice model before using these in, e.g., oil spill trajectory models or, more generally, to simulate the transport of passive tracers in sea ice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28950490','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28950490"><span>Three-wave scattering in magnetized plasmas: From cold fluid to quantized <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shi, Yuan; Qin, Hong; Fisch, Nathaniel J</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Large amplitude waves in magnetized plasmas, generated either by external pumps or internal instabilities, can scatter via three-wave interactions. While three-wave scattering is well known in collimated geometry, what happens when waves propagate at angles with one another in magnetized plasmas remains largely unknown, mainly due to the analytical difficulty of this problem. In this paper, we overcome this analytical difficulty and find a convenient formula for three-wave coupling coefficient in cold, uniform, magnetized, and collisionless plasmas in the most general geometry. This is achieved by systematically solving the fluid-Maxwell model to second order using a multiscale perturbative expansion. The general formula for the coupling coefficient becomes transparent when we reformulate it as the scattering matrix element of a quantized <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>. Using the quantized <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>, it is possible to bypass the perturbative solution and directly obtain the nonlinear coupling coefficient from the linear response of the plasma. To illustrate how to evaluate the cold coupling coefficient, we give a set of examples where the participating waves are either quasitransverse or quasilongitudinal. In these examples, we determine the angular dependence of three-wave scattering, and demonstrate that backscattering is not necessarily the strongest scattering channel in magnetized plasmas, in contrast to what happens in unmagnetized plasmas. Our <span class="hlt">approach</span> gives a more complete picture, beyond the simple collimated geometry, of how injected waves can decay in magnetic confinement devices, as well as how lasers can be scattered in magnetized plasma targets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhyA..465..472Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhyA..465..472Y"><span>A kinematic wave model in <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> coordinates incorporating capacity drop: Application to homogeneous road stretches and discontinuities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yuan, Kai; Knoop, Victor L.; Hoogendoorn, Serge P.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>On freeways, congestion always leads to capacity drop. This means the queue discharge rate is lower than the pre-queue capacity. Our recent research findings indicate that the queue discharge rate increases with the speed in congestion, that is the capacity drop is strongly correlated with the congestion state. Incorporating this varying capacity drop into a kinematic wave model is essential for assessing consequences of control strategies. However, to the best of authors' knowledge, no such a model exists. This paper fills the research gap by presenting a <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> kinematic wave model. "<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>" denotes that the new model is solved in <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> coordinates. The new model can give capacity drops accompanying both of stop-and-go waves (on homogeneous freeway section) and standing queues (at nodes) in a network. The new model can be applied in a network operation. In this <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> kinematic wave model, the queue discharge rate (or the capacity drop) is a function of vehicular speed in traffic jams. Four case studies on links as well as at lane-drop and on-ramp nodes show that the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> kinematic wave model can give capacity drops well, consistent with empirical observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ832706.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ832706.pdf"><span>Using <span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span> to Understand Experiences of Racism for Second-Generation South Asian Women</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Beharry, Pauline; Crozier, Sharon</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this investigation was to describe the lived experiences of racism for second-generation Canadian women of South Asian descent and how this affected their identity. Six adult co-researchers shared their experiences of what occurred when faced with racism. A <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> was employed, out of which five categories…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhFl...21f5101K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhFl...21f5101K"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particles with mixing. I. Simulating scalar transport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Klimenko, A. Y.</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>The physical similarity and mathematical equivalence of continuous diffusion and particle random walk forms one of the cornerstones of modern physics and the theory of stochastic processes. The randomly walking particles do not need to posses any properties other than location in physical space. However, particles used in many models dealing with simulating turbulent transport and turbulent combustion do posses a set of scalar properties and mixing between particle properties is performed to reflect the dissipative nature of the diffusion processes. We show that the continuous scalar transport and diffusion can be accurately specified by means of localized mixing between randomly walking <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particles with scalar properties and assess errors associated with this scheme. Particles with scalar properties and localized mixing represent an alternative formulation for the process, which is selected to represent the continuous diffusion. Simulating diffusion by <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particles with mixing involves three main competing requirements: minimizing stochastic uncertainty, minimizing bias introduced by numerical diffusion, and preserving independence of particles. These requirements are analyzed for two limited cases of mixing between two particles and mixing between a large number of particles. The problem of possible dependences between particles is most complicated. This problem is analyzed using a coupled chain of equations that has similarities with Bogolubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon chain in statistical physics. Dependences between particles can be significant in close proximity of the particles resulting in a reduced rate of mixing. This work develops further ideas introduced in the previously published letter [Phys. Fluids 19, 031702 (2007)]. Paper I of this work is followed by Paper II [Phys. Fluids 19, 065102 (2009)] where modeling of turbulent reacting flows by <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> particles with localized mixing is specifically considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5769224','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5769224"><span>The Confluence of Perceiving and Thinking in Consciousness <span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wagemann, Johannes</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>The processual relation of thinking and perceiving shall be examined from a historical perspective as well as on the basis of methodically conducted first-person observation. Historically, these two psychological aspects of human knowledge and corresponding philosophical positions have predominant alternating phases. At certain historical points, thinking and perceiving tend to converge, while in the interim phases they seem to diverge with an emphasis on one of them. While at the birth of modern science, for instance, these two forms of mental life were deeply interlinked, today they seem to be separated more than ever before – as a number of scientific crises have shown. Turning from the outer to the inner aspect of this issue, a <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> view becomes relevant. In terms of the consciousness <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> developed by Steiner (1861–1925) and Witzenmann’s (1905–1988) Structure <span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span>, this article will show how a methodical integration of thinking and perceiving can be carried out on the basis of first-person observation. In the course of a skilled introspective or meditative self-observation the individual’s own mental micro-actions of separating and integrating come into view, jointly constituting what we usually call thinking and perceiving. Consequently, this <span class="hlt">approach</span> includes a conceptual as well as a perceptual dimension the experimental confluence of which ties in with the methodological core principle of modern natural science. At the same time, making this principle explicit may open the way to a further development of human consciousness and its scientific delineation. PMID:29375432</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=environmental+AND+news&pg=6&id=EJ1103087','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=environmental+AND+news&pg=6&id=EJ1103087"><span>Using <span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span> to Conduct Environmental Education Research: Experience and Issues</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nazir, Joanne</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Recently, I applied a <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> methodology to study environmental education at an outdoor education center. In this article, I reflect on my experience of doing <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> research to highlight issues researchers may want to consider in using this type of methodology. The main premise of the article is that <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span>, with its…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JHEP...04..012P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JHEP...04..012P"><span>Fingerprints of heavy scales in electroweak effective <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pich, Antonio; Rosell, Ignasi; Santos, Joaquín; Sanz-Cillero, Juan José</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The couplings of the electroweak effective theory contain information on the heavy-mass scales which are no-longer present in the low-energy <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>. We build a general effective <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>, implementing the electroweak chiral symmetry breaking SU(2) L ⊗ SU(2) R → SU(2) L+ R , which couples the known particle fields to heavier states with bosonic quantum numbers J P = 0± and 1±. We consider colour-singlet heavy fields that are in singlet or triplet representations of the electroweak group. Integrating out these heavy scales, we analyze the pattern of low-energy couplings among the light fields which are generated by the massive states. We adopt a generic non-linear realization of the electroweak symmetry breaking with a singlet Higgs, without making any assumption about its possible doublet structure. Special attention is given to the different possible descriptions of massive spin-1 fields and the differences arising from naive implementations of these formalisms, showing their full equivalence once a proper short-distance behaviour is required.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2689170','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2689170"><span>Evolving the theory and praxis of knowledge translation through social interaction: a social <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>McWilliam, Carol L; Kothari, Anita; Ward-Griffin, Catherine; Forbes, Dorothy; Leipert, Beverly</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Background As an inherently human process fraught with subjectivity, dynamic interaction, and change, social interaction knowledge translation (KT) invites implementation scientists to explore what might be learned from adopting the academic tradition of social constructivism and an interpretive research <span class="hlt">approach</span>. This paper presents <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> investigation of the second cycle of a participatory action KT intervention in the home care sector to answer the question: What is the nature of the process of implementing KT through social interaction? Methods Social <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> was selected to capture how the social processes of the KT intervention were experienced, with the aim of representing these as typical socially-constituted patterns. Participants (n = 203), including service providers, case managers, administrators, and researchers organized into nine geographically-determined multi-disciplinary action groups, purposefully selected and audiotaped three meetings per group to capture their enactment of the KT process at early, middle, and end-of-cycle timeframes. Data, comprised of 36 hours of transcribed audiotapes augmented by researchers' field notes, were analyzed using social <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> strategies and authenticated through member checking and peer review. Results Four patterns of social interaction representing organization, team, and individual interests were identified: overcoming barriers and optimizing facilitators; integrating 'science push' and 'demand pull' <span class="hlt">approaches</span> within the social interaction process; synthesizing the research evidence with tacit professional craft and experiential knowledge; and integrating knowledge creation, transfer, and uptake throughout everyday work. Achieved through relational transformative leadership constituted simultaneously by both structure and agency, in keeping with social <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> analysis <span class="hlt">approaches</span>, these four patterns are represented holistically in a typical construction, specifically, a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018CoTPh..69..233E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018CoTPh..69..233E"><span>Gravitational Field as a Pressure Force from Logarithmic <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span> and Non-Standard Hamiltonians: The Case of Stellar Halo of Milky Way</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>El-Nabulsi, Rami Ahmad</p> <p>2018-03-01</p> <p>Recently, the notion of non-standard <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span> was discussed widely in literature in an attempt to explore the inverse variational problem of nonlinear differential equations. Different forms of non-standard <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span> were introduced in literature and have revealed nice mathematical and physical properties. One interesting form related to the inverse variational problem is the logarithmic <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>, which has a number of motivating features related to the Liénard-type and Emden nonlinear differential equations. Such types of <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span> lead to nonlinear dynamics based on non-standard Hamiltonians. In this communication, we show that some new dynamical properties are obtained in stellar dynamics if standard <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span> are replaced by Logarithmic <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span> and their corresponding non-standard Hamiltonians. One interesting consequence concerns the emergence of an extra pressure term, which is related to the gravitational field suggesting that gravitation may act as a pressure in a strong gravitational field. The case of the stellar halo of the Milky Way is considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvE..95f2406P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvE..95f2406P"><span><span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span> of stochastic exponential growth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pirjol, Dan; Jafarpour, Farshid; Iyer-Biswas, Srividya</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>Stochastic exponential growth is observed in a variety of contexts, including molecular autocatalysis, nuclear fission, population growth, inflation of the universe, viral social media posts, and financial markets. Yet literature on modeling the <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> of these stochastic dynamics has predominantly focused on one model, geometric Brownian motion (GBM), which can be described as the solution of a Langevin equation with linear drift and linear multiplicative noise. Using recent experimental results on stochastic exponential growth of individual bacterial cell sizes, we motivate the need for a more general class of <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> models of stochastic exponential growth, which are consistent with the observation that the mean-rescaled distributions are approximately stationary at long times. We show that this behavior is not consistent with GBM, instead it is consistent with power-law multiplicative noise with positive fractional powers. Therefore, we consider this general class of <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> models for stochastic exponential growth, provide analytical solutions, and identify the important dimensionless combination of model parameters, which determines the shape of the mean-rescaled distribution. We also provide a prescription for robustly inferring model parameters from experimentally observed stochastic growth trajectories.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24971072','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24971072"><span>The cruel and unusual <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> of solitary confinement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gallagher, Shaun</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>What happens when subjects are deprived of intersubjective contact? This paper looks closely at the <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> and psychology of one example of that deprivation: solitary confinement. It also puts the <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> and psychology of solitary confinement to use in the legal context. Not only is there no consensus on whether solitary confinement is a "cruel and unusual punishment," there is no consensus on the definition of the term "cruel" in the use of that legal phrase. I argue that we can find a moral consensus on the meaning of "cruelty" by looking specifically at the <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> and psychology of solitary confinement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NIMPB.394...20C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NIMPB.394...20C"><span>Cumulative <span class="hlt">approaches</span> to track formation under swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation: <span class="hlt">Phenomenological</span> correlation with formation energies of Frenkel pairs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Crespillo, M. L.; Agulló-López, F.; Zucchiatti, A.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>An extensive survey for the formation energies of Frenkel pairs, as representative candidates for radiation-induced point defects, is presented and discussed in relation to the cumulative mechanisms (CM) of track formation in dielectric materials under swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation. These mechanisms rely on the generation and accumulation of point defects during irradiation followed by collapse of the lattice once a threshold defect concentration is reached. The physical basis of those <span class="hlt">approaches</span> has been discussed by Fecht as a defect-assisted transition to an amorphous phase. Although a first quantitative analysis of the CM model was previously performed for LiNbO3 crystals, we have, here, adopted a broader <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span>. It explores the correlation between track formation thresholds and the energies for Frenkel pair formation for a broad range of materials. It is concluded that the threshold stopping powers can be roughly scaled with the energies required to generate a critical Frenkel pair concentration in the order of a few percent of the total atomic content. Finally, a comparison with the predictions of the thermal spike model is discussed within the analytical Szenes approximation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780037977&hterms=averaged+lagrangian&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Daveraged%2Blagrangian','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780037977&hterms=averaged+lagrangian&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Daveraged%2Blagrangian"><span>Microscopic <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> description of warm plasmas. I - Linear wave propagation. II - Nonlinear wave interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kim, H.; Crawford, F. W.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>It is pointed out that the conventional iterative analysis of nonlinear plasma wave phenomena, which involves a direct use of Maxwell's equations and the equations describing the particle dynamics, leads to formidable theoretical and algebraic complexities, especially for warm plasmas. As an effective alternative, the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> method may be applied. It is shown how this method may be used in the microscopic description of small-signal wave propagation and in the study of nonlinear wave interactions. The linear theory is developed for an infinite, homogeneous, collisionless, warm magnetoplasma. A summary is presented of a perturbation expansion scheme described by Galloway and Kim (1971), and <span class="hlt">Lagrangians</span> to third order in perturbation are considered. Attention is given to the averaged-<span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> density, the action-transfer and coupled-mode equations, and the general solution of the coupled-mode equations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/15013474','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/15013474"><span>Arbitrary <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>-Eulerian Method with Local Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Modeling Shock Hydrodynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Anderson, R W; Pember, R B; Elliott, N S</p> <p>2001-10-22</p> <p>A new method that combines staggered grid Arbitrary <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>-Eulerian (ALE) techniques with structured local adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) has been developed for solution of the Euler equations. This method facilitates the solution of problems currently at and beyond the boundary of soluble problems by traditional ALE methods by focusing computational resources where they are required through dynamic adaption. Many of the core issues involved in the development of the combined ALEAMR method hinge upon the integration of AMR with a staggered grid <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> integration method. The novel components of the method are mainly driven by the need to reconcile traditionalmore » AMR techniques, which are typically employed on stationary meshes with cell-centered quantities, with the staggered grids and grid motion employed by <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> methods. Numerical examples are presented which demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the method.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010021412&hterms=averaged+lagrangian&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Daveraged%2Blagrangian','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010021412&hterms=averaged+lagrangian&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Daveraged%2Blagrangian"><span>Numerical Simulations of Homogeneous Turbulence Using <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>-Averaged Navier-Stokes Equations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mohseni, Kamran; Shkoller, Steve; Kosovic, Branko; Marsden, Jerrold E.; Carati, Daniele; Wray, Alan; Rogallo, Robert</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span>-averaged Navier-Stokes (LANS) equations are numerically evaluated as a turbulence closure. They are derived from a novel <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> averaging procedure on the space of all volume-preserving maps and can be viewed as a numerical algorithm which removes the energy content from the small scales (smaller than some a priori fixed spatial scale alpha) using a dispersive rather than dissipative mechanism, thus maintaining the crucial features of the large scale flow. We examine the modeling capabilities of the LANS equations for decaying homogeneous turbulence, ascertain their ability to track the energy spectrum of fully resolved direct numerical simulations (DNS), compare the relative energy decay rates, and compare LANS with well-accepted large eddy simulation (LES) models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996IJMPA..11.1353B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996IJMPA..11.1353B"><span>On the Perturbative Equivalence Between the Hamiltonian and <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Quantizations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Batalin, I. A.; Tyutin, I. V.</p> <p></p> <p>The Hamiltonian (BFV) and <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> (BV) quantization schemes are proved to be perturbatively equivalent to each other. It is shown in particular that the quantum master equation being treated perturbatively possesses a local formal solution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28085305','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28085305"><span><span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> statistics of mesoscale turbulence in a natural environment: The Agulhas return current.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carbone, Francesco; Gencarelli, Christian N; Hedgecock, Ian M</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The properties of mesoscale geophysical turbulence in an oceanic environment have been investigated through the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> statistics of sea surface temperature measured by a drifting buoy within the Agulhas return current, where strong temperature mixing produces locally sharp temperature gradients. By disentangling the large-scale forcing which affects the small-scale statistics, we found that the statistical properties of intermittency are identical to those obtained from the multifractal prediction in the <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> frame for the velocity trajectory. The results suggest a possible universality of turbulence scaling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26293508','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26293508"><span>Automated adaptive inference of <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> dynamical models.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Daniels, Bryan C; Nemenman, Ilya</p> <p>2015-08-21</p> <p>Dynamics of complex systems is often driven by large and intricate networks of microscopic interactions, whose sheer size obfuscates understanding. With limited experimental data, many parameters of such dynamics are unknown, and thus detailed, mechanistic models risk overfitting and making faulty predictions. At the other extreme, simple ad hoc models often miss defining features of the underlying systems. Here we develop an <span class="hlt">approach</span> that instead constructs <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span>, coarse-grained models of network dynamics that automatically adapt their complexity to the available data. Such adaptive models produce accurate predictions even when microscopic details are unknown. The <span class="hlt">approach</span> is computationally tractable, even for a relatively large number of dynamical variables. Using simulated data, it correctly infers the phase space structure for planetary motion, avoids overfitting in a biological signalling system and produces accurate predictions for yeast glycolysis with tens of data points and over half of the interacting species unobserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4560822','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4560822"><span>Automated adaptive inference of <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> dynamical models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Daniels, Bryan C.; Nemenman, Ilya</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Dynamics of complex systems is often driven by large and intricate networks of microscopic interactions, whose sheer size obfuscates understanding. With limited experimental data, many parameters of such dynamics are unknown, and thus detailed, mechanistic models risk overfitting and making faulty predictions. At the other extreme, simple ad hoc models often miss defining features of the underlying systems. Here we develop an <span class="hlt">approach</span> that instead constructs <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span>, coarse-grained models of network dynamics that automatically adapt their complexity to the available data. Such adaptive models produce accurate predictions even when microscopic details are unknown. The <span class="hlt">approach</span> is computationally tractable, even for a relatively large number of dynamical variables. Using simulated data, it correctly infers the phase space structure for planetary motion, avoids overfitting in a biological signalling system and produces accurate predictions for yeast glycolysis with tens of data points and over half of the interacting species unobserved. PMID:26293508</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25626494','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25626494"><span>[The decision of an obese woman to have bariatric surgery: the social <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oliveira, Deíse Moura de; Merighi, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa; Jesus, Maria Cristina Pinto de</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>To understand the process by which an obese woman decides to have bariatric surgery. A qualitative survey with a social <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span>, carried out in 2012, with 12 women, using the <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> interview. A woman bases the decision to have the surgery on: the inappropriateness of her eating habits; a physical appearance that is incompatible with an appearance that is standardized by society; the social prejudice that she has to live with; the limitations imposed by obesity; and her lack of success with previous attempts to lose weight. Outcomes that she hopes for from the decision to have the surgery include: restoring her health; achieving social inclusion; and entering the labor market. This study allows one to reflect that prescriptive actions do not give a satisfactory response to a complexity of the subjective questions involved in the decision to have surgery for obesity. For this, what is called for is a program of work based on an interdisciplinary <span class="hlt">approach</span>, and training that gives value to the bio-psycho-social aspects involved in a decision in favor of surgical treatment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994sai..reptR....H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994sai..reptR....H"><span>Fluid Dynamics <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Simulation Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hyman, Ellis</p> <p>1994-02-01</p> <p>The work performed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) on this contract, Fluid Dynamics <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Simulation Model, Contract Number N00014-89-C-2106, SAIC Project Number 01-0157-03-0768, focused on a number of research topics in fluid dynamics. The work was in support of the programs of NRL's Laboratory for Computational Physics and Fluid Dynamics and covered the period from 10 September 1989 to 9 December 1993. In the following sections, we describe each of the efforts and the results obtained. Much of the research work has resulted in journal publications. These are included in Appendices of this report for which the reader is referred for complete details.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25976533','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25976533"><span>Levels of reduction in van Manen's <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> hermeneutic method: an empirical example.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Heinonen, Kristiina</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>To describe reduction as a method using van Manen's <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> hermeneutic research <span class="hlt">approach</span>. Reduction involves several levels that can be distinguished for their methodological usefulness. Researchers can use reduction in different ways and dimensions for their methodological needs. A study of Finnish multiple-birth families in which open interviews (n=38) were conducted with public health nurses, family care workers and parents of twins. A systematic literature and knowledge review showed there were no articles on multiple-birth families that used van Manen's method. Discussion The phenomena of the 'lifeworlds' of multiple-birth families consist of three core essential themes as told by parents: 'a state of constant vigilance', 'ensuring that they can continue to cope' and 'opportunities to share with other people'. Reduction provides the opportunity to carry out in-depth <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> hermeneutic research and understand people's lives. It helps to keep research stages separate but also enables a consolidated view. Social care and healthcare professionals have to hear parents' voices better to comprehensively understand their situation; they need further tools and training to be able to empower parents of twins. This paper adds an empirical example to the discussion of <span class="hlt">phenomenology</span>, hermeneutic study and reduction as a method. It opens up reduction for researchers to exploit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvC..96e4001L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvC..96e4001L"><span>The γ p →p η η reaction in an effective <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Bo-Chao; Chen, Shao-Fei</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>In this paper, we investigate the γ p →p η η reaction within an effective <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> <span class="hlt">approach</span> and isobar model. We consider the contributions from the intermediate N*(1535 ) , N*(1650 ) , N*(1710 ) , and N*(1720 ) isobars which finally decay to the N η state. It is found that the excitation of the N*(1535 ) dominates this reaction close to threshold and ρ meson exchange plays the most important role for the excitation of nucleon resonances. Therefore, this reaction offers a potentially good place to study the properties of nucleon resonances and their couplings to the N ρ channel. Predictions for angular distributions and invariant mass spectra of final particles are also presented for future comparison with data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29581453','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29581453"><span>Extracting quasi-steady <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> transport patterns from the ocean circulation: An application to the Gulf of Mexico.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Duran, R; Beron-Vera, F J; Olascoaga, M J</p> <p>2018-03-26</p> <p>We construct a climatology of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> coherent structures (LCSs)-the concealed skeleton that shapes transport-with a twelve-year-long data-assimilative simulation of the sea-surface circulation in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). Computed as time-mean Cauchy-Green strain tensorlines of the climatological velocity, the climatological LCSs (cLCSs) unveil recurrent <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> circulation patterns. The cLCSs strongly constrain the ensemble-mean <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> circulation of the instantaneous model velocity, showing that a climatological velocity can preserve meaningful transport information. The quasi-steady transport patterns revealed by the cLCSs agree well with aspects of the GoM circulation described in several previous observational and numerical studies. For example, the cLCSs identify regions of persistent isolation, and suggest that coastal regions previously identified as high-risk for pollution impact are regions of maximal attraction. We also show that cLCSs are remarkably accurate at identifying transport patterns observed during the Deepwater Horizon and Ixtoc oil spills, and during the Grand <span class="hlt">LAgrangian</span> Deployment (GLAD) experiment. Thus it is shown that computing cLCSs is an efficient and meaningful way of synthesizing vast amounts of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> information. The cLCS method confirms previous GoM studies, and contributes to our understanding by revealing the persistent nature of the dynamics and kinematics treated therein.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA574569','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA574569"><span>A <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> Analysis of a Developing and Non-Developing Disturbance Observed During the PREDICT Experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-12-03</p> <p>paper provides an introduction of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> techniques for locating flow boundaries that encompass regions of recirculation in time- dependent flows...the low- to mid- level embryonic vortex from adverse conditions, while the 1The glossary on NOAA’s Hurricane Research Division’s web - site uses...wave or disturbance. This paper provides an introduction of <span class="hlt">Lagrangian</span> techniques for locating flow boundaries that encompass regions of recirculation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005etqs.conf..189W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005etqs.conf..189W"><span>Experience of Time Passage:. <span class="hlt">Phenomenology</span>, Psychophysics, and Biophysical Modelling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wackermann, Jiří</p> <p>2005-10-01</p> <p>The experience of time's passing appears, from the 1st person perspective, to be a primordial subjective experience, seemingly inaccessible to the 3rd person accounts of time perception (psychophysics, cognitive psychology). In our analysis of the `dual klepsydra' model of reproduction of temporal durations, time passage occurs as a cognitive construct, based upon more elementary (`proto-cognitive') function of the psychophysical organism. This conclusion contradicts the common concepts of `subjective' or `psychological' time as readings of an `internal clock'. Our study shows how <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span>, experimental and modelling <span class="hlt">approaches</span> can be fruitfully combined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhLB..594...76E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhLB..594...76E"><span>A <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> π-p scattering length from pionic hydrogen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ericson, T. E. O.; Loiseau, B.; Wycech, S.</p> <p>2004-07-01</p> <p>We derive a closed, model independent, expression for the electromagnetic correction factor to a <span class="hlt">phenomenological</span> hadronic scattering length ah extracted from a hydrogenic atom. It is obtained in a non-relativistic <span class="hlt">approach</span> and in the limit of a short ranged hadronic interaction to terms of order α2logα using an extended charge distribution. A hadronic πN scattering length ahπ-p=0.0870(5)mπ-1 is deduced leading to a πNN coupling constant from the GMO relation gc2/(4π)=14.04(17).</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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